Sample records for primarily rural agricultural

  1. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  2. Increasing Agricultural Productivity Through Rural Infrastructure ...


    The study examined access to infrastructure and its effects on agricultural productivity in Surulere and Ife East ... infrastructural elements, improvement in soil practices and extension visits had positive significant effects on ... Key words: Agricultural productivity, Rural infrastructure, Rural farmers .... R6 = Distance to Markets.

  3. Agricultural and Rural Informatization Construction in China

    Mao; ZHANG


    Currently,faced with the rapid development of information technology and increasing competition of the global economy,many countries have been very concerned about the issues of informatization concerning agriculture and rural areas. The level of informatization in the developed countries has been universally high,and some developing countries are also highly concerned about how to actively promote the rural market information service. With the increasing level of China’s economic development,agriculture and rural economy have placed a growing demand on informatization. From the overall perspective of agricultural and rural informatization,this paper gives a detailed analysis of current situation,goals,tasks and constraints about agricultural and rural informatization construction,and finally makes the corresponding recommendations.

  4. Rural Women Participate in Agricultural Production


    THE rural market economy is becoming feminized because many male laborers are transferring to nonagricultural work. Women are now making a show of their decisive force in utilizing agricultural resources. As a result, agriculture’s sustainable development will more and more depend on women’s qualifications, including how well they will manage agricultural resources and how well they will master science and technology. In fact, rural women don’t yet have full economic independence. Although they have involved themselves in economic activities and have played a

  5. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  6. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    Hui Song


    Full Text Available Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second, rural tourism is the granger reason to agricultural food marketing and there exist a long-term equilibrium relationship between them. From the VAR model, we can get that rural tourism will promote agricultural food marketing growth. LnRT at lag 1 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.48%; LnRT at lag 2 period increased 1% can drive LnFPI growth by 0.2%, so the effect of rural tourism on agricultural food marketing is obvious.


    Adina Roxana MUNTEANU


    Full Text Available The organic market has been increasing in the past couple of years and it is still expected to do so. However, even though the prices are higher on the organic market, farmers do not always manage to benefit from these better prices. Romania is a country with a high potential for organic agriculture as there are 14.8 million hectares of agricultural land out of which arable land represents 8.9 million ha. According to NIS (2012a p. 89, in 2011, 29.2% of the country’s population was employed in agriculture. However, most households in rural areas produce for mere survival due mainly to the highly fragmented land owning. Therefore there is an acute need for new development strategies in order to improve living standards in rural areas. This article describes business models of organic cooperatives in Nepal and Romania. Moreover it proposes a rural development initiative based on the creation of organic cooperatives and suggests thata NGOs could implement such a program.

  8. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F


    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  9. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.


    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  10. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... administered in 20 rural communities in the Benin region to elicit information from ... to unstable incomes, seasonality of harvest and inadequate health and sanitary ...

  11. Agriculture and Rurality: Beginning the "Final Separation"?

    Friedland, William H.


    When is a farm a farm? When is rural rural? Has the issue of the rural-urban continuum returned? Decades ago rural sociology worked itself into two blind alleys: rural-urban differences and attempts to define the rural-urban fringe. Although these conceptual problems eventually were exhausted, recent developments in California raise the…

  12. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...


    potent for factor of production and rural household income enhancement. The policy ... production intended to meet national food security needs. But, output per ... from difference sources to averse the risk associated in agricultural farm sector. ... Agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia and more.

  13. The Role of Organic Agriculture in Rural Development

    Csaba Sarudi


    Full Text Available Rural development includes local population, its way of life, employment characteristics, income structure, dwelling conditions, service levels as well as cultural aspects just as traditional handcrafts, dishes, language, clothing and habits. Since agriculture is a historically determining economic activity in rural areas its effects primarily determines the rural ways of life. New rural development policy of EU can be featured by multisectoral and integrated approach. Organic farming is based on the definition of ecology as former namings just as ˝ecological˝, ˝biological˝ represent it. Its basic aim is ensuring sustainable development whereas it uses again, from time to time to locally available reserves. Among basic principles of organic farming can be found the protection of soil and environment and this implies the usage of natural capacities of plants, animals and the landscape and willingly tries to improve the quality of the environment. It can be stated that market demand for organic products is the strongest in Europe, as much as 46% of the world´s organic product output is sold in this continent which possibly can be explained by its economic development level. This overall development reached Hungary, too. In December 2002 the estimations showed 105.000 ha and within this 54.497 ha had been registered as approved organic area. During the last year we carried out two focus group analyses examining the reasons for buying or not buying organic foods. In the presentation the most important results of the two focus groups will also be introduced in details.

  14. (Cbos) In Rural and Agricultural Transformation in Delta State

    unique firstlady

    based organizations are veritable agents of development in ensuring the agricultural ... dependence culture put in place by colonization was maintained ... instrument for Agricultural and rural transformation in-terms of contributing ... 1440. Source: Survey Data (2007) ... also involved in the evaluation of decisions, goals and.

  15. Communication for Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Rural ...


    and rural development programs are quite complex, but as this study found, ... Development (C4D), an emerging body of knowledge for addressing problems, such as participation, integration and ..... as community radio, can expand extension's reach to deep into the rural hinterland as the African .... Delhi, India: B. R..

  16. Sustainable Development of Agriculture from the Perspective of Rural Urbanization

    Chengjun; ZHANG


    In recent years,China’s economic construction enters into a new development period.The buyer’s market appears,structural demand of agricultural products becomes excessive,and the demand market becomes depressed.In the process of seeking approaches for expanding domestic demands,accelerating construction of small towns is a breakthrough point of rural population urbanization,and also an optimal approach for realizing transfer of rural surplus labor.Besides,accelerating construction of small towns is an inevitable path for intensive management of rural land implementing ecological agriculture,and also an optimal path for improving farmers’ quality and improving living conditions.In addition,it is an essential strategy for increasing consumption,expanding domestic demand,pulling rural economic and social development,and also a powerful measure for realizing sustainable development of agriculture.In the process of construction of rural urbanization,it is required to attach importance to strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.This is beneficial for the present generation and for descendants.Therefore,how to build small towns and how to solve many problems in sustainable development of agriculture have received much concern.

  17. The Effect of Agricultural Development Project (ADP on the Rural Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Umar Adamu Madu


    Full Text Available Majority of communities in Nigeria are rural dwellers and agrarian by occupation. Development strategy for a country whose rural population are mainly farmers cannot be achieved without first sustained growth in rural income and standard of living primarily from agriculture. It was based on this that the state wide Agricultural Development Project (ADP was established to raise productivity, income and standard of living of rural farmers in Nigeria. This study assesses the effect of the ADP activities on the wellbeing of the rural farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Data for this study were collect on annual crop output, annual income, farm size, use of improved technology, access to credit among farmers, farmers’ training and rural infrastructure development. The data were sourced using structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The statistical analysis used to determine the effect to the project on the participating farmers include, descriptive statistics and comparability test for difference (T-test analysis. The results indicates that Adamawa ADP had positive and significant impact on rural farmers productivity, income, access to credit, standard of living as measured by assets ownership. However, the project did not have significant impact on the rural infrastructure, adoption of improved technologies and farm sizes, even though the change from before and after ADP activities was positive. The study recommends that much attention should be paid to the provision of rural infrastructure and the needed improved technologies. The study also recommends that the two tiers of government in Nigeria should adequately fund the project to efficiently cope with its responsibility of developing the rural sector.

  18. Considerations on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Dryland Areas

    LI Li; TSUNEKAWA Atsushi; TSUBO Mitsuru; KOIKE Atsushi


    Drylands of the world cover 41% of the Earth's land surface and are a direct source of livelihood for 6.5 billion people, especially in developing countries. However, nearly all drylands are at risk of land degradation as a result of human activities. Poverty and desertification in dryland areas are major problems threatening sustainable agriculture and rural development in dryland areas. Several topics that are significant for sustainable agriculture and rural development for food security and environmental rehabilitation in dryland areas were stressed in this paper.

  19. Rural sociology in studying and encouraging the development of agriculture and rural areas in Slovenia

    Ana BARBIČ


    Full Text Available The article in the first part describes beginnings and development of rural sociological research and teaching rural sociology at the universities in Slovenia. In the second part, a working model of integrated approach towards rural development is presented, and, on the basis of Slovenian as well as international experiences some suggestions for promoting the development of (Slovenian agriculture and rural communities are specified. In the conclusion, the need for the interdisciplinary approach, especially greater consideration of social sciences in developmental planning is pointed out.

  20. Rural Agricultural Change and Fertility Transition in Nepal

    Bhandari, Prem; Ghimire, Dirgha


    Using longitudinal panel data from the Western Chitwan Valley of Nepal, this study examines the impact of the use of modern farm technologies on fertility transition--specifically, the number of births in a farm household. Previous explanations for the slow pace of fertility transition in rural agricultural settings often argued that the demand…

  1. EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas

    Oskam, A.J.; Meester, G.; Silvis, H.J.


    The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a lo

  2. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad


    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  3. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad


    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  4. Influence of Outflow of Rural Funds on Financial Support for Agriculture

    Jinqian; DENG; Wenkai; LUO


    Since the reform and opening-up,rural finance has made enormous contribution to rural economic development.However,with commercialization reform of financial institutions,the conflict between outflow of large funds and shortage of funds for rural economic development becomes prominent,leading to serious degradation of agricultural support function of rural finance.From the perspective of outflow of rural funds,this paper analyzes the problem of"deviation from agriculture"of rural financial business,and derives the conclusion that it is necessary and urgent to restore agricultural support function of rural finance.Then,it discusses restoration path for agricultural support function of rural finance.Finally,it comes up with some effective paths in accordance with existing problems in agricultural support function of rural finance.


    Waripas Jiumpanyarach


    Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.

  6. The Discussion on the Interaction and Integration of Modern Agriculture and Rural Tourism Sustainable Development


    The thesis summarizes the connotation of rural tourism and divides it into six types,including rural sight-seeing,rural body-building activity,rural folk culture,rural experience of farm work,rural business affairs,and study and development.It outlines the theory of sustainable development of rural tourism and points out that what sustainable development of tourism concerns is the coordination of ecology,economy,and society centering on human and nature.On the basis of introducing the connotation of modern agriculture,it divides modern agriculture into six types,including sightseeing agriculture,leisure agriculture,green agriculture,characteristic agriculture,factory agriculture,and three-dimensional agriculture.And by concluding,it obtains the combination model of modern agriculture and rural tourism.Based on the introduction of the above related theories,the thesis discusses the interaction and integration model of the sustainable development of modern agriculture and rural tourism.It emphatically analyzes the integration model of modern agriculture and rural tourism,including pastoral agriculture tourism model(sightseeing village,leisure farm,citizen farm),and science education tourism model(agricultural science and technology education base,tourism and leisure education agricultural park,children’s,agricultural education base,agricultural exposition).Based on the interaction and integration relationship between modern agriculture and rural tourism,the thesis puts forward corresponding countermeasures so as to promote their positive development and realize the maximum of ecological,social and economic benefits.

  7. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta


    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  8. Environmental implications of rural policies in China: a multi-agent model at the level of agricultural households

    Yang, S.; Qu, Hong Juan; Luan, S.; Kroeze, C.


    We analyzed the socioeconomic and environmental changes in rural China from the perspective of agricultural households and developed a multi-agent agricultural household model for rural environmental management (MAREM). The MAREM model consists of four submodules: the agricultural household

  9. From an Agricultural Economy to a Rural Economy

    Carlos Arturo Meza Carvajalino


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the dynamics of Colombian economy over the past 43 years. Sectorial and regional analyses show the relevance of the primary sector as a source of growth and wealth. Following comparison to the industry, the primary sector’s importance is emphasized, being dominant in 75% of the country’s departments. Policymakers are encouraged to understand Colombia from the territory and praising rural economy as opposed to agricultural economy. This new approach moves away from the institutional arrangements of systems of national accounts, to delve into those activities taking place in rural territories. This allows us to understand the issues from a systemic approach and not from their opportunity and competitiveness costs.

  10. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)


    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  11. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor


    Full Text Available

    Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  12. Establishment of Agricultural Logistics Warehouse Receipt Pledge System in New Rural Construction

    Yan; PANG; Jiage; ZHAI


    New rural construction needs a strong financial support. However,agriculture is a high-risk industry; one big obstacle restricting Chinese rural economic development is financing difficulty in the agricultural products producing and processing enterprises. This paper,on the foundation of analyzing the current situation of Chinese agricultural products market,with the theory of modern logistics finance,puts forward the approach of establishing Chinese agricultural products logistics pledge system,and illustrates the function of agricultural products logistics warehouse receipt pledge system in the new rural construction.

  13. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Yaozheng; TANG


    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  14. Research on Interactive Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Rural Financial Development in Central and Western Regions


    By selecting the panel data from 2001 to 2008 in central and western regions,I adopt the methods of covariance analysis test,Hausman test,panel unit root test and co-integration test to conduct empirical research on the interactive relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The results show that there is a long-term balanced and interactive causal relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The agricultural insurance in western regions is the cause of rural financial development,while such relationship in central regions is not tenable.There is an interactive promotion relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in central regions,while the relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in western regions is mutually inhibitive,but the rural financial efficiency in western regions promotes the development of agricultural insurance.Then corresponding suggestions are put forward in order to give full play to the role of mutual promotion between agricultural insurance and rural financial development as follows:reinforce the support degree for policy finance in central and western regions;increase the inputs of rural financial institutions in serving agriculture,countryside and farmers;expand the types and coverage of policy agricultural insurance.

  15. Estimating Agricultural Losses using Flood Modeling for Rural Area

    Muhadi Nur Atirah


    Full Text Available Flooding is the most significant natural hazard in Malaysia in terms of population affected, frequency, flood extent, flood duration and social economic damage. Flooding causes loss of lives, injuries, property damage and leave some economic damage to the country especially when it occurs in a rural area where the main income is dependent on agricultural area. This study focused on flooding in oil palm plantations, rubber plantations and fruits and vegetables area. InfoWorks ICM was used to develop a flood model to study the impact of flooding and to mitigate the floods using a retention pond. Later, Geographical Information System (GIS together with the flood model were used for the analysis on flood damage assessment and management of flood risk. The estimated total damage for three different flood event; 10 ARI, 50 ARI and 100 ARI involved millions of ringgits. In reducing the flood impact along the Selangor River, retention pond was suggested, modeled and tested. By constructing retention pond, flood extents in agricultural area were reduced significantly by 60.49% for 10 ARI, 45.39% for 50 ARI and 46.54% for 100 ARI.

  16. The Rural Information-based Construction under the Perspective of Expanding Agricultural Industrial Chain


    On the basis of expounding connotation and significance of expansion of agricultural industrial chain, coupled with the connotation of rural informatization connotation, this article analyses the role of rural informatization in expanding agricultural industrial chain: it can enhance market competitiveness of industry chain, improve the operational efficiency of industry chain, and promote the income and quality of farmers in industry chain. Under the perspective of expanding agricultural industrial chain, this article puts forwards thinking about the construction of rural informatization as follows: first, give full play to the leading role of the government; second, strengthen the construction of information-based network facility; third, integrate information resources in rural areas, and improve the quality of information; fourth, build comprehensive information service platform in rural areas; fifth, improve organizational level of production and management of individual farmers; sixth, strengthen the construction of information-based personnel in rural areas; seventh, strengthen publicity and training, promote overall cultural quality and information awareness of farmers.

  17. Does the Rising Agricultural Prices Narrow the Urban-rural Income Gap?

    Ming; ZHANG; Jiazhi; XIE


    Based on the Chinese provincial panel data during the period 2003-2010,we conduct empirical test on whether China’s rapidly rising prices of agricultural products narrow the urban-rural income gap.The empirical results indicate that the effects of rising agricultural prices on the urban-rural income gap show U shape:within some range of rise,the rising agricultural prices are conducive to narrowing the urban-rural income gap;when the rise is too sharp,it will widen the urban-rural income gap.In the multiple factors fueling the uptick in agricultural prices,rising labor costs in rural areas is an important factor,and the rising agricultural prices driven by this factor can significantly reduce the urban-rural income gap.Therefore,when the government regulates agricultural prices,there is a need to act according to the specific factors,and it should maintain certain"tolerance"for the modest rise in the agricultural prices that contributes to the increase in farmers’income,to avoid over-regulation at the expense of urban and rural residents’income convergence.

  18. The role of rural population in agricultural development in the Pčinja district

    Jovanović Slavoljub


    Full Text Available Research results presented in this paper refer to changes in the structure of the agricultural population of the Pčinja District in the period from 1971 to 2002. They point to markedly decrease in the agricultural population, the share of agricultural population in total population, the share of rural population in total population, as well as the share of active agricultural population in total active population. The process of deagrarianization in this area is a constraining factor for the development of agriculture and causes spontaneous abandonment by working-age population who is employing in other sectors. Transfer of agricultural population in non-agricultural activities takes place either by moving into the city centre or by remaining in agricultural households and employing in non-agricultural activities (which causes daily rural-urban migration. The process of depopulation and deruralization caused ageing population to be involved in agriculture in many rural settlements so that the effects of agricultural production have become significantly decreasing. To eliminate the negative effects of the regional development of the Pčinja District, it is necessary to establish and implement a functional demographic policy and concept of the revitalization of rural area.

  19. Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi on the Impact of Agricultural Development


    The gap between urban and rural incomes in Guangxi is increasing year by year in a rising tendency,which resulted in agricultural development impact cannot be ignored.Such impact on agricultural development was analyzed from three aspects:agricultural development fund,farmland and food problems and labor force flow.The following problems were found:capitals flew to non-agricultural industry,which resulted in deficiency of agricultural development fund;farmland reduced and the problem of food supply was highlighted;labor force in rural areas emigrated,the price of agricultural products rose up.Related policies were offered:to strengthen the financial support;to speed up utilization of abundant labor force;to motivate farmers’ enthusiasm in food production;to increase investment in farmers’ endowment insurance and retirement pension in rural areas.

  20. Rooted in the Community: Assessing the Reintegration Impacts of Agriculture on Rural Veterans.

    Besterman-Dahan, Karen; Chavez, Margeaux; Njoh, Eni


    To assess the impact of a Veteran-oriented community agricultural initiative (CAI) on transitioning rural Veterans. Convergent mixed-method program evaluation. A Veteran-oriented farm-to-market CAI in rural Washington State. Veterans who were members of the CAI. Health, well-being, and reintegration were assessed by self-reported data from interview, demographic survey, validated health quality of life measure (Veterans RAND-12 -VR-12), validated reintegration measure (Military to Civilian Questionnaire -M2C-Q), and general satisfaction survey. Veteran participants were primarily Caucasian (88.4%, n=38) and male (74.4%, n=32) and most had a service-connected disability rating (58.2%, n=25). Qualitative and quantitative data revealed that the veterans participating in this CAI experienced health and reintegration benefits. Results on the M2C-Q, VR-12, and the satisfaction survey suggest that participating in this CAI contributed to improved mental, physical, and emotional health and vocational skills, community connectedness, and interpersonal communication. Qualitative interviews supported quantitative findings and revealed that participating in the CAI provided Veterans with a sense of satisfaction, belonging, and helped decrease the stigma surrounding their Veteran status. Veterans who participate in this CAI reported general improvements in physical and mental health, including improvements in sleep, nutrition, exercise, and decreases in anxiety, pain, depression and medication and substance use, all known factors which impact Veteran reintegration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Policy Dilemmas in India - The Impact of Changes in Agricultural Prices on Rural and Urban Poverty


    Trade policy reforms which lead to changes in world prices of agricultural commodities or domestic policies aimed at affecting agricultural prices are often seen as causing a policy dilemma : a fall in agricultural prices benefits poor urban consumers but hurts poor rural producers, while a rise yields the converse. Poor countries have argued that they need to be able to use import protection and/or price support policies to protect themselves against volatility in world agricultural prices i...

  2. Policy dilemmas in India: The Impact of changes in agricultural prices on rural and urban poverty


    Trade policy reforms which lead to changes in world prices of agricultural commodities or domestic policies aimed at affecting agricultural prices are often seen as causing a policy dilemma: a fall in agricultural prices benefits poor urban consumers but hurts poor rural producers, while a rise yields the converse. Poor countries have argued that they need to be able to use import protection and/or price support policies to protect themselves against volatility in world agricultural prices in...

  3. [Identification of the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu].

    Duan, Hua-ping; Sun, Qing-fang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Lin; Feng, Jin-fei; Bian, Xin-min


    The characteristics such as wide area, dispersion and randomness of agricultural and rural pollution make it difficult to seize the key to pollution control in rural areas. On the scale of township, using inventory analysis, accounting for emissions and emission intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Changshu, Jiangsu Province, which exists in a total of 4 classes and 6 kinds of agricultural and rural sources such as farmland cultivation (chemical fertilizer application and crop straw abandoned), animal breeding, aquaculture, rural life (domestic sewage and human waste, solid waste), using cluster analysis, identify the prior regions and the prior pollution sources for agricultural and rural pollution control by the sensitivity evaluation, and make agricultural and rural pollution control and management measures more focused. It shows that: in 2007, COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural and rural pollution sources were 5496.07, 4161.03, and 647.54 t x a(-1), and the emission intensity of COD, TN and TP was 48.84, 36.98, and 5.75 kg x hm(-2). The main pollution source of COD was rural life and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 75%; the main pollution source of TN and TP was agricultural cultivation and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 80%. The sensitivity evaluation identified that the town of Guli and Shajiabang were the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu; farmland cultivation and aquaculture were the prior pollution sources in the two areas.

  4. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    Steel, G.; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias


    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by sma

  5. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias


    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  6. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  7. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…


    Pachón Ariza Fabio Alberto


    Full Text Available Rural development as the notion of development has been strongly influenced by the idea of economic growth. Conversely, the rural development road has been focus on agricultural modernization of production systems, intensive use of chemical inputs to increase levels and technology transfer. The actual rural reality has conducted to a revaluation of what rural means and therefore its development. In these sense has grown the importance of rural related activities linked to the diversification and generating of extra revenues for rural families. This could be one of the cases behind this change in perceptions on previous rural development, giving more importance to other aspects such as cultural diversity, community participation, decision taking, decentralization processes, cultural values, and in consequence hot associate rural development with agricultural development.El desarrollo rural al igual que el sólo desarrollo, ha estado fuertemente influenciado por la idea que lo liga con el crecimiento económico. Concebido de esta forma, la manera como se ha intentado alcanzar desarrollo rural ha sido por medio de la modernización de los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, del uso indiscriminado de insumos químicos para aumentar los niveles productivos y de transferencia de tecnología. La realidad que se vive en el sector rural ha hecho que se evolucione hacia una revaloración de lo que significa lo rural y, de esta manera, también su desarrollo. Por este camino han tomado más importancia actividades conexas a lo productivo agropecuario y también la diversificación de las formas de generación de ingresos para las familias rurales. Ésta podría ser una de las causas para que también cambie la percepción que existía sobre el desarrollo rural y se brinde más importancia a otros aspectos como la aceptación de la diversidad, la participación de la comunidad en la toma de decisiones, la descentralización de la administración, el

  9. Empirical Research on Impact of Marketization of Agricultural Products on Income of Rural Households Based on Questionnaire Survey of Rural Household


    Based on the survey and research on rural households in Changshu City and Jiangdu City of Jiangsu Province, this paper researches the microeconomic subject-commercial decision-making and production behaviours of the rural households, under the circumstance of development of agricultural product market in different regions. We conduct random sampling questionnaire survey on the rural households in 7 villages of Changshu City and Jiangdu City, Jiangsu Province, and obtain data, in order to judge and verify the theory, explore the relationship between market development of agricultural products, behaviours of rural households and income of rural households, and establish the econometric model of impact of market of agricultural products on income per capita of rural households. The research shows that there is difference in the level of socio-economic development in different regions of Jiangsu Province, and the effect of the same factors in different regions is not quite similar; the income structure of rural households and marketization development have great impact on total income per capita of rural households; the planting structure has significant impact on agricultural income per capita. Then the countermeasures and suggestions are put forward as follows: strengthen rural marketization building and broaden sales channel; reinforce information-based building and promote transparency and openness of rural market information; adjust the production structure of rural households rationally, coordinate agricultural production activities and non-agricultural activities of rural households, and balance the planting of cash crops and grain crops.

  10. Commercial agriculture and territorial resistance: Analysis of urban-rural relations in the province of Azuay

    Nasser Rebai


    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian province of Azuay, agro-ecology seems to signal towards the rebirth of family agriculture in a context of regional migration. Given changes in land usage and the improvement of peasant economies, we envisage a profound mutation in the rural landscape of Azuay. Notwithstanding, in lieu of a true model of territorial rural development, the term territorial resistance is used as weak regional commercial networks do not allow an adequate integration of a majority of peasants, evidencing the need for a more ambitious vision that takes into account the close ties between rural and urban areas, to assist the insertion of poor peasant farmers into commercial agriculture.

  11. An Empirical Study of the Allocation Efficiency of Rural Financial Resources in Hubei Province from the Perspective of Agricultural Loans

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG


    The incompatibility of China’s economy and finance has to some extent inhibited the development of rural economy. Taking Hubei Province for example,we measure the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources from the perspective of agricultural input and output,and use the modern rural financial development theory to set forth some policy recommendations on how to build a new rural financial resource allocation system. Studies have shown that the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources is low in China,and improving the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources is the key to perfecting rural financial environment while increasing financial support for agriculture.

  12. Changing rural areas: exploring future agriculture in the Netherlands and EU

    Oenema, O.


    This booklet provides a brief overview of the results of 9 studies exploring the challenges, barriers and dilemmas of agriculture and rural areas in the next three decades. The purpose of these studies was to assist policy makers in (re)shaping policies for agriculture, environment and spatial plann

  13. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.


    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…


    Elena, SIMA


    Full Text Available The non-agricultural economy (small and medium-sized enterprises in industry, services, rural tourism has a low share in Romania's rural area. To start a business in the countryside can be both an advantage and a risk. The investments in the non-agricultural and food economy, while contributing to gross value added increase through the processing of agricultural and non-agricultural raw products from local resources, have another great advantage, by creating new jobs and by using and maintaining the local (rural labour, revitalization of rural localities, mainly those in the less-favoured and remote rural areas. The paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. The socioeconomic analysis based on current data and future forecasts is the basis in drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in the less-developed regions and also for the economic revitalization.

  15. Non-professional Agricultural Production Villages Establishing a New Rural Cooperative


    The article analyzes problems in the agricultural development of non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City.Firstly,low technical and scientific content of production and low standardization level.Secondly,scattered sales and non-fixed marketing channels.Thirdly,difficulties in group cooperation of farm crops with special benefits.Fourthly,imperfect service of rural committees of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City.A new rural cooperative is to be founded to help villagers in non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City to be engaged in agricultural production and management activities,and to improve their overall incomes.On the one hand,a perfect and scientific cooperative operating system is to be built specifically including three functions.Firstly,fully playing the leading and bridging role of rural primary organizations.Secondly,fully carrying out the pushing role of capable persons in the administrative village.Lastly,fully playing the role of active participation and cooperation of villagers.On the other hand,constructions of normalization,standardization and brand orientation with special emphasis should be achieved under the guidance of local governments.The key of building a cooperative of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City is discussed.One is that rural cadres should have strong awareness of serving the people.The other is that governments at all levels should energetically support the establishment and management of rural cooperatives.


    Andreea Daniela PASCU


    Full Text Available Organic farming uses sustainable production systems, diversified and balanced to prevent environmental and harvest pollution. In this paper I wish to highlight the opportunities arising from the practice of sustainable agriculture and the efficient management of natural resources in Romania. Sustainable rural development can be achieved with the transition from subsistence agriculture to organic agriculture by building and strengthening competitive small and medium enterprises in rural areas. For this we analyzed empirical data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Developmen and the National Institute of Statistics.The analyzed period covers the years 2006-2011. The organic food market in Romania is contoured by statistical methods and the opportunities and limitations incurred by those who choose this form of exploitation.

  17. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    Adewumi, B. A.


    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  18. Realities, Perceptions, Challenges and Aspirations of Rural Youth in Dryland Agriculture in the Midelt Province, Morocco

    Alessandra Giuliani


    Full Text Available Active involvement of youth in agriculture is necessary for sustainable agricultural systems but is currently a challenge in many areas. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative participatory research methods, this study analyses rural youth’s realities, perspectives and aspirations in dryland Agricultural Livelihood Systems (ALSs in the Midelt Province, Morocco, with a particular focus on gender. The data collected are an important first step in understanding the target group and working with youth to identify and develop appropriate programmatic interventions to improve their livelihoods and rural futures. Prior to expressing their aspirations for their rural life and career, the youth first raised the issue of unfulfilled primary needs: access to education, potable water, heath care, and lack of infrastructure in their villages. The issue of outmigration from rural areas is controversial and not so widespread. The youth’s dream village is envisioned as a rural place where people have a more comfortable life with their own families, farming better and more sustainably rather than seeking a job in urban areas. To support the youth’s aspirations and their willingness to stay in agriculture, there is a need for infrastructural and regulatory interventions and specific training in agricultural practices targeting and engaging youth.

  19. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna


    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…




    Full Text Available In Romania, with the liberalization of the land market, appears the prospect of functioning of aspecialized agricultural bank which might be named ,,land bank’’. In principle, this institution can buy and sellagricultural land and to provide priority "rural land loan" for farm development. Mainly, it may incorporate anadvantageous loan system created for those who want to buy land for agriculture use, once of the liberalizationof land market since 2014. In this article we present some details about importance of this credit institution andgrant technique of rural land loan . Currently, the number of Romanian farmers grouped in associations is verysmall compared to the millions agricultural holdings. Young farm development can be possible only byappealing to an "engine" type "rural land loans" and which may more quickly solve their financial problems.

  1. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Barbara Lampič


    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  2. Added Value in the Rural Agro-industries: an analysis based on the Agricultural Census data


    The paper discusses the added value in the Brazilian rural agro-industries. The information is derived from tabulations based on Agricultural Census microdata, which allowed us to construct a sectorial and macro-regional comparison. Among the wide set of manufacturing and processing activities measured by the census, we selected nine processed products in the rural establishments (aguardente, jams and jellies, cassava flour, corn meal, bread, cheese and cream cheese, rapadura, sausage and tap...

  3. Agricultura y desarrollo rural en Colombia 2011-2013: una aproximación /Agriculture and rural development in Colombia 2011-2013: an approach/Agricultura e desenvolvimento rural na Colômbia 2011-2013: um abordagem

    Johanna Inés Cárdenas Pinzón; Luis Eudoro Vallejo Zamudio


    .... It was concluded, in general terms, that agricultural policy in Colombia should be approached from the new vision of rural development, which must include activities taking place in rural areas, and...

  4. Dynamic Structural Analysis and Countermeasures of "Three Issues" About Farmers Agriculture and Rural Areas

    YuyingWu; XijunHe


    "Three Issues" about farmers, agriculture and rural areas are complex. The interdependence among co-related subsystems in the large-scale system is relatively complex.On the other hand, it is interrelated to economic development, national policy and industry structure. It is difficult to get the best solution to the problem about farmers, agriculture and rural areas, because it is the complex system with controllable and uncontrollable elements. We analyze the structure of the large-scale system by dynamics, and we try to find the most important factors among the complex interaction and give countermeasures about the problem.

  5. (ICT) in Agricultural and Rural Transformation in Delta State.

    unique firstlady

    socio-economic development, there is the need now, to ... policies which have had more diminutive effects on ... given rise to a new generation of electronic audio-visual aids .... Tap Bin Sallah, D. (2004) “Rural Development in Malaysia.

  6. The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development

    Dlodlo, N


    Full Text Available these issues. The intention of this research is to investigate the potential contributions of internet of things technologies (IoT) towards poverty reduction in these rural areas, in line with the needs identified in these communities and with emphasis...

  7. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie


    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  8. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    Kaila, Heidi


    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology - both agricultural machinery and information technology - within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When...

  9. Does Migration Raise Agricultural Investment? An Empirical Analysis for Rural Mexico

    Böhme, Marcus


    The effect of remittances on capital accumulation remains a contested topic. This paper uses a panel data set from rural Mexico to investigate the impact of remittances on agriculture and livestock investments. After controlling for the endogeneity of migration through an instrumental variable estimation our empirical results show that international migration has a significantly positive effect on the accumulated agricultural assets but not on livestock capital. This suggests that households ...

  10. Agriculture vs. social sciences: subject classification and sociological conceptualization of rural tourism in Scopus and Web of Science

    Hočevar, Marjan; Bartol, Tomaž


    Agriculture and consumptive function of countryside (rural areas) are connected which should be reflected in scientific research. In order to test relationships, we selected the topic of rural tourism (also agritourism, agrotourism, agricultural tourism) considering sociological conceptualization (social sciences, sociology) and methodological approaches of information sciences (bibliometrics, scientometrics) in describing fields of science or scientific disciplines. We ascertained scatter of...

  11. From subsistence farming towards a multifunctional agriculture: sustainability in the Chinese rural reality.

    Prändl-Zika, Veronika


    The rural economic situation in China-with a living standard mostly at subsistence level-lags far behind the prosperous development in the cities and coastal areas. To balance this disequilibrium, comprehensive concepts and endeavors are necessary keeping in view all-not just economic-interests and needs that contribute to lively rural identities. In this context the role of agriculture, where still 50% of the Chinese population are working, will be newly defined, and sustainability concepts can help to find a readjusted position within the Chinese economy focusing on environmental health and food safety as main targets of political and other supporting measures. Within the SUCCESS project, a Concept of Sustainable Agriculture was developed and it drafts one conceivable relation between the exposure to natural resources and economy and tries to find new answers to the broad range of rural challenges in China. It is a qualitative model and, therefore, not always fully applicable, but in the concrete situation of villages, it shows possible directions of sustainability-oriented development by considering the typical local potentials. In the Chinese context that means identifying the different functions of agriculture-the well-known and the hidden-to make them explicit for the Chinese public and therewith to give them new significance. The article is based on a 3-years study within the EU-China Project SUCCESS with field research in four Chinese rural communities. It analyzes the agricultural sustainability potential of these selected villages against the background of massive structural changes within the next 20 years in rural China. Starting from the current agricultural reality, based on a qualitative analysis of the actual situation, local potentials and needs towards sustainable production and marketing are identified, and possible functions of the Chinese agriculture are formulated for the future.

  12. A Study of The Contribution of Multifuncional Agriculture for Sustainable Rural Development

    Mariana Machado Granziera


    Full Text Available This paper purports to discuss how the multifunctionality of agriculture - which is a view of agriculture as an activity that is not only economic but also environmental, social and cultural - could be incorporated in public and private strategies in order to achieve a rural sustainable development and a bigger income to the farmer. Therefore, the research problem is how the integration of the concept would be a strategy to meet the needs of fibre, energy and food production while maintaining sustainability in agriculture. At first a bibliography research was carried out, approaching the concepts of multifuncionality of agriculture and positive externalities; subsequently an empirical research was done, through a case study whose aim was to replicate a method to access the multifuncionality of agriculture in the city of Cunha (SP. The multifunctional agriculture generates positive externalities but, generally, the farmer is not paid for the social benefits of its production. For that reason, metrics are needed to assess the impact generated by the multifunctional agriculture so the farmer gets paid for the social services that arises from its production. As soon as the farmer gets paid for the positive outcome he/she is generating, we will get an agricultural model that is more aligned to rural sustainable development.

  13. Biodynamic Agriculture: Self-Maintenance on Rural Properties

    Pfitscher, Elisete Dahmer; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Pfitscher, Paulo Cesar; Caixa Econômica Federal - CEF; Soares, Sandro Vieira; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina


    Maintainable development privileges life quality coupled to the environment. A new trend has developed through the implementation of self-maintenance of the small rural properties, or rather, working participatively in productive chains inserted into the performance of agro-poles. Current research, which analyzes the perspectives of bio-dynamic rice culture as an alternative for survival within the context of small farms, has three different phases: first, semi-structured interviews with prof...

  14. Occupational health and the rural worker: agriculture, mining, and logging.

    Pratt, D S


    More than 50 million Americans live in rural areas. These rural residents often work for small businesses or in the extraction industries (farming, mining, and logging). Because of the size of the businesses, the mandate of the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) does not cover these workers and they are seldom afforded the same protection as urban workers. This review focuses on the special health problems facing farm workers, farmers, miners, and loggers. Farm workers are often ill and are affected by psychological illness, injuries, parasites, skin diseases, and the dangers of agrichemicals. Farm owners also face the hazards of stress and have very high rates of suicide. In addition, they are often injured on the job and suffer the highest rate of job related fatality of any work group. The complex farm environment presents a continuous threat to the lungs. This danger has worsened with the increased use of confinement buildings for poultry, hogs, and cattle. As farming has changed with increased mechanization, attendant medical problems have arisen. These "illnesses of innovation" are important. Mining and logging also are dangerous occupations with acute and chronic problems including respiratory illness, vascular problems, and malignancy. The decade of the 1990s must be one of increased attention to rural occupational health care and research.

  15. Adoption and Impacts of Sustainable Agricultural Practices on Maize Yields and Incomes: Evidence from Rural Zambia

    Manda, J.; Alene, A.D.; Gardebroek, C.; Kassie, M.; Tembo, G.


    This paper uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model and data from a sample of over 800 households and 3,000 plots to assess the determinants and impacts of adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) on maize yields and household incomes in rural Zambia. Results show that adop

  16. Industrial Development Bonds for Financing Projects in Rural Areas. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 216.

    Fuller, Stephen W.

    As one of several special reports on development possibilities for the agriculture and forestry sector of the Four Corners Economic Development Region, this monograph deals with the use of industrial development bonds as a means of resolving finance problems arising from inadequate or nonexistent credit in rural areas. Distinguishing between the…

  17. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)


    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work. Thi

  18. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)


    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  19. Troubled Pastures, Troubled Pictures: French Agriculture and Contemporary Rural Sociology

    Hervieu, Bertrand; Purseigle, Francois


    In contrast to those of other industrialized western European countries, France's agricultural community continued to represent the majority of the national population for a long time and only became one of many minority groups at the end of the twentieth century. It then came under the influence of various trends, sometimes conflicting but…

  20. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  1. Agricultural Vehicles and Rural Road Safety: tackling a persistent problem

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Vries, de J.R.


    Objective Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, to identify influencing factors and to draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention with

  2. The effects of non-agricultural activities on income distribution in rural Brazil

    Henrique D. Neder


    Full Text Available The growth of non-agricultural activity since the 1980s has reconfigured the economic and social dynamic in Brazil’s rural areas. Our paper intends to describe the impact of this growth on income distribution in rural Brazil. We made use of a method of decomposition of two indicators of income distribution applied to1992 and 1999 Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD data: the variation coefficient and the Gini index. It was observed that non-agricultural activities have increased the concentration of rural income and that this phenomenon is more prominent in Region I (states of Brazil’s Northeast and the state of Tocantins and Region IV (states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul and the Distrito Federal. It was found that the income concentrating effect of each non-agricultural activity branch (commerce, transformation industry, administration, service differed by region. In Region I, income from the "Social/Public Administration and Other Activities branch " (a PNAD designation presents a coefficient of relative concentration greater than a unit, which indicates that income from this activities branch acts to increase the concentration of non-agricultural income in this region. In Region IV, income from industrial activities and from Social/ Public Administration and Other Activities both present coefficients of relative concentration greater than a unit; therefore, both branches act to increase the concentration of income from non-agricultural activities in this region.

  3. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C


    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions.

  4. The Impacts of Income from Non-agricultural Industries Operated by Rural households on Farmers’ Income


    Income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households is an important income source of farmers’ income. According to the Regional Rural Residents’ Net Income Per Capita in 2004 issued by the State Statistics Bureau and the relevant statistics of national comprehensive investigation(CGSS2005) in 2005, the impacts of farmers’ income gap and farmers’ individual features on their income and the impacts of income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households on farmers’ individual income differences are analyzed by applying Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) as an analysis tool to establish the null model of HLM, excluding the second level model of the second level prediction variables and including the second level model of the second layer prediction variables. The analysis assumes that farmers’ individual income varies hugely in different provinces; farmers’ individual income has close relation with farmers’ individual features; the improvement of income from non-agricultural industries operated by rural households has different impacts on farmers’ income.

  5. Learning achievements of farmers during the transition to market-oriented organic agriculture in rural Uganda

    Amos Owamani


    Full Text Available Organic agriculture requires farmers with the ability to develop profitable agro-enterprises on their own. By drawing on four years of experiences with the Enabling Rural Innovation approach in Uganda, we outline how smallholder farmers transition to organic agriculture and, at the same time, increase their entrepreneurial skills and competences through learning. In order to document this learning we operationalised the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, which subsequently informed the collection of qualitative data in two study sites. Our analysis suggests that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach helps farmers to develop essential capabilities for identifying organic markets and new organic commodities, for testing these organic commodities under varying organic farm management scenarios, and for negotiating contracts with organic traders. We also observed several obstacles that confront farmers’ transition to organic agriculture when using the Enabling Rural Innovation approach. These include the long duration of agronomic experimentation and seed multiplication, expensive organic certification procedures and the absence of adequate mechanism for farmers to access crop finance services. Despite prevailing obstacles we conclude that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach provides a starting point for farmers to develop entrepreneurial competences and profitable agro-enterprises on their own.

  6. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.


    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  7. Women's empowerment in agriculture and child nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ploubidis, George B; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Uauy, Ricardo; Ferguson, Elaine


    To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)'s Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) sub-index and its ten component indicators and child length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) were estimated, using ordinary least-squares regression models, with and without adjustments for key child, maternal and household level covariates. Two hundred and forty rural communities across sixteen districts of Nepal. Children under 24 months of age and their mothers (n 1787). The overall WEAI 5DE was positively associated with LAZ (β=0·20, P=0·04). Three component indicators were also positively associated with LAZ: satisfaction with leisure time (β=0·27, Pempowerment in agriculture was associated with WLZ. Women's empowerment in agriculture, as measured by the WEAI 5DE and three of its ten component indicators, was significantly associated with LAZ, highlighting the potential role of women's empowerment in improving child nutrition in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve women's empowerment will improve child nutrition.


    Cristina Balgar


    Full Text Available Being one of the oldest common policies, common agricultural policy (CAP has undergone several reforms being remodelled as "the project of a united Europe" was enriched with new meanings. In this context, it should be noted that, in recent years, CAP has been reshaped by a major reform that has set new goals and ways of achieving them under the framework of "Europe 2020" Strategy. Our paper aims to highlight that trough the last transformation, CAP has evolved from a policy with a strong degree of interventionism, to a policy that supports rural development, preserving the environment and the competitiveness of European agriculture.

  9. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    Kaila, Heidi Kristiina

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology—both agricultural machinery and information technology—within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid...... expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When controlling for a number of household characteristics including income, households that already own technology...

  10. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    Kaila, Heidi Kristiina

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology—both agricultural machinery and information technology—within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid...... expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When controlling for a number of household characteristics including income, households that already own technology...


    Daniela CREŢU


    Full Text Available The immediate effect of the application of the Land Law in Călăraşi county agriculture, the restructuring of the the farm units configuration by preponderance of small individual land, reduced the positive implications of the privatization process, resulting in a less viable economic model in terms of resources and efficiency . These structures determined the intensive consume of labour force, which led to the attraction of part of the labor force in other sectors, in agriculture, representing small farmers producing for own consumption and for selling products on the rural market.

  12. The Impact of Development of Rural Finance in Jiangxi Province on the Agricultural Economy and Farmers’ Income

    HUANG Yu-ting; WENG Zhen-lin


    Based on the rural economic data pertaining to the development of rural finance, the growth of agricultural economy and farmers’ income in Jiangxi Province during the period 1990-2009, we conduct empirical research on the impact of development of rural finance on the growth of agricultural economy and farmers’ income, using the ADF test method, the Granger causality test, and regression analysis. The results show that the development of rural finance in Jiangxi Province has a significant positive effect on the growth of rural economy and farmers’ income. When the ending balance of agricultural loans increases by 1 unit, the agricultural added value will increase by 0.367 1 units; when the ending balance of agricultural loans increases by 1 unit, farmers’ income will increase by 0.597 5 units, indicating that the development of rural finance plays a significant role in promoting the per capita net income of farmers.Finally we propose to increase agricultural credit efforts in the financial institutions, establish and improve the agricultural credit management system.

  13. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; Bogdanov, Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; Erjavec, Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; Nacka, Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana


    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...


    Mafongoya Owen


    Full Text Available The study investigated the contribution of SAT's agricultural intervention in ward 21 of Bikita in an attempt to improve food security to this drought prone area. The research was largely premised on qualitative methodology and unstructured interviews, focus group discussions and onsite observation were employed as techniques for data gathering. Using these methodological techniques, it was revealed that conservation farming brought by SAT was not smoothly appreciated by the intended beneficiaries. Regardless the fact that the majority of the farmers were given free farming inputs, they failed to fully embrace all the instructions like minimizing soil tillage, reliance on compost manure only to mention but a few. The farmers resisted total participation because the techniques were labor intensive and sometimes contradict their orthodox or indigenous farming techniques. This has resulted in the emergence of an antagonistic relationship between SAT officials and the local farmers on the best method of farming which may improve food security. Also the research revealed that too much reliance on compost manure has created environmental challenges with fears of its depletion since the area was already overpopulated. This led to the emergence of conflicts between the participants, non-participants, owners and non-owners of domestic animals because the forage was under threat. All these events were analyzed using Darendorf's (1959's Conflict theory which explains the potential of conflicts outbreak between two or more groups interacting. This can be best explained with the conflicts which existed between the locals on the environment and also between SAT and the locals on the way forward about farming. It was concluded that there was a need for encompassing approach where all stakeholders should sit down together and consider the favorable conditions to make the programme acceptable, successful and sustainable.

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart G of... - Subordination by the Government for Use With Rural Housing Site Loans




    Benjamín GARCÍA SANZ


    de los productos alimenticios y la trazabilidad, retos para los que sin duda están muy concienciadas las cooperativas./The agriculture is an activity trasversal that concerns the rural world but also to villages that are not rural. It is an activity that is present in very big villages of the South named agro cities. Regardless there is a very direct entail between agriculture and ruralidad, not so much because the agriculture is already the base of the work of the rural world, but because being his counterfoil. To analyze the agrarian work in the rural world there are several sources, one is the Survey of the Active Population (EPA who realizes of the persons who are employed at this sector and other one is the Agrarian Census or the Survey of Agrarian Structures that he gathers all the persons who have some labour entail with the agrarian activity. The contrast between these two sources reveals the existence of new figures that appear in the Censuses and not in the EPA as the holders of agrarian developments who have another activity, the holders who cover less half a day in the exploitation, the spouses of the holders or the relatives. This leads us to affirming the importance that has the activity in the rural world as the entail o the works of the agriculture not only of the farmers but also of those that are retired, they have another principal occupation or are simply temporary collaborators of the agrarian work. Raising the future of the agriculture a commentary has interfered on the importance of the asociacionismo, not so much that of production, but that of marketing. Though the levels reached as for members and implied sectors it is high, still there stays a great span that to cross, especially regarding cooperatives of the second degree and control of the markets. This one is a challenge to that it is necessary to add a new bet that consists of penetrating in the circuits of the transformation for taking part of the distribution of benefits, which

  17. Creating a Social Wasteland? Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports and Rural Poverty in Ecuador

    Tanya Korovkin


    Full Text Available Neoliberal economic policies in Latin America  have resulted in the rapid growth of nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE. This  growth is often seen as contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper examines this  view with the focus on Ecuador, using the World  Bank’s definition poverty as a reference. It is  argued that the flower export expansion has created employment opportunities but did not allow  the rural poor to raise themselves above the poverty line. Moreover, flower employment has undermined the pre-existing social networks and community organizations, increasing the levels of insecurity among rural families and undermining  their ability to influence the processes of decision  making.  Resumen: Creando un páramo social? Exportaciones agrícolas no-tradicionales y pobreza rural en EcuadorLas políticas económicas neo-liberales en América Latina han resultado en el rápido crecimiento  de las exportaciones agrícolas no tradicionales  (EANT, lo que es considerado a menudo como  un alivio de la pobreza rural. En este artículo se  estudia esta visión para el caso de Ecuador, utilizando como referencia la definición de pobreza  del Banco Mundial. Aunque se dice que la expansión en la exportación de flores ha creado oportunidades de empleo, no ha logrado que los pobres  rurales crucen la línea de la pobreza. Además, el empleo en este sector ha socavado las redes sociales y organizaciones comunitarias anteriores,  elevando los niveles de inseguridad entre las  familias rurales y minando su capacidad de intervención en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  18. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo


    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  19. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti


    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  20. The garden dying: Commoditization of agriculture and changes in practices of self-consumption among rural families of southern gaucho

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos


    Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.

  1. Empirical Study on the Impact of Rural Labor Force Flow on the Price of Agricultural Products——A Method Based on VEC Model


    Based on the research introduction of domestic and foreign scholars,dynamic equilibrium between the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural product is analyzed by VEC model,according to the data of the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural products in the years 1990-2007.Chows breakpoint test is used to measure the stage characteristics of the impact of rural labor force flow on the price of agricultural product.Result shows that there is a long-term and stationary relationship between the flow quantity of rural labor force and the price of agricultural product.Rural labor force flow,as an exogenous force,affects the agricultural production,and further influences the price fluctuation of agricultural products.Impact of rural labor force flow on the price of agricultural product is from weak to strong,then grows gradually weaker,and reaches its peak value at the year 1998.With the development of rural society and economy and the market process,rural labor force flow endogenously affects the price of agricultural product,which has periodic characteristics.In order to achieve a dual stabilization of the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural products,the following countermeasures are put forward:vigorously developing vocational education,increasing the support for agricultural production,and making active employment measures.

  2. Connecting transport, agriculture and rural development: Experiences from Mhlontlo local municipality integrated infrastructure atlas

    Chakwizira, J


    Full Text Available (2000) The ABC of women worker’s rights and gender equality, ISBN 92-2- 110844-9 222 Johnston, B. & J. Mellor (1961). The role of agriculture in economic development, American Economic Review 51,566-593 Kilkenny, M. (1998) “Transport Costs and Rural... logistics costs have averaged approximately 15% over the past few years, which are almost double those of Europe (South African Annual State of Logistics, 2009). This is 211 despite the advent of cell phones technology which has been hailed by some...

  3. Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland

    Magdalena Muradin


    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

  4. The Regional and Local Distribution of Funds Allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in Romania



    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present and analyze the regional and local distribution of the funds allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD, European fund that finances rural development in Romania, in the post-accession period. This financing instrument was created by the European Union with the order to continue the main directions of investment of Special Pre-Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD. As a member state of the European Union, Romania observes the principles of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP while the development of the Romanian rural area for the programming period 2007-2013 is supported by the European Community through the National Rural Development Programme (RDP. This approach pays special attention to improving the quality of life in rural areas and the diversification of the rural economy because local communities in Romania have experienced some changes in this period, while accessing EAFRD funds contributed to increased regional disparities between developed and poor areas.

  5. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Iheke, O.R.


    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  6. Social Networks as an Integration Tool in Rural Areas – Agricultural Enterprises of the Czech Republic

    M. Stočes


    Full Text Available Social networks have been growing at a rapid pace. Social media represent one of the most significant phenomena of today's world and are more and more integrated from the private sphere into the commercial one (e.g. into marketing where social media already play a substantial role. The present paper is aimed at introducing an initial study on the use of social media in agricultural enterprises. The study was thus targeted at agricultural enterprises – both legal entities (public limited companies, limited liability companies and last but not least cooperatives and natural persons (farmers that farm the total area of more than 100 hectares (a basic selection criterion of the survey. This interesting study was conducted by means of a questionnaire survey that included information on social media awareness, development and use within the respective group of respondents (bigger agricultural enterprises. The paper deals with social media as such and naturally with the survey results. The data retrieved from the questionnaire were used not only for monitoring social networks integration in the agrarian sector (important factor in rural areas but as well for exploring the potential of modern information tools in agriculture promotion. The survey has been carried out in mutual cooperation of the Department of Information Technologies with the Information and Consulting Centre, Faculty of Economics and Management, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague.

  7. Rural Dwellers’ Perception of Human Trafficking and its Implication for Agricultural Production in Edo State, Nigeria

    Ofuoku, A. U.


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to ascertain the perception of rural dwellers on human trafficking in relation to its effect on agricultural production in the three Senatorial Districts of Edo State, Nigeria. A sample size of 120 household heads was used for the study. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were used to collect data for the study. The data were analyzed using frequency counts, means and percentage while Chi-Square statistical model and Tobit regression analytical model were used to test the hypotheses. It was discovered that the household members were trafficked as a result of push and pull factors. The trafficked members of household were actively involved in farming practices before being trafficked. There is significant relationship between human trafficking and agriculture production. Shortage of farm labor, decreased farm size, reduced farm income, reduced farm output, extra expenditure on hired labor and storage of food supply by the community were perceived as effect of human trafficking on agriculture. Age of the household head and the household size had significant effect on the number of household member trafficked. Human trafficking has an adverse effect on agricultural production. Extension department should therefore integrate anti-human trafficking campaigns with their services to the farming population.

  8. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia


    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  9. Adaptive overcurrent relay for the rural Agricultural feeder Based on Niranthara Jyothi Yojana



    Full Text Available In certain states like Karnataka and Gujarat of India, farmers are provided with free 3-phase power supply to run their irrigation pump-sets under schemes like Niranthara Jyothi Yojana (NJY. Under this scheme, the rural feeders were bifurcated into agricultural feeders and non-agricultural feeders in order to facilitate 24 hours Supply for Non-agricultural Consumers and 8-10Hrs Supply for Agricultural Consumers. Due to power shortage, the 3-phase supply at the agricultural feeder is given only during the off-peak hours. Rest of the time, the supply is either 2-phase or the feeder is under Load Shedding. 2-phase supply at the station is given exclusively for lighting purpose at Farm houses. But, this 2-phase supply is being illegally tapped and converted to 3-phase by using condensers. Although, this is reflected in the sub-station load curve, it often takes time to detect such misuses. The conventional Overcurrent relay fails to respond to this misuse, unless the set points or pick up values are changed appropriately by human intervention, often the locals influence the substation personnel to keep the set points in such a way that the misuse is not reported. This, at times, may cause cascading disasters in the power system. The proposed relay would not only act as a protective element at the feeder, but also detect the misuse and trip the respective feeder by changing the set points appropriately without involving any human activity, eventually increasing the security of the system. Proposed relay has two working states namely active state and the event log state. The Event log keeps record of the events with real time and date by making use of Real time clock (RTC. This relay also consists of a GSM module which sends SMS to farmers and utility heads regarding the supply status.

  10. Agricultural Resource Access and the Influence of Socioeconomic Characteristics Among Rural Women in Borno State, Nigeria

    C. Ojo


    Full Text Available Agricultural resource access and the influence of socioeconomic characteristics among women in Borno State, Nigeria was the main objective of this study. The data for the study were generated by the use of structured questionnaire which was administered to 266 respondents obtained by the use of multistage random sampling technique. The techniques used to analyze the data generated for this study were descriptive statistics and the binary logistic regression analyses. The major findings of the study showed that respondent’s socioeconomic characteristics indicated high levels of illiteracy (59.4%, non-membership of cooperatives (89.8%, no extension contact (72% and low access to credit (89.4%. Access to production resources including fertilizers, agrochemicals, family and hired laours and land ownership were low. Some socio- economic factors influenced the likelihood of women’s access to production resources. These factors included cooperative membership, years of schooling, farm income, extension contact, off-farm income, family size, age, farming experience and farm size. It was recommended that agricultural development planners should work at enhancing rural women’s access to socioeconomic factors which enhance their access to production resources for more efficient agricultural productivity.

  11. The Rural Advanced Industrial Society: Social and Economic Change.

    Bradshaw, Ted K.

    The decline of rural areas caused by agricultural mechanization may now have run its course with the rise of post- or advanced-industrialism which is offering a new set of opportunities and problems for the development of many rural areas. Instead of the pastoral subsistence farm of the past, rural America is becoming primarily non-agricultural…

  12. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Lower Danube Region

    Nicolae Istudor; Margarita Bogdanova; Victor Manole; Raluca Ignat; Irina Elena Petrescu


    Given the conditions of European Strategy for Labour which was ratified also by Romania, that states an intensifying implementation at national level of labour policies and especially those regarding young person labour market integration, and taking into consideration the great human and agricultural potential of Lower Danube Region, we consider the implementation of national and regional programmes in order to train agriculture and rural development specialists to be very necessary. This ar...


    A.U. Ofuoku


    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  14. Talun-Huma, Swidden Agriculture, and Rural Economy in West Java, Indonesia

    Mizuno Kosuke


    Full Text Available Talun-huma is an intensified land use system for swidden agriculture in Indonesia. Talun is a productive fallow system that is meaningful from ecological, social, and economic perspectives. Although it is considered a typical practice in West Java, this study proves that the term talun was used in many places in Indonesia besides West Java during colonial times.  This study also shows that talun-huma and agroforestry practice in the surveyed village is closely linked to the socioeconomic structure of the rural society based on the data collected in 2000–1. Huma is more likely to be practiced by the lower strata owning little agricultural and forestry land. The economic development reflected in the growth of banana leaf production and income from the non-­agricultural sector income has not excluded or diminished talun-huma and agro­forestry practices. Sharecropping practices and agricultural labor relations among the villagers have established huma practice. The social forestry program implemented in this region also supports the continuity of huma practice. Increase in banana leaf production does not diminish the practice of huma and talun agro­forestry, although banana leaf production tends to shorten the duration of the cycle. Moreover, the development of non-agricultural sectors and wet rice cultivation has had a positive impact on the existence of huma practices and the continuation of slash-and-burn practices.  Talun-huma and permanent forests with or without talun are good practices that keep the system sustainable from an economic and social point of view. Diversified farming, balanced rotation of land use, and diversity of plants, as well as the planting of leguminous land conservation trees such as kaliandra and gamal, play an important role in sustaining the system.  The introduction of banana leaf plants to the village in the 1990s has contributed significantly to the continuity of the system because the plants are a

  15. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen


    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  16. Social innovation and sustainability; how to disentangle the buzzword and its application in the field of agriculture and rural development

    Bock, B.B.


    Social innovation is often appointed as an essential part of agricultural and rural innovation. Everybody seems to agree that social innovation is important but what exactly is meant by the term remains often unclear. This paper aims at clarifying the meaning and signifi cance of the concept by

  17. The Implications of EU, South Korea and Other Countries Agricultural and Rural Policy to Chinese Agriculture and Rural Development%欧盟、日韩等国农业发展政策对中国的启示



    欧盟、日韩等国在农业发展中先后经历了从产品导向型农业政策、农业保护政策再到农村可持续发展这几个阶段,而中国的农业发展存在着集约化程度低、农村经济体制不完善、农民科学文化素质低、农村社会保障不够完善等一系列不足。参照欧盟、日韩等国家的农业政策发展,文章提出了改变农业生产方式、加大工业反哺力度、发展现代农业等一系列有借鉴意义的政策建议。%The agriculture and rural development of European Union, Korea and other countries has evolved three stages from product-oriented agricultural policies, agricultural protection policy to the sustainable ru- ral development, but Chinese agricultural development is also facing some problems as a low level intensifi- cation, unsound rural economic system, lower the farmers scientific and cultural quality, unperfect rural social security number. On European Union~ s,South Korea and other countries agricultural policy devel- opment, this paper proposes a series of policy recommendations to change agricultural production, increase industry to support agriculture, develop modern agriculture, etc.

  18. Expansion and Change of Rural Settlements in Traditional Agricultural Regions: Based on Village Investigation in Pingdu County

    Dong Dekun; Lu Jinping; Gu Shuzhong


    The rural settlements accounted for a great proportion of overall building land in China, but it still expanded in recent years along with urbanization and gradually decreasing rural population. To explore the reason for this phenomenon, an analy-sis has been made based on the investigation in a traditional agri-cultural region. This study found that socioeconomic factors, in-cluding the scale of families and its quantity, the improvement of rural public infrastructure, the change of population and the pres-sure of arable land, have effects on the expansion. The view on land tenure which has shaped in farmers minds in the long haul makes them dispose their houses cautiously, and this was the main cause of the fact that one household own more than one plot. In addition, the limitations of rural land institution are unconducive to inspiriting the transfer of farmers' building land and redevel-opment of the idle housing land.

  19. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth


    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds.


    Małgorzata Polna


    Full Text Available : The article deals with the afforestation of agricultural land in the rural regions of Poland's eastern borderland. It presents changes in the area and dynamics of afforestation there and the spatial distribution of its intensity. Also identified are the determinants of farmland af-forestation. Special attention is paid to afforestation carried out on private land. The research covered three borderland provinces (Podlasie, Lublin and Subcarpathia that form the east-ern boundary of the European Union. The years studied were 1996-2009, i.e. a period in which fundamental changes took place in farmland afforestation. The research showed that in the study area afforestation was largely carried out on private land, where it covered 26.7 thous. ha between 1996 and 2009. In each of the provinces under analysis the process of af-forestation of private farmland followed a similar pattern, but differed in dynamics. As in the entire country, in the rural eastern borderland one can observe an increase in the area of private land afforestation until 2003, its marked regression in 2004, another slight jump in 2005 and 2006, and another drop since 2007. The intensity of afforestation was not even; in the years under analysis it showed wide differences. Lower intensity of private farmland af-forestation was recorded in 1996-2001, at 3.4 ha per 1000 ha AL, than in 2002-2009, when the figure was 3.9 ha/1000 ha AL. But the intensity of farmland afforestation after 2001 kept declining with the changing peri-ods of afforestation co-funding.

  1. Combining integrated models and participatory methods to quantify water and agricultural trade-offs linked to different rural development scenarios

    Rivas, David; Willaarts, Barbara; García, Ángel de Miguel; Tarquis, Ana Maria


    This study explores the water and agricultural tradeoffs linked to three different rural development scenarios in the Cega-Eresma-Adaja basin (CEA) in Central Spain. Agriculture is a key socioeconomic activity in CEA, and nearly 44% of the basin is devoted to croplands and pastures. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 12% of the cropland area and is currently using over 84% of available water resources. To define the three scenarios for CEA, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders to infer how contrasting evolutions of EU agricultural, water and environmental policies could affect the local land use and agricultural management using participatory mapping techniques. The three scenarios reflect 1) a business as usual (BAU) rural development; 2) a land sharing strategy (LSH); and 3) a land sparing (LSP) situation. The integrated Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the changes in water use (hm^3/year) and agricultural productivity (ton/year) under each scenario. To account for changes in agricultural land use and management, the model integrates a large set of agricultural patterns obtained from combining high resolution remote sensing images (20m x 20m) for the years 2011-2015, agricultural productivity from survey by municipality and land use information obtained from the national map SIOSE2011 (1:50.000). Model calibration and sensitivity analysis were performed using SWAT-CUP/SUFI2 The period of the years 2005 to 2008 were used for parameter calibration and validation period extending between 2009 and 2014. The predicted daily streamflow presents a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and a NS coefficient of 0.81. The preliminary results reveal that under a BAU and a LSP scenario agricultural production and water demand will increase significantly (>25%) despite the improvements in water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, allocated water is likely to exceed the natural renewable water resources compromising the

  2. Potential assessment of establishing a renewable energy plant in a rural agricultural area.

    Su, Ming-Chien; Kao, Nien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Jar


    An evaluation of the green energy potential generated from biogas and solar power, using agricultural manure waste and a photovoltaic (PV) system, was conducted in a large geographical area of a rural county with low population density and low pollution. The studied area, Shoufeng Township in Hualien County, is located in eastern Taiwan, where a large amount of manure waste is generated from pig farms that are scattered throughout the county. The objective of the study is to assess the possibility of establishing an integrated manure waste treatment plant by using the generated biogas incorporated with the PV system to produce renewable energy and then feed it back to the incorporated farms. A filed investigation, geographic information system (GIS) application, empirical equations development, and RETScreen modeling were conducted in the study. The results indicate that Shoufeng Township has the highest priority in setting up an integrated treatment and renewable energy plant by using GIS mapping within a 10-km radius of the transportation range. Two scenarios were plotted in assessing the renewable energy plant and the estimated electricity generation, plus the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction was evaluated. Under the current governmental green energy scheme and from a long-term perspective, the assessment shows great potential in establishing the plant, especially in reducing environmental pollution problems, waste treatment, and developing suitable renewable energy.

  3. Agriculture

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  4. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Lower Danube Region

    Nicolae Istudor


    Full Text Available Given the conditions of European Strategy for Labour which was ratified also by Romania, that states an intensifying implementation at national level of labour policies and especially those regarding young person labour market integration, and taking into consideration the great human and agricultural potential of Lower Danube Region, we consider the implementation of national and regional programmes in order to train agriculture and rural development specialists to be very necessary. This article inquires the necessity of training agriculture and rural development specialists within Lower Danube Region in the context of cross-border cooperation between Romania and Bulgaria. This research starts by analysing the European and national legal framework of adult training in those two fields. Subsequently, the main premises and advantages of those activities were emphasized. It is good to mention that the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania, and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svishtov, Bulgaria, proposed themselves to cooperate in the field of “human resources development – common development of skills and knowledge”. The legal base exists as the Romania-Bulgaria Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013 is enforced. Furthermore, a four years comparative study of the number of persons trained for the main jobs in rural area, including farmer, in Lower Danube Region was conducted. All these led to the idea that it is necessary to continue and to stress adult training of farmers and rural specialists as a solution for rural economy development and social welfare. Also, comparative analysis of supply and demand of professionals in the field of agriculture was elaborated. The main educational programs in training agriculture and rural development specialists were identified and some problems and perspectives were worked out. This research can be considered as a first step of future deeper and profound collaboration of Tsenov

  5. Benefits of agricultural technology innovation capacity to peasant farmers in rural poor areas: The case of DBN-Group, China

    Mathias Agri Eneji


    Full Text Available DaBeiNong (DBN Technology Group Co Ltd is a private enterprise, at the cutting edge of the agricultural high-tech industry in China. It has developed its innovative capabilities through Research and Development (R&D activities, skilled R&D personnel, new products, services, processes and markets. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying and constructing a model of the enterprise innovation capacity; the inputs and outputs of innovation in DBN and 9 other agricultural high-tech enterprises in China. We analyzed the enterprise technology innovation capacity and offered recommendations. Two sets of questionnaires were used; for the peasant farmers, and for the agricultural enterprises. We used the rank factors on an ordinal scale and simple percentages. We used econometric model to analyze seven factors of agricultural enterprise innovation capacity. The results show that R&D is strategic to Agricultural Enterprise Innovation Capacity (AETIC. However, the benefits to the peasant farmers need to be further intensified, and stepped up from its present average level. We found that enterprises with higher capital and larger sales have more R&D investment than those with smaller sales. Promoting agricultural research and rural development is crucial to pro-poor growth, given the potential for smallholder agriculture to rapidly absorb and adopt innovations.

  6. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

    Dutta, S.


    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this

  7. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

    Dutta, S.


    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this conside

  8. Agriculture d'autosubsistance et formation du capital en milieu rural tropical : l'exemple de la région de Bengamisa (Haut-Zaïre

    Mulongo, KM.


    Full Text Available Survival agriculture and tropical rural area ability in accumulating capital : the example of Bengamisa region in Upper Zaire. According to this analyse we realize that agricuttural pricing systems are lossfull on Bengamisa rural economy. The absence of standard measure units in agricultural marketing, great fluctuations of prices and savings use on no economic productive activities put back the accumulation of capital in Bengamisa region.


    Wacław Jarecki


    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  10. The Dynamics of Rural Non-farm Employment in India: Gender, Agricultural Productivity, and Literacy

    Alok Kumar; Kam Shergill


    This paper analyzes the determinants of the rural non-farm employment in the fifteen major states of India by using panel data analysis for the period 1972-2010. The analysis indicates that there are significant gender differences in the factors affecting the level and the growth of rural non-farm employment. The level of urbanization, the rural literacy rate and the rural unemployment rate have a significant positive effect on the incidence of non-farm employment for male workers. For female...

  11. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S


    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. <10%). The maximum neonicotinoid residue detected in either wax or beebread was 3.9 ppb imidacloprid. A probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the residues recovered from beebread in apiaries located in commercial, urban, and rural landscapes. The calculated risk quotient based on a dietary no observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) suggested low potential for negative effects on bee behavior or colony health.

  12. Analysis of the effects of agricultural land use change on rural environment and landscape through historical cartography and GIS tools

    Dina Statuto


    Full Text Available The human activities and the social and economic transformations occurred during the last century led modifications in the agro-forestry areas. This paper shows a study case study in which the dynamics of land use are analysed using a geographic information system applied to historical maps in order to evaluate the consequences of these land transformations over the last 179 years on the rural environment and landscape. The use of three-dimensional reconstructions, obtained through the creation of different digital terrain model, has allowed to appreciate the landscape modifications, in term of morphological and vegetation variation, determining its aesthetic quality. The analysis shows a common dynamic present in many rural areas of Southern Italy, i.e., the increase of agricultural areas replacing forested surfaces in an older period followed by the further phenomenon of spontaneous re-naturalisation of many of these areas, due to the abandonment of extensive cultivated areas. Moreover, through comparison with historical documents, it was possible to analyse how the agricultural activities influenced the quality of the forest ecosystem. The methodology employed in this study allows a detailed analysis of the processes that occurred in different rural context and the creation of appropriate tools for sustainable land management.

  13. Impact of Labor Transfer on Agricultural Land Use Conversion at Rural Household Level Based on Logit Model

    ZHONG Taiyang; ZHANG Xiuying; HUANG Xianjin


    Since land and labor force are primary resources to be used and controlled by rural households, the alloca-tion of labor forces will influence land uses, and further lead to land use conversion. The present study used the Binary Logit model to investigate the influence of labor force transfer, characteristics of rural households, location, and land market on agricultural land use conversion at rural household level. This study was conducted based on 329 valid questionnaires, which were obtained in Changshu, Rudong, and Tongshan counties, respectively representing the southern, middle and northern areas of Jiangsu Province. The results showed that land market participation, location, zonal difference and labor transfer had strong influences on agricultural land use conversion. The participation of land market had a strong positive effect on land use conversion, especially for the farmland converted to the fishpond. The nearer to the county seat, the more conversion of land use occurred. Particularly, the labor force transfer caused by wage employment decreased this conversion probability, while the labor transfer caused by self-employment led to more conversion; and the increasing of income from labor transfer increased the conversion. Moreover, land use con-versions demonstrated zonal difference, which were more in Rudong and Changshu counties than in Tongshan County, and the factors influencing this conversion were different in the three regions.

  14. Serving Agriculture,Farmer and Rural Area the Historical Mission of the Agricultural Journals at Present%服务"三农":新时期下农业期刊的历史使命



    Solving the issues of agriculture,farmer and rural area is the top priority of all country and serving agriculture,farmer and rural area is a historical mission of agricultural journals at present. By analyzing the status and opportunities of agricultural journals in serving agriculture,farmer and rural area,this paper proposes that agricultural journal should innovate in magazine ideas,expand the content of the magazine format and improve the quality of the magazine to serve agriculture,farmer and rural area effectively.%解决好"三农"问题是当前全党工作的重中之重,服务"三农"是农业期刊在新时期的历史使命,通过分析农业期刊在服务"三农"中的地位与机遇,提出农业期刊应从创新办刊思路、拓展办刊形式以及提高办刊内容质量等方面为"三农"服务有效地发挥作用.

  15. Indonesian rural youth transitions: employment, mobility and the future of agriculture

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter reflects on the dynamics of Indonesian rural youth transitions.1 As in other countries, Indonesian rural youth’s transition to adulthood is being prolonged as they remain longer enrolled in education, their average age at first marriage rises, and their ent

  16. 我国城乡精准农业旅游研究%Urban and Rural Precision Agriculture Tourism in China



    Based on the concept of agricultural tourism, the paper analyzes the problems in China urban and rural tourism model,combines agricultural tourism development with precision agricultural construction, proposes and expounds the concept of precision agriculture trourism, aiming to provide a new development path for agricultural tourism development and urban-rural agricultural construction.%笔者从农业旅游的概念出发,分析了我国城乡旅游模式存在的问题,并将农业旅游发展与精准农业建设相结合,提出并阐明了"精准农业旅游"的概念,旨在为农业旅游开发和城乡农业建设提供一条新的发展路径.

  17. Research on Strategies of the Development of Rural Vocational Education Under the Perspective of Agriculture,Rural Areas and Peasantry%“三农”视域下农村职业教育发展策略研究



    “三农”问题的难以解决,从另一个侧面反映了农村职业教育的落后与服务“三农”能力的低下。农村职业教育要树立大职业教育观,把自身发展放在城乡一体化的大背景下去思考,明确服务“三农”的办学宗旨,提升服务“三农”的办学能力,完善服务“三农”的内容体系,从而实现农村职业教育的健康、可持续发展。%Issues concerning on agriculture ,rural areas and peasantry are difficult to solve ,reflected on the other side of the backward of rural vocational education and its low capability to service agriculture ,rural areas and peasantry .Rural vocational education need to establish the sense of high vo-cational education ,put thought of the development of the rural vocational education into the background of the integration of urban and rural areas ,by clearing the educational mission to service for agriculture , rural areas and peasantry ,improving the educational capability to service for agriculture ,rural areas and peasantry ,completing the service for content system of agriculture , rural areas and peasantry , to promote its health and sustainable development .

  18. The USAID and the Brazilian agricultural teaching: the case of the Universidade Rural do Estado de Minas Gerais

    Maria das Graças Marcelo Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The Universidade Rural do Estado de Minas Gerais (UREMG was created in 1948, becoming later the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. This institution has been involved in some agreements of technical assistance that were signed between Brazil and United States, which were mediated in the 1960’s decade by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID. The aim of this work is to analyze the action of the USAID in UREMG basing on the exam of primaries sources from the Central and Historical Archive of UFV. Under the supervision of USAID, the UREMG has performed a significant role in the modernization of Brazilian agriculture as well it served to the strategy of the North-American government of guarantee the control over the production of food in Brazil. As the same way, UREMG has contributed for mitigating social tensions in rural areas.

  19. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

    Scott McLean


    Full Text Available This article introduces the work of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and describes its interest in the application of distance learning strategies pertinent to the challenges of food security and rural development around the world. The article briefly reviews pertinent examples of distance learning, both from the experience of FAO and elsewhere, and summarises a complex debate about the potential of distance learning in developing countries. The paper elaborates five practical suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development. The purpose of publishing this article is both to disseminate our ideas about distance learning to interested professional and scholarly audiences around the world, and to seek feedback from those audiences.

  20. Opinions of polish farmers and rural areas dwellers concerning the Common Agricultural Policy before and after 2004

    Marianna Greta


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article are both an analysis, the evaluation and the presentation of changes of the opinion of farmers and country dwellers on the subject: influences of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP to rural areas, position of the Polish government with reference to negotiated conditions and implementing principles of CAP, as well as the anxieties associated with the accession and with functioning of the agriculture of the united Europe. For the purposes of the study there were used findings of the Institute of public affairs from 1999 and findings from own research realised between 06-08.2012. Findings indicated, that within the last decade attitude of farmers and country dwellers with regard to the European Union and its financial instruments of the support, evolved from the position of the extreme scepticism to moderate euroenthusiasm.

  1. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco


    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  2. Do agricultural subsidies crowd out or stimulate rural credit market institutions? The case of EU Common Agricultural Policy

    Jan and Katarina Szegenyova Pokrivcak


    Full Text Available In this paper we estimate the impact of agricultural subsidies granted under the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP on bank loans extended to farms. According to our theoretical analysis, subsidies may either stimulate or crowd out bank loans depending on the timing of subsidies, severity of credit constraint, type of subsidies and bank loans, and the relative cost of internal and external financing. In empirical analysis we use the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN farm level panel data for the period 1995-2007. We employ the fixed effects and generalised method of moment (GMM models. The estimated results suggest that (i big farms tend to use subsidies to increase long-term loans, whereas small farms tend to use subsidies to obtain short-term loans; (ii subsidies tend to crowd out short-term loans for big farms and long-term loans for small farms; (iii when controlling for the endogeneity, the crowding out effect becomes smaller, but the positive causal effect of subsidies on bank loans remains significant.

  3. Haiti : Diagnostic and Proposals for Agriculture and Rural Development Policies and Strategies

    World Bank


    The overall objective of the present study is to contribute to the knowledge-base that is urgently required for the implementation of sustainable rural development activities in Haiti. The study concentrated on the following two objectives: update knowledge and produce a series of maps of regional physical socio-economic and institutional characteristics of the rural sector at a reasonable level of spatial disaggregation to improve targeting of future interventions; and test and build consens...

  4. Main Directions for Accelerating Modernization in the Agricultural Sector in the Rural Periphery of the North (Case Study of the Komi Republic

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov


    Full Text Available Agricultural production in the rural periphery of the North requires modernization because it is necessary to overcome the backwardness of its technical and technological level, to improve the provision of the population with local food products, to create competitive advantages in the local and regional markets, to use natural and human capital rationally, to raise the standard of living and quality of life of agricultural workers, to retain young people in rural areas, to reduce significant differentiation in socioeconomic development of remote and suburban areas. The period of market reforms was marked by the destruction of the material-technical base of agriculture, the sharp reduction in cultivated agricultural land, number of animals, number of workers, the deterioration of their professional level and quality of life, the decline in production of all kinds of agricultural products. In the period of market reforms the facilities and infrastructure basis of agriculture was destroyed, the volume of cultivated land reduced greatly, as well as the population of livestock, and the number of employees; their professional level and quality of life deteriorated, the production of all kinds of agricultural products reduced. Agriculture was deprived of possible technological re-equipment because of prices liberalization, the drastic reduction in state support and in the amount of investments. The article proves that current views on the lack of prospects for development of agricultural production in the rural periphery and the reorientation of rural residents on other activities are not acceptable. The authors point out the need to accelerate modernization in agriculture, and they conclude that sustainable agricultural and rural development is a long-term priority for the state and municipal authorities. The article considers the possibilities and necessity of intensifying modernization processes in the agricultural production of the rural periphery

  5. Directions of agriculture and rural areas development after Polish accession to the European Union

    Antoni Mickiewicz


    Full Text Available The primary objective of the study was an analysis of Polish agriculture development after 4 years of joining the European Union. The changes were associated with the strategy of the Common Agricultural Policy, which led to a reorientation in the sphere of agriculture production and also to adopting high standards resulting from cross-compliance requirements. Adoption of the sugar policy has led to an increase of cereal crops and plants associated with biofuels. In turn, the introduced milk quota contributed to the concentration and specialization of animal production. There was a positive development in commercial agricultural production, consisting in improving the quality and food safety.

  6. Path of Student Volunteer Organizations in Agricultural Universities for Serving Rural Left-behind Children: A Case Study of Northwest A&F University

    Hua WANG; Zizhen DUAN


    Most volunteer organizations in universities focus their attention on urban communities and residents,but neglect rural residents.Agricultural universities have responsibilities and conditions to serve rural areas,and should bring into play their leading role. This study surveyed situations of volunteers of Northwest A&F University serving rural left-behind children,and found that there are problems including weak volunteer awareness,unstable organization members,imperfect organization construction,and lack of effect incentive mechanism. Finally,it came up four recommendations: strengthening " active service" ideological education,improving management system construction,establishing incentive mechanism,and setting up brand project,to provide feasible path for agricultural universities serving rural weak groups in a better way.

  7. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.


    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  8. Rural-urban migration and endogenous ethic: the cultural role of agriculture in economic development

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.


    This paper argues that, in a developing economy, progress in agriculture may stimulate growth of the urban sector through important non-market-mediated e¤ects. Higher living standards enable traditional agricultural societies to solve their social dilemmas, which implies a stream of civic-minded

  9. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.


    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…


    Matthew Olaniyi Adewumi


    Full Text Available Globally, governments initiate various programmes to address income poverty among rural farmers. However, studies that focus on the impact of such programmes on farmers’ income are either scanty or non-existent, especially in developing countries, including Nigeria. Therefore, this study examines the impact of Community-Based Agriculture and Rural Development Project (CBARDP in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 120 respondents comprising 60 benefi ciaries and 60 non-benefi ciaries of the programme. Descriptive statistics and double-diff erence estimator were used for the data analysis. The study showed that there was 46.3% increase in the income of the benefi ciaries while the non-benefi ciaries had just 7.4% increase. The study further revealed that there was a positive income diff erence of N151.27 in favour of the benefi ciaries of the project. However, the constraints to deriving a full impact of the programme by the benefi ciaries were: lack of commitment by the facilitators, lack of technical know-how, poor transportation system and inadequacy of the equipment provided. The study therefore recommends policies aimed at overhauling the activities of the facilitators, improving the technical skill of the benefi ciaries, improving the transportation system and providing the benefi ciaries with more equipment.

  11. Evaluation of support for non-agricultural activities in Slovakia in the period 2007-2013 through the Rural Development Programme 2007-2013

    Zuzana BOHATOVA


    Full Text Available Rural Development Programme of the SR (RDP SR 2007-2013 represented a comprehensive programme document for funding from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD in the programming period 2007-2013. The RDP SR 2007-2013 supported many activities related to agriculture, forestry industry, livestock production, tourism and agro-tourism. Following goals of the EAFRD were supported by the RDP SR 2007-2013: Increasing the competitiveness of agriculture, food and forestry sector; Improving the environment and landscape; Improvement of life in rural areas and Diversification of the rural economy. The last mentioned activity: Diversification of the rural economy was supported in the previous programming period by the Axis 3: Quality of life in rural areas, Measure 3.1. Diversification into non-agricultural activities. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the implementation of the Measure 3.1. The paper focuses on content evaluation of supported projects and spatial and financial allocation of request for non-repayable financial contribution. The first part of the paper is focused on the submission of request for non-repayable financial contribution: call for proposals, supported documents available for applicants, preparation of projects and their submission. The second part of the paper is oriented on evaluation of submitted projects by the Agricultural Paying Agency and payments for beneficiaries. The third part of the paper is oriented on evaluation of realization of projects with emphasis on problems on both sides: on the side of beneficiaries and on the side of the Agricultural Paying Agency. The goal of the paper is to show problems which occurred in all phases of realization of projects under the measure 3.1 with the aim to avoid the appearance of the same problems in following programming periods.

  12. Institutional Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Resources Management: Changing the rules of the game

    Santamaria Guerra, J.


    This study was carried out to critically examine the state of the art of institutional innovation and to identify the theories of action informing it in rural research and development (R&D) organisations.The study was carried out in three cases. The selected case studies are different in their organ

  13. Prospects for China's Rural Vocational Education and the Role of Higher Agricultural Institutions.

    Ganzi, Peng; Xianguang, Liu

    The 1980s saw significant development in China's rural vocational education and the continuation of some problems. Most Chinese secondary (92 percent) and postsecondary (82 percent) students are educated in the countryside. However, only 60 percent of vocational high school students are educated there. There is insufficient enrollment at many…

  14. Institutional Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Resources Management: Changing the rules of the game

    Santamaria Guerra, J.


    This study was carried out to critically examine the state of the art of institutional innovation and to identify the theories of action informing it in rural research and development (R&D) organisations.The study was carried out in three cases. The selected case studies are different in their


    Marius Spiridon


    Full Text Available Elaborated during the first half of 2004 as an UNDP-financed project and never published in a complete form before, this study documents the failures of prolonged and significant state interference in the agricultural sector in Romania, focusing on the post-communist period. Given the unavoidable facts that in the absence of private property it is impossible to have either a rational allocation of resources and the right incentives, we reach the conclusion that the failures of the Romanian agriculture were not at all accidental, but inherent in its statist design. An assessment of the European Common Agricultural Policy and its potential impact on our agricultural sector is provided in the last part of the study.

  16. Effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rain on dietary adequacy and household food security in rural areas of Kenya.

    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie; Du Plessis, Lisanne


    Kenya has a high prevalence of underweight and stunting in children. It is believed that both agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rainfall influences household food security and dietary intake. In the present study we aimed to study the effects of agricultural biodiversity and seasonal rains on dietary adequacy and household food security of preschool Kenyan children, and to identify significant relationships between these variables. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken in resource-poor households in rural Kenya approximately 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers to collect data from randomly selected households (N = 525). A repeated 24-hour recall was used to calculate dietary intake in each phase while household food security was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). A nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR) was calculated for each nutrient as the percent of the nutrient meeting the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for that nutrient. A mean adequacy ratio (MAR) was calculated as the mean of the NARs. Agricultural biodiversity was calculated for each household by counting the number of different crops and animals eaten either from domestic sources or from the wild. Dietary intake was low with the majority of households not meeting the RNIs for many nutrients. However intake of energy (p food security also increased significantly (p food security and between dietary adequacy and household food security. Furthermore, the effect of seasonality on household food security and nutrient intake was illustrated.

  17. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Ferdo Bašić


    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  18. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  19. Case Studies of Rural Development and Clean Agriculture in Lao PDR

    Sachika Hirokawa


    Full Text Available The study examines the kind of actors and resources that empower small-scale farmers to promote sustainable agriculture. It also analyzes the reasons given by farmers who changed their farming methods. In 2004, the Department of Agriculture launched a project for the Promoting Organic Farming and Marketing in Lao PDR (PROFIL. PROFIL tried to develop market opportunities for Lao’s organic products and supported the local organic farmers. I conducted field researches at Nonte village in Vientiane Capital twice in 2008. The researches indicated that “Clean Agriculture” is one of the new challenges for farmers. Thus, this research focuses on the observation of how local organic farmers adapt to a new method and cope with problems. Information as knowledge from community groups and external actors such as local institutions and experts might help villagers to have choices in terms of farming methods, which gave them positive choices in terms of health and an agricultural environment. Since the government has the recognition of comparative advantages of clean agriculture, farmers may have the opportunity to gain a large market of organic farm products if they can develop distribution channels. This study encourages the positive contributions of challenges of sustainable agriculture in Lao PDR.

  20. Welfare Effects of Agricultural Technology adoption: the case of improved groundnut varieties in rural Malawi

    Simtowe, Franklin; Kassie, Menale; Asfaw, Solomon; Shiferaw, Bekele A.; Monyo, Emmanuel; Siambi, Moses


    This paper applies a program evaluation technique to assess the causal effect of the adoption of improved groundnut technologies on consumption expenditure and poverty measured by headcount, poverty gap and poverty severity indices. The paper is based on a cross-sectional farm household level data collected in 2008 from a sample of 594 households in rural Malawi. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to test the robustness of the propensity score based results using the rbounds test and the mea...

  1. Kinds and meaning of preferential credits for development of agriculture and rural areas

    Antoni Mickiewicz


    Full Text Available The theme of the paper was of preferential credits granted in two periods, that means after Poland’s accession to the European Union (2004-2006 and in the period after introduction of new legal regulations (2007-2010. The institution responsible for realisation of preferential credits was Agency of Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture which delegated its rights to banks. The credit policy in first period of our functioning in the European Union relied on gradual ending old legal regulations, not compliant with EU standards and undertaking activities in adaptation of Polish agriculture to standards obeyed in EU-15 Member States. Directions of preferential credits granting were changed in 2007. There were introduced 7 credit lines which aim was improvement of production efficiency, better use of production base in agricultural farms and acceleration of agrarian changes. The biggest beneficiaries of structural pensions were young farmers and farmers who wanted to increase the size of their farms.

  2. Heavy metals and pesticide exposure from agricultural activities and former agrochemical factory in a Salvadoran rural community.

    Quinteros, Edgar; Ribó, Alexandre; Mejía, Roberto; López, Alejandro; Belteton, Wilfredo; Comandari, Aimee; Orantes, Carlos M; Pleites, Ernesto B; Hernández, Carlos E; López, Dina L


    Pesticide handling in farming activities involves substantial hazards for the rural population and for the environment. In Latin America, it is estimated that the population at risk of being affected by heavy metals is over 4 million. This research describes the different types of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals in a rural population (Loma del Gallo), considering both environmental and occupational exposure. This study consists of an inspection in a former pesticide factory (QUIMAGRO), analysis of heavy metals in samples from surface and ground water in the community close to the factory, and a survey to the local population about their perceptions of pesticide exposures. Containers with 34.6 tons of chemicals improperly stored were identified in the former factory and removed by the government. Arsenic and cadmium were found in groundwater, and the highest values were 0.012 and 0.004 mg/l, respectively. These contaminants were also detected in most surface water samples, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.0001 mg/l, respectively. Results of the survey show that of the 44 participants 42 % were farmers. Farmers used 19 different pesticide products containing 11 active ingredients. The most used active ingredients were paraquat (65 %), methamidophos (35 %), and atrazina (29 %). Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use personal protective equipment. In addition to the pesticides used in the agriculture of the area, pesticide containers were removed from the QUIMAGRO area, but the pollution was still present at time of sampling and it is evident by the odor of the site. Surface water had the major concentration of heavy metals than the groundwater. Loma del Gallo population has been exposed to toxic pesticide from QUIMAGRO and agriculture for many years. The farmers carry out mishandling of pesticides and they not use PPE.

  3. Household food security is associated with agricultural livelihoods and diet quality in a marginalized community of rural Bedouins in Lebanon.

    Ghattas, Hala; Barbour, Jessica M; Nord, Mark; Zurayk, Rami; Sahyoun, Nadine R


    In the context of recent increases in international food prices, it is hypothesized that in rural communities retaining food production practices is important for protection against food insecurity at both the household and community levels, as well as for protection against the development of poor nutritional outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, a cross-sectional study of household food security and nutritional status was carried out in a rural community of settled Bedouins in Lebanon comprising 84 households with 474 individuals; this tribe's recent history of settlement in 2 locations that differ by access to land and food production practices provides the context for this study. Food insecurity was found to be highly prevalent (49%) in this Bedouin community and was negatively associated with household food production (P fish (P Agricultural livelihood support programs that promote continued involvement in food production at the household and community level, in conjunction with other income-generating activities, may build resilience against food insecurity and improve dietary diversity.

  4. Unifying Two Regional Planning Methodologies in an Analysis of the Rural and Agricultural Development Potential of the Province of Yozgat, Turkey



    Full Text Available This study will investigate Yozgat’s agricultural potential for rural development. There are many emigrants from Yozgat. The elderly population here is increasing, and although the agricultural potential is strong, it is not used effectively. The method used in this study includes a combination of two approaches. The first approach includes the critical factors of rural development: physical systems, social systems, creative systems, local systems and economic systems. The second approach includes the accelerators of rural population, in addition to the opportunities and limiters. The most important problem related to the analysis of rural development is the selection of a perspective on the province in question. This study will guide future studies of provinces and regions. The study concluded that Yozgat’s social life should be as lively and strong as its agricultural production and animal husbandry potential. Moreover, Yozgat has important ecotourism destinations, and this potential should be used. The greatest necessity of Yozgat is agro-industry that will serve for the processing of agricultural and animal husbandry products.

  5. 福建省农村农业信息化架构设计%On Frame Design of the Rural and Agricultural Informatization in Fujian Province

    曾倩琳; 孙安


    This article firstly presents the current situation of rural and agricultural informatization of Fujian Province, then it pro-poses the transformation of rural and agricultural informatization, designing the rural and agricultural information cloud chart for Fujian, and in which conceives Fujian agricultural industry chain of the public service platform as the example of the unique identification man-agement. We should innovativte rural information management system, accelerate the training of composite personnel, strengthen inter-national cooperation and exchange and pay attention to the training of farmers' ability to obtain information and so on.%从福建省的农村农业信息化现状出发,理清农村农业信息化的变革思路,设计出福建农村农业信息云结构图,以其中的个件级标识为例,提出福建“四农产业链”公共服务平台的构建设想。要发挥和加强政府的职能作用、创新农业信息化管理体制、加快培养复合型农业信息化人才和加强国际合作交流、注重培养农民的信息获取能力等。

  6. National report for CSD-16 The Netherlands: A review of sustainable development in agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa

    W. Andriesse; K. Boone; C. de Bont; J. Brouwers; M. Hack-Ten Broeke; G. Migchels; O. Oenema; G. van de Peet; I. Pinxterhuis; A. Smit; M. Stuiver; W. Sukkel; W. Verkerke; S. Verzandvoort; A. Visser; K. Zwart; M. Damen


    This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought




  8. How Agricultural Science Trumps Rural Community in the Discourse of Selected U.S. History Textbooks

    Howley, Marged; Howley, Aimee; Eppley, Karen


    Using narrative from 6 high school American history textbooks published between 1956 and 2009, this study investigated changes in how textbook authors presented the topics of agricultural science, farming, and community. Although some critical discourse analyses have examined textbooks' treatment of different population groups (e.g., African…

  9. Parents' Perception towards Inclusion of Agriculture in School Curriculum in Rural India

    Yadav, Amit; Ali, Jabir


    Purpose: The study aims at analysing the influence of demographics factors on inclusion of agriculture in school curriculum. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study was conducted in five villages of Rewari district in Haryana using a Mixed Methods Research Approach. After a qualitative discussion with the parents in groups, a personal interview…

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Agricultural Management Practices under Climate Change for Water Quality Improvement in a Rural Agricultural Watershed of Oklahoma, USA

    Rasoulzadeh Gharibdousti, S.; Kharel, G.; Stoecker, A.; Storm, D.


    One of the main causes of water quality impairment in the United States is human induced Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution through intensive agriculture. Fort Cobb Reservoir (FCR) watershed located in west-central Oklahoma, United States is a rural agricultural catchment with known issues of NPS pollution including suspended solids, siltation, nutrients, and pesticides. The FCR watershed with an area of 813 km2 includes one major lake fed by four tributaries. Recently, several Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented in the watershed (such as no-tillage and cropland to grassland conversion) to improve water quality. In this study we aim to estimate the effectiveness of different BMPs in improving watershed health under future climate projections. We employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to develop the hydrological model of the FCR watershed. The watershed was delineated using the 10 m USGS Digital Elevation Model and divided into 43 sub-basins with an average area of 8 km2 (min. 0.2 km2 - max. 28 km2). Through a combination of Soil Survey Geographic Database- SSURGO soil data, the US Department of Agriculture crop layer and the slope information, the watershed was further divided into 1,217 hydrologic response units. The historical climate pattern in the watershed was represented by two different weather stations. The model was calibrated (1991 - 2000) and validated (2001 - 2010) against the monthly USGS observations of streamflow recorded at the watershed outlet using three statistical matrices: coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) and percentage bias (PB). Model parametrization resulted into satisfactory values of R2 (0.56) and NS (0.56) in calibration period and an excellent model performance (R2 = 0.75; NS = 0.75; PB = <1) in validation period. We have selected 19 BMPs to estimate their efficacy in terms of water and sediment yields under a combination of three Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5 Global

  11. Farmers’ Behaviors on Agricultural Technology Inputs and the Influencing Factors of Their Behaviors——Based on the Investigation of 276 Rural Households in Deyang City, Sichuan Province


    On the basis of expounding farmers’ behaviors on agricultural technology inputs studied by the foreign scholars; relying on the investigation data of 276 rural households in Deyang City, Sichuan Province and by using the Logistic Regression model, the farmers’ behaviors on agricultural technology inputs and the influencing factors on their behaviors are analyzed. The results show the main factors that influence farmers; behaviors on agricultural inputs are whether they have the assistance of agricultural technology personnel; the choices of plantation; non-agricultural income; area of land management; the expectation on land ownership, whether it has township enterprises and the proportion of the non-agricultural labor forces and some other factors. The influencing degree of these factors descends from strong to weak. On the strength of the study results, the countermeasures on increasing local farmers’ inputs on agricultural technology are put forward from the aspects of stabilizing rural land property, establishing scientific land transfer mechanism and intensifying the governmental functions of agro-technical station.


    Nunung Nuryartono


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not


    Dorel MIHAI


    Full Text Available The paper studied the rural human resources efficiency at regional level by using the DEA nonparametric method (Data Envelopment Analysis. The application of this cutting edge method enables the calculation of efficiency scores based on a series of inputs (occupied population in agriculture, industry and construction and outputs (gross value added in agriculture, industry and construction. The data regarding the rural human resources are retrieved from the Amigo data base, the regional GVA from Tempo online data base and the analysis is performed by MAXDATA 6.3 Beta program. The results revealed that the majority of the regions reach performance with the current input structure, with the exception of the North-East and North-West regions which need to reduce the number of workers in agriculture and increase the GVA from industry and constructions to support real economic growth

  14. Causes of Low Agricultural Output and Impact on Socio-economic Status of Farmers: A Case Study of Rural Potohar in Pakistan

    Aneesa Masood


    Full Text Available Agriculture being the key sector for economy of Pakistan occupies central place. Since its inception, this sector is subsistent and facing many risks and vulnerability. Over the time due to technological gap in developing countries, they failed to develop rapid expansion and productivity in this sector. The present study is a qualitative analysis conducted to explore the causes of low productivity in agriculture sector, and finding its impacts on the socioeconomic status of farmer. The study conducted a questionnaire survey for the rural farmers residing in Potohar region. A sample of 100 respondents has been chosen, and analysis is carried out by using SPSS software. The study concluded that the higher growth rate for the agriculture sector is very important for a fast overall improvement of the economy, macroeconomic constancy, employment generation, and decrease in rural poverty.

  15. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Wiktor Szydło


    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  16. Rural and agricultural value of groundwater as an economic resource in the Limpopo region

    Mahumani, BK


    Full Text Available of effective groundwater pricing policy for better groundwater demand management in both domestic and agricultural use. Such policies could contribute to meeting the societal goals of economic efficiency and social equity. iv... ook die belangrikste bron van water, behalwe gedurende sekere tye wanneer besproeiingsdamme met vloedwater gevul word. Dan word grondwater om ekonomiese redes gedeeltelik met oppervlakwater vervang. In hierdie studie is die ekonomiese waarde...

  17. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.


    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  18. Regional Absorption of Common Agricultural Policy's Rural Development Funds Targeted for Semi-Subsistence Farms in Romania in the 2007-2013 Programming Period



    Full Text Available Land fragmentation and the need for consolidation are major problems of current Romanian agriculture. The transition from the status-quo of an agricultural structure dominated by subsistence and semi-subsistence farms in the view of restructuring, resulting in a more efficient sector - is a must. Present study proposes to evaluate the application of specific measures of the Romanian National Rural Development Programme (NRDP that sought to support semi-subsistence farms between 2007 and 2013. Three NRDP measures have been identified under which semi-subsistence farms were eligible: Measure 112 "Setting up of young farmers", Measure 121 "Modernization of agricultural holdings", and Measure 141 "Supporting semi-subsistence agricultural holdings". The above measures belong to the 1st Axis of the Common Agricultural Policy's second pillar, thus having a common general goal the improvement of the competitiveness of the agricultural sector, while aiming at restructuring and developing the physical potential and management of generation change - trying to keep the rural population in place. Available data on a seven-year time horizon was analyzed. The absorption level of measures 112, 121 and 141 - under which the Romanian semi-subsistence farms were eligible - on national and subnational scale was mapped.

  19. Research on Supplying Mechanisms of Rural Economic Able-person in Construction of New Countryside——Based on the Phenomenon of Intelligence Returning in Under-developed Agricultural Plain Area of Henan


    From a perspective of the discussions on researches of economic able-person by researchers at home,it can be concluded that economic able-person has become the important mode promoting rural development.The research makes a discussion on the rural intelligence returning theory and points out that as a marketing action,rural intelligence returning functions directly and effectively on the supplying to rural economic able-person.The research also makes an analysis of the supplying mechanisms of rural able-person intelligence returning of the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province.And results show that transferring of rural surplus labors takes place among provinces;farmers accelerate in returning to hometowns to make money and returning phenomena would tend to be normal.With more and more popular the intelligence returning phenomenon in rural areas,the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province would make enough profits.

  20. Have agricultural economists neglected poverty issues?

    Thiesenhusen, W C


    Agricultural economists concerned with development issues devote effort to researching agriculture's inputs to produce a surplus and transfer it to nonagriculture, to provide markets for urban-based industry, to maintain a labor reservoir, to assist in capital formation, and to accumulate foreign exchange. Little attention is focused on broader and more sweeping economic problems. Discussion is directed toward answering some questions about why agricultural economists neglect rural poverty. Also, attention is given to why the extent of rural poverty imperils development, in what location should poverty be addressed, what are the issues in the agricultural growth and inequality debate as it affects rural poverty, and whether there are any new or promising ways to combat rural poverty. The extent of poverty is measured by the World Bank as 20% of world population, or 1 billion people, Rural poverty accounts for 60% of the hungry poor in Latin America, 80% in Asia, and 90% in Africa. 11 items are used to define the rural poor, such as a heterogeneous population of primarily small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists, and fisherfolk. 5 reasons are given why economists avoid rural poverty, including the difficulty in modeling the complex problems of rural poverty and the political considerations of free market vs. socialist economies. Other reasons involve land reform which reduces labor needs and a commitment to commercial farming rather than small-scale, labor-intensive farming; the rural agricultural poor's contributions to development are underrated. East Asian countries have been successful in linking growth, distribution, and amelioration of poverty among the peasantry. Environmental degradation may be encouraged by inequalities and unequal access to resources. The example is given of Brazil which has promoted migration to cities due to commercialization of rural agriculture and created urban poverty instead of dealing directly with rural poverty by

  1. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L


    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  2. Smallholder Irrigators, Water Rights and Investments in Agriculture: Three Cases from Rural Mozambique

    Gert Jan Veldwisch


    Full Text Available In the context of the prevalent neo-liberal discourse on rural development through improved markets, involvement of companies and a strong reliance on foreign investors this article examines the vulnerable position of smallholder irrigators and their water rights. Through the parallel analysis of three contrasting cases of smallholder irrigation in Mozambique and a comparison with formal Mozambican law, it is shown that a big gap exists between formal water rights and water rights in practice. For each case, it is shown how land and water rights are connected and how a successful defence of land rights provides a good basis for a defence of smallholder water rights. Furthermore, as productivity and efficiency arguments are prominent and influential, those smallholders who are able to turn their use into the production of economic value manage best to materialise their claims on both land and water. The paper concludes with recommendations to strengthen the position of smallholders in response to increasing threats of land and water grabbing.

  3. Commercial Agriculture and Rural Development: Evidence from the Zimbabwe Farm Project in Tsonga, Nigeria

    R. A. Olawepo


    Full Text Available When the Zimbabwe Farmers were brought to Kwara State, Nigeria in 2004, the intention of the government was to enable the local farmers benefit from their wealth of experience through commercial farming especially in the area of grain production in Tsonga and its environment. Six years after continuous farming, a survey evaluation was done through sampling of 240 farmers within their environment. Results showed that about 20% of the labour force required by the Zimbabwe farmers was obtained within the local environment and most people were employed as labourers, security guards and other unskilled labours. Similarly 3% of the local farmers were also trained to improve local productions while 18.8% of the farmers observed increased productivity and subsequent increase of income as a result of the commercial activities of these new farmers. Apart from these, the state of rural infrastructures like roads, electricity and potable water supplies were improved upon jointly by the State government and the Zimbabwe farmers. Local production of milk, rice, poultry, soya beans and animal fields for international markets were introduced. This has also affected local market organization in the locality positively. Even though some challenges were identified by local farmers, appropriate recommendations were presented accordingly.

  4. Agricultural growth and "trickle-down" reconsidered: evidence from rural India.

    Sharma, S D


    This examination of the "green revolution" in India considers the totality of State-guided development strategies on the lives of ordinary people through an analysis of data collected during field work in 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995 in a typical north Indian village. The first part of the report situates the "green revolution" strategy in its larger political-economic context, reviewing the circumstances under which it was launched, the nature of the implementation process, and macrolevel trends. After this introduction, the paper presents the village case study with a description of the physical attributes of the village, its social composition, and patterns of land tenure. This highlights the fact that the larger land-owing interests have been the primary beneficiaries of the "green revolution." Wealthy land-owners have been able to diversify their income sources through the purchase of threshing machinery for their own use and for rental to others, the construction of storage facilities where grain can be withheld until top prices are offered in the market, the processing of sugar cane, and dairy farming. Farmers owning less than 1.5 hectares of irrigated land, however lack the resource base to invest in new agricultural technologies. They either go in debt (with little hope of ever producing enough to eliminate the need for borrowing) to purchase the higher-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and chemical pesticides required by the new methods or they retreat into subsistence farming and hire themselves out as labor. This strategy is seldom resorted to, however, because of the pressures of meeting minimal subsistence needs in a cash economy. The top-down strategies that accompanied agricultural modernization have led to a deterioration in the standard of living of the poor. In addition, the "green revolution" is environmentally unsustainable and, ultimately, will have tragic ramifications for India.

  5. Analysis of the Management Policy and Comprehensive Benefit of Agriculture in the Rural Area: A Case Study on Pujiang County, China

    FANG Bin; MENG Ying


    To solve the problems of the poverty in rural areas and raise the output efficiency of agriculture, policy is the primary factor. Guiding by good policies, the design of agricultural structure and management technology are the two main technical supports for agricultural development. The authors apply the model to determine the consequences of four so-called poverty alleviation strategies: (i) intensification of production, (ii) diversification of livestock production, (iii) land expansion, and (iv) an exit from agriculture, with a set of regional poverty and biodiversity indicators. Diversification seems to be the most promising poverty reduction strategy, but requires an efficient use of animal manure in cropping systems to avoid environmental problems. Improved nutrient management in cropping systems is effective in reducing the regional nitrogen surplus, but less effective in increasing per capita income. The exit strategy is beneficial for reducing poverty and achieving biodiversity goals, but may have important social consequences, which are not addressed in this study. Further reduction of rural poverty is hampered by labor constraints during the harvesting period of high value crops, such as vegetables and fruits, which calls for research and development in the field of agricultural mechanization.

  6. Farmers' Perceptions of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptation Strategies in Rural Sahel

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa


    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  7. Farmers' perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel.

    Mertz, Ole; Mbow, Cheikh; Reenberg, Anette; Diouf, Awa


    Farmers in the Sahel have always been facing climatic variability at intra- and inter-annual and decadal time scales. While coping and adaptation strategies have traditionally included crop diversification, mobility, livelihood diversification, and migration, singling out climate as a direct driver of changes is not so simple. Using focus group interviews and a household survey, this study analyzes the perceptions of climate change and the strategies for coping and adaptation by sedentary farmers in the savanna zone of central Senegal. Households are aware of climate variability and identify wind and occasional excess rainfall as the most destructive climate factors. Households attribute poor livestock health, reduced crop yields and a range of other problems to climate factors, especially wind. However, when questions on land use and livelihood change are not asked directly in a climate context, households and groups assign economic, political, and social rather than climate factors as the main reasons for change. It is concluded that the communities studied have a high awareness of climate issues, but climatic narratives are likely to influence responses when questions mention climate. Change in land use and livelihood strategies is driven by adaptation to a range of factors of which climate appears not to be the most important. Implications for policy-making on agricultural and economic development will be to focus on providing flexible options rather than specific solutions to uncertain climate.

  8. Agricultural Policy, Climate Factors and Grain Output:Evidence From Household Survey Data in Rural China

    CHEN Yong-fu; WU Zhi-gang; ZHU Tie-hui; YANG Lei; MA Guo-ying; Chien Hsiao-ping


    This paper estimates a stochastic frontier function using a panel data set that includes 4 961 farmer households for the period of 2005-2009 to decompose the growth of grain production and the total factor productivity (TFP) growth at the farmer level. The empirical results show that the major contributor to the grain output growth for farmers is input growth and that its average contribution accounts for 60.92%of farmer’s grain production growth in the period of 2006-2009, whereas the average contributions sourced from TFP growth and residuals are only 17.30 and 21.78%, respectively. The growth of intermediate inputs is a top contributor with an average contribution of 44.46%, followed by the planted area (18.16%), investment in fixed assets (1.05%), and labor input (-2.75%), indicating that the contribution from the farmer’s input growth is mainly due to the growth of intermediate inputs and that the decline in labor inputs has become an obstacle for farmers in seeking grain output growth. Among the elements consisting of TFP growth, the contribution of technical progress is the largest (32.04%), followed by grain subsidies (8.55%), the average monthly temperature (4.26%), the average monthly precipitation (-0.88%), the adjusted scale effect (-5.66%), and growth in technical efficiency (-21.01%). In general, the contribution of climate factors and agricultural policy factor are positive and significant.

  9. Assessment the Socio-economic Factors Affecting Rural Youth Attitude to Occupation in Agricultural (Case of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer- Ahmad Province, Iran

    Mohsen Mosaee


    Full Text Available The main objective in this causal-correlation field researchwas to identify effective factors on rural youth's attitudetowards agricultural occupation, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-AhmadProvince, Iran. Rural youth 15-25 years old in Kohgiluyeh andBoyer- Ahmad province were the population of this study.The technique of sampling was cluster sampling. The techniqueof data collection is questionnaire. The panel of experts wasused to validity of the questionnaire. Corenbach Alpha wasused to gain assurance of the reliability of the questionnaire(α=0.79. The results of multivariate regression indicate thevariables of type of farming system, rate of relation to organizations,participation in extension and education courses, insurance, age and income have the main role in showing the variationsof attitude to agricultural occupation.

  10. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    Devendra, C


    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  11. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    C. Devendra


    Full Text Available The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs, and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep, and iv have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha, and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs. In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats

  12. 日照农村和农业旅游开发研究%The Research of Rizhao Rural and Agricultural Tourism Development



    中国农业旅游发展较晚,目前关于农业旅游的研究尚不成熟.为了解决“三农”问题和实现可持续发展,必须做好农村和农业旅游开发研究.通过对日照市所辖农村区域旅游资源和发展现状的调研,提出农村和农业旅游开发必须树立大农村旅游观念,充分利用和深入挖掘当地旅游资源,采取有效措施做好农村区域旅游规划和旅游目的地规划、旅游产品策划和投融资,以保证旅游开发顺利进行和科学运营,从而实现可持续发展.%The research of agricultural tourism is not mature now, because of our country agricultural tourism development later. In order to solve the "three agricultural" problems and realize the sustainable development, the rural and agricultural tourism development research must be done well. By means of the research of Rizhao and rural regional tourism resources and development status, this paper put forward that the concept of the rural tourism must be established, the local tourism resources should be fully used and deeply dig. Some effective measures should be taken so as to do the big regional tourism planning and rural tourism destination planning, tourism product planning, investment and financing, ensure the tourism development and scientific operation smoothly and realize the sustainable development.

  13. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Dayal Talukder


    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  14. Rural Sociology in the South: 1980. Proceedings of the Rural Sociology Section of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists (Hot Springs, Arkansas, February 3-6, 1980).

    Frese, Wolfgang, Ed.

    A total of 47 papers representing the broad research and extension interests related to rural areas are included in this volume. The 13 sessions are entitled Rural Structure and Process, Industrialization, Migration, Health and Alcohol, Quality of Life, Occupations and Work, Applied Sociology, Education, Network Analysis, Poverty, Status…

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural phase of wine production in the Maremma rural district in Tuscany, Italy

    Simona Bosco


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest from retailers, industries and environmental associations in estimating the life cycle of greenhouse gases emitted in the atmosphere from everyday products and services, also known as carbon footprint (CF. Life cycle assessment (LCA is the most common methodology used to evaluate the environmental impact of a product. This approach was largely used in many industrial sectors and was also recently applied to quantify the environmental impact of the agri-food chain. Within agri-food products, wine is one of the most analysed, both for its importance in economic production and in the world distribution market. The present study is a part of the Carbon Label Project carried out in the wine production chain in the Maremma rural district (Tuscany, Italy. The project assesses the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wine production for labelling purposes. Here, we evaluated the environmental performances of four high quality wines for carbon labelling. The international standards ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, and the Product Category Rules (PCR Wine from Fresh Grapes (except sparkling wine and Grape Must for the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD certification, specifically for Climate Declaration, were used in order to carry out our analyses. The functional unit (FU used here was one 0.75 L bottle of wine. The system boundaries were set from the vineyard planting to the distribution and waste disposal. The global warming potential (GWP of four investigated wines was found to lie between 0.6 and 1.3 kg CO2-eq./bottle, showing a value comparable with literature. With all the four wines analysed, the agricultural phase covered, on average, 22% of the total GWP/bottle, while the main impact was in the production of the glass bottle. The results showed that the vineyard-planting phase has a significant impact on the wine CF, thus it has to be considered in the life cycle, while in literature it is

  16. 城乡结合部农业地域功能研究%Regional Functions of Agriculture at Rural-Urban Fringe

    刘玉; 冯健


    In the process of rapid urbanization, a large amount of farmland at rural-urban fringe disappeared. At the same time, the development of agriculture and related sectors, and the life styles of farmers are impacted, even the whole economic, social and ecological system of city and countryside changes. This paper reviews theories of agricultural location, food security, and urban ecological security, analyzes the regional functions of rural-urban fringe and the connotation of new-type urbanization, and then builds a regional function system of agriculture at rural-urban fringe. The paper thinks that the agriculture of rural-urban fringe has great effect on the sustainable development of city, countryside and fringe, especially on relieving development pressure of urban edge, meeting high-level consumer demands of urban populations, and promoting the integration of urban and rural area. Practice analysis shows that in China, the regional functions of agriculture at rural-urban fringe have not been recognized and realized fully. It is time for us to take time and effort to study theory and practice of regional functions of agriculture at rural-urban fringe, so that we can protect farmland and agriculture at the fringe effectively, and let it play a constructive role in regional development.%快速城镇化背景下,城乡结合部大量农田被征用开发,农业及其支撑部门的发展受到严重冲击,农业从业人员的生产生活发生重大变化,城乡经济、社会、生态系统受到显著影响。论文在梳理农业区位与功能演变、城市生态安全与食品安全、城乡结合部地域功能,以及新型城镇化等相关理论基础上,构建了城乡结合部农业地域功能体系。认为城乡结合部农业具有:优化城乡生态、加强城乡联系、提升城乡发展和协调城乡关系等多方面功能,尤其在构筑生态缓冲带保护城乡生态环境、降低城市边缘区发展压力,满足城

  17. Agriculturization within a new rurality context: New pluriactive actors in the department of Río Primero in the province of Córdoba

    Gabriel Orlando Coppi


    Full Text Available During the past decades, Argentina has shown evidence of a steady agriculturization process. The department of Río Primero, in the province of Córdoba, is part of a clear dynamics within a large part of the Pampas region. The area studied displays profound productive, economic and social transformations. In this context, the most vulnerable within the structure are left out of the production system. However, small urban producers have recently appearedin the scene, and in apparent contradiction, have begun complementing their urban incomes with those from agricultural activities. In this paper, we deal with the start of agricultural activities of the new urban pluriactive actors, their reasons to begin these activities, their productionmodes and adaptation strategies, their paths in life and the rural links they may have in their family histories, taking into account what role inheritance and/or the assignment of lands play a role within that income.

  18. Agriculture Sectors

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  19. Agricultura familiar, multifuncionalidade da agricultura e ruralidade: interfaces de uma realidade complexa Family farming, multifunctionality of agriculture and rurality: interfaces of a complex reality

    Regina Aparecida Leite de Camargo


    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, assistimos à revitalização do debate em torno da agricultura familiar pela incorporação das discussões sobre as múltiplas funções da agricultura num rural que não pode mais ser visto como domínio exclusivo da atividade agrícola e dos agricultores. No contexto brasileiro, acreditamos que essa discussão deva ser permeada pela análise de como processos diferenciados de distribuição fundiária e desenvolvimento econômico e o tipo de agricultura resultante geram ruralidades específicas com características como, no caso da agricultura familiar, a manutenção de práticas sociais e de trabalho marcadas pelas relações de parentesco e vizinhança presentes numa sociedade de interconhecimento. Partindo desse princípio, este trabalho analisa a agricultura familiar de um bairro rural do município de Ouro Fino - MG, sua herança histórica e sua participação na criação de uma paisagem natural e humana que muito contribui para a atratividade da região.The last decades witnessed the revitalization of the debate around family farming with the addition of discussions regarding the multiple functions of agriculture, given the fact that rural areas are longer devoted exclusively to agricultural activities. In the Brazilian context, we believed that this debate must be permeated by analyses of how differentiated processes of land distribution and economic development, and the resulting types of agriculture, generate specific ruralities with characteristics such as, in the case of family farming, the maintenance of social and work practices marked by the relations among relatives and neighbours. It is in this light that this research analyses family agriculture in a rural area of Ouro Fino-MG, its historical heritage, and its participation in the creation of a physical and human landscape that greatly contributes to the attractiveness of the region.

  20. The approach to transforming the traditional agricultural economy: a research on the multiple paths of poverty alleviation and transformation In rural China

    ZOU Wei; ZHUANG Ziyin


    Transforming a traditional agricultural economy into a modern economy is one of the main themes in economic development.Through theoretical and empirical analysis,this paper finds out that the key to transformation is to raise the economic value of people,to improve human capital investment and to match the stocks of physical and human capital.China's rural economy is on the edge of economic take-off,and different zones may pursue different paths for transformation.The source of rural poverty is not the scarcity of income or consumption,but the deficiency of education,social security,medical care and economic opportunity,which we define as "capability poverty".

  1. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...

  2. Research on the Path to the Services of Libraries of Agricultural Vocational Colleges to"Agriculture, Rural Area and Farmers"%农业高职院校图书馆服务“三农”路径研究

    张秀; 周继; 朱敏; 赵红杰


    This paper analyzes the advantages of libraries of agricultural vocational colleges in serving"Agriculture, Rural Area and Farmers" and puts forward feasible path to this goal, namely, enhancing the construction of information resources in agriculture, equipping agricultural technical personnel with knowledge of information retrieval, carrying out farming-skill training programs in the countryside, providing farmers with multi-level consulting service and popularizing the information of new technology and new achievements.%分析了农业高职院校图书馆服务“三农”的优势,提出了农业高职院校图书馆为“三农”服务的路径:加强农业信息资源建设;为农技人员开展信息检索和知识培训;送科技下乡;开展多层次咨询服务;做好新技术、新成果的信息推广。

  3. Rural Sociology in the South, 1977. Proceedings of 1977 Annual Meeting of the Southern Association of Agricultural Scientists, Rural Sociology Section (Atlanta, Georgia, February 6-9, 1977).

    Mookherjee, Harsha N., Ed.

    "Rural Sociology: A Field of Basic and Applied Research" was the theme of the 1977 annual meeting. Participants at the convention heard 50 reports in 14 sessions, as well as five special panels and two special sessions. Most of the papers, research reports and essays presented in the sessions are included in this document and serve as…

  4. 实施农产品名牌战略解决陕西“三农”问题%Taking Agricultural Product Brand Strategy to Solve the Three Rural Issues in Shaanxi

    孙军娜; 雷宏振


    陕西作为农业大省,在其工业化和城镇化进程中,农业所占比重应引起重视。基于农产品名牌战略,联系陕西“三农”问题,通过扩大农产品的知名度,创立名牌农产品,增强陕西农产品在国内外市场上的竞争力。通过实施农产品名牌战略,提高农业收益,增加农民收入,促进农村经济发展,加快农村工业化进程,为解决陕西“三农”问题提供对策。%As a big agricultural province , the agriculture of Shaanxi is very important .Based on Agricultural product brand strategy in Shaanxi , combining the three rural issues , expanding the agricultural products brand , creating famous brand , Shaanxi makes its agricultural products more competitive in the domestic and international market competitiveness .The countermeasures to solve the three rural issues in Shaanxi are provided by implementing agricultural product brand strategy , increasing agricultural in-come and the income of the farmers , promoting rural economic development and accelerating agricultural industrialization process .

  5. Interdependences between Smallholder Farming and Environmental Management in Rural Malawi: A Case of Agriculture-Induced Environmental Degradation in Malingunde Extension Planning Area (EPA

    Kondwani G. Munthali


    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to develop a deeper understanding of the interdependences between smallholder farming and the state of environmental management in rural Malawi. We examined the agricultural local governance framework in Malingunde Extension Planning Area (EPA, its contribution to food security and how it conflicts with overall land and forest resources management. The charcoal production process was discussed in line with its implications for agricultural production and environmental sustainability. The smallholder households employ inappropriate land management practices, engage in agricultural production on unsuitable land and use fertile soils, timber and firewood for brick production and construction and secondly engage in charcoal production (deforestation as a coping mechanism against food deficiency. However, while detrimental in its own right, this environmental degradation in the area cannot be explicitly pinned to, for instance, the total charcoal supply being out of balance with wood stocks or insufficient land. It is, rather, usually due to failures to provide incentives to manage land and forest resources in a manner that allows regeneration of both the soils and wood stocks in the area. An improvement in the quality and quantity of the smallholder agriculture sector production would promote significantly the environmental management efforts.

  6. After the common agricultural policy : towards an EU policy for sustainable food and rural environment : discussion paper

    Terwan, P.; Weijden, van der W.J.; Kuneman, G.; Schröder, R.R.G.


    The Centre for Agriculture and Environment, Paul Terwan Consultancy and Alterra are running a short project on the longer term future of food production, landscape and biodiversity and the implications for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). This project included the following activities: an analy

  7. 乡村旅游与“三生”农业的协同演进%Synergistic Evolution of Rural Tourism and "Sansheng" Agriculture

    林静; 陈斯琪


    Tourism has turned from self-loop to opening-up and cooperation and become power industry with multi-func-tional and omnibearing effect."Travel+"is showing great vitality.Ruraltourism has intrinsic drive of multiple synergies with"Sansheng"agriculture, which creates multiple synergies in the economic and social and fields. Synergistic effect facilitates the commensal development of the rural tourism and agriculture production, life and ecology. Meantime, to be rooted in agri-culture and reinforce the evolution ethics of planning and management can avoid internal friction, accelerate the coordinative evolution of rural tourism and"Sansheng"agricultureand achieve greater joint efforts.%旅游业从自循环向开放融合转变,成为多功能全方位作用的动力产业。"旅游+"正焕发出勃勃生机。乡村旅游业与"三生"农业具有协同共生的内驱力,在经济、社会方面产生多重协同效用;协同作用促进乡村旅游与农村的生产、生活、生态共生发展;同时,以农为根、加强规划与管理的演进伦理,能避免内耗,加快乡村旅游与"三生"农业协同演进,实现1+1>2的协同效果。

  8. Research Progress and Prospect in the Disciplines of Agricultural Geography and Rural Development in China%中国农业与乡村地理研究进展与展望

    刘彦随; 龙花楼; 张小林; 乔家君


    This paper firstly reviews the brief development course of the disciplines of agricultural geography and rural development in China, then introduces the recent major achievements and their applications in econom- ic development, finally demostrates the prospect on the new innovative research tasks and scientific proposals in the fields of agricultural geography and rural development to meet the needs of national strategies, based on comparison with related research progress abroad. Recent research progress includes research achievements, the applications of new technologies and methodologies, the establishment of basic research platforms, and talents fostering programmes. The summary of recent research achievements concerns five topics: (1) integrated re- search on agricultural and rural geography; (2) rural hollowing and the renovation of hollowed villages; (3) inte- grated research on building a new countryside; (4) regional agriculture and rural development; and (5) the sys- tematization and internationalization of research achievements. With the implementation of the strategy on "building a new countryside," relative research concerning new countryside construction and the renovation of hollowed villages has attracted the interest of a wide variety of researchers in China. Recent research results indi- cated that the evolutive process of rural hollowing can be identified into five stages, i.e., emergence, growth; flourishing, stability, and decline. Based on regional economic development level and its physiographic features, the types of rural hollowing can be categorized as urban fringe, plain agricultural region, hilly agricultural re- gion, and agro-pastoral region. Especially, the plain agriculatral region is the most typical one in rural hollow- ing, which shows the spatial evolution of rural hollowing as a "poached egg" pattern with a layered hollow core and solid shape. Furthermore, the driving forces behind rural hollowing

  9. A Gray Correlation Analysis of Rural Infrastructure Investment and Agricultural Development of Xinjiang Autonomous Region%新疆农村基础设施投资与农业发展灰色分析



    Agriculture is the economic basis of Xinjiang and agriculture economic development is the core of "Three Rural Issues" of Xinjiang.Rural infrastructure investment is the precondition to promote the agricultural economy of Xinjiang.Therefore,a proper understanding of different rural infrastructure investment 's influence on the agriculture economic growth of Xinjiang is a basic requirement for the sustainable agriculture development of this region.This paper analyzes the gray correlation analysis of rural infrastructure investment and agriculture economic growth.The outcome proves that there exists high correlation between Xinjiang's agriculture economic growth and infrastructure investment including rural water conservancy,water and electricity,transportation,telecommunication and education etc.Among them,the correlation between water conservancy and transportation investment is closest.%农业是新疆地区的经济基础,农业经济发展是新疆"三农"问题的核心。农村基础设施投资是推动新疆农业经济的前提条件。因此,正确认识不同的农村基础设施投资对新疆农业经济增长的影响是促进新疆农业持续稳定发展的基本要求。本文分析了新疆农村基础设施投资与农业经济增长的灰色关联,结果表明新疆农业经济增长与农村水利、水电、交通运输、通信和教育等基础设施投资的关联度较高,其中水利设施投资和交通运输投资的关联度是最高。

  10. Gender dimensions of rural employment in agriculture and public works programmes experiences from South Africa: Differentiated pathways out of poverty

    Mashiri, M


    Full Text Available rural livelihoods (Department of Public Works, 1997). It also addresses gender dimensions of the projects. As methodology, a mixed-method approach was employed to assess the experiences and impacts of the Siyatentela 56 (Mpumalanga Province), Gundo Lashu...

  11. Factors Influencing Rural Women Cassava Processors' Intention to Participate in an Agricultural Extension Education Program. Summary of Research 80.

    Ojomo, Christian O.; McCaslin, N. L.

    A study examined factors influencing female cassava processors' intentions regarding participation in an extension education program on cassava processing in rural Nigeria. Interviews were conducted with 224 women who were purposely selected from areas of zone 3 of Ondo State, Nigeria, which has large concentrations of cassava processors.…

  12. Research on Significance of developing Recreational Agricultural in Urban-rural%城乡结合部发展休闲农业之意义探究



    城乡结合部因其特殊的地理位置、经济地位等在城市的发展进程中发挥着积极的作用。而休闲农业这种资源依赖性极强的休闲旅游模式,也越来越受到城市人口的追捧。基于此,作者对城乡结合部发展休闲农业旅游的意义从生态保护、农业发展和居民需要等几个维度做了探讨。%Because of its special geographical location,economic status,etc.urban fringe plays an active role in the city's development process.And the leisure pattern of recreational agriculture,which strongly dependent on the resource is more and more sought after by the city's population.Based on these,the author explores the significance of developing recreational agriculture in urban-rural from ecological protection,agricultural development and the residents need.

  13. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Gurri, Francisco D


    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  14. The scientific production of Italian agricultural engineers: a bibliometric network analysis concerning the scientific sector AGR/10 Rural buildings and agro-forestry territory

    Andrea De Montis


    Full Text Available According to a worldwide well-known attitude, also in Italy, the assessment of scientific production in the last decades has been progressively based on the analysis of the impact through bibliometric variables. Various data sets, such as Scopus by Elsevier and Web of Science by Thomson Reuters, are designed and maintained to index a steadily increasing range of essays: mostly journal articles, book chapters, and conference proceedings. The indexing relays on the capacity to evaluate and update specific impact measures by keeping track of the citations representing the relations between the essays. The related opportunity to interpret bibliographic systems as research and development (R&D networks attracted the interest of scientists operating, beyond the field of bibliometric analysis, in the realm of social networking. Network analysis belongs to mechanical statistics and is able to make sense of interconnected systems including very large sets of nodes and links. In this paper, we present a network approach to the review of the scientific production in the time period January, 2003-June, 2016 of Italian agricultural engineers, namely scientists belonging to the Italian ministerial scientific disciplinary sector AGR/10 - rural buildings and agro-forestry territory. Starting from 238 articles indexed in the Web of Knowledge database and published by 87 AGR/10 scholars, we apply four network analysis approaches to the study of the citations among articles, the most influential journals and topics, the co-authorship, the most favourite keywords with their evolution in time, and the communities’ pattern. We discover that Italian agricultural engineers are interlaced in a sparse network with a still limited tendency toward citing each other and are inclined to team up in established research groups based on a single university. As for the dualism between rural buildings and territory, we document on a relevant expansion of the issues related to

  15. The Measuring and Impacting Factors Analysis of Rural Straw Yield-Based on the Perspective of Constructing Low-carbon Agricultural Economy


    On the basis of expounding the status quo and using developmental trend of China’s straw,4 indices are selected:straw yield,planting area,using amount of fertilizer and effective irrigation area.According to the relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook from 1991 to 2008,by using linear regression model,we calculate China’s rural straw yield,analyze the factors impacting straw yield,and point out that the using amount of fertilizer is the important factor impacting straw yield.Based on these,in the perspective of low-carbon agricultural economy,we put forward suggestions of using straw comprehensively from 4 perspectives in order to provide theoretical reference for decision-makers:improve fertilizer dependence;develop straw reuse technology;popularize the technology of straw gasification actively;strengthen farmers’ low-carbon awareness.

  16. 我国新型农村金融机构存在的问题及对策分析%Problems and Countermeasures of the New Rural Financial Institutions Supporting Agriculture in China



    The new type of rural ifnancial institutions in rural ifnancial markets, the role of "supporting agriculture is small", it is an important part of the construction of rural ifnancial system in rural areas. But in the actual development process, China's new rural ifnancial institutions in agriculture support small area distribution exists on the polarization, target deviation, service mode, personnel quality is low rigid. Recommended by ifscal and taxation, monetary policy optimization of Rural Finance on the regional layout, and vigorously develop the rural Internet banking, innovation, support for small service model, improve the quality of rural ifnancial institutions and other aspects of the promotion of new rural ifnancial institutions to support small and small target of real.%新型农村金融机构在农村金融市场上承担着“支农支小”的重要角色,是我国构建农村普惠金融体系当中的重要一环。但在实际发展过程中,我国新型农村金融机构在“支农支小”上存在地区分布两极化、目标跑偏、服务模式僵化、人员素质较低等问题。建议通过财税、货币政策优化新型农村金融就区域布局、大力发展农村互联网金融,创新“支农支小”服务模式、提高农村金融从业人员素质等方面促进新型农村金融机构“支农支小”目标的实现。

  17. Organophosphate pesticides exposure bring out neurological symptoms in the children of agriculture workers in rural India: A community based cross-sectional study from Maharashtra.

    Sukhsohale ND


    Full Text Available Background: In rural areas of developing countries, children of agricultural workers have a high potential for exposure to organophosphorus (OP pesticides. This puts them at an increased risk of damage to neurobehavioural performance, cognitive and psychomotor dysfunction. The main objective of this study was to assess the neurological risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers in rural India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in 200 children aged 8-15 years in adjoining villages of Taluka Chalisgaon, district Jalgaon, Maharashtra. Various neurological symptoms like muscarinic (diarrhea, urinary incontinence, lacrimation, excessive salivation, nicotinic (tremors, muscle weakness, tachycardia and general symptoms (headache, insomnia, numbness in legs, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy were assessed by a specially designed Q16 questionnaire. Exposure index (EI was calculated by multiplying the number of hours exposed to OP pesticides and the number of years of exposure. Results: The predominant clinical symptoms found in children in study group were muscarinic [diarrhea (12%, lacrimation (26% and urinary incontinence (12%]; nicotinic [muscle weakness (42%] and general symptoms [pallor (58%, fatigue (34%, headache (30%, numbness in legs (24%, lethargy (20%]. Also, the cognition and psychological function was more impaired in children exposed to OP pesticides than the non-exposed children. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest that neurologic symptoms involved both central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting from occupational and environmental exposure to OP pesticides. The high prevalence of neurologic symptoms could be attributed to chronic effects of OP pesticides on the central nervous system.

  18. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Laurencia Govender


    Full Text Available Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  19. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe


    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  20. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.


    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  1. Notice on Organizing College Graduates to Help in Education, Agriculture, Medical Service, and Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (2006)

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008


    The Three Assistances and One Alleviation Plan issued in 2006 is an expansion of the Western China Program issued in 2003. Voluntary services in agricultural, educational, and medical areas by college graduates are organized through the implementation of this policy. The plan aims to recruit 20,000 graduates per year and has provided more detailed…

  2. Learning and Innovation in Agriculture and Rural Development: The Use of the Concepts of Boundary Work and Boundary Objects

    Tisenkopfs, T.; Kunda, I.; Sumane, S.; Brunori, G.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Moschitz, H.


    Purpose: The paper explores the role of boundary work and boundary objects in enhancing learning and innovation processes in hybrid multi-actor networks for sustainable agriculture (LINSA). Design/Methodology/Approach: Boundary work in LINSA is analysed on the basis of six case studies carried out i

  3. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Philip, E-mail: [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)


    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the < 0.45 {mu}m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1 {mu}g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48 {mu}g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7 {mu}g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (> 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: {yields} Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. {yields} Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. {yields} The urban

  4. Agriculture and Rural Development on Fort Hood Lands, 1849-1942: National Register Assessments of 710 Historic Archeological Properties


    1890s, despite setbacks to the cattle industry brought to Burnet, Lampasas, Hamilton, that occurred as a result of the 1884-1887 Bosque , Coryell, and...ran a sawmill on the Genealogical Society 1986:375-376). Bosque River in 1855. He served in Speight’s Near Sugar Loaf and Palo Alto, J. G. B. Infantry...years, rural that sought to claim Spain’s northern frontier communities formed, evolved, and declined, were remote, as was the Camino Real, the main

  5. Performance of Microfinance Institutions in The Economic Empowerment of Women in Rural Are: Comparative Study in The Fisher, Agriculture, and Industrial Community in Tangerang, Indonesia

    Mukhaer Pakkana


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discover the performance of the financial independence, the members’ welfare, and accessibility of microfinance institutions to the rural areas in the Tangerang District. To measure the financial dependence is using financial ratios. Measuring levels of performance of the members’ welfare and accessibility using Chi-Square. The results found that, first, the level of welfare of members. The coastal areas have a higher loan value than other regions. Expenditure and income of members, industrial areas have high levels of spending and revenues higher than other regions. The performance of a range to members based on a group basis. Second, the performance of financial independence, categorized as "Healthy". The coastal area is 86.40, the area around the industrial area is 85.71 and agricultural area is 83,73. Third, the level of non-performing loans, the coastal area is 0.03, the industrial area is 0,26, and the agricultural area is 0.19.DOI:  10.15408/sjie.v6i1.4637 

  6. Present Situation and Crisis of Japan's Agriculture and Rural Areas%日本农业与农村的现状及危机



    在过去的近五个世纪里,日本农业维护了日本国民的生活和产业,而日本农村和农民不但维持了农业的发展,也为国民提供了粮食,为其他产业提供了健康、勤劳的劳动力,还维护了山野、森林、河川和道路,为国民生活和国民经济作出了巨大的贡献。从20世纪50年代至70年代,日本进入经济高度增长时期,农村过剩人口被工商业迅速地吸收,逐步出现了兼业化、混住化、农村人1:7的老龄化现象,从而导致了自治村落的衰退。进入21世纪,日本的大额资本流向国外,大量便宜的农产品流入国内,农户数量急速减少,荒地废耕现象大量出现,“限界村落”(荒村)数量急速增加,农协的合并与组织弱体化已无法阻止,农产品的自给率在不断下降。如何从这样的困境中走出来。是摆在每一个日本国畏。面前的奄大课题.%For the last five centuries Japan's agriculture has played an predommant role m mmntmnmg Japanese people's livelihood and possession. Farmers in villages not only maintained the development of agriculture, they also fed the Japanese people and provided labor necessary for other industries, meanwhile, helped to protect the hills, forest, rivers and roads, made a tremendous contribution on the path of Japan's modernization. However, nowadays agriculture and rural areas in Japan have been pushed to the verge of crisis. From 1950s to 1970s, Japan had achieved a high economic growth. As the result of rural surplus labor being absorbed by other industries, subsidiary business and aging population became common problems, which led to the decline of self-governing village. After entering 21st century, as the capital flows out of the country and tons of cheap agricultural products are arable land is being abandoned with a imported into Japan, the number of growing number of deserted villages farmers is declining. More and more

  7. Ash storms: impacts of wind-remobilised volcanic ash on rural communities and agriculture following the 1991 Hudson eruption, southern Patagonia, Chile

    Wilson, T. M.; Cole, J. W.; Stewart, C.; Cronin, S. J.; Johnston, D. M.


    Tephra fall from the August 1991 eruption of Volcán Hudson affected some 100,000 km2 of Patagonia and was almost immediately reworked by strong winds, creating billowing clouds of remobilised ash, or `ash storms'. The immediate impacts on agriculture and rural communities were severe, but were then greatly exacerbated by continuing ash storms. This paper describes the findings of a 3-week study tour of the diverse environments of southern Patagonia affected by ash storms, with an emphasis on determining the impacts of repeated ash storms on agriculture and local practices that were developed in an attempt to mitigate these impacts. Ash storms produce similar effects to initial tephra eruptions, prolonged for considerable periods. These have included the burial of farmland under dune deposits, abrasion of vegetation and contamination of feed supplies with fine ash. These impacts can then cause problems for grazing animals such as starvation, severe tooth abrasion, gastrointestinal problems, corneal abrasion and blindness, and exhaustion if sheep fleeces become laden with ash. In addition, ash storms have led to exacerbated soil erosion, human health impacts, increased cleanup requirements, sedimentation in irrigation canals, and disruption of aviation and land transport. Ash deposits were naturally stabilised most rapidly in areas with high rainfall (>1,500 mm/year) through compaction and enhanced vegetation growth. Stabilisation was slowest in windy, semi-arid regions. Destruction of vegetation and suppression of regrowth by heavy tephra fall (>100 mm) hindered the stabilisation of deposits for years, and reduced the surface friction which increased wind erosivity. Stabilisation of tephra deposits was improved by intensive tillage, use of windbreaks and where there was dense and taller vegetative cover. Long-term drought and the impracticality of mixing ash deposits with soil by tillage on large farms was a barrier to stabilising deposits and, in turn

  8. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Megan M. Mayzelle; Viers, Joshua H.; Josué Medellín-Azuara; Thomas Harter


    Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viabi...

  9. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Megan M. Mayzelle


    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use conversion and resulting flood control result in gains of at least $2.3 billion, as compared to costs of $0.3 to $0.7 billion for treatment options over a 20 year period. Buffer zones would maintain the economic integrity of the region and concur with prevailing policy options. Thus, managed agricultural recharge buffer zones are a potentially attractive option for communities facing financial constraint and needing to diversify their portfolio of policy and infrastructure approaches to meet drinking water quality objectives.

  10. Climate Change Impacts in Agricultural Communities in Rural Areas of Coastal Bangladesh: A Tale of Many Stories

    Nazmul Huq


    Full Text Available This paper identifies and analyses climate change impacts, their cascading consequences and the livelihood implications of these impacts on smallholder agricultural communities of coastal Bangladesh. Six physically and socio-economically vulnerable communities of south-western coastal regions were studied. Primary data was collected through focus group discussions, a seasonal calendar, and historical transect analysis. Three orders of impacts of climate change on smallholder farmers are identified and described. The first order impacts involve increasing erosion of the capacity of local communities to mitigate vulnerability to climate change impacts. This situation led to the second order impacts, which significantly transformed the agricultural landscape and production patterns. The cumulative effects of the first and second order impacts sparked the third order impacts in the form of worsening community livelihood assets and conditions. The findings of this paper can contribute to the formulation of sustainable adaptation policies and programs to manage the vulnerability of local communities to climate change impacts in the country effectively.

  11. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    David Carr


    Full Text Available Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR, the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28 communities in the Sierra de Lacandón National Park (SLNP, the most ecologically biodiverse region in La Selva Maya and a core conservation zone of the MBR. Settler households are examined relative to a host of factors relating land use and land cover change. Specifically, demographic trends, political and socio-economic development, and ecological factors are described in this first detailed statistically-representative sample probing human population and environment interactions in an emerging agricultural frontier in Central America.

  12. Afforestation of agricultural land in the rural areas of the Polish eastern borderland Zalesienia gruntów rolnych na obszarach wiejskich wschodniego pogranicza Polski

    Małgorzata Polna


    Full Text Available The article deals with the afforestation of agricultural land in the rural regions of Poland's eastern borderland. It presents changes in the area and dynamics of afforestation there and the spatial distribution of its intensity. Also identified are the determinants of farmland af-forestation. Special attention is paid to afforestation carried out on private land. The research covered three borderland provinces (Podlasie, Lublin and Subcarpathia that form the east-ern boundary of the European Union. The years studied were 1996-2009, i.e. a period in which fundamental changes took place in farmland afforestation. The research showed that in the study area afforestation was largely carried out on private land, where it covered 26.7 thous. ha between 1996 and 2009. In each of the provinces under analysis the process of af-forestation of private farmland followed a similar pattern, but differed in dynamics. As in the entire country, in the rural eastern borderland one can observe an increase in the area of private land afforestation until 2003, its marked regression in 2004, another slight jump in 2005 and 2006, and another drop since 2007. The intensity of afforestation was not even; in the years under analysis it showed wide differences. Lower intensity of private farmland af-forestation was recorded in 1996-2001, at 3.4 ha per 1000 ha AL, than in 2002-2009, when the figure was 3.9 ha/1000 ha AL. But the intensity of farmland afforestation after 2001 kept declining with the changing peri-ods of afforestation co-funding.

  13. 中国农业增长对农村减贫效应的促进%The Promotion of China′s Agricultural Growth to the Rural Poverty Reduction Effect



    On the basis of the theoretical analysis of the influence factors of agricultural growth on the rural poverty, this paper empirically analyses the effect of China′s agricultural growth on the rural poverty reduction based on the dynamic e-conometric method of VAR model and threshold regression model. The co integration technique and VAR model were used to study the long-term effects of agricultural growth on the rural poverty, showing that there is a long-term equilibri-um relationship between agricultural growth and rural poverty, but it takes a long time to effectively play its poverty re-duction effect;studying the impact of farmers′ income on rural poverty reduction by taking agricultural growth as the threshold variable of farmers income shows that agricultural growth has a significant effect on rural poverty.%在农业增长对农村贫困影响因素理论分析的基础上,基于VAR模型和门槛回归模型的动态计量经济方法,本文实证分析了中国农业增长对农村减困的动态影响效应。其中,运用协整技术和VAR模型研究农业增长对农村贫困的长短期影响表明:农业增长与农村贫困存在长期均衡关系,但需要很长一段时间才能有效发挥其减贫效应;以农业增长作为农民收入的门槛变量考察农民收入对农村减贫的影响表明,农业增长对农村贫困具有明显的区间效应。


    Horvath Peter


    Full Text Available A national objective was realised when Hungary joined the European Union based on the preliminary result of the referendum. Naturally, there were pros and cons about the accession and there were those who refused the European integration. Still the emotion was stronger that came from the future EU membership and the hope in terms of the agriculture that with the opportunities offered by the EU both the Hungarian agriculture and countryside would follow a development course. Because of the accession a lot of support forms as well as the EU institutions became available but considering the impacts there were no clear positions. Obviously, today we know what kind of objective, positive changes were brought by the accession for example in terms of infrastructural and machine supply, broadened market possibilities and income growth. Still we also experience the objective disadvantages such as the stronger competition and the mass expansion of multinational food-processing and trading companies. The scientific measurement and judgement of the developmental changes which are difficult to measure is still a subject of debate. We have done the concentration analysis for two budget periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2013 respectively. Between 2004-2006 the regional concentration is more balanced year by year than the district. In the district values even in this period we can already experience the fact that very few farmers receive a big amount of support. Between 2007-2013 there are no sharp differences in the case of concentration neither in the region nor in the district. The Lorenz curve shows a classic concentration distribution in the Southern Great Plain Region every year. The course of Lorenz curves is supported by the value of the concentration ratio which is the total share of the support of the three players receiving the biggest funds since the indicator has been hovering around the 10% average value in the region since 2006 while in the district we

  15. “三农”问题及农村成人教育发展战略的选择探讨%Discussion on the Issue of “Agriculture,Rural Areas and Farmers”and Rural Adult Education Development Strategy Choice



    “Three Rural Issues”which are agriculture,rural areas and farmers problems,directly decides the rural economy,and to a certain extent,affects the development of the society.For many years,the farmers’ cultural quality is not high,low science and technology has affected the rural economy development and farmers’ quality of life,and cause a lot of social problems,disrupting social order.Therefore,solving the problem of “agriculture,rural areas and farmers” is the essential requirement of rural economic development. This paper comprehensively analyzes the current main problems in the process of rural economic development provides some reference suggestions for scientific choice of rural adult education development strategy.%“三农”问题即农业、农村、农民问题,这些问题直接决定着农村经济,并在一定程度上影响着社会的发展。多年来,农民文化素质不高、科学技术低下一直影响农村经济发展和农民生活质量,并滋生了很多社会问题,扰乱了社会秩序。因此,解决“三农问题”是农村经济发展的本质要求。文章综合分析了目前农村经济发展过程中主要存在的问题,为科学选择农村的成人教育发展战略提供若干参考建议。


    Samudra Prosad Banik


    Full Text Available A new strain of Penicillium chrysogenum producing a low Km, thermostable cellobiase was isolated from agricultural soil of rural West Bengal, India. The culture filtrate showed strong antibacterial activity against gram positive organisms, gave two cellobiase activity bands on native PAGE zymography and two peaks on sephacryl S200 gel chromatography. The higher molecular weight peak had a higher specific activity and was characterised further. It gave three bands corresponding to 130 kDa, 65 kDa and 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE and showed a Km of 0.196 mM against p- nitrophenyl β-D glucopyranoside. It was highly thermostable and retained full activity after one hour incubation at 55°C with temperature optima of 75°C. Its pH stability ranged between 4.5 and 8.5 with optimal activity at pH 5 and it retained more than 65% activity in presence of 100 mM guanidium hydrochloride and 2 M urea. Apart from Zn+2 and Hg+2, enzyme activity was not affected by other metal ions and in presence of Mg+2 and Mn+2, activity was boosted. It also retained more than 80% activity in presence of 0.5% glucose. This is one of the very few reports of an efficient cellobiase from the Penicillium genus which can be utilised for biotechnological applications.

  17. Heavy metal exposure, in combination with physical activity and aging, is related with oxidative stress in Japanese women from a rural agricultural community.

    Cui, Xiaoyi; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Mise, Nathan; Ikegami, Akihiko; Mizuno, Atsuko; Sakamoto, Takako; Ogawa, Masanori; Machida, Munehito; Kayama, Fujio


    This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between oxidative stress and heavy metal exposure (lead [Pb] and cadmium [Cd]), as well as co-factors such as physical activity and age, in Japanese women. This study was conducted with female subjects from a rural agricultural community in Japan. Subjects were asked to complete lifestyle-related questionnaires and undergo a group health examination. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and other demographic information were collected. Blood and urine samples were collected to measure urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations. Urine samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry; blood samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Age, physical activity, and blood and urinary Cd and Pb concentrations were included in structural equation modeling analysis. Two latent factors for heavy metal exposure and physical activity were produced to predict the total influence of the variables. The final model was good: CMIN/DF = 0.775, CFI = 1.000, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.954, RMSEA = 0.000. 8-OHdG levels were positively associated with heavy metal exposure, physical activity, and age (standard β of path analysis: 0.33, 0.38, and 0.20, respectively). Therefore, oxidative stress is associated with both, environmental and lifestyle factors, in combination with aging.

  18. Differentiation of the Rural Households Based on the Perspective of Agricultural Industrialization Behavior——A Case Study of 102 Households in Yanling County, Henan Province, China


    Based on the analysis of fieldwork data collected by us from 102 households in the villages of Yaojia, Jizhuang and Wuzi, we analyze the phenomenon of differentiation behaviors of households who own different kinds of resources under the background of agricultural industrialization. The focus of this paper is to probe into characteristics of the physical contact space, information contract space between different rural households such as farmers, brokers and entrepreneurs. Then, we focus on the driving forces behind the household differentiation process. Several conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. Firstly, the geographical domain increases as the households evolutes from farmers to entrepreneurs, and the farmers’ physical contract space is larger than the information contract space while that of brokers and entrepreneurs equals. Secondly, there is a certain pattern existing in the evolution: based on the self-techniques, farmers evolutes to flower workers, and to brokers when the capital, social network and self-ability is sufficient. As a result of appropriate policy, opportunity of building business and the risk appetite characteristics, entrepreneurs may differentiate from the brokers.

  19. Water flowing north of the border: export agriculture and water politics in a rural community in Baja California.

    Zlolniski, Christian


    Favored by neoliberal agrarian policies, the production of fresh crops for international markets has become a common strategy for economic development in Mexico and other Latin American countries. But as some scholars have argued, the global fresh produce industry in developing countries in which fresh crops are produced for consumer markets in affluent nations implies “virtual water flows,” the transfer of high volumes of water embedded in these crops across international borders. This article examines the local effects of the production of fresh produce in the San Quintín Valley in northwestern Mexico for markets in the United States. Although export agriculture has fostered economic growth and employment opportunities for indigenous farm laborers, it has also led to the overexploitation of underground finite water resources, and an alarming decline of the quantity and quality of water available for residents’ domestic use. I discuss how neoliberal water policies have further contributed to water inequalities along class and ethnic lines, the hardships settlers endure to secure access to water for their basic needs, and the political protests and social tensions water scarcity has triggered in the region. Although the production of fresh crops for international markets is promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank as a model for economic development, I argue that it often produces water insecurity for the poorest, threatening the UN goal of ensuring access to clean water as a universal human right.

  20. Social inequalities and health in rural Chiapas, Mexico: agricultural economy, nutrition, and child health in La Fraylesca Region

    Héctor Ochoa-Díaz López


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between farmers' socioeconomic conditions and their children's health in La Fraylesca, Chiapas. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 1046 households (5546 individuals sampled from locations in two counties situated in the study area. The survey included anthropometric measurements, a 24-hour dietary recall, stool tests, and childhood mortality data. Children of private farmers and "wealthy peasants" displayed better nutritional status, higher quality diet, lower prevalence of intestinal parasites, and a lower risk of dying than those whose parents were communal farmers, from ejidos, or "poor peasants". The results suggest that using volume of maize production as a classification method proved more valuable than land tenure to identify agricultural groups with different health status. It appears that the main determinants of health differentials are structural inequities in resource distribution. Thus, the impact of medical interventions on inequalities will be limited unless they are accompanied by redistribution of resources.

  1. Social inequalities and health in rural Chiapas, Mexico: agricultural economy, nutrition, and child health in La Fraylesca Region

    Ochoa-Díaz López Héctor


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between farmers' socioeconomic conditions and their children's health in La Fraylesca, Chiapas. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 1046 households (5546 individuals sampled from locations in two counties situated in the study area. The survey included anthropometric measurements, a 24-hour dietary recall, stool tests, and childhood mortality data. Children of private farmers and "wealthy peasants" displayed better nutritional status, higher quality diet, lower prevalence of intestinal parasites, and a lower risk of dying than those whose parents were communal farmers, from ejidos, or "poor peasants". The results suggest that using volume of maize production as a classification method proved more valuable than land tenure to identify agricultural groups with different health status. It appears that the main determinants of health differentials are structural inequities in resource distribution. Thus, the impact of medical interventions on inequalities will be limited unless they are accompanied by redistribution of resources.

  2. 7 CFR 22.204 - Rural development committees.


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development committees. 22.204 Section 22.204 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.204 Rural development committees. State rural development committees...

  3. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization


    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  4. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei


    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  5. 75 FR 34972 - Notice of Invitation for Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics


    ..., representatives of national farm organizations, agricultural economists, rural sociologists, farm policy analysts, educators, State agriculture representatives, and agriculture-related business and marketing...

  6. 7 CFR 1940.560 - Guarantee Rural Rental Housing Program.



  7. An ergonomic study on posture-related discomfort among preadolescent agricultural workers of West Bengal, India.

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Das, Banibrata; Das, Tamal; Ghoshal, Goutam


    In India, particularly in West Bengal, preadolescents are primarily associated with agricultural work in rural areas. Owing to poor socio-economic conditions, they are compelled to carry out a considerable number of manual, rigorous tasks in agricultural fields. The main aim of this study was to investigate postures adopted by preadolescent agricultural workers during individual agricultural activities and to analyze the causes of discomfort related to those postures. Fifty male and 50 female preadolescent agricultural workers were randomly selected and a detailed posture analysis was performed with the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS). It was observed that those workers worked continuously in awkward postures during certain agricultural activities. Consequently they suffered from discomfort in different parts of their body. Even though they were very young, they were likely to suffer from serious musculoskeletal disorders in the future.

  8. 77 FR 31302 - Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics


    ... not limited to, agricultural economics, rural sociology, farm policy analysis, and agricultural... activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital...

  9. Study on the Coordinated Development of Provincial Rural Education and Agricultural Modernization of China’ s Provinces%我国省域农村教育与农业现代化的耦合协调发展

    于伟; 张鹏


    分别从教育规模和保障以及农业技术进步、效率提升和产出增长等方面综合衡量农村教育和农业现代化水平,基于2007—2011年数据和熵值法研究表明,我国农村教育和农业现代化呈现提升趋势,但部分指标仍存在较大改善空间。利用耦合协调模型测算表明,我国各省域农村教育与农业现代化耦合协调度存在差异,“东高西低”格局显著。从内部机制看,农村教育与农业效率提升关联度最高。推动我国农村教育与农业现代化协调发展需要结合区域具体情况,完善农村教育体系,改善农业现代化对农村教育的要素支撑、需求引导和创新驱动作用,实现二者上升循环。%Based on the data of 2007-2011 and using an entropy method , the paper proves that the ru-ral education and agricultural modernization in China shows an ascending trend , however , there are also some lagging indicators .The coupled coordination model finds that China ’ s global rural education and agricultural modernization has achieved a moderate coordination , but the coordination degree is different between provinces .Rural education and agricultural efficiency have the highest correlation degree .Pro-moting rural education and agricultural modernization coordination should base on specific regional cir -cumstances , improve rural education system and amplify the feedback from agricultural modernization .

  10. Ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern Brazil.

    Miranda, Débora Elienai de Oliveira; Sales, Kamila Gaudêncio da Silva; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis is endemic in Brazil, where Lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. Herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including Lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern Brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was correlated with climatic variables. Sand fly collections were carried out monthly from August 2013 to August 2014, using seven CDC light traps, for three consecutive nights, in three kinds of environments: indoor, peridomicile and forest. Collected sand flies were identified based on morphology and females of Lu. whitmani (n=169), Lu. amazonensis (n=134) and Lu. complexa (n=21) were selected and tested by PCR for Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In total, 5167 sand flies belonging to 19 species were identified, being that Lu. choti (43.2%) was the most frequent species, followed by Lu. amazonensis (16.6%), Lu. whitmani (15.8%), Lu. sordellii (10.7%) and Lu. quinquefer (5.8%), which together represented over 90% of the collected sand flies. All females tested by PCR were negative. The number of sand flies collected daily was positively correlated with temperature and negatively correlated with rainfall and relative humidity. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between daily number of sand flies and daily average saturation deficit. This study points out that the number of sand flies captured daily is correlated to climatic variables, including saturation deficit, which may represent a useful parameter for monitoring sand fly populations in leishmaniasis-endemic areas.

  11. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness


    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  12. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn


    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  13. Energy for rural India

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.


    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  14. 7 CFR 1940.563 - Section 502 non-subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans.


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Section 502 non-subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans. 1940.563 Section 1940.563 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  15. The Discussion of Leisure Agricultural Manor Landscape Design Based on Mental-map of the Rural Landscape%基于乡村景观意象的休闲农庄景观规划设计研究

    王小雨; 李婷婷; 王崑


    At present the direction to the orientation of the leisure agricultural manor landscape in northeast China is not clear. The planning to the mental-map of the rural landscape just started. The author summarized the theory, concepts, and the characteristics of the mental-map of the rural landscape. Based on the design of the leisure agricultural Manor of Harbin Hananxincheng in cold region, the author reinterpretation the mental-map of the rural landscape and put forward the content and the characteristics to the mental-map of the rural landscape in cold region. In accordance with the basic characteristics of countryside in cold region we discussed the landscape planning and design method of the leisure agricultural manor in cold region which has Manchu ethnic customs. People hoped to provide reference to the planning and design practices to the regional characteristics of the rural tourism development and promote the exploration and development of the mental-map of the rural landscape research.%目前中国东北地区休闲农庄景观定位方向尚不清晰明确,乡村景观意象规划还在起步阶段.在总结前人对乡村景观意象的理论研究的基础上,归纳出乡村景观意象的概念与基本特征.结合哈尔滨市哈南新城寒地休闲农庄规划设计项目对乡村景观意象进行了新的解读,提出了寒地乡村景观意象的内容与特征要素,并根据寒地乡村的基本特点,探讨了具有满族风情的寒地休闲农庄景观规划设计方法,为寒地乡村发展地域特色性乡村旅游建设提供规划设计实践参考,推动景观意象角度上的探索与开拓.

  16. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...


    like VSAT, Routers/Switches, PCs, Radio/Antennae, etc. to provide agricultural .... internet access to rural and underserved communities…” ... Challenges .... Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria Journal of information and ... Agricultural Extension Services Delivery: Evidence from the Rural e-services Project in India.

  17. Agriculture d'autosubsistance et développement agricole en milieu rural dans la région des Bamanga-Bengamisa (Haut- Zaïre (enquêtes sur les activités agricoles au Zaïre

    Mulongo, KM.


    Full Text Available Survival agricultural and agricultural development in Bamanga-Bengamisa rural area (surveys on farm business in Upper Zaire Province. More than a year of investigation allows us to collect informations about 105 Bamanga rural households. The aim of these surveys was to realize how farmers thing that is possible to improve their agricultural incomes. In spite of the proximity of the National Fertilizer Program (FAO and Zaire agreement for fertilizer use in rural area, nobody thought that manure is an issue of the problem. Twenty-three percent of farmers hope that agricultural prices increase and 14 wish that industrial prices be fixed instead of the free price policy applied ago. More than 30 percent of farmers from 15 to 59 years old get on together that palm tree farming is able to improve agricultural incomes ; while 30 percent of farmers's wife believe that the transport of agricultural products from production centers to rural markets is a priority in farming income improvement. Atlast we realized that it is still indispensable to work hard in breeding in order to improve rural welfare.

  18. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.


    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business financed with a B&I loan must be located in a rural area. Loans to borrowers with facilities located...

  19. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office....503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies outside the boundaries of a Metropolitan Area, as designated by the Office of Management and Budget, or, is...

  20. 我国农业/农村生态景观管护对策探讨%Countermeasures of landscape and ecological stewardship in agricultural/rural area of China

    宇振荣; 张茜; 肖禾; 刘文平


    农业/农村生态环境综合整治已成为我国目前农业/农村可持续发展的重要任务.农业/农村生态景观建设和管护是生态环境管护的重要内容,也是休闲农业发展、乡村经济发展和文化复兴的基础.本文通过对比分析国内外农业/农村生态环境管护内容、制度以及研究实践,在农业/农村生态环境管护内容下,从生态景观角度,重点讨论了我国农业/农村生态景观管护在认识、工程技术和制度上存在的主要问题:对未来农业/农村的多功能性认识和研究有待提高、生态景观化工程技术有待开发、工程技术精细化和集成化有待提高、农业/农业生态景观管护制度有待完善.在此基础上,文章还提出了我国生态景观管护对策,包括:(1)拓宽和提升我国农业/农村的多功能性,如恢复农业景观生态服务功能、保护农业景观生物多样性、加强灾害适宜性管理及提高水土安全、加强乡村生态景观建设和促进休闲农业和乡村旅游发展等;(2)加强以农户或村集体为主体的管护制度建设;(3)加强部门协同机制和技术集成研究和示范.目前亟需提高公众和管理者对农业/农村生态景观管护的认识,培育良好的管护能力,开展农业/农村生态环境和景观管护工程技术研发、技术集成示范以及适合我国国情的管护制度研究探索.%Integrated measurement of agricultural and rural eco-environments management is critical for sustainable rural development. Ecological and landscape restorations are also key elements of rural environmental stewardship for agro-tourism, rural economic and cultural revival activities. Based on comparative reviews of European and American rural environmental stewardship policies and measures, this paper discussed problems of ecological and landscape restorations and enhancement in China's agricultural and rural environmental stewardships. The identified problems in

  1. Protected Areas, State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation Land , Maryland Environmental Trust , County Conservation Land, Agriculture Preservation Easement, Agriculture Preservation District, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Protected Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation...

  2. Strategies and Suggestions on Promoting Postal Savings to Serve Hebei Agriculture, Rural Areas and Farmers%进一步推动邮政储蓄服务河北“三农”的对策建议

    马丽斌; 赵蕾


    The postal savings in Hebei Province has become an important channel of serving agriculture, rural areas and farmers, by taking the advantages of setting up more rural savings network to do loan business in villages. Compared with other businesses, there is some gapin its credit service due to single loan service. Therefore, the strategies to serve agriculture, rural areas and farmers in Hebei Province are to build exclusive institutions on loan to reach every county, increase cooperation with bonding companies and agricultural insurance compa-nies of farming funds, and promote construction on credit databases and credit villages.%河北省的邮政储蓄找准市场定位,坚持送贷款下乡进村,并利用农村网点数量多的优势,成为金融服务三农的重要渠道。但与其他行相比,贷款品种较少,邮储信贷服务三农还存有一定差距。进一步推动邮政储蓄服务河北“三农”的对策是:创新贷款业务品种;建立“三农”信贷专营机构;实施“信贷县县通”等工程服务三农;加强与农金投资等担保公司、政策性农业保险公司的战略合作;大力推动信用信息数据库、信用村镇建设。

  3. Final synthesis report and resolutions: Agadir international conference 'The integration of sustainable agriculture, rural development, and ecosystems in the context of climate change, the energy crisis and food insecurity'

    Shahid, S.A.; D' Silva, J.; Bennion, P.; Behnassi, M.


    The three days of deliberations of the Agadir International Conference focused on the high level topic of sustainable agriculture, rural development and ecosystems in the context of climate change, the energy crisis, the rise in global population and food insecurity. This conference came at a time of increasing international concern with the climate change, energy shortage and global hunger challenges. More than a hundred scientists, experts and governmental officials from 40 countries provided their perspectives on these critical issues from an interdisciplinary view. The key points from the five plenary sessions and fourteen panels are given.

  4. 农业产业化中的农村非正式组织与农民合作研究%Study on the Rural Informal Organizations and Peasants Cooperation in Agricultural Industrialization



    从非正式组织的产生背景出发,借助管理学对农村非正式组织的产生及其与农民合作的关系进行了分析,对如何促进农业产业化中的农民合作进行了讨论.%The formation of rural informal organizations and its relationship with peasants cooperation were analyzed by the principles of management from the formation background of informal organizations, and then the ways to promote peasants cooperation in agricultural industrialization were discussed.

  5. Agriculture and private sector

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...

  6. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara


    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  7. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension

    The South African Journal of Agricultural Extensionaims to: * advance and apply the science of extension and of rural development as scientific discipline by ... collaboration in agricultural innovation systems amongst stakeholders in the North ...

  8. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben


    Young people in northern Ghana are growing up in a very different environment from their southern counterparts. While the south is the locus of the major cities, industries, and most important cash crops, the north is primarily rural with an agricultural base, much of it subsistence. This distinc......Young people in northern Ghana are growing up in a very different environment from their southern counterparts. While the south is the locus of the major cities, industries, and most important cash crops, the north is primarily rural with an agricultural base, much of it subsistence....... This distinction between the southern core and northern periphery has a long history, stemming from when the country of Ghana came into being. Under colonial rule, the north was treated as a cheap source of labour to support the development of the export sector concentrated in the coastal port towns......, followed by structural adjustment programmes and neoliberalism, have all contributed to increasing the inequality between the north and the south. Although Ghana has now joined the ranks of lower middle-income countries, its northern part lags behind, with 22.2% of the population living below the poverty...

  9. 农村人力资本投资视阈下的地方农业高校作为%Rural Human Capital Investment and the Role of Local Agricultural Colleges Universities

    郭晓丽; 何云峰


    Rural human capital is a capital of providing future economic values.The cultivation of human capital in rural areas is demanding in constructing a new socialist countryside.With advantages of location, experience,information, talents and technology, local agricultural colleges and universities should play more vigorous role in rural human capital investment by building rural labor training system, exploring various ARES model, establishing learning rural community, improving learning ability and scientific quality to provide great intellectual and brainpower support.%农村人力资本是一种提供未来经济价值的资本。新农村建设对农村人力资本的培育提出了更高的要求。地方农业高校处于中心城市的区位优势,加之长久服务三农的经验及得天独厚的信息、人才、科技优势决定了其在农村人力资本的投资中应积极作为:建立农村劳动力培训体系,探索各形式的科技推广服务,并致力于学习型农村的构建,提升农村人力资本的学习能力与科技素质,为新农村建设提供强有力的智力支持与人才支撑。

  10. Innovating for Rural Development

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural...

  11. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section 22.306 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.306 Financing rural development planning. States will be required to...

  12. Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...


    this end, it is noted that households in rural Nigeria engage in multiple jobs to ..... by the high proportions of respondents involved in different levels of agricultural production up to marketing. ... owners prefer to contract their lands to men.

  13. Agricultural Heritage Systems:A Bridge between Urban and Rural Development%农业文化遗产:架设城市与乡村发展的桥梁

    史媛媛; 闵庆文; 何露; FULLER Anthony M.


    In the early 1990s, China stepped into the stage of rapid urbanization with a flourishing economy and new technological development. Surplus labor from rural areas flooded into cities and became the main force of urban development. However some severe threats to human survival emerged from urbanization, such as over- extensive urban development, excessive resource consumption, ecological degradation, food security and safety risks and social crises. It has become an imperative to balance urban and rural development to achieve greater harmony between nature and society. This paper firstly tried to focus on public dietary change, agricultural industry development, institutional guarantee, ecological restoration, as wel as cultural tourism in urban and peri-urban ag-ricultural heritage sites. Then, it established a development model, balanced the urbanization and urban-supported agriculture. This paper proposed “Agricultural heritage systems” as an entry point for balancing the development of urban areas and rural areas. Agricultural heritage systems can inherit local traditional culture, keep the green and organic agriculture cultivation systems, exploit the distinct landscape tourism, and the like for diversified develop-ment; In addition, agricultural heritage systems can take ful advantage of abundant funds, firm the institutional guarantee and advanced technologies from the nearby urban complex for regurgitation-feeding of rural enterprises. With the help of these strategies, we can achieve the harmony of “Ecological Urban” and “Garden Countryside”.%20世纪90年代初中国进入快速城镇化阶段,农村大量剩余劳动力进城务工,成为城市建设的主力军,中国经济得以高速发展,居民收入不断提高。然而城镇化也带来了城市粗放式发展、资源过度消耗、生态环境严重破损、粮食食品安全、社会秩序混乱等关乎人类生存的严峻挑战,寻找城市与农村平衡发展,人

  14. 四川城乡结合部农业人口体育锻炼现状分析及对策%Status Analysis of Physical Exercise of Agricultural Population in Rural - urban Fringe Zones and It's the Corresponding Strategy



    The paper is to investigate the agricultural population's sports involvement situation of the rural - urban fringe zones of 5 regions in Sichuan. The investigation outcomes have showed that (a) physical exercise of agricultural population in rural - urban fringe zones is significantly different in terms of their sports behavior, exercise events and time preferences. The exercise fields and facilities have become the key limiting factors affecting farmers' sports under-taking; (b) the initiative of physical exercise depends on the personal income and educational background.%通过对四川省成都市5个城乡结合部的农业人口的体育现状进行调查表明,城乡结合部农业人口在体育锻炼行为、体育锻炼项目的选择以及锻炼时间上存在显著的性别差异(p =0.02<0.05),体育锻炼场地的不足已经成为影响农民体育锻炼的重要因素,体育锻炼的积极性与其个人收入、受教育程度有很明显的关联,即个人收入水平越高,受教育水平越高,其体育锻炼的积极性也越高。

  15. Current Status and Analysis of Japanese Women’s Participation in Agricultural and Rural development%日本农业女性参与农业及农村发展的现状与分析



    日本农业就业人口的半数以上是女性,女性在担负着操持家务、育儿和赡养老人的同时,在农业经营以及农村第二、第三产业方面发挥着重要的作用。而且近年来涌现在农产品加工、销售、流通、观光农园、农家饭庄等与“食”文化相关领域的农村女性呈增长态势,对区域农业的多元化发展和农村的活化方面做出了积极的贡献。中国应该借鉴日本的经验,有意识地创造有利于发挥和释放女性能力的就业环境,不断拓展女性在农业、农村的活动领域,促进当地农业、农村经济的发展。%In Japan,more than half of the agricultural employment are female.Women play an important role in agri-cultural operations and the secondary and tertiary industries in rural areas besides their traditional role in running housework,childcare and supporting for the elderly.Especially,in recent years,more and more women devote their attention to the female entrepreneurship activities relating to diet culture such as agro-product processing,market-ing,farmer restaurant and so on.They have been mading positive contributions to diversified farming and rural acti-vation in Japan.China is facing the same problem as that in Japan.Agritural labour force presents the characteristics of population aging and feminization.Therfore,China should draw experiences from Japan:consciously creating an environment where women can perform and release their abilities,expanding the activities of women in rural areas, and promoting the development of local agriculture and the rural economy.

  16. 喀左县农村青年信用示范户工作助推农业产业发展%The Support of Agricultural Development from Rural Youth Credit Example Family in Kazuo County



    喀左县按照省市两级工作领导小组的部署,深入细致研究政策,多方协调统筹安排,多措并举稳步推进,将此项工作作为促进农村青年创业成才、服务农村经济发展的重要抓手。截至今年8月末,全县累计评选农村青年信用示范户519户,发放贷款792万元,支持创业项目涉及种植、养殖、农产品加工、副食品经营、生产资料销售、装饰装修、汽车运输等10多个行业,带动就业1400余人,户均增收1.5万元。农村青年信用示范户工作的开展,不仅有效解决了农村青年创业资金瓶颈问题,而且增加了收入,带动了就业,为农业产业结构调整和社会主义新农村建设提供了有力支持。%Kazuo Xian leading group in accordance with provincial and municipal levels of deployment,in-depth and meticulous research policy,muhi-party co-ordination arrangements to Take Measures tO steadily, and will this work as a talent to promote youth enirepreneurship in rural areas, rural economic development services, an important starting point. As of late August, the county credit for rural youth selected a cumulative total of 519 demonstration households,loans to 7.92 million ynan to support entrepreneurship project involves planting, breeding, processing of agricultural products,food management, production and sales,decoratiOn,automotive and transportation 10 muhiple industries, promoting employment of more than 1400 people, average household income 1.5 million.Credit for rural youth demonstration households work,not only effectively solve the bottleneck problem of rural youth venture capital,and increased revenue,led to employment for the agricultural structure adjustment and the building of new socialist countryside provide a strong support.

  17. 7 CFR 22.101 - The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419).


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). 22.101 Section 22.101 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION General § 22.101 The Rural Development Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-419). The Rural Development Act of...

  18. 农业机械化对农业和农村经济贡献率理论分析%Theoretical Analysis on the Contributing Ratio of Agricultural Mechanization to Rural Economy

    程智强; 贾栓祥; 洪仁彪


    Agricultural mechanization makes contribution to agricultural production, which brings about the production increment resulting from increasing invented farm machinery and from raising the productivity of farm machinery. The contributing ratio can be measured with the proportion of the coefficient of machinery output elasticity in the sum of those of all factors' output elasticities. The quantity of farm machinery's contribution to raising labor productivity is decided by the quantity of its contribution to the production increment and of its substitution for labor force. And that to rural economy is in direct proportion to the growth rate of labor productivity resulted from farm machinery, the ratio of nonagricultural output value to rural GDP, the number of labors engaging in agriculture.%机械化对农业产出增长的贡献不仅包含农业机械投入量增减对产出的影响,而且应包括农业机械生产率提高的作用,贡献率大小可用农业机械产出弹性在规模弹性中的比值衡量;机械化对农业劳动生产率增长的贡献大小决定于它对农业产出增长的贡献大小和对农业劳动力的替代作用;农业机械化在某一时期对农村经济的贡献与由它产生的劳动生产率增长率成正比,与非农产业产值占农村社会总产值的比重成正比,与初期从事农业的劳动力数量成正比。

  19. 教育对农村外出务工劳动力非农收入的影响研究%The Affect of Education on the Non-agricultural Income of Rural Labor Migration

    栾江; 李强


    This paper analyzes the affect of education on the non-agricultural income of rural labor migration by using the survey data.This data is collected in the program of rural-labor performed by BJFU from 2009 to 2010,covers eighteen provinces and forty-eight counties. The rate of return on education estimated in this study is approximately 3.9 percent. But another result shows that is 5.06 percent as selection bias is considered. The finding suggests that the rate of return on education is still iow in Chinese rural area.Through quantile regression we found that education would widen the gap of the rural labor migration income. These results suggest that in order to improve the ratre of return on education and bridge the gap of the rural labor migration income,government should carry education extending and equality forward in rural area.%通过2009-2010年调查数据对中国18个省48个县的农村外出务工劳动力样本考察了教育对农村外出务工人员非农收入的影响,通过OLS法估计的教育回报率为3.9%,考虑了选择性因素的影响后佑计结果为5.06%,说明我国农村地区的教育回报率依然较低.通过分位回归发现教育可能扩大农村外出务工人员收入差距.政府要在农村地区推动教育扩张和平等才能提高农村地区教育回报率,减小教育所产生的扩大收入差距的影响.

  20. 农村劳动力转移的选择性、城乡收入差距与新型农业经营主体%Transfer Selectivity of Rural Labor,Urban-rural Income Gap and New Agricultural Operation Entities

    秦晓娟; 孔祥利


    Based on 1415 survey data and the method of WLS regression,this paper discussed the impacts of transfer selectivity,rate of urbanization,yearly income of family featured by labor transfer, and per capita agricultural acreage on urban-rural income gap from national level and regional level re-spectively.And it found that different selectivity variables had different effects on the urban-rural income gap on the national and regional levels,but the per capita agricultural acreage variable had negative effect.On the regional level,it found that the gap would be shortened under the condition that labors in western areas were transferred to other provinces in middle and eastern areas.Accordingly,it proposed to continue to guide and encourage the rural labors'transfer,to cultivate the new agricultural operation enti-ties actively,to narrow the urban-rural income gap through the bidirectional interaction between urbani-zation and agricultural modernization.%基于1415份调查问卷数据,采用 WLS 方法,分别从全国、东中西3个区域层面,探讨农村劳动力转移的选择性、城镇化率、转移劳动力家庭年收入及农村人均土地经营面积等变量对城乡收入差距的影响。得出结论:在全国、区域层面,选择性变量对城乡差距的作用有正有负,而农村人均经营土地面积变量的扩大均会使城乡差距缩小;东中西区域对比分析得出西部劳动力向省外转移较东中部会使城乡差距缩小。据此提出政策建议:继续引导和鼓励农村劳动力的多元转移;积极培育新型主体;通过农业现代化与城镇化的双向互动减小城乡收入差距。

  1. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

    Kazimierz Niewiadomski


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  2. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Gurri, Francisco D


    .... It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970...

  3. 财政支农对分组农户收入影响的差异分析%The Difference Analysis of Finance Supports Agriculture Affecting to Rural Income-Quintile Households

    华小全; 孙垂强


    为了分析国家财政支农政策对农民不同群体影响的差异,文章运用2002-2012年财政支农数据,建立财政支农对五等份分农村居民收入的面板数据回归模型,研究发现,财政支农对农民收入的增长效应要强于国民经济增长水平,平均每户整、半劳动力和平均每个劳动力负担人口对农民收入增长影响为负效应,财政支农对五等份分农村居民收入影响由中等收入群体向两极收入群体递减,但五等份分农户个体效应限制了低收入居民的收入增长能力。因此,加大财政支农力度不仅可以提高农户的收入水平,而且可以缩小农村内部差距,同时应注意政策对不同群体影响的差异,要建立专门针对农村20%低收入群体的脱贫攻坚政策。%In order to analysis differences influence of national fiscal policies to different groups farmers , the article build panal-data model among finance supports agriculture and peasants income by rural income -quintile households by using data of finance supporting agriculture wielding from 2002-2012.The conclusions are that the effect of finance supports agriculture is higher than economy growth rate horizontal , and average number of full/semi labour force per household and average number of dependents per labour force do inac -tive effect to peasants'income.The effect of finance supports agriculture decrease from media-income family to two-poles-income fami-ly,but the particular effect of peasant household have restricted the low income resident increases more rapid .Therefore, enlarging fi-nance supporting agriculture can improve peasants income , and also reduce rural gap ,the government should pay attention to the differ-ent influence of policy to every groups simultaneously ,and set up poverty alleviation policy for 20%low income groups specifically .

  4. Resilience and adaptations of rural communities and agricultural land use in the tropical Andes: Coping with environmental and socio-economic changes

    Stadel, Ch.


    Full Text Available In spite of a long settlement history of the tropical Andes, rural farming communities have always been exposed to conditions of ecological and economic vulnerability, risks, and even disasters. This has resulted, at certain times and in some regions, to a destabilization of livelihoods and to a manifestation of various forms of marginalization, to poverty or outmigration. However, Andean communities , over a long time, have given admirable testimonies of resilience and adaptations in the face of adverse conditions or new challenges. This paper examines the potentials and different facets of resilience and adaptation strategies of the rural campesinado in the tropical Andes. It emphasizes the proven traditional concepts of verticality, complementarity, reciprocity, and mutual community support, which to date support the feasibility and sustainability of Andean farming and community survival. In spite of this recognition, it is argued that Andean rural livelihoods always had to adapt to new developments, to threats and challenges, as well as to opportunities and alternative potentials. In the face of an almost ubiquitous penetration of modernization, new technologies, and economic and cultural globalization, the fundamental question arises, whether this can be considered as a path to progress and development, or as a threat to the survival of small-scale farming and rural community living. The paper concludes by formulating, albeit in a tentative form, some general suggestions for ‘development’ approaches and for research priorities in the rural Andes.

    A pesar de una tradición muy extensa del asentamiento humano en los Andes tropicales, las comunidades campesinas siempre enfrentaron condiciones de vulnerabilidad ecológica y económica, con varios riesgos, y aun desastres. Eso ha resultado, en diversos tiempos y en algunas regiones, en una estabilización de la superviviencia humana y en varias manifestaciones de marginalización, de

  5. 7 CFR 1940.564 - Section 502 subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing loans.



  6. 7 CFR 1940.575 - Section 515 Rural Rental Housing (RRH) loans.



  7. 7 CFR 1940.565 - Section 502 subsidized Rural Housing loans.



  8. Agriculture and private sector

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia


    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  9. Contribution to the Development of Rural Tourism in Croatia: Proposed Steps for Successful Business

    Damir Demonja


    Full Text Available Rural tourism is a relatively new tourist movement that humans of postindustrial society return to traditional values and nature. Primarily is strongly associated with farms and production of traditional agricultural products. The aim of the rural tourism is exploitation of all existing resources of one farm regardless of whether it is traditional architecture, traditional activities (traditional crafts, agricultural production or presentation of the rural way of life. In addition, rural tourism is a generator of additional revenue and achieves full employment of the farm which enables to integrate all the potentials and diversification of activities.The organization of the farm, in terms of taking some tourism activities, is a complex activity that requires certain procedures and steps for successful business. Therefore, this paper proposes and explains steps necessary for successful implementation of tourism services in rural tourism in Croatia. Special emphasis will be on the types of tourism services in rural tourism through the typology of farms and connecting with the market.

  10. The Motivation Analysis of Rural Land Circulation and Legal Countermeasures Research

    Yongyong Zhu


    It’s the aim of this rural land circulation article to develop China Modern Agriculture, to achieve scale operation, to solve the Three Rural issues. Rural land circulation is the trend of China's agriculture development. It is the key of Three Rural issues. In the background of maintaining coordinated developments in rural and urban regions and the background of the constructions of new socialist rural area, we should encourage the various the rural land circulation forms, encourage the farm...

  11. The Impact of China’s Fiscal Expenditure in Agriculture on Farmer’s Income


    Based on the account of the vital role which the national finance played in supporting agriculture,the thesis presents the current situation of financial support for agriculture in China,in terms of the limited scale and irrational structure of financial support expenditure in agriculture.On the basis of the brief introduction of the current level of Chinese farmers’ income,the thesis discusses the effects of scale and irrational structure of financial support expenditure in agriculture on the farmers’ income,according to the related data of financial support expenditure in agriculture and rural per capita net income.The results indicate that the calculating regression equation has a remarkable explanation power,reflecting the positive role of financial support expenditure in agriculture played by national finance in increasing the farmers’ income.As regards the structure of financial support expenditure in agriculture at present,according to the proportion from high to low,the expenditure primarily consists of three parts from high to low in sequence as follows:productive expenditure and funds for public undertakings,capital construction expenditure,and rural relief expenditure plus science and technology funds.Such sequence deviates from the marginal production effects of financial support expenditure in agriculture and the correlation of farmers’ income,which demonstrates the severe irrationality of the structure of financial support expenditure in agriculture.Corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows:on one hand,we should continue intensifying the efforts to support agriculture financially in order to form a regular increase mechanism;on the other hand,we should adjust and optimize the structure of financial support expenditure in agriculture,and further crystallize the investment flows.

  12. 当前农村妇女的农业生产与生活现状分析--基于对河北省曲周县农村妇女的调查数据%Analysis on the Current Situation of Agricultural Production and Life of Rural Women-Based on the Survey Data of Rural Women in Quzhou County of Hebei Province

    周珊; 顾爱云; 张晓琳; 刘全清


    As the male labors go outside for work , rural women has gradually become the main force of agricultural production.The living condition and development situation of them will eventually affect rural and agricultural development in China.The investigation was carried out in the rural women participation in the current situation of agricultural production and life in Quzhou County, and the age distribution, level of education, basic situation of the family, family status, contribution to agricultural production, the condition of psychological and health of rural women were synthetically analyzed.The results showed that the scientific and cultural quality of rural women was relatively lower, their contribution to the agricultural production was big , but the decision status needs to be improved, the life of rural women was single and lack of cultural activities , they were in great demand of technology.Then some suggestions that how to promote the better development of rural women and make them do more contribution to agricultural development were put forward aiming at the problems above.%  我国农村男性劳动力外出打工,农村妇女已逐渐成为农业生产的主力军。她们的生存和发展状况最终会影响到我国农村与农业的发展。以曲周县为例,对农村妇女参与农业生产及生活现状进行了调查,综合分析了农村妇女的年龄分布、受教育程度、家庭基本情况、家庭地位、对农业生产的贡献、生活心理健康等状况。结果表明:农村妇女的科技文化素质整体偏低;对农业生产的贡献大,但决策地位有待提高;生活形式单一,缺乏文化活动;对技术的需求大。针对这些问题,就如何促进妇女更好发展,更进一步为农业发展做出贡献提出了建议。

  13. 统筹城乡发展背景下湖南农业现代发展生态模式研究%Ecomodel of Modern Agricultural Development Under the Background of Balance Urban and Rural Development in Hunan

    张霆; 张环


    Balance of urban and rural development is closely tied to modern agriculture and new urbanization. The process is not simply moving rural population to cities and towns, but the essence of which is the transformation process of urban labour. The connotation devel-opment of modern agriculture in Hunan must firmly grasp the core issue of population urbanization and modernization. The government should take a large ecological concept in the construction of"four modernizations and two types";establish the ecological structure in terms of internal agriculture, new and informatization industry, and new urbanization;integrate"three rural"affairs with eco-industry, culture, e-conomy, politics and society;explore the new ways of"one village one product, one county one main industry";achieve the integration of person, capacity and city, so as to form the distinctive comparative advantages.%统筹城乡发展是以现代农业和新型城镇化的紧密结合,这一过程不是农村人口简单地向城镇迁涉,而实质是转变为城镇劳动力的过程.湖南现代农业内涵发展一定要牢牢把握人口城镇化和现代化的核心问题,以大生态的理念,在"四化两型"建设中,现代农业发展不仅建立农业内部的生态结构,还要建立其与工业新型化、信息化、新型城镇化生态结构,建构"三农"与产业、文化、经济、政治、社会的生态全面融合,以这样的大生态模式,探索因地制宜的"一村一产品、一县一主业"的县域主体特色生态化规模经营的新路子,实现"三农"在"四化两型"建设中的"人·产·城"相融合,形成湖南发展特色的比较优势.

  14. Sustainable intensification in African agriculture

    Pretty, J.; Toulmin, C.; Williams, S


    Metadata only record For many developing countries, agricultural production gains have facilitated rural and urban economic growth. However, African countries in general are viewed as being unsuccessful in increasing productivity. Sustainable intensification is a method of production that incorporates the principles of natural resource conservation and efficient use with intensive agricultural practices. Recently, it is a coming into ideological and practical popularity among agriculturali...

  15. Theoretical and Empirical Analysis on Influence Factors of Modern Agricultural Equipment Level in the Process of Agricultural Sustainable Development

    Yan Tingwu; Li Lingchao; Wang Wang Ruixue


    To promote modem agricultural equipment level is one characteristic of constructing and developing modem agriculture in China. This paper makes up stepwise linear regression analysis model of influence factors of modem agricultural equipment level, and chooses rural labor, per capita income of rural residents, rural investment, proportion of people at secondary education level and at higher level in per hundred rural labor force and arable land area as independent variables, and total power of machine as induced variable. The major results show that the relativity of modem ag- ricultural equipment level, rural investment and education level of peasants is remarkable, and they are the major influence factors of modem agricultural equipment level. Raising investment level of rural infrastructure construction as well as and research and devel- opment and promotion of advanced and applicable modem agricultural equipment, improving quality and education level of peasants can accelerate the development of China's modern agricultural equipment effectively in the process of agricultural sustainable development.

  16. Imbalance and Correction of the Rural Credit Cooperatives and Rural Economic Relations


    This article expounds the manifestations of imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations: the rural credit cooperatives fail to effectively promote economic development in rural areas; the rural economy is also incapable of effectively promoting the development of the rural credit cooperatives. It analyses the reasons for imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations,including the direct reason (loss of function of the rural credit cooperatives) ,the fundamental reason (restricted economic development of agriculture and countryside and relative pauperization of farmers) ,and the deep-seated reason (sluggish rural economic development) . Corresponding countermeasures and proposals are put forward for promoting balanced development of the rural credit cooperatives and rural economy as follows: first, deepen reform of the rural credit cooperatives,strengthen the function of the rural credit cooperatives in serving the needs of agriculture; second, speed up economic development in rural areas,eliminate the economic constraints for the development of the rural credit cooperatives; third,transform the development pattern and the development strategies,foster the macro-institutional environment for balanced development of rural credit cooperatives and rural economy.

  17. Research on Novel Pattern of Agricultural Economy based on Accurate Information Management System: A Survey

    Liang Wang; Mengyan Liu


    The agricultural development in the less developed districts is a big challenge as they are resource poor regions and crops are grown under more risky agro-ecological conditions. In this paper, we conduct research on novel pattern of agricultural economy based on accurate information management system. Agricultural information is the agriculture prenatal, during and aider the information process, mainly to solve the problems in the development of agricultural production. Rural information includes rural economic information, rural management and related information, rural information culture and the rural social service information. Our system modifies the efficiency of managing materials which will largely enhance the economical result for the agricultural activities.

  18. Methodology for Evaluating the Rural Tourism Potentials: A Tool to Ensure Sustainable Development of Rural Settlements

    Alexander Trukhachev


    Full Text Available The paper analyses potentials, challenges and problems of the rural tourism from the point of view of its impact on sustainable rural development. It explores alternative sources of income for rural people by means of tourism and investigates effects of the rural tourism on agricultural production in local rural communities. The aim is to identify the existing and potential tourist attractions within the rural areas in Southern Russia and to provide solutions to be introduced in particular rural settlements in order to make them attractive for tourists. The paper includes the elaboration and testing of a methodology for evaluating the rural tourism potentials using the case of rural settlements of Stavropol Krai, Russia. The paper concludes with a ranking of the selected rural settlements according to their rural tourist capacity and substantiation of the tourism models to be implemented to ensure a sustainable development of the considered rural areas.

  19. Weaving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge with Formal Education to Enhance Community Food Security: School Competition as a Pedagogical Space in Rural Anchetty, India

    Shukla, Shailesh; Barkman, Janna; Patel, Kirit


    Like many socially and economically disadvantaged farming communities around the world, the Anchetty region of Tamil Nadu, India, has been experiencing serious food security challenges mainly due to the loss of traditional foods such as small millets and associated crops (SMAC) and associated indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK). Drawing on…

  20. Weaving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge with Formal Education to Enhance Community Food Security: School Competition as a Pedagogical Space in Rural Anchetty, India

    Shukla, Shailesh; Barkman, Janna; Patel, Kirit


    Like many socially and economically disadvantaged farming communities around the world, the Anchetty region of Tamil Nadu, India, has been experiencing serious food security challenges mainly due to the loss of traditional foods such as small millets and associated crops (SMAC) and associated indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK). Drawing on…

  1. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    ... and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for ...

  2. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.


    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  3. La transformación tecnológica del sector agropecuario en la provincia de Córdoba y sus repercusiones sobre la mujer y la familia rural: its effects on women and rural families Technological transformation of the agricultural sector in the province of Cordoba

    Eugenia Perona


    Full Text Available El sector agropecuario argentino ha estado caracterizado en las últimas décadas por una rápida y profunda transformación tecnológica. El objetivo principal del presente artículo es avanzar en la discusión sobre los impactos sociales del cambio tecnológico en el este y sur de la provincia de Córdoba, analizando en particular sus efectos sobre el rol de la mujer en la agricultura. A partir de una perspectiva ecofeminista, el trabajo aporta evidencia empírica sobre distintos aspectos relacionados con la población, el empleo y el bienestar. Las principales conclusiones indican que, a pesar del fuerte desarrollo alcanzado por el sector agropecuario, la posición de las mujeres del campo cordobés no parece haberse visto promovida o fortalecida, ya que, en general, la mujer rural continúa relegada a un papel secundario y marginada al rol de 'esposa del productor'.During the last decades, the Argentine agricultural sector has been characterized by a rapid and profound technological transformation. The main goal of this paper is to foster a discussion about the social impacts of technological change in the southern and eastern regions of the province of Cordoba focusing, in particular, on its repercussions on farm women and their role in agriculture. Based on an ecofeminist perspective, this study presents empirical evidence about various aspects related to population, employment and welfare. Our main conclusions show that, in spite of the remarkable development achieved by the agricultural sector, the position of Cordoba farm women does not seem to have been promoted or strengthened, since, in general, rural women continue to be relegated to a secondary role and categorized as 'farmer's wives'.

  4. Rural protest groups and populist political parties

    Strijker, Derk; Voerman, Gerrit; Terluin, Ida


    Some agricultural or rural protest groups in the Western world evolved into political parties - often of a populist nature - whereas others did not. This book is the first to explore under which conditions this happens, and to what extent current populist parties have agricultural or rural ties and

  5. Rural protest groups and populist political parties

    Strijker, Derk; Voerman, Gerrit; Terluin, Ida


    Some agricultural or rural protest groups in the Western world evolved into political parties - often of a populist nature - whereas others did not. This book is the first to explore under which conditions this happens, and to what extent current populist parties have agricultural or rural ties and

  6. Discussion on Nurturing Ways of Full-time Undergraduates from Rural Areas in Agricultural and Forestry Universities%农林类院校培养全日制农民大学生的方式探讨

    余英玉; 喻卫武; 曾燕如


    Starting from the nurturing objective, the advantages that agricultural and forestry universities have in nurturing undergraduates from rural areas were analyzed. Also the paper pointed out that political quality should be taken into account in nurturing undergraduates from the peasants. Case-based lecturing should be adopted for basic courses, and attention should be paid to development of their professional practicing ability. Professional lecturing should be done in an open way, and education of the present status and developmental patterns of rural areas in China should be strengthened. Development of the students' ability in controlling the end of an agricultural industrial chain should be emphasized and the students should be guided to be actively involved in cultural activities on campus. In order to send more quality constructors to the construction of new socialist rural areas, more undergraduates from peasants should be nurtured by full-time education system.%从农民大学生培养目的出发,分析了农林类院校培养农民大学生的优势,在培养方式上提出应重视农民大学生政治素养培养;基础课程实施实例式授课;注重专业实践能力培养,设置开放式的专业教学;加强中国农村现状与发展模式的教育;注重培养农民大学生控制农业产业链末端的能力;引导农民大学生积极参与校园文化活动,发挥农林类院校在培养农民大学生方面的优势,通过全日制农民大学生的培养为社会主义新农村建设输送更多的高素质建设者.

  7. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention.

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul


    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (>1kDa i.e. >c. 1-2nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux.

  8. Mythical imaginary in rural agricultural practices on properties of La Vieja river basin, Colombia Imaginarios míticos en las prácticas agropecuarias rurales en fincas de la cuenca del rio La Vieja, Colombia

    Sebastián Ramírez Arias


    Full Text Available This work analyzes the mythological belief or superstitions associated with farming and conservation activities in nine rural productive units on the river basin La Vieja, Colombia. The elderly people recognize the influence of multiple stories over productive and environmental conditions that are an important part of success or fail on their rural activities. The beliefs were classified by their functionality and the activities they regulate. 14 myths that have any on the influence activities of cultivate, breeding, conservation and social regulation were described. The main element for discussion was the functionality, considering its relationship the distribution and application in the subsystems of productions in the farms with the age, the gender and the hierarchy position on the family structure. It was conclude that the flow of information between expert systems and systems of popular knowledge helps to construct an adapted system. An example is the use, in cattle farms, of different moon phases during the artificial insemination to ensure the pregnancy and sex of the breed.Este trabajo analiza las creencias mitológicas, agüeros o supersticiones asociadas con las actividades agropecuarias y de conservación en nueve unidades productivas rurales de la cuenca media del río La Vieja, Colombia. Plantea que las gentes de antaño reconocen la influencia de múltiples relatos sobre condiciones productivas y ambientales que redundan en el éxito o el fracaso de las actividades rurales. Las creencias se clasificaron según su funcionalidad y las actividades que regulan. Se describieron así 14 mitos que influyen en las actividades de cultivo, cría, conservación y regulación social. El principal elemento de discusión fue la funcionalidad, considerando la distribución y aplicación en los subsistemas de producción en la finca, la relación con la edad y el género y con la posición jerárquica en la estructura familiar. El flujo de

  9. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark


    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a…

  10. On Cultural Strategies for Serving"Three Rural Issues"in Agricultural Vocational College%试论农业高职学院为“三农”服务的文化策略



    According to the trio-dimension conception of culture in the cultural anthropological research,the social service function of agricultural vocational college,a relatively independent cultural system,is characterized by hierarchy and graduality.From the dimensions of material,institution and spirit,the paper discussed the social service function of agricultural vocational college and proposed three cultural strategies for serving "Three Rural Issues",namely,acculturation-mergence strategy,integration-promotion strategy and innovation-leading strategy.%根据文化人类学对文化的三分传统,农业高职学院作为一个相对独立的文化体系,其社会服务职能具有层次性和渐进性。从"物质"、"制度"和"精神"三维度对农业高职学院服务职能进行探讨,可以总结出农业高职学院为"三农"服务的三大文化策略,即"适应-融入"策略、"整合-提升"策略和"创新-引领"策略。

  11. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.593 - Rural Business Opportunity Grants.


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Opportunity Grants. 1940.593 Section..., RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for Allocation of...

  13. On Henselian valuations and Brauer groups of primarily quasilocal fields

    Chipchakov, Ivan


    This paper finds a classification, up-to an isomorphism, of abelian torsion groups realizable as Brauer groups of major types of Henselian valued primarily quasilocal fields with totally indivisible value groups. When $E$ is a quasilocal field with such a valuation, it shows that the Brauer group of $E$ is divisible and embeddable in the quotient group of the additive group of rational numbers by the subgroup of integers.

  14. 当前城中乡村农业机械化发展存在的问题及对策--以叠彩区大河乡为例%An Introduction to Problems in the Development of Agricultural Mechanization in Rural Areas within the Urban Areas and Countermeasures---Taking Diecai District in DaHe Town for Example



    大河乡是“乡中有城、城中有村”,但农业机械化没有得到大发展。推进城中乡村农业机械化,必须先统筹城乡规划与工农业生产建设,加大农村基础设施建设投入,做到重工不轻农、城乡一体协同发展,努力建设田园化城中绿色区。%Dahe Town is a place where a town integrates urban areas and urban areas contain villages ,but there is no great develop-ment in its agricultural mechanization .To promote the agricultural mechanization in villages within urban areas ,what shall be done first is to balance urban and rural planning and the construction of agricultural and industrial production ,enhance the investment in the construction of industrial and agricultural infrastructure,strive to lay emphasis on industry and pay attention to agriculture simultaneously,and achieve the integrated development in both urban and rural areas and try to construct rural green areas with in urban areas.

  15. Gênese, desenvolvimento, crise e reformas nos serviços públicos de extensão rural durante a década de 1990 Genesis, development, crisis and reforms in public agricultural extension during the 1990s

    César Augusto Da Ros


    Full Text Available Este artigo traça um painel histórico sobre a gênese, desenvolvimento, crise e reformas realizadas nos serviços públicos de extensão rural ao longo da década de 1990, oferecendo uma visão geral sobre os seus principais determinantes, tendo por base a literatura especializada sobre o tema. Neste percurso, analisou-se o processo de constituição dos aparatos institucionais destinados ao oferecimento dos serviços de extensão rural e sua vinculação as políticas de modernização técnica da agropecuária mundial durante o período do pós-guerra, tecendo-se considerações sobre o caso brasileiro. O artigo também examina os aspectos que determinaram na emergência de uma crise dos serviços públicos de extensão rural ocorrida ao longo da década de 1980, num contexto de intensificação das críticas ao modelo agrícola da revolução verde. Por fim, o artigo busca destacar as conexões existentes entre a crise e as reformas de privatização dos serviços públicos de extensão rural ocorridas em diversos países do mundo durante a década de 1990 pautadas na reformulação dos seus formatos institucionais, das formas de financiamento, dos seus objetivos, do seu público alvo, das metodologias de trabalho e da matriz tecnológica preconizadaThis article presents an historical overview of the processes of genesis, development, crisis and reforms in public agricultural extension throughout the 1990s, offering an overview of its main determinants, based on the literature on the subject. In this way, we analyzed the process of constitution of institutional apparatuses for the offering of extension services and linking policies technical modernization of agriculture worldwide during the postwar period, weaving considerations on the Brazilian case. The article also examines the aspects that determined the emergence of a crisis of public extension occurred during the 1980s, amid intensifying criticism of the Green Revolution model of

  16. Innovating for Rural Development

    Christensen, Dorthe

    Whereas the primary challenge for agriculture after World War II was improving food security by increasing productivity, the challenges faced by today’s agriculture are more complex and diverse. In this context it is interesting to investigate Danish agricultural extension. Firstly, the more...... complex and diverse a situation that farmers have to deal with, the more support farmers may need. Secondly, agricultural extension is important to Danish farmers, pointing to a significant arena for learning and change. Thirdly, privatizing agricultural extension (in Denmark since 1994) should...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural...

  17. Rural Infrastructure Construction in New Socialist Countryside Construction


    In the background of new socialist countryside construction,rural infrastructure construction is favorable to consolidating fundamental position of agriculture,expanding rural job opportunities,increasing farmers’ income,and favorable to development of rural economy and the national economy. Rural infrastructure construction mainly includes construction of agricultural basic production conditions,construction of rural ecological environment,construction of agricultural service system,and construction of rural living facilities. Finally,we put forward approaches and methods for strengthening rural infrastructure construction: firstly,increase fund input to provide financial support for rural infrastructure construction; second ly,make scientific village planning to ensure sustainability of rural infrastructure construction; thirdly,arouse farmers’ enthusiasm and initiative to promote stable development of rural infrastructure construction.


    P. Ruckenbauer


    Full Text Available An energy system that is based on the use of renewable energy resources must be service –oriented and should be able to cover the varying energy demands. Moreover it must be flexible and cost effective by using on optimal mix of predominantly renewable energy sources. Agriculture will play an important role in the future if an optimal mix between food/feed production and energy plant production could be found. The present examples in the world to gain agricultural land for energy plants on the expenses of forests is going into the wrong direction. The cost intensive investments at present performed in Europe for biofuel and bioenergy production will certainly influence prices for crops and biomass supply. In this paper, strategies are questioned and discussed if the goals of the EU-commission to replace substantial parts of the fossile energy demands by bioenergy supply is feasible and can be realistic. As an example for a national agricultural situation, Austria, as am member of the PBBA, has elaborated a study about the timely development how much of the arable land can be utilized in the period between 2005 and 2020 for various bioenergy sources .The results demonstrate that, at the maximum , agriculture can only supply about 22 % of the total arable land for additional bioenergy as biofuel and biogas without interfering the national self food/feed supply and the protection of the sensible environment and emission situation. Finally, recent University research studies are presented about new processes to achieve a better and more efficient use of cereal and maize straw for biogas production already performed in the present 358 local biogas plants in Austria.


    Ruta Śpiewak


    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  20. 75 FR 17121 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business--Cooperative Service Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business--Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The...

  1. Non-farm entrepreneurship in rural sub-Saharan Africa: New empirical evidence.

    Nagler, Paula; Naudé, Wim


    We report on the prevalence and patterns of non-farm enterprises in six sub-Saharan African countries, and study their performance in terms of labor productivity, survival and exit, using the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). Rural households operate enterprises due to both push and pull factors and tend to do so predominantly in easy-to-enter activities, such as sales and trade, rather than in activities that require higher starting costs, such as transport services, or educational investment, such as professional services. Labor productivity differs widely: rural and female-headed enterprises, those located further away from population centers, and businesses that operate intermittently have lower levels of labor productivity compared to urban and male-owned enterprises, or enterprises that operate throughout the year. Finally, rural enterprises exit the market primarily due to a lack of profitability or finance, and due to idiosyncratic shocks.

  2. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Philipp Aerni


    Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  3. Agriculture and private sector

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  4. The Basic Path of Modern Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics-Industry Nurturing Agriculture


    Constructing the modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics is the path and direction for solving issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers in China, the key to new village construction, the important measure for promoting overall agricultural production capacity, and the prerequisite and guarantee for coordinating urban-rural development. At present, the level of agricultural mechanization in China is promoted steadily; the science and technology are applied to agriculture extensively; the agricultural regionalization layout gradually takes shape; the agricultural industrialization management develops steadily. Be that as it may, the overall quality of farmers is low; the agricultural infrastructure is weak; the agricultural resources are limited; the inputs of agricultural science and technology are short. These hamper the development of modern agriculture. We should implement "industry nurturing agriculture"; through capital support and policy guidance, reform household registration system; connect the fragmented land into parcel; encourage the leading enterprises to develop in rural areas; establish agricultural cooperative organizations; deepen rural financial system reform; quicken the promotion and application of agricultural technology. These measures can effectively promote the development of agriculture, and realize the agricultural modernization in China.

  5. Family and Rural Community. Agricultural Models, Social Collectivism and Family Behaviour in the Province of Leon in the Early Modern Period

    María José PÉREZ ÁLVAREZ


    Full Text Available In the second half of the twentieth century, studies on the family occupied a very important place in modern Spanish historiography, reaching a peak in the nineties. Whilst it is true that some regions received more research attention than others, it can also be said that in general, the entire country was represented in this research. Thanks to these studies and to the different analytical perspectives and diversity of sources and methodologies they used, we now have extensive knowledge of all matters relating to this subject. As regards the province of Leon, much research has been conducted on family issues, focusing on rural areas. These studies have analysed patterns of adaptation in the region as regards three variables wholly linked to social reproduction: marriage, co-residence and the division of property.

  6. Careers in virology: teaching at a primarily undergraduate institution.

    Kushner, David B


    A faculty position at a primarily undergraduate institution requires working with undergraduates in both the classroom and the research lab. Graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are interested in such a career should understand that faculty at these institutions need to teach broadly and devise research questions that can be addressed safely and with limited resources compared to a research I university. Aspects of, and ways to prepare for, this career will be reviewed herein. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Rural Lending Reform



    Impended by the lack of a rural financial service network, farmers in China are prone to encounter many difficulties when attempting to secure loans. According to statistics, agriculture accounted for 14.8 percent of China's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003, but it only used no more than 6 percent of outstanding loans released by all China's financial institutions.

  8. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    Ballara, Marcela


    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  9. Transport Costs and Rural Development

    Maureen Kilkenny


    Can rural development be assisted by improving accessibility? This paper describes how transport costs condition the choices by firms and people to concentrate in cities or to spread out across agricultural hinterlands and considers the impacts of zero and relatively high agricultural transport costs.

  10. Determinants of changes in agriculture and rural areas in the Piła sub-region in the light of factor analysis

    Andrzej Czyżewski


    of road and social infrastructure in municipalities in the Piła sub-region and it explained 9.15% of the communality. These factors were induced by natural conditions, farm production constraints, the level of entrepreneurship, the situation on the labour market, which contributed to the development of sub-urbanization and the development of road and social infrastructure, as well as their derivatives, such as income levels, development of the building industry and early school education. Agriculture destimulated the development of municipalities in the Piła sub-region during the period under study.

  11. Rural poverty and export farming in Guatemala.


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on rural poverty and the dualistic nature of agrarian structures (dualistic farming) in Guatemala - examines level and trend of rural poverty through indicators such as household income, housing, illiteracy and nutrition; notes paradox of high rate of agricultural development and severe poverty in rural areas; analyses nature of agrarian system leading to internal migration of peasant farmers and aspects of rural employment; focuses on high economic growth and l...

  12. Perspective On Biomass Carbon Industrialization of Organic Waste from Agriculture and Rural Areas in China%试论我国农业和农村有机废弃物生物质碳产业化

    潘根兴; 林振衡; 李恋卿; 张阿凤; 郑金伟; 张旭辉


    Vast sources and huge amount of bio-wastes from agriculture and animal husbandry production and municipal disposal urge optimal treatment for biomass and nutrient recycling. Developing efficient and low energyconsuming biomass carbon industry would be a final solution of these bio-wastes and for producing carbonized products to reuse them in agriculture and to satisfy municipal energy demands in agriculture production and rural life.Recently, medium and small scale biomass carbon production systems have been formulated to carbonize bio-wastes from straw and municipal waste in rural areas and supply multiple products of energy gas and bio-char and soil ameliorator, bio-pesticides amended with bio-char and bio-fuel. In particular, a biomass carbon engineering plant in rural area can provide farmer with syngas, while producing bio-char for recycling in adjacent croplands with relative low capital input. Owing to the utilization of in-situ crop straw and reuse of bio-char as soil amendment, such an engineering plant serves greenhouse gas emission reduction by avoiding biomass burning in field and offsetting coal and electricity consumption, improving agro-production by saving N fertilizer and increasing yield and cleaning rural environment for proper fate of bio-wastes. It is proposed that biomass carbon engineering technology may act as a key tool for low carbon agriculture and recycled agriculture and enhance the capacity for climate change mitigation in agriculture. Build-up of such enterprise including production system, multiple carbon products production and optimal management system would be a bright prospect for biomass waste treatment both for domestic and international competition in the potential C trading framework in the future.%我国农田秸秆和生活垃圾等农业和农村有机废弃物面广量大,其资源化处理一直没有得到根本性解决.开发高效低耗有机废弃物生物质碳工程转化产业化技术,以新型碳质

  13. Making agriculture work for the poor

    Prowse, Martin; Chimhowu, Admos


    This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors that sup......This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors...... that supported these exits. We suggest that three ‘pillars’ can help to make agriculture work for the rural poor – infrastructure, education and information. Second, we summarise recent CPRC work on land tenure, focusing on the relationship between tenure and agricultural productivity....

  14. Agricultural and Environmental Informatics, Governance and Management: Emerging Research Applications

    Andreopoulou, Z.; Manos, B.; Polman, N.B.P.; Viaggi, D.


    Agricultural and Environmental Informatics, Governance and Management: Emerging Research Applications is a state-of-the-art reference book which explores how rural policymakers and stakeholders can use information and communication technologies to sustainably manage agricultural and natural resource

  15. Techno-Economic and dynamic analysis of low velocity wind turbines for rural electrification in agricultural area of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Lipirodjanapong, Sumate; Namboonruang, Weerapol


    This paper presents the analysis of potential wind speed of electrical power generating using for agriculture in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The total area is 1,900 square kilometers. First of all, the agriculture electrical load (AEL) data was investigated from all farming districts in Ratchaburi. Subsequently, the load data was analyzed and classified by the load power and energy consumption at individual district. The wind turbine generator (WTG) at capacity rate of 200w, 500w, 1,000w, and 2,000w were adopted to implement for the AEL in each area at wind speed range of 3 to 6 m/s. This paper shows the approach based on the wind speed at individual district to determine the capacity of WTG using the capacitor factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) in baht per unit under different WTG value rates. Ten locations for wind station installations are practical investigated. Results show that for instance, the Damnoen Sa-duak (DN-04) one of WTG candidate site is identically significant for economic investment of installing rated WTG. The results of COE are important to determine whether a wind site is good or not.

  16. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.


    within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD......Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...

  17. 服务三农背景下农村职业学校发展存在的问题及策略初探——来自X职业学校的案例研究%Problems and Strategies of Vocational Education in Rural Area under the Background of Service for "Rural area,Agriculture and Farmer"

    王建梁; 魏体丽


    Vocational education in rural area is the focus of vocational education development of China, but the main body of the vocational education vocational school still confront with many difficulties which confined it' s service for "rural area ,agriculture and farmer" . This paper will find out the problems of vocational school in ru- ral area through ?empirical research in a vocational school named X of rural area. The problems are : the fund are too low ,and it' s improper for use ; the recruit became difficult gradually; the subjects setting is not scientific; the teachers are not excellent enough; graduates' employment has not a high quality. To solve these problems , the researcher gave some suggestions as follows: the responsibility of the government should be enforced to transfer the fund from province government to the vocational school; subjects setting should be scientific and proper ; vocation- al education should be more attractive to solve the problem of recruitment; teacher quality should be increased.%农村职业教育是我国当前职业教育发展的重点,但农村职业教育的主体——农村职业学校还面临着这样那样的困难,严重制约着服务三农作用的发挥。通过对X职业学校的实地调研,探索农村职业学校存在的问题,并针对这些问题提出促进农村职业学校发展的相应策略。

  18. 陕西省农村劳动力非农就业趋势分析%Study on the Non-agriculture Employment Trends of Rural Labor Force in Shaanxi Province

    钱海燕; 汪雯


    Descriptive statistics were provided by analyzing the micro data obtained from surveys of 6 counties in Shaanxi Province by the 2009-2010 Rural Labor Force Project of Beijing Forestry University. The results showed that non-agriculture employment of rural labor force is increasing, especially in the tertiary industry. More migrant workers move to the economically developed areas: job-seeking methods become more diverse based upon the empirical conclusions, five policy suggestions from aspects of technical training, public service, employment channel, household registration system were put forward, such as empowering migrant workers, creating more job opportunities and improving the security system.%基于2009~2010年北京林业大学农村劳动力项目入户调查得到的陕西省6个县的微观数据,统计了非农就业者10年的工作经历,分析其在职业选择、就业地点、就业途径方面呈现的趋势和相关性.结果表明:农村劳动力非农就业所占比例不断提高;省内转移与跨省转移并存,逐渐趋向于跨省就业;在就业途径中自主就业与社会关系网络都发挥着巨大作用.最后从技能培训、公共服务、就业渠道、户籍制度等多个层面提出了增强农民工就业能力、创造就业机会和完善保障制度等政策建议.

  19. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Mohammad S. Allahyari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.


    Dariusz KUSZ


    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  1. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Marczyk, Jesse


    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  2. Making agriculture work for the poor

    Prowse, Martin; Chimhowu, Admos


    This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors...... that supported these exits. We suggest that three ‘pillars’ can help to make agriculture work for the rural poor – infrastructure, education and information. Second, we summarise recent CPRC work on land tenure, focusing on the relationship between tenure and agricultural productivity....


    Yulianna Mokanyuk


    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of socialization in education and educational environment in rural and mountain schools. The author analyzes the characteristics of vocational guidance for adolescents; components of career guidance in schools in rural and mountainous areas. The author believes that the need to create and implement proactive forms and technologies to learn. It is primarily about school degree, since it is in the high school age formed the basis of social identity formation. This motivated the study of the methodological aspects of the education of pupils in schools in rural and mountainous areas. Targeting high school students for professional work in general secondary education system needs rethinking science, the result of which should be the introduction of educational practice new meaning of educational work, new forms of career guidance. Before modern rural and mountain schools acute problem enhance career guidance activities. The main content of professional orientation of young people in rural areas is to cultivate students' professional interests to sustainable agriculture in the daily academic and extracurricular activities. In this connection it is necessary to start adequate training for innovative development of rural and mountainous areas in need of systematic approach to training process that involves complex requirements, which form a system of nature.

  4. Where Should Agricultural Education Go From Here?

    Coombs, Philip H.


    The paper is a summary of some impressions of agricultural education that my colleagues and I gained during the past two years in the course of conducting an international study of non-formal education for rural development. (Author)

  5. Perceived Effect of Agricultural Transformation Agenda on ...


    ... CABI and Scopus ... This study assessed the perceived effect of Agricultural Transformation. Agenda (ATA) on .... environmental constraints, corruption and lack of viable development to rural areas as a ...

  6. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth


    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  7. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    Weidong; JIN


    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.

  8. The direct economic impact of alternative types of the rural tourism

    Simona Miškolci


    Full Text Available Rural tourism has come to occupy a prominent position in the debate about rural restructuring in all OECD countries, partly because of demand changes which favour rural tourism and partly because rural agencies recognise a need to provide economic activities with potential for growth in a rural economy in which traditional providers of rural employment (such as agriculture have been shedding labour at a rapid rate. Well-designed strategy is essential to its success in impacting on the rural economy. The structures for collaboration and co-operation must be developed and combined with a process of education and training. Co-operative effort must be effective and sustainable. The tourism related businesses should not be isolated from the larger community and its issues.The principal motivation for a community, business or region to serve tourists is generally economic. An individual business is interested primarily in its own revenues and costs, while a community or region is concerned with tourism’s overall contribution to the economy, as well as social, fiscal and environmental impacts. A good understanding of tourism’s economic impacts is therefore important for the tourism industry, government officials, and the community as a whole.The principal objective of the study, that is reported here, was to determine the potential income of farmers from the provision of agro-tourism services. First, the paper reviews selected results of the visitor spending survey in alternative types of rural tourism of the region Southeast (Czech Republic; second the direct economic benefit of the agro-tourism in this region is estimated, and finally, critical factors reducing the effectiveness of agro-tourism as a rural development instrument are drawn.

  9. Primarily nonlinear effects observed in a driven asymmetrical vibrating wire

    Hanson, Roger J.; Macomber, H. Kent; Morrison, Andrew C.; Boucher, Matthew A.


    The purpose of the work reported here is to further experimentally explore the wide variety of behaviors exhibited by driven vibrating wires, primarily in the nonlinear regime. When the wire is driven near a resonant frequency, it is found that most such behaviors are significantly affected by the splitting of the resonant frequency and by the existence of a ``characteristic'' axis associated with each split frequency. It is shown that frequency splitting decreases with increasing wire tension and can be altered by twisting. Two methods are described for determining the orientation of characteristic axes. Evidence is provided, with a possible explanation, that each axis has the same orientation everywhere along the wire. Frequency response data exhibiting nonlinear generation of transverse motion perpendicular to the driving direction, hysteresis, linear generation of perpendicular motion (sometimes tubular), and generation of motion at harmonics of the driving frequency are exhibited and discussed. Also reported under seemingly unchanging conditions are abrupt large changes in the harmonic content of the motion that sometimes involve large subharmonics and harmonics thereof. Slow transitions from one stable state of vibration to another and quasiperiodic motions are also exhibited. Possible musical significance is discussed. .

  10. Agriculture district financing mode research based on Chendu rural city%基于成都田园城市的农村地区理财方式研究



    In the construction of Chengdu"world modern garden city"of the process,the rural residents walk in the way of the urbanization,their assets structure changes,their important goal is to realize the value of the assets.In the policy's support,in financial institutions with,if they can reasonable choice bank deposit,investment funds,securities investment and investment tools,to enhance the agricultural production technology level,so they can achieve asset management goal,realize the harmonious development between city and countryside.%在成都建设"世界现代田园城市"的过程中,农村居民走在城市化的道路上,他们的资产结构发生了变化,他们的重要目标是实现资产的保值增值。在政策的支持下,在金融机构的配合下,如果他们能够合理选择银行存款、基金投资、证券投资等投资工具,提高农业生产技术水平,那么他们就能够达到资产管理目标,实现城乡和谐发展。

  11. Sino-German research on rural development starts in Yunnan


    @@ A Sino-German project entitled Rural Development by Land Use Diversification: Stakeholder- based Strategies and Integrative Technologies for Agricultural Landscapes in Mountainous Southwest China started recently.

  12. Research on Agricultural Sci-tech Information Service Supply in Rural Areas of Guizhou——A Case Study on a Village in Liuzhi Special Administration%贵州农村农业科技信息服务供给研究——以六枝特区某乡为例

    许鹿; 邱珍


    完善农村科技信息服务是农村发展的一个重要方式.运用案例研究,在问卷调查、深度访谈等基础上,对贵州省农村科技信息服务供给中存在的问题进行描述,对存在问题的原因进行分析,并提出了相应的对策及建议.%ggestions wereImproving agricultural sci-tech information service is an important channel for Cuizhou rural development. Based on case study,questionnaire survey,in-depth interview and other research methods,this paper described the problems of a-gricultural sci-tech information service supply in rural areas of Cuizhou and their causes. Corresponding countermeasures and su put forward.




    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  14. Integrated rural development: commitment and policy-frame.

    Patel, A R


    India's 6th plan accords top priority to rural development with emphasis on development of agriculture and allied activities and rural industries. Rural growth has been slow and rural proverty has been increasing, because most of the low income groups in the rural areas depend heavily on agriculture for their livelihood. Primary constraints in the development of rural residents arise from their dependence on agriculture for livelihood, the importance of nonagricultural sources of income, and the compounding effects of natural calamities. Rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people. It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorest residents of rural areas -- small farmers, tenants, landless, rural artisans, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Rural development must be designed to increase production and raise productivity. India's 6th plan has recognized that the distribution of unemployment and poverty as well as the potential for development of agriculture and related activities varies both among and within regions. Efforts have now been made to make the programs area specific. The new approach aims at integrating field programs reflecting the economic activity of the rural family whose employment and development is the primary objective. Policy directed at ensuring a flow of new field-tested technical knowledge relevant to small holder production is essential for rural development success. A strong commitment to rural development policies at the national level is necessary if the impact on the problems of rural poverty is to be effective and broad-based.

  15. Development of Rural Banks in Yellow River Delta


    The status quo of new-type rural financial institutions in the Yellow River delta is summarized.It is pointed out that these financial institutions have improved the development of economy concerning agriculture,rural areas and peasants,but due to the shortage of capital,deficit and many other reasons,the outlets is fewer,which can not serve the agriculture,rural areas and peasants well.The necessity of developing rural banks in the Yellow River delta is introduced:firstly,rural banks can serve the agriculture,rural areas and peasants well with flexible system and management methods.Secondly,rural banks can serve and support the vulnerable groups of the three rural issues concerning agriculture,countryside and famers well.Thirdly,rural banks provide strong support for the all around development of rural business concerning the agriculture,rural areas and peasants.Fourthly,rural banks have significant advantages in serving the agriculture,rural areas and peasants.The probability of developing rural banks in the Yellow River delta is analyzed from the three advantages of policy,environment and economy.The challenges faced by the development of rural banks are studied as follows:firstly,the short-term profits are hard to take effect.Secondly,the capital quantity of rural banks is large.Thirdly,the pressure of competition and operation is great.Thus the countermeasures of developing rural banks in the Yellow River delta are put forward:for instance,clarifying the service object in a certain area;using the minority to bring along the majority;reducing the risk of asymmetric information by information technology.

  16. Countermeasures of Rural Public Product Supply Problems in New Socialist Rural Construction


    The status of rural public goods' supply plays a decisive role in China agricultural development and in new socialist rural construction.For the current situation of insufficient supply of public goods in rural areas,this article explained the significance of strengthening the construction of rural public goods supply system,analyzed the reasons for the shortage of rural public goods supply,and proposed strategies and measures to solve problems of rural public goods supply,which are of advantages to enhance...

  17. The Reform of China's Rural Land System



    This paper discusses the reform of China's rural land system in the past more than 20 years. It reviews the course of China's rural land system reform since 1978 and the enormous contribution that the household contract responsibility system made to China's agricultural and rural development. Then it summarizes the current situation and existing problems in China's rural land system. Finally, it offers some policy suggestions on how to perfect the rural land system.

  18. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    Carter Leal, L.M.


    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  19. The Rural Household Microfinance Preliminary Study--Take Agricultural Bank of China of Linyi%中国农户小额信贷问题初探--以中国农业银行临沂市分行为例

    胡晓楠; 韩兴勇


    解决好农村、农民、农业问题关系到中国经济的可持续发展。党的十八大报告中把解决三农问题、推动城乡发展一体化、促进农民增收作为党工作的重中之重,需要加快构建适应三农特点的农村金融体系。因此,农户小额信贷成为农村金融机构对农户进行金融服务、构建农村信用体系的重要方式。农业银行临沂市分行大力拓展农户小额贷款业务,围绕三农市场定位,通过不同的贷款模式,有效的满足了不同层次的农户贷款需求,成为支持新农村建设和农民增收的主力军。笔者就临沂市的农业银行的工作实际,通过实证和历史比较的分析方法,对农户小额贷款问题进行探讨。农业银行开展农户小额贷款有利于农户收入和农村经济的增长,并提出应扩大农户信贷规模、完善信用体系等方面的建议。%Whether the issues facing rural areas, peasantry and agriculture can be solved properly will have an important impact on the sustainable development of the Chinese economy in the future. The report from the 18th Congress of the Communist Party of China put forward three aspects as the top priority of the party work, including solving the issues about rural areas, peasantry and agriculture, promoting the integration of urban and rural development as well as increasing peasantry’s income. In order to realize this target, we need to accelerate the construction of a suitable financial system, which is adapted to the characteristics of the rural areas, peasantry and agriculture. Therefore, microfinance for peasantry will be an important way of the rural financial institutions to provide financial services for peasantry as well as building the rural credit system. Agricultural Bank of China of Linyi City Branch has vigorously expanded the business of microfinance for peasantry by market positioning around rural areas, peasantry and agriculture. Through a

  20. Investigating the limits of multi functional agriculture as the dominant frame for Green Care in agriculture in Flanders and The Netherlands

    Dessein, J.; Bock, B.B.; Krom, de M.P.M.M.


    European agriculture and rural areas are facing multiple socio-economic changes, including a transition from an agriculture-based to a service-based economy. This restructuring forces agricultural and rural actor-networks to reformulate their (self-)definitions. One reformulation prevailing both in

  1. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  2. Study on Circulation and Management of Rural Land Use Right

    Wanjiang WANG


    Currently,agriculture and rural economy have entered a new development stage. According to market demands and comparative advantages of regional resources,strategic adjustment of agricultural structure and realizing transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture have become primary tasks. Land is the essential element of agricultural production,making innovation upon rural land use system and establishing flexible and effective land circulation system concern efficiency and optimization of agricultural resource allocation and development of rural element market. With more and more farmers engaged in secondary and tertiary industries,land left by those farmers is circulated to those farmers willing to do farming. Rural land circulation is inevitable trend of economic and social development,but it is a progressive process. To realize smooth rural land circulation,there must be standardized system.

  3. Marketing mix for rural development in Romania

    POLGÁR (DESZKE Klára-Dalma


    Full Text Available The sustainable development supposes a uniformly increasing of living level for the entire population of a nation. The reducing of disparities between the urban and rural regions is a purpose of the rural development policy, as a part of Community Agriculture Policy and also subject of European financing programs. A marketing approach of rural development could ensure an integrated implementation of LEADER program in Romania. This paper defines the components of marketing mix for rural development and their content for Romanian rural development marketing.

  4. 基于农村信用体系建设的涉农经济组织和农户信用提升研究%Research on Agriculture Economic Organizations and Farmers Credit Enhancement Based on the Construction of Rural Credit System

    吕罡; 王静; 周宗放; 李丽


    我国涉农经济组织和农户的信用存在一些难以规避的缺陷,导致农业贷款难的困境。本文从涉农经济组织和农户信用道德建设,信用制度与法律建设,产权制度,信用环境,信用标准及信用等级评定,信用组织创新,征信和信用担保中介服务市场,农村信用管理等八个方面阐述了农村信用体系建设的基本思路,并讨论了涉农经济组织和农户的信用提升问题。%Agriculture economic organizations and farmers credit in China has some unavoidable defects that lead to the plight of agricultural loans difficult.This paper specifically elaborated the essential train for the rural credit system construction from eight aspects.They are agriculture economic organizations and farmers' moral construction,credit system and legal construction,property right,credit environment,credit standards and rating,credit organization innovation,credit and credit guarantee intermediary services market,and rural credit management.Furthermore,it also discussed agriculture economic organizations and farmers credit enhancement.

  5. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communit

  6. Rural equity in Costa Rica: myth or reality?

    Peek P; Raabe C


    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on nature and trends of rural area poverty and income distribution in Costa Rica - briefly outlines historical background to the agricultural economy; discusses recent trends in agricultural production, agricultural mechanization, farm size, etc.; examines land reform, effect of economic recession in the 1970s and agricultural income. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  7. International Experience Comparison and Reference on College Service to Agricultural Development and Rural Economic Construction%高校服务农业发展和农村经济建设的国际经验比较与借鉴

    孙鸿雁; 郭翔宇


    针对处于农业发展和农村经济建设不同阶段和水平的美国和日本,结合自身发展特点,找出不同国家高校为农业发展提供服务的共同特征,从中得到我国农业高校服务新农村建设的启示。%According to agriculture development and rural economic development of the different stages and levels in American and Japanese,combined with its own features,the common features of service that the different university provided for agricultural development were found out,the solution to agricultural university service to the construction of new countryside was obtained.

  8. Rural Development: Part 6, S. 1612-A Bill to Establish a Revenue-Sharing Program for Rural Development. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, September 20, 1971.

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on S. 1612, a bill to establish a revenue sharing program for rural development, are presented in this document. Testimony presented in these hearings includes that of Federal and State legislators from North Dakota, Minnesota, West Virginia, and Georgia and representatives from the following: Arkansas Game…

  9. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition-specific, agricultural and market-based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya.

    Hotz, Christine; Pelto, Gretel; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock


    Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market-based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food-based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify 'problem nutrients' for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor-level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi-sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies.

  10. Constraints and opportunities for implementing nutrition‐specific, agricultural and market‐based approaches to improve nutrient intake adequacy among infants and young children in two regions of rural Kenya

    Pelto, Gretel; Armar‐Klemesu, Margaret; Ferguson, Elaine F.; Chege, Peter; Musinguzi, Enock


    Abstract Several types of interventions can be used to improve nutrient intake adequacy in infant and young child (IYC) diets, including fortified foods, home fortification, nutrition education and behaviour change communication (BCC) in addition to agricultural and market‐based strategies. However, the appropriate selection of interventions depends on the social, cultural, physical and economic context of the population. Derived from two rural Kenyan populations, this analysis combined information from: (1) a quantitative analysis to derive a set of food‐based recommendations (FBRs) to fill nutrient intake gaps in IYC diets and identify ‘problem nutrients’ for which intake gaps require solutions beyond currently available foods and dietary patterns, and (2) an ethnographic qualitative analysis to identify contextual factors posing opportunities or constraints to implementing the FBRs, including perceptions of cost, convenience, accessibility and appropriateness of the recommended foods for IYC diets and other social or physical factors that determine accessibility of those foods. Opportunities identified included BCC to increase the acceptability and utilisation of green leafy vegetables (GLV) and small fish and agronomic interventions to increase the productivity of GLV and millet. Value chains for millet, beans, GLV, milk and small fish should be studied for opportunities to increase their accessibility in local markets. Processor‐level interventions, such as partially cooked fortified dry porridge mixes or unfortified cereal mixes incorporating millet and beans, may increase the accessibility of foods that provide increased amounts of the problem nutrients. Multi‐sectoral actors and community stakeholders should be engaged to assess the feasibility of implementing these locally appropriate strategies. PMID:26778801

  11. Rural income and forest reliance in highland Guatemala.

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan


    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages (n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as 'regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  12. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Sergio Rivaroli


    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  13. Rural Aging

    ... Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  14. Urban Agriculture:The Major Direction of Future Agricultural Development in Huainan City

    DU Xing-ying


    On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.

  15. Rural Social Work - Theory and Practice.

    Collier, Ken

    Because life styles, values, social institutions, and "survival activities" differ in undeveloped rural areas from those in industrial societies, the techniques and approaches used by rural social workers must be adjusted to meet the needs of the population being dealt with. In forager and agricultural societies, social workers and other…

  16. Specialists and the Future of Rural Life in Russia

    Shirokalova, G. S.; Deriabina, O. N.


    The future of Russian agriculture and rural community depends on the willingness of skilled workers to accept conditions of village life and the demands of agricultural work. Surveys of potential rural specialists indicate that they are concerned about the lack of up-to-date technologies, the difficult working conditions and low prestige of…

  17. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson


    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  18. 基于选择模型的农村劳动力非农就业影响因素分析——以陕西武功县为例%Analysis of Influence Factors Based on the Choice Model of Rural Labor Force Non-agricultural Employment — A Case Study of Wugong County in Shaanxi

    尚进; 王征兵


    Study the non-agricultural employment problems of rural labor force have great significance of increasing peasant's income and promote dual economic structure transformation. Along with market reform deepening, non-agricultural income was gradually becoming the main part of farmers' income growth, the trend of non-agricultural was obviously. According to the survey data of 83 peasants' household in Wugong County in August of 2011. Establish Probit Model as the representative of choice model, study on the condition of education degree, age, gender, training, marital status, effect of village cadre and land area per capita influence non-agricultural employment. Study found that, marital status, training status and family land area per capita are not significant. Gender, age, education and role of village cadres were significant. Based on the analysis results suggested that the rural education should greatly developed, the training of rural labor force should enhanced. To improve rural social security system and speed up the pace of construction of small towns. Construct efficient, lower energy consumption and environmental protection township enterprises. Foster new growth point of rural labor force employment.%为了研究农村劳动力的非农就业问题对提高农民收入,促进农民充分就业,推动二元经济结构转型有着重要意义.基于2011年8月陕西省武功县83个农户的调查数据,建立Probit为代表的选择模型,研究教育程度、性别、年龄、受培训状况、婚姻状态、村干部作用以及人均土地面积对非农就业决策的影响.研究结果表明:婚姻状况,受培训状况和家庭人均土地面积因素不显著,而性别、年龄、接受教育年限和村干部作用因素显著,基于分析结果提出应大力发展农村教育事业,加强对农村劳动力的培训力度;完善农村社会保障体系,加快小城镇建设步伐,发展高效、低耗、环保的乡镇企业,培育农村劳动力就业新的增长点.

  19. Agricultural Productive Waste Resource Treatment and Influencing Factors in Rural Hubei%农业生产性废弃物资源处理方式及其影响因素分析——来自湖北省的调查数据

    蒋琳莉; 张俊飚; 何可; 田云


    本文基于湖北省农村地区的调查数据,探讨了农户对农膜、农药瓶及化肥包装物等农业生产性废弃物处理方式的选择,并运用Logistic回归模型分析了其影响因素.研究结果表明:农户对农业生产性废弃物资源的回收利用行为主要受到农业收入、农户受教育程度、务农年限、是否参加循环农业相关培训以及是否建立村废弃物集中处理设施的影响.其中,农户受教育程度、农业收入、是否建立村废弃物集中处理设施以及是否参加循环农业相关培训对农户回收行为的影响方向为正;务农年限对农户回收行为的影响方向为负.因此,增加农村废弃物集中处理设施的建立,组织农户参加相关培训,提高农户农业收入以及提升农户的受教育水平,都将引导农户选择科学环保的农业废弃物资源回收处理方式.%A large accumulation of agricultural waste has caused serious environmental pollution and is limiting the sustainable development of agriculture in China.Thus,how to utilize agricultural waste resource efficiently has become a problem in most countries.Here,based on surveys of rural areas in Hubei Province,we discussed farmers treatment of agricultural productive waste resource and its influencing factors using Ordinal Logistic regression modeling.The agricultural productive waste resource included agricultural film,pesticide bottle and fertilizer plastic packaging.We found that a small percentage (18.44%) of farmers sold the agricultural productive waste resource to Recycle Bin for considering its economic value or environmental protection.The important factors that influence farmer recycling behavior are as follows (in order of descending influence):farmer farming duration; village centralized agricultural waste treatment facilities; farmer agricultural incomes; whether to participate in recycling agriculture training; and their level of education.The establishment of village

  20. Rural development limitations at the transitional terms

    Nikolić Marija


    Full Text Available European countries have been reaffirtmating the role and the significance of agricultural multifunctionality for rural areas development. The transition countries have to make the assessment of their weaknesses and opportunities before facing the necessary significant investments in agriculture, rural settlements and deprived rural areas. Overall economic development should provide for further agriculture employment reduction, along with taking measures for the agriculture farms modernization and changes in the structure of agriculture production, within the process of integrated rural development. Declining population at mountain areas might be a prerequisite for intensified farm restructuring, namely through development reorientation, achieving more balanced agriculture economy, along with rediscovering comparative advantages in the development of new activities linked to social changes and changes in lifestyle - green tourism, leisure activities, health care, as well as to forestry, traditional crafts etc. Subsequent to European experience in maintenance of the necessary level of spatial development in sparsely populated and neglected rural areas, the development of priority mountain areas in Serbia should be defined at national level, and the new system of support should facilitate the preparation and the implementation of different projects for integrated rural development of this priority areas.

  1. 7 CFR 23.4 - State Rural Development Advisory Council.


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State Rural Development Advisory Council. 23.4 Section... Program § 23.4 State Rural Development Advisory Council. (a) The chief administrative officer of the administratively responsible State Land Grant University will appoint a State Rural Development Advisory...

  2. 7 CFR 2003.10 - Rural Development State Offices.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural Development State Offices. 2003.10 Section 2003... (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS ORGANIZATION Functional Organization of the Rural Development Mission Area § 2003.10 Rural Development State Offices. (a) Headed by State Directors, State Offices...

  3. 75 FR 32736 - Notice of Solicitation for Members of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education...


    ... research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development.... American Colleges of Veterinary Medicine Category T. Rural Economic Development Category U. National..., Extension, Education and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education and Economics, USDA. ACTION...

  4. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail:; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail:; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail:


    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  5. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    René Trappel


    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  6. Structure and Trends of Rural Employment: Canada in the Context of OECD Countries

    Cunningham, Ron; Bollman, Ray D.


    In 1991, 33 percent of Canada's population lived in predominantly rural regions. Employment growth in rural regions averaged 1.3 percent per year over the 1980s, ranking fourth among OECD countries. In 1991, only 11 percent of the rural workforce in Canada were working in agriculture, forestry or fishing. Within rural regions, employment growth was highest in rural areas adjacent to metropolitan centres. Business services was the fastest growing sector in all types of regions, but rural regio...

  7. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    White, Emma; Roy, David


    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by



    Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the la...

  9. Competences in Demand within the Spanish Agricultural Engineering Sector

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis


    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers…

  10. Agriculture in the Classroom: Early 1900s Style.

    Hillison, John


    Currently advocated agriculture teaching in the elementary classroom has historical precedents. Elementary agriculture curriculum in the early 20th century often followed Pestalozzi's recommendations and used hands-on activities such as nature study. By 1951, 21 states required agricultural education in rural elementary schools. (SK)

  11. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development ...



    Mar 20, 2017 ... ISSN:1998-0507 doi: Submitted: January 27, 2017 ... technologies are evolved (Bolan et al.,. 2010). Adewumi ... attracts houseflies, constitutes health hazard to man, animals and thus becomes a menace to ... Perceptions have been shown to be good determinants ...

  12. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development

    Adoption of Bee Keeping Technologies by Farmers in Imo State · EMAIL FULL ... Effect of Different Levels of Molasses Fed Through Drinking Water on Growth and ... Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) Meal as Feed Ingredient in the Diet of Finisher ...

  13. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    Ouyyanont, P


    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place.

  14. Exploring Urban Migrate Intention of Rural Residents in Traditional Agricultural Area Undertaking Urbanization Process:Based on Questionnaire Data of Zhoukou, Henan%城镇化进程中传统农区村民城镇迁居意愿分析--基于河南周口问卷调查数据

    王利伟; 冯长春; 许顺才


    Rural-to-urban migration has been research hotspots since the 1950s. Perspectives of migration re-search diversify from econometric model to application of social theory during the last sixty years. Most of re-searches focus on regional migration and migrant workers′integration into urban life from city perspective.Up to now, few studies pay attention to rural residents′intention of migrating to towns. Recently the"new-type na-tional urbanization plan (2014-2020)"reemphasizes on people-oriented basic urbanization ideas. In the realis-tic context of difficult integration of floating population into the city, increasing value of agricultural land and added assets, increasing volume of agricultural land transfer of use right, it is of great significance to analyze rural residents′migration intention and its influencing factors from a bottom-up perspective. It also has far-reaching influence for the potentiality of future urbanization and the choice of urbanization path. In this arti-cle,Zhoukou in Henan Province is taken as a research example, rural residents′intention of migrating to town and its influencing factors are analyzed. Logit econometric model is utilized to study the influences on rural residents′migration intention of rural residents′attributes and comprehensive evaluation of urban environ-ment. Altogether 514 questionnaires samples were collected from 17 traditional agricultural villages distribut-ed in 10 administrative unit of county level.There are two important findings:1) There is an obvious relation-ship between rural residents′attributes and migration intention. The results show that three groups are more in-clined to migrate to town, who are under 40, graduated from high school ortechnical school and have annual in-come over 30000 RMBS.2) The satisfaction evaluation of urban comprehensive environment has a strong influ-ence onrural residents’migration intention. Teach quality,consumption service andemployment opportunities of

  15. Research on Dynamic Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Agricultural Disaster Degree

    Lin; QI; Chunlong; XIAN


    Agricultural insurance is an important system of rural financial support for agricultural development.Based on the analysis of agricultural insurance improving farmers’anti-risk ability and reducing the damage,the dynamic relationship is discussed with the adoption of error correction model and the data of Guangdong province between 1997 and 2010.The result shows that the promotion of agricultural insurance depth is beneficial to reducing agricultural damage degree and there exists long-term equilibrium relationship.More precisely,agricultural insurance depth is the Granger reason of agricultural damage degree while the reverse relationship has not been supported yet.Based on the empirical analysis,this paper discusses the characteristics and foundation of agricultural production as well as market characteristics of agricultural insurance to further explore the necessity of financial support.

  16. Rurale woonmilieus in stad en land : Plattelandsbeelden, vraag naar en aanbod van rurale woonmilieus

    Heins, Saskia


    Rural areas in the Netherlands are changing from an agricultural production space to a multifunctional consumption space. Consumption activities such as recreation, tourism, nature conservation and landscape protection have been introduced and consequently expanded. Housing can also be considered a

  17. 河南省城乡居民食品消费水平对农产品物流的影响分析%On the Influence Analysis of Food Consumption Level between Urban and Rural Residents in Henan Province to the Agricultural Products Logistics

    夏胜林; 程腊梅


    文中运用回归分析方法,分析了河南省城乡居民食品消费水平对农产品物流的影响情况。城镇居民食品消费水平和农村居民食品消费水平对农产品物流有着不同的影响方式,前者是线性回归方程,后者是二次方程。最后,定性分析了城镇和农村居民食品消费水平对农产品物流产生不同影响方式的原因,城镇化进程、居民收入水平的提高、食品消费需求的变化等是造成影响差异的重要原因。%This paper uses regression analysis to analyze the influence of the food consumption level between urban and rural residents in Henan Province to the agricultural products logistics.The urban residents'food consumption level and the rural residents'food consumption level have different effects ways on agricultural products logistics.The former is the linear regression equation,and the latter is quadratic equation.Finally,qualitative analyzing the causes of which the food consumption level between urban and rural residents has different impacts to the agricultural products logistics.The process of urbanization,the increase of residents'income,changes in food consumption needs are important causes for affecting differences.

  18. Chinese Rural labors Transfer under the Coordination of Urban-Rural Development


    The strategic significance of Chinese rural labor transfer is expounded.It is conducive to solving the three agricultural problems concerning agriculture,rural areas,and farmers and coordinating the urban and rural development;promoting the rational distribution of human resources and realizing the growth of national economy;restructuring industrial structure and improving Chinese market competitiveness.The problems in the transfer of Chinese rural labors are analyzed,which include the low overall cultural level of rural labors;imperfect organization developmental;weak management mechanism and imperfect supporting measures.The rational paths for Chinese rural labor transfer are pointed out,including break the urban and rural dual structure and realize the free move of rural labors;strengthen the organization construction to provide high-quality socialized service for rural labor transfer;perfect security system to foster favorable social environment for rural labor transfer;establish scientific management mechanism to realize the sustainable rural labor transfer.

  19. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj


    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  20. Typology and development characteristics of rural areas in Slovenia

    Anton Perpar


    Full Text Available In the article the typology of rural areas in Slovenia is presented. In theresearch some important indicators of the rural areas have been analysedand three basic types of rural areas have been defined: suburban, typicalrural areas and depopulation areas. In the continuation detailed comparisonanalysis of the situation in defined rural areas on the sample of ruralareas is stated. The analysis is based on demographic, agricultural, economicand social indicators. A sociological part of the research is based oninterviews with leaders of local communities including opinions about thesituation and opportunities of sample rural areas and their proposals andremarks for the rural development policy makers.

  1. Rural Supremacy

    Shah, Meera


    The success of any brand depends on it acceptance by the consumers. This project highlights the rural buying behaviour. The rural consumers tend to show a closed mind towards branded goods and services. Though the current scenario is improved than the past but still large amount of rural market is untapped. The marketers now understand the potential at the bottom of the pyramid but there are doubts regarding the way this market can be reached and converted into customers. Many factors like in...

  2. Rural Supremacy

    Shah, Meera


    The success of any brand depends on it acceptance by the consumers. This project highlights the rural buying behaviour. The rural consumers tend to show a closed mind towards branded goods and services. Though the current scenario is improved than the past but still large amount of rural market is untapped. The marketers now understand the potential at the bottom of the pyramid but there are doubts regarding the way this market can be reached and converted into customers. Many factors like in...


    Sebastian Stępień


    Full Text Available The second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy is an important element of support for Polish rural areas, due to the need to improve the competitiveness of agricultural producers, to transform the employment structure, to boost infrastructure development and to implement tasks related to the protection of the environment. Thus, the size of the funds of the Rural Development Programme (RDP for 2014–2020 and their allocation to different tasks is essential for the future of rural areas. The aim of the article was to evaluate the RDP for 2014–2020 from the point of view of the potential economic consequences of its implementation. This rating was made in two areas: the budget, and the construction of selected activities. Data on the budget and the allocation of funds in the new financial period indicate that the RDP limits expenditures on some of the objectives, primarily related to infrastructure and entrepreneurship. The priority actions are, however, pro-investment and modernization, and improving the position of farmers in the food chain. There are also programs of a social nature, aimed at small farms and activities with low added value (e.g. less favored areas, or LFA. Reducing the budget of the RDP forced implementation of some solutions, e.g. degressive payments and limits on the area and economic size of farms; thereby both the smallest and larger farms could be excluded from part of the support.

  4. The Road Towards Sustainable Rural Development : Issues of Theory, Policy and Research Practice

    Marsden, T.; Banks, J.; Renting, H.; Ploeg, van der J.D.


    Developing a more widespread diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices as part of progressing rural sustainable development is being hampered by different modes of environmental social thought. This introduction to this special issue on Reconstituting of nature through rural development practi

  5. The Change Path of Agricultural Production Outsourcing

    Juan Zhang


    Full Text Available The system of agricultural production outsourcing is a breakpoint for the development of agriculture and immigration worker’s urbanization. The analysis based on framework of the Institutional Change reveals that as a whole,the outsourcing system of agricultural production improves the welfare of society effectively. To some extents,it also can solve the problem of food security. The rural transferring labor-forces who realize the institutional change in the initial stage are is the first Action Group to gain the potential benefits. Local governments are a breakpoint of induced institutional change, which find potential benefits and then change the role of system changes. The central government is in dominant statue during the whole change. The outsourcing is a kind of improvement to the Family Contracted System, also an adaption to an imperfect Chinese rural social security. So the outsourcing has a positive meaning in the rural area.

  6. Agricultural Renaissance


    An old Chinese proverb says that "poverty gives rise to the desire for change," and this may in part explain why 18 farmers from a rural village in east China’s Anhui Province made the bold decision in 1978 to fix farm output quotas per

  7. Oil, gender and agricultural child labour in the Niger Delta region of ...

    ... violent conflicts, crimes, rural-urban migration, environmental degradation, ... The relationship between household size and agricultural child labour and ... Keywords: Gender, Agricultural child labour, Niger Delta, Poverty, Oil, Multinationals.

  8. 76 FR 22667 - Solicitation of Members to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and...


    ... research in the food and agricultural sciences, food retailing and marketing, rural economic development... Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board AGENCY: Research, Education, and Economics... to fill 8 vacancies on the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics...

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Development of Rural Communities by Diversification of Rural Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development

    Manuela Dora Orboi


    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a process taking place at the same time with the complex and sustainable agricultural development; agriculture and the rural area being interdependent sides specific to rural communities. When analysing economic activity in the rural area we should pay a particular attention to the identification of such alternative activities that have a real chance for development and create new jobs that compensate the diminution of labour occupancy degree in agriculture. Opportunities of rural economy represent a source of having alternative income for the population from rural communities in order to escape from poverty and in order to accelerate the social progress in the rural area. Alternative activities with economic, social and cultural impact, providers of jobs and incomes are: the development of agro tourism and rural tourism, processing and promoting foodstuff, local traditional drinks, ecological foodstuff, handicraft and silviculture. Improving the conditions for business in the rural area is a main condition for the generation of economic activities generating jobs in the rural area.


    Bojan Krstić


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is understanding of the importance of financial support for agricultural development and achieved results. The aim is an assessment of the importance of the European Union funds intended for agricultural and rural development. In accordance with the purpose and objectives of the research, we analyze the efficiency of investment in the European Union agricultural funds. Also, the interdependence between agriculture expenditures from the European Union funds and results achieved in agriculture in the European Union countries is examined in this paper. Homogeneity of the European Union countries, according to agricultural expenditures and agricultural results is analyzed. The results of this research highlight the importance of financial support provided from the European Union funds for agricultural and rural development.

  12. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  13. Financial Supporting Tools of Rural Tourism Development in Nitra Self-Governing Region

    Jarábková Jana; Majstríková Ľubica; Kozolka Tomáš


    Rural tourism is one of the opportunities, which can positively influence productivity and incomes in rural areas. European Union set the rural development as part of its priorities. This development has been conducted through several measures aimed at education, cooperation, municipality development, ecological agriculture, diversification of economic activities, etc. Rural tourism is a result of diversification of economic activities towards non-agricultural activities. The paper focuses on...




    Full Text Available The rural areas are rich in their ecological and cultural diversity. The dimension and complexity of the rural communities make difficult a generalization regarding their problems or values, even if some common characteristics exist. For a long time in their existence, the rural communities have relied on the abundance of natural resources. But, in the 20th century, the great technological, political and economical changes have brought a profound transformation in agriculture, and other renewable industrial resources, fact which led the rural communities to a dependency towards these. Although these changes occurred, many reasons for optimism still exist. Involvement of new households in offering touristic services constitutes a new dimension of the development of the rural areas, and on a secondary plane the touristic activity in the rural environment registers new ways of manifestation. Even more, we are able to appreciate the dimensions and evolution of one of the most spectacular social – economic phenomena; the rural tourism.




    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of agriculture in the period 2007-2014, after integration into the European Union. Accession to the European Union marked a new era in the agricultural economy and rural development Romania effectively represents perhaps the strongest factor for pressure rapid reform Romanian agriculture and rural economy. Nationally, agriculture is one of the most important branches of the Romanian economy.

  16. Rural Households


    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...

  17. Going Rural


    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  18. Rural Agrobusiness.

    Treillon, Roland; And Others


    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  19. 山东省部分地区11902名农村居民农业伤害调查%A survey on the agricultural profession-related injuries among 11 902 rural residents in Shandong province

    李志华; 尹卫青; 马红; 刘维量; 李沙沙; 张孟林; 储文杰; 安邦


    Objective To understand the prevalence and risk factors of agricultural activities related injuries among rural residents in Shandong province. Methods A retrospective investigation was conducted among agricultural profession-related workers in 20 villages with multistage cluster sampling method in Shandong province. Four times face-to-face interview were conducted by trained interviewers, including 32 students and local medical personnel under constructed questionnaires.Accidental injuries occurred in the activities or in the agricultural profession-related jobs were recorded, from May 1st 2009 to April 30st 2010. Data was input and analyzed by SPSS 13.0 statistical software. Results A total of 837 cases reported at least 1 job-related injury out of the 11 902 people who had been surveyed in one year. The crude incidence rate was 7.03% and the standardized incidence rate was 7.36%, higher in males (9.01%) than in females (4.10%), X2= 105.53, P=0.000.Children and adolescents (≤ 14 aged) had the higher incidence rate (9.50%), X2=9.70, P=0.008.People working in the area of commercial service related to agricultural products had the highest incidence rate (12.94%). In particular, those occupations that related to agricultural construction or materials appeared to have had higher incidence rates as 16.80% and 15.59% respectively, than other kinds of jobs (X2= 167.30, P=0.000). There were higher proportion of injuries occurred in the roads (28.79%), in the fields(28.08%) during labor work(38.00%) transportation(27.97%), respectively.The seasonality of agricultural injures mostly occurred between June and August, accounted for 47.43%. Major external causes related to injuries were instruments or tools (31.42%) being used,transportation (24.13%) and falls (20.19%). Wounds on limbs took the majority (56.39%). The accidental self-inflicted injury occupied 76.82%, while accidents to passive injuries occupied 11.47%,other kinds accounted for 11.71%. Most of the accidents

  20. 村镇银行支持“三农”发展问题研究——以吉林省磐石市融丰村镇银行为例%Research on the Village Banks' Financial Support for the Development of "the Three Elements Concerning Agriculture,Rural Areas,and Farmers"

    乔永海; 祖龙斌


    "三农"问题一直是国家关注的工作重点。国家不断出台政策法规,支持"三农"事业的发展。本文以吉林省磐石市融丰村镇银行为例,研究其成立三年以来在支持"三农"事业发展方面取得的成绩和存在的问题,并针对问题提出了相关的对策建议。%"Agriculture,Rural Areas,and Farmers" issue has been the focus of national attention.The state has introduced policies and regulations to support the development of "Agriculture,Rural Areas,and Farmers".Village Bank is the new financial institutions that provide credit to local farmers and businesses.This paper analyzes the current situation of PanShi Rongfeng village bank,points out the problems,and put forward suggestions to promote the sustainable development.

  1. A Study on the Rural Elderly's Social Support and Life Satisfaction in the Context of the New Agricultural Insurance%新农保背景下农村老年人的社会支持与生活满意度研究



    通过对福建省农村老年人抽样调查的数据分析,发现农村老年人的生活满意度受到了年龄、身体健康状况、经济状况、新农保的养老金金额以及来自家庭、社区、国家层面的生病照顾、经济支持、生活支持和情感支持的影响。其中,包含新农保在内的经济支持是影响农村老年人生活满意度的最显著因素。%Based on survey data of rural elderly of Fujian province , it has been found that the life satis-faction of the rural elderly is influenced by age , health status , economic status , the amount of new agri-cultural insurance pension and take-care support , economic support , life support and emotional support from family, community, and nation, among which economic support , including new agricultural insur-ance is the most significant factor affecting their life satisfaction .

  2. FDI, agricultural technology progress and transference of redundant rural labor force --theoretical and empirical based on "integrated model"%FDI、农业技术进步与农村剩余劳动力转移——基于“合力模型”的理论与实证研究

    赵德昭; 许和连


    It is necessary to use gradient transfer of FDI and agricultural technology progress to achieve coordinative development of ur- ban and rural areas for speeding up the transition of economic developing mode in current. On the basis of "Push - pull" theory, this paper constructs an analytical framework of "integrated model" that includes FDI, agricultural technology progress and transference of redundant rural labor force, and makes empirical study based on the panel data of 28 Chinese provinces from 1996 to 2009. Results from the whole country show that, the " pull" of FDI and the " push" of agricultural technology progress both have significant positive impacts on promoting the transference of redundant rural labor force. The real urban - rural income disparity and the size of non - agri- cultural industries have significant positive " pull" impacts too. " Intermediate power" plays complex roles, such as labor market flexi- bility has a significant positive impact, while the urban unemployment rate is all the other way. For diverse areas, the real urban - rural income disparity has a significant positive impact in the eastern, but appears contrary to the central and western on the transference of redundant rural labor force, and the unemployment rate is insignificant. The "pull" of FDI in the eastern is much higher, but the "push" of agricultural technology progress is significant lower than the central and western.%用FDI产业梯度转移和农业技术进步实现城乡统筹发展,已是当前加快中国经济发展方式转变的必然要求。系统构建了包含FDI、农业技术进步和农村剩余劳动力转移在内的“合力模型”的理论分析框架,采用1996—2009年中国28个省级单位的面板数据进行实证检验。全国层面的研究表明,FDI形成的“拉力”和农业技术进步形成的“推力”对农村剩余劳动力转移均有显著的正向影响。分地区层面的研究

  3. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural Enterprise ... (means and percentages) and inferential (Chi-square) statistics at p=0.05. ... to cover crop planting procedure (95.3%), marketing strategies (91.3%), rural ...

  4. an appraisal of transportation facilities effects on agricultural ...



    Feb 27, 2013 ... wallis ranking. Findings ... Key words: Assessment, Transportation facilities, Agricultural development and rural farmers. ... World Bank (1999) indicated that the availability ..... charge or run the risk of leaving their produce on.

  5. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Full Text Available ... to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for ... Methane Emissions, Increase Energy Independence and Grow the Economy (August 1, 2014) Return to top Main navigation - ...

  6. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Full Text Available ... of Agriculture Main navigation Home Topics Topics Animals Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Data Disaster Farming Food and Nutrition Forestry Health and Safety Organic Plants Recreation Research and Science Rural Trade Our Agency ...

  7. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Full Text Available ... climate presents real threats to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners, but for all Americans. Land managers across ...

  8. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Full Text Available ... in the U.S. The changing climate presents real threats to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for farmers, ranchers, ...

  9. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Full Text Available ... to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for ... Methane Emissions, Increase Energy Independence and Grow the Economy (August 1, 2014) Return to top Main navigation - ...

  10. Leaving Agriculture, Interest Arousing and Rural Residential Land Transfer: an Ordered Logit Model and a Survey in Zhejiang Province%农户非农化、利益唤醒与宅基地流转:基于浙江农户问卷调查和有序Logit模型

    黄忠华; 杜雪君


    The purpose of this study is to find the impact factors and the mechanism of farmer's demand for rural residential land transfer. Method of econometric analysis was employed. The results show: (1)farmer's leaving agriculture has significant impact on rural residential land transfer. Farmers with low off-farm income ratio have more willingness to transfer. (2)Interest arousing is an important factor influencing farmers' rural residential land transfer. Farmers with higher willingness to apply property registration have more incentives to transfer their land for purposes of liquidating and financing. (3)Loaning is another important driving factor. The conclusions are that farmer's leaving agriculture and interest arousing are the key reasons to explain the reasons of rural residential land transfer. Therefore the government is required to complete the registering and endowing rural residential land property to enhance and safeguard the transfer and related value.%研究目的:实证分析农户宅基地流转需求的影响因素及其作用规律。研究方法:计量经济学方法。研究结果:(1)农户非农化因素对宅基地流转需求影响显著,非农收入比重较低的农户更希望宅基地可进行流转;(2)利益唤醒是促进农户宅基地流转意愿的重要因素,办证意愿越高的农户更希望通过宅基地流转来增加资产的变现能力和融资能力;(3)借贷需求是驱动农户宅基地流转的重要因素。研究结论:(1)农户非农化和利益唤醒是解释农户宅基地转让意愿和抵押需求的关键逻辑主线;(2)应对宅基地进行确权赋能,促进宅基地流转,显化宅基地价值。

  11. How Large Is China’s Rural Surplus Labor Force?

    马晓河; 马建蕾


    The existence of surplus labor in the countryside and transfer of agricultural labor to non-agricultural sectors is a common phenomenon in economic development.Supply of rural surplus labor will change with the transfer of labor.By calculating the di erence between the agricultural labor force and current demand of laborin agriculture,this paper seeks to estimate the total amount of China’s rural surplus labor as identified by age,gender and education.Results indicate that there areroughly 110 million rural surplus laborers,of which 50%are aged above 40 years old,55.37%are women,and 42.96%have received an education below primaryschool.Currently,China’s rural surplus labor supply falls short of non-agricultural industry demand.

  12. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Stankov Uglješa


    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  13. 新时期农业院校“党建创新服务三农”新模式研究——基于四川农业大学的案例分析%New Period Agriculture College" a Party to Build Innovation + Services Three rural"New Pattern research



      Solve good" three rural " the problem is entire party job is heavy, how about Party construction to promote scientific development, in the service " three rural " in urging the striving for superiority, to new period agriculture college party construction work of the new challenges. Sichuan Agricultural Uniersity Party committee to give full play to the talents and technological advantages, actively planning school cooperation platform, in advancing science and technology service mechanism innovation, technology transfer and service team cultivation, science and technology service platform and constructing" three plan" achieve contend for actor, explore and improve college party building innovation and service" three rural " do many things at once, mutual promotion of the new mode.%  解决好三农问题是全党工作的重中之重,怎样围绕党建推动科学发展,在服务三农中力促创先争优,对新时期农业院校党建工作提出了新的挑战。四川农业大学党委充分发挥人才和科技优势,积极谋划校地合作新平台,在推进科技服务机制创新、科技成果推广转化与服务团队培育、科技服务平台构筑“三大计划”中创先争优,探索和完善学校党建创新与服务三农齐头并进、相互促进的新模式。

  14. Development of Productive Forces and the Changes of Rural President’s Consumption Concept


    The developmental status of productivity in Chinese rural area is introduced. Since the implementation of the agriculture supporting policies in 2004, the productive forces in rural areas have been improved greatly. It is reflected on the following aspects: great enhancement of rural labors’ cultural quality; the quantity of agricultural machines has been increased; the level of production management and decision has been increased greatly. The paper analyzes the promotion role played by the development of productive forces to rural residents’ consumption conception. The development of productive forces has laid a solid foundation for changing rural residents’ consumption concept; changed rural residents’ consumption structure and improved the socialized degree of rural residents’ consumption. Countermeasures on cultivating new consumption fields in rural areas are put forward including leading rural residents to foster the modern consumption conception; intensifying the governmental support and leading rural residents to set up healthy consumption concept.

  15. [Environment and rural development].

    Dufumier, M


    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  16. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    René Trappel


    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  17. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman


    Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...... of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households...

  18. Development Strategies for Rural Key Circulation Service Network


    The rural key circulation service network is an important channel for ensuring agricultural products’entry to market and urban industrial products’entry to rural areas.Through in-depth survey and research,we took a look at development changes and current situations of three circulation service networks,namely,circulation of nondurable consumer goods,circulation of agricultural means of production,and circulation of agricultural products.Based on several key problems in rural circulation service network,such as logistics problem,delivery problem,backward transaction mode,and the last kilometer information,we put forward corresponding development countermeasures.

  19. Agricultural Education in England and the Dictates of the Market.

    Errington, A.; Harrison-Mayfield, L.


    British agricultural colleges recently became independent corporations and their traditional market is changing as the economy is restructured. A survey of rural residents in four counties (n=1,352) supports a broader role for the colleges, such as serving as rural business centers that provide vocational education, training, and services to rural…


    Dilorom Tadjibaeva


    Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.

  1. Biogas in EEG 2012. Regional structural effects and income effects in North Rhine-Westphalia. Financial Report ''Impact analysis of legislative modifications within renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia''; Biogas im EEG 2012. Regionale Struktur- und Einkommenswirkungen in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Abschlussbericht ''Wirkungsanalyse gesetzlicher Aenderungen im Bereich erneuerbarer Energien aus Sicht von Landwirtschaft und laendlichen Raeumen in Nordrhein-Westfalen''

    Braun, Juergen; Lorleberg, Wolf; Stauss, Wolfgang


    The promotion of renewable energies is a main topic of the energy economic policy. The EEG (Renewable Energy Law) should be the main instrument at this point. The contribution of the renewable energy could be increased significantly in the last decade. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an impact analysis of legislative modifications in the area of renewable energy from the perspective of agriculture and rural areas in North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany).




    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  3. Empirical Study of China’s Rural Consumption Function from the Perspective of Balancing Urban and Rural Development


    From the perspective of balancing urban and rural development,this article researches the factors influencing the consumption level of rural residents in China.I select the relevant data concerning per capita net income of rural households and annual per capita consumer spending of rural residents for living in the period 1985-2008,establish the regression model of per capita net income of rural households and per capita consumer spending of rural residents for living,and conduct regression analysis and error correction model test using the measurement software.The analysis results show that there is not only long-term equilibrium relationship between rural residents’ current consumption and rural residents’ current income,between rural residents’ consumption in lag period 1 and rural residents’ income in lag period 1,but also short-term equilibrium relationship;current income is the main reason for determining the current consumption).Corresponding proposals are put forward to promote the level of rural consumption in China as follows:propel agricultural modernization;actively develop specialized cooperative organizations of rural residents;improve rural land transfer mechanism;promote the level of public services in rural areas;accelerate the transfer of rural surplus labor.

  4. Evaluation and Optimization Approaches of Rural Financial Ecological Environment in Hubei Province

    Xiaofang; ZOU


    Agriculture is the foundation of national economy,and the quality of rural financial ecological environment determines the level of rural economic development. At the same time of making outstanding achievements in rural financial reform,there are still many problems in rural financial ecological environment. Taking Hubei Province as an example,this paper summarized existing problems from current situations of rural financial ecological environment,and finally came up with pertinent recommendations.

  5. Impact of Soil Erosion on Rural Poverty

    Jiangyong; LU; Gong; CHEN


    This article gives an overview of the general situation and regional differences of rural poverty in China, and points out that in the rural areas of central and western regions with serious soil erosion, the poverty is particularly prominent. Based on previous studies, we take agricultural GDP as the dependent variable, farmland area, agricultural labor, agricultural capital stock, irrigation area, and consumption of chemical fertilizer as the independent variables, to establish the C-D production function reflecting impact of soil erosion on rural poverty for regression analysis. The results show that farmland, labor, capital, irrigation, chemical fertilizer and other production factors have a positive effect on agricultural GDP; soil erosion has a significant negative effect on agricultural production; in western China, the total factor productivity is the lowest and soil erosion is the most serious. In order to resolve the dilemma of soil erosion and rural poverty, it is necessary to change the extensive mode of agricultural development, protect the ecological environment, and take the road of intensive development of agroecology.

  6. 中国城乡转型背景下农业综合区划研究——以106国道沿线典型样带区为例%Comprehensive Zoning of Agricultural Region Under the Rural-urban Development Transformation in China——A Case Study of Sampling Belt Along G106 in China

    鲁莎莎; 刘彦随; 关兴良


    In agricultural geography,the most important research field is agricultural region type division,and agricultural zoning and functional partition based on agricultural region type division.Firstly,in this article,the concepts,connotations,elements and structures of agricultural region types in transect areas along G106 were analyzed from the perspective of the elements-structure-function.Based on GIS technology,AHP method and SOFM model,using rural socio-economic statistic data and Landsat TM imagery data,the article divided the entire region into eight agricultural region types according to the status quo characteristics,formation conditions and factors of agricultural development.Secondly,the entire region was divided into four agricultural regional function zones,including agricultural product supplying function zone,labor employment and social security function zone,ecological conservation function zone and entertainment and cultural heritage function zone,and eight dominant functional subzones.Finally,the article launched comprehensive zoning by coupling and overlaying the result of agricultural region type division and agricultural multi-function partition.Also the article proposed suitable development directions and development strategies for each comprehensive agriculture zone.This study may contribute to guiding agricultural regional division,strengthening the dominant function,highlighting the geographical value and promoting the coordinated development of all regions.%在逐一考察和判断106国道沿线典型样带区农业发展现状和地域分异的形成条件及其主导因素基础上,构建了农业地域类型划分指标体系,利用研究区农村社会经济数据和土地利用数据,首先,采用层次分析、SOFM分析与聚类分析相结合的方法,将研究区划分为8个农业地域类型区.其次,界定农业地域多功能类型,从农产品供给功能、就业与社会保障功能、生态保育功能

  7. Rural Priority


    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  8. Rural nurses

    Wilson, Rhonda L.; Usher, Kim


    with descriptive techniques. In-depth interviews were conducted and the transcribed data were analysed using thematic techniques. Results: The results of this study demonstrate that in general rural people are willing to seek mental health care, and that rural nurses are well suited to provide initial care...... to young people. Conclusions: Non-traditional venues such as community, school and justice settings are ideal places where more convenient first conversations about mental health with young people and their families, and rural nurses should be deployed to these settings. Relevance to Clinical Practice......: Rural nurses are able to contribute important initial engagement interventions that enhance the early mental health care for young people when it is needed....

  9. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.


    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  10. Learning From China. A Report on Agriculture and the Chinese People's Communes.

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    A nine-member Study Mission was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and visited China in 1975 to study Chinese approaches to agricultural and rural development in depth; to analyze the commune experience as an example of integrated rural development; and to try to determine in what ways the Chinese development…

  11. Production of the New Model of Agricultural Modernization-- Creation of Datong Rural Social Ideas and Policy Suggestions%农业现代化生产的新型模式探讨①--创立农村大同社的构想和政策建议

    张文武; 邓勇; 张世鸿


    Facing the "new four modernizations" requirements, the efifciency of current rural production organization and the supply of agricultural labor is facing a huge challenge. Innovating the pattern of rural production organization has become the only one way to realize agricultural modernization. Based on the analysis of the fatal defects in the current agricultural production organization, we put forward a new mode of modernized agricultural production that can reduce the defects, namely the idea and operation mechanism of Tongpian Society or Datong Society. And also conclude the main breakthrough point of Datong Society and the environment for its full implementation. Finally we put forward some operational countermeasures and suggestions on how to start and develop Datong Society, also mention the problems and things we need in-depth study and need to be done. Hoping our viewpoint can contribute to the development of agricultural modernization.%面对“新四化”的要求,农村现行生产组织形式的效率和农业劳动力供给都面临着巨大的挑战。创新农村生产组织模式已成为破解农业现代化生产的必由之路。本文在分析了现行农业生产组织存在问题后,提出了可以化解这些缺陷的农业现代化生产的新型实现模式,即同片社及大同社的构想和运行机制,归纳展望了大同社的主要突破点和全面推行的环境条件,最后对如何启动和发展大同社提出了一些具有操作性的对策和建议,还随带提及了我们后续需要深入研究的问题和需要做的工作。希望通过我们的一些努力能够切实为农业现代化的发展贡献绵薄之力。

  12. Tendencies in financing the agricultural and food sector under the common agricultural policy

    Anna Brzozowska


    Full Text Available Poland, having joined the EU, became subject to regulations that significantly changed the conditions under which its food industry functioned. As markets opened up to each other, the possibilities of sale increased and competitiveness of economic entities improved. Mobilised public funds contributed, among other things, to modernisation of agricultural holdings and food industry enterprises, improvement of their competitiveness, construction of the infrastructure and multifunctional development of rural areas. The paper discusses tendencies in financing agriculture under the Common Agricultural Policy in Poland against the production and economic situation of the agricultural and food sector.

  13. 新农村建设与高等农业教育的发展战略选择%The New Rural Construction and the Developmental Strategy Choice of Higher Agricultural Education

    杨菲; 胡增文


      伴随着国家“十一五”、“十二五”规划关于“建设社会主义新农村”战略的提出,向农村发起的新一轮进军持续进行着,十七届五中全会也明确强调新时期要继续统筹城乡发展,推进社会主义新农村建设。作为人才基地和科技贡献重地的高等农业教育,在新农村建设中占据着至关重要的战略地位,其能否最大限度地服务于新农村建设,直接关系到新农村建设及发展的成效,因此,探讨新农村建设与高等农业教育的发展战略选择两者之间的互动关系就有着重要的现实意义。%  As propounding the plan of “Eleven・ Five” and“Twelve・ Five” about“building a new socialist cou-ntryside”, a new round of launching to the rural goes on .And the fifth plenary session of the 17th also clearly em-phasizes that the new period will continue to balance urban and rural development and build a new socialist country -side.The higher rural education, science and technology talent base and important contributions , has an important strategic position in the new rural construction .Whether it can serve the new rural construction in the largest sense or not, it affects its developmental results directly .Therefore, it has important practical significance to discuss the interactive relations between the new rural construction and higher rural education developmental strategy choice .

  14. Cause Analysis of "Non-agricultural Trend" of Credit Cooperatives and Reversion Approaches

    Qingwu; CUI


    "Non-agricultural trend" of credit cooperatives is demonstrated as outflow of substantial contribution, application of credit fund in "non-agricultural sectors" and downsizing outlets. As a result, rural financial exclusion and insufficient effective supply of rural finance have been aggravated, and most rural households have been excluded from the service range of credit cooperatives. Major causes for such a trend were summarized as: (a) profit-driven nature of credit cooperatives; (b) conditionality of "agriculture, rural area and peasant" economy; (c) influence of macro-environment. It is proposed that credit cooperatives would only revert their focus to "agriculture, rural area and peasant" economy only if rural financial exclusion and economic restrictions on the development of credit cooperatives were removed, and the macro-environment was optimized.

  15. 中国农村土地制度改革对农业发展的影响%The Influence of Rural Land System Reform to Agricultural Development in China



      土地制度与农业发展的关系最为紧密。中国自古是个农业大国,土地制度几经变迁,适应并推动农业生产发展。当前中国市场经济发展,农业发展亦需市场化。本文从土地制度历史演变和惯性分析当前土地制度改革的可能方向将对农业发展产生怎样的推动,促进商品农业经济%  Land system has a close relationship with Agriculture development.China is an enormous Agricultural country.Its agricultural policies changed many times and the change in every phase pushed forward agricultural industry.With the development of market economy in China, agriculture needs marketization.The article will analyze probable direction of land system reform,according to the performance and inertia of China land system reforms in history and how would the new reform nurture commodity economic in agricultural field.


    December 2013 ... Development Goal on Agriculture and food security to halve hunger by 2015, there is need to examine ... rural areas on less than one US dollar a day [4,7,8,]. .... Motor cycle (24%), bicycle (21%), human porterage (13%) and.

  17. African Journals Online: Agriculture & Food Sciences

    Items 1 - 50 of 53 ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... community and rural development, programme planning, extension administration, ... adoption of innovations; extension communication models and strategies; ... Articles should be basic research that impinge on major areas of ...

  18. Facilitating agricultural input distribution in Uganda - Experiences ...


    The input supply market however, suffered a setback as a result of the ... Ltd. redefined the approach emphasizing a demand driven input market by shifting ... Training of business entrepreneurs in business planning, ... The strategy to increase rural demand for agricultural inputs ..... During season 2004A, the basic fertilizers.

  19. Urban Agriculture: Using Buildings to Feed Cities

    Kim, L.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. By the year 2050, it is projected that the world's population will exceed 9 billion people, with over 70 percent of humans living in cities. The current agricultural practices in rural landscapes lead to seve

  20. Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali

    Falconnier, G.N.


    Key words: longitudinal study, farm typology, food self-sufficiency, income, legumes, ex-ante analysis, participatory research, scenario. Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints, variable rain

  1. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity: A Comparative ...

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    2. Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural ... F-value of 9.84 and 10.11 recorded for the two categories of farmers ... Introduction .... the two concepts are often used ... evidence suggests that small farms are ... practice in the rural parts of the state is ... elsewhere, and rate of return on investment.

  2. ICT development for social and rural connectedness

    Alias, Nor Aziah


    ICT Development for Social and Rural Connectedness provides an introduction to the concept of 'connectedness', and explores how this socio-psychological term has evolved during the age of the Internet. The book surveys the principles of ICT for development (ICTD), and closely examines how ICT has played a pivotal role in the rural community development of various countries. To highlight the continued benefits of ICT in these regions, the book presents an in-depth case study that analyzes the connectedness within the rural internet centers of Malaysia. The book is intended primarily for researc

  3. Alternative Agriculture


    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  4. What Is Rural?

    ... of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. The USDA , Economic Research Service, provides insight to rural definitions with an article, Defining the "Rural" in Rural America: The use ...

  5. Study on Rural Poverty Reduction Effect of Traffic Infrastructure

    Junping; GUO; Bin; ZHANG; Xiyan; ZHANG


    To systematically comb and explore the rural poverty reduction effect of traffic infrastructure,the author analyzed the mechanism,main channels and actual effect of rural traffic infrastructure on poverty reduction.It revealed that rural traffic infrastructure exerts positive or negative effect on poverty reduction directly or indirectly.The positive channel includes increasing non-agricultural employment opportunities,reducing costs for agricultural production,transportation and labor transfer,increasing availability of social service,and promoting adjustment of agricultural industrial structure and development of rural tourism resources.On the whole,traffic infrastructure has significant positive influence on rural poverty reduction.Finally,it summarized policy recommendations for building pro-poor traffic infrastructure,and came up with vacancy of related research field and future exploration direction.

  6. The formation mechanisms of motivation in a rural location

    Anna Latysheva


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to motivation of agricultural activities. This question is closely intertwined with the tasks of professional orientation of rural youth. Scientific article draws attention to an innovative project – rural tourism, in the formation of mechanisms of motivation of labor in rural areas, as an effective instrument of humanization of agricultural education (on the example of the tourist complex “Stepanov's mound” and tourist route “Marin Cliff”, the Lensk village, LLC "Velikolenskoe". The authors hope that the government, business and education, working together can create motivational mechanisms for the person to self-realization in a rural area. That will have a positive impact on raising the prestige of the agricultural sector and the attraction of highly qualified specialists in rural areas.

  7. Rural Entrepreneurship Policy in Estonia

    Maret Kirsipuu


    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an overview of the entrepreneurship policies targeted at rural areas and family undertakings. Agricultural undertakings, especially cattle breeders, have been almost ignored in the development of Estonia’s entrepreneurship policies. Various action plans have been devised for the development of rural living environments. Unfortunately none of them supports cattle breeding. The author obtained the data used in this research from the databases of Estonian Animal Recording Centre, Estonian Agricultural Register and from questionnaires. The author conducted interviews with beef cattle breeders doing performance testing and with parish authorities. Family enterprises are extremely vulnerable; their reserves for surviving critical periods are small or nearly nonexistent. They often depend only on one area of activity. In the current economic situation owners of family enterprises need to pay particular attention to strategic management, so as to survive in difficult situations. They must take right decisions and start looking for challenges.

  8. Study on Connotations and Development Strategies of Creative Agriculture

    Liangshan; YANG; Hailing; HE


    Creative agriculture is a new agricultural type with originality as a key element, integrating agricultural production activities into creative activities such as culture and art, broadening functions of agriculture and improving added value of agricultural products. Creative agriculture is characterized by external economy, technology integration, art appreciation, high efficiency and value, and it is significant for promoting inheritance of traditional culture, optimal allocation and regeneration of resources, optimal distribution of elements, expansion of agricultural functions, construction of beautiful countryside, cultural construction of rural areas, transformation of agricultural and rural economic growth mode. With agricultural resources as the foundation, sightseeing and leisure agriculture as the breakthrough point, by means of science and technology, many regions in China have explored products of creative agriculture and presented several typical cases of creative agriculture. However, these projects are mostly restricted by problems such as poor development concept, lack of supportive policies, and ineffective industrial integration. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we proposed path choice, supportive system and relevant policy suggestions for the development of creative agriculture.

  9. Transformation of China's rural health care financing.

    Liu, Y; Hsiao, W C; Li, Q; Liu, X; Ren, M


    In the late 1970s China launched its agricultural reforms which initiated a decade of continued economic growth and significant transformation of the Chinese society. The agricultural reforms altered the peasants' incentives, weakened community organization and lessened the central government's control over local communities. These changes largely caused the collapse of the widely acclaimed rural cooperative medical system in China. Consequently China experienced a decreased supply of rural health workers, increased burden of illnesses, disintegration of the three tier medical system, reduced primary health care, and an increased demand for hospital medical services. More than ten years have elapsed since China changed its agricultural economic system and China is still struggling to find an equitable, efficient and sustainable way of financing and organizing its rural health services. The Chinese experiences provided several important lessons for other nations: there is a need to understand the limits of the market forces and to redefine the role of the government in rural health care under a market economy; community participation in and control of local health financing schemes is essential in developing a sustainable rural health system; the rural health system needs to be dynamic, rather than static, to keep pace with changing demand and needs of the population.

  10. Beijing Rural Commercial Bank to Be Established at the End of 2005


    @@ Recently, Beijing Rural Commercial Bank Preparatory Group(BRCBPG) was officially set up,which started the prelude of the Rural Credit Cooperatives changing to Rural Commercial Bank. It is reported that Beijing Rural Commercial Bank (BRCB) will be the first domestic Rural Commercial Bank at the provincial level and will put on the new label at the end of the year. After that, BRCB will be oriented to put its feet on the urban and rural areas, serve agriculture, countryside and farmers and small and middle-size enterprises, base on the strategy of city and country integration, absorb more social resources to flow into rural areas.

  11. 12 CFR 225.127 - Investment in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in corporations or projects designed... equity and debt investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare... not intended to limit projects under § 225.25(b)(6) to that area. Other investments primarily designed...

  12. Analysis on Behaviour Differentiation and Motive of Rural Households in the Process of Industrialization


    Based on the survey data of fixed rural observation points in China,this paper researches the behaviour of rural households in the process of industrialization.It analyses the forcing of industrialization process on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households and motive in detail.The results show that with the development of industrialization,the rational farmers allocate resources according to the goal of income maximization,and the behaviour of rural households differentiates inchmeal.The forcing of industrialization on behaviour of rural households mainly comprises labour distribution of rural households,land inputs of rural households and employment of rural labour forces;the factors of forcing of industrialization on non-agricultural-transformation behaviour of rural households are largely reflected in pull and push.

  13. [The bioindication of mutagens in the soil of rural districts].

    Nechkina, M A; Zhurkov, V S


    The cumulative mutagenic activity (CMA) of soil pollution was investigated in rural areas. The use of pesticides in agricultural practice increased soil mutagen levels. There was also higher mutagenic pollution for soil along the road with heavy traffic.

  14. 77 FR 7576 - Farm, Ranch, and Rural Communities Committee (FRRCC)


    ... as oral and written communication skills; and an ability and willingness to participate in a... range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities...

  15. Leadership, Education and Agricultural Development Programs in Colombia.

    Adams, Dale W.


    The lack of qualified leadership to direct, plan, and do research in agricultural agencies is an important restraint on rural development in countries like Colombia. An increase in the number of students attending institutions for agricultural education has been often viewed as the solution to this problem. It is argued here that an increase in…

  16. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy


    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  17. Agricultural Development Mode Transformation and Government Functions in Guizhou Province


    Based on the brief account of the connotation of transforming economic development pattern and government functions,the thesis will introduce the development status of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:firstly,single agricultural industrial structure;secondly,large gap between urban and rural development;thirdly,low-level utilization of agricultural science and technology;fourthly,fierce contradiction between agricultural mode of production and ecological environment.Then it analyzes the basic requirements for government functions in transforming the development pattern of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:the first one is the function to guide sustainable development and the structural adjustment of agricultural production;the second is the function to coordinate urban-rural development and equally supply basic public goods;the third is the function to input science and technology to serve agriculture;the fourth one is the dominant function to promote the harmonious development of man and nature as well as to reduce the number of peasants.In order to promote the transformation of agricultural development mode and maintain the sound and rapid economic development,some corresponding measures and suggestions are proposed from the perspective of government functions:firstly,promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure;secondly,the government should take the lead in providing rural public goods;thirdly,strengthening the skills training and technological education of rural labor force;fourthly,reducing the number of farmers and retaining the farmers.

  18. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy


    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  19. Social Farming Rural Development Strategy

    Adrian Gheorghe ZUGRAVU


    Full Text Available The paper follows two main objectives: to understand farmers’ perception and image of social services and to identify communication levers in order to improve the perceived image of social farming. Orientations in terms of communication are product-focused and aim at enhancing the reputation of social farming consequently with impact on rural development. This paper conducted a questionnaire survey of Romanian farmers’ perception toward social agricultural. The empirical study indicated that farmers shown different awareness to social farming.

  20. The "Two Leaps" and Chinese Agricultural Modernization


    The "Two Leaps" put forward by Deng xiao-ping on agriculture are expounded in the paper. The first leap is from the people’s commune to family land contract operation system. The weaknesses of people’s commune and innovation of family land contract operation system are analyzed. It is pointed out that the family contact operation system is the expansion and development of collective economy. The second leap is to develop appropriate scale operation and collective economy. The shortages of family contract system are analyzed. It is put forward that realizing scale operation of agriculture is the necessary demand for production development and collective economy road is the inevitable way for realizing Chinese agricultural appropriate scale operation. "Two leaps" gives clears way of agricultural modernization:consolidating the thoughts of starting from the reality, insisting the guidance of the fundamental position of agriculture and further promoting agricultural development; persistently stabilizing and perfecting rural basic operation system and timely promote rural system innovation; stimulating the thought that science and technology is the prior productiveness and developing agricultural modernization in a better and faster way.

  1. Priorities in Investment Decisions for Rural Development in Romania

    Ana Popa


    Full Text Available Romania joined the European Union- EU -in 2007, as an emerging economy and rural by excellence and this feature is keeping even in 2012. Difficulty in establishing investment priorities for rural development in Romania is caused by the large size and fragility of the rural area and the fact that all inputs have an inadequate level. The objectives of rural development are strongly influenced by national policy and European policy of the European Union, but also by the politics of international organizations (World Bank Group-WBG, Food and Agriculture Organization-FAO. Investment for climate changes and for infrastructure is strongly correlated and is vital in all states, including Romania. The six EU Priorities for rural development in the period 2014-2020 are also considering priorities for increasing education level and social inclusion in the rural areas, which are other pressing needs in Romania in order to move to a modern agriculture.

  2. Rural tourism: Serbia's missed chance

    Đenadić Miroljub


    Full Text Available Rural tourism is both old and new phenomenon. The interest for recreation in the countryside began to grow as early as XIX century, as a reaction to the pressure of growing urbanization and industrialization. Serbia has great potentials for development of rural tourism. Natural beauty in combination with culture, tradition, festivals, gastronomic specialties and music, might become recognizable tourist brand, which could contribute to the significant monetary influx and improve the overall image of the country. However, current level of Serbia's competitiveness in the area of rural tourism is not particularly high, regardless of the fact that all of the natural, cultural and social prerequisites for its development already exist (natural potentials, significant farming land, great number of agriculturally active population, traditional approach to agriculture, lack of ground pollution as well as the possibility of producing 'healthy food', good potential for development of complementary activities such as hiking, recreation, hunting, fishing, riding and participating in everyday activities of the country folk, traditional local gastronomical specialties etc.. The goal of this paper is to show the resources of Serbia in the area of rural tourism as well as the possible development potentials of this form of tourism.

  3. Functions and Developmental Countermeasures of Rural Professional Economic Association


    On the basis of defining rural professional economic association, the advantages of it in terms of non-profitability, low operation cost and good communication skills are pointed out. Functions of rural professional economic association are expounded. It can display the advantages of information; intensify the connections among governments, agriculture and rural areas; display the advantages of organization and strengthen the gaming capability of rural households; play the advantages of association and promote the improvement of quality of agricultural products; play the advantage of association and help government to transfer to limited government;play association and information advantages and intensify international competitiveness. It is pointed out that the defects caused by imperfect non-profit association restrict the function of rural professional economic association. In order to well display the functions of rural professional economic association, the countermeasures are put forward:establishing perfect laws and regulations to let rural economic association have the features of non-profit association;the government establishes new relations with rural economic association to support their development from multiple channels;fully displaying the service functions of rural economic association and finishing self-development; perfecting incentive and restraint mechanisms for rural economic association; intensifying supervision management of rural economic association.

  4. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode


    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  5. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    Abrams, H K


    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America.

  6. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted;

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  7. Water Resource Uses and Recreational Activities in Rural Nigeria.

    Adekoya, Adebola


    This study surveys rural Nigerian residents concerning local water resource uses and tourists' recreational activities with respect to scales of awareness, understanding, and incentive. Results indicate a public willingness to encourage and finance the rural development of water bodies for agricultural purposes exclusive of investment for tourism…

  8. The Household and the Family in Rural Russia

    Patsiorkovskii, V. V.; Patsiorkovskaia, V. V.


    There is a great need to improve rural life in Russia, and this must involve the development of the agricultural economy. This will require improving life for rural families, making it easier for them to obtain land to farm, and providing adequate housing and cultural facilities in the Russian village. (Contains 1 table.) [This article was…

  9. 75 FR 8909 - Funding Opportunity Title: Commodity Partnerships for Small Agricultural Risk Management...


    ... the availability of risk management tools; and (c) inform producers and agribusiness leaders in the... informational opportunities to agricultural producers and agribusiness professionals in the designated RMA... directed primarily to agricultural producers, but may include those agribusiness professionals that...

  10. Theoretical Study of Agricultural High-tech Industrialization

    Jian; XU; Xianming; WU


    This paper introduces the characteristics of the agricultural high-tech industries,and points out that the agricultural high-tech industries are intelligence-intensive and knowledge-intensive industries with the characteristics of high investment,high risk,high value-added, which focuses on constant innovation,having strong horizontal and vertical linkages with other enterprises and showing the trend of internationalization.The connotation of agricultural high-tech industrialization is analyzed as follows:Agricultural high-tech industrialization is the process of transformation of the agricultural high-tech achievements to the agricultural high-tech industries; essentially the marketization and commercialization of agricultural high technology; the manifestation of scale and level of agricultural high-tech industries; the manifestation of social impact,social status and social role of agricultural high-tech industries.The development strategies are put forward for agricultural high-tech industrialization:(1) Bringing the research of agricultural high technology into the orbit of the market economy; (2) Implementing the new mechanism to closely link agricultural high technology with modern rural enterprises; (3) Building the agricultural high-tech team with a larger size and high level; (4) Further improving the construction of the agricultural high-tech industrial development zone; (5) Solving the issues concerning agricultural intellectual property and patent; (6) Increasing policy guidance and support efforts for agricultural high-tech industries.

  11. Information Access in Rural America: January 1979 - September 1991. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 92-18.

    John, Patricia La Caille

    This bibliography contains 159 entries related to information dissemination in rural areas and the role of rural libraries in accessing information. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agriculture Library (United States Department of Agriculture) and cover such topics as information needs in rural…


    李毅; 罗建平; 林宇静; 牛星


    Agricultural land transfer has made outstanding contribution to the optimal configuration of China's agri-cultural land resource. But some risks of agricultural land transfer occurred in recent years which hindered the pros-perity of rural economy and the stability of rural society. By using complex ecosystem theory for reference mean-while attaching the current situation of agricultural land transfer of "A" town in Zhejiang Province, the results showed that the risks of agricultural land transfer in "A" town can be classified as economic risk, social risk and natural risk. The economic risk included contract risk, operation and management risk, food security risk and poli-cy risk;the social risk included social contradiction risk, government credibility risk, rent-seeking risk and social insurance risk;the natural risk included landscape value risk and ecological structure risk. The causes of these risks included information asymmetry, non-rationality, morality, institutional status and market. The risks can be polymerized to four factors such as compulsory possession, externality, behavioral bias and sunk cost,and then radi-ating to the agricultural land system of"A" town and forming the risks of agricultural land transfer. It should ensure the benefit security to control the economic risks, increase the social efficiency to control the social risks,and en-hance the rationality evaluation to control natural risks.%土地流转为实现我国农地资源优化配置做出了巨大贡献,但近年来土地流转也逐渐表现出了一些风险.土地流转风险已逐渐成为我国农村地区发展中的现实隐忧与制约瓶颈,在一定程度上阻碍了农村经济的繁荣与社会的稳定.文章借鉴复合生态系统理论的理念,对浙江省A乡土地流转进行研究发现,该乡土地流转风险主要表现为经济风险、 社会风险、 自然风险,其中经济风险包括契约风险、 经营管理风险、粮食安全风险及政策风

  13. Research on 3G Terminal-Based Agricultural Information Service

    Xie, Nengfu; Zhang, Xuefu


    International audience; In order to solve the farmer’s agricultural production information’ acquisition problems with a 3G terminal, a 3G-terminial agricultural information service system method is proposed in the paper. With the advent of 3G and WLAN technologies, the rural and urban areas in which 3G coverage is complemented by WLAN deployments is becoming available. The agricultural information services limited by network bandwidth and geography will be changed completely. In the paper, we...

  14. Weed sustainable managment in agricultral and non-agricultural areas

    Giovanni Arcangeli; Cesare Sparacino; Pierluigi Meriggi


    Sustainable agriculture is a way to assure the availability of natural resources for future generations.Weed managementin cultivated and not cultivated areas is part of sustainable agriculture as well, and has to face three important challenges:economical (to increase income and competitiveness of farm sector), social (give rural areas opportunity of economicdevelopment and improvement of living conditions), environmental (promote good agricultural practices andpreserve habitats, biodiversity...

  15. 7 CFR 1744.203 - Establishing amount of rural development investment.


    ... investment shall be the total amount of funds committed to the rural development project as of the date of... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing amount of rural development investment... INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.203 Establishing amount of rural...

  16. 7 CFR 1782.23 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... § 1782.23 Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes. (a) If, after making a loan or a...(d) of the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act (Pub. L. 87-128), as amended; and...

  17. 7 CFR 1767.14 - Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform system of accounts.


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... ELECTRIC BORROWERS Uniform System of Accounts § 1767.14 Interpretations of the Rural Development uniform... interpretations of the Rural Development USoA, in writing, to the AA-PARA, for consideration and...

  18. 7 CFR 1951.218 - Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other purposes.


    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Use of Rural Development loans and grants for other... Servicing of Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.218 Use of Rural Development... the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act, as amended; and (3) Satisfies such...

  19. 7 CFR 1744.208 - Rural development investments before November 28, 1990.


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments before November 28... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.208 Rural development investments before... by RUS as a condition to approving a rural development investment before November 28, 1990,...

  20. 7 CFR 1744.204 - Rural development investments that do not meet the ratio requirements.


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural development investments that do not meet the... GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Borrower Investments § 1744.204 Rural development investments that do... consider, on a case-by-case basis, requests for approval of rural development investments not...