WorldWideScience

Sample records for primarily rural agricultural

  1. A Profile of Agricultural Education Teachers with Exemplary Rural Agricultural Entrepreneurship Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinert, Seth B.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2017-01-01

    Rural entrepreneurship education programs may be a great tool for enhancing rural livelihoods and reducing rural outmigration. Entrepreneurship has received attention in school based agricultural education, primarily through implementation of Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) programs. Very little research has looked at the teaching of…

  2. 29 CFR 780.607 - “Primarily employed” in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âPrimarily employedâ in agriculture. 780.607 Section 780... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements...

  3. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide ... Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing.

  4. Rural Development And Agricultural Extension Administration In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed the wide range of policies and approaches formulated and implemented to effect agricultural and rural development in Nigeria. The paper reveals that the common feature of all the strategies is the use of institutionalized agricultural extension service, devoted principally to augment smallholder ...

  5. Institutional Support : Agricultural and Rural Forecasting Initiative ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rural (IPAR), Sénégal, began in 2004 and was formally registered in October 2008 as an independent, nonprofit research organization. The Initiative is committed to promoting dialogue and informing debate between policymakers, researchers and research users in the areas of agriculture, ...

  6. Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... that rural-urban migration results in shortage of manpower for agricultural activities. ... to support education, health care, sanitation and safe drinking water supply.

  7. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  8. Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... the country's very low human development indicators, particularly in the rural areas, is a serious cause of concern.

  9. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension ... privatization of the public sector of national economies of developing nations has ... include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, ...

  10. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  11. The contribution of smallholder agriculture to the nutrition of rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of smallholder agriculture to the nutrition of rural ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... For each household the food obtained from the different types of agriculture ...

  12. Connections and economic importance of agriculture and rural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, is often heard that Serbia has very favorable conditions for the development of rural tourism. We are constantly talking about the revival of Serbian villages. However, Serbia has a large number of villages ask questions on how to survive and how to improve the conditions of life in them. Since the creation of adequate conditions for life in the country depends on whether it will be and how it continues to evolve. Recommendations of the World Tourism Organization is the development of rural tourism. The reason for this is the favorable geographical position, varied relief, a pleasant climate, rich flora and fauna, interesting history, traditions, folklore ... should be taken of the fact that the Republic of Serbia has a predominantly rural characteristics, because 85% of the territory consists of rural areas inhabited by some 45-55% of the population. The main activity of the population in rural areas is agriculture, where 23% of the working population works in agriculture and generates about 40% of the total gross national income. Between agriculture and rural tourism there are a lot of permeation and solid connections. This cross-sectoral exchange of the common village. Tourism needed agricultural products throughout the year, and agriculture are required consumers. Rural tourism should be the backbone of economic development to raise living standards in the rural community.

  13. Determinants Of Rural Agricultural Financing By The United Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the determinants of rural agricultural financing by the United Bank for Africa (UBA) and the need for extension services in Imo State, Nigeria. Eighty (80) rural farmer loan beneficiaries from the UBA were sampled and administered with structured questionnaire. Results showed that the major significant ...

  14. Genardis : Gender for Agriculture and Rural Development in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Genardis : Gender for Agriculture and Rural Development in the Information Society in African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries - Phase III. Phases I and II of this small grants project were funded under projects 101698 and 102900, respectively. Genardis III will provide 15 awardees - mainly, rural women from African, ...

  15. Comparative Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity Of Rural Women In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From each of the 12 villages, 10 rural women were randomly selected from list of registered rural women farmers provided by Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) using simple random sampling ... Results indicate that most of the women are young adult of less than or thirty years of age with high literacy level.

  16. Challenges and Prospects of Rural Women in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women plays significant role in agricultural production, their contribution is as high as between 60 to 90 percent of the total task performed. This study focused on the prospects and challenges of rural women in agricultural production. It highlights the efforts of women in crop, livestock, fishery production, food ...

  17. World Bank and agricultural development: food production and rural poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryker, R E

    1979-03-01

    Over the past decade, the World Bank has become the leading international institution for development financing and for elaborating new development strategies. This has involved a major shift in lending toward agriculture and rural development. Explanations for the change range from more progressive expertise within the Bank to the shock of the 1972-74 food crisis and renewed penetration of Third World agriculture by capitalist agribusiness. Discriminating among these perspectives requires attention to the core issue of the relationship between increasing food production and reducing rural poverty. The author feels that the issue is irreducibly political and that the Bank's record is less encouraging than the reformist rhetoric. 33 references, 4 tables.

  18. Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-03-20

    Mar 20, 2017 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 10(2): 262 – 275, 2017. ISSN:1998-0507 ... providing farmers with appropriate innovations on environmental management and protection. ..... Fish wealth solution. African Journal of. Environmental. Science and ... Agricultural Development Project.

  19. Intensity Of Agricultural Labour Use By Gender In Rural Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the intensity of agricultural labour use by gender and its determinants in rural households of Imo State. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 60 male and 60 female headed households, and analysed using means, frequency distribution, percentages and ordinary least squares multiple regression model.

  20. Gender equality in rural development and agricultural extension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (implementation, access to and control of resources) of women in maleheaded households, female-headed households and male-headed households in rural development and agricultural extension was the focus of this study. The district was purposively selected based on crop and livestock farming systems of the zone.

  1. Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment; governance, policy and multifunctionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the

  2. Migration and Its Effects on Agriculture and Rural Development Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan R.

    Migration is a major continuing phenomenon associated with national and subnational development. The past, present, and future significance of migration on rural development and agriculture are reviewed in this paper. Data are cited which appear to be at variance with popular beliefs. The complexity of interrelationships between migration…

  3. The determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at investigating the determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Three econometric models namely: Pooled ordinary least square (POLS), fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) model were used to examine the relationship between productivity and income; using ...

  4. Rural-urban migration and effects on agricultural labour supply in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... This study analyzed the effects of rural-urban migration on agricultural labour supply in ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, 3-point likert scale, multiple regression ...

  5. GLOBAL CHALLENGES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalana Bartosova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the evaluation of economic, social and environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture. The selected indicators of the economic challenges of sustainable agriculture imply that agriculture in Slovakia is not in long term be able to ensure competitiveness in the European market, gross agricultural output is characterized by a faster decline in animal production than in crop production and the value of import of agri-food commodities is higher than the value of export. According to selected indicators of social challenges of sustainable agriculture the number of persons working in agriculture has decreasing tendency in last years. The evaluation of selected indicators of environmental challenges of sustainable agriculture implies that area of organic agriculture is the most widely applied sub-measure within the measure agri-environmental payments. For ensuring the balance of the three mentioned dimensions of sustainable agriculture is necessary to increase of local production and consumption of local products, to ensure the protection of nature and landscape, to ensure rural development and to increase the employment opportunities in countryside.

  6. Impacts on the Common Agricultural Policy and on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.; Palz, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1980s the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted in large surpluses of main agricultural products; dealing with these surpluses consumed large parts of the Commission's and Member States' budgets. To alleviate this problem, a proposal for alternative land use is presented here: large-scale exploitation of biomass for industrial and energy uses, at the level of 600 to 800 million tonnes of oil equivalent a year. The important benefits to arise from this activity will include: job creation in rural districts, solutions to environmental problems, and technologies applicable in developing countries. (author)

  7. Policy Directions for U. S. Agriculture; Long-Range Choices in Farming and Rural Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Marion

    A comprehensive view of agriculture is presented in this volume written to aid critical re-examination of long-range agricultural policy. Farm people, rural institutions and services, rural towns, the spatial organization of agriculture, and its capital structure, in addition to the usual subjects of agricultural output, demand, trade, price, and…

  8. Multipath for Agricultural and Rural Information Services in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ningning; Zang, Zhiyuan; Gao, Lingwang; Shi, Qiang; Li, Jie; Xing, Chunlin; Shen, Zuorui

    Internet cannot provide perfect information services for farmers in rural regions in China, because farmers in rural regions can hardly access the internet by now. But the wide coverage of mobile signal, telephone line, and television network, etc. gave us a chance to solve the problem. The integrated pest management platform of Northern fruit trees were developed based on the integrated technology, which can integrate the internet, mobile and fixed-line telephone network, and television network, to provide integrated pest management(IPM) information services for farmers in rural regions in E-mail, telephone-voice, short message, voice mail, videoconference or other format, to users' telephone, cell phone, personal computer, personal digital assistant(PDA), television, etc. alternatively. The architecture and the functions of the system were introduced in the paper. The system can manage the field monitoring data of agricultural pests, deal with enquiries to provide the necessary information to farmers accessing the interactive voice response(IVR) in the system with the experts on-line or off-line, and issue the early warnings about the fruit tree pests when it is necessary according to analysis on the monitoring data about the pests of fruit trees in variety of ways including SMS, fax, voice and intersystem e-mail.The system provides a platform and a new pattern for agricultural technology extension with a high coverage rate of agricultural technology in rural regions, and it can solve the problem of agriculture information service 'last kilometer' in China. The effectiveness of the system was certified.

  9. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas.

  10. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  11. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaozheng

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development, rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system, rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training, this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work, there are following problems. (1) Accounting behavior is not standard, and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; (2) Internal control is not ...

  12. The feminization of agriculture? Economic restructuring in rural Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Deere, Carmen Diana

    2005-01-01

    Les ménages ruraux ne cessent de diversifier leurs stratégies de création de revenus. Cette diversification, l’augmentation du nombre des membres du ménage cherchant un emploi hors de l’exploitation familiale et des femmes rurales travaillant à leur compte ou comme salariées dans l’agriculture et d’autres secteurs sont parmi les principales tendances associées à la crise économique, à la restructuration néolibérale et à la montée des taux de pauvreté dans les zones rurales d’Amérique latine. ...

  13. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  14. THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY ON RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION IN JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Fauzia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates if the improvement of agricultural productivity will decrease rural to urban migration. Since rural to urban migration occurs due mainly to disparity between urban and agricultural wage, we assume that boosting agricultural income will reduce migration to urban areas. It is hypothesized that increase in agricultural productivity would result in a rise in agricultural wage, and hence income, ceteris paribus, reduces rural-urban migration. The data used in this study is the 2010 provincial statistics in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, Indonesia. The agricultural productivity and migration equations were estimated by using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS. The research findings may offer the suggestion to reduce rural to urban migration by boosting rural income through focusing the policy on agricultural productivity. Enhancing investment in agricultural sector such as increasing the number of subsidized fertilizer, adding agricultural labor and livestock, increasing education of rural people, and utilizing agricultural land resource are expected to increase agricultural output.Thus, it would also minimize the wage differential between urban and rural area.

  15. On Rural Financial and Accounting Work under the Background of Rapid Agricultural Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaozheng; TANG

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of rapid agricultural economic development,rural financial and accounting work is of great significance. From rural accounting management system,rural accountant allocation and rural accounting training,this paper analyzes current situations of rural accounting work in China. In rural financial and accounting work,there are following problems. ( 1) Accounting behavior is not standard,and basic accounting work is to be further strengthened; ( 2) Internal control is not perfect and implementation of supervision mechanism is formalized; ( 3) Few people manipulate accounting behavior and accounting information is not transparent. In view of these problems,it puts forward countermeasures for improving rural accounting work: ( 1) establishing perfect agricultural accounting system; ( 2) regulating fund management order; ( 3) promoting computerized agricultural financial and accounting work; ( 4) improving professional and comprehensive quality of rural accountants.

  16. Production and Perception of Agricultural Reuse in a Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmir Cristiano Marques Arruda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing competition among the various sectors of society in the world for the use of water where agriculture stands out as a major consumer. Since it is carried out in a controlled manner, irrigation with effluents from a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP is a very attractive practice, as it allows a greater supply of water for nobler purposes. This work had the general objective of evaluating the perception of a rural community in the municipality of Pesqueira, Pernambuco, Brasil, in terms of consumption and production of products cultivated with the practice of agricultural reuse. The local population showed acceptance for the cultivation and consumption of products through agricultural reuse, above all, with reliable information on the appropriate quality of the effluents used for irrigation. In the estimated data, the same community had a potential of production of corn, beans and cotton in the order of 19.8 tons, 3.4 tons and 7.7 tons respectively, with the use of treated sewage in irrigation.

  17. Prioritizing Nutrition in Agriculture and Rural Development : Guiding Principles for Operational Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Herforth, Anna; Jones, Andrew; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural and rural development provides a critically important opportunity for reducing malnutrition. The purpose of this paper is to provide a set of guiding principles for incorporating nutrition goals into the design and implementation of agricultural and rural development projects, and to provide examples of current best evidence options for operational investments. Several princip...

  18. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  19. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development Public Expenditure Review 1997/98–2005/06

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  20. Ethiopia - Agriculture and Rural Development : Public Expenditure Review for 1997-98 and 2005-06

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural and Rural Development (ARD) is a fundamental component of Ethiopia's economic growth and poverty reduction strategy. The agricultural development strategy under Agriculture Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) and Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP) focused on enhancing the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, promoting crop diversification...

  1. Agricultural law and development of rural areas: food challenges, natural resources and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Ángel Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    In order to eradicate hunger in the world agricultural decisions must be made that will design a new model of agricultural production that will be more productive and will fit better in the fight against global warming. These decisions will help to regulate agricultural activities so that they help in the above mentioned fight as well. This new model of agricultural production will come together with the adoption of rural development decisions which will then be suitable for every ecosystem, ...

  2. Reforms, agricultural risks and agro-industrial diversification in rural China: Evidence from Chinese Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Weiyong YANG

    2003-01-01

    Since the implementation of the economic reforms in 1978, there is a remarkable diversification trend in rural China characterized by an impressive development of rural enterprises. The main objective of this paper is to understand the forces driving this agro-industrial diversification which has important impact on the employment, incomes and welfare of rural residents. A particular attention has been paid to two categories of factors, agricultural income risks and institutional factors such...

  3. Females in the Agricultural Labour Force and Non-Formal Education for Rural Development in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Greenstreet (Miranda)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractGhana is an agricultural country where most of the people live in rural areas, the proportion of women being greater than men. Life in the rural areas is difficult, but despite the much talked about drift of people to the urban areas, it is almost certain that for many decades, a large

  4. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  5. Concern with the rural environment: urban views on the use of agricultural pesticides and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Jacob; A. E. Luloff

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the dimensions of agricultural chemical and pesticide concern, and its correlates. Concern was found to be broad, and not limited to food safety, environmentalism, or altruism. Social bases were found to be the best predictors of concern, followed by rural beliefs and attitudes, and rural visitation behavior.

  6. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    guiding extension service delivery have focused primarily on the rural sector since ... agricultural and rural development policies in developing nations like Nigeria. ... affirming that agricultural linkages to the non-farm economy generate ...

  7. RURAL DEVELOPMENT: MORE THAN SINGLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT DESARROLLO RURAL: MÁS QUE DESARROLLO AGRÍCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachón Ariza Fabio Alberto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural development as the notion of development has been strongly influenced by the idea of economic growth. Conversely, the rural development road has been focus on agricultural modernization of production systems, intensive use of chemical inputs to increase levels and technology transfer. The actual rural reality has conducted to a revaluation of what rural means and therefore its development. In these sense has grown the importance of rural related activities linked to the diversification and generating of extra revenues for rural families. This could be one of the cases behind this change in perceptions on previous rural development, giving more importance to other aspects such as cultural diversity, community participation, decision taking, decentralization processes, cultural values, and in consequence hot associate rural development with agricultural development.El desarrollo rural al igual que el sólo desarrollo, ha estado fuertemente influenciado por la idea que lo liga con el crecimiento económico. Concebido de esta forma, la manera como se ha intentado alcanzar desarrollo rural ha sido por medio de la modernización de los sistemas de producción agropecuaria, del uso indiscriminado de insumos químicos para aumentar los niveles productivos y de transferencia de tecnología. La realidad que se vive en el sector rural ha hecho que se evolucione hacia una revaloración de lo que significa lo rural y, de esta manera, también su desarrollo. Por este camino han tomado más importancia actividades conexas a lo productivo agropecuario y también la diversificación de las formas de generación de ingresos para las familias rurales. Ésta podría ser una de las causas para que también cambie la percepción que existía sobre el desarrollo rural y se brinde más importancia a otros aspectos como la aceptación de la diversidad, la participación de la comunidad en la toma de decisiones, la descentralización de la administración, el

  8. Commercial agriculture and territorial resistance: Analysis of urban-rural relations in the province of Azuay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Rebai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Ecuadorian province of Azuay, agro-ecology seems to signal towards the rebirth of family agriculture in a context of regional migration. Given changes in land usage and the improvement of peasant economies, we envisage a profound mutation in the rural landscape of Azuay. Notwithstanding, in lieu of a true model of territorial rural development, the term territorial resistance is used as weak regional commercial networks do not allow an adequate integration of a majority of peasants, evidencing the need for a more ambitious vision that takes into account the close ties between rural and urban areas, to assist the insertion of poor peasant farmers into commercial agriculture.

  9. Agriculture, Food Production, and Rural Land Use in Advanced Placement® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, William G.; Watson, Nancy H.

    2016-01-01

    ''Agriculture, Food, and Rural Land Use" constitutes a major part of the AP Human Geography course outline. This article explores challenging topics to teach, emerging research trends in agricultural geography, and sample teaching approaches for concretizing abstract topics. It addresses content identified as "essential knowledge"…

  10. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Chen Ying; Zhang Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao Lei

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China. - Highlights: ► Provides specific methods guidance for agricultural NPS assessment in China. ► Crops do not contribute significant N and P to watercourses in North China Plain. ► Rural living contributes almost no N and P to watercourses. ► Livestock is the only significant agricultural source of COD, N and P. - We address the methodology for agricultural NPS pollution assessment. We show that livestock, not rural living or crops, is the significant pollutant source.

  11. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  12. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  13. Effects of climate change on agricultural production and rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is still practicing rain fed agriculture which renders her vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Extreme climatic events such as flooding, extreme heat, and drought has led to soil degradation which results in low crop yields. Decline in agricultural productivity discourages the farmers and may lead to ...

  14. The transformation of agriculture and rural life downstream of Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den L.M.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of urbanization and of recent economic reforms on the livelihoods of farmers in Hanoi¿s peri-urban areas. Although the proportion of land used for agriculture is declining, agricultural production is intensifying ¿ for instance, with pork, vegetables and fish

  15. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  16. Complex agricultural livelihoods and aflatoxin exposure in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processed foods are easily accessible by many households, from the numerous trading centres established within villages. This paper gives background information on heterogeneity of household diets and seasonal trends in food consumption in rural Uganda and by so doing, identifies potential risk factors for aflatoxin ...

  17. Genardis : Gender for Agriculture and Rural Development in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Phases I and II of this small grants project were funded under projects 101698 and 102900, respectively. Genardis III will provide 15 awardees - mainly, rural women from African, Caribbean and Pacific countries - with capacity building and funding to pursue small research projects aimed at furthering knowledge on gender ...

  18. The internet of things in agriculture for sustainable rural development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available these issues. The intention of this research is to investigate the potential contributions of internet of things technologies (IoT) towards poverty reduction in these rural areas, in line with the needs identified in these communities and with emphasis...

  19. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  20. Rural tourism associated with agriculture as an economic alternative for the farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Calado, Luísa; Rodrigues, Ana; Silveira, Paulo; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting a possible approach to identify the best sites for rural tourism and also to analyze the synergies between agriculture and cultural heritage in Azores, in order to be incorporated in the full range of management concerns into private and public decision‑making. The following territorial aptitudes for alternative were used to simulate this exercise: urban, touristic, horticulture, agricultural, cattle and forestry. Soil potential was defined in a...

  1. Very low adequacy of micronutrient intakes by young children and women in rural Bangladesh is primarily explained by low food intake and limited diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Yakes, Elizabeth A; Islam, M Munirul; Hossain, Mohammad B; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hotz, Christine; Lewis, Bess; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Jamil, Kazi M; Brown, Kenneth H

    2013-02-01

    Documentation of micronutrient intake inadequacies among developing country populations is important for planning interventions to control micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to quantify micronutrient intakes by young children and their primary female caregivers in rural Bangladesh. We measured 24-h dietary intakes on 2 nonconsecutive days in a representative sample of 480 children (ages 24-48 mo) and women in 2 subdistricts of northern Bangladesh by using 12-h weighed food records and subsequent 12-h recall in homes. We calculated the probability of adequacy (PA) of usual intakes of 11 micronutrients and an overall mean PA, and evaluated dietary diversity by counting the total number of 9 food groups consumed. The overall adequacy of micronutrient intakes was compared to dietary diversity scores using correlation and multivariate regression analyses. The overall mean prevalence of adequacy of micronutrient intakes for children was 43% and for women was 26%. For children, the prevalence of adequate intakes for each of the 11 micronutrients ranged from a mean of 0 for calcium to 95% for vitamin B-6 and was foods.

  2. A Bibliography of Agriculture and Rural Life in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanjord, Don Edward

    Intended as a key to current work in agriculture in Yemen, this bibliography cites more than 520 resources produced since 1963 including monographs, journal articles, theses and dissertations, conference papers, case studies, reports, proposals, surveys, bibliographies, and United Nations publications. Foreign language materials in German, French,…

  3. Public Relation as a Tool for Promoting Rural and Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current trend in the institutional support mechanisms for agriculture at state, national and international levels underscores its significance to the attainment of a number of millennium development goals in Nigeria. Extension institutions and technology transfer programmes exist in almost every developing country yet; ...

  4. Child labor, agricultural shocks and labor sharing in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.

  5. Busy work or real business : revaluing the role of non-agricultural activities in African rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, P.O.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of rural nonagricultural activities in sub-Saharan Africa has been growing during the past two decades, but their role in rural development is still unclear. Current debate about agricultural and rural development centres on two competing paradigms, one focused on increased market

  6. Core II Materials for Rural Agriculture Programs. Units E-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This curriculum guide includes teaching packets for 21 problem areas to be included in a core curriculum for 10th grade students enrolled in a rural agricultural program. Covered in the four units included in this volume are crop science (harvesting farm crops and growing small grains); soil science and conservation of natural resources…

  7. The Role of Community Based Orgs (Cbos) In Rural and Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that community based organizations are veritable agents of development in ensuring the agricultural and rural transformation of Delta State. The study recommended that there is need to develop a link between the state and community us so as to increase the managerial and professional capabilities of ...

  8. Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of rural-urban migration of youths on agricultural labour supply in Umuahia north local government area of Abia State, Nigeria was examined. Data for the study were collected from 100 respondents selected from three the three wards in the area. Data analysis was by use of frequencies, percentages and chi-square ...

  9. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  10. Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Izabela; Ahmed, Mansur; Kar, Anuja

    2018-01-01

    The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through job creation, improved productivity, and inclusiveness. Using an 'agricultural jobs lens' and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current jobs structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are c...

  11. CLIMATE CHANGE, VARIABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN ZIMBABWE'S RURAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gukurume Simbarashe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the impact of climate change and variability on agricultural productivity in the communal area of Bikita. The article further examines the adaptation and mitigation strategies devised by farmers to deal with the vagaries of climate change and variability. The sustainability of these is also interrogated in this article. This study juxtaposed qualitative and quantitative methodologies albeit with more bias on the former. A total of 40 farmers were sampled for unstructured interviews and focus group discussions. This article argues that the adverse impacts of climate change and variability are felt heavily by the poor communal farmers who are directly dependent on agriculture for livelihood. From the study, some of the widely reported signs of climate variability in Bikita included late and unpredictable rains, high temperatures (heat waves, successive drought, shortening rainfall seasons and seasonal changes in the timing of rainfall. The paper argues that climate change has compounded the vulnerability of peasant farmers in the drought - prone district of Bikita plunging them into food insecurity and abject poverty. It emerged in the study that some of effects of climate variability felt by communal farmers in Bikita included failure of crops, death of livestock and low crop yields, all of which have led to declining agricultural productivity. Findings in this study however established that communal farmers have not been passive victims of the vagaries of climate change and variability. They have rationally responded to it through various adaptation and mitigation strategies both individually and collectively.

  12. Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Vicente

    2008-09-01

    During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

  13. Learning achievements of farmers during the transition to market-oriented organic agriculture in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Owamani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture requires farmers with the ability to develop profitable agro-enterprises on their own. By drawing on four years of experiences with the Enabling Rural Innovation approach in Uganda, we outline how smallholder farmers transition to organic agriculture and, at the same time, increase their entrepreneurial skills and competences through learning. In order to document this learning we operationalised the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, which subsequently informed the collection of qualitative data in two study sites. Our analysis suggests that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach helps farmers to develop essential capabilities for identifying organic markets and new organic commodities, for testing these organic commodities under varying organic farm management scenarios, and for negotiating contracts with organic traders. We also observed several obstacles that confront farmers’ transition to organic agriculture when using the Enabling Rural Innovation approach. These include the long duration of agronomic experimentation and seed multiplication, expensive organic certification procedures and the absence of adequate mechanism for farmers to access crop finance services. Despite prevailing obstacles we conclude that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach provides a starting point for farmers to develop entrepreneurial competences and profitable agro-enterprises on their own.

  14. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  15. Not just a rural occurrence: differences in agricultural equipment crash characteristics by rural-urban crash site and proximity to town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, Karisa K; Greenan, Mitchell; Ramirez, Marizen

    2014-09-01

    Although approximately one-third of agricultural equipment-related crashes occur near town, these crashes are thought to be a rural problem. This analysis examines differences between agricultural equipment-related crashes by their urban-rural distribution and distance from a town. Agricultural equipment crashes were collected from nine Midwest Departments of Transportation (2005-2008). Crash zip code was assigned as urban or rural (large, small and isolated) using Rural-Urban Commuting Areas. Crash proximity to a town was estimated with ArcGIS. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of crashing in an urban versus rural zip codes and across rural gradients. ANOVA analysis estimated mean distance (miles) from a crash site to a town. Over four years, 4444 crashes involved agricultural equipment. About 30% of crashes occurred in urban zip codes. Urban crashes were more likely to be non-collisions (aOR=1.69[1.24-2.30]), involve ≥2 vehicles (2 vehicles: aOR=1.58[1.14-2.20], 3+ vehicles: aOR=1.68[0.98-2.88]), occur in a town (aOR=2.06[1.73-2.45]) and within one mile of a town (aOR=1.65[1.40-1.95]) than rural crashes. The proportion of crashes within a town differed significantly across rural gradients (Purban-rural distribution (Pagricultural equipment are unexpectedly common in urban areas and near towns and cities. Education among all roadway users, increased visibility of agricultural equipment and the development of complete rural roads are needed to increase road safety and prevent agricultural equipment-related crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Catharinus F; De Vries, Jasper R

    2014-01-01

    Crashes involving agricultural vehicles (AVs) on public roads are an increasing road safety problem. We aim to analyze developments in the appearance and severity of these accidents, identify influencing factors, and draw lessons for possible interventions for accident prevention within the context of modern mechanized agriculture. To analyze developments in the appearance of accidents we use a subset of accidents with AVs involved on public roads in The Netherlands aggregated per year for 1987-2010. To identify and explore preventive measures we use an in-depth study of the Dutch Safety Board. With a study of international literature we put our findings in a wider context. During this time span, Dutch annual averages show 15 registered fatal accidents involving AVs, 93 with hospitalization and 137 with slight injuries. For nonfatal accidents, the numbers are decreasing over time. This decrease is proportionate to the reduction in the total number of traffic victims. For fatalities, however, the number is stable, increasing its proportion in all traffic fatalities from 1 in 1987 to 2 percent in 2010. Related to the number of inhabitants, this number is 2 times the value in the UK and 3 times the value in the United States. Influencing factors can be related to the 3 road system components (AV, driver, and infrastructure). Weak points for AVs are the view from the driver's seat, visibility at night, permitted vehicle width, and crash aggressivity (large kinetic energy of the AV) that is transferred to other road users in case of a collision. Important factors identified for the driver are poor risk perception and high risk acceptance, in combination with speeding, dysfunctional use such as the use of AVs as modes of transport to and from school, and driving on public roads without protecting or removing protruding and sharp components. For infrastructure, the focus is on road design and separation of AVs from other motor vehicles. Lessons to be learned follow from

  17. Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

  18. Linking agricultural food production and rural tourism in the Kazbegi district – A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hüller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As in many transition countries, also in Georgia rural urban migration as well as migration from the agricultural sector takes place. This also applies to the Kazbegi district, a mountainous region in the Greater Caucasus of Georgia. The main activity in the district is subsistence farming, while only a few agricultural producers are commercially active. As the region offers beautiful nature, during the last decade tourism has been on the rise, while a dwindling interest in the agricultural sector can be observed. However, the growth in tourism also provides opportunities for small-scale agricultural producers to increase their income by marketing their surplus production to the local tourism sector and thereby improving their livelihoods. In turn, an increase in local agri-food products offered might have a positive effect on the tourism sector. Thus, establishing linkages of agricultural food production and rural tourism might contribute to the economic development of the district and even counteract migration to the capital and from the agricultural sector. Through a qualitative study, we aim at identifying local agri-food products suitable for being marketed to the tourism sector and efficient marketing options. In order to do so, we analyze local agri-food chains. Exploratory interviews, focus group discussions and expert interviews provide data for a qualitative content analysis. First results show that food products which require little technological equipment for processing and do not underlie strict food safety standards, like for example honey, seem to be adequate to tap marketing potentials with regard to rural tourism.

  19. Women's empowerment in agriculture and child nutritional status in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kenda; Ploubidis, George B; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie; Kadiyala, Suneetha; Uauy, Ricardo; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between women's empowerment in agriculture and nutritional status among children under 2 years of age in rural Nepal. Cross-sectional survey of 4080 households conducted in 2012. Data collected included: child and maternal anthropometric measurements; child age and sex; maternal age, education, occupation and empowerment in agriculture; and household size, number of children, religion, caste and agro-ecological zone. Associations between the Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)'s Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) sub-index and its ten component indicators and child length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) were estimated, using ordinary least-squares regression models, with and without adjustments for key child, maternal and household level covariates. Two hundred and forty rural communities across sixteen districts of Nepal. Children under 24 months of age and their mothers (n 1787). The overall WEAI 5DE was positively associated with LAZ (β=0·20, P=0·04). Three component indicators were also positively associated with LAZ: satisfaction with leisure time (β=0·27, Pempowerment in agriculture was associated with WLZ. Women's empowerment in agriculture, as measured by the WEAI 5DE and three of its ten component indicators, was significantly associated with LAZ, highlighting the potential role of women's empowerment in improving child nutrition in Nepal. Additional studies are needed to determine whether interventions to improve women's empowerment will improve child nutrition.

  20. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaila, Heidi Kristiina

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology—both agricultural machinery and information technology—within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid...... expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When controlling for a number of household characteristics including income, households that already own technology...

  1. The dynamics of the global capital and its consequences on agriculture and in rural spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Manuel Belo

    2002-01-01

    In this paper globalization is conceptualised as a process that marks a new phase of capitalism (Moreira 1994). The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic approach to the economic and social consequences of the globalization process, with particular attention to agriculture and agri-food as well as the use of rural areas. Therefore, understanding the role of the main agents of globalization is a necessary condition to assess the impact of this process. My working hypothesis is that the ...

  2. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; BOGDANOV Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; ERJAVEC Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; NACKA Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...

  3. POISON CONTROL—Operation of an Information Center in a Rural and Agricultural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, J. J.

    1960-01-01

    The Fresno Community Hospital Poison Control Center has been in operation for about three years, under the sole directorship of the pathologist. All expenses are paid by the hospital. It has served a definite need in the community. As an agricultural and more or less rural community, it shows more poison cases having to do with plants, insecticides, kerosene and fertilizers than do urban communities. PMID:13801875

  4. Effects of agricultural credit facility on the agricultural production and rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Ekwere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lack of capital has been identified as one of the constraints that faced by small scale farmers. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of agricultural credit on the agriculture production, and calculate the inputs and outputs among small scale farmers. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 136 farmers, who had been selected using the stratified random sampling technique, and the data obtained were summarized into percentages. Regression analysis was adopted to assess the impacts of socio-economic factors on loan size among farmers, while Cobb-Douglas Production Function Analysis (CDPFA was used to test the relationship between key independent variables such as loan amount, farm size, inputs and farm output as dependent variable. The analysis revealed a significantly high value of coefficient of determination (R2= 0.922 that reflected a high relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables; gender, age, education, family size, farm size, farming experience. The Adjusted (R2 coefficient (R2 = 0.918 revealed that 91.8 % of variation in loam size explained by the changes in variables. The results showed a significance in F-test in size of loan. The hypothesis two, exhibited that the independent variables; loan size, farm size, and inputs explained the variation in the total value of farmers output. The study therefore showed that to achieve the positive agricultural credit impacts on agricultural production, The Government and the private sector should regularly and timely facilitate the credit to the small scale farmers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10529 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 192-204

  5. AGRICULTURA Y DESARROLLO RURAL; REFERENCIA ESPECIAL AL ASOCIACIONISNO AGRARIO/AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT; SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE AGRARIAN AFFILIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín GARCÍA SANZ

    2007-05-01

    de los productos alimenticios y la trazabilidad, retos para los que sin duda están muy concienciadas las cooperativas./The agriculture is an activity trasversal that concerns the rural world but also to villages that are not rural. It is an activity that is present in very big villages of the South named agro cities. Regardless there is a very direct entail between agriculture and ruralidad, not so much because the agriculture is already the base of the work of the rural world, but because being his counterfoil. To analyze the agrarian work in the rural world there are several sources, one is the Survey of the Active Population (EPA who realizes of the persons who are employed at this sector and other one is the Agrarian Census or the Survey of Agrarian Structures that he gathers all the persons who have some labour entail with the agrarian activity. The contrast between these two sources reveals the existence of new figures that appear in the Censuses and not in the EPA as the holders of agrarian developments who have another activity, the holders who cover less half a day in the exploitation, the spouses of the holders or the relatives. This leads us to affirming the importance that has the activity in the rural world as the entail o the works of the agriculture not only of the farmers but also of those that are retired, they have another principal occupation or are simply temporary collaborators of the agrarian work. Raising the future of the agriculture a commentary has interfered on the importance of the asociacionismo, not so much that of production, but that of marketing. Though the levels reached as for members and implied sectors it is high, still there stays a great span that to cross, especially regarding cooperatives of the second degree and control of the markets. This one is a challenge to that it is necessary to add a new bet that consists of penetrating in the circuits of the transformation for taking part of the distribution of benefits, which

  6. Creating a Social Wasteland? Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports and Rural Poverty in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Korovkin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal economic policies in Latin America  have resulted in the rapid growth of nontraditional agricultural exports (NTAE. This  growth is often seen as contributing to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper examines this  view with the focus on Ecuador, using the World  Bank’s definition poverty as a reference. It is  argued that the flower export expansion has created employment opportunities but did not allow  the rural poor to raise themselves above the poverty line. Moreover, flower employment has undermined the pre-existing social networks and community organizations, increasing the levels of insecurity among rural families and undermining  their ability to influence the processes of decision  making.  Resumen: Creando un páramo social? Exportaciones agrícolas no-tradicionales y pobreza rural en EcuadorLas políticas económicas neo-liberales en América Latina han resultado en el rápido crecimiento  de las exportaciones agrícolas no tradicionales  (EANT, lo que es considerado a menudo como  un alivio de la pobreza rural. En este artículo se  estudia esta visión para el caso de Ecuador, utilizando como referencia la definición de pobreza  del Banco Mundial. Aunque se dice que la expansión en la exportación de flores ha creado oportunidades de empleo, no ha logrado que los pobres  rurales crucen la línea de la pobreza. Además, el empleo en este sector ha socavado las redes sociales y organizaciones comunitarias anteriores,  elevando los niveles de inseguridad entre las  familias rurales y minando su capacidad de intervención en el proceso de toma de decisiones.

  7. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  8. Effects of climate change on agriculture, forests and rural communities : submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, E.

    2003-02-01

    The effects of climate change are already being felt in Saskatchewan. Trend data for the twentieth century showed an increase in mean yearly temperature of 1 to 1.5 degrees C on the prairies. Major droughts are disastrous to Saskatchewan's agriculture and forestry sectors, to rural water availability and to the economy in general. Saskatchewan's strategy to manage the effects of climate change from increasing levels of greenhouse gases is based on adaptation research to maximize biological and geological sinks and to explore cost-effective emission reduction initiatives. The province is a world leader in research and development in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture from fossil-fuel fired electricity generation and sequestration of CO 2 in underground geological formations. The research has the potential to greatly reduce world greenhouse gas emissions by turning coal and other fossil fuels into zero emission sources of energy. The efforts that Saskatchewan has taken to reduce agricultural emissions was also described along with beneficial management practices, such as soil conservation and biological sinks. Saskatchewan is concerned that it may be unfairly affected by Canada's Kyoto commitment because of its emission intensive economy. The province would like recognition of the economic importance of its forestry sector and its potential to reduce carbon emissions and as a carbon sink

  9. The Use of an e-Learning System for Agricultural Extension: A Case Study of the Rural Development Administration, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duk-Byeong; Cho, Yong-Been; Lee, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the e-learning system of the Computer-Based Agricultural Extension Program (CBAES) and examines the differences in user satisfaction and preferences between the two systems for Agricultural Education and Extension at the Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It also describes the architecture, services, user…

  10. Chinese rural development and agricultural technology extension in Hunan province : analysis based on value chain and farmer participation perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bin; Herman, Joost; Zhao, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    As the Chinese rural development has made remarkable achievements in the past forty years, which is shown in agricultural productivity increase and poverty reduction, the administrative agricultural technology extension system is an important factor for those outcomes. However, in recent years, the

  11. Etic and Emic Perspectives on HIV/AIDS Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Agricultural Practice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.; Price, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an HIV/AIDS lens in looking at developments in rural livelihoods and agricultural practice reveals a diversity of critical impacts of the epidemic. Still, in most of the countries hardest-hit by HIV/ AIDS the agricultural sector lacks adequate policies and programmes to deal with the crisis.

  12. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38%). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA.

  13. Significant involvement of agricultural holdings in rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a large number of farms in Serbia, which survived with a little capital and labor, and today one of the perspectives they see in the integration with the rural tourism. Tourism development is an incentive for the introduction of improvements in agricultural production, processing and supply of food, as well as the introduction of modern standards that are difficult to apply on small farms because of the high costs of their implementation. Rural tourism in Serbia is not at a satisfactory level of development, although there are all preconditions for its intensive development. Due to unfavorable political and economic position of Serbia, rural tourism has not encountered the support of its favorable development among its competitors. The authors have tried to point out a study for the attitude of the hosts as a service providers on the current status and problems faced in providing services in rural tourism. Investigated in 15 municipalities in Vojvodina (Northern Serbia, Southwestern Serbia and Southeastern Serbia, and in a total of 46 owners of small farms. Using the tests methods questionnaires and processing in SPSS, version 19.0, and analysis of the data, authors led to the confirmation of certain hypotheses of which started in the investigation.

  14. Prevalence of asthma in a rural population exposed to wastewater in agriculture, Settat, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kettani, S.; Aichane, A.; Azzouzi, M.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to value the risk of occurrence of asthma in connection with the use of raw wastewater in agriculture and the presence of the intestinal parasitosis. A survey was conducted on 216 persons, aged 28.6±19.4 years, belonging to two rural clusters, using wastewater in agriculture, and 120 persons aged 32.3±19.5 years belonging to a reference rural cluster not using wastewater. Every participant benefited from a complete clinical exam with compilation of anamnestic information. The presence of asthma was based on the ISAAC questionnaire. The participants also profited from anthropometric, parasitological examination of the saddles and a numeration of the eosinophiles. The prevalence of asthma is significantly higher in the population exposed to wastewater. No studied factor influenced the prevalence significantly. But it is higher in the hypereosinophilic ones, thin persons, active smokers and young children less than 10 years old. In accordance with the hygienic hypothesis, it is weaker among the promiscuous subjects and those carrying intestinal parasitosis. The use of raw wastewater in agriculture is responsible for an exacerbation of asthma in the population concerned. This study is in agreement with the hygienic hypothesis. Preventive measures are essential while stressing on medical education and adequate wastewater treatment. (author)

  15. The garden dying: Commoditization of agriculture and changes in practices of self-consumption among rural families of southern gaucho

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    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.

  16. Potential for Producing Biogas from Agricultural Waste in Rural Plants in Poland

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    Magdalena Muradin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the current situation as well as future prospects for biogas production in rural plants in Poland. Our research has focused on the management of agricultural waste. While Poland’s agriculture and its local food industry have substantial potential, many barriers persist to the development not only of biogas plants but also in every other renewable source of energy. The main obstacles have to do with politically motivated economic factors. Our interest has been in larger plants having sufficient capacities to produce in excess of 500 kW of electricity. The paper also presents a case study of a biogas plant supply by organic, agrifood waste mixed with silage.

  17. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  18. The Regional and Local Distribution of Funds Allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA-MIRELA MARCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present and analyze the regional and local distribution of the funds allocated by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD, European fund that finances rural development in Romania, in the post-accession period. This financing instrument was created by the European Union with the order to continue the main directions of investment of Special Pre-Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development (SAPARD. As a member state of the European Union, Romania observes the principles of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP while the development of the Romanian rural area for the programming period 2007-2013 is supported by the European Community through the National Rural Development Programme (RDP. This approach pays special attention to improving the quality of life in rural areas and the diversification of the rural economy because local communities in Romania have experienced some changes in this period, while accessing EAFRD funds contributed to increased regional disparities between developed and poor areas.

  19. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes.

  20. Identify the Role of Rural Women in Agriculture with Emphasis on Passive Defense Environment of Bavi Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohmedi Karbalaii

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving agriculture, the environment and other sectors in need of passive defense that can effectively help to complete the chain of defense is in the improvement of the agricultural sector. This study is applied for the purpose of gathering data descriptive population study of rural women in two villages in the central city of Bavi Khuzestan Tlbovmeh Salieh and the sample size of 736 persons was estimated by using Morgan 250. The data in this study was obtained using a questionnaire designed for the faculty members of the University of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Ramin Khuzestan and the quotas were distributed randomly. Data were analyzed using the software described. Descriptive statistics and coefficient of variation in the average rate in the inferential statistical correlation test, Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the average F. The results of descriptive statistics showed that more rural women with primary education and familiar with the environment are very young and have a lot of faith, but their participation in solving environmental problems is very low. Based on the results of the correlation, age and education level of rural women in their understanding of the importance of agricultural activities passive defense is effective. The results of the test showed that in the comparison between age and level of education, rural women who are young and highly educated with a broad vision have a variety of agricultural activities in the context of agriculture that are passive

  1. The effect of rural road transport infrastructure on smallholder farmers’ agricultural productivity in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Tamene

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine access to rural road infrastructure and its effects on smallholder farmers’ agricultural productivity in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. A three stage random sampling technique was employed to select 500 farming households in the study area and data was collected on their socio-economic and farm specific characteristics. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The result of multiple regression model used revealed that distance to major market is important in predicting agricultural productivity of smallholder farmers at 5% levels of probability in Abe Dongoro, Amuru and Hababo Guduru districts. Ownership of intermediate means of transport was also found to influence agricultural productivity in Horro, Amuru and Hababo Guduru districts (p = 0.05. Further analysis of the regression model showed a significant negative correlation between distance to nearest all weather roads and distance to zonal head quarter on one hand and agricultural productivity on the other hand in Abe Dongoro, Hababo Guduru and Amuru districts. Rural kebeles of Abe Dongoro and Amuru districts which has vast agricultural potential were found to be the most inaccessible in Horro Guduru Wollega Zone. It is therefore suggested that interventions in the transport sector should include provision of rural roads as well as measures that will help improve vehicle supply in rural areas. An attempt has to be done also to increase the use of intermediate means of transport to ease agricultural inputs and outputs mobility and farm access.

  2. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  3. RURAL FARMERS’ PERCEPTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ofuoku

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmer perception of their environment is a factor of climate change. Adaptation to climate change requires farmers to realize that the climate has changed and they must identify useful adaptations and implement them. This study analyzed the per-ception of climate change among rural farmers in central agri-cultural zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Climate change studies often assume certain adaptations and minimal examination of how, when, why, and conditions under which adaptations usually take place in any economic and social systems. The study was conducted by survey method on 131 respondents using struc-tured interview schedule and questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and linear regression model to test that education, gender, and farming experience influenced farmers’ perception of climate change. The results showed that the farmers were aware of climate change. The identified causes of climate change were ranging from intensified agriculture, population explosion, increased use of fossil fuel, loss of in-digenous know practice to gas flaring. The effects of climate change on crops and livestocks were also identified by the rural farmers. Many of the farmers adapted to climate change by planting trees, carrying out soil conservation practice, changing planting dates, using different crop varieties, installing fans in livestock pens, and applying irrigation. Almost half of them did not adapt to climate change. The linear regression analysis revealed that education, gender, and farming experience influ-enced farmers’ perception of climate change. The major barriers to adaptation to climate change included lack of information, lack of money, and inadequate land.

  4. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  5. AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIALECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN GEORGIA: A CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE KAKHETI-REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris FORKEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Like in many other transition countries, agriculture in Georgia is usually termed as subsistence farming. Lack of employment opportunities and insufficient household income make rural people dependent on state-funded pensionschemes and agricultural production. Similarly, the income-disparity between rural households is also noticed remarkably, while citizens of smaller towns possess, on average, higher income. The study presented in this report is intended to explore the situation of rural households concerning parcel size, employment opportunities, income sources and income disparities between citizens of villages and small towns, by presenting findings obtained during a field survey conducted during the months of March and May 2008 in the Kakheti region in eastern Georgia.

  6. Postponing Labor in Fisheries, Tourism and Agriculture Sectors: Rural Eastern Indonesian University Students in Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foertsch, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores the migration of Eastern Indonesian university students who come to Java for education. Often from rural, economically disadvantaged regions such as the Kei Islands in Southeast Maluku, and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT), these young adults delay joining fisheries, agriculture, or tourism sectors. Instead, these relatively high-performing students travel to the “center of the country” seeking skills and experiences promised by higher education in Javanese urban centers. This qualitative, anthropological research complements other, more technical and economic approaches. Based on interview and observational data, a complicated portrait emerges of these bright young people from fishing and farming communities in Maluku and NTT. Many idealistically plan to return to their home communities, hoping to improve local fishing and farming methods or to work as teachers, civil servants, or tour guides. Others do not intend to return home, where they think jobs are scarce and traditional livelihoods unattractive. Analysis of this generation’s perspective has critical implications for educators and policymakers wishing to prevent a “brain drain” of their educated native sons and daughters, whose experience and skills could contribute importantly to the various socio-economic demands present in island regions, including fisheries and agriculture, conservation, tourism, and employment.

  7. Assessing the impact of pluriactivity on sustainable agriculture. A case study in rural areas of Beotia in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giourga, Christina; Loumou, Angeliki

    2006-06-01

    Pluriactivity of farms, or part-time farming, is a common feature of agriculture in all countries regardless of their socioeconomic system and level of development. Currently, pluriactivity is related to the values of sustainable agriculture. The objective of this study is to delineate those specific characteristics of pluriactive farms that contribute to sustainable agriculture. In rural areas of Boetia in Greece, a socioeconomic survey was carried out on 114 farms to determine the types of farming applied. The results demonstrate that pluriactivity is a stable component of the agricultural structure in the rural areas of Boetia. It is widespread in plains, but its presence is more important in mountainous and semimountainous areas. The choice of young farmers is to opt for pluriactivity. Farm size does not differ between pluriactive and full-time farms. Pluriactive and full- time farms use the same level of input and get the same output for the same type of crop. However, pluriactive farmers under the same land-productive conditions are oriented toward a more extensive farming system, managing their land with crops that need less inputs. Considering these findings, it can be claimed that pluriactivity can contribute to diminishing the demand on natural resources in favored (level and irrigated) areas, to continue agricultural production in unfavorable (mountainous and semimountainous) areas, and to help the sustenance of the rural population.

  8. Perspectives on the Structure of American Agriculture. Volume II: Federal Farm Policies--Their Effects on Low-Income Farmers and Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Kenneth M., Ed.

    Agriculture and farming are the economic context for rural education. This is the second of two volumes of papers describing the impact of national agricultural policy on the poor. The nine articles in this volume (shot-titled below) analyze federal policy from the standpoint of the low-income farmer: (1) "Agricultural Price Supports,"…

  9. Wet nitrogen deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ouping; Zhang, Shirong; Deng, Liangji; Zhang, Chunlong; Fei, Jianbo

    2018-03-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of the flux of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is essential for assessment of its impact on ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the variability of N deposition across urban-intensive agricultural-rural transects. A continuous 2-year observational study (from January 2015 to December 2016) was conducted to determine wet N deposition across the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect of a small urban area in southwest China. Significantly spatial and temporal variations were found in the research area. Along the urban-intensive agricultural-rural transect, the TN and NH 4 + -N deposition first increased and then decreased, and the NO 3 - -N and dissolved organic N (DON) deposition decreased continuously. Wet N deposition was mainly affected by the districts of agro-facilities, roads and build up lands. Wet NH 4 + -N deposition had non-seasonal emission sources including industrial emissions and urban excretory wastes in urban districts and seasonal emission sources such as fertilizer and manure volatilization in the other districts. However, wet NO 3 - -N deposition had seasonal emission sources such as industrial emissions and fireworks in urban district and non-seasonal emission sources such as transportation in the other districts. Deposition of DON was likely to have had similar sources to NO 3 - -N deposition in rural district, and high-temperature-dependent sources in urban and intensive agricultural districts. Considering the annual wet TN deposition in the intensive agricultural district was about 11.1% of the annual N fertilizer input, N fertilizer rates of crops should be reduced in this region to avoid the excessive application, and the risk of N emissions to the environment.

  10. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  11. Current status of agricultural and rural non-point source Pollution assessment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongley, Edwin D.; Zhang Xiaolan; Yu Tao

    2010-01-01

    Estimates of non-point source (NPS) contribution to total water pollution in China range up to 81% for nitrogen and to 93% for phosphorus. We believe these values are too high, reflecting (a) misuse of estimation techniques that were developed in America under very different conditions and (b) lack of specificity on what is included as NPS. We compare primary methods used for NPS estimation in China with their use in America. Two observations are especially notable: empirical research is limited and does not provide an adequate basis for calibrating models nor for deriving export coefficients; the Chinese agricultural situation is so different than that of the United States that empirical data produced in America, as a basis for applying estimation techniques to rural NPS in China, often do not apply. We propose a set of national research and policy initiatives for future NPS research in China. - Estimation techniques used in China for non-point source pollution are evaluated as a basis for recommending future policies and research in NPS studies in China.

  12. Combining integrated models and participatory methods to quantify water and agricultural trade-offs linked to different rural development scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Willaarts, Barbara; García, Ángel de Miguel; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the water and agricultural tradeoffs linked to three different rural development scenarios in the Cega-Eresma-Adaja basin (CEA) in Central Spain. Agriculture is a key socioeconomic activity in CEA, and nearly 44% of the basin is devoted to croplands and pastures. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 12% of the cropland area and is currently using over 84% of available water resources. To define the three scenarios for CEA, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders to infer how contrasting evolutions of EU agricultural, water and environmental policies could affect the local land use and agricultural management using participatory mapping techniques. The three scenarios reflect 1) a business as usual (BAU) rural development; 2) a land sharing strategy (LSH); and 3) a land sparing (LSP) situation. The integrated Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the changes in water use (hm^3/year) and agricultural productivity (ton/year) under each scenario. To account for changes in agricultural land use and management, the model integrates a large set of agricultural patterns obtained from combining high resolution remote sensing images (20m x 20m) for the years 2011-2015, agricultural productivity from survey by municipality and land use information obtained from the national map SIOSE2011 (1:50.000). Model calibration and sensitivity analysis were performed using SWAT-CUP/SUFI2 The period of the years 2005 to 2008 were used for parameter calibration and validation period extending between 2009 and 2014. The predicted daily streamflow presents a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and a NS coefficient of 0.81. The preliminary results reveal that under a BAU and a LSP scenario agricultural production and water demand will increase significantly (>25%) despite the improvements in water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, allocated water is likely to exceed the natural renewable water resources compromising the

  13. Agriculture vs. social sciences: subject classification and sociological conceptualization of rural tourism in Scopus and Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan HOČEVAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and consumptive function of countryside (rural areas are connected which should be reflected in scientific research. In order to test relationships, we selected the topic of rural tourism (also agritourism, agrotourism, agricultural tourism considering sociological conceptualization (social sciences, sociology and methodological approaches of information sciences (bibliometrics, scientometrics in describing fields of science or scientific disciplines. We ascertained scatter of information in citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. Functionalities were evaluated, affecting search precision and recall in information retrieval. We mapped documents to Scopus subject areas as well as Web of Science (WOS research areas and subject categories, and related publications (journals. Databases do not differ substantially in mapping this topic. Social sciences (including economics or business occupy by far the most important place. The strongest concentration was found in tourism-related journals (consistent with power laws. Agriculture-related publications are rare, accounting for some 10 % of documents. Interdisciplinarity seems to be weak. Results point to poor inclusion of emerging social topics in agricultural research whereby agriculture may lose out in possible venues of future research.

  14. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. bee behavior or colony health.

  15. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Lower Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Istudor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the conditions of European Strategy for Labour which was ratified also by Romania, that states an intensifying implementation at national level of labour policies and especially those regarding young person labour market integration, and taking into consideration the great human and agricultural potential of Lower Danube Region, we consider the implementation of national and regional programmes in order to train agriculture and rural development specialists to be very necessary. This article inquires the necessity of training agriculture and rural development specialists within Lower Danube Region in the context of cross-border cooperation between Romania and Bulgaria. This research starts by analysing the European and national legal framework of adult training in those two fields. Subsequently, the main premises and advantages of those activities were emphasized. It is good to mention that the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania, and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svishtov, Bulgaria, proposed themselves to cooperate in the field of “human resources development – common development of skills and knowledge”. The legal base exists as the Romania-Bulgaria Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013 is enforced. Furthermore, a four years comparative study of the number of persons trained for the main jobs in rural area, including farmer, in Lower Danube Region was conducted. All these led to the idea that it is necessary to continue and to stress adult training of farmers and rural specialists as a solution for rural economy development and social welfare. Also, comparative analysis of supply and demand of professionals in the field of agriculture was elaborated. The main educational programs in training agriculture and rural development specialists were identified and some problems and perspectives were worked out. This research can be considered as a first step of future deeper and profound collaboration of Tsenov

  16. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25... which is primarily agricultural. (b) Exceptions to the definition. On a case by case basis, the Secretary may grant requests for waiver from the definition of “rural” stated in paragraph (a) of this...

  17. Benefits of agricultural technology innovation capacity to peasant farmers in rural poor areas: The case of DBN-Group, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Agri Eneji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DaBeiNong (DBN Technology Group Co Ltd is a private enterprise, at the cutting edge of the agricultural high-tech industry in China. It has developed its innovative capabilities through Research and Development (R&D activities, skilled R&D personnel, new products, services, processes and markets. This study contributes to knowledge by identifying and constructing a model of the enterprise innovation capacity; the inputs and outputs of innovation in DBN and 9 other agricultural high-tech enterprises in China. We analyzed the enterprise technology innovation capacity and offered recommendations. Two sets of questionnaires were used; for the peasant farmers, and for the agricultural enterprises. We used the rank factors on an ordinal scale and simple percentages. We used econometric model to analyze seven factors of agricultural enterprise innovation capacity. The results show that R&D is strategic to Agricultural Enterprise Innovation Capacity (AETIC. However, the benefits to the peasant farmers need to be further intensified, and stepped up from its present average level. We found that enterprises with higher capital and larger sales have more R&D investment than those with smaller sales. Promoting agricultural research and rural development is crucial to pro-poor growth, given the potential for smallholder agriculture to rapidly absorb and adopt innovations.

  18. Agriculture d'autosubsistance et formation du capital en milieu rural tropical : l'exemple de la région de Bengamisa (Haut-Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulongo, KM.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival agriculture and tropical rural area ability in accumulating capital : the example of Bengamisa region in Upper Zaire. According to this analyse we realize that agricuttural pricing systems are lossfull on Bengamisa rural economy. The absence of standard measure units in agricultural marketing, great fluctuations of prices and savings use on no economic productive activities put back the accumulation of capital in Bengamisa region.

  19. THE CONSUMPTION OF BASIC PRODUCTION MEANS IN POLISH AGRICULTURE IN RESPECT TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Jarecki

    2014-10-01

    The plant protection by pesticides is increasing in Poland and the established trend rate took into account years 2005-2011. In the period 2002-2004 statistics did not present the full range of crop protection measures authorized for sale and consumption. In contrast the consumption of qualified seeds of basic grains and seed potatoes considerably decreased in Polish agriculture. Only for triticale it was noticed that the trend rate of qualified seeds was increasing. So the farmers should be more widely informed about the advantages of the exchange of seed grain for qualified grains. It will facilitate the quicker implementation of variety progress to agricultural production and adverse changes slowdown agricultural production.

  20. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, S.

    2004-01-01

    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this

  1. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Indonesian rural youth transitions: employment, mobility and the future of agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.N.F. White (Benjamin)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This chapter reflects on the dynamics of Indonesian rural youth transitions.1 As in other countries, Indonesian rural youth’s transition to adulthood is being prolonged as they remain longer enrolled in education, their average age at first marriage rises, and their

  3. Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and nonfarm employment in rural India : 1983-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    We analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/1988, 1993/1994, 1999/2000, and 2004/2005 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India has declined at a modest rate during this time period. We provide region-level estimates

  4. Costs of rearing children in agricultural economies: an alternative estimation approach and findings from rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Magnani, R J; Mock, N B; Saadat, Y S

    1993-03-01

    There are changes in child costs during demographic transition. This study examines household time allocation from 66 agricultural households in 3 villages in Tangail District in rural north central Bangladesh in 1984-85 (371 days). Component and total child-rearing costs are estimated in alternative ways. Conventional "opportunity wage" measures are considered overestimated. The methodological shortcomings of direct cost accounting procedures and consumer demand methods in computing time cost and monetary cost of child rearing are pointed out. In this study's alternative computation, age standardized equivalent costs are generated. Child food consumption costs were generated from a large national survey conducted in 1983. Nonfood expenditures were estimated by food to nonfood expenditure ratios taken from the aforementioned survey. For estimating breast-feeding costs, an estimate was produced based on the assumption that costs for infant food consumption were a fixed proportion of food costs for older children. Land ownership groups were set up to reflect socioeconomic status: 1) landless households, 2) marginal farm households with 1 acre or .4 hectares of land, 3) middle income households with 1-2 acres of land, 4) upper middle income households with 2-4 acres of land, and 5) upper income or rich households with over 4 acres of land. The nonmarket wage rate for hired household help was used to determine the value of cooking, fetching water, and household cleaning and repairing. The results confirm the low costs of child rearing in high fertility societies. Productive nonmarket activities are effective in subsidizing the costs of children. The addition of a child into households already with children has a low impact on time costs of children; "this economies of scale effect is estimated ... at 20%." The highest relative costs were found in the lowest income households, and the lowest costs were in the highest income households. 5% of total household income is

  5. The USAID and the Brazilian agricultural teaching: the case of the Universidade Rural do Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marcelo Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Universidade Rural do Estado de Minas Gerais (UREMG was created in 1948, becoming later the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. This institution has been involved in some agreements of technical assistance that were signed between Brazil and United States, which were mediated in the 1960’s decade by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID. The aim of this work is to analyze the action of the USAID in UREMG basing on the exam of primaries sources from the Central and Historical Archive of UFV. Under the supervision of USAID, the UREMG has performed a significant role in the modernization of Brazilian agriculture as well it served to the strategy of the North-American government of guarantee the control over the production of food in Brazil. As the same way, UREMG has contributed for mitigating social tensions in rural areas.

  6. Connecting transport, agriculture and rural development: Experiences from Mhlontlo local municipality integrated infrastructure atlas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available school and clinic established by the company. The project generated many connections with small local enterprises during the construction and operational phases. • Future plans include expanding production on a new site, for which a community... for the majority of the rural poor • Source of livelihood for an estimated 86 percent of rural people • Provides jobs for 1.3 billion small holders and landless workers • Foundation for viable rural communities • Of the developing World’s 5.5 billion...

  7. Detachment from conventional agriculture in rural Japan: An analysis of embedded antifragility in satoyama communities

    OpenAIRE

    Mathé, Daniel Hesby

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines how socioeconomic and socioecologic changes in rural Japan have affected the embedded antifragility of rural satoyama communities. These communities have traditionally had a high degree of self-sufficiency and been detached from input systems based on synthetic agrichemicals and debt. I spent a month in the Hida region of Japan, where I interviewed villagers in a small mountain village, representatives from the local municipality and observed the conditions for satoyama in...

  8. Comparison of the Prevalences and Diversities of Listeria Species and Listeria monocytogenes in an Urban and a Rural Agricultural Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Emma C; Purdue, Laura M; Jamieson, Rob C; Yost, Chris K; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2015-06-01

    Foods and related processing environments are commonly contaminated with the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes. To investigate potential environmental reservoirs of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes, surface water and point source pollution samples from an urban and a rural municipal water supply watershed in Nova Scotia, Canada, were examined over 18 months. Presumptive Listeria spp. were cultured from 72 and 35% of rural and urban water samples, respectively, with 24% of the positive samples containing two or three different Listeria spp. The L. innocua (56%) and L. welshimeri (43%) groups were predominant in the rural and urban watersheds, respectively. Analysis by the TaqMan assay showed a significantly (P monocytogenes of 62% versus 17% by the culture-based method. Both methods revealed higher prevalences in the rural watershed and during the fall and winter seasons. Elevated Escherichia coli (≥ 100 CFU/100 ml) levels were not associated with the pathogen regardless of the detection method. Isolation of Listeria spp. were associated with 70 times higher odds of isolating L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 70; P monocytogenes isolates, followed by IVb (16.1%), IIb (15.8%), and IIc (0.4%). L. monocytogenes was detected in cow feces and raw sewage but not in septic tank samples. Pulsotyping of representative water (n = 54) and local human (n = 19) isolates suggested genetic similarities among some environmental and human L. monocytogenes isolates. In conclusion, temperate surface waters contain a diverse Listeria species population and could be a potential reservoir for L. monocytogenes, especially in rural agricultural watersheds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Main Directions for Accelerating Modernization in the Agricultural Sector in the Rural Periphery of the North (Case Study of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production in the rural periphery of the North requires modernization because it is necessary to overcome the backwardness of its technical and technological level, to improve the provision of the population with local food products, to create competitive advantages in the local and regional markets, to use natural and human capital rationally, to raise the standard of living and quality of life of agricultural workers, to retain young people in rural areas, to reduce significant differentiation in socioeconomic development of remote and suburban areas. The period of market reforms was marked by the destruction of the material-technical base of agriculture, the sharp reduction in cultivated agricultural land, number of animals, number of workers, the deterioration of their professional level and quality of life, the decline in production of all kinds of agricultural products. In the period of market reforms the facilities and infrastructure basis of agriculture was destroyed, the volume of cultivated land reduced greatly, as well as the population of livestock, and the number of employees; their professional level and quality of life deteriorated, the production of all kinds of agricultural products reduced. Agriculture was deprived of possible technological re-equipment because of prices liberalization, the drastic reduction in state support and in the amount of investments. The article proves that current views on the lack of prospects for development of agricultural production in the rural periphery and the reorientation of rural residents on other activities are not acceptable. The authors point out the need to accelerate modernization in agriculture, and they conclude that sustainable agricultural and rural development is a long-term priority for the state and municipal authorities. The article considers the possibilities and necessity of intensifying modernization processes in the agricultural production of the rural periphery

  10. Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to pro...

  11. Rural-urban migration and endogenous ethic: the cultural role of agriculture in economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, in a developing economy, progress in agriculture may stimulate growth of the urban sector through important non-market-mediated e¤ects. Higher living standards enable traditional agricultural societies to solve their social dilemmas, which implies a stream of civic-minded

  12. Malaria knowledge and agricultural practices that promote mosquito breeding in two rural farming communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshiname Frederick O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers' behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers' knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of data through the use of eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and the interview of 403 randomly selected farmers using semi-structured questionnaires. These sets of information were supplemented with observations of agricultural practices made in 40 randomly selected farms. The FGD data were recorded on audio-tapes, transcribed and subjected to content analysis while the quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Most respondents in the two communities had low level of knowledge of malaria causation as only 12.4% stated that mosquito bite could transmit the disease. Less than half (46.7% correctly mentioned the signs and symptoms of malaria as high body temperature, body pains, headache, body weakness and cold/fever. The reported main methods for preventing mosquito bites in the farming communities included removal of heaps of cassava tuber peelings (62.3%, bush burning

  13. 8034 agriculture extension service delivery in a semi-arid rural area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dela dovie

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... RURAL AREA IN SOUTH AFRICA: THE CASE STUDY OF THORNDALE ... Social Network for Environment & Development, P. O. Box CT 3441, Cantonments,. Accra ... the Savannah biome of the Bushbuckridge region in the Limpopo Province, South ...... Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: World Neighbors: 1985.

  14. Institutional Innovation for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Resources Management: Changing the rules of the game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaria Guerra, J.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to critically examine the state of the art of institutional innovation and to identify the theories of action informing it in rural research and development (R&D) organisations.The study was carried out in three cases. The selected case studies are different in their

  15. RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF NEGOTIATING THE EUROPEAN UNION ACQUIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Spiridon

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Elaborated during the first half of 2004 as an UNDP-financed project and never published in a complete form before, this study documents the failures of prolonged and significant state interference in the agricultural sector in Romania, focusing on the post-communist period. Given the unavoidable facts that in the absence of private property it is impossible to have either a rational allocation of resources and the right incentives, we reach the conclusion that the failures of the Romanian agriculture were not at all accidental, but inherent in its statist design. An assessment of the European Common Agricultural Policy and its potential impact on our agricultural sector is provided in the last part of the study.

  16. Assessment of Cr, Ni and Pb Pollution in Rural Agricultural Soils of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kriti; Kumar, Bijendra; Agrawal, Rahul; Priyanka, Kumari; Venkatesh, Madavi; Anshumali

    2017-06-01

    Chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) contamination was investigated in wheat cultivated rain-fed and irrigated rural agricultural soils (n = 31) of Tonalite-Trondjhemite Series in Central India. The soil sampling was carried out by using stratified random sampling method. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb were 54.8, 38.1 and 68.9 mg/kg, respectively. The average values of enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I geo ) and contamination factor (CF) followed the order as: Pb > Ni > Cr. Distribution patterns of soil parent material and weathering processes govern mineral enrichments, irrespective of rainfed or irrigated agricultural practices. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed strong loading of Cr and Ni (PC1) and Pb and clay (PC3). The strong loading on Cr and Ni indicates soils are originating from basic and volcanic rocks in the study area. The strong loading of Pb and clay indicates Pb is strongly adsorbed on clay minerals and Fe-oxides. The cancer risk (CR) index showed negligible carcinogenic risk to the residing population. However, hazard index (HI) values for children exceed the safe limit (HI > 1) for Cr and Pb. Spatial distribution of pollution load index suggest highest pollution in the northeastern part of the district. The study revealed that geogenically enriched soils of the area are suitable for agricultural activities under present conditions.

  17. Kinds and meaning of preferential credits for development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mickiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the paper was of preferential credits granted in two periods, that means after Poland’s accession to the European Union (2004-2006 and in the period after introduction of new legal regulations (2007-2010. The institution responsible for realisation of preferential credits was Agency of Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture which delegated its rights to banks. The credit policy in first period of our functioning in the European Union relied on gradual ending old legal regulations, not compliant with EU standards and undertaking activities in adaptation of Polish agriculture to standards obeyed in EU-15 Member States. Directions of preferential credits granting were changed in 2007. There were introduced 7 credit lines which aim was improvement of production efficiency, better use of production base in agricultural farms and acceleration of agrarian changes. The biggest beneficiaries of structural pensions were young farmers and farmers who wanted to increase the size of their farms.

  18. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation of land protected with the Rural Legacy program. The Rural Legacy Area protects farmland, forests and Civil War sites, within view of the Washington Monument State Park,, Published in 2008, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset current as of 2008. Rural Legacy Easements & Area Boundary: The most common use is for the interpretation...

  19. Heavy metals and pesticide exposure from agricultural activities and former agrochemical factory in a Salvadoran rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Edgar; Ribó, Alexandre; Mejía, Roberto; López, Alejandro; Belteton, Wilfredo; Comandari, Aimee; Orantes, Carlos M; Pleites, Ernesto B; Hernández, Carlos E; López, Dina L

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide handling in farming activities involves substantial hazards for the rural population and for the environment. In Latin America, it is estimated that the population at risk of being affected by heavy metals is over 4 million. This research describes the different types of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals in a rural population (Loma del Gallo), considering both environmental and occupational exposure. This study consists of an inspection in a former pesticide factory (QUIMAGRO), analysis of heavy metals in samples from surface and ground water in the community close to the factory, and a survey to the local population about their perceptions of pesticide exposures. Containers with 34.6 tons of chemicals improperly stored were identified in the former factory and removed by the government. Arsenic and cadmium were found in groundwater, and the highest values were 0.012 and 0.004 mg/l, respectively. These contaminants were also detected in most surface water samples, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.0001 mg/l, respectively. Results of the survey show that of the 44 participants 42 % were farmers. Farmers used 19 different pesticide products containing 11 active ingredients. The most used active ingredients were paraquat (65 %), methamidophos (35 %), and atrazina (29 %). Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use personal protective equipment. In addition to the pesticides used in the agriculture of the area, pesticide containers were removed from the QUIMAGRO area, but the pollution was still present at time of sampling and it is evident by the odor of the site. Surface water had the major concentration of heavy metals than the groundwater. Loma del Gallo population has been exposed to toxic pesticide from QUIMAGRO and agriculture for many years. The farmers carry out mishandling of pesticides and they not use PPE.

  20. Geographic and Occupational Mobility of Rural Manpower. Documentation in Agriculture and Food, 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, C. E.

    Comparative statistics and the interaction of a group of experts provide the base for this study of occupational and geographic mobility of agricultural manpower. The countries studied were Austria, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Emphasis was placed upon the transfer…

  1. Impact of agricultural technology adoption on market participation in the rural social network system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen Melesse, Tigist

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence regarding the impact of agricultural technologies on smallholders’ output market participation. The analysis is based on Farmer Innovation Fund impact evaluation survey collected by the World Bank in 2010-2012 covering 2,675 households in Ethiopia. Endogenous

  2. The Organizational Potential of Women in Agriculture to Sustain Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Betty L.; Tanner, Bonnie O.

    1994-01-01

    The Agricultural Women's Leadership Network illustrates the following processes of social change in gendered organizations: (1) change begins as social networks expand to focus on issues; (2) women's organizations gain a foothold during economic crises; (3) new interdependencies bring new organizational alliances; (4) change continues as identity…

  3. Knowledge Gaps and Rural Development in Tajikistan: Agricultural Advisory Services as a Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtaltovna, Anastasiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge systems and channels of innovation diffusion in Tajikistan. In particular, I look at the formation of agricultural advisory services (AASs) and how these provide a vital source of knowledge and innovation for farmers during the transition process. Methodology: Empirically, this paper draws…

  4. Agriculture Extension Service Delivery in a Semi-Arid Rural Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Why do farmers behave as they do? Understanding compliance with rural, agricultural, and food attribute standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herzfeld, T.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production experiences a shift in underlying institutions during the last years., Importance of private stakeholders like retailers, processors, consumers as well as tax payers is, emerging. Eligibility for single farm payments and marketing of products is linked to compliance with,

  6. Rural demographic change, rising wages and the restructuring of Chinese agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tianxiang; Yu, Wusheng; Baležentis, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of recent demographic transition and rising labor costs on agricultural production structure and pattern in China during 1998-2012. Design/methodology/approach The authors, first, theoretically discuss the effects of changing relative...

  7. Assessing the effect of off-farm income diversification on agricultural production in rural Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babatunde, Raphael O.

    2012-01-01

    Farming as a primary source of income has failed to guarantee sufficient livelihood for most farming households in developing countries, and agricultural development policies have largely produced little improvement, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Diversification into off-farm activities has

  8. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  9. Job Satisfaction of School Psychologists in a Primarily Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, David C.; Hohenshil, Thomas H.

    1986-01-01

    Job satisfaction of school psychologists practicing in West Virginia was studied using a modified version of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Job satisfaction increased as (1) salary increased, and (2) the supervisor's level of training reached the level of the practitioner and the area of training more closely approached that of a school…

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Agricultural Management Practices under Climate Change for Water Quality Improvement in a Rural Agricultural Watershed of Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulzadeh Gharibdousti, S.; Kharel, G.; Stoecker, A.; Storm, D.

    2016-12-01

    One of the main causes of water quality impairment in the United States is human induced Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution through intensive agriculture. Fort Cobb Reservoir (FCR) watershed located in west-central Oklahoma, United States is a rural agricultural catchment with known issues of NPS pollution including suspended solids, siltation, nutrients, and pesticides. The FCR watershed with an area of 813 km2 includes one major lake fed by four tributaries. Recently, several Best Management Practices (BMPs) have been implemented in the watershed (such as no-tillage and cropland to grassland conversion) to improve water quality. In this study we aim to estimate the effectiveness of different BMPs in improving watershed health under future climate projections. We employed the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to develop the hydrological model of the FCR watershed. The watershed was delineated using the 10 m USGS Digital Elevation Model and divided into 43 sub-basins with an average area of 8 km2 (min. 0.2 km2 - max. 28 km2). Through a combination of Soil Survey Geographic Database- SSURGO soil data, the US Department of Agriculture crop layer and the slope information, the watershed was further divided into 1,217 hydrologic response units. The historical climate pattern in the watershed was represented by two different weather stations. The model was calibrated (1991 - 2000) and validated (2001 - 2010) against the monthly USGS observations of streamflow recorded at the watershed outlet using three statistical matrices: coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) and percentage bias (PB). Model parametrization resulted into satisfactory values of R2 (0.56) and NS (0.56) in calibration period and an excellent model performance (R2 = 0.75; NS = 0.75; PB = water and sediment yields under a combination of three Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-5 Global Climate Model projections and two concentration pathways (4.5 and 8.5) downscaled to the

  11. National report for CSD-16 The Netherlands: A review of sustainable development in agriculture, land and rural development, drought and desertification, and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, W.; Boone, K.; de Bont, C.; Brouwers, J.; Hack-Ten Broeke, M.; Migchels, G.; Oenema, O.; van de Peet, G.; Pinxterhuis, I.; Smit, A.; Stuiver, M.; Sukkel, W.; Verkerke, W.; Verzandvoort, S.; Visser, A.; Zwart, K.; Damen, M.

    2008-01-01

    This report forms the Netherlands’ contribution to CSD-16 (2008) of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. It comprises an overview of the Netherlands’ policies, priorities and activities with regard to sustainable development in the fields of agriculture, land and rural development, drought

  12. Sustainable agricultural development in a rural area in the Netherlands? Assessing impacts of climate and socio-economic change at farm and landscape level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; Bakker, M.M.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Alam, S.J.; Paas, W.H.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, technology, policy and prices affect agricultural and rural development. To evaluate whether this development is sustainable, impacts of these multiple drivers need to be assessed for multiple indicators. In a case study area in the Netherlands, a bio-economic farm model, an

  13. Unifying Two Regional Planning Methodologies in an Analysis of the Rural and Agricultural Development Potential of the Province of Yozgat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARIŞ ERGEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study will investigate Yozgat’s agricultural potential for rural development. There are many emigrants from Yozgat. The elderly population here is increasing, and although the agricultural potential is strong, it is not used effectively. The method used in this study includes a combination of two approaches. The first approach includes the critical factors of rural development: physical systems, social systems, creative systems, local systems and economic systems. The second approach includes the accelerators of rural population, in addition to the opportunities and limiters. The most important problem related to the analysis of rural development is the selection of a perspective on the province in question. This study will guide future studies of provinces and regions. The study concluded that Yozgat’s social life should be as lively and strong as its agricultural production and animal husbandry potential. Moreover, Yozgat has important ecotourism destinations, and this potential should be used. The greatest necessity of Yozgat is agro-industry that will serve for the processing of agricultural and animal husbandry products.

  14. Interpretive Structural Analysis of Interrelationships among the Elements of Characteristic Agriculture Development in Chinese Rural Poverty Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Eradicating poverty is a strategic priority in the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals. This study intends to identify and quantify the elements affecting the Characteristic Agriculture Development (CAD project implemented in area of Chinese poverty and reveals the interrelationships between those elements. First-hand data for the structural modeling were collected through semi-structured interviews with a group of selected experts. As a result, this study has identified seventeen representative elements, and the interrelationships between them have been examined based on the Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM method. Furthermore, these elements were further categorized into four categories depending on their driving power and dependence power by using the cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification (MICMAC analysis. The combination result of the elements identification, ISM modeling and MICMAC analysis provide a conceptual framework for designing, implementing, and managing CAD projects conducted in rural China. Finally, we suggest that an appropriate approach should be applied to empower the poor, promote target group participation, optimize the regional agriculture structure, and increase the agro value chain competiveness in CAD project implementation.

  15. The relationship between agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity, household food security, and stunting of children in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie A; Du Plessis, Lissane

    2017-03-01

    The study was to determine the role of Dietary diversity (DD), household food security (HFS), and agricultural biodiversity (AB) on stunted growth in children. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers and anthropometric measurements of children 24-59 months old. HFS was assessed by household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS). A repeated 24-h recall was used to calculate a dietary diversity score (DDS). Agricultural biodiversity (AB) was calculated by counting the number of edible plants and animals. The study was undertaken in resource-poor households in two rural areas in Kenya. Mothers/Care givers and household with children of 24-59 months of age were the main subjects. The prevalence of underweight [WAZ children with stunted growth were significantly different in DDS ( P  = 0.047) after the rainy season and HFIAS ( P  = 0.009) in the dry season, but not with AB score ( P  = 0.486). The mean AB for households with children with stunted growth were lower at 6.8, compared to 7.0 for those with normal growth, however, the difference was insignificant. Data indicate that households with children with stunted growth and those without are significantly different in DDS and HFIAS but not with AB. This suggests some potential in using DDS and HFIAS as proxy measures for stunting.

  16. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  17. Women’s Socio-economic Contribution to Agriculture and Livestock Activities in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar AYVAZOĞLU DEMİR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to define women’s contributions to agriculture and stockbreeding in central villages of Kars province where is an important stockbreeding area with its livestock existence. The data provided from the survey conducted with 210 women chosen by simple random sampling method constituted the research material. In accordance with the data obtained from the study, it was stated that women in the area spend an average of 4.5 hours a day by stock breeding. It was determined that 37.6% women prepare feed, 40% women feed the animals, 51% women clean stables, 85.2% women make cowpat and 89.5% of them milk. As a result, it is determined that employing and promoting women who play a crucial role in agriculture and livestock activities in working status, giving instructional seminars about animal production and supporting their socio-economic status are important in terms of having qualified livestock production.

  18. Limitation for the Agricultural Uses of the Rural Properties Represented by LFR (Legal Forest Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar Ronquim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text approaches the limitations of special protection of natural resources in the agricultural properties represented by Legal Forest Reserves (LFR, from their origin to the form they are being tutored now. Their relationships and differentiations are established. Forms for the recompositions and use of LFR are approached. Finally, the arguments of the environmentalists and ruralists are pointed out for the improvement of the institute and its applicability, presenting forms of putting in practice the desirable sustainable development

  19. A Harvest of Practical Insights : Lessons Learned in Agriculture, Agribusiness, Sustainable Rural Development, and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2012-01-01

    This IFC SmartBook is a compilation of sixteen IFC SmartLessons that presents practical lessons learned by staff from across the IFC and the World Bank on approaches for engaging in agriculture that have led to success. Agribusiness is a crucial economic sector, for food security of course, for managing water stress and ecosystem services, but also as a source of employment in emerging mar...

  20. CREDIT RATIONING OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Nuryartono

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The agricultural sector provides the highest contribution to economic development in the Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. On average, the share of agriculture in the Product Domestic Regional Bruto (GRDP is more than 40% (2003. However, poverty is a widespread problem found in this area, as indicated by almost 46% of the total household are categorized as poor and most of them are farmers. Smallholders and poor farmers may perpetually be trapped in poverty due to lack of finance needed to undertake productive investment. This is indicated by lower rate of advance agricultural technology adoption, which results the productivity of some agricultural products in this area is lower compared to the national average.This paper addresses the question of whether greater access of financial services increase agricultural production. Specific research question addressed are as follow: (1 How many household have access to formal credit markets? (2 How many households are credit constrained? (3 What factors influence that households are credit constrained? (4 How does credit rationing influences agricultural production?As many studies have shown, many rural households lack access to either formal or informal credit institutions. In the rural areas of Central Sulawesi Province, particularly in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park only 21.5% of the household have access to formal credits. The results also show that under certain conditions, only 18.1% of the households are not

  1. Piloting the use of accelerometry devices to capture energy expenditure in agricultural and rural livelihoods: Protocols and findings from northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In this study we report on the protocols adopted and the findings from a pilot study in northern Ghana involving 40 respondents wearing accelerometry devices for a week. We show how integrating energy expenditure data from wearable accelerometry devices with data on activity and time-use can provide a window into agricultural and rural livelihoods in developing country contexts that has not been previously available for empirical research. Our findings confirm some of the stylised facts of agricultural and rural livelihoods, but the study also provides several new insights that come from the triangulation of energy expenditure, time use, and activity data. We report findings and explore the potential applications of using accelerometry devices for a better understanding of agriculture-nutrition linkages in developing countries. Keywords: Energy expenditure, Wearable accelerometry devices, Time-use, Ghana

  2. Integrated services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, A.; Tagliaferri, F.

    2009-04-01

    Objective of the document is to define lines of development and distribution of the services to support detection, prevention and planning of the agricultural-forest-rural land against fire. The services will be a valid support on hand of the Regional and National Administrations involved in the agricultural-forest-rural activities (Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, National Forest Police, ecc..), through the employment of the SIAN "National Agricultural Informative System", that is the integrated national information system for the entire agriculture, forestry and fisheries Administration. The services proposals would be distributed through the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) of the SIAN: the GIS database is a single nation-wide digital graphic database consisting of: - Ortophotos: Aerial images of approz. 45 km2 each with ground resolution of 50 cm; - Cadastral maps: Land maps; - Thematic layers: Land use and crops identification The GIS services can take full advantage of the benefits of SIAN architectural model designed for best integration and interoperability with other Central and Local P.A. bodies whose main items are: - Integration of information from different sources; - Maintainance of the internal coeherence of any integrated information; - Flexibility with respect to technical or organizational changes The "innovative "services described below could be useful to support the development of institutional tasks of public Agencies and Administrations (es. Regions or Civil Protection agencies) according to than previewed from the D.Lgs. 173/98. Services of support to the management of the phenomenon of wildland fires The activities outlined in below figure, don't have a linear and defined temporal sequence, but a dynamic and time integration. It guarantees not only the integrated use of the various information, but also the value of every product, for level of accuracy, coherence and timeliness of the information. Description of four main

  3. Indoor air pollution from solid biomass fuels combustion in rural agricultural area of Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Yu, Q; Gu, Q; Chen, Y; Ding, K; Zhu, J; Chen, L

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we are trying to investigate the indoor air pollution and to estimate the residents' pollution exposure reduction of energy altering in rural Tibet. Daily PM(2.5) monitoring was conducted in indoor microenvironments like kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard in rural Tibet from December 2006 to March 2007. For kitchen air pollution, impact of two fuel types, methane and solid biomass fuels (SBFs), were compared. Questionnaire survey on the domestic energy pattern and residents' daily activity pattern was performed in Zha-nang County. Daily average PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen, living-room, bedroom, and yard were 134.91 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 45, 95%CI 84.02, 185.80), 103.61 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 21, 95%CI 85.77, 121.45), 76.13 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 57.22, 95.04), and 78.33 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 34, 95%CI 60.00, 96.65) respectively. Using SBFs in kitchen resulted in higher indoor pollution than using methane. PM(2.5) concentrations in kitchen with dung cake, fuel wood and methane use were 117.41 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 18, 95%CI 71.03, 163.79), 271.11 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 12, 95%CI 104.74, 437.48), and 46.96 microg/m(3) (mean, n = 15, 95%CI 28.10, 65.82) respectively. Family income has significant influence on cooking energy choice, while the lack of commercial energy supply affects the energy choice for heating more. The effects of two countermeasures to improve indoor air quality were estimated in this research. One is to replace SBFs by clean energy like methane, the other is to separate the cooking place from other rooms and by applying these countermeasures, residents' exposure to particulate matters would reduce by 25-50% (methane) or 20-30% (separation) compared to the present situation. Indoor air pollution caused by solid biomass fuels is one of the most important burdens of disease in the developing countries, which attracts the attention of environment and public health researchers, as well as policy makers. This paper

  4. Regional Absorption of Common Agricultural Policy's Rural Development Funds Targeted for Semi-Subsistence Farms in Romania in the 2007-2013 Programming Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORÓKA-JÚLIA BÍRÓ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land fragmentation and the need for consolidation are major problems of current Romanian agriculture. The transition from the status-quo of an agricultural structure dominated by subsistence and semi-subsistence farms in the view of restructuring, resulting in a more efficient sector - is a must. Present study proposes to evaluate the application of specific measures of the Romanian National Rural Development Programme (NRDP that sought to support semi-subsistence farms between 2007 and 2013. Three NRDP measures have been identified under which semi-subsistence farms were eligible: Measure 112 "Setting up of young farmers", Measure 121 "Modernization of agricultural holdings", and Measure 141 "Supporting semi-subsistence agricultural holdings". The above measures belong to the 1st Axis of the Common Agricultural Policy's second pillar, thus having a common general goal the improvement of the competitiveness of the agricultural sector, while aiming at restructuring and developing the physical potential and management of generation change - trying to keep the rural population in place. Available data on a seven-year time horizon was analyzed. The absorption level of measures 112, 121 and 141 - under which the Romanian semi-subsistence farms were eligible - on national and subnational scale was mapped.

  5. [A survey on the agricultural profession-related injuries among 11 902 rural residents in Shandong province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-hua; Yin, Wei-qing; Ma, Hong; Liu, Wei-liang; Li, Sha-sha; Zhang, Meng-lin; Chu, Wen-jie; An, Bang

    2011-08-01

    To understand the prevalence and risk factors of agricultural activities related injuries among rural residents in Shandong province. A retrospective investigation was conducted among agricultural profession-related workers in 20 villages with multistage cluster sampling method in Shandong province. Four times face-to-face interview were conducted by trained interviewers, including 32 students and local medical personnel under constructed questionnaires. Accidental injuries occurred in the activities or in the agricultural profession-related jobs were recorded, from May 1(st)2009 to April 30(st) 2010. Data was input and analyzed by SPSS 13.0 statistical software. A total of 837 cases reported at least 1 job-related injury out of the 11 902 people who had been surveyed in one year. The crude incidence rate was 7.03% and the standardized incidence rate was 7.36%, higher in males (9.01%) than in females (4.10%), χ² = 105.53, P = 0.000. Children and adolescents (≤ 14 aged) had the higher incidence rate (9.50%), χ² = 9.70, P = 0.008. People working in the area of commercial service related to agricultural products had the highest incidence rate (12.94%). In particular, those occupations that related to agricultural construction or materials appeared to have had higher incidence rates as 16.80% and 15.59% respectively, than other kinds of jobs (χ² = 167.30, P = 0.000). There were higher proportion of injuries occurred in the roads (28.79%), in the fields (28.08%)during labor work (38.00%) transportation (27.97%), respectively. The seasonality of agricultural injures mostly occurred between June and August, accounted for 47.43%. Major external causes related to injuries were instruments or tools (31.42%) being used, transportation (24.13%) and falls (20.19%). Wounds on limbs took the majority (56.39%). The accidental self-inflicted injury occupied 76.82%, while accidents to passive injuries occupied 11.47%, other kinds accounted for 11.71%. Most of the accidents

  6. Co-production of bioethanol and probiotic yeast biomass from agricultural feedstock: application of the rural biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M; Loveridge, E Joel; Donnison, Iain S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biotechnology and biotransformations promise to diversify the scope of the biorefinery approach for the production of high-value products and biofuels from industrial, rural and municipal waste feedstocks. In addition to bio-based chemicals and metabolites, microbial biomass itself constitutes an obvious but overlooked by-product of existing biofermentation systems which warrants fuller attention. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and marketed as a human health supplement. Despite its relatedness to S. cerevisiae that is employed widely in biotechnology, food and biofuel industries, the alternative applications of S. boulardii are not well studied. Using a biorefinery approach, we compared the bioethanol and biomass yields attainable from agriculturally-sourced grass juice using probiotic S. boulardii (strain MYA-769) and a commercial S. cerevisiae brewing strain (Turbo yeast). Maximum product yields for MYA-769 (39.18 [±2.42] mg ethanol mL(-1) and 4.96 [±0.15] g dry weight L(-1)) compared closely to those of Turbo (37.43 [±1.99] mg mL(-1) and 4.78 [±0.10] g L(-1), respectively). Co-production, marketing and/or on-site utilisation of probiotic yeast biomass as a direct-fed microbial to improve livestock health represents a novel and viable prospect for rural biorefineries. Given emergent evidence to suggest that dietary yeast supplementations might also mitigate ruminant enteric methane emissions, the administration of probiotic yeast biomass could also offer an economically feasible way of reducing atmospheric CH4.

  7. Agricultural growth and "trickle-down" reconsidered: evidence from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S D

    1997-08-01

    This examination of the "green revolution" in India considers the totality of State-guided development strategies on the lives of ordinary people through an analysis of data collected during field work in 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995 in a typical north Indian village. The first part of the report situates the "green revolution" strategy in its larger political-economic context, reviewing the circumstances under which it was launched, the nature of the implementation process, and macrolevel trends. After this introduction, the paper presents the village case study with a description of the physical attributes of the village, its social composition, and patterns of land tenure. This highlights the fact that the larger land-owing interests have been the primary beneficiaries of the "green revolution." Wealthy land-owners have been able to diversify their income sources through the purchase of threshing machinery for their own use and for rental to others, the construction of storage facilities where grain can be withheld until top prices are offered in the market, the processing of sugar cane, and dairy farming. Farmers owning less than 1.5 hectares of irrigated land, however lack the resource base to invest in new agricultural technologies. They either go in debt (with little hope of ever producing enough to eliminate the need for borrowing) to purchase the higher-yielding seeds, fertilizers, and chemical pesticides required by the new methods or they retreat into subsistence farming and hire themselves out as labor. This strategy is seldom resorted to, however, because of the pressures of meeting minimal subsistence needs in a cash economy. The top-down strategies that accompanied agricultural modernization have led to a deterioration in the standard of living of the poor. In addition, the "green revolution" is environmentally unsustainable and, ultimately, will have tragic ramifications for India.

  8. Improving agricultural commodity supply-chain to promote economic activities in rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padjung, R.

    2018-05-01

    Long supply chain of agricultural commodities has become concern to governments particularly in large countries such as Indonesia as it causes high price disparity between farm-gate and retailer. Policies to overcome such problem are usually by shortening the chain, by which farmers sell the products directly to retailers. Using an action research in AEDEF (Aceh Economic Development Financing Facilities) Program, conducted in the province of Nangro Aceh Darussalam (NAD) Indonesia, the paper shows that shortening the commodity supply chain is not the best solution to such problem, as it causes loss of jobs in the villages. High price disparity between farm-gate and retailer is not necessary brought about by long supply-chain but by the efficiency of the chain instead. Efficiency of the chain can be improved by creating enabling business environment such that every actors and players work in a fair manner. This can be achieved by transparency in price and quality grade. With development achieved in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), having a good and reliable flow of such information is not difficult. In addition to information flow, the availability and quality of infrastructure to support flow of goods from farm-gate to end-user is of reasonably important.

  9. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  10. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil

  11. Interpreting regional and local diversities of the social acceptance of agricultural AD plants in the rural space of the Moravian-Silesian Region (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Navrátil, J.; Trojan, Jakub; Frantál, B.; Klusáček, P.; Pasqualetti, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 28 (2017), s. 535-548 ISSN 2037-4631 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04483S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : agricultural AD plants * Czech Republic * rural geography * spatial distribution * perception Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects) Impact factor: 0.693, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs12210-017-0628-9.pdf

  12. Leveraging Agriculture to Break Nigeria’s Oil Curse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    686 Cushing Road Newport, RI 02841-1207 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...analysis of the Nigerian economy reveals a textbook case of the oil curse, primarily manifested through “Dutch Disease ” which has decimated Nigerian...infrastructure. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nigeria, oil curse, Dutch Disease , agriculture, smallholder farms, productivity, fertilizer, rural infrastructure

  13. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  14. Ask a Question | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming Weeds Research and Technology Bioenergy and Biofuels Biotechnology Production Technology and Resources Sustainable Rural Communities What is Rural? Visual Arts and Agricultural History Abraham Lincoln

  15. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  16. Agriculturization within a new rurality context: New pluriactive actors in the department of Río Primero in the province of Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Orlando Coppi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, Argentina has shown evidence of a steady agriculturization process. The department of Río Primero, in the province of Córdoba, is part of a clear dynamics within a large part of the Pampas region. The area studied displays profound productive, economic and social transformations. In this context, the most vulnerable within the structure are left out of the production system. However, small urban producers have recently appearedin the scene, and in apparent contradiction, have begun complementing their urban incomes with those from agricultural activities. In this paper, we deal with the start of agricultural activities of the new urban pluriactive actors, their reasons to begin these activities, their productionmodes and adaptation strategies, their paths in life and the rural links they may have in their family histories, taking into account what role inheritance and/or the assignment of lands play a role within that income.

  17. Agricultura familiar, multifuncionalidade da agricultura e ruralidade: interfaces de uma realidade complexa Family farming, multifunctionality of agriculture and rurality: interfaces of a complex reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Aparecida Leite de Camargo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, assistimos à revitalização do debate em torno da agricultura familiar pela incorporação das discussões sobre as múltiplas funções da agricultura num rural que não pode mais ser visto como domínio exclusivo da atividade agrícola e dos agricultores. No contexto brasileiro, acreditamos que essa discussão deva ser permeada pela análise de como processos diferenciados de distribuição fundiária e desenvolvimento econômico e o tipo de agricultura resultante geram ruralidades específicas com características como, no caso da agricultura familiar, a manutenção de práticas sociais e de trabalho marcadas pelas relações de parentesco e vizinhança presentes numa sociedade de interconhecimento. Partindo desse princípio, este trabalho analisa a agricultura familiar de um bairro rural do município de Ouro Fino - MG, sua herança histórica e sua participação na criação de uma paisagem natural e humana que muito contribui para a atratividade da região.The last decades witnessed the revitalization of the debate around family farming with the addition of discussions regarding the multiple functions of agriculture, given the fact that rural areas are longer devoted exclusively to agricultural activities. In the Brazilian context, we believed that this debate must be permeated by analyses of how differentiated processes of land distribution and economic development, and the resulting types of agriculture, generate specific ruralities with characteristics such as, in the case of family farming, the maintenance of social and work practices marked by the relations among relatives and neighbours. It is in this light that this research analyses family agriculture in a rural area of Ouro Fino-MG, its historical heritage, and its participation in the creation of a physical and human landscape that greatly contributes to the attractiveness of the region.

  18. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: → Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. → Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. → The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to 11 fold. → Anthropogenic Ti input lowered by within-river retention. → Up to 79% of Ti colloidal/NP for rural, down to 28% for urban/industrial rivers.

  19. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, rural environment and agricultural work in the Local Health District of Ferrara, Italy, in the years 1964-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Vittorio; Granieri, Enrico; Fallica, Elisa; Casetta, Ilaria

    2005-11-01

    Previous epidemiological surveys, both analytic and descriptive, in the Local Health District (LHD) of Ferrara, northern Italy, have indicated that rural residence and agricultural work might constitute risk factors for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The present investigation is a demographic survey in the LHD of Ferrara in the years 1964-1998 which aimed to verify whether the level of urbanization and agricultural activities might influence the risk of ALS. Based on the data obtained in a recent incidence study in the LHD of Ferrara which reported a mean annual crude incidence rate of ALS in the years 1964-1998 of 1.63 per 100,000 population (95 % CI 1.31-2.00), it was possible to compare the number of observed ALS cases and the number of expected ALS cases according to the level of urbanization and usual occupation on the basis of the residential and occupational pattern identified in the population of the LHD of Ferrara in the study period under the assumption of a homogeneous distribution of ALS. The present survey identified four different levels of urbanization in the LHD of Ferrara in the study period and for none of them was a difference between the number of observed and expected ALS cases found. Also in the most rural of the four identified levels of urbanization (small villages with an average population in the study period lower than 1,000 inhabitants and scattered houses in the countryside) no difference was found between observed and expected number of ALS cases (observed ALS cases 16, 95% Poisson CI 9.1-25.9, expected ALS cases 18.3). Based on the occupational pattern identified in the population of the LHD of Ferrara in the study period the number of incident cases of ALS whose usual occupation was in agricultural work exceeded the expected number (observed ALS cases 22, 95% Poisson CI 13.8-32.3, expected ALS cases 6.0). The present findings indicate that rural residence itself does not influence the risk of ALS while agricultural activities

  1. Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Voume 2. Annexes and Statistical Tables

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to pro...

  2. Organic agricultural production in the function of reducing rural poverty - The example of Velebit village in the A. P. of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Komazec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Disturbing media pictures of the deterioration and disappearance of villages in almost all parts of the Republic of Serbia (RS, as a consequence of insufficient progress in the implementation of the paradigm of the rural way of life, desirable and necessary for any community and any economy, are an alarming call to every subject of the society to do whatever they are entitled to and capable of to stop these unfavorable processes. The potentials of a small rural community in RS to survive and develop for its own benefit and for the benefit of the society as a whole have studied in this article. Bearing in mind the fact that relevant social documents have their significance and role in all social processes, but are not a sufficient precondition for their improvement, the authors surveyed and interviewed the local population in the Velebit village about their attitudes, potentials, needs and limitations regarding the establishment of and their permanent involvement in organic agricultural production necessary for the village to survive and improve its economic and social position. The research results show that the inhabitants of the village of Velebit are interested in remaining in the countryside and setting up organic agricultural production, but they need assistance, both advisory and financial, as they lack sufficient capacities for it.

  3. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  4. Conflict in the National Territory of Chaco. Agricultural Cooperatives in front of the Statute of the Rural Labourer

    OpenAIRE

    Moglia, Leandro Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    La llegada a la presidencia de Juan Perón en 1946, significó para el agro argentino la continuidad de algunas políticas desarrolladas antes de la Revolución de 1943 y profundizadas por ésta. A esas decisiones de carácter productivo y de comercialización se sumaron aquellas orientadas a la mejora de la clase trabajadora rural, sector descuidado hasta el momento. La aplicación del Estatuto del Peón Rural (1947) en un territorio de frontera productiva y ocupacional como el Chaco, en un contexto ...

  5. Socio-hydrological model to inform community adaptation to seasonal drought and climate variability in rural agricultural watersheds in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, S. V.; Johnson, M. S.; Morillas, L.; McDaniels, T.; Romero Valpreda, J.; Allen, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate variability and seasonal droughts associated with ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and increasing water demand due to growing population are leading to serious water conflicts in the wet-dry tropics of Central America. Integrated methods are needed to understand the linkages of these complex socio-hydrological systems and design reliable adaption strategies in a period of global change. With increasing pressure on surface and groundwater resources during long annual dry seasons, rural agricultural communities suffer water shortages, especially in those years preceded by wet seasons with lower rainfall (and reduced groundwater recharge). To support community resilience to rainfall variability and droughts, we conducted a combination of fieldwork (development of hydrologic monitoring system and local stakeholder cooperation), and hydrological modeling for two watersheds with a shared aquifer (Potrero and Caimital) in Northwestern Costa Rica. The agricultural land use of the region and the many rural villages that draw directly on their local water resource and live in close interaction with their watersheds necessitated a socio-hydrological systems approach. In this talk we present results from our hydrologic modeling, for which we used the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) model and locally recorded data. With the integrated water supply and demand features of the WEAP model, we were able to synthesize both the hydrological system and the societal system (specifically, household and agricultural water use), and show feedbacks such as that water use tends to increase during the dry season, likely exacerbating water shortages issues. Further, applying a range of ENSO related rainfall scenarios to the model demonstrated that community adaptation will become in particular important in response to lower water availability in future El Niño years. In collaboration with local stakeholders, we identified a set of feasible adaptation strategies to seasonal

  6. Conflict in the National Territory of Chaco: Agricultural Cooperatives in front of the Statute of the Rural Labourer Conflicto en el Territorio Nacional del Chaco: Las Cooperativas agrícolas frente al Estatuto del Peón Rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Moglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The arrival to the presidency of Juan Peron in 1946, meant for the Argentine agro continuity of some policies developed before the Revolution of 1943 and deepened by it. A decision with such production and marketing joined those aimed at improving the rural working class, so far neglected area. The application of the Statute of the Rural Pawn (1947 in a territory of frontier production and labor as the Chaco, in a local context unfavorable woke one of the most turbulent clashes between the agricultural cooperatives-organizations on behalf of its partners, and the Administration responsible for local implementation. The aim of this work to study, from the documentation produced by cooperatives and local print media, the conflict in the Chaco awoke when implementing the Statute of the PawnLa llegada a la presidencia de Juan Perón en 1946, significó para el agro argentino la continuidad de algunas políticas desarrolladas antes de la Revolución de 1943 y profundizadas por ésta. A esas decisiones de carácter productivo y de comercialización se sumaron aquellas orientadas a la mejora de la clase trabajadora rural, sector descuidado hasta el momento. La aplicación del Estatuto del Peón Rural (1947 en un territorio de frontera productiva y ocupacional como el Chaco, en un contexto local desfavorable, despertó uno de los más agitados enfrentamientos entre las entidades Cooperativas agrícolas-en representación de sus asociados- y la Administración local encargada de su aplicación. Es objetivo de este trabajo estudiar, desde la documentación que produjeron las cooperativas y los medios gráficos locales, el conflicto que se despertó en el Chaco al momento de implementarse el Estatuto del Peón.

  7. Gender dimensions of rural employment in agriculture and public works programmes experiences from South Africa: Differentiated pathways out of poverty

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available rural livelihoods (Department of Public Works, 1997). It also addresses gender dimensions of the projects. As methodology, a mixed-method approach was employed to assess the experiences and impacts of the Siyatentela 56 (Mpumalanga Province), Gundo Lashu...

  8. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  9. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that occur while living, working, or visiting agricultural work environments (primarily farms) are considered agricultural injuries, whether or ... of Labor's Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) supports safe and healthful working conditions by setting and enforcing standards and by ...

  10. The scientific production of Italian agricultural engineers: a bibliometric network analysis concerning the scientific sector AGR/10 Rural buildings and agro-forestry territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Montis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a worldwide well-known attitude, also in Italy, the assessment of scientific production in the last decades has been progressively based on the analysis of the impact through bibliometric variables. Various data sets, such as Scopus by Elsevier and Web of Science by Thomson Reuters, are designed and maintained to index a steadily increasing range of essays: mostly journal articles, book chapters, and conference proceedings. The indexing relays on the capacity to evaluate and update specific impact measures by keeping track of the citations representing the relations between the essays. The related opportunity to interpret bibliographic systems as research and development (R&D networks attracted the interest of scientists operating, beyond the field of bibliometric analysis, in the realm of social networking. Network analysis belongs to mechanical statistics and is able to make sense of interconnected systems including very large sets of nodes and links. In this paper, we present a network approach to the review of the scientific production in the time period January, 2003-June, 2016 of Italian agricultural engineers, namely scientists belonging to the Italian ministerial scientific disciplinary sector AGR/10 - rural buildings and agro-forestry territory. Starting from 238 articles indexed in the Web of Knowledge database and published by 87 AGR/10 scholars, we apply four network analysis approaches to the study of the citations among articles, the most influential journals and topics, the co-authorship, the most favourite keywords with their evolution in time, and the communities’ pattern. We discover that Italian agricultural engineers are interlaced in a sparse network with a still limited tendency toward citing each other and are inclined to team up in established research groups based on a single university. As for the dualism between rural buildings and territory, we document on a relevant expansion of the issues related to

  11. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    Department of Agricultural Economics & Farm Management University of Agriculture, ... This study examines the effect of access to credit on the productivity of rural farming households in Ogun State,. Nigeria. ... agricultural support to export crops, in ... growth and the alleviation of rural poverty ..... Dissertation, Department of.

  12. Reforms in Rural Development and their Influence on Agricultural Extension of Uzbekistan: Experience and Challenges in Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulatov Alim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays science applies agricultural innovations in a wide range all over the world; however, number of water users in innovations is in smaller amounts. This might happen to a number of factors, for example lack of adequate knowledge exchange system, nominal extension services at places, lack of well-defined policies, barriers in ‘human’ minds change’, barriers at policy level. As for Uzbekistan, it could be said that practice of extension of innovations application and its diffusion in agricultural irrigation sector in Uzbekistan does not have much experience, however, before 1991 Uzbekistan was one of the Soviet Unions’ republics and as it is known, the Soviet Union had high practice in innovations in different sectors, as well as in agriculture. Although, since independence, Uzbekistan has continued to experience innovations in agricultural sector independently, their diffusion is at a challenging shape. This article captures the policy issue, how Uzbekistan started to develop water management issues in its economic reforms, it describes a case research on application of innovative technique on a farm level and accordingly, it tries to propose the aspects that need to be involved in future reforms to make the current situation be better managed.

  13. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-01-01

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas. PMID:28036008

  14. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurencia Govender

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  15. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-12-27

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  16. Gender Disparities and Socio-Economic Factors on Learning Achievements in Agricultural Science in Rural and Urban Secondary Schools of Ogbomoso North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amao, S. R.; Gbadamosi, J.

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to the realization of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations on the promotion of gender equity, the researchers sought to empirically verify the existence or otherwise of gender inequality in the agricultural and science achievement of urban and rural, male and female students in Ogbomoso North Local Government…

  17. Bonded Labour and its Roots in Rural Sphere: An Analysis by Criticality Gaps in the Brazilian Agricultural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Amaral de Pontes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the Agrarian Law and slave labor phenomenon derived from situations of oppression in rural work sometimes are invisibilized by the agrarian academic debate. It is necessary to analyze the Brazilian identity of land property for an interconnected approach to the bonded labour. The exit from legalistic bubble to recognize its relation to the genesis and maintenance of slave labor is our focus. Other regulations, either the CF in 1988 cannot able to eradicate slavery, "updated" in contemporary mold. The uncritical view of agrarian institutes cause false aseptic realities of the Brazilian context, is our approach.

  18. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Philip, E-mail: apr@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the < 0.45 {mu}m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1 {mu}g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48 {mu}g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7 {mu}g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (> 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: {yields} Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. {yields} Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. {yields} The urban

  19. Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development

    2009-01-01

    Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in susta...

  20. What Prompts Agricultural Innovation in Rural Nepal: A Study Using the Example of Macadamia and Walnut Trees as Novel Cash Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Karin Barrueto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovations are important, especially as climatic conditions around the world have been subject to increasing change over the past decades. Through innovation, farmers can adapt to the changing conditions and secure their livelihoods. In Nepal, 75% of the population depends upon agriculture, which is impacted by climate change, migration, and feminisation. In this context, it is important to understand what drives a household to start agricultural innovation to increase its economic benefits and resilience in the face of multiple pressures. We sought a comprehensive understanding of these drivers by investigating the determinants of rural innovation, using macadamia and walnut trees as examples of novel, potentially commercialised cash crops. After conducting an in-depth household survey that divided farmers into those who cultivate nuts and those who do not, we analysed the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of each category using statistical tests and a multiple logistic regression. Our results show that the individual variables of ethnicity, wealth and “years of experience with fruit trees” correlate significantly with nut cultivation. The results of the multiple regression suggest that “years of experience with tree cultivation” and “having an income through fruit trees” most influence nut cultivation. Overall, we conclude that nut cultivation is an accepted and promising cash crop mostly grown by wealthier households, and that, for poor, landless, or female-headed households to benefit, alternative business models and new policies must be explored and developed. We further suggest that this is also true for other nut or other cash crop trees that have gained recent attention in Nepal such as almond, hazelnut, or pecan farming.

  1. Prevalence of Albuminuria in Children Living in a Rural Agricultural and Fishing Subsistence Community in Lake Chapala, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lozano-Kasten

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD of unknown etiology in autochthonous child populations residing along the Lake Chapala lakeshore is endemic (Jalisco, México. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of albuminuria in the pediatric population and to measure the glomerular filtration rate in children with two positive albuminuria tests. Urinary albumin was measured in 394 children. Subjects with two or more positive albuminuria test donated blood samples for the determination of serum biomarkers. From a rural community with 565 children under the age of 17 years, 394 (69.7% participated with first morning urine samples. A total of 180 children were positive (with two or more positive albuminuria tests. The prevalence of albuminuria among the children participating in the study was 45.7%. Of the 180 children with persistent albuminuria, 160 (88.9% were tested for serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin C. The 68.1% of the children studied, were found in stages 3a and 3b of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO classification (mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR 51.9 and 38.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 respectively. The lowest frequencies were for classifications 1 and 4. None of the subjects was classified as grade 5. The prevalence of albuminuria in children from this rural community is 3–5 times higher than reported in international literature. Regarding GFR, more than 50% of children studied are under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. It is a priority to find the causes of albuminuria and CKD in this Mexican region.

  2. China Report, Agriculture, No. 276

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Rural Survey, Economics, Ecology, Agricultural, Historical, Freshwater Fish, Weather Station, Warning, Forestry Productions, Animal Husbandry, Wheat Procurement, Grains, Wheat, Potato, Harvest, Rice...

  3. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    David Carr

    2009-01-01

    Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28) communities in the Sierra de Lacan...

  4. Seasonality of Rural Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...

  5. Enhancing agricultural productivity and rural incomes through sustainable use of natural resources in the semi arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Suhas P; Dixin, Yin; Li, Zhong; Dar, William D; Chander, Girish

    2012-03-30

    A participatory watershed management approach is one of the tested, sustainable and eco-friendly options to upgrade rain-fed agriculture to meet growing food demand along with additional multiple benefits in terms of improving livelihoods, addressing equity issues and biodiversity concerns. Watershed interventions at study sites in Thailand (Tad Fa and Wang Chai) and India (Kothapally) effectively reduced runoff and the associated soil loss. Such interventions at Xiaoxincun (China) and Wang Chai improved groundwater recharging and availability. Enhanced productive transpiration increased rainwater use efficiency for crop production by 13-29% at Xiaoxincun; 13-160% at Lucheba (China), 32-37% at Tad Fa and 23-46% at Wang Chai and by two to five times at Kothapally. Watershed interventions increased significantly the additional net returns from crop production as compared with the pre-watershed intervention period. Increased water availability opened up options for crop diversification with high-value crops, including increased forage production and boosted livestock-based livelihoods. In dryland tropics, integrated watershed management approach enabled farmers to diversify the systems along with increasing agricultural productivity through increased water availability, while conserving the natural resource base. Household incomes increased substantially, leading to improved living and building the resilience of the community and natural resources. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR, the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28 communities in the Sierra de Lacandón National Park (SLNP, the most ecologically biodiverse region in La Selva Maya and a core conservation zone of the MBR. Settler households are examined relative to a host of factors relating land use and land cover change. Specifically, demographic trends, political and socio-economic development, and ecological factors are described in this first detailed statistically-representative sample probing human population and environment interactions in an emerging agricultural frontier in Central America.

  7. Economic Feasibility of Irrigated Agricultural Land Use Buffers to Reduce Groundwater Nitrate in Rural Drinking Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Mayzelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use conversion and resulting flood control result in gains of at least $2.3 billion, as compared to costs of $0.3 to $0.7 billion for treatment options over a 20 year period. Buffer zones would maintain the economic integrity of the region and concur with prevailing policy options. Thus, managed agricultural recharge buffer zones are a potentially attractive option for communities facing financial constraint and needing to diversify their portfolio of policy and infrastructure approaches to meet drinking water quality objectives.

  8. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  9. Data compilation project for rural electrification systems evolution measurement and social-economical impacts of network electrification in agriculture areas; Proyeto de recopilacion de datos para medir la evolucion de sistemas de electrificacion rural y el impacto socio-economico de la electrificacion por redes, en explotaciones agropecuarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luro, C E; Rodriguez, O C [Banco de la Nacion Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1987-12-31

    This paper shows a methodology for planning the implementation of electricity systems networks in rural and isolated areas, mainly across agriculture areas. The main objective of this paper is propose a way to reliable data acquisition in order to measure the evolution of the system, at technological and economical levels. 23 refs.

  10. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agricultural Research and Development aims at publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, Soil Science, Home Economics, Agricultural Extension, Rural development, ...

  11. THE DISPERSION OF AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT EU FUNDS ON A REGIONAL AND DISTRICT LEVEL IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvath Peter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A national objective was realised when Hungary joined the European Union based on the preliminary result of the referendum. Naturally, there were pros and cons about the accession and there were those who refused the European integration. Still the emotion was stronger that came from the future EU membership and the hope in terms of the agriculture that with the opportunities offered by the EU both the Hungarian agriculture and countryside would follow a development course. Because of the accession a lot of support forms as well as the EU institutions became available but considering the impacts there were no clear positions. Obviously, today we know what kind of objective, positive changes were brought by the accession for example in terms of infrastructural and machine supply, broadened market possibilities and income growth. Still we also experience the objective disadvantages such as the stronger competition and the mass expansion of multinational food-processing and trading companies. The scientific measurement and judgement of the developmental changes which are difficult to measure is still a subject of debate. We have done the concentration analysis for two budget periods 2004-2006 and 2007-2013 respectively. Between 2004-2006 the regional concentration is more balanced year by year than the district. In the district values even in this period we can already experience the fact that very few farmers receive a big amount of support. Between 2007-2013 there are no sharp differences in the case of concentration neither in the region nor in the district. The Lorenz curve shows a classic concentration distribution in the Southern Great Plain Region every year. The course of Lorenz curves is supported by the value of the concentration ratio which is the total share of the support of the three players receiving the biggest funds since the indicator has been hovering around the 10% average value in the region since 2006 while in the district we

  12. Determination of arsenic in agricultural products, animal products and drinking water of rural areas of Bijar and Gharve, Kurdestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pirsaheb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and food contamination with toxic element arsenic is one of the important issues that are threatening public health and other creatures. In this study, a total sample of 983 consisting agricultural and animal products as well as water samples was analyzed for arsenic contamination. According to the results, the highest concentration of arsenic (1.737 mg/l was found in the piped water of Aliabad. Moreover, the highest level of arsenic contamination was detected in wheat obtained from Giklo and Gondak (0.14 mg/kg. Accordingly, highest arsenic level in barley, peas and lentils, was estimated in the samples of Gondak (0.11 mg/kg, Giklo (mg/kg 0.013 and Ghojagh (0.017 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, the highest mean concentration of arsenic in meat and milk samples was found in Ghojagh (0.167 mg/kg and Gondak (0.0129 mg/l. The results revealed that the contamination level of arsenic in all crops, meat and milk samples were lower than the maximum acceptable limit adopted in many other countries. However, the concentration of arsenic in water samples was 174 times higher than the acceptable limit (0.01 mg/l determined by the Iranian National Standard. Therefore, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies on contaminations of water sources in this area.

  13. Water flowing north of the border: export agriculture and water politics in a rural community in Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlolniski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Favored by neoliberal agrarian policies, the production of fresh crops for international markets has become a common strategy for economic development in Mexico and other Latin American countries. But as some scholars have argued, the global fresh produce industry in developing countries in which fresh crops are produced for consumer markets in affluent nations implies “virtual water flows,” the transfer of high volumes of water embedded in these crops across international borders. This article examines the local effects of the production of fresh produce in the San Quintín Valley in northwestern Mexico for markets in the United States. Although export agriculture has fostered economic growth and employment opportunities for indigenous farm laborers, it has also led to the overexploitation of underground finite water resources, and an alarming decline of the quantity and quality of water available for residents’ domestic use. I discuss how neoliberal water policies have further contributed to water inequalities along class and ethnic lines, the hardships settlers endure to secure access to water for their basic needs, and the political protests and social tensions water scarcity has triggered in the region. Although the production of fresh crops for international markets is promoted by organizations such as the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank as a model for economic development, I argue that it often produces water insecurity for the poorest, threatening the UN goal of ensuring access to clean water as a universal human right.

  14. Social inequalities and health in rural Chiapas, Mexico: agricultural economy, nutrition, and child health in La Fraylesca Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Ochoa-Díaz López

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between farmers' socioeconomic conditions and their children's health in La Fraylesca, Chiapas. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 1046 households (5546 individuals sampled from locations in two counties situated in the study area. The survey included anthropometric measurements, a 24-hour dietary recall, stool tests, and childhood mortality data. Children of private farmers and "wealthy peasants" displayed better nutritional status, higher quality diet, lower prevalence of intestinal parasites, and a lower risk of dying than those whose parents were communal farmers, from ejidos, or "poor peasants". The results suggest that using volume of maize production as a classification method proved more valuable than land tenure to identify agricultural groups with different health status. It appears that the main determinants of health differentials are structural inequities in resource distribution. Thus, the impact of medical interventions on inequalities will be limited unless they are accompanied by redistribution of resources.

  15. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    is that policies, agricultural research and extension should pay attention to these financial structural aspects, since they regulate the extent of ‘public good extension services’ like rural development services and ‘innovation intermediation’ in Danish agricultural extension agencies. The capacity differs among...... the individual agencies and among individual agents. There are agencies that financially invest in rural development service, including in innovation intermediation. On the other hand, there are agencies where the presence of rural development service is merely as a formal structure, possibly to signal...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...

  16. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  17. Gender and agricultural markets

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the traditional division of labor within agricultural markets, where women farmers are primarily responsible for subsistence and household crop production while male farmers dominate the commercial sector. Challenging these gendered roles by increasing women farmers' acces...

  18. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, ... Vol 22, No 1 (2018) ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural ...

  19. The End of Rural Society and the Future of Rural Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.

    Rural sociology confronts a continuing crisis of identity because of its failure to develop a sociology of agriculture. Historically, despite an initial focus on agriculture, rural sociology became deflected to the analysis of rurality. Recent emphasis of rural sociologists on the turnaround phenomenon is symptomatic, but fails to deal with the…

  20. Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eastern Africa Journal of Rural Development (EAJRD) is now going to be jointly published by the Ugandan Agricultural Economics Association - a professional body for Agricultural Economists and those interested in agricultural economics and rural development issues - and the Department of Agricultural Economics ...

  1. Agricultural diversification into tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    1996-01-01

    Based on the empirical evidence provided by an evaluation study of the EU Objective 5b programme measures* for the expansion of rural tourism, this article discusses the impact of rural tourism on agricultural holdings. It is shown that the financial returns most often do not measure up either...... to the expectations of the politicians or to that of the farmers. In some respects rural tourism contributes positively to the innovation of the tourist product since its small scale, 'green' issues and special facilities differentiate the product from others. But the unleashing of real potential is hampered...... by the fact that farmers tend to give priority to traditional agriculture and by the fact that industrialized agriculture is not easily combined with the commodifying of agricultural traditions for tourism. The community level inter-organizational innovations which are designed to ensure the marketing...

  2. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  3. Has Rural Banking Developed Rural Nigeria? | Amadasu | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is problem of rural development in Nigeria because of increasing poverty in the rural areas where about 70% of the people live. Reducing poverty means increasing income. Increasing income means increasing bank loans and advances for efficient application to agricultural and industrial activities in the rural Nigeria ...

  4. Rural Revitalization through Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Charles

    In recent years, service programs targeted for Georgia's rural communities have decreased proportionately in relation to those intended for the state's rapidly expanding population centers. At the same time, erosion of traditional manufacturing industries and an adverse agricultural economy have decreased the ability of rural communities to…

  5. Implementation of a system of actions for the university administration of the knowledge in Good Practical Agricultural for young of the rural sector in the property The Maria in Consolacion del Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracely Milagros Santana Ges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The youths and children, represent the continuity and sostenibilite in the time of the actions of environmental administration, agricultural production, investigation action participation and local agricultural innovation in general sense. For that that the formation of these it constitutes a tool that can transform the reality, when directing, unavoidably, the individual behavior of the men before the problems that are presented in their community. In accordance with it, they were carried out the related actions with involving these groups etarios in the Project of Agricultural Innovation Local to foment the sense of ownership to their communities and the interest for the agricultural activities, as well as actions of sensitization and motivation of the same ones. The production of foods is a basic foundation, for the vital importance that means for the human survival. They are kept in mind these situations; the municipal University becomes catalytic of the knowledge in function of the development. Their theoretical taxes and practices are good of relating to understand the dynamics that is generated among the territorial actors. The following investigation was developed starting from the experiences and results, obtained by the CUM of the municipality Consolacion del Sur, in the administration of the knowledge, in good practical agricultural in young of the rural sector in the property «The Maria.»

  6. Agriculture d'autosubsistance et développement agricole en milieu rural dans la région des Bamanga-Bengamisa (Haut- Zaïre (enquêtes sur les activités agricoles au Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulongo, KM.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival agricultural and agricultural development in Bamanga-Bengamisa rural area (surveys on farm business in Upper Zaire Province. More than a year of investigation allows us to collect informations about 105 Bamanga rural households. The aim of these surveys was to realize how farmers thing that is possible to improve their agricultural incomes. In spite of the proximity of the National Fertilizer Program (FAO and Zaire agreement for fertilizer use in rural area, nobody thought that manure is an issue of the problem. Twenty-three percent of farmers hope that agricultural prices increase and 14 wish that industrial prices be fixed instead of the free price policy applied ago. More than 30 percent of farmers from 15 to 59 years old get on together that palm tree farming is able to improve agricultural incomes ; while 30 percent of farmers's wife believe that the transport of agricultural products from production centers to rural markets is a priority in farming income improvement. Atlast we realized that it is still indispensable to work hard in breeding in order to improve rural welfare.

  7. Rural settlements dynamics and the prospects of densification strategy in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A F M Ashraful; Asad, Rumana; Enamul Kabir, Md

    2016-01-01

    Given the year on year decrease of rural farmland and various forms of land degradation through the intrusion of non-farm land uses, the government of Bangladesh has drafted the agrarian reform strategies, primarily to protect the agricultural land from encroachment, conversion, and indiscriminate use. The draft Agricultural Land Protection and Land Use Bill since its inception in 2011 is facing serious uncertainties of implementation due to its borrowed nature from the developed contexts and inadequacy to recognize the local complexities. With a particular focus on the densification component of the draft bill, a semester-long design studio was conducted in consultation with the existing villagers to explore the practicability of the draft bill in the villages of Tetultala and Chhoygharia in the south-western coastal Bangladesh. The findings from the two villages hint that in Bangladesh, the unique and evolving nature of rural settlements dynamics that are disintegrating the rural society from farming practices and the farmland, thereby, unsettling the traditional village-morphology. The settlements dynamics vary from those of the western context; hence, there is an emerging need to build locally situated knowledge towards a feasible rural land reform.

  8. FOOD SECURITY AND UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL STUDENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OGA AMOLEGBE

    Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL VOLUME 6, No. ... environmental degradation, rapid changes in.

  9. Energy investment on the rural and agricultural development in Cuba. Case study "4th Congreso" community, Sancti Spíritus

    OpenAIRE

    Taymi González Morera; Raúl Olalde Font; Inocencio Raúl Sánchez Machado; Judith Cherni

    2017-01-01

    The energy-related investment process is decisive for the Cuban nation. Its effects not only will yield a sustained increase in the production of capital goods as well as and in the area of services at the macroeconomic level, but those rural settlements not previously beneficiated will receive this service. That will benefit those rural settlements that do not receive this service. An alternative to achieve this is the generalization of use of the renewable resources. In this environment the...

  10. Rural Gas Program manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    The intent and purpose of this manual is to describe the various guideliness and administrative procedures associated with the Alberta Rural Gas Program and to consolidate and expand upon the legislation under which the Program has been developed. It is intended primarily for the use and information of rural gas distributors, their agents, and other private or government parties having an interest in the Rural Gas Program. Information is presented on: rural gas franchises, technical applications, contracts and tenders, determination of system capital costs for grant support, grants, Gas Alberta brokerage arrangements, insurance coverage, utility rights-of-way, and lien notes.

  11. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... transport has both positive and negative impact on agricultural development in the study area. However ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural .... motorcycle and public transport (lorries, pick-.

  12. Organic Fertilizer: The Underestimated Component in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... been on chemical fertilizer while the impact of the bio-organic input has been neglected. ... Key words: Organic input, environmental remediation, food security, small-holder rural farmers, sustainable agriculture, agricultural transformation ...

  13. Co-digestion of agricultural waste and cow manure to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India : life cycle assessment and substance flow analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-01-01

    India is facing tremendous challenges related to inefficient cooking energy supply, indoor pollution from cooking fuels combustion and nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, large amounts of agricultural waste are burnt in the fields every year, leading to large amounts of particulate matter and greenhouse gases emissions. Anaerobic digestion using new feedstock such as agricultural waste to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming these issues by providing bio...

  14. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  15. Rural-urban migrants - Challenges to Kilimo Kwanza initiatives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 80% of the population in Iringa region lives in rural areas where majority relies on agricultural productions. In spite of this dependency, 80% of agricultural practices are done using simple hand tools which makes rural life relatively tasking. These tasking rural lives are thought to accelerate rural-urban migration in ...

  16. 7 CFR 1940.589 - Rural Business Enterprise Grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Business Enterprise Grants. 1940.589 Section 1940.589 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Loan and Grant Program Funds § 1940.589 Rural Business Enterprise Grants. (a) Amount available for...

  17. Financial Intermediation In Agriculture In Nigeria: Emerging Role Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) - an NGO, with the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) - a public sector finance agency in agricultural financing with a view to determining the emerging roles of NGOs in Nigeria's agricultural landscape ...

  18. Agriculture and Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisor Projects in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    employment in nonfarm sectors of the economy. Thus, agricultural development can contribute to the education of a rural population and assist the movement...categorized according to the ANDS objectives. In the ANDS, the four expected outcomes of the Agriculture and Rural Development Sector Strategy are: (1...States (U.S.) government, the U.S. Army, and the international community have identified rural and agricultural development as key components of long

  19. Energy investment on the rural and agricultural development in Cuba. Case study "4th Congreso" community, Sancti Spíritus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymi González Morera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy-related investment process is decisive for the Cuban nation. Its effects not only will yield a sustained increase in the production of capital goods as well as and in the area of services at the macroeconomic level, but those rural settlements not previously beneficiated will receive this service. That will benefit those rural settlements that do not receive this service. An alternative to achieve this is the generalization of use of the renewable resources. In this environment the research proposes a Decision Making Analysis Framework for rural energy-wise policy, which integrates the energy-related investment decisions with local sustainable development. The implementation of the proposal led to the declaration of governmental policies from the territorial strategic planning of the territory as a premise guarantor of for development-goals at the national level.

  20. Conflict in the National Territory of Chaco: Agricultural Cooperatives in front of the Statute of the Rural Labourer Conflicto en el Territorio Nacional del Chaco: Las Cooperativas agrícolas frente al Estatuto del Peón Rural

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Moglia

    2011-01-01

    The arrival to the presidency of Juan Peron in 1946, meant for the Argentine agro continuity of some policies developed before the Revolution of 1943 and deepened by it. A decision with such production and marketing joined those aimed at improving the rural working class, so far neglected area. The application of the Statute of the Rural Pawn (1947) in a territory of frontier production and labor as the Chaco, in a local context unfavorable woke one of the most turbulent clashes between the a...

  1. Food and Nutritional Strategies Statement of the Seminar of the 3 November 1986, held at the Borschette Centre, organized by the CTA Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (ACP-EEC and the Royal Academy of Overseas Sciences - A.R.S.O.M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A diet sheet for Burundi is not enough to get a true image of the food situation. Some corrections have to be brought into the picture to take into account the geographic scattering of agricultural productions and the differences in access facilities to the food markets. Previsions and recommandations on food situation requires a good appreciation of the physical and institutional constraints which are weighing on agriculture. Only then it could be eventually possible to define an agricultural policy which has to be founded on regional specialization and on development of rural activities outside the agricultural sector.

  2. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Weichenthal, Scott; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between ...

  3. Affinal and Consanguineal Kin as a Social Support for the Rural Elderly. Paper of the Journal Series of the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Raleigh, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivett, Vira R.

    Although the support network of elderly individuals has received increased attention recently, most research has focused on the parent child relationship without examining other levels of kin interrelations. To examine the help received by rural-transitional older adults from their consanguineous kin (adult children, grandchildren, siblings,…

  4. Resilience and adaptations of rural communities and agricultural land use in the tropical Andes: Coping with environmental and socio-economic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadel, Ch.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a long settlement history of the tropical Andes, rural farming communities have always been exposed to conditions of ecological and economic vulnerability, risks, and even disasters. This has resulted, at certain times and in some regions, to a destabilization of livelihoods and to a manifestation of various forms of marginalization, to poverty or outmigration. However, Andean communities , over a long time, have given admirable testimonies of resilience and adaptations in the face of adverse conditions or new challenges. This paper examines the potentials and different facets of resilience and adaptation strategies of the rural campesinado in the tropical Andes. It emphasizes the proven traditional concepts of verticality, complementarity, reciprocity, and mutual community support, which to date support the feasibility and sustainability of Andean farming and community survival. In spite of this recognition, it is argued that Andean rural livelihoods always had to adapt to new developments, to threats and challenges, as well as to opportunities and alternative potentials. In the face of an almost ubiquitous penetration of modernization, new technologies, and economic and cultural globalization, the fundamental question arises, whether this can be considered as a path to progress and development, or as a threat to the survival of small-scale farming and rural community living. The paper concludes by formulating, albeit in a tentative form, some general suggestions for ‘development’ approaches and for research priorities in the rural Andes.

    A pesar de una tradición muy extensa del asentamiento humano en los Andes tropicales, las comunidades campesinas siempre enfrentaron condiciones de vulnerabilidad ecológica y económica, con varios riesgos, y aun desastres. Eso ha resultado, en diversos tiempos y en algunas regiones, en una estabilización de la superviviencia humana y en varias manifestaciones de marginalización, de

  5. Primarily Experimental Results for a W Wire Array Z Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuai Bin; Aici, Qiu; Wang Liangping; Zeng Zhengzhong; Wang Wensheng; Cong Peitian; Gai Tongyang; Wei Fuli; Guo Ning; Zhang Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Primarily experimental results are given for a W wire array Z pinch imploded with up to 2 MA in 100 ns on a Qiangguang-I pulsed power generator. The configuration and parameters of the generator, the W wire array load assembly and the diagnostic system for the experiment are described. The total X-ray energy has been obtained with a averaged power of X-ray radiation of 1.28 TW

  6. Directions of development for areas with unfavourable conditions for agricultural production, an example of the podlaskie voivodeship (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Niewiadomski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the directions of development of rural areas, primarily agricultural areas of the Podlaskie voivodeship, which in light of current criteria has been qualified almost entirely as problem area (ONW. Results presented are culmination of research related to issues of problem areas primarily in the area of the Podlaskie voivodeship by the author of the herewith paper during last few years. In conclusion to the results of the research it can be said that the primary direction of the development of rural areas in the Podlaskie voivodeship will be modern, large-scale farms able to adjust to current conditions, in particular environmental and soil conditions. In problem areas these will be mostly farms focusing on production of cattle and milk, developing production based on very high share of grassland areas. Complementary role in relation to conventional agriculture will be fulfilled by farms developing organic farming and agro-touristic farms. More intensive development of conventional tourism in rural areas can be expected once new tourism products and services have been developed. Assessment of the current economic development parameters of the Podlaskie voivodeship does not point at the convergence with other regions and possibility of decreasing the distance between the Podlaskie voivodeship and average results for Poland in the near future. However, some positive trends in terms of convergence with other regions in Poland can be observed in agriculture, primarily due to relatively good results in production of cattle and milk.

  7. The effect of agricultural price-support policies on interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea: 1976-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, D

    1987-08-01

    The impact of rice price-support policies, designed to increase farmers' income and reduce rural-urban migration in the Republic of Korea, is examined for the period 1976-1980 using a polytomous logistic model. "Our findings revealed that the elasticity of migration with respect to rice yield per origin farm household is positive and is significantly different from zero. The elasticities of migration with respect to rate of urbanization, particularly urban concentration-agglomeration, and population size of the destination are also positive and are significantly different from zero.... Our findings questioned the wisdom of employing rice price price-support programs as a viable policy for reducing interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea." excerpt

  8. Contribution to the Development of Rural Tourism in Croatia: Proposed Steps for Successful Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Demonja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is a relatively new tourist movement that humans of postindustrial society return to traditional values and nature. Primarily is strongly associated with farms and production of traditional agricultural products. The aim of the rural tourism is exploitation of all existing resources of one farm regardless of whether it is traditional architecture, traditional activities (traditional crafts, agricultural production or presentation of the rural way of life. In addition, rural tourism is a generator of additional revenue and achieves full employment of the farm which enables to integrate all the potentials and diversification of activities.The organization of the farm, in terms of taking some tourism activities, is a complex activity that requires certain procedures and steps for successful business. Therefore, this paper proposes and explains steps necessary for successful implementation of tourism services in rural tourism in Croatia. Special emphasis will be on the types of tourism services in rural tourism through the typology of farms and connecting with the market.

  9. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, Rene M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO 2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO 2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  10. 农村创业特点与高等农业院校大学生创业之路%Rural Business Characteristics and Pioneering Road of Students in the Higher Agricultural Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰花

    2012-01-01

    指出农村创业有条件差、资金周转慢、效益低、变数多等特点,高等农业院校大学生毕业后应根据农村的创业特点,选择正确的农村创业之路。正确的创业之路,首先是创业能力的培养;其次要了解农村、掌握农业和农民的特点,与农民融为一体;三是要通过就职于农村企业,积累农村企业的经营和管理经验;四是灵活运用社会关系学,争取得到政府在政策和资金上的支持。%Rural business has the characteristics of poor conditions,fund turnover slow,low benefit,more variability etc.Higher agricultural college graduates should according to the characteristics of the business choose the correct road.The correct road of the business,the first is the cultivation of creative ability.Second,to understand the countryside,master the characteristics of agriculture and farmers,and integrate with farmers.Third,through working for the rural enterprise,accumulate the managerial experience.Fourth,flexible use of social relations to get the government's support in the policy and financial.

  11. Weaving Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge with Formal Education to Enhance Community Food Security: School Competition as a Pedagogical Space in Rural Anchetty, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shailesh; Barkman, Janna; Patel, Kirit

    2017-01-01

    Like many socially and economically disadvantaged farming communities around the world, the Anchetty region of Tamil Nadu, India, has been experiencing serious food security challenges mainly due to the loss of traditional foods such as small millets and associated crops (SMAC) and associated indigenous agricultural knowledge (IAK). Drawing on…

  12. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  13. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player’s payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value. PMID:28187166

  14. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Marczyk

    Full Text Available Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  15. La transformación tecnológica del sector agropecuario en la provincia de Córdoba y sus repercusiones sobre la mujer y la familia rural: its effects on women and rural families Technological transformation of the agricultural sector in the province of Cordoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Perona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El sector agropecuario argentino ha estado caracterizado en las últimas décadas por una rápida y profunda transformación tecnológica. El objetivo principal del presente artículo es avanzar en la discusión sobre los impactos sociales del cambio tecnológico en el este y sur de la provincia de Córdoba, analizando en particular sus efectos sobre el rol de la mujer en la agricultura. A partir de una perspectiva ecofeminista, el trabajo aporta evidencia empírica sobre distintos aspectos relacionados con la población, el empleo y el bienestar. Las principales conclusiones indican que, a pesar del fuerte desarrollo alcanzado por el sector agropecuario, la posición de las mujeres del campo cordobés no parece haberse visto promovida o fortalecida, ya que, en general, la mujer rural continúa relegada a un papel secundario y marginada al rol de 'esposa del productor'.During the last decades, the Argentine agricultural sector has been characterized by a rapid and profound technological transformation. The main goal of this paper is to foster a discussion about the social impacts of technological change in the southern and eastern regions of the province of Cordoba focusing, in particular, on its repercussions on farm women and their role in agriculture. Based on an ecofeminist perspective, this study presents empirical evidence about various aspects related to population, employment and welfare. Our main conclusions show that, in spite of the remarkable development achieved by the agricultural sector, the position of Cordoba farm women does not seem to have been promoted or strengthened, since, in general, rural women continue to be relegated to a secondary role and categorized as 'farmer's wives'.

  16. REMARKS TO THE CURRENT DISCUSSION ABOUT BIOENERGY –BIOENERGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND/ OR FOR THE AGRICULTURAL OR RURAL AREAS ONLY ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ruckenbauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An energy system that is based on the use of renewable energy resources must be service –oriented and should be able to cover the varying energy demands. Moreover it must be flexible and cost effective by using on optimal mix of predominantly renewable energy sources. Agriculture will play an important role in the future if an optimal mix between food/feed production and energy plant production could be found. The present examples in the world to gain agricultural land for energy plants on the expenses of forests is going into the wrong direction. The cost intensive investments at present performed in Europe for biofuel and bioenergy production will certainly influence prices for crops and biomass supply. In this paper, strategies are questioned and discussed if the goals of the EU-commission to replace substantial parts of the fossile energy demands by bioenergy supply is feasible and can be realistic. As an example for a national agricultural situation, Austria, as am member of the PBBA, has elaborated a study about the timely development how much of the arable land can be utilized in the period between 2005 and 2020 for various bioenergy sources .The results demonstrate that, at the maximum , agriculture can only supply about 22 % of the total arable land for additional bioenergy as biofuel and biogas without interfering the national self food/feed supply and the protection of the sensible environment and emission situation. Finally, recent University research studies are presented about new processes to achieve a better and more efficient use of cereal and maize straw for biogas production already performed in the present 358 local biogas plants in Austria.

  17. Buffer zone income dynamics for the sub-district producer community: Implications for rural off-farm income, income inequality and the development of household agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Taruvinga, Amon; Mushunje, Abbyssinia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of buffer zones in household welfare in Zimbabwe by using primary household level data collected between November and December 2010 from communities that share boundaries with Nyatana Game Park. The descriptive statistics suggest that the contribution of buffer zone activities to household income may be significant, with a positive correlation to household agricultural income for communities that reside inside or close to the Park. Using the Gini decomposition app...

  18. Agricultural Markets Instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of

  19. Gênese, desenvolvimento, crise e reformas nos serviços públicos de extensão rural durante a década de 1990 Genesis, development, crisis and reforms in public agricultural extension during the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Da Ros

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traça um painel histórico sobre a gênese, desenvolvimento, crise e reformas realizadas nos serviços públicos de extensão rural ao longo da década de 1990, oferecendo uma visão geral sobre os seus principais determinantes, tendo por base a literatura especializada sobre o tema. Neste percurso, analisou-se o processo de constituição dos aparatos institucionais destinados ao oferecimento dos serviços de extensão rural e sua vinculação as políticas de modernização técnica da agropecuária mundial durante o período do pós-guerra, tecendo-se considerações sobre o caso brasileiro. O artigo também examina os aspectos que determinaram na emergência de uma crise dos serviços públicos de extensão rural ocorrida ao longo da década de 1980, num contexto de intensificação das críticas ao modelo agrícola da revolução verde. Por fim, o artigo busca destacar as conexões existentes entre a crise e as reformas de privatização dos serviços públicos de extensão rural ocorridas em diversos países do mundo durante a década de 1990 pautadas na reformulação dos seus formatos institucionais, das formas de financiamento, dos seus objetivos, do seu público alvo, das metodologias de trabalho e da matriz tecnológica preconizadaThis article presents an historical overview of the processes of genesis, development, crisis and reforms in public agricultural extension throughout the 1990s, offering an overview of its main determinants, based on the literature on the subject. In this way, we analyzed the process of constitution of institutional apparatuses for the offering of extension services and linking policies technical modernization of agriculture worldwide during the postwar period, weaving considerations on the Brazilian case. The article also examines the aspects that determined the emergence of a crisis of public extension occurred during the 1980s, amid intensifying criticism of the Green Revolution model of

  20. an analysis and review of the european union's agricultural subsidy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    Species richness and habitat diversity have declined .... forbidden to deliberately kill or capture the birds, deliberately destroy or damage their nests .... 1698/2005 on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural.

  1. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  2. Labor Factor Efficiency in the Agricultural Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…

  3. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  4. Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOVANOVIC Verka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serbian rural tourism face a growing number of challenges. A competitive Serbian rural economy requires a balance between agricultural production, other economic activities, environmental protection and social development. Rural development has focuset on improving agricultural competitiveness consolidating land, improvingmarket orientation, and developing economic infrastructure. Rural tourism is seen as one of the aspects of sustainable economic growth of the four rural areas in Serbia. The paper gives an evaluation of rural tourism development in Serbia through rural tourism product and rural tourism clusters prioritizing. Rural tourism is highlighted as one possible solution for the poor rural areas development. It is seen as an instrument for revitalization of the rural space and for the increasing of their attractiveness.Leisure, recreation and tourism in rural areas are perspectives of a new approach in which society is changing from the concern of production to concern of consumption.

  5. Fostering Rural Social Organizations: A Bottom-Up Paradigm In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural and agricultural transformation has remained one of the main policy thrusts of successive governments in Nigeria for over the last three decades. Among the organizations and agencies serving as anchors to this drive, rural social organizations occupy the driver's seat in rural and agricultural transformation in Nigeria.

  6. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  7. Determinants of changes in agriculture and rural areas in the Piła sub-region in the light of factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Czyżewski

    2017-07-01

    of road and social infrastructure in municipalities in the Piła sub-region and it explained 9.15% of the communality. These factors were induced by natural conditions, farm production constraints, the level of entrepreneurship, the situation on the labour market, which contributed to the development of sub-urbanization and the development of road and social infrastructure, as well as their derivatives, such as income levels, development of the building industry and early school education. Agriculture destimulated the development of municipalities in the Piła sub-region during the period under study.

  8. Non-farm entrepreneurship in rural sub-Saharan Africa: New empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Paula; Naudé, Wim

    2017-02-01

    We report on the prevalence and patterns of non-farm enterprises in six sub-Saharan African countries, and study their performance in terms of labor productivity, survival and exit, using the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study - Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA). Rural households operate enterprises due to both push and pull factors and tend to do so predominantly in easy-to-enter activities, such as sales and trade, rather than in activities that require higher starting costs, such as transport services, or educational investment, such as professional services. Labor productivity differs widely: rural and female-headed enterprises, those located further away from population centers, and businesses that operate intermittently have lower levels of labor productivity compared to urban and male-owned enterprises, or enterprises that operate throughout the year. Finally, rural enterprises exit the market primarily due to a lack of profitability or finance, and due to idiosyncratic shocks.

  9. Techno-Economic and dynamic analysis of low velocity wind turbines for rural electrification in agricultural area of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipirodjanapong, Sumate; Namboonruang, Weerapol

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of potential wind speed of electrical power generating using for agriculture in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The total area is 1,900 square kilometers. First of all, the agriculture electrical load (AEL) data was investigated from all farming districts in Ratchaburi. Subsequently, the load data was analyzed and classified by the load power and energy consumption at individual district. The wind turbine generator (WTG) at capacity rate of 200w, 500w, 1,000w, and 2,000w were adopted to implement for the AEL in each area at wind speed range of 3 to 6 m/s. This paper shows the approach based on the wind speed at individual district to determine the capacity of WTG using the capacitor factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) in baht per unit under different WTG value rates. Ten locations for wind station installations are practical investigated. Results show that for instance, the Damnoen Sa-duak (DN-04) one of WTG candidate site is identically significant for economic investment of installing rated WTG. The results of COE are important to determine whether a wind site is good or not.

  10. Rural Labour in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Janvry, Alain; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)

  11. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  12. Rural Marketing in India –Challenges, Opportunities and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Abhisek Kumar Tripathi

    2012-01-01

    The rural market in Indian economy can be classified under two broad categories. These are the market for consumer goods that comprise of both durable and non-durable goods and the market for agricultural inputs that include fertilizers, pesticides, seeds Key words: rural marketing, marketing, challenges in rural marketing, rural marketing environment

  13. 75 FR 41695 - Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service 7 CFR Part 4280 RIN 0570-AA71 Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program; Correction AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION... of rural microenterprises. This document has an incorrect definition of ``nonprofit entity...

  14. Gender and Rural Employment: A View from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballara, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on women employment in rural areas and its impacts in food security. The presentation includes data on rural women employment and its different labour strategies: temporary work, non agriculture rural employment and permanent rural employment. Poverty alleviation and its impact on families as well as implications in the economic…

  15. Evaluation of Exchange Rate Policy on Agricultural Trade in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... this study was to evaluate the effect of exchange rate policy on agricultural trade in Nigeria. ... Government support to farmers in the form of credit and input subsidies is a veritable ...

  16. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to cover crop planting procedure (95.3%), marketing strategies (91.3%), rural ... Keywords: Soap Opera, Agricultural Enterprise, Agricultural Information Dissemination, Agro-processors ...

  17. Evaluation of the agricultural extension programmes of Shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Agricultural Extension Services as part of her corporate social responsibilities in Rivers, ... limited by inadequate communication and transport facilities, non-repayment of soft loans ...

  18. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South- Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KENNY

    Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the existence of relationships between the ... Key words Sustainable practices, industrial agriculture, agricultural technology, rural economy. Introduction .... consumers. 4.19. 1.11.

  19. Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Analyses of Ware Yam Production in Orlu Agricultural Zone of Imo State. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... statistics, gross margin analysis, marginal analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results ...

  20. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  1. Economic growth, poverty and rural labour markets in India: a survey of research.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardhan K

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the relationship between agricultural development, agrarian structures, rural employment and poverty in India - based on a literature survey, examines trends in rural population, agricultural income, labour contracts, farm size and food prices; investigates the role of agricultural credit, wage determination and labour market segmentation; considers the informal sector and rural public works. Bibliography.

  2. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Managerial Strategies for the Conservation of Rurality in Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available If we admit that rurality designates small densities, open areas, small settlements below 1,000 inhabitants, and land reserved mainly to agricultural and forestry practices, and as natural area, if we admit that society tends to be traditional and that government al policies tend to conserve rather than to make rapid or radical changes, then we should admit that rural tourism should be an activity generating new incomes in the area. Rurality also means preserving a continuum in the approach of different types of areas with different characteristics, a concept that can also be of use in the identification of activities specific to rural tourism. Be they activities specific to the rural environment or activities common to the rural area, they need to aim at the conservation of rurality as a main tourism resource. Managerial strategies in rural tourism contribute effectively to rural development, provided they are sustainable and that rural tourism be not the only solution for rural development.

  4. 412 awareness and usage of the baobab in rural communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    edible fruits, seeds, leaves, resins, tannins, gums, oils and ... potentials of this free gift of nature and its usage among the rural poor ... Literature Review. Scientific ... 1Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. University of ...

  5. Rural Policy and the New Regional Economics: Implications for Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, John M.

    This paper discusses gross economic and demographic trends in rural and urban America during the past 30 years, the kinds of competitive advantages enjoyed by urban and rural regions, and insights offered by the new regional economics concerning exploitation of those advantages. The importance of agriculture has declined in rural areas, while that…

  6. TOWARDS DESCRIBING SMALL SCALE AGRICULTURE: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    “coloured reserves” of the Northern Cape Province called Leliefontein. The overall objective of ... 1. INTRODUCTION. The South African rural environment today is diverse with agriculture ... livestock (sheep, goats and cattle) farming activities.

  7. Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Agricultural Biodiversity for Nutrition, Health, Livelihoods and ... on local ecosystems and human resources can provide sustainable solutions to ... and health among the rural and urban poor through increased dietary diversity.

  8. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  9. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural industrialization alters rural landscapes in Europe, causing large-scale and rapid loss of important biodiversity. The principal instruments to protect farmland biodiversity are various agri-environmental measures (AEMs) in the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, growing awareness of shortcomings to CAP biodiversity integration prompts examination of causes and potential solutions. This thesis assesses the importance of structural heterogeneity of crop and non-crop habi...

  10. Reports on development of a program for research and action towards more economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture and rural development for Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coxworth, E. ed.

    2001-12-01

    Some connections between more sustainable and profitable agriculture production systems and the development of new processed products were being established in previous bulletins, and this document presents some examples of new technologies being developed or improved, while attempting to provide and estimate of their effect on farm income. The first example discusses an innovative new harvesting system for seed crops including cereal grains, oilseeds and pulses. For this system, two pieces of equipment rather than one, are used to harvest. The field unit developed by McLeod Harvest is used for reaping and threshing, and the winnowing is accomplished at a stationary mill. The entire process was explained, and it proved successful in collecting and transporting three to four times the volume of material and approximately 25 per cent more weight. Approximately 25 pounds of chaff were obtained for every 100 pounds of grain. The density of final millings was considerably higher than conventional chaff. It is estimated that the total benefits were 35 dollars per acre. The present chaff collection systems are reviewed, and the potential reductions in weed control costs are examined through farm results obtained in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Another section of the document was devoted to feed value of conventional chaff and McLeod Harvest millings. The potential effects on farm net income: spring wheat production example was discussed, followed by a section on adding other cost saving strategies. Energy savings, and energy production : estimated ethanol production from wheat milling were both reviewed. The second example presented touched on the effects of crop rotations and tillage systems on energy efficiency and economics of wheat production. Potential integration with new crop harvest system. 2 tabs.

  11. Agriculture and Water Policy : Toward Sustainable Inclusive Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Syud Amer; Gautam, Madhur

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews Pakistan's agriculture performance and analyzes its agriculture and water policies. It discusses the nature of rural poverty and emphasizes the reasons why agricultural growth is a critical component to any pro-poor growth strategy for Pakistan. It supports these arguments by summarizing key results from recent empirical analysis where the relative benefits of agricultur...

  12. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  13. The direct economic impact of alternative types of the rural tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Miškolci

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has come to occupy a prominent position in the debate about rural restructuring in all OECD countries, partly because of demand changes which favour rural tourism and partly because rural agencies recognise a need to provide economic activities with potential for growth in a rural economy in which traditional providers of rural employment (such as agriculture have been shedding labour at a rapid rate. Well-designed strategy is essential to its success in impacting on the rural economy. The structures for collaboration and co-operation must be developed and combined with a process of education and training. Co-operative effort must be effective and sustainable. The tourism related businesses should not be isolated from the larger community and its issues.The principal motivation for a community, business or region to serve tourists is generally economic. An individual business is interested primarily in its own revenues and costs, while a community or region is concerned with tourism’s overall contribution to the economy, as well as social, fiscal and environmental impacts. A good understanding of tourism’s economic impacts is therefore important for the tourism industry, government officials, and the community as a whole.The principal objective of the study, that is reported here, was to determine the potential income of farmers from the provision of agro-tourism services. First, the paper reviews selected results of the visitor spending survey in alternative types of rural tourism of the region Southeast (Czech Republic; second the direct economic benefit of the agro-tourism in this region is estimated, and finally, critical factors reducing the effectiveness of agro-tourism as a rural development instrument are drawn.

  14. Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural informational flow in informal communication networks of farmers in Ghana. ... should identify such farmers who can serve as intermediaries between actors to help disseminate information in rural communities. Keywords: key communicators, farmers, rural communities, social networks, extension agents ...

  15. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.

    2016-01-01

    within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD......Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...... Aiding (MCDA) technique "Group Analytic Hierarchy Process" (GAHP). The validity of this MC-SDSS was tested on three rural municipalities of Apulia Region (Southern Italy). In particular, a GIS was used to detect the rural resources and existing linear elements, which were used to perform overlay mapping...

  16. "Agricultural budget" and the competitiveness of the Polish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkiewicz, Stanisław; Rokicki, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the publication is to assess the impact of public support on the functioning of the Polish agriculture. In order to achieve this aim the publication includes an analysis of the system of direct payments and rural development policy instruments planned to be implemented in Poland within the CAP 2014-2020. The study also presents an analysis of regional diversity of the Polish agriculture and an assessment of the scale of agricultural investment made in recent years in all the Polish...

  17. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  18. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  19. Effectiveness of radio in dissemination of agricultural information to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three objectives of the study were; (1) to identify the agricultural technologies /recommendations which rural farmers used with the help of radio; (2) to assess the frequency by rural farmers' access radio in getting extension information; and (3) to assess the frequency by which the rural farmer listening to some radio ...

  20. Investigating the limits of multi functional agriculture as the dominant frame for Green Care in agriculture in Flanders and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, J.; Bock, B.B.; Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    European agriculture and rural areas are facing multiple socio-economic changes, including a transition from an agriculture-based to a service-based economy. This restructuring forces agricultural and rural actor-networks to reformulate their (self-)definitions. One reformulation prevailing both in

  1. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  2. Making agriculture work for the poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Chimhowu, Admos

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarises recent work on poverty, agriculture and land. First, we report on panel data analysis in five countries – Vietnam, Uganda, India, Nicaragua and Ethiopia. We focus on rural exits from poverty, their relation with agricultural growth trends, and the contingent factors...

  3. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... major means of transporting agricultural produce from the farms to the markets as well as to ... methods were both employed to analyze the data gathered. ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural Production & Road. Network ... traffic over short, medium and long distances.

  4. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  5. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 encodes a primarily multifunctional cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-03-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis.

  6. GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 Encodes a Primarily Multifunctional Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Rice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kewei; Qian, Qian; Huang, Zejun; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Ming; Hong, Lilan; Zeng, Dali; Gu, Minghong; Chu, Chengcai; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2006-01-01

    Lignin content and composition are two important agronomic traits for the utilization of agricultural residues. Rice (Oryza sativa) gold hull and internode phenotype is a classical morphological marker trait that has long been applied to breeding and genetics study. In this study, we have cloned the GOLD HULL AND INTERNODE2 (GH2) gene in rice using a map-based cloning approach. The result shows that the gh2 mutant is a lignin-deficient mutant, and GH2 encodes a cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). Consistent with this finding, extracts from roots, internodes, hulls, and panicles of the gh2 plants exhibited drastically reduced CAD activity and undetectable sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When expressed in Escherichia coli, purified recombinant GH2 was found to exhibit strong catalytic ability toward coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde, while the mutant protein gh2 completely lost the corresponding CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Further phenotypic analysis of the gh2 mutant plants revealed that the p-hydroxyphenyl, guaiacyl, and sinapyl monomers were reduced in almost the same ratio compared to the wild type. Our results suggest GH2 acts as a primarily multifunctional CAD to synthesize coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol precursors in rice lignin biosynthesis. PMID:16443696

  7. Marketing mix for rural development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLGÁR (DESZKE Klára-Dalma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development supposes a uniformly increasing of living level for the entire population of a nation. The reducing of disparities between the urban and rural regions is a purpose of the rural development policy, as a part of Community Agriculture Policy and also subject of European financing programs. A marketing approach of rural development could ensure an integrated implementation of LEADER program in Romania. This paper defines the components of marketing mix for rural development and their content for Romanian rural development marketing.

  8. Rural development in Nigera: Problems and remedies | Eteng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural development in Nigeria constitutes a fundamental problem. Over the years, rural development has been neglected. Rural areas are regarded as abodes of diseases, superstition, poverty, lethargy, low income and low productivity. This problem, which is primarily due to government non sustainable policy action ...

  9. Rural Income and Forest Reliance in Highland Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Córdova, José Pablo; Wunder, Sven; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Börner, Jan

    2013-05-01

    This paper estimates rural household-level forest reliance in the western highlands of Guatemala using quantitative methods. Data were generated by the way of an in-depth household income survey, repeated quarterly between November 2005 and November 2006, in 11 villages ( n = 149 randomly selected households). The main sources of income proved to be small-scale agriculture (53 % of total household income), wages (19 %) and environmental resources (14 %). The latter came primarily from forests (11 % on average). In the poorest quintile the forest income share was as high as 28 %. All households harvest and consume environmental products. In absolute terms, environmental income in the top quintile was 24 times higher than in the lowest. Timber and poles, seeds, firewood and leaf litter were the most important forest products. Households can be described as `regular subsistence users': the share of subsistence income is high, with correspondingly weak integration into regional markets. Agricultural systems furthermore use important inputs from surrounding forests, although forests and agricultural uses compete in household specialization strategies. We find the main household determinants of forest income to be household size, education and asset values, as well as closeness to markets and agricultural productivity. Understanding these common but spatially differentiated patterns of environmental reliance may inform policies aimed at improving livelihoods and conserving forests.

  10. Enhancing Sustainable Development of Diverse Agriculture in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jahangir

    2005-01-01

    The report presents the current status of some selected CGPRT Crops (secondary crops) and examines their potentials in enhancing the sustainable development of diverse agriculture in Bangladesh. Agriculture in Bangladesh is composed of crop, livestock, fisheries and forestry subsectors. This study deals primarily with crop agriculture and the scope of diversification is limited to crop rather than agricultural diversification.

  11. Rural Airports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Rural Airports database is the list of rural airports compiled annually by BTS for the Treasury Department/IRS. It is used by airlines to assist in establishing...

  12. Constraints to Gender Participation in Rural Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    who reside in the rural areas as family units (Agricultural Extension Society of Nigeria ... cooperatives, individuals through private initiatives, corporate bodies as well as ..... from similar cultural background have many things in common.

  13. World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for development

    OpenAIRE

    The World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The world's demand for food is expected to double within the next 50 years, while the natural resources that sustain agriculture will become increasingly scarce, degraded, and vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In many poor countries, agriculture accounts for at least 40 percent of GDP and 80 percent of employment. At the same time, about 70 percent of the world's poor live in rural areas and most depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. World Development Report 2008 seeks t...

  14. Scenarios for Russian Agricultural Development to 2021

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural Policy in Russia: Progress to Date and the Road Forward (Washington, DC: The World Bank,[2002]). 26 Nove, An Economic History of the...governing philosophy and dynamics in order to better understand how they affect the rural economy and agricultural policy . This will facilitate...Skeptics of the current regime might argue that this is an apt description of agricultural policy during the Putin/Medvedev era and therefore evidence that

  15. Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1MB). Funding. The Agriculture and Food Security program funds research primarily through competitive calls. Announcements and details on eligibility and thematic focus for funding opportunities will be posted on IDRC's funding page.

  16. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  17. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articles must be typed on A4 paper, double-spaced and with at least 3 cm margins on the top and bottom, while the left and right margins would be 4 cm each. Full length papers including tables and ... James, U.K. (1998). A selective index for measuring early maturing rates in West African Dwarf goats. Int. J. Agric. R. Dev.

  18. Communication for Strengthening Agricultural Extension and Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chrischisoni

    economy to harness the potential provided by the tourism, mining and service sectors. ... smallholder farmers experience low yields, which would almost double “if technical ..... training, but hardly any training in the social sciences, especially, in development and ... Table 3: Factors Motivating Extension Workers in Malawi ...

  19. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alem Deaces, J.

    1994-01-01

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary

  1. Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cities greatly depend on rural areas for agricultural products, water and raw materials. Climate change, by increasing the frequency of extreme events such as droughts and torrential rains, risks having a negative effect on villages by reducing the supply of agricultural produce and by causing a rural exodus that the cities will ...

  2. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  3. Rural Women's Attitude Towards Adoption Of Improved Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Women's Attitude Towards Adoption Of Improved Crop Production Practices In Aguata Agricultural Zone, Anambra State, Nigeria. ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Rural women agreed that improved crops normally lose their taste after harvest (mean = 3.02).

  4. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  5. Highest and best use of agricultural land in multifunctional land market evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, rural lands are important for agricultural production, land value strongly related to productive potential of land income based and measurable. Transition towards multifunctional rural environment, income from land not only...

  6. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Trappel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  7. 7 CFR 22.306 - Financing rural development planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing rural development planning. 22.306 Section... Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.306 Financing rural development planning. States will be required to finance rural development planning through their own resources, revenue-sharing allocations, or the...

  8. Lighting Rural India : Load Segregation Eexperience in Selected States

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Ashish; Mukherjee, Mohua; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Saraswat, Kavita; Khurana, Mani

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic development of the rural populace is critical to India achieving its stated objective of inclusive growth. It is widely accepted that access to a reliable and sufficient power supply is a key enabler of rural economic growth. Traditionally, India's rural power supply has been restricted by having feeders to villages serve both agriculture and household loads. Because agric...

  9. Rural electrification: benefits in different spheres; Eletrificacao rural: beneficios em diferentes esferas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Cassiano N.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Eletrovento Ltda, Incubadora de Empresas de Base Tecnologica], e-mail: cassiano@eletrovento.com.br; Mourad, Anna L. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL) Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagem], e-mail: anna@ital.sp.gov.br; Morinigo, Marcos A. [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (CSPE), SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mmorinigo@sp.gov.br; Sanga, Godfrey [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: godfrey@fem.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a constant migration of rural population to urban areas looking for employment and better quality of life. During the same period, industrial sector grew significantly and became economically more important than the rural sector. Consequently, the industrial sector became government's first development priority. In addition, the energy system was focused on large power plants energy production and high potentials long distance transmissions to large energy consumers, urban centers and industries. Limited efforts were done to provide energy to small and dispersed rural consumers as it seemed to be economically less attractive. This article, therefore, shows the importance of rural electrification over human, economical and social development including its impact across the rural communities' boundaries. While regarded as an important factor for development, rural electrification is, however, a function of many input factors in a mutual dependence relationships, reinforcement and feedback loops. Besides of the evident benefits of increased comfort and satisfaction levels to the rural population, other benefits of rural electrification includes improved access to information and communication media, agricultural mechanization and consequent improvement of the agricultural productivity. Agricultural sector is an important part of the industrial production chain: each R$ 1,00 invested in rural electrification generates R$ 3,00 along the production chain and increases the consumption of durable goods, Word Bank, Gazeta Mercantil (1999). For the population and urbanization control, rural electrification creates favorable conditions to maintain people in the rural areas as such reducing government expenditures for urban infrastructure which is more expensive than the rural one. Moreover, this reduces incidences of unemployment in big cities as it generates jobs in the rural sector. Implementation of a combined rural

  10. Competences in Demand within the Spanish Agricultural Engineering Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers…

  11. World Development Report : Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... inform research debate and development practice in the sector under study. The 2008 Report will address agriculture and rural development. Since the last World Development Report on agriculture was published in 1982, ... Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty Reduction Strategies.

  12. Reforming the Public Agricultural Extension System in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming the Public Agricultural Extension System in China : Supporting Rural Innovation. The public agricultural extension system has played a critical role in Chinese agricultural development over the past few decades. There is growing evidence that since the mid-1990s the system has failed to provide new and ...

  13. Barriers for pregnant women living in rural, agricultural villages to accessing antenatal care in Cambodia: A community-based cross-sectional study combined with a geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Junko; Nanishi, Keiko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Ly, Po; Thavrin, Boukheng; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2018-01-01

    Maternal morbidity and mortality is still a major public health issue in low- and middle-income countries such as Cambodia. Improving access to antenatal care (ANC) services for pregnant women has been widely recognized as one of the most effective means of reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. As such, this study examined the barriers for pregnant women living in rural, agricultural villages to accessing ANC based on data collected in the Ratanakiri province, one of the least developed provinces in Cambodia, using a combination of a community-based cross-sectional survey and a geographic information system (GIS). A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 377 mothers with children under the age of two living in 62 villages in the Ratanakiri province, Cambodia, in December 2015. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to ask mothers about their ANC service use, knowledge of ANC, barriers to accessing health facilities, and complications they experienced during the most recent pregnancy. At the same time, GIS data were also collected using a Global Positioning System (GPS) to accurately measure actual travel distance of pregnant women to access health facilities and to examine geographical and environmental barriers in greater detail. Only a third of the mothers met the recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO) of receiving ANC four times or more (achieved ANC4+), and a quarter of the mothers had never received ANC during their most recent pregnancy. Factors positively associated with achieving ANC4+ were mother's secondary or higher education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74, 17.37), being aware that receiving ANC is recommended (AOR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.25, 6.00), and knowledge about the recommended frequency for ANC (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI: 7.22). Actual travel distance was negatively associated with achieving ANC4+. Mothers who had to travel 10.0-14.9 km were 68% less likely (AOR = 0.32, 95

  14. Impact of migration on rural employment and earnings in the Western Development Region of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, I P

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the impact of migration on rural employment and income in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Data were obtained from interviews conducted among a sample population among villages in the mountain zone of the north, to the Terai in the south. The study area boundaries are irregular in order to ensure adequate spatial, topographic, and socioeconomic representation. The sample included 1387 hill people, 1248 mountain people, and 96 Terai people. Only 15.8% of the sample had access roads to villages in hill areas. 51% had access to roads in the Terai. There is no history of occupational mobility, but settlements changed over time as an adjustment to conditions. Pioneer models of development that aimed to increase economic opportunity included planned settlements. Presently, migration is comprised of rural to rural, rural to urban, and urban to urban. Rural to rural migration is primarily short distances, while long distances accompany hill to Terai moves. 37.0% of immigrants in hill areas migrate between hill districts. About 33% of hill valley settlers were first generation in-migrants, of which about 60% were migrants from hill settlements. Over 60% of the Terai plains' immigrants were from hill districts. The largest short distance movements were from higher to lower elevations, followed by horizontal movements. Permanent emigration has declined in recent years. At least one member from 34.9% of households was a temporary emigrant seeking employment. 41.5% of households had at least one employee in the Eastern Pokhara Valley. Many hill emigrants travel to foreign countries. Migrants were better educated and more involved in agriculture and salaried jobs. Analysis of variance findings indicates that rural temporary migrants came from households with smaller landholdings and larger family size. Findings support the Todaro hypothesis and findings of House and Rempel (1980) in Kenya, that reflect the benefits from migration.

  15. Bangkok as a magnet for rural labour: changing conditions, 1900-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyyanont, P

    1998-06-01

    This article describes labor force shifts, in Thailand, from rural areas to Bangkok during 1900-1970 and is a revision of a chapter from a doctoral thesis. Urban growth of Bangkok occurred primarily after World War II. Pre-war wages in rural areas were higher than coolie wages in Bangkok. Opportunity costs of changing occupations were high. Chinese immigration was the key to development of non-farm occupations. The Chinese from Siam were drawn to higher wages in Bangkok than were possible in South China ports. After the war, the Lewis-Fei and Ranis migration model fits a pattern of migration that adjusts the disequilibrium between urban and rural markets. There are shifts from low productivity rural sectors to urban high productivity sectors. Capital investment in commerce and industry raised urban labor productivity. The wage data suggest a growing gap between urban and rural sectors postwar. Rail travel during the 1950s brought higher wages for the unskilled in railroad construction. There was high agricultural productivity relative to labor input due to availability of land. Underpopulation meant little unemployment. After 1950, conditions changed. The population growth rate increased. More in rural areas lived below the poverty line. Low rice productivity constrained rural wages and incomes during the 1950s and 1960s. The more favored commercial crops needed less labor. Chinese immigration declined, and demand for labor increased in urban areas. Low urban wages due to cheap labor stimulated profits and growth. Major roads connected Bangkok to the south and the north. Bangkok was viewed as a magical and desirable place.

  16. Study of rural transportation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report is in response to Section 6206 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (PL : 110-246), which directs the Secretaries of Agriculture and Transportation jointly to conduct a : study of rural transportation issues. The report revie...

  17. Interaction between Rural People’s Basic Needs and Forest Products: A Case Study of the Katha District of Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Hlaing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of interaction between rural people and forest products is one of the challenges faced while balancing forest product utilization with forest conservation in Myanmar. This study aims to contribute an effort to such challenges by analyzing the interaction of rural households with forest products in Myanmar. Data were collected using face-to-face questionnaire interviews with 218 households and conducting a rapid tree inventory across 132 circular random plots in selected rural communities around four townships of the Katha District. The empirical results indicate that the 95% of rural households were entirely dependent on forest products. The survey documented 13 main forest products and 54 tree species, which were primarily used for household consumption. Low-income households compared with medium- and high-income households with low educational level (p<0.05 and a small agricultural land area (p<0.05 were found to be more forest-dependent households. Illegal logging, mining, fuel-wood collection, slash-and-burn agriculture, and the establishment of forest plantations were reported as the main causes of forest products depletion. Findings from this study, although at a microlevel, can be used by the Myanmar Forestry Department as baseline information to improve community-based forest management activities.

  18. Supporting the Establishment of Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia with EO Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Nuno; Patinha, Carla; Sainkhuu, Tserendash; Bataa, Mendbayar; Doljinsuren, Nyamdorj

    2016-08-01

    The work presented here shows the results from the project "Climate-Resilient Rural Livelihoods in Mongolia", included in the EOTAP (Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific) initiative, a collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), developed in cooperation with the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia.The EO services developed within this EOTAP project primarily aimed at enriching the existing environmental database maintained by the National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) in Mongolia and sustaining the collaborative pasture management practices introduced by the teams within the Ministry of Food and Agriculture of Mongolia. The geographic area covered by the EOTAP services is Bayankhongor province, in western Mongolia region, with two main services: drought monitoring at the provincial level for the year 2014 and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) and changes mapping for three districts of this province (Buutsagaan, Dzag and Khureemaral) for the years 2013, 2014.

  19. Critical reflections on the New Rurality and the rural territorial development approaches in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Ramírez-Miranda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical approach to the New Rurality and the Rural Territorial Development (RTD perspectives, which nowadays are hegemonic for governmental organizations and Latin American academies. RTD's core requirements, which are functional for neoliberal policies resulting in the loss of food sovereignty, the globalization of agribusinesses, and migration as a consequence of peasant agricultural weakening, were critically reviewed on the basis of the principal challenges faced by Latin American rural areas. In light of the above consequences, it is thought that changes in such areas are based on neoliberal rurality rather than on the purported New Rurality. By stressing the need for a global historical view that reintroduces the Latin American critical thinking tradition, the urgency for public policies that stop neoliberal prescriptions and seek to strengthen peasant and indigenous agriculture in order to encourage rural development based on food sovereignty, democracy, equity and sustainability were established.

  20. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  1. Better Country: A Strategy for Rural Development in the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    The report of the 25-member National Advisory Council on Rural Development, appointed by the Secretary of Agriculture, defines rural needs and sets forth strategies for rural development in the 1980's. A review of the decade between 1970 and 1980 discusses rapid economic growth of rural areas, social progress, and changes in public service, and…

  2. 77 FR 2954 - Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on Rural Energy for America Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Stakeholder Meetings on... stakeholders focusing on Rural Development's Rural Energy for America Program implemented under the Food... meetings will be hosted by Rural Development State Directors. Stakeholders must contact the appropriate...

  3. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 2014–2020. REMINISCENCES AND PROJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Stępień

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy is an important element of support for Polish rural areas, due to the need to improve the competitiveness of agricultural producers, to transform the employment structure, to boost infrastructure development and to implement tasks related to the protection of the environment. Thus, the size of the funds of the Rural Development Programme (RDP for 2014–2020 and their allocation to different tasks is essential for the future of rural areas. The aim of the article was to evaluate the RDP for 2014–2020 from the point of view of the potential economic consequences of its implementation. This rating was made in two areas: the budget, and the construction of selected activities. Data on the budget and the allocation of funds in the new financial period indicate that the RDP limits expenditures on some of the objectives, primarily related to infrastructure and entrepreneurship. The priority actions are, however, pro-investment and modernization, and improving the position of farmers in the food chain. There are also programs of a social nature, aimed at small farms and activities with low added value (e.g. less favored areas, or LFA. Reducing the budget of the RDP forced implementation of some solutions, e.g. degressive payments and limits on the area and economic size of farms; thereby both the smallest and larger farms could be excluded from part of the support.

  4. The Change Path of Agricultural Production Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of agricultural production outsourcing is a breakpoint for the development of agriculture and immigration worker’s urbanization. The analysis based on framework of the Institutional Change reveals that as a whole,the outsourcing system of agricultural production improves the welfare of society effectively. To some extents,it also can solve the problem of food security. The rural transferring labor-forces who realize the institutional change in the initial stage are is the first Action Group to gain the potential benefits. Local governments are a breakpoint of induced institutional change, which find potential benefits and then change the role of system changes. The central government is in dominant statue during the whole change. The outsourcing is a kind of improvement to the Family Contracted System, also an adaption to an imperfect Chinese rural social security. So the outsourcing has a positive meaning in the rural area.

  5. Path innovation of rural property mortgage financing in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yongchao

    2016-01-01

    Rural property mortgage financing, as an important breakthrough to deepen the reform of rural property right system and financial system, is an important approach to increase the farmers’ property income. Besides, rural property mortgage financing is of great significance in implementing the rural land usufructuary right and meeting the demand of medium-and-long-term and large-scale operation of the funds used in agricultural production. Under the existing institutional arrangement, the prope...

  6. Rural Marketing Strategies for Selling Products & Services: Issues & Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Dr. Ashfaque

    2013-01-01

    Rural markets offer a great scope for a concentrated marketing effort because of the recent increase in the rural incomes and the likelihood that such incomes will increase faster because of better production and higher prices for agricultural commodities. Rural Marketing is a developing concept, and as a part of any economy has untapped potential; marketers have realized the opportunity recently. Improvement in infrastructure and reach promise a bright future for those intending to go rural....

  7. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-01-01

    The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different vie...

  8. Energy, environment and sustainable rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, G [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-01

    This paper addresses the energy needs of the three quarters of the World's population living in the rural populations of many developing countries whose daily struggle to obtain the energy needed for survival is unaffected by international energy politics. It aims to identify energy-related actions in certain policy and technical areas which may contribute to ending rural poverty. The mutual benefits of a transition to modern technologies is stressed both for rural and urban groups, especially in terms of a more efficient use of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources such as biomass or solar power. Recommendations for sustainable rural and agricultural development are made. (UK)

  9. Revitalizing Rural Washington: Report and Recommendations of the Governor's Task Force on Rural Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Task Force on Rural Affairs, Olympia, WA.

    Recognizing that urban and rural problems are interconnected, the Governor's Advisory Council on Urban Affairs (State of Washington), made a recommendation that led to formation (in 1970) of the Task Force on Rural Affairs. The report of that task force identifies the continuing technological revolution in agriculture as an important cause of (1)…

  10. Legal and management aspects in rural electrification; Aspectos juridicos y empresariales de la electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alem Deaces, J [Administracion Nacional de Usinas y trasmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1994-07-01

    Present work considers that the rural electrification is generally deficit, as well in the line of transmission builds as the generation sources constructions. The big benefits of the rural electrification would be the improvement of quality of the human life as well as in the agricultural economic development. The participation of all the social agents' collaboration would be necessary.

  11. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

      Counterurbanisation combined with recent trends in agricultural technology has resulted in a ‘multifunctional countryside regime', raising new questions on the relation between nature and land use in rural areas and between very different values and interests developing in these areas. Indicators...... for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  12. ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENT IN THE EU AGRICULTURAL FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Krstić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is understanding of the importance of financial support for agricultural development and achieved results. The aim is an assessment of the importance of the European Union funds intended for agricultural and rural development. In accordance with the purpose and objectives of the research, we analyze the efficiency of investment in the European Union agricultural funds. Also, the interdependence between agriculture expenditures from the European Union funds and results achieved in agriculture in the European Union countries is examined in this paper. Homogeneity of the European Union countries, according to agricultural expenditures and agricultural results is analyzed. The results of this research highlight the importance of financial support provided from the European Union funds for agricultural and rural development.

  13. According to Lenin's Design: Socialist Reforms in Agriculture and the Training of Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaidachnaia, Z. A.

    1971-01-01

    The use of agricultural specialists with leadership training from the social sciences was a key program in the socialization of the rural population in communist ideology and in the advancement of agricultural production. (MB)

  14. The Road Towards Sustainable Rural Development : Issues of Theory, Policy and Research Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsden, T.; Banks, J.; Renting, H.; Ploeg, van der J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Developing a more widespread diffusion of sustainable agricultural practices as part of progressing rural sustainable development is being hampered by different modes of environmental social thought. This introduction to this special issue on Reconstituting of nature through rural development

  15. Rural African women and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadaki, K

    1994-01-01

    70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of

  16. Development of Rural Communities by Diversification of Rural Economy in the Context of Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Dora Orboi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a process taking place at the same time with the complex and sustainable agricultural development; agriculture and the rural area being interdependent sides specific to rural communities. When analysing economic activity in the rural area we should pay a particular attention to the identification of such alternative activities that have a real chance for development and create new jobs that compensate the diminution of labour occupancy degree in agriculture. Opportunities of rural economy represent a source of having alternative income for the population from rural communities in order to escape from poverty and in order to accelerate the social progress in the rural area. Alternative activities with economic, social and cultural impact, providers of jobs and incomes are: the development of agro tourism and rural tourism, processing and promoting foodstuff, local traditional drinks, ecological foodstuff, handicraft and silviculture. Improving the conditions for business in the rural area is a main condition for the generation of economic activities generating jobs in the rural area.

  17. Agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.

    1989-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs

  18. APRECIERI ASUPRA FENOMENULUI TURISTIC RURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiu NISTOREANU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural areas are rich in their ecological and cultural diversity. The dimension and complexity of the rural communities make difficult a generalization regarding their problems or values, even if some common characteristics exist. For a long time in their existence, the rural communities have relied on the abundance of natural resources. But, in the 20th century, the great technological, political and economical changes have brought a profound transformation in agriculture, and other renewable industrial resources, fact which led the rural communities to a dependency towards these. Although these changes occurred, many reasons for optimism still exist. Involvement of new households in offering touristic services constitutes a new dimension of the development of the rural areas, and on a secondary plane the touristic activity in the rural environment registers new ways of manifestation. Even more, we are able to appreciate the dimensions and evolution of one of the most spectacular social – economic phenomena; the rural tourism.

  19. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  20. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  1. ACCOUNTING OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND EUROPEAN FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Petru VARTEIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The economical operations developed by the beneficiaries of European funds projects, are registered in accounting, based on justifying documents, in accordance with the national and international legislation in effect. The beneficiaries of European funds projects may be organized starting from the simplest form of organisation, which takes the form of self – employed person (SEP till the most complex form of organisation such as trading companies (T.C.. The Romanian institutions which finance agricultural activities are Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (M.A.R.D which subordinates Rural Investment Finance Agency (R.I.F.A and Payment and Intervention Agency in Agriculture (P.I.A.A. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has an authority role, of management (AM for the National Rural Development Program (N.R.D.P and for the Fisheries Operational Program (F.O.P. The funds obtained from the European Union and from Romanian institutions for the development of agricultural activities are registered in accounting as grants, in the category of grants afferent to assets or afferent to incomes.

  2. Research Awards: Agriculture and Food Security program Deadline ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... HEAD OFFICE / SIÈGE : 150 Kent Street / 150, rue Kent PO Box ... to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in ... You should have an interest in agriculture, food security, nutrition, rural livelihoods, and.

  3. From Farming to Charcoal Production: Agricultural Decline, Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the mid-1980s, rural livelihoods in Tanzania have rapidly transformed and ... stagnation in agricultural technology and practises, livestock diseases, and the shift ... As the local forest resources are already depleted, and the food security ...

  4. Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image ... from all areas of Agricultural Extension: rural sociology, environmental extension, extension communication ... Adoption of improved oil palm processing technology in Umuahia north local government area of Abia ...

  5. Development and Sensitivity Analysis of a Frost Risk model based primarily on freely distributed Earth Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Petropoulos, George; Papanikolaou, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme climatic conditions, such as frost, is a significant tool in successful agricultural management and decision making. Nowadays, with the development of Earth Observation (EO) technology, it is possible to obtain accurately, timely and in a cost-effective way information on the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions, particularly over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. The present study aimed at developing and evaluating a frost risk prediction model, exploiting primarily EO data from MODIS and ASTER sensors and ancillary ground observation data. For the evaluation of our model, a region in north-western Greece was selected as test site and a detailed sensitivity analysis was implemented. The agreement between the model predictions and the observed (remotely sensed) frost frequency obtained by MODIS sensor was evaluated thoroughly. Also, detailed comparisons of the model predictions were performed against reference frost ground observations acquired from the Greek Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA) over a period of 10-years (2000-2010). Overall, results evidenced the ability of the model to produce reasonably well the frost conditions, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. Implementation of our proposed frost risk model is based primarily on satellite imagery analysis provided nowadays globally at no cost. It is also straightforward and computationally inexpensive, requiring much less effort in comparison for example to field surveying. Finally, the method is adjustable to be potentially integrated with other high resolution data available from both commercial and non-commercial vendors. Keywords: Sensitivity analysis, frost risk mapping, GIS, remote sensing, MODIS, Greece

  6. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    but that once people decide to migrate, they base their choice of destination primarily on economic opportunities available at that end. Distance bears little relationship to choice of destination. To stem this tide efforts need to be made to increase rural income, provide employment opportunities for those displaced as agriculture becomes more efficient, and to provide for greater amenities in rural areas. Urban unemployment is an ever-increasing problem, accentuated by population growth and migration. Intensive rural development is needed to reverse this trend.

  7. Marketing margins and agricultural technology in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman

    2000-01-01

    of improved agricultural technology and lower marketing margins yield welfare gains across the economy. In addition, a combined scenario reveals significant synergy effects, as gains exceed the sum of gains from the individual scenarios. Relative welfare improvements are higher for poor rural households......Improvements in agricultural productivity and reductions in marketing costs in Mozambique are analysed using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The model incorporates detailed marketing margins and separates household demand for marketed and home-produced goods. Individual simulations...

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  9. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  10. “In Accordance with Local Conditions”: Policy Design and Implementation of Agrarian Change Policies in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Trappel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Beijing’s strategy to reduce the welfare gap between urban and rural parts of China has been the promotion of urbanisation. Replacing peasant agriculture with commercial operations of scale is an integral part of this endeavour. This article analyses the implementation of policies meant to transform the structure of Chinese agriculture. It argues that the central government is using a set of very flexible policies, project-based implementation and adaption to local conditions to guide and support an existing dynamic of structural transformation in agriculture. Local governments, in turn, appreciate the flexibility, the political predictability, the potential revenue improvements and the cognitive framework inherent in these programmes. The article is primarily based on interviews with leading cadres at the township and county levels in the provinces of Shandong, Sichuan and Guizhou between 2008 and 2010.

  11. The Impact of Agriculture and Tourism Potentials on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rural areas, which inhabit the greater proportion of the population, mostly in developing nations, are the main sources of primary products (agriculture and minerals) for urban and industrial areas, hence the rural dwellers are regarded as the set of population that provide engine of in the development process of a nation ...

  12. Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Credit Delivery Systems In Rural Nigeria: Issues And Implications For Rural Transformation · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT .... Influence Of Fund Availability On Adoption Of Improved Agricultural Technologies Among Farmers Involved In The Special Programme For Food Security In Rivers State, Nigeria · EMAIL ...

  13. The potentials for creating sustainable rural tourism in Bačka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Uglješa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Average rural household in Bačka mostly depend on agricultural activities. Modern society changes, especially changes in agriculture production imply need for diversification of business activities. Rural tourism can be important part of rural economy for some villages in Bačka. Fertile plain, Danube, Tisa and other smaller rivers, animals and games represent base of natural tourist attractions of rural tourism. However, main competitive advantages of Bačka are anthropogenic values. Traditional pannonian houses, baroques churches, numerous rural festivities, and "melting point" of different nationalities make good base for rural tourism development. Different combinations of rural attractions create several tourist experiences of this region: authentic tourist experience at "szalashes", particular tourist experience in villages, intensive tourist experience of rural events and manifestations, not authentic tourist experiences of pseudo rural attractions and complex tourist experience in rural areas. Regarding to emitive centers of rural tourist demand can be specified tree regions for development of rural tourism - region of Novi Sad, Subotica, and Sombor. Rural tourism can make a valuable contribution to rural economies, job creation, landscape conservation, retention of rural population, support to rural culture and tradition, nature conservation and other. At the same time, rural tourism is facing various limitations. With in this context, rural tourism planning has to include principles of sustainable development.

  14. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Success Am I Rural? Evidence-based Toolkits Economic Impact Analysis Tool Community Health Gateway Sustainability Planning ... Transportation to medical appointments, grocery shopping, and other essential and leisure activities Housing quality and affordability, including ...

  15. Improvement Of Rural Off-Farm Energy Use In Nigeria: A Prerequisite For Rural Development And Poverty Alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, B

    2002-01-01

    In Nigeria, agricultural production takes place predominantly in the rural areas. The development of those areas, therefore, is necessary for the much-coveted rise in agricultural production and poverty alleviation. Development is a natural ally of improved energy use, both on and off-farm. Energy use in rural Nigeria is rudimentary and unimpressive. This paper discusses the existing pattern of energy use in the off-farm sector of rural areas and suggests ways of improvement to alleviate poverty and propel rural development

  16. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  17. China's rural electrification and poverty reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of rural investment in power sector on the rural economic development and poverty reduction in China. An econometric model was developed and six Chinese provinces with different economic background are studied. These provinces comprise Jiangsu and Liaoning with well-developed rural economy, Hebei and Henan with medium-developed rural economy, and Shannxi and Xinjiang with the least-developed rural economy. Over 20-yr historical data for the six provincial rural areas--counties and below, was collected in rural economic development, households, population, per capita income, community infrastructure development, capital investment, electricity consumption, output values in agriculture sector, and township and village enterprises. SPSS V10.0 software program was used in the research. This paper concludes that priority of capital investment in rural power sector should be given to Jiangsu and Liaoning if the objective of the investment is to develop rural economy, and that the priority should be given to Hebei and Henan if the objective is to reduce poverty in rural area

  18. Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, G.N.

    2016-01-01

    Key words: longitudinal study, farm typology, food self-sufficiency, income, legumes, ex-ante analysis, participatory research, scenario.

    Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints,

  19. Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, G.N.

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints, variable rainfall and unstable institutional support. This study integrates a diversity of approaches (household typology and understanding of farm

  20. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...

  1. Research award: Agriculture and Food Security | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research shows that appropriate food security interventions can improve ... sector within the context of increased productivity and reduction of post-harvest loss, rural ... The successful candidate will allocate 50% of his/her time for a research ... with a focus on agriculture;; Business administration and/or management, with a ...

  2. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2007 ... Madagascar has completed its national plan of action for adapting to climate change. Several actors and decision-makers - agricultural policymakers, regional rural development managers, emergency services coordinators - are involved in the implementation of the plan. Unfortunately, they are far from ...

  3. Agricultural Co-Operatives in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tefera, Delelegne A.; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja A.

    2017-01-01

    To what extent can co-operatives strengthen rural development in sub-Saharan Africa? This paper explores the development of agricultural co-operatives in Ethiopia, particularly the changes in economic functions. Co-operative development in Ethiopia has been strongly influenced by various political

  4. AGRICULTURAL VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    victoria

    climate change in eight selected rural settlements in Sokoto State, Nigeria adopting the ... on the environmental and socio-economic determinants of agricultural vulnerability to .... global warming show increasing trends in Sokoto. .... One of the consequences of desertification is southward migration of nomads to the more.

  5. South African Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Agricultural Extensionaims to: * advance and apply the science of extension and of rural development as scientific discipline by stimulating thought, study, research, discussion and the publication and exchange of knowledge both nationally and internationally. * promote the professionalism ...

  6. Agricultural extension officers' perceptions of integrated pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the positive perceptions of the extension officers regarding IPM, the government of Kenya should establish a supportive policy that will enable the extension officers to promote and educate farmers on the various IPM practices. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 7(2) 2006: 125- ...

  7. Women in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I

    1980-01-01

    The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.

  8. Agricultural restructuring in the Baltic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Mette Bech

    and would “pay the price” for the transition from a planned to a market economy. Policies needed to be tailored to the particular problems that existed in rural areas. Neither agricultural nor rural development programmes in the pre-EU membership phase had much to offer to the uneducated, unemployed...... of people who lived in rural areas were engaged in individual farming activities. However, the establishment of private farms was difficult in a time characterised by many fundamental changes. The study investigates how farmers managed to adapt to the new conditions. After an initial analysis and comparison...... of the agricultural situation in two of the study areas, it became clear that it was too simplistic to categorise all farmers into one homogenous group. Farmers were very different in terms of farm size, market integration and plans for the future. In the Estonian study, the accordance between national visions...

  9. ICT development for social and rural connectedness

    CERN Document Server

    Alias, Nor Aziah

    2013-01-01

    ICT Development for Social and Rural Connectedness provides an introduction to the concept of 'connectedness', and explores how this socio-psychological term has evolved during the age of the Internet. The book surveys the principles of ICT for development (ICTD), and closely examines how ICT has played a pivotal role in the rural community development of various countries. To highlight the continued benefits of ICT in these regions, the book presents an in-depth case study that analyzes the connectedness within the rural internet centers of Malaysia. The book is intended primarily for researc

  10. Australia's Sustainability: A New Policy Front for Rural Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, R. John

    2009-01-01

    Rural education and its policy agenda has for many decades primarily focussed upon responding to decline to "keep things going; keep things open". While this has been understandable and much has been achieved, it is now opportune--essential?--that rural education and its leaders embrace a new challenge, sustainability, and use it to…

  11. Rural Design Ethics Based on Four Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxin; Zhu, Li

    2017-12-01

    China has a large rural area with a large population, whose architectural features, natural landscape, organizational structure and industrial structure are very different from that of cities. In the past, the contradictory between city and rural areas in China had negative effects on rural construction, resulting in a slow development. The excessive focus on city design has led to the neglect of rural design. Blindly using the concept and method of city design to renewed the countryside is a kind of destruction to the countryside, and also wastes a lot of construction resources. Design is influenced by ethical concepts, which needs to pay more attention to the culture tendency and society. Urban design makes theoretical investigation aiming at the ethical questions that emerged from city, then summarizes the design strategies of the city. While Chinese rural design has only begun to enter people’s horizon, and there is very little discussion about it. Due to the lack of ethical value guidance, Chinese rural design and construction has many problems at different levels of ecology, culture and industry. Therefore this paper primarily explores the domestic and foreign design ethics, attempting to provide a new perspective for Chinese rural design, aiming at finding a realistic and forward-looking solution for Chinese rural design concerning to the complex relation between city and rural areas.

  12. Genetic technology and agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, W J; Blase, M G

    1971-07-09

    The genetic technologies being adopted in South Asia are significant factors in the agricultural development of the area. But, labeling them " miracle seeds," solely responsible for recent agricultural growth, is misleading. Certainly the introduction of new genetic technology has catalyzed South Asian agriculture and has instilled a new dynamism essential to economic development. Somewhat similar phenomena have, however, been observed in other parts of the world in other periods of history. The nature of these genetic technologies, how they are being applied, and their limits and potential have been explored above. Also, the effects of these varieties on the generation of employment, and the distribution of benefits accruing from them have been examined in preliminary fashion. Stemming from the preceding discussion, two areas of priority appear obvious. First, the close association of genetic technologies with irrigation suggests that irrigation should receive more attention than it has in the past. Large-scale public irrigation schemes are expensive and have tended to yield low rates of return. However, there appears to be room for marginal increases in, or improvements of, existing irrigation facilities. Second, even with a rapid spread of the practices associated with highyeild varieties, it may be too much to expect the farm sector to absorb the expected increases in the rural labor force. The generation of employment is a major problem in India as well as in most other developing countries. Hence, possibilities for expanding rural, nonfarm employment and controlling population growth should be sought vigorously.

  13. EDUCATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCERS INTENDED TO IMPROVE FARM OPERATIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Subic, Jonel; Vasiljevic, Zorica; Ivanovic, Sanjin

    2009-01-01

    Having in mind that rural areas occupy the greatest part of Serbian territory, where agricultural production represents the basic source of income, development of this sector is of great importance not only for local community, but also for entire Serbian rural area. At the end of previous decade in developed European countries it was promoted a model of rural development which assumes multifunctional nature of European agriculture, as well as its development role in economy and entire societ...

  14. Population dynamics and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, M S

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  15. AIDS and African smallholder agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutangadura, G

    1998-09-01

    During the Responding to HIV/AIDS: Technology Development Needs for African Smallholder Agriculture Conference in Harare, about 70 delegates participated from government and nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations, agricultural research, and regional and international organizations. The aims of the conference were to analyze the impact of HIV/AIDS on smallholder agriculture; identify the necessary technologies, policy, and institutional responses; and propose frameworks for future activities. The conference participants noted that the onset of HIV/AIDS has changed the African rural environment in which existing policy and programs on agriculture have been operating. In view of this, recommendations on technology and development and policy to mitigate the impact of the epidemic were highlighted; namely, promote existing labor and capital saving technologies; review existing agricultural extension; develop appropriate technologies to reduce the time spent on water and fuel collection; develop income-generating activities; strengthen existing community-based initiatives; and redefine the criteria for land tenure and ownership. Moreover, collaboration between development organizations and applied research were also emphasized.

  16. Using Indigenous Knowledge in Traditional Agricultural Systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the role of indigenous knowledge in traditional agriculture and its potential in contributing to food security, poverty and hunger eradication, and increased employment in South Africa. It is noted that indigenous knowledge can inform rural agricultural production, storage, processing, marketing, and food

  17. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  18. Assessment Of Schools In Agricultural Program As A Strategy For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that there is a need for government to develop partnership with private and non-governmental organizations for financial support specifically for rural youth agricultural programs. Keywords: Agricultural program, technology transfer, Poverty alleviation. Global Approaches to Extension Practice Vol. 2 (2) 2006: ...

  19. The Contributions of Agricultural Growth to Poverty Reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates agricultural growth-poverty relationships at the national and household levels. A rural household model is used to measure the impact of agricultural growth (or decline) on consumption first and the effect of consumption changes on poverty using regression analyses. Two approaches are used here ...

  20. An enquiry into the prospects of mobile telephone for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LPhidza

    KEYWORDS: Mobile phones, agricultural information, global system for mobile ... rural services (i.e. agricultural extension) more efficient and cost-effective. 2. ... adoption of mobile telephones, evaluation research has however .... Distribution of respondents by religion. Religion. Frequencies Percentages. Christian. Islam.

  1. Rural transformations in the context of changing rural-urban connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Ørtenblad, Sinne Borby; Msese, Lukelo

    , the infrastructure, including road systems and means of communication, has in general increased and improved. This development has among a number of other things caused changing patterns of mobility. These changes are highly interrelated and connected to changing rural-urban linkages, which include flows of people......, capital, resources, agricultural commodities, goods, services, technology and information, between rural and urban locations. We emphasize that the rural-urban connections go beyond the spatial dichotomy and that the linkages often occur in a dynamic rural-urban continuum. Influenced by these changes......, this paper sets out to elucidate patterns and dynamics of rural transformation in Tanzania in the context of changing rural-urban linkages by presenting data from a particularly dynamic region; namely Njombe Region in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Based on fieldwork conducted during 2014 and 2015...

  2. AR, HEA and AAS in Rural Development Projects--Benchmarking towards the Best Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermarck, Harri

    In most countries, agricultural research (AR), institutions of higher education in agriculture (HEA), and agricultural advisory services (AAS) function as separate agencies. So far, in most countries, AR, HEA, and AAS have not had a common vision for rural development. In Finland, domination of agricultural production in Finland has led to a lack…

  3. Rural tourism: Serbia's missed chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Miroljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is both old and new phenomenon. The interest for recreation in the countryside began to grow as early as XIX century, as a reaction to the pressure of growing urbanization and industrialization. Serbia has great potentials for development of rural tourism. Natural beauty in combination with culture, tradition, festivals, gastronomic specialties and music, might become recognizable tourist brand, which could contribute to the significant monetary influx and improve the overall image of the country. However, current level of Serbia's competitiveness in the area of rural tourism is not particularly high, regardless of the fact that all of the natural, cultural and social prerequisites for its development already exist (natural potentials, significant farming land, great number of agriculturally active population, traditional approach to agriculture, lack of ground pollution as well as the possibility of producing 'healthy food', good potential for development of complementary activities such as hiking, recreation, hunting, fishing, riding and participating in everyday activities of the country folk, traditional local gastronomical specialties etc.. The goal of this paper is to show the resources of Serbia in the area of rural tourism as well as the possible development potentials of this form of tourism.

  4. Improving Rural Women Income through Cocoyam Value Addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    empowered rural women to become entrepreneurs at various levels. ... have showed that value added agriculture can be one way to preserve small farmers .... The results in Table 2 show the level of utilization of cocoyam value addition.

  5. Factors Influencing the Consumption of Pulses in Rural and Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Model results revealed that household sizes and education levels of the decision makers residing ... Key words: Pulses consumption, urban and rural areas, Tanzania and double hurdle model ...... Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics.

  6. The Dynamics of Poverty and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the random effects probit model suggest that determinants of poverty status in rural Ethiopia ... 1 School of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, ... security policies, strategies and programs in the last two decades (FDRE,. 2004 ...

  7. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  8. The geography of urban agriculture: New trends and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duží Barbora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, which is a theoretical and conceptual introduction for the Special Issue of Moravian Geographical Reports on ‘New trends and challenges of urban agriculture in the context of Europe’, the authors resume and review diverging issues of urban agriculture, exploring and discussing them from a geographical perspective and in a wider context of the transformation of urban and rural spaces, urban regeneration and renewal, agricultural restructuring, multifunctionality, ecosystem services, land-use conflicts and social responsibility. After the introduction that depicts a changing role of agriculture in the context of urban and rural transformations, the current research on urban agriculture in Europe is summarised and reviewed. Then the main trends and concepts of growing and expanding urban agriculture are presented and discussed with a special emphasis on the challenges these pose to geographers.

  9. Creating a new rural pharmacy workforce: Development and implementation of the Rural Pharmacy Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Kiser, Stephanie; Park, Irene; Grandy, Rebecca; Joyner, Pamela U

    2017-12-01

    An innovative certificate program aimed at expanding the rural pharmacy workforce, increasing the number of pharmacists with expertise in rural practice, and improving healthcare outcomes in rural North Carolina is described. Predicted shortages of primary care physicians and closures of critical access hospitals are expected to worsen existing health disparities. Experiential education in schools and colleges of pharmacy primarily takes place in academic medical centers and, unlike experiential education in medical schools, rarely emphasizes the provision of patient care in rural U.S. communities, where chronic diseases are prevalent and many residents struggle with poverty and poor access to healthcare. To help address these issues, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy developed the 3-year Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program. The program curriculum includes 4 seminar courses, interprofessional education and interaction with medical students, embedding of each pharmacy student into a specific rural community for the duration of training, longitudinal ambulatory care practice experiences, community engagement initiatives, leadership training, development and implementation of a population health project, and 5 pharmacy practice experiences in rural settings. The Rural Pharmacy Health Certificate program at UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy seeks to transform rural pharmacy practice by creating a pipeline of rural pharmacy leaders and teaching a unique skillset that will be beneficial to healthcare systems, communities, and patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  11. Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Aragon; Juan Pablo Rud

    2012-01-01

    Most modern mines in the developing world are located in rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This creates the potential of negative spillovers to farmers through competition for key inputs (such as land) and environmental pollution. To explore this issue, we examine the case of gold mining in Ghana. Through the estimation of an agricultural production function using household level data, we find that mining has reduced agricultural productivity by almost 40%. This...

  12. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, H K

    1978-01-01

    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America.

  13. Rural Development Literature 1976-1977: An Updated Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Shirley, Comp.

    More than 100 books and articles on rural development published during 1976-77 are annotated in this selective bibliography. Concentrating on social science literature, the bibliography is interdisciplinary in nature, spanning agricultural economics, anthropology, community development, community health, and rural sociology. Types of works…

  14. Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Provision of Information to Rural Communities in Bama Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Y Aliyu, E Camble ... findings of the study showed that rural people in the Soye district have identifiable information needs mainly in the areas of agriculture, health, government programmes and small scale industries.

  15. Education and Rural Development with Reference to Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdale, G.M.

    Seeking full use of the educational resources available to developing countries in the areas of rural education and agricultural training, this paper is concerned with ways in which the efforts of organizations and institutions concerned with rural development might be improved and expanded. A generalized critical analysis of different facets of…

  16. Assessment of Newspaper Advocacy for Rural Development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Newspaper Advocacy for Rural Development and Environmental Education in Nigeria. ... Journal of Agricultural Extension ... It analyzed five leading national newspapers for a period of twelve months to ascertain their level of coverage and reportage of environmental and rural development information and ...

  17. Constraints to livelihood diversification among rural households in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low farm productivity due to environmental degradation had made rural dwellers in Nigeria to diversify into other business besides agricultural production so as to liberate them from poverty. However, there are various challenges to livelihood diversification among the rural dwellers. This study therefore, identifies ...

  18. Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of Climate Change in Burkina Faso. Cities greatly depend on rural areas for agricultural ... Coopération entre milieux ruraux et urbains dans la gestion de l'eau face aux changements climatiques au Burkina Faso. Les villes dépendent fortement des milieux ...

  19. Government’s Responsibility for Control of Agricultural Environmental Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfang; CHEN

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the current situation of agricultural environmental pollution caused by the increase of chemicals input in agriculture in China was analyzed,and it is found that agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies,urban-rural economic structure,funds input in pollution control,comprehensive environmental management,laws of pollution control,and so forth. To control agricultural pollution effectively,it is needed to implement integration of agricultural and environmental policies,establish environmentally friendly agricultural technology popularizing system,implement integrated planning and management of a basin,and set up and improve legislation to protect agricultural environment.

  20. Sustainable intensification in agriculture as a factor of achieving food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ending hunger, achieving food security and promoting sustainable development are at the top of the list of United Nations sustainable global development priorities after 2015. In addition to many positive effects, efforts of mankind regarding the reduction of rural poverty realized through the Green Revolution have had many negative effects, primarily related to natural resources. Irreversible devastation of land, air and water quality deterioration and jeopardizing biodiversity have been recognized as key elements of unsustainability of existing agricultural development concept. Consequently, there is a need for the adoption of a new concept of agricultural development, which will lie between intensive conventional and organic farming. The concept which has already been applied in some regions of the world and whose basic goal is to find a way to increase production with a negligible negative impact on the environment is sustainable agricultural intensification. The aim of this paper is to look at both positive and negative aspects of biotechnology development so far and point out the place and role the sustainable intensification concept should have in relation to conservation of natural resources and achievement of food security.

  1. Rural China will gain if Beijing cultivates change in farm support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    2017-01-01

    Direct payments and more open farm trade can help China to reduce agricultural support costs and so free up resources for rural development needs.......Direct payments and more open farm trade can help China to reduce agricultural support costs and so free up resources for rural development needs....

  2. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  3. 76 FR 30904 - Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ..., this new approach will give our customers increased flexibility to find and deploy technology that... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Rural Utilities Service Telecommunications Loan and Loan Guarantee Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of elimination of the...

  4. The Globalized Landscape: Rural Landscape Change and Policy in the United States and European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassauer, J.I.; Wascher, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    While some rural areas draw increasing populations to their landscape amenities and some are changed by the long reach of metropolitan sprawl, agriculture defines, and dominates rural landscapes. Amenity characteristics and ecological services of many rural landscapes occur in the context of

  5. Hydrogen peroxide production is not primarily increased in human myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, A D; Gaster, M

    2011-09-01

    Increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the development of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. To date, it is unknown whether increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes is primarily increased or a secondary adaptation to environmental, lifestyle, and hormonal factors. This study investigates whether ROS production is primarily increased in isolated diabetic myotubes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), superoxide, and mitochondrial mass were determined in human myotubes precultured under normophysiological conditions. Furthermore, the corresponding ATP synthesis was measured in isolated mitochondria. Muscle biopsies were taken from 10 lean subjects, 10 obese subjects, and 10 subjects with type 2 diabetes; satellite cells were isolated, cultured, and differentiated to myotubes. Mitochondrial mass, membrane potential/mitochondrial mass, and superoxide-production/mitochondrial mass were not different between groups. In contrast, H(2)O(2) production/mitochondrial mass and ATP production were significantly reduced in diabetic myotubes compared to lean controls (P production is not primarily increased in diabetic myotubes but rather is reduced. Moreover, the comparable ATP/H(2)O(2) ratios indicate that the reduced ROS production in diabetic myotubes parallels the reduced ATP production because ROS production in diabetic myotubes must be considered to be in a proportion comparable to lean. Thus, the increased ROS production seen in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients is an adaptation to the in vivo conditions.

  6. Multifunctional agriculture in perspective: conceptualisations and debate in dutch policy and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roep, D.; Oostindië, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Conceptualisation of multifunctional agriculture in Dutch policy and research has to be understood within the typical Dutch context and can be related to different perspectives of agriculture and the rural area. The Netherlands is a densely populated country with a very produc-tive agricultural

  7. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) Vol. 11, No. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fadaa

    Department of Agricultural Extension & Rural Development, University of Ilorin. 2 ... important staple food of many households, rice production in Nigeria rose from 2.4 million ... attributed to low resource productivity (Federal Ministry of Agriculture, 1995). ... (NACRDB) to carter for credit needs in the agricultural sector.

  8. WORKIN CONDITION OF RURAL LABOR IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Contreras-Molotla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.

  9. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter Helmut

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  10. Rural Brazil at the cross-roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.

    1951-01-01

    The study attempts to detect and discuss the most urgently needed changes, as to resource distribution, production methods and supporting services in Brazilian agriculture. For that, it was necessary to describe and evaluate the existing situation in rural Brazil, a task taken up in the first part

  11. Partnering, poverty reduction and rural enterprise advancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given this scenario, the University of Fort Hare (UFH) has, through its establishment of the Rural Enterprise Advancement Programme (REAP) and its implementation through the Nguni Cattle Project and the Agri-Park Business Training Programme, restructured its agricultural research, training and community partnering ...

  12. Urban bound migration and rural investment: the case of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, A L; Crosson, P

    1983-02-01

    The authors investigate an agriculturally based policy for improving rural incomes and for retarding the rural-urban migration flow. The production of agricultural goods is characterized by a production function in which output increases with increases in agricultural labor inputs, capital, public infrastructure, land, and technology. Differences among regions in agricultural technology will reflect regional differences in education, the institutionalized form of productive organization, and differences in access to technological information channeled through more technically advanced cities. To pick up the effect of out-migration changes in state agricultural labor supply and upon agricultural output, the state's agricultural out-migration rate is included together with the agricultural labor force. The gross migrant flow between 2 locations is hypothesized to depend upon a set of variables influencing the individual's perception of the economic rate of return to be gained by moving, a set of variables reflecting the individual's propensity to relocate, the labor displacement effects of investments, and the at risk population at 1 location available to migrate. It is also taken into account that individuals differ in their response to information about origin and destination wage differentials and that individuals may or may not perceive a new ecnomic gain from migration but may base the decision on other considerations. Results of a statistical analysis using data from the Mexican census of population for 1960 and 1970 are: 1) size of the rural labor force was negatively associated with agricultural wages, contrary to expectations; 2) small farmers have benefited from the expansion of irrigation in Mexico; and 3) higher urban wages attract migration, and higher growth rate of agricultural income retards rural-urban migration. With respect to the 1950-60 decade both agricultural income and rural out-migration impacts could have been substantial but both the impact

  13. Rural Household Attitude towards Traditional Methods of Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus ... Agriculture supports the health of rural households but poor health reduces farmers' ability to ... inequitably distributed because decisions for prevention or treatment are made ... Analysis of “what respondents will do first” during malaria attack showed that only.

  14. Trend performance in credit financing of rural business activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at revealing and explaining the trend in performance indicators of agricultural and non-agricultural loan advanced to beneficiaries by some rural community banks (CBs). The tools used included growth rate analysis, loan stability and repayment indices and correlation coefficient. Empirical results showed ...

  15. Willingness to Pay for Rural Telephone Services: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... This study assessed Willingness to Pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications for agricultural technology transfer in Southeast Nigeria. ... The sample was made up of 240 agro-based entrepreneurs and 60 extension staff.

  16. Viewing Agricultural Education Research through a Qualitative Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kim E.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Agricultural Education has primarily published research that uses quantitative research methods. Perhaps this is due partly to the lack of a qualitative research conceptual framework to guide our profession. Most researchers in agricultural education were academically prepared to conduct empirical research. Those who are in the…

  17. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  18. DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  19. Triacylglycerol Accumulation is not primarily affected in Myotubes established from Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation, glucose and fatty acid (FA) uptake, and glycogen synthesis (GS) in human myotubes from healthy, lean, and obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposed to increasing palmitate (PA) and oleate (OA...... uptake (P0.05). These results indicate that (1) TAG accumulation is not primarily affected in skeletal muscle tissue of obese and T2D; (2) induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is followed by TAG accumulation...... in skeletal muscle of obese and T2D subjects is adaptive....

  20. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State Guides Rural Data Visualizations Rural Data Explorer Chart Gallery Maps Case Studies & Conversations Rural Health Models & ... services provided by state Medicaid programs might include dental care, physical therapy, home and community-based services, ...

  1. Rural Settlement Development and Environment Carrying Capacity Changes in Progo River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ritohardoyo; P Priyono

    2016-01-01

    Generally the broader rural settlement the heavier population pressure on agricultural land. It indicates that carrying capacity of the rural environment threatened lower. The spatial distribution of the threat in a river basin is quite important as one of the river basin management inputs. Therefore, this article aims at exposing result of research about influence rural population growth and rural settlement land changes to environment carrying capacity. This research was carried out in the ...

  2. The Role of Public Infrastructure in Market Development in Rural Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Escobal, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Peru, rural infrastructure, poverty, economic geography, rural roads, impact evaluation, non-agricultural employment.This study provides a conceptual framework toanalysethe impact of rural infrastructure investment on market development for the enhancement of income generating opportunities for the poor in ruralPeru. The study uses descriptive methods and regression analysis together with relatively new impact evaluation techniques, like propensity score matching, to understand the c...

  3. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  4. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  5. Rural development--national improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, R C

    1984-05-01

    environmental balance. The most challenging task for development managers in developing countries is to mobilize the vast reservoir of surplus human labor and to channel it to productive use. Forest development and management of forest resources is important for rural development for 2 major objectives: to provide firewood, fodder, and other products; and in many areas and particularly in mountainous countries, forest depletion, largely from uncontrolled agricultural expansion, is leading to a loss of environmental protection of the forest, resulting in floods, droughts, erosion, desertification, silation, and loss of agricultural production.

  6. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  7. [Evaluation of the inclusion of organic food from family-based agriculture in school food in municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda; Fernandes, Patrícia Fogaça; Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Organic food enables the promotion of Food and Nutritional Safety (FNS) and sustainable regional development. In this context, the National School Food Program (NSFD) seeks to comply with the requirements of FNS. This study evaluated the inclusion of organic food in school food in the municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul by means of interviews with local managers. Eight territories were visited, albeit of its 153 municipalities only 102 comprised the sample for this study. Of these, 20.58% said they buy organic produce from family farms. The Center South Territory revealed the highest percentage of purchase, in which 40% of the municipalities visited purchased organic produce, followed by the Center Mountain Territory with 33.3%, while the lowest percentage was 7.1% in the Countryside Territory. The study identified the need for intersectoral action to develop organic production, as well as stimulate the consumption of these foods in the school environment, in order to meet the requirements of FNS.

  8. Disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with purity-based moral judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Fieke M A; Brandt, Mark J; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2018-03-01

    Individual differences in disgust sensitivity are associated with a range of judgments and attitudes related to the moral domain. Some perspectives suggest that the association between disgust sensitivity and moral judgments will be equally strong across all moral domains (i.e., purity, authority, loyalty, care, fairness, and liberty). Other perspectives predict that disgust sensitivity is primarily associated with judgments of specific moral domains (e.g., primarily purity). However, no study has systematically tested if disgust sensitivity is associated with moral judgments of the purity domain specifically, more generally to moral judgments of the binding moral domains, or to moral judgments of all of the moral domains equally. Across 5 studies (total N = 1,104), we find consistent evidence for the notion that disgust sensitivity relates more strongly to moral condemnation of purity-based transgressions (meta-analytic r = .40) than to moral condemnation of transgressions of any of the other domains (range meta-analytic rs: .07-.27). Our findings are in line with predictions from Moral Foundations Theory, which predicts that personality characteristics like disgust sensitivity make people more sensitive to a certain set of moral issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Lamin A/C mutation affecting primarily the right side of the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ollila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LMNA mutations are amongst the most important causes of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. The most important cause of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is desmosomal pathology. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of LMNA mutations among Finnish cardiomyopathy patients. We screened 135 unrelated cardiomyopathy patients for LMNA mutations. Because of unusual phenotype, two patients were screened for the known Finnish ARVC-related mutations of desmosomal genes, and their Plakophilin-2b gene was sequenced. Myocardial samples from two patients were examined by immunohistochemical plakoglobin staining and in one case by electron microscopy. We found a new LMNA mutation Phe237Ser in a family of five affected members with a cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart. The phenotype resembles ARVC but does not fulfill the Task Force Criteria. The main clinical manifestations of the mutation were severe tricuspid insufficiency, right ventricular enlargement and failure. Three of the affected patients died of the heart disease, and the two living patients received heart transplants at ages 44 and 47. Electron microscopy showed nuclear blebbing compatible with laminopathy. Immunohisto - chemical analysis did not suggest desmosomal pathology. No desmosomal mutations were found. The Phe237Ser LMNA mutation causes a phenotype different from traditional cardiolaminopathy. Our findings suggest that cardiomyopathy affecting primarily the right side of the heart is not always caused by desmosomal pathology. Our observations highlight the challenges in classifying cardiomyopathies, as there often is significant overlap between the traditional categories.

  10. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment....... Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  11. Prospective of the agricultural extension in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Hinestrosa, A.

    1998-01-01

    The situation of the agricultural extension is described in next twenty years, together with the regional programs of investigation and technology transfer, based in the rational use of the natural resources, the exploitation of markets, the former evaluation before and the expert systems. It proves the dynamic participation of producing leaders and their operation inside an outline of decentralization, privatization, sustainability, competitiveness, justness and invigoration and rural signification. It is supposed that the extension rural functional, bound to the investigation processes, transfer, development, technological development and markets. Institutionally it is expected that the extension is a service of regional and private character with an opportune and enough assignment of resources for the improvement of the quality of the rural population's life

  12. A System of Integrated Indicators for Socio-Environmental Assessment and Eco-Certification in Agriculture – Ambitec-Agro

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Caldeira Monteiro; Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) has proposed a “System for Environmental Impact Assessment of Agricultural Technology Innovations” (Ambitec-Agro) for the appraisal of research projects and technology innovations in the institutional context of R&D. A derived system, directed at eco-certification of rural activities (Eco-cert.Rural), has been proposed in order to extend the environmental assessment practice to rural activities. The Ambitec-Agro System comprises a set of we...

  13. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...

  14. The Connotation and Extension of Agricultural Water Resources Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bu-chun; MEI Xu-rong; LI Yu-zhong; YANG You-lu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to define agricultural water resources security and its connotation and extension. The definitions of water security, water resources security, and water environment security were summarized, and their relationship was differentiated and analyzed. Based on these, the elements of the conception of agricultural water resources security were hashed and the conception was defined. Agricultural water resources security is the provision of water resource that ensures protection of agriculture against threat, hazards, destruction, and loss. Moreover, the connotation and extension of agricultural water resources security were ascertained. In detail, the connotation of the definition has natural attributes, socioeconomic attributes, and cultural attributes. The extensions of agricultural water resources security include both broad and narrow ones, as well as, food security, agroenvironmental security, agroeconomic security, rural society security, etc. The definition will serve as the frame of reference for developing the researches, limiting the frame of the theory, and founding a appraising system for agricultural water resources security.

  15. Y-Chromosomal Diversity in Europe Is Clinal and Influenced Primarily by Geography, Rather than by Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Zoë H.; Zerjal, Tatiana; Hurles, Matthew E.; Adojaan, Maarja; Alavantic, Dragan; Amorim, António; Amos, William; Armenteros, Manuel; Arroyo, Eduardo; Barbujani, Guido; Beckman, Gunhild; Beckman, Lars; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Bosch, Elena; Bradley, Daniel G.; Brede, Gaute; Cooper, Gillian; Côrte-Real, Helena B. S. M.; de Knijff, Peter; Decorte, Ronny; Dubrova, Yuri E.; Evgrafov, Oleg; Gilissen, Anja; Glisic, Sanja; Gölge, Mukaddes; Hill, Emmeline W.; Jeziorowska, Anna; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Kayser, Manfred; Kivisild, Toomas; Kravchenko, Sergey A.; Krumina, Astrida; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Lavinha, João; Livshits, Ludmila A.; Malaspina, Patrizia; Maria, Syrrou; McElreavey, Ken; Meitinger, Thomas A.; Mikelsaar, Aavo-Valdur; Mitchell, R. John; Nafa, Khedoudja; Nicholson, Jayne; Nørby, Søren; Pandya, Arpita; Parik, Jüri; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Pereira, Luísa; Peterlin, Borut; Pielberg, Gerli; Prata, Maria João; Previderé, Carlo; Roewer, Lutz; Rootsi, Siiri; Rubinsztein, D. C.; Saillard, Juliette; Santos, Fabrício R.; Stefanescu, Gheorghe; Sykes, Bryan C.; Tolun, Aslihan; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift. PMID:11078479

  16. Indian women in subsistence and agricultural labour.

    OpenAIRE

    Mies M; Lalitha K; Kumari K

    1983-01-01

    Working paper comprising a case study on the economic role of low income rural women, especially as women workers employed in subsistence farming in Andra Pradesh, India. Covers labour force participation, sexual division of labour, sex discrimination in land tenure and occupational structure, the role of women's organizations, income generating activities, employment as agricultural workers and domestic workers, income and family budget. Discusses the effect of the milk credit scheme on pove...

  17. Agricultural Land and Land Tax – Significant Indicators of Agriculture Business Activities in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčírová Renáta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the consideration between the agricultural land acreage and the amount of land tax in the selected sample of companies of agricultural primary production in the Slovak Republic within the period from 2010 to 2014 based on the data from departmental database of enterprises with primary agricultural production drawn from the factsheets of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic presented by the selected statistical methods. In particular, the article presents the agricultural land and land tax from the accounting and tax perspective of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It can be resulted that a slightly declining trend of the mean acreage of agricultural land was recorded for the evaluated group of agricultural enterprises within the reported period, while the mean land tax value per hectare of agricultural land had increasing trend. Results of the survey on significances of differences in the values of the dependent variables at the level of combinations of factors of year and enterprise indicate that the acreage of agricultural land and the volume of the land tax are statistically dependant at the level of year, however there are not dependent at the level of combination of factors of year and enterprise within the surveyed period.

  18. Evaluación de la sustentabilidad de la actividad agrícola de tres localidades campesinas en Pahuatlán, Puebla / Sustainability assessment of the agricultural activity of three rural districts in Pahuatlán, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Castelán Vega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del consenso mundial para lograr la sustentabilidad aún no existe un acuerdo en la forma de cuantificarla para tomar decisiones prácticas que encaucen el desarrollo sustentable. En el caso de su evaluación en agroecosistemas se requiere transformar aspectos complejos en otros más claros, que permitan detectar tendencias a nivel de sistema, denominados índices. En la presente investigación se evaluó la sustentabilidad en los agroecosistemas de tres localidades del municipio de Pahuatlán, Puebla, mediante la estimación del índice de desarrollo sustentable (s3. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal de campo del año 2009 al 2012, sobre una población total conformada por 506 agroecosistemas ubicados en las localidades de San Pablito, Xilepa y Tlalcruz, pertenecientes al municipio de Pahuatlán, Puebla. De esta población total se tomó una muestra estratificada de 288 agroecosistemas y a sus productores, a quienes se les aplicó un cuestionario socioeconómico estructurado para medir las tres dimensiones del Desarrollo Sustentable (ambiental, económica y social. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que Xilepa y Tlalcruz se encuentran en un nivel crítico de sustentabilidad al presentar valores de 0.34 y 0.40, respectivamente, y San Pablito con un nivel inestable de 0.52. La dimensión ambiental presentó la mayor limitación para la sustentabilidad de estas localidades. Estos resultados indican que es necesario diseñar y ejecutar planes y programas de desarrollo rural, que permitan promover y mejorar la sustentabilidad de estas localidades para asegurar su permanencia en el tiempo e incrementar su calidad de vida.

  19. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  20. Temporal integration of loudness in listeners with hearing losses of primarily cochlear origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Søren; Florentine, Mary; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    To investigate how hearing loss of primarily cochlear origin affects the loudness of brief tones, loudness matches between 5- and 200-ms tones were obtained as a function of level for 15 listeners with cochlear impairments and for seven age-matched controls. Three frequencies, usually 0.5, 1, and 4...... of temporal integration—defined as the level difference between equally loud short and long tones—varied nonmonotonically with level and was largest at moderate levels. No consistent effect of frequency was apparent. The impaired listeners varied widely, but most showed a clear effect of level on the amount...... of temporal integration. Overall, their results appear consistent with expectations based on knowledge of the general properties of their loudness-growth functions and the equal-loudness-ratio hypothesis, which states that the loudness ratio between equal-SPL long and brief tones is the same at all SPLs...

  1. Threats to agriculture at the extensive and intensive margins : economic analyses of selected land-use issues in the U.S. West and British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eagle, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key Words Agriculture-environment interactions, economic modelling, sage grouse, yellow starthistle, urban-rural fringe, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), farmland conservation, direct marketing Agricultural land uses are frequently challenged by competing land demands for urban uses and for

  2. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  3. THE REFLECTION OF RURAL POPULATION’S OCCUPATIONAL SITUATION AT ITS REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga SÂRBU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, living conditions in rural communities in Moldova were poorer than those of urban areas. Rural areas have lagged behind urban areas in terms of major indicators of economic welfare, recording lower incomes, higher poverty rates, low employment and lower indicators on health and education. Low productivity of agricultural activities is given by the large number of farms with small surfaces, small-scale use of modern technologies and the overemployment of rural population in agriculture. In these conditions, between employment in agriculture and poverty it is creating a vicious circle from which the rural population can not get out but only through the development of small industries in rural areas and traditional agricultural restructuring.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RURAL POPULATION AS A RESOURCE OF LABOR FORCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the dynamics of Romania’s population and mainly of the rural population in the period 2005-2010. The following indicators were used: total population, rural population, the share of rural population in the total population, active population at national level, in the rural areas and the share of the rural active population in the total population, employment, unemployment, activity rate, employment rate, unemployment rate, employment rate by educational level, employment in agriculture by population’s age, active persons by age group. As a conclusion, Romania’s rural population accounts for 45 % of total population. A series of restraining factors such as: ageing, low training level, low capital and financial resources, lack of investments and other job alternatives affect the development of the rural areas where most of the population is dealing with agriculture. Rural space requires a multifunctional development meaning to achieve a balanced combination between agriculture, connected industries and services which could create jobs and raise the population income and living standard. This means investments both in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, a new national and local policy concerning the development of rural communities.

  5. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.

  6. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  7. 7 CFR 2.48 - Administrator, Rural Business-Cooperative Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizations throughout the world on subjects related to the development and operation of agricultural... Product Market Development Grant program (note to 7 U.S.C. 1621). (29) Administer the Agriculture... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrator, Rural Business-Cooperative Service. 2...

  8. Youth retention in rural areas, a prerequisite for sustainable rural entrepreneurship and employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi Ardahaee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and sustainable rural employment are the main concerns of rural planners. One of the most basic requirements for this is that young people remain in the rural areas. Accordingly, the aim of this paper is to identify individual and structural factors that are effective in keeping young people in rural areas. Statistical results of the bivariate and multilevel modeling (HLM shows that rural youth are not willing to stay in rural regions. One may cite the following individual factors contributing to this lack of interest in staying in rural areas: age, marital status, education, communication with relatives in the city, as well as employment status and job skills. People with higher human capital who have technical skills and building related non-agricultural skills are not interested in staying in rural areas. Moreover, the increased population in the villages and lack of social welfare facilities in village are highly effective in reducing the tendency of young people to stay in the villages.

  9. A Scale-Explicit Framework for Conceptualizing the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Land Use Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Iago Lowe Hale; Wilfred M. Wollheim; Richard G. Smith; Heidi Asbjornsen; André F. Brito; Kirk Broders; A. Stuart Grandy; Rebecca Rowe

    2014-01-01

    Demand for locally-produced food is growing in areas outside traditionally dominant agricultural regions due to concerns over food safety, quality, and sovereignty; rural livelihoods; and environmental integrity. Strategies for meeting this demand rely upon agricultural land use change, in various forms of either intensification or extensification (converting non-agricultural land, including native landforms, to agricultural use). The nature and extent of the impacts of these changes on non-f...

  10. Fertility differentials in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, H T; Islam, S M; Khan, H M; Bari, R

    1993-01-01

    "Data from two sources in rural Bangladesh have been used in this study to examine the differentials in fertility by selected socio-economic and demographic factors. Results [indicate] that age at first marriage, education of spouses and availability of electricity in the household...have [an] inverse relationship with fertility. Higher fertility is observed for Muslim women than for non-Muslims. It has been found that fertility is the lowest to those women whose husbands are service holders and the highest for agriculture." excerpt

  11. STUDY REGARDING THE ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM FINANCING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BALTEŞ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism and agricultural tourism are activities, which generate alternative incomes, a fact that offers development possibilities to the rural space, due to the unique landscapes, large semi-natural areas, the inhabitants' born hospitality in the rural surroundings. From this perspective, a modernization, development and innovation process for the Romanian rural tourism is required. All these aspects, however, require financing. Therefore, a pre-accession financing source of the rural tourism was the SAPARD programme, a programme which "offered the opportunity" to many business people to start their business in this field. The paper shows the evolution of the rural boarding houses between 2003-2007, with analyses on the number, type of financing, development region.

  12. Sustainable Development of New Rural Finance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Yong

    2012-01-01

    Rural finance is the weakest link in China’s financial system. There are still many problems in the traditional rural finance, such as poor business conditions, imperfectly competitive financial markets, and credit information asymmetry; the phenomenon of farmers’ loans difficulty has not been fundamentally changed. In order to improve the current situation of rural finance, the state proposes to develop new rural finance and innovate upon rural financial system. The new rural finance has many good development advantages, such as adequate information, flexible operation, and good potential quality of the assets. It is necessary to innovate upon financial products and services, establish the purpose of serving agriculture, countryside and farmers, strengthen the supervision of credit, and improve the financial infrastructure construction, so as to achieve sustainable developments.

  13. The Rural Institutions in Colombia: Reflections for Analysis and Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Ropero Beltran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rural question is one of the great challenges for institutions in Colombia. The discussion regarding institutional efficiency and effectiveness for the rural sector should be brought forward based on circumstantial aspects that in turn mediate social the social, political, cultural, environmental, economic and productive in the Colombian agriculture, including trade agreements and post-conflict eventually included. The new rurality as an approach to rural development poses a different view about the subject, conceives the rural thing as a multisectorial and multidimensional space, which is the starting point from which arise the elements of analysis that allow advance an institutional debate broad and participatory facing the structural transformation of the rural reality.

  14. RURAL TOURISM AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INCOME FOR RURAL PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana IATAGAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the most important economic branch, worldwide, owning 12% of all areas of activity and revenue of approximately 530 billion dollars per year. In the past 10 years we could see an increasing demand for rural tourism and ecotourism, many of the international travel agencies offering ecotourism packages. Our country is attractive from the perspective of international travel agencies, because of unpolluted nature, the authenticity of traditions, the Danube Delta, old forests and not least, because the Romanian hospitality.Rural tourism had been practiced for a long time in Romania but for the past 15-20 years, it was casual and without any form of organization. Tourism activities in rural areas are carried out when agricultural activities takeplace and contribute to the welfare of rural communities that practice it.The development of tourism activities requires attention to the quality of the environment by preserving and developing the quality in the areas that have entered the tourist circuit, controlling the activity quality for a rational use of tourism resources.Our country benefits from EU funding through several programs including SAPARD, taking one of the measures, Measure 3.4, which is called the development and diversification of economic activities that generate multiple activities and alternative incomes.A deciding role in the development of rural tourism is held by the general infrastructure, requiring subsidies from the budget for tourism attraction areas for sustaining, by public administrations, programs to support tourism in rural areas.Rural tourism contributes to the sustainable development of the Romanian rural environment by proper use of local resources, establishing youth in rural areas, reducing the number of unemployed, women's involvement in economic and social life of rural settlements, raising living standards, growth in household rural areas, increasing the industry's contribution to the formation of gross

  15. Possibilities of rural development in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalević Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural territories are specific and complex economic, social, ecological and spatial areas which in the most of the countries occupy over 70 % of national territory and on which live near 50% of the population. Characteristics of the major part of the rural space in our country are: rare settlement, depopulation with distinct trend of demographic extinction, as well as high old age of the population, considerable presence of daily migrations of non-agricultural and young population, and also slight equipment with traffic, utility and objects of living standards, domination of agriculture and slight diversification of the rest productive and unproductive activities and similar. Neglect of the country settlements, as well as intolerant relation toward rural space in general, have initiated increase of worry about their planning in Serbia which has manifested intensively only in last decade of the past century. That worry is encouraged also by European regional politics which dedicate significant attention to rural area and its development, agriculture and its alternative activities. Condition in which Serbian rural area is and exploration of possibilities for his overcoming presents sufficient motive for production of this work. The purpose of work is to show goals and measures of rural development with special retrospect on undeveloped territories, because those are the ones with the largest percentage of country and agricultural population and ecological they belong to the healthiest area of Republic of Serbia.

  16. China's New Rural Income Support Policy: Impacts on Grain Production and Rural Income Inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.; Kuiper, M.H.; Shi Xiaoping, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of agricultural tax abolition and direct income payments to grain farmers on grain production and rural inequality in China. To separate the impact of the income support measures from recent price trends for grains and inputs, and to account for differences in

  17. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  18. The Role Played by Agricultural Policy-based Finance in New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the agricultural policy-based finance in terms of supporting the new village construction is analyzed: in the first place, the theoretical roots of agricultural policy-based finance supporting new village construction are "market failure" and "government intervention"; in the second place, the continual decline of agriculture and the "rural financial market failure" in recent years have become the objective evidence and historical mission for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; in the third place, the combination of agricultural policy-based finance and new village construction is conducive to solving the "three agriculture" problems and facilitating the reform of new village construction. The feasibility of the support is analyzed: firstly, agricultural policy-based finance boasts the status and position of the "primary drive" in new village construction; secondly, the nation continuously deepens the reform of rural financial system and policy-based banks and strengthens the functions of Agricultural Development Bank, which provides policies for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; thirdly, the 14 years’ reform and development of Agricultural Development Bank and the eleventh five year plan lay sound practical basis for the support of agricultural policy-based finance to new village construction. Based on the necessity and feasibility, the following six aspects are analyzed to fully display the function of the "first engine" of agricultural policy-related finance to new village construction. Firstly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to grain and cotton and some other agricultural products in the circulation domain; secondly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to agricultural industrialization in processing field; thirdly, intensifying the credit and loan aid to agricultural comprehensive development, rural infrastructure construction, application and promotion of

  19. Nitric oxide circulates in mammalian plasma primarily as an S-nitroso adduct of serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, J S; Jaraki, O; Osborne, J; Simon, D I; Keaney, J; Vita, J; Singel, D; Valeri, C R; Loscalzo, J

    1992-01-01

    We have recently shown that nitric oxide or authentic endothelium-derived relaxing factor generated in a biologic system reacts in the presence of specific protein thiols to form S-nitrosoprotein derivatives that have endothelium-derived relaxing factor-like properties. The single free cysteine of serum albumin, Cys-34, is particularly reactive toward nitrogen oxides (most likely nitrosonium ion) under physiologic conditions, primarily because of its anomalously low pK; given its abundance in plasma, where it accounts for approximately 0.5 mM thiol, we hypothesized that this plasma protein serves as a reservoir for nitric oxide produced by the endothelial cell. To test this hypothesis, we developed a methodology, which involves UV photolytic cleavage of the S--NO bond before reaction with ozone for chemiluminescence detection, with which to measure free nitric oxide, S-nitrosothiols, and S-nitrosoproteins in biologic systems. We found that human plasma contains approximately 7 microM S-nitrosothiols, of which 96% are S-nitrosoproteins, 82% of which is accounted for by S-nitroso-serum albumin. By contrast, plasma levels of free nitric oxide are only in the 3-nM range. In rabbits, plasma S-nitrosothiols are present at approximately 1 microM; 60 min after administration of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine at 50 mg/ml, a selective and potent inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetases, S-nitrosothiols decreased by approximately 40% (greater than 95% of which were accounted for by S-nitrosoproteins, and approximately 80% of which was S-nitroso-serum albumin); this decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in mean arterial blood pressure of 22%. These data suggest that naturally produced nitric oxide circulates in plasma primarily complexed in S-nitrosothiol species, principal among which is S-nitroso-serum albumin. This abundant, relatively long-lived adduct likely serves as a reservoir with which plasma levels of highly reactive, short-lived free nitric oxide can be

  20. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  1. A HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BALACEANU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is perceived by the EU as occupying a special place in its economic and social structure, because of its content and its relevance at the level of each individual. Consequently, the EU sustains that the relative poverty of a high proportion of its agricultural and rural population needs a protectionist price policy combined with a long term policy that would aim at its rural development, especially in the peripheral and poorly developed areas. Between EU policies Common Agricultural Policy is regarded as one of the most important. This not only because of the budget for the Union to finance this policy (which is about 50% of the total budget the number of people affected and territory involved, but also the historical importance of delegated sovereign attributes EU Member States to the decision. The importance of the Common Agricultural Policy derives of close links with the single market and economic and monetary union, two key areas of European integration.

  2. THE POTENTIALITIES AND THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL IN OLT COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil MARINESCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the current situation of rural development perspective based on knowledge of the human factor in Olt County. The first and most important observation is the repercussions on the demographics of rural population structure and balance in Olt County where it appears on one side of its unevenness, with a trend of diminishing the employment, hence the number of employees. The analysis of agricultural density, represented by the area in hectares / capita reveals the existence of a low level of rural population pressure on agricultural space. On the structure of agricultural branches it was surprised on one hand the annual variation in levels of achievement, but on the other hand the share of services which is insignificant. All this contributes to the low attractiveness of agriculture for young people in the rural county of Olt.

  3. Upscaling Participatory Action and Videos for Agriculture and Nutrition (UPAVAN) trial comparing three variants of a nutrition-sensitive agricultural extension intervention to improve maternal and child nutritional outcomes in rural Odisha, India: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Prost, Audrey; Harris-Fry, Helen; O'Hearn, Meghan; Pradhan, Ronali; Pradhan, Shibananth; Mishra, Naba Kishore; Rath, Suchitra; Nair, Nirmala; Rath, Shibanand; Tripathy, Prasantha; Krishnan, Sneha; Koniz-Booher, Peggy; Danton, Heather; Elbourne, Diana; Sturgess, Joanna; Beaumont, Emma; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Mohanty, Satyanarayan; Upadhay, Avinash; Allen, Elizabeth

    2018-03-09

    Maternal and child undernutrition have adverse consequences for pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality, and they are associated with low educational attainment, economic productivity as an adult, and human wellbeing. 'Nutrition-sensitive' agriculture programs could tackle the underlying causes of undernutrition. This study is a four-arm cluster randomised controlled trial in Odisha, India. Interventions are as follows: (1) an agricultural extension platform of women's groups viewing and discussing videos on nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) practices, and follow-up visits to women at home to encourage the adoption of new practices shown in the videos; (2) women's groups viewing and discussing videos on NSA and nutrition-specific practices, with follow-up visits; and (3) women's groups viewing and discussing videos on NSA and nutrition-specific practices combined with a cycle of Participatory Learning and Action meetings, with follow-up visits. All arms, including the control, receive basic nutrition training from government community frontline workers. Primary outcomes, assessed at baseline and 32 months after the start of the interventions, are (1) percentage of children aged 6-23 months consuming ≥ 4 out of 7 food groups per day and (2) mean body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ) of non-pregnant, non-postpartum (gave birth > 42 days ago) mothers or female primary caregivers of children aged 0-23 months. Secondary outcomes are percentage of mothers consuming ≥ 5 out of 10 food groups per day and percentage of children's weight-for-height z-score  70%) proportion of Scheduled Tribe or Scheduled Caste (disadvantaged) households. A process evaluation will assess the quality of implementation and mechanisms behind the intervention effects. A cost-consequence analysis will compare incremental costs and outcomes of the interventions. This trial will contribute evidence on the impacts of NSA extension through participatory, low-cost, video

  4. Efficient transfection of DNA into primarily cultured rat sertoli cells by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuping; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Okada, Keisuke; Matsushita, Kei; Enatsu, Noritoshi; Chiba, Koji; Yue, Huanxun; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-03-01

    The expression of exogenous DNA in Sertoli cells is essential for studying its functional genomics, pathway analysis, and medical applications. Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery, even in primarily cultured cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for electroporation-based transfection of Sertoli cells and compared its efficiency with conventional lipofection. Sertoli cells were transfected with pCMV-GFP plasmid by square-wave electroporation under different conditions. After transfection of plasmid into Sertoli cells, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression could be easily detected by fluorescent microscopy, and cell survival was evaluated by dye exclusion assay using Trypan blue. In terms of both cell survival and the percentage expressing EGFP, 250 V was determined to produce the greatest number of transiently transfected cells. Keeping the voltage constant (250 V), relatively high cell survival (76.5% ± 3.4%) and transfection efficiency (30.6% ± 5.6%) were observed with a pulse length of 20 μm. The number of pulses significantly affected cell survival and EGFP expression (P transfection methods, the transfection efficiency of electroporation (21.5% ± 5.7%) was significantly higher than those of Lipofectamine 2000 (2.9% ± 1.0%) and Effectene (1.9% ± 0.8%) in this experiment (P transfection of Sertoli cells.

  5. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  6. Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemazanyy, Ivan; Panasyuk, Ganna; Breus, Oksana; Zhyvoloup, Alexander; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan T.

    2006-01-01

    CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy β and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy α. The transcript specific for CoASy β was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy β. In contrast to CoASy α, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy β is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation

  7. Acompanhamento de enfermagem em saúde pública, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola numa comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural: relato de experiência Acompañamiento de enfermería en salud pública, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural: relato de experiencia Public health nursing, pedagogical and agricultural ad vice in a rural community of settled landless people: an experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacó Fernando Schneider

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo relata uma experiência no acompanhamento de Enfermagem, assessoramento pedagógico e agrícola desenvolvido em uma comunidade de assentados sem-terra na zona rural da cidade de Cascavel, estado do Paraná, que teve como premissa básica a integração docente/discente, oferecendo oportunidade de socialização do saber, integração teoria e prática e contato direto com a comunidade. Aponta para a necessidade da enfermagem compreender melhor este tipo de realidade buscando, através da observação e vivência, uma visão crítica com possibilidades de intervenção.El estudio relata una experiencia en el acompañamiento de enfermería, asesoramiento pedagógico y agrícola desarrollado en una comunidad de asentados "sin tierra" en la zona rural perteneciente al municipio de Cascavel, estado del Paraná, que tuvo como principio básico la integración docente/alumno, ofreciendo oportunidad de socialización del saber, integración teoría y práctica y contacto directo con la comunidad. Señala la necessidad de la enfermería comprender mejor este tipo de realidad, buscando por medio de la observación y vivencia, una visión crítica con posibilidades de intervención.This study reports an experience in nursing accompaniment, pedagogical and agricultural advice in a community of settled people without land in the countryside of Cascavel, state of Paraná. The basic premise was student/teacher integration offering the opportunity of knowledge socialization, integration of theory and practice and direct contact with the community. It points out that nursing needs a better understanding of this type of reality seeking, by observation and living, a critical vision with the possibility of intervention.

  8. Determinants of Welfare Dynamics in Rural Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Thor

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of poverty movements in rural Nicaragua by introducing a bivariate probate model, making it possible to treat the initial state of poverty as endogenous and thus avoiding introducing selection bias. The results indicate that this is relevant when exploring...... welfare dynamics in rural Nicaragua, as initially poor households face a higher probability of being poor in the subsequent period compared with non-poor households. It is also found that household composition, access to non-agriculture wage income and ownership of productive assets are important factors...

  9. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  10. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  11. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gross...... for the rural populations, and ensuring ‘sustained agricultural growth’ within such systems while minimising negative impacts on biodiversity and other key ecosystem services will be a major future challenge....

  12. Effective public policy which can reduce gender discrimination in the agricultural labour market: A theoretical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kundu, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Wage and employment differences between male and female agricultural labourers in the under developed countries including India is not new. With the help of a simple theoretical model it is here proved that public policy like implementation of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in the rural areas can reduce wage discrimination but fails to reduce employment discrimination in the agricultural labour market. It is also proved that implementation of NREGS not only reduces profita...

  13. BIOGAS PLANT AS AN ELEMENT THAT HAS A POSITIVE INFLUENCE ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES OF RURAL SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Pawłowski

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary rural landscape, an agricultural biogas plant is becoming an increasingly frequent element of agricultural installations. There is a need to ask an important question: is a new technology, such as biogas plants with medium power of 1MW, listed as investments which can have significant environmental impacts? This question is becoming an integral part of rural space as a new form of village buildings. The inevitable changes in the rural landscape and the way of carrying out ...

  14. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its

  15. Development performances of agriculture in the Danube region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Milivoj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Danube Region countries profile their policies towards a more efficient way of exploiting the natural resources of the Danube basin. The Danube can contribute to a better integration of the countries, enhancing economic opportunities through diversification and promotion of rural development. The trend analysis in the agricultural sector of the Danube Region countries refers to the first decade of this century, and it begins with the determination of the agricultural importance in the overall economy. The development performances of agriculture in the Danube Region countries are considered according to the production and export performances of this economic sector, using a comparative approach. The agricultural production growth, level and growth of the partial agricultural productivities - labour and land, as well as the value of exports in relation to engaged labour and agricultural land, are analysed in such a context.

  16. From the associative companies to the nuclei of rural entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Parrado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the twentieth century, the impulse to the creation of Rural Associative Organizations (RAOs has become one of the main tools to implement rural development policies. However, most of these efforts have ended in failure, and have been marked by both the paternalism of the institutions and the lack of active participation from the rural communities. Faced with this situation, other methodologies and approaches have started to emerge. These new views have provided rural people with tools to participate in their own development processes and recognize that rural issues go beyond agricultural production. The Rural Management and Development Research Group in the Department of Agronomy at Colombia's Universidad Nacional has been working within this conceptual framework that tends to focus not only on participatory methodologies, but also on gender focus, the new rural setting and the territorial development. The research group has been involved in rural areas of Bogotá and Cundinamarca, building proposals with the active participation from the Nuclei of Rural Entrepreneurs as an alternative model to the conventional rural associative enterprise

  17. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...

  18. Assessing the recreational demand for agricultural land in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. POUTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely assumed that the scenic attractiveness and other public good aspects of agricultural land can be utilized as a source of livelihood in rural areas in the form of recreation and tourism. In this study we use two approaches to consider whether agricultural landscapes are preferred as a destination for recreation (day trips and rural tourism (overnight trips. We first analyse the choice of recreation site type based on a model that aggregates sites using the presence of agricultural land as an aggregation variable. Population survey data on recreation trips reveal an association between the respondent’s living environment, recreational activities and visit characteristics and the probability of choosing a destination with agricultural land. Second, we also estimate the demand functions for trips to agricultural sites and other destination types to consider whether the presence of agricultural land, as opposed to other land use categories, increases the number of trips and the benefits of recreation. The results suggest that agricultural landscapes are inferior to alternative site types in terms of per-trip benefits. However, agricultural landscapes are associated with high annual benefits because of the high rate of visitation.;

  19. Simulation and optimization of agricultural product supply chain system based on Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches on agricultural product supply chain have important implications for improving the efficiency of agricultural products circulation, strengthening the construction of agricultural market system, promoting agricultural modernization and solving the three rural issues. Agricultural product supply chain system has begun to be optimized through simulation technique. In this paper, agricultural product supply chain system is reasonably simplified and assumed. A simulation model was developed by using the simulation software Wit-ness to study agricultural product supply chain. Through the analysis of the simulation output data, improvement suggestions were also proposed as follows: improving the organization degree of agricultural products, improving the agricultural products processing, establishing strategic partnership and scientifically developing agricultural products logistics.

  20. How Rural Criminology Informs Critical Thinking in Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Donnermeyer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past quarter century, a growing volume of rural-focused criminological work has emerged. In this article, the literature related to three rural criminological issues are examined and discussed in terms of their lessons for critical criminology. Research on rural communities and crime is examined as a way to criticize and challenge mainstream criminological theories and concepts like social disorganisation and collective efficacy, and to remind critical criminologists of the importance for developing critical perspectives for place-based or ecological theories of crime. Agricultural crime studies are discussed in terms of the need to develop a critical criminology of agriculture and food. Finally, criminological studies of rural ‘others’ is used to show the need for critical criminologists to give greater analytic attention to divisions and marginalities of peoples living in smaller and more isolated places based on gender, race, and lifestyles, among other factors.