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  1. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  2. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral

  3. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    population sample of children and adolescents in relation to symptoms of rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 983 individuals, aged 7 to 17 years, were randomly selected in 1986 and invited to 4 examinations during a 20-year period. During each examination, a skin prick test was performed using common local...

  4. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  5. Anaphylaxis Secondary to Prick to Prick Tests to Foods and its Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Vania Galindo-Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of food allergy requires a proper anamnesis and diagnostic testing with skin prick tests with fresh foods and/or standardized allergen, or specific IgE tests. The risk of systemic reactions is of 15-23 per 100,000 skin tests performed by prick method, specically anaphylaxis at 0.02%. This paper reports the case of four patients, who while performing prick to prick test with fresh food presented anaphylactic reaction. Implicated foods were fruits of the Rosaceae, Anacardiaceae and Caricaceae families. The severity of anaphylaxis was: two patients with grade 4, one patient grade 2 and one grade 3, all with appropriate response to drug treatment. The risk factors identi ed were: female sex, personal history of atopy, previous systemic reaction to Hymenoptera venom, prior anaphylaxis to prick tests to aeroallergens. We found that a history of positive skin test for Betulla v, can be a risk factor for anaphylaxis in patients with oral syndrome. During testing prick to prick with food anaphylaxis can occur, so it should be made with aerial red team on hand. The history of positivity Betulla v is an additional risk factor in these patients.

  6. Prick test: evolution towards automated reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, X; Díaz, I; Gil, J J; Gastaminza, G

    2016-08-01

    The prick test is one of the most common medical methods for diagnosing allergies, and it has been carried out in a similar and laborious manner over many decades. In an attempt to standardize the reading of the test, many researchers have tried to automate the process of measuring the allergic reactions found by developing systems and algorithms based on multiple technologies. This work reviews the techniques for automatic wheal measurement with the aim of pointing out their advantages and disadvantages and the progress in the field. Furthermore, it provides a classification scheme for the different technologies applied. The works discussed herein provide evidence that significant challenges still exist for the development of an automatic wheal measurement system that not only helps allergists in their medical practice but also allows for the standardization of the reading and data exchange. As such, the aim of the work was to serve as guideline for the development of a proper and feasible system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Systemic reaction after performing a food prick-to-prick test. A case report

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    Karen Estefanía Hernández-Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin prick test is the most widely used test for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated conditions. Commercial extracts are used for its performance, but in the case of fruits and vegetables it is preferable using fresh food. Although both tests possess a good safety profile, hypersensitivity reactions have been recorded. Clinical case: Forty-seven-year old woman with a history of persistent allergic rhinitis, sensitized to the pollen of grasses, olive and salsola; she was referred to an allergology department due to anaphylaxis triggered by the consumption of avocado, cantaloupe, carrots and watermelon. Minutes after skin prick test with standardized extract and skin prick with fresh foods, she developed dyspnea, pruritus, erythema, dizziness and sibilance; she was administered 0.5 mg of intramuscular adrenalin and 4 salbutamol inhalations and placed in the Trendelemburg position. Dyspnea persisted, and vital signs monitoring showed heart and respiratory rates increase and, hence, salbutamol was applied again, together with 2 L/min of oxygen delivered by nasal cannula, intravenous fluids and 100 mg intravenous hydrocortisone; improvement was observed at 40 minutes. The patient was hospitalized for 48 hours. Conclusions: Although skin tests are safe, the risk of hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions should not be ruled out, especially in susceptible patients.

  8. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenge tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B.J.; Weg, van de W.E.; Heide, van der S.; Arens, P.F.P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  9. Evaluation Of Prick Test In Atopic Dermatitis And Chronic Urticaria

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    Dhar Sandipan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available “Prick test” was carried out in 15 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD and 10 patients with chronic urticaria (CU. Of the various aeroallergens tested, house dust mite (HDM, pollens, aspergillus furnigatus and insects were found to be most commonly positive. The common food allergens showing prick test positivity were egg white, fish, milk, brinjal, dal, groundnut and banana. Use of nasal filters showed 10-20% improvement in AD and 5 â€" 10% improvement in urticaria. Withdrawal of the responsible food article(s showed 20-30% improvement in patients with AD and urticaria.

  10. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

    2013-09-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pattern Of Skin Prick Allergy Test Results In Enugu | Mgbor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we report on pattern of allergy prick skin test results found among atopic patients attending the department of otorhinolargngology of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu and Hansa Clinics, Enugu and propose ways of minimizing the exposure of the population to allergens. Material and method

  12. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during

  13. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van de Weg, W. E.; van der Heide, S.; Kerkhof, M.; Arens, P.; Heijerman-Peppelman, G.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    P>Background: As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Methods: Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with

  14. [Characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis with positive skin prick test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Jiang, Y; Jin, Y M; Zhang, J Y; Li, Y

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To observe the clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis, and the correlations with skin prick test results. Methods: A retrospective study. Forty patients with positive skin prick test result were included. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 5 groups. All dates were analyzed for the dependence, normality and homogeneity of variance. Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test and Spearman correlation analysis were performed accordingly. Results: Among 40 patients, 18(45.0%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 14(35.0%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 5(12.5%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 2(5.0%) had atopic keratoconjunctivits, and 1(2.5%) had giant papillary conjunctivitis. There was no significant difference in the number of symptoms and signs score among different types of allergic conjunctivitis, the score of itching and hyperemia had a positive relationship with the number of positive allergens ( r =0.74, Ptest of the allergen, the more symptoms and signs encountered in terms of severity. Conclusion: Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder, the most important clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis are itching and conjunctival congestion, the main allergens are dust and pollens, patients may be sensitive to multiple allergens. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 689-693) .

  15. Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, M G; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions as well as the number of positive reactions....... OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of FLG mutations on the mean size and the number of positive SPT reactions, as well as the association with positive specific IgE. METHODS: A random sample of 3335 adults from the general population in Denmark was genotyped for the R501X and 2282del4 mutations in the FLG...... mutations alone are insufficient to cause secondary sensitization to allergens. The positive association seen in patients must be explained by a combination of further barrier abnormality caused by dermatitis as well as increased allergen exposure....

  16. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  17. Skin prick test in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders

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    Pooja Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic allergic skin disorders are the inflammatory and proliferative conditions in which both genetic and environmental factors play important roles. Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU and atopic dermatitis (AD are among the most common chronic allergic skin disorders. These can be provoked by various food and aeroallergens. Skin prick tests (SPTs represent the cheapest and most effective method to diagnose type I hypersensitivity. Positive skin tests with a history suggestive of clinical sensitivity strongly incriminate the allergen as a contributor to the disease process. Aim s and Objectives: To determine the incidence of positive SPT in patients with chronic allergic skin disorders and to identify the various allergens implicated in positive SPT. Methods: Fifty patients of chronic allergic disorders were recruited in this study. They were evaluated by SPT with both food and aeroallergens. Results: In our study, SPT positivity in patients of CIU was 63.41% and in AD was 77.78%. Out of the 41 patients of CIU, the most common allergen groups showing SPT positivity were dust and pollen, each comprising 26.83% patients. SPT reaction was positive with food items (21.6%, insects (17.07%, fungus (12.20%, and Dermatophagoides farinae, that is, house dust mite (HDM (7.32%. The allergen which showed maximum positivity was grain dust wheat (19.51%. Among nine patients of AD, maximum SPT positivity was seen with Dermatophagoides farinae, pollen Amaranthus spinosus, grain dust wheat, and cotton mill dust; each comprising 22.22% of patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that a significant number of patients of CIU and AD showed sensitivity to dust, pollen, insects, Dermatophagoides farinae, and fungi on SPT. Thus, it is an important tool in the diagnosis of CIU and AD.

  18. Compatibility of Clinical Manifestation with Skin Prick Test Result and Food Provocation Test in Food Cross Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Azwin; Barlianto, Wisnu; Endaryanto, Anang; Harsono, Ariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Subjective diagnostic test of food allergy is hugely biased, resulting in irrational diet avoidance. Additional objective tools by skin prick test following food provocation test resulting more accurate cause and prevalence on population. Purpose: To evaluate the compatibility of clinical symptoms with skin prick test and provocation test for imunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated food allergy in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Cross sectional observational analytic study. Patient...

  19. In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hazelnut allergy ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. Clinical symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome to life threatening anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of hazelnut allergy partially relies on in vivo testing by means of skin prick testing (SPT). The aim of this study

  20. Proficiency testing of skin prick testers as part of a quality assurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Allesen-Holm, Pernille; Karved, Lisbeth Sys

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test is an important diagnostic procedure in clinical allergy but documentation of the quality is often missing. METHODS: We describe a proficiency system to evaluate staff members in relation to the international recommended reproducibility in terms of coefficient...... of variation (CV 0.85) based on blinded octuplicate histamine testing using histamine 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/ml. RESULTS: Fourteen trained allergy nurses participated in the proficiency testing. More than 95 % of the nurses, generated coefficient of variation...

  1. [Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test in egg and cow's milk allergic infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-mei; Chen, Jing; Li, Hai-qi; Hu, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Mean diameter is the most common used parameter for wheal response assessment after skin prick test. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic capacity of mean diameter according to the outcome of oral food challenge, and to determine the cut-off points that could render food challenges unnecessary. Data of 173 children referred to the Division of Primary Child Health Care for the evaluation of suspected food allergy were prospectively studied. All children underwent skin prick test and open food challenge to the relevant food(s) in clinic. The mean wheal diameter of skin prick test was measured, and open food challenge was performed to confirm food allergy. The SPSS software package version 13.0 for windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for all statistical analysis. Open food challenge was taken as the gold standard for diagnosis. Diagnostic capacity of skin prick test, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, was calculated by cross-table. In addition, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was plotted and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the accuracy of the parameter. For the 173 children, 271 open food challenges were performed with egg white, egg yolk and cow's milk, In which 123 were positive, 99 children were diagnosed as food allergy. Cutaneous symptoms (87.0%) were most common, followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (9.8%). The AUC of mean diameter was 0.794 for egg white, 0.804 for egg yolk and 0.904 for cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 mm was ranged from 71% to 87%, while the specificity was between 31% and 57%. The authors also defined food specific skin prick test mean diameters that were 100% diagnostic for allergy to egg white (≥ 8.5 mm), egg yolk (≥ 5.5 mm), cow's milk (≥ 5.5 mm). Predictive decision points for a positive outcome of food challenges can be calculated for egg and cow's milk using mean diameter. It

  2. Histamine 50-skin-prick test: a tool to diagnose histamine intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Lukas; Ulmer, Hanno; Kofler, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Background. Histamine intolerance results from an imbalance between histamine intake and degradation. In healthy persons, dietary histamine can be sufficiently metabolized by amine oxidases, whereas persons with low amine oxidase activity are at risk of histamine toxicity. Diamine oxidase (DAO) is the key enzyme in degradation. Histamine elicits a wide range of effects. Histamine intolerance displays symptoms, such as rhinitis, headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, urticaria and pruritus. Objective. Diagnosis of histamine intolerance until now is based on case history; neither a validated questionnaire nor a routine test is available. It was the aim of this trial to evaluate the usefullness of a prick-test for the diagnosis of histamine intolerance. Methods. Prick-testing with 1% histamine solution and wheal size-measurement to assess the relation between the wheal in prick-test, read after 20 to 50 minutes, as sign of slowed histamine degradation as well as history and symptoms of histamine intolerance. Results. Besides a pretest with 17 patients with HIT we investigated 156 persons (81 with HIT, 75 controls): 64 out of 81 with histamine intolerance(HIT), but only 14 out of 75 persons from the control-group presented with a histamine wheal ≥3 mm after 50 minutes (P < .0001). Conclusion and Clinical Relevance. Histamine-50 skin-prickt-test offers a simple tool with relevance.

  3. Diagnosis of mold allergy by RAST and skin prick testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Agrell, B; Malling, H J; Dreborg, S

    1990-11-01

    Sera from 33 patients with mold allergy proven by bronchial provocation were analyzed for specific IgE against six mold species comparing an improved Phadebas RAST with four other techniques. The new method was more sensitive and gave significantly higher IgE antibody concentrations for all tested molds except Cladosporium herbarum.

  4. Food allergies in children: a comparison of parental reports and skin prick test results

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    Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Food allergy is common in children and its prevalence is generally on the rise. Imprecise parental reports about reactions to particular foods can lead to unnecessary restrictions. Since children have specific growth requirements, such nutritional restrictions may have disturbing effects on children’s growth and development. Objective To compare parental reports on food reactions to skin prick test results in their children. Method Retrospective, cross sectional study using patient’s medical record data during one-year study period. Data were analyzed manually and statistically, to assess the degree of agreement (Kappa’s coefficient and significance (P. Results We collected data from 154 subjects aged 0-18 years. For every allergen assessed, parents reported more food reactions than positive skin prick test results. Allergy incidence were caused, in order, by cow’s milk and chicken (25.3%, eggs (22.1%, chocolate (20.1%, fruits (14.3%, seafood (13%, and saltwater fish (1.9%. Kappa coefficient are all poor (0.05 except for chicken (P=0.02. Conclusion Most parents tend to overestimate which food cause reactions in their children, as reactions reported were not necessarily allergenic. Therefore, every patient experiencing allergy reactions should undergo skin prick testing to confirm the possibility of allergy.

  5. Knowledge of parents regarding newborn screening test, after accessing the website “Babies’ Portal” - Heel prick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Antonelli Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to assess the knowledge of mothers about the heel prick test, develop contents on this test to make it available on the "Babies’ Portal" website, evaluate and validate the informative material developed. Methods: this study was conducted in three stages, that is, the first stage which is about a descriptive study involving 105 mothers of newborn children before performing the neonatal screening "Heel Prick Test", the second one consisting in the development of the website "Babies’ Portal", and the third stage, the evaluation and validation of this material carried out by 20 parents of children between zero and 36 months old, who underwent the neonatal screening Heel Prick Test by accessing the website “Babies’ Portal”. Results: although the interviewed mothers knew that their children had the right to be tested, they showed no knowledge of the diseases that can be prevented, time of diagnosis, nor the consequences arising from the lack of early diagnosis and treatment. The website creation and validation gathered basic information about the Heel Prick Test, and the participants regarded the content from satisfactory to excellent. Conclusion: it is necessary that families know not only about the procedures their children will undergo, but also the reason they are performed and the consequences of failing in doing so.

  6. Performance and Pain Tolerability of Current Diagnostic Allergy Skin Prick Test Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Jody R; Chelladurai, Yohalakshmi; McGready, John; Hamilton, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Allergen skin prick testing remains an essential tool for diagnosing atopic disease and guiding treatment. Sensitivity needs to be defined for newly introduced devices. Our aim was to compare the performance of 10 current allergy skin prick test devices. Single- and multiheaded skin test devices (n = 10) were applied by a single operator in a prospective randomized manner. Histamine (1 and 6 mg/mL) and control diluent were introduced at 6 randomized locations onto the upper and lower arms of healthy subjects. Wheal and flare reactions were measured independently by 2 masked technicians. Twenty-four subjects provided consent, and 768 skin tests were placed. Mean wheal diameter among devices differed from 3.0 mm (ComforTen; Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash) to 6.8 mm (UniTest PC; Lincoln Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill) using 1 mg/mL histamine (P Diagnostics, Decatur, Ill; and Sharp-Test; Panatrex, Placentia, Calif) using 6 mg/mL histamine (P pain score of less than 4 on a 10-point visual analog scale. Pain scores were higher among women, but this did not reach statistical significance. The Multi-Test PC and the UniTest PC had the lowest pain scores compared with the other devices. All 10 skin prick test devices displayed good analytical sensitivity and specificity; however, 3 mm cannot arbitrarily be used as a positive threshold. The use of histamine at 1 mg/mL is unacceptable for certain devices but may be preferable for the most sensitive devices. On average, there was no pain score difference between multiheaded and single-head devices. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Patch and Prick Tests in Hand Eczema: Results of A Sixty Seven Patient Series

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    Bilge Fettahlıoğlu Karaman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The patch and prick tests have a place in the management of patients with hand eczema. In this study, we investigated whether some of the clinical features patients with hand eczema could provide us with the predictability of skin test results. Methods: In Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, 67 consecutive patients with hand eczema; evaluated in terms of duration of disease, morphology and severity. All of the patients were undergoes patch tested with the European Standard Series, and needle testing with routine aeroallergens. Results: Patch test with at least one allergen was positive in 46.3% of the patients; wheras this rate was 23.9% for prick test. The likelihood of having a contact sensitivity of patients complaining of hand eczema for at least three years was statistically more significant [odds ratio (OR 0.9]. Although statistically not significant, it is less likely to be sensitized to patients with keratotic and/or licheniform hand eczema (OR 0.3. The severity of hand eczema was not predictive of patch test, there was no indicator of needle test positivity. Conclusion: We strongly recommend patch testing in all patients with prolonged hand eczema.

  8. Identification of low allergenic apple cultivars using skin prick tests and oral food challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Kerkhof, M; Arens, P; Heijerman-Peppelman, G; Dubois, A E J

    2011-04-01

    As oral allergy syndrome (OAS) symptoms to apple are frequent, we aimed to identify low allergenic apple cultivars and to validate the prick-to-prick skin prick test (SPT) as a suitable screening method. Sixty-eight apple cultivars were tested by SPTs in 33 Dutch adults with OAS, before and during the birch pollen season in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Three cultivars yielding the largest number of negative SPTs (Elise, Santana and Pink Lady®) and one reference cultivar (Golden Delicious) were subsequently tested by single-blind oral food challenges (SBFC) just after picking in fall 2007 (fresh) and in spring 2008 (stored), outside the birch pollen season and preceded by SPTs. In spring, Santana was replaced by Modi®. In fresh apples, OAS symptoms of Elise, as measured by cumulative scores on a Visual Analogue Scale VASt, were significantly lower than those of Santana, Pink Lady and Golden Delicious (P = 0.021; 0.040 and 0.005, respectively). VASt scores of Santana were significantly lower than those of Golden Delicious (P = 0.049). In stored apples, VASt scores of Elise were significantly lower than that of Golden Delicious (P = 0.038). VASt scores of fresh apples did not differ significantly from stored apples, except in Golden Delicious (spring < fall: P = 0.021). The SPTs did not predict the severity of OAS. SPTs are not useful to assess the allergenicity of apple cultivars. By using SBFC, Elise and Santana were identified as low allergenic apple cultivars in patient with OAS. Our data on the effect of storage are inconclusive. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Identification of common allergens for united airway disease by skin prick test

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    Vikas Deep Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of common allergens by skin prick test in patients of united airway disease. Materials and Methods: Skin prick test was performed in 60 patients of United Airway Disease to identify the common allergens. A total of 62 allergens consisting of 36 types of pollen, 5 fungi, 4 insects, 8 type of dusts, 4 dander, 3 fabrics, Dust mite and Parthenium leaves were tested. Result: Most common allergens were Dust mite (60% followed by Parthenium leaves (45%, insects (18.75%, pollen (14.81%, dust allergens (8.51%, fabrics (8.33%, fungi (5.66%, dander (5%. Most common insect allergens were cockroach (female (30%, cockroach (male (23.33%. Common pollens were Ricinus communis (28.33%, Amaranthus spinosus (28.33%, Parthenium hysterophorus (26.66%, Eucalyptus tereticornis (26.66% and Cynodon dactylon (25%. Common dust allergens were house dust (21.66%, paper dust (11.66% and cotton mill dust (10%. Among fabrics kapok cotton (13.33% showed maximum positivity. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus (10% followed by A. niger (6.66% were most common. In animal dander group common ones were cat dander followed by dog dander. Conclusion: In conclusion it can be said that the knowledge drawn by above study will help to treat patients by immunotherapy or avoidance strategy.

  10. [Comparative study of 3 types of lancets for performing prick tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, A; Martín, S; Mesa, A; Cortés, C; Rodríguez, M; Laso, M T

    1996-01-01

    Skin Prick Test is considered the cutaneous test of choice in rutinary clinical practice as well as in research. In the last 15 years a large number of lancets for puncture test have been developed looking for a higher level of standardisation and reproducibility. We have compared three lancets, two of them, NeoAbelló (NA) and Dome/Hollister Stier (DHS), used in puncture test and a third one, Blood Lancet (BL), in the modified prick test. Twenty-two patients sensitised to Phleum pratense were tested with the three lancets at three extract concentrations and histamine 10 mg/mL in duplicate. We compared their wheal sizes by means of parallel line assay, their reproducibility, frequency of bleeding wheals, the disturbance for the patient and the correlation between specific IgE and skin response. Wheal size was similar for puncture tests (DHS and NA lancets) and significatively lower than BL, being necessary to increase 1.9 times the extract concentration when using DHS and NA lancets to achieve the same wheal size than when using BL lancets (p < 0.01). Reproducibility with histamine was similar with the three lancets while with the extract was somehow better with puncture tests but without statistical significance. Bleeding was significantly more frequent with BL although this did not influence the results. Less pain was obtained with BL. Finally, correlation with specific IgE was slightly significant for NA and very similar for the other two. With these results in mind we think that any of the three lancets is valid for the diagnostic of the allergic patient. Nevertheless, puncture tests are probably the most suitable at a research level.

  11. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  12. Food Sensitivity in Children with Acute Urticaria in Skin Prick Test: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Eke Gungor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded. Material and Method: A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August 2013 and 1 August 2014, in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents. Results: Overall, 574 children aged 1-14 years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in 22.3% (128/574 of the patients. This rate was found to be 31.9% among those younger than 3 years, while 19.3% in those older than 3 years. Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: egg white, 7.3%; wheat, 3.3%; cow milk, 2.7%,; sesame, 2.8%; hazelnut, 2.4%; soybean, 2.3%; peanut, 1.9%, walnut, 1.6%; tuna fish, 1.6%. In general, the history of patients wasn%u2019t compatible with food sensitization detected. Discussion: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

  13. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  14. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was dete...

  15. The incidence and features of systemic reactions to skin prick tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaturay, Priya; Nasser, Shuaib; Ewan, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) has been regarded as a safe procedure with few systemic reactions. To evaluate the rate of systemic reactions and their associations after SPT in the largest population to date. In this study reactions were recorded prospectively in a specialist UK allergy clinic for 6 years (2007-2013). An estimated 31,000 patients underwent SPT. Twenty-four patients (age range 7 months to 56 years, mean 23.5 years, 17 female patients, 12 with asthma) had systemic reactions. The rate of systemic reactions to SPT was 0.077%. The likely allergens causing the reaction were foods (18; peanut, 7; walnut, 1; Brazil nut, 2; pistachio, 1; lupin, 1; cow's milk, 2; shrimp, 1; spinach, 1; legume, 1; soy, 1), aeroallergens (4; rabbit, 1; rat, 1; ragwort, 1; grass pollen, 1), wasp venom (1), and Tazocin (1). The causative SPT wheal was larger than 8 mm in 75%. The reaction to Tazocin was severe, with anaphylaxis occurring minutes after SPT. Reactions were treated immediately in the clinic and did not require further medical care. In this largest single-center study, the rate of systemic reactions after SPT was 77 per 100,000 patients. It is the first study to identify foods as a common and important cause (75%), with nuts posing the highest risk. This study reports the first systemic reaction to venom SPT and the first anaphylactic reaction after drug SPT. There was an association with a history of severe reactions and large skin test reaction. There are risks, albeit small, when undertaking SPT. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin prick test results in patients with atopic symptoms in Yozgat district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çölgeçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely and fastly to determine the allergens in atopic disease. We aimed in this study to analysis the relationship between total serum IgE (T.IgE and allergens that found by SPT and looking over the frequency of allergens. Methods: We evaluated clinical findings and SPT results and T.IgE levels of 190 patients who admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic, retrospectively. Rsults: 53 (27.9% patients had idiopathic generalized pruritus (IGP, 41 (21.6% had atopic dermatitis (AD, 40 (21.1% had chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU, 38 (20% had allergic rhinitis (AR, and 18 (9.5% had allergic asthma (AA. 123 (64.7% patients had positive reaction to at least one or more allergen on SPT. Of these patients 28 were IGP, 30 were AD, 20 were CIU, 28 were AR, and 17 were AA. The most common allergens were pine pollen (25.3%, wheat pollen (18.4%, and dog epithelium (15.8%. The mean levels of T.IgE was 382.61 ± 517.28 IU/ml (1-2500. T.IgE is higher 54.9% of patients. It was seen that DPT positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with increased T.IgE levels than those with normal total serum IgE level (p<0.05. Conclusion: We think that pine tree and wheat pollens are the most commonly encountered allergens at Yozgat area. Moreover, our findings indicated to the requirement and benefits of DPT in patients with AD, AR and AA in addition to the those KİU and İJP, particularly in patients with increased T.IgE levels, although further studies with larger sample size are needed. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 64-68

  17. House dust bioactivities predict skin prick test reactivity for children with high risk of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haejin; Tse, Kevin; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Reponen, Tiina; LeMasters, Grace; Lummus, Zana; Horner, Anthony A

    2012-06-01

    Although evidence suggests that ambient exposures to endotoxin and other immunostimulants during early life influence allergic risk, efforts to understand this host-environment relationship have been hampered by a paucity of relevant assays. These investigations determined whether parameters of house dust extract (HDE) bioactivity were predictive of allergen skin prick test (SPT) reactivity for infants at high risk of allergy participating in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS). We conducted a nested case-control study, selecting 99 CCAAPS children who had positive SPT results to at least 1 aeroallergen at age 3 years and 101 subjects with negative SPT results. HDEs were prepared from dust samples collected from the subjects' homes at age 1 year. Murine splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were incubated with HDEs, and supernatant cytokine concentrations were determined by means of ELISA. Alternatively, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were preincubated with HDEs, and then LPS-induced IL-6 responses were assessed. HDE endotoxin levels were determined by using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay. HDEs derived from the homes of children with positive (cases) and negative (control subjects) SPT results had similar bioactivities. However, when cases were considered in isolation, HDEs with higher levels of bioactivity were significantly associated with children who had lower numbers of positive SPT results. Analogous statistical analyses did not identify any association between HDE endotoxin levels and the aeroallergen sensitization profiles of children included in this study. HDE immunostimulatory activities predicted the aeroallergen sensitization status of CCAAPS subjects better than HDE endotoxin levels. These results provide the first published evidence that HDE bioassays have clinical relevance in predicting atopic risk. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  18. Medical clowns ease anxiety and pain perceived by children undergoing allergy prick skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A; Stauber, T; Peleg, O; Hanuka, P; Eshayek, L; Confino-Cohen, R

    2014-10-01

    Intervention of medical clowns (MC) during various medical procedures performed in children has been used to relieve anxiety and pain. Their role in allergy skin testing has never been evaluated. To evaluate whether MC can diminish pain and anxiety perceived by children undergoing allergy skin prick tests (SPT). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded study, children undergoing SPT were or were not accompanied by MC. All parents and children ≥8 years completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after SPT. Videotapes recorded during the procedure were scored for anxiety (m-YPAS) for all children and for pain (FLACC) for children 2-7 years old by a psychologist who was unaware of the MC's presence. After SPT, children ≥8 years completed a visual analog score (VAS) for pain. Ninety-one children (mean age 8.2 years, M/F = 54/37) were recruited of whom 45 were accompanied by clowns. A significant reduction in state-STAI was found in the clowns group, in both parents and children, when compared with the regular group (26.9 ± 6.6 and 32.3 ± 10.0; P = 0.004, and 27.1 ± 4.2 and 34.3 ± 7.6; P = 0.002, respectively). Both m-YPAS and FLACC were reduced in the clowns group compared with the regular one. In the clowns group, m-YPAS positively correlated with both VAS and FLACC (P = 0.000 and 0.002, respectively). m-YPAS was positively correlated with FLACC in the regular group (P = 0.000). Medical clowns significantly decrease the level of anxiety perceived by both children undergoing allergy SPT and their parents, as well as the pain perceived by young children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Relevance of Cat and Dog Sensitization by Skin Prick Testing in Childhood Eczema and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Kathy Yin Ching; Pong, Nga Hin Henry; Leung, Ting Fan

    2017-01-01

    Household animal dander has been implicated as aeroallergen in childhood atopic diseases. Many parents seek healthcare advice if household pet keeping may be detrimental in atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis and asthma. We investigated if skin sensitization by cat/dog dander was associated with disease severity and quality of life in children with AE. Demographics, skin prick test (SPT) results, disease severity (Nottingham eczema severity score NESS), Children Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI), blood IgE and eosinophil counts of a cohort of AE patients were reviewed. 325 AE patients followed at a pediatric dermatology clinic were evaluated. Personal history of asthma was lowest (20%) in the dog-dander-positive-group but highest (61%) in bothcat- and-dog-dander-positive group (p=0.007). Binomial logistic regression ascertained that catdander sensitization was associated with increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.056; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.006 to 1.109; p=0.029), dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 4.625; 95% CI, 1.444 to 14.815; p=0.010), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 2.330; 95% CI, 1.259 to 4.310; p=0.007) and keeping-cat-ever (aOR, 7.325; 95% CI, 1.193 to 44.971; p=0.032); whereas dogdander sensitization was associated with dust-mite sensitization (aOR, 9.091; 95% CI, 1.148 to 71.980; p=0.037), food-allergen sensitization (aOR, 3.568; 95% CI, 1.341 to 9.492; p=0.011) and keeping-dog-ever (aOR, 6.809; 95% CI, 2.179 to 21.281; p=0.001). However, neither cat nor dog sensitization were associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, parental or sibling atopic status, disease severity or quality of life. Physicians should advise parents that there is no direct correlation between AE severity, quality of life, asthma or allergic rhinitis with cutaneous sensitization to cats or dogs. Sensitized patients especially those with concomitant asthma and severe symptoms may consider non-furry alternatives if they plan to have a pet. Highly sensitized

  20. Topical non-peptide antagonists of sensory neurotransmitters substance P and CGRP do not modify patch test and prick test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallengren, Joanna; Edvinsson, Lars

    2014-01-01

    developed. Their effect on the skin barrier was measured in terms of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) while permeation was calculated using permeation coefficients. Patch tests in patients allergic to nickel and prick test reactions to histamine were used as models. None of the treatments increased TEWL......, suggesting there to be no impairment of the skin barrier. Permeation coefficients indicated moderate permeation. Histamine prick tests induced a flare with a mean area of 662 + 275 mm(2) and a weal with a mean volume of 49 + 11 mm(3). These reactions as well as histamine-induced pruritus were not affected...... significantly by any of the treatments. Treatment with aprepitant and its vehicle alone resulted in a potentiating of the infiltration of nickel reactions compared with test reactions obtained after no treatment (1147 + 423 mm(3) and 1427 + 566 mm(3) vs 683 +202 mm(3)) (p = 0.03). Telcagepant induced...

  1. Diagnostic value of scratch-chamber test, skin prick test, histamine release and specific IgE in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M; Scheller, R; Stahl Skov, P

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the diagnostic value of skin prick test (SPT), scratch-chamber test (SCT), histamine release (HR) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in birch-allergic patients with oral allergy syndrome to apple. METHODS: Ten birch-allergic patients with oral...... a detailed case history about symptoms of oral allergy syndrome combined with a SPT with fresh apple peel or A72 will be useful....

  2. Comparison of sport-specific and non-specific exercise testing in inline speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Gutmann, Boris; Hollmann, Wildor; Struder, Heiko K

    2016-04-01

    The most effective way to measure exercise performance in inline speed skating (ISS) has yet to be established. Generally most athletes are examined by means of traditional but unspecific cycling (CYC) or running (RUN) testing. The present study investigates whether a sport-specific incremental test in ISS reveals different results. Eight male top level inline speed skaters (age: 30±4 years; 65.4±6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1, training: 12-14 h/week) performed three incremental exhaustive tests in a randomized order (ergometer CYC, field RUN, field ISS). During the tests, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V̇O2, energy expenditure (EE) and blood lactate concentration (BLC) were measured. Analysis of variance revealed no significant differences for peak HR (187±9, 191±9, 190±9; P=0.75), BLC (10.9±2.3, 10.8±2.4, 8.5±3.2; P=0.25), V̇O2 (65.4±6.3, 66.8±3.5, 66.4±6.5; P=0.91) and EE (1371±165, 1335±93, 1439±196; P=0.51) between ISS and CYC or RUN test. Similar results appeared for HR and V̇O2 at submaximal intensities (2 and 4 mmol·L-1 BLC; P≥0.05). Small to moderate effect sizes 0.3-0.87 and considerable variability of differences between the exercise modes (mean bias range between 1% and 17% with 95% limits of agreement between 3% and 33%) among submaximal and maximal results limit the comparability of the three tests. Consequently, CYC and RUN tests may be considered as qualified alternatives for a challenging ISS test. However a sport-specific test should be conducted in cases of doubt, or when precision is required (e.g. for elite athletes or scientific studies).

  3. Should we still be testing for asymptomatic non-specific urethritis in departments of genitourinary medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, P J

    2005-04-01

    It has recently been advocated that non-invasive testing with first-catch urine specimens using nucleic acid amplification techniques, to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, should replace routine microscopy on asymptomatic men. Although it is assumed that this strategy will be cost effective, the available evidence suggests that this will result in fewer sexually transmitted infections being averted than continuing the current practice of screening for urethritis and testing for both microorganisms in asymptomatic men. This review article summarizes the available evidence and argues that research is urgently needed in order to properly evaluate the cost-effectiveness of detecting urethritis in asymptomatic men.

  4. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  5. Exercise capacity in non-specific chronic low back pain patients : A lean body mass-based Astrand bicycle test; Reliability, validity and feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, Audy P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Objective Measurement of exercise capacity is essential in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, the conventional Astrand bicycle test is not feasible in patients with a very poor aerobic capacity. Therefore the Astrand bicycles test for non-specific CLBP patients based

  6. Evaluation of the frequency of food allergens based on skin prick test in children in Kurdistan Province - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmarzi, R; Ataee, P; Homagostar, Gh; Tagik, M; Ghaderi, E; Kooti, W

    Food allergy refers to abnormal reactions of the body caused by an immune system response to food. This study was conducted aiming to investigate allergy to food allergens in children with food allergies. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional one on 304 children aged six months to seven years with food allergies admitted to the tertiary referral hospital in Kurdistan Province - Iran, during 2014-2015. All the patients were examined for skin prick test using 49 allergens. Finally, the obtained data were analysed using SPSS15 and chi-square and t tests. The highest percentage of occurrence of bump reaction (wheal) and redness (flare) was due to the consumption of fish, eggs, tomatoes, and cocoa. Moreover, the lowest rate of wheal and flare was caused by exposure to allergens like latex, tea, malt, and wheat flour. The reaction most created due to the consumption of foods was flare which was higher among under three-year-olds group (p<0.05), and between the sexes, girls showed the most common allergic reactions (p<0.05). Since food allergy has a high prevalence in children, it should be considered with great interest. Considering that avoiding food allergens is the first step in the treatment of food allergies, the present study may be a useful guide in this regard. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens.

  8. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  9. Improving a Complement-fixation Test for Equine Herpesvirus Type-1 by Pretreating Sera with Potassium Periodate to Reduce Non-specific Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BANNAI, Hiroshi; NEMOTO, Manabu; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi; MATSUMURA, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (CF) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1), even when the sera have virus-specific CF antibodies. This phenomenon has also been reported in CF tests for various infectious diseases of swine. We found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional CF testing for EHV-1. Because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (KIO4) improves the CF test for swine influenza, we applied this method to horse sera. As we expected, horse sera treated with KIO4 did not show non-specific hemolysis in the EHV-1 CF test, and precise determination of titers was achieved. PMID:24834005

  10. Relationships between the handball-specific complex test, non-specific field tests and the match performance score in elite professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel; Wollny, Rainer; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Fieseler, Georg; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Bartels, Thomas; Schwesig, René

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex test (HBCT) and two non-specific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4±4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (YYIR) test and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training. The RSA results were evaluated in terms of best time, total time, and fatigue decrement. Heart rates (HR) were assessed at selected times throughout all tests; the recovery HR was measured immediately post-test and 10 minutes later. The match performance score was based on various handball specific parameters (e.g., field goals, assists, steals, blocks, and technical mistakes) as seen during all matches of the immediately subsequent season (2015/2016). The parameters of run 1, run 2, and HR recovery at minutes 6 and 10 of the RSA test all showed a variance of more than 10% (range: 11-15%). However, the variance of scores for the YYIR test was much smaller (range: 1-7%). The resting HR (r2=0.18), HR recovery at minute 10 (r2=0.10), lactate concentration at rest (r2=0.17), recovery of heart rate from 0 to 10 minutes (r2=0.15), and velocity of second throw at first trial (r2=0.37) were the most valid HBCT parameters. Much effort is necessary to assess MPS and to develop valid tests. Speed and the rate of functional recovery seem the best predictors of competitive performance for elite handball players.

  11. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    subjects. An SPT was positive when > or =3 mm, and repeatable if either persistently positive or negative. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests, intradermal test, titrated SPT and Ig......E measurements. Birch pollen symptoms were confirmed in diaries. RESULTS: The repeatability of a positive SPT was 67%, increasing significantly to 100% when supported by the history. When not supported by history, the presence of specific IgE was significantly associated with a repeatable SPT. Allergen....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history....

  12. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  13. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  14. Use of a smart phone based thermo camera for skin prick allergy testing: a feasibility study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, Lindi; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Klaessens, John; van der Veen, Albert

    2016-02-01

    Allergy testing is usually performed by exposing the skin to small quantities of potential allergens on the inner forearm and scratching the protective epidermis to increase exposure. After 15 minutes the dermatologist performs a visual check for swelling and erythema which is subjective and difficult for e.g. dark skin types. A small smart phone based thermo camera (FLIR One) was used to obtain quantitative images in a feasibility study of 17 patients Directly after allergen exposure on the forearm, thermal images were captured at 30 seconds interval and processed to a time lapse movie over 15 minutes. Considering the 'subjective' reading of the dermatologist as golden standard, in 11/17 pts (65%) the evaluation of dermatologist was confirmed by the thermo camera including 5 of 6 patients without allergic response. In 7 patients thermo showed additional spots. Of the 342 sites tested, the dermatologist detected 47 allergies of which 28 (60%) were confirmed by thermo imaging while thermo imaging showed 12 additional spots. The method can be improved with user dedicated acquisition software and better registration between normal and thermal images. The lymphatic reaction seems to shift from the original puncture site. The interpretation of the thermal images is still subjective since collecting quantitative data is difficult due to motion patient during 15 minutes. Although not yet conclusive, thermal imaging shows to be promising to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of allergy testing using a smart phone based camera.

  15. Evaluation of the Frequency of Food and Aeroallergens in Patients with Eczema and Urticaria in Province of Bushehr: Based on Skin Prick Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years frequency of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (eczema and urticaria is reported to be high in the region. Identification of reactive allergens in different areas are very important in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of common allergens in patients with skin allergies in province of Bushehr with regards to eczema and urticaria. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients with urticarial and eczema were enrolled. The participants reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard inhaled and food was performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. Results: Among 837 patients referred to allergy clinic, 91 patients had eczema and 143 had urticaria. The frequency of both eczema and urticaria was significantly higher in females than in males. The most common food allergens in patients with eczema were almond (56.6%, walnut (47.7% and soybean (46.1%. And in patients with urticaria were almond (58%, walnut (53.1% and tomato (48.2%. Also, aeroallergens in the subjects were house dust mite (HDM (63.7%, Russian thistle (57.7% and Alternaria alternara (51.6%. Meanwhile, the common aeroallergens in the patients were HDM (66.4%, Russian thistle (52.4% and date palm (51%. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that almond and walnut are important food allergens in participants with eczema and urticaria. Moreover, SPT reactivity was positive with aeroallergens such as HDM and weeds.

  16. Evaluation of Food Allergy in Children by Skin Prick Tests with Commercial Extracts and Fresh Foods, Specific IgE and, Open Oral Food Challenge-Our Five Years Experience in Food Allergy Work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivanovic, Mirjana; Atanasković-Marković, Marina; Medjo, Biljana; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija; Smiljanić, Katarina; Tmušić, Vladimir; Djurić, Vojislav

    2017-04-01

    IgE- mediated food allergy affects 6-8% of children. Our study aimed to define the correlations between the results obtained with skin prick tests (SPTs) using commercial extracts and fresh foods, and the correlations between these result and those obtained with specific IgE (sIgE) and/ or challenge. Children aged from 2 months to 6 years were recruited prospectively. Overall 571 children were positive to one food. In all children we performed  SPT using commercial extracts of suspected food and fresh foods and sIgE. If SPT and sIgE test results did not correspond to the history, we performed open oral food challenge. Sensitivity of SPT with commercial extracts for all tested food was poor (3-35%), while  sensitivity of fresh food skin prick tests (FFSPT) was excellent (50-100%), and showed correlation with open oral food challenge (pfood extracts are more effective in detecting sensitization and with levels of sIgE greater than class 3 could predict clinical reactivity, without the need for potentially hazardous food challenges.

  17. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Consistency between studies. In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two 'natural experiments' found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female-male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the targeted diseases. With herd immunity to whooping cough, DTP is associated with higher mortality for girls

  18. Testing for 'threads' and leucocyte esterase in first-void urine to exclude the diagnosis of non-specific urethritis in asymptomatic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallawela, Sanjeeva N S; Sonnex, Christopher; Burdett, Julia; Cooper, Dawn; Nethercott, Katrina; Thomas, Catherina M; Goon, Peter; Webb, Hayley; Carne, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that asymptomatic nonspecific urethritis (NSU), which is not routinely tested for, is a clinically significant pathology.The aim of this pilot study was to determine if testing for urinary threads, leucocyte esterase (LE) or both in asymptomatic men is a good screening tool for NSU. Of the126 asymptomatic men, 8% met microscopic criteria for the diagnosis of NSU. The positive predictive value for NSU was 71% (95% confidence interval (CI): 29.3-95.5%) and the negative predictive value was 96% (95% CI: 92.8-99.5%). The absence of threads and negative LE makes urethritis highly unlikely, making urinary chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) testing sufficient. Incidental findings of further pathology occurred in 7%.

  19. Validation of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Gesture Behavior Test for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain

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    Ricardo Furtado

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a Brazilian version of the gesture behavior test (GBT for patients with chronic low back pain. METHODS: Translation of GBT into Portuguese was performed by a rheumatologist fluent in the language of origin (French and skilled in the validation of questionnaires. This translated version was back-translated into French by a native-speaking teacher of the language. The two translators then created a final consensual version in Portuguese. Cultural adaptation was carried out by two rheumatologists, one educated patient and the native-speaking French teacher. Thirty patients with chronic low back pain and fifteen healthcare professionals involved in the education of patients with low back pain through back schools (gold-standard were evaluated. Reproducibility was initially tested by two observers (inter-observer; the procedures were also videotaped for later evaluation by one of the observers (intra-observer. For construct validation, we compared patients' scores against the scores of the healthcare professionals. RESULTS: Modifications were made to the GBT for cultural reasons. The Spearman's correlation coefficient and the intra-class coefficient, which was employed to measure reproducibility, ranged between 0.87 and 0.99 and 0.94 to 0.99, respectively (p < 0.01. With regard to validation, the Mann-Whitney test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.01 between the averages for healthcare professionals (26.60; SD 2.79 and patients (16.30; SD 6.39. There was a positive correlation between the GBT score and the score on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (r= 0.47. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the GBT proved to be a reproducible and valid instrument. In addition, according to the questionnaire results, more disabled patients exhibited more protective gesture behavior related to low-back.

  20. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

  1. Non-specific immunization against parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Non-specific resistance to tumours can be induced by pretreating animals with micro-organisms, microbial extracts or various synthetic substances. Mycobacterium bovis, Corynebacterium parvum and a number of other micro-organisms also protect mice against rodent piroplasms and there is evidence that they are also protective against other parasites including Schistosoma mansoni. The actual mechanisms of non-specific immunity are still unclear but it is influenced by both the genetic make-up of the host and the nature of the parasite. Non-specific immunization may be a possible alternative to specific immunization and may avoid many of the potential immunopathological changes induced during parasite infections. Irradiated vaccines (Dictyocaulus viviparus, schistomiasis) are mentioned marginally only

  2. Non-specific immunization against babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.E.G.

    1980-01-01

    The rodent babesias, Babesia rodhaini and the less virulent B. microti, are useful models with which to study immunity to and immunization against babesiosis. In contrast with the difficulty in inducing specific immunity to these parasites it is comparatively easy to induce non-specific immunity by prior exposure to related and unrelated intra-erythrocytic protozoa, micro-organisms such as Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and Corynebacterium parvum, microbial extracts and muramyl dipeptide. This non-specific immunity is long lasting and extremely effective. It is characterized by the facts that (a) it occurs early in the infection at the height of the first peak of parasitaemia, and (b) it involves the intra-erythrocytic death of the parasites. After the primary parasitaemia has resolved, some parasites continue to persist at a low level and when introduced into clean mice produce only low-level 'attenuated' infections in these. Non-specific immunity is not equally effective in all strains of mice. It is suggested that immunity to babesiosis, and infections caused by other intra-erythrocytic protozoa, involves two mechanisms, the first non-specific and the second specific. The actual balance between these two mechanisms varies from parasite to parasite and from host to host. An effective vaccine would have to be based on an understanding of the roles of non-specific immunity in the actual disease under consideration, and would ideally combine an adjuvant that would also stimulate non-specific immunity and an attenuated strain of parasite that would induce a specific response. (author)

  3. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18); skin prick test (SPT) at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP), rs1800925 (promoter region) and rs2066960 (intron 1). Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs). Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456); SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens) increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69). Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57) and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13). Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene. PMID:20403202

  4. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  5. Risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Julia; Boja, Sara; Szilagyi, Agnes; Somhegyi, Annamaria; Varga, Peter Pal; Lazary, Aron

    2018-05-01

    Non-specific spinal pain can occur at all ages and current evidence suggests that pediatric non-specific spinal pain is predictive for adult spinal conditions. A 5-year long, prospective cohort study was conducted to identify the lifestyle and environmental factors leading to non-specific spinal pain in childhood. Data were collected from school children aged 7-16 years, who were randomly selected from three different geographic regions in Hungary. The risk factors were measured with a newly developed patient-reported questionnaire (PRQ). The quality of the instrument was assessed by the reliability with the test-retest method. Test (N = 952) and validity (N = 897) datasets were randomly formed. Risk factors were identified with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and the predictive performance of the final model was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. The final model was built up by seven risk factors for spinal pain for days; age > 12 years, learning or watching TV for more than 2 h/day, uncomfortable school-desk, sleeping problems, general discomfort and positive familiar medical history (χ 2  = 101.07; df = 8; p < 0.001). The probabilistic performance was confirmed with ROC analysis on the test and validation cohorts (AUC = 0.76; 0.71). A simplified risk scoring system showed increasing possibility for non-specific spinal pain depending on the number of the identified risk factors (χ 2  = 65.0; df = 4; p < 0.001). Seven significant risk factors of non-specific spinal pain in childhood were identified using the new, easy to use and reliable PRQ which makes it possible to stratify the children according to their individual risk. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  7. Trial of Music, Sucrose, and Combination Therapy for Pain Relief during Heel Prick Procedures in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Swapnil R; Kadage, Shahajahan; Sinn, John

    2017-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of music, oral sucrose, and combination therapy for pain relief in neonates undergoing a heel prick procedure. This randomized, controlled, blinded crossover clinical trial included stable neonates >32 weeks of postmenstrual age. Each neonate crossed over to all 3 interventions in random order during consecutive heel pricks. A video camera on mute mode recorded facial expressions, starting 2 minutes before until 7 minutes after the heel prick. The videos were later analyzed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R) scale once per minute by 2 independent assessors, blinded to the intervention. The PIPP-R scores were compared between treatment groups using Friedman test. For the 35 participants, the postmenstrual age was 35 weeks (SD, 2.3) with an average weight of 2210 g (SD, 710). The overall median PIPP-R scores following heel prick over 6 minutes were 4 (IQR 0-6), 3 (IQR 0-6), and 1 (IQR 0-3) for the music, sucrose, and combination therapy interventions, respectively. The PIPP-R scores were significantly lower at all time points after combination therapy compared with the groups given music or sucrose alone. There was no difference in PIPP-R scores between the music and sucrose groups. In relatively stable and mature neonates, the combination of music therapy with sucrose provided better pain relief during heel prick than when sucrose or music was used alone. Recorded music in isolation had a similar effect to the current gold standard of oral sucrose. www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12615000271505. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Foot Skin Ischemic Necrosis following Heel Prick in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esad Koklu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are only a few reports on side effects after heel prick in neonates although heel prick has been performed all over the world for many years. The medicine staff had obtained only a drop of blood by pricking the baby’s heel using a lancet without compressing the heel or foot to measure his blood glucose level 3 hours after birth. However he developed a severe and hemorrhagic skin reaction on his entire left foot, beginning 30 minutes after obtaining the drop of blood by pricking the baby’s heel using a lancet. The lesion, which was treated with topical mupirocin and povidone-iodine solution daily, slowly decreased in size and had almost fully resolved within 3 weeks. He was healthy and 9 months old at the time of writing this paper. We herein report a case of foot skin ischemic necrosis following heel prick in a newborn. To our knowledge this patient is the first case of foot skin ischemic necrosis due to heel prick in newborns.

  9. [Effects of Chinese prickly ash orchard on soil organic carbon mineralization and labile organic carbon in karst rocky desertification region of Guizhou province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Liao, Hong-Kai; Long, Jian; Li, Juan; Liu, Ling-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Taking 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-5), 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO- 17), 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard (PO-30) and the forest land (FL, about 60 years) in typical demonstration area of desertification control test in southwestern Guizhou as our research objects, the aim of this study using a batch incubation experiment was to research the mineralization characteristics of soil organic carbon and changes of the labile soil organic carbon contents at different depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm). The results showed that: the cumulative mineralization amounts of soil organic carbon were in the order of 30-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard, the forest land, 5-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard and 17-year-old Chinese prickly ash orchard at corresponding depth. Distribution ratios of CO2-C cumulative mineralization amount to SOC contents were higher in Chinese prickly ash orchards than in forest land at each depth. Cultivation of Chinese prickly ash in long-term enhanced the mineralization of soil organic carbon, and decreased the stability of soil organic carbon. Readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon in forest land soils were significantly more than those in Chinese prickly ash orchards at each depth (P < 0.05). With the increasing times of cultivation of Chinese prickly ash, the contents of readily oxidized carbon and particulate organic carbon first increased and then declined at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth, respectively, but an opposite trend was found at 30-50 cm depth. At 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm, cultivation of Chinese prickly ash could be good for improving the contents of labile soil organic carbon in short term, but it was not conducive in long-term. In this study, we found that cultivation of Chinese prickly ash was beneficial for the accumulation of labile organic carbon at the 30-50 cm depth.

  10. Non specific immune response in the African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non specific immune response in the African catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis fed diets fortified with ethanolic extracts of selected traditional medicinal plants and disease resistance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M.; Mahrouz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures

  12. Adsorption-desorption isotherms and heat of sorption of prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Kouhila, M. E-mail: kouhila@hotmail.com; Mahrouz, M

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture contents were determined for prickly pear fruit using the gravimetric static method at t=30, 40 and 50 deg. C over a range of relative humidities from 0.05 to 0.9. The sorption curves of prickly pear fruit decreased with increase in temperature at constant relative humidity. The hysteresis effect was observed. The GAB, modified Halsey, modified Chung-Pfost, modified Oswin and modified Henderson models were tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model was found to be the most suitable for describing the sorption curves. The monolayer moisture content values for the sorption at different temperatures are calculated using a modified BET equation. The isosteric heats of desorption and adsorption of water were determined from the equilibrium data at different temperatures.

  13. Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain. ... for a total of ten sessions and control group (n=7) did not received any treatment. ... in pain relief and reduces functional disability in patients with non-specific low back pain.

  14. Effect of Mozart music on heel prick pain in preterm infants: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavaiuolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of music by Mozart on heel prick procedural pain in premature infants.Background: Painful procedures are routinely performed in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Pain may exert short- and long-term deleterious effects on premature babies. Many non-pharmacological interventions have been proven efficacious for blunting neonatal pain.Study design: Randomized, controlled trial.Methods: The study was carried out in the NICU of the “G. Rummo” Hospital in Benevento, Italy. The sample consisted of 42 preterm infants, with no hearing loss or significant cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound. They were randomized to receive heel lance during a music condition or a no-music control condition. We set strict criteria for selecting and delivering the music. Baseline and postprocedural heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were manually recorded. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP score was used to measure the behavioral response to prick. An unpaired t-test was performed for the intergroup comparisons.Results: There were significant differences between groups on heart rate increase, oxygen saturation reduction and PIPP score following the procedure.Conclusions: Listening to Mozart music during heel prick is a simple and inexpensive tool for pain alleviating in preterm stable neonates.

  15. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  16. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  17. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-30

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  18. "I think it is right": a qualitative exploration of the acceptability and desired future use of oral swab and finger-prick HIV self-tests by lay users in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lucia; Makusha, Tawanda; Lim, Jeanette; Peck, Roger; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; van Rooyen, Heidi

    2017-09-18

    The uptake of HIV testing has increased in sub-Saharan Africa over the past three decades. However, the proportion of people aware of their HIV status remains lower than required to change the pandemic. HIV self-testing (HIVST) may meet this gap. Assessment of readiness for and the acceptability of HIVST by lay users in South Africa is limited. This paper presents results from a formative study designed to assess the perceived usability and acceptability of HIVST among lay users using several self-test prototypes. Fifty lay users were purposively selected from rural and peri-urban KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Acceptability of HIVST was assessed using a simple post-test quantitative assessment tool addressing confidence, ease-of-use, intended future use and willingness to pay. In-depth qualitative interviews explored what participants felt about the HIVST and why, their willingness to recommend and how much they would pay for a test. The key finding is that there is high acceptability regardless of self-test prototype. Acceptability is framed by two domains: usability and perceived need. Perceived usability was explored through perceived ease of use, which, regardless of actual correct usage, was reported by many of the respondents. Acceptability is influenced by perceived need, expressed by many who felt that the need for the self-test to protect privacy and autonomy. Ease of access and widespread availability of the test, not at a significant cost, were also important factors. Many participants would recommend self-test use to others and also indicated that they would choose to conduct the test again if it was free while some also indicated being willing to buy a test. The positive response and readiness amongst lay users for an HIVST in this context prototype suggests that there would be a ready and willing market for HIVST. For scalability and sustainability usability, including access and availability that are here independent indications of acceptability

  19. Non-Specific Reactions during Immunomagnetic Separation of Listeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Zachová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems occurring during the immunomagnetic separation (IMS of Listeria using immunomagnetic particles Dynabeads® anti-Listeria (Dynal Biotech, Norway were specified. Characteristics of these particles were compared with anti-Listeria spp. magnetite particles (Quantum Magnetics, USA. Pure cultures of Listeria innocua, Arthrobacter spp., Bacillus subtilis, Citrobacter braakii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus were used to evaluate non-specific reactions during IMS. Gram-positive microorganisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus and Arthrobacter spp., were found to be responsible for non-specific reactions in most cases. The capacity of Dynabeads® anti-Listeria particles was determined to be about 10 % of the initial pure cultures of Listeria spp., after 10 min of incubation. Non-specific reactions during IMS of Listeria were examined on the artificially inoculated food samples in which Gram-positive bacteria showed the highest percentage of capture. Influence of washing in two buffers was also studied.

  20. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  1. Returnable packaging for non-specific building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassel, van F.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A certain amount of construction waste comes from disposable packaging and this waste is ecologically damaging, one solution would be to reduce the disposable by using returnable packaging for non-specific construction products. To find out if this solution is feasible a study has been carried out

  2. Acute non-specific low back pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment of non-specific low back pain typically results in a significant improvement ... and the potential benefits and risks associated with drug treatment, have been ... South African Family Practice 2014; 56(6):10-14. Open Access article ...

  3. Genetic variations in non-specific immune response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-specific immune response in three strains of Heterobranchus bidorsalis challenged with the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophilia was evaluated. The study was undertaken in three strains of H. bidorsalis from different ecological zones in Nigeria and the percentage cumulative mortality was lowest and significantly ...

  4. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urquhart, D. M.; Hoving, J. L.; Assendelft, W. W. J. J.; Roland, M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:

  5. Skin Prick Tests and Dose Response Relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 60 bakers working at different bakeries at Dekernis, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt; and 30 control subjects. All participants were submitted to a self administered questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, general medical examination, chest examination; spirometry and SPT.

  6. Specifying the non-specific components of acupuncture analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Takayama, Miho; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that acupuncture has pain-relieving effects, but the contribution of specific and especially non-specific factors to acupuncture analgesia is less clear. One hundred and one patients who developed pain ≥ 3 on a visual analog scale (VAS, 0-10) following third molar surgery were randomized to receive active acupuncture, placebo acupuncture, or no treatment for 30 min with acupuncture needles with potential for double-blinding. Patients’ perception of the treatment (active or placebo), and expected pain levels (VAS) were assessed prior to and halfway through the treatment. Looking at actual treatment allocation, there was no specific effect of active acupuncture (P = 0.240), but a large and significant non-specific effect of placebo acupuncture (P acupuncture (P acupuncture had significantly lower pain levels than those who believed they received placebo acupuncture. Expected pain levels accounted for significant and progressively larger amounts of the variance in pain ratings following both active and placebo acupuncture (up to 69.8%), This is the first study to show that under optimized blinding conditions non-specific factors such as patients’ perception of and expectations toward treatment are central to the efficacy of acupuncture analgesia and that these factors may contribute to self-reinforcing effects in acupuncture treatment To obtain an effect of acupuncture in clinical practice it may, therefore, be important to incorporate and optimize these factors. PMID:23707680

  7. Association of hypovitaminosis Dwith persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, H.M.A.; Kamran, M.; Rehman, S.U.; Khan, D.A.; Hussain, K.

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted in Pakistani population to find association of vitamin D deficiency with persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains by comparing with pain free controls. Study Design: Case control study. Material and Methods: Patients aged 12 years or more presenting to Medical OPD with persistent nonspecific musculoskeletal pains for more than 3 months were selected as cases, while healthy individuals served as controls Results: A total of 60 cases (patients with persistent non-specific pains) presenting to medical outpatients department at Military Hospital Rawalpindi and 60 controls were studied. Mean age of cases was 43.9 +- 14.0 years and amongst controls were 33.2 +- 17.8 years. Mean serum vitamin D level of 32.8 nmol/L was reported in cases whereas mean serum vitamin D level amongst controls was 26.7 +- 17.8 nmol/L. Hypovitaminosis D amongst cases and controls was 86.6% and 95% respectively. The proportion of vitamin D deficiency did not differ significantly as compared to controls. There was non-significant difference in proportion of deficiency amongst cases and controls. Conclusion: Overall there was no association between persistent non-specific musculoskeletal pains and vitamin D deficiency. (author)

  8. Knowledge of and attitudes toward heel prick screening for sickle cell disease in Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sonia; Belmar-George, Sharon; Eugene, Alisha; Elias, Vanessa

    2017-06-08

    In the Caribbean country of Saint Lucia, umbilical-cord-blood screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) was the testing method that health care workers (HCWs) on the maternity wards of the hospitals preferred until the new heel prick (HP) testing method was introduced in the country in 2014. This SCD study sought to assess HCWs' knowledge of and attitude toward HP screening and also determine new mothers' favorability toward HP screening. A total of 70 HCWs and 132 new mothers answered survey questionnaires in three hospitals. In addition, four focus group discussions were held, two with HCWs and two with the mothers. Among the HCWs interviewed, 85.7% of them had knowledge of the HP test. However, only 25.7% had attended training sessions on the procedure. Among the HCWs, 64.3% of them felt the HP test should be mandatory, 27.1% said it should not be mandatory, and 8.6% did not know if it should be mandatory. In their focus groups, the HCWs said they believed the mothers would accept the HP method. For their part, 22.0% of the mothers said they had heard about the HP test, and 63.6% reported knowing the reason why the baby would be tested. Further, 83.3% indicated that the test would be beneficial for the baby. In addition, 88.6% of the mothers said that more information on the HP test was needed. In their focus group discussions, the mothers said they were generally not concerned about the pain the heel prick method might cause the baby. The HCWs' knowledge of the HP screening method was high. The mothers trust HCWs, and the mothers would accept the HP procedure irrespective of their knowledge of the test and any discomfort associated with this screening method.

  9. Knowledge of and attitudes toward heel prick screening for sickle cell disease in Saint Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives In the Caribbean country of Saint Lucia, umbilical-cord-blood screening for sickle cell disease (SCD was the testing method that health care workers (HCWs on the maternity wards of the hospitals preferred until the new heel prick (HP testing method was introduced in the country in 2014. This SCD study sought to assess HCWs’ knowledge of and attitude toward HP screening and also determine new mothers’ favorability toward HP screening. Methods A total of 70 HCWs and 132 new mothers answered survey questionnaires in three hospitals. In addition, four focus group discussions were held, two with HCWs and two with the mothers. Results Among the HCWs interviewed, 85.7% of them had knowledge of the HP test. However, only 25.7% had attended training sessions on the procedure. Among the HCWs, 64.3% of them felt the HP test should be mandatory, 27.1% said it should not be mandatory, and 8.6% did not know if it should be mandatory. In their focus groups, the HCWs said they believed the mothers would accept the HP method. For their part, 22.0% of the mothers said they had heard about the HP test, and 63.6% reported knowing the reason why the baby would be tested. Further, 83.3% indicated that the test would be beneficial for the baby. In addition, 88.6% of the mothers said that more information on the HP test was needed. In their focus group discussions, the mothers said they were generally not concerned about the pain the heel prick method might cause the baby. Conclusions The HCWs’ knowledge of the HP screening method was high. The mothers trust HCWs, and the mothers would accept the HP procedure irrespective of their knowledge of the test and any discomfort associated with this screening method.

  10. Rehabilitation of Degraded Rangeland in Drylands by Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L. Plantations: Effect on Soil and Spontaneous Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Neffar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid lands, the spiny prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica is an outstanding plant for soil conservation and restoration. To determine the role of Opuntia ficus-indica on vegetation recovery process in desertified areas of Southern Tebessa (Northeast Algeria, we investigated the effect of prickly pear plantation age and some soil properties (grain size, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and CaCO3 equivalents on native plant community. Vegetation cover and plant diversity were assessed by calculating the number of individual plants (N, species richness (S, their ratio (N/S, Shannon index, and Evenness in prickly pear plantation plots of different ages (control, 5 and 20 years. Even if surveyed soil parameters did not differ significantly among O. ficus-indica plantations, results of ANOVA testing the effect of Opuntia plantations on native vegetation traits revealed significant variation for plant abundance (P < 0.0001, N/S ratio (P = 0.003 and vegetation cover (P < 0.0001. Vegetation cover differed significantly with both prickly-pear plantation age (P = 0.031 and seasons (P = 0.019. Tukey's tests revealed that all vegetation traits were significantly higher on prickly pear plantations than in control plots. Multiple comparisons also showed that plant abundance, N/S ratio and vegetation cover were significantly different between both young and old plantations and the controls. Prickly pear cultures facilitated the colonization and development of herbaceous species by ameliorating the severe environmental conditions. In conclusion, the facilitative effect of O. ficus-indica has been clearly demonstrated for both abundance and cover of native vegetation.

  11. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS. The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP, in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg, a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg, and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE. The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment.

  12. Phytochemical study of prickly pear from southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Bouzoubaâ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the phytochemical study of the prickly pear pulp’s fruits of two opuntia cultivars; Achefri and Amouslem widely present in two regions of southern Morocco; Arbaa Sahel and Asgherkis that are different in their altitude and annual rainfall. The results of the phytochemical study show that the levels of antioxidants have a non-significant difference between the fruits of the two sites (comparing Amouslem and Achefri in the same site, on the one hand, for the differences due to the variety or cultivar, on the other hand between Amouslem and Achefri from the two sites to show the site effect.

  13. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  14. Non-specific esterases in partly mineralized bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S

    1990-01-01

    Activity for non-specific esterase was demonstrated in the matrix of developing bovine enamel with alpha-naphthyl acetate and 5-bromoindoxyl acetate as the esterase substrates. By use of high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and electrophoresis three...... esterases were shown to be present in the enamel matrix. The enzymes showed highest activity at pH 6.5-7.5. In sections a strong reaction was observed in the secretory ameloblasts. The esterases may be proteolytic enzymes that participate in the degradation of the matrix proteins....

  15. Effects of pricking, sun-drying and sieving on Ginger (Zingiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of pricking, sun drying and sieving on the color retention of Nigerian yellow bark ginger were investigated. The exterior and interior surface of fresh, pricked and sun dried medium sized Nigerian ginger rhizomes (Tafin giwa) were analysed for colour variation. The colour values of the exterior surface of fresh ginger ...

  16. Prickly pear induces upregulation of liver LDL binding in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, B.; Palumbo, R.; Efthimiou, Y.; Stamatopoulos, J.; Sinzinger, H.; Oguogho, A.; Budinsky, A.; Sinzinger, H.

    2003-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of prickly pear is well known by native local Indian population since a long time. Beside the beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, oxidation injury and platelet function has been claimed in experimental animals. We recently found an upregulation of apo-B/E receptor. We therefore examined 10 patients with isolated heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) being enrolled in a dietary run-in phase of 6 weeks after dietary counselling and a further 6 weeks of prickly pear addition. Uptake of autologous 123 I-radiolabeled LDL was determined at entry as well as after 6 weeks of daily prickly pear ingestion. We found a significant (p 176.4 mg/dl; p 123 I-LDL binding by prickly pear in FH-patients in vivo and indicate that prickly pear exerts a significant hypolipidemic action via receptor upregulation. (author)

  17. Bone growth, limb proportions and non-specific stress in archaeological populations from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Timpson, A; Thomas, M; Slaus, M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors and, in particular, non-specific stress on the growth patterns of limbs and other body dimensions of children from past populations is not well understood. This study assesses whether growth of mediaeval and post-mediaeval children aged between 0-11.5 years from Adriatic (coastal) and continental Croatia varies by region and by the prevalence and type of non-specific stress. Dental ages were estimated using the Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt (MFH) scoring method. Growth of long bone diaphyses (femur, tibia, humerus, radius and ulna) was assessed by using a composite Z-score statistic (CZS). Clavicular length was measured as a proxy for upper trunk width, distal metaphyseal width of the femur was measured as a proxy for body mass and upper and lower intra-limb indices were calculated. Differences between sub-sets sampled by (a) region and (b) active vs healed non-specific stress indicators and (c) intra-limb indices were tested by Mann--Whitney U-tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Adriatic children attained larger dimensions-per-age than continental children. Children with healed stress lesions had larger dimensions-per-age than those with active lesions. No inter-regional difference was found in intra-limb indices. These findings highlight the complexity of growth patterns in past populations and indicate that variation in environmental conditions such as diet and differences in the nature of non-specific stress lesions both exert a significant effect on long bone growth.

  18. Non-specific filtering of beta-distributed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Laird, Peter W; Hinoue, Toshinori; Groshen, Susan; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2014-06-19

    Non-specific feature selection is a dimension reduction procedure performed prior to cluster analysis of high dimensional molecular data. Not all measured features are expected to show biological variation, so only the most varying are selected for analysis. In DNA methylation studies, DNA methylation is measured as a proportion, bounded between 0 and 1, with variance a function of the mean. Filtering on standard deviation biases the selection of probes to those with mean values near 0.5. We explore the effect this has on clustering, and develop alternate filter methods that utilize a variance stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data and do not share this bias. We compared results for 11 different non-specific filters on eight Infinium HumanMethylation data sets, selected to span a variety of biological conditions. We found that for data sets having a small fraction of samples showing abnormal methylation of a subset of normally unmethylated CpGs, a characteristic of the CpG island methylator phenotype in cancer, a novel filter statistic that utilized a variance-stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data outperformed the common filter of using standard deviation of the DNA methylation proportion, or its log-transformed M-value, in its ability to detect the cancer subtype in a cluster analysis. However, the standard deviation filter always performed among the best for distinguishing subgroups of normal tissue. The novel filter and standard deviation filter tended to favour features in different genome contexts; for the same data set, the novel filter always selected more features from CpG island promoters and the standard deviation filter always selected more features from non-CpG island intergenic regions. Interestingly, despite selecting largely non-overlapping sets of features, the two filters did find sample subsets that overlapped for some real data sets. We found two different filter statistics that tended to prioritize features with

  19. Lyme neuroborreliosis in cases of non-specific neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsnes, Erlend; Eikeland, Randi; Berild, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is required in order to diagnose Lyme neuroborreliosis. We investigated the symptoms of patients in a highly endemic area who were referred for evaluation of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis, and explored whether cerebrospinal fluid analysis confirmed or ruled out the diagnosis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent lumbar puncture at Sørlandet Hospital Arendal in the period 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. A total of 140 patients were referred with suspected Lyme neuroborreliosis. Of these, 110 patients had non-specific neurological symptoms (e.g. fatigue, dizziness and headache), only one of whom received a diagnosis of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. Thirty patients had symptoms typical of the condition (such as radiculitis or peripheral facial nerve palsy). Six of these were diagnosed with definite Lyme neuroborreliosis, and one with possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. None of those diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis had had symptoms lasting more than six months. The probability of Lyme neuroborreliosis is low in the absence of typical symptoms of the condition, even when anti-Borrelia antibodies are detected in serum and especially when the symptoms are of long duration.

  20. Non-specific low back pain: occupational or lifestyle consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stričević, Jadranka; Papež, Breda Jesenšek

    2015-12-01

    Nursing occupation was identified as a risk occupation for the development of low back pain (LBP). The aim of our study was to find out how much occupational factors influence the development of LBP in hospital nursing personnel. Non-experimental approach with a cross-sectional survey and statistical analysis. Nine hundred questionnaires were distributed among nursing personnel, 663 were returned and 659 (73.2 %) were considered for the analysis. Univariate and multivariate statistics for LBP risk was calculated by the binary logistic regression. The χ(2), influence factor, 95 % confidence interval and P value were calculated. Multivariate binary logistic regression was calculated by the Wald method to omit insignificant variables. Not performing exercises represented the highest risk for the development of LBP (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.7-4.4; p  10 kg (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.5-3.8; p focusing on mechanical causes and direct workload in the development of non-specific LBP, the complex approach to LBP including genetics, psychosocial environment, lifestyle and quality of life is coming more to the fore.

  1. Muscle Control and Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc; Deckers, Kristiaan; Eldabe, Sam; Kiesel, Kyle; Gilligan, Chris; Vieceli, John; Crosby, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most prevalent of the painful musculoskeletal conditions. CLBP is a heterogeneous condition with many causes and diagnoses, but there are few established therapies with strong evidence of effectiveness (or cost effectiveness). CLBP for which it is not possible to identify any specific cause is often referred to as non-specific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). One type of NSCLBP is continuing and recurrent primarily nociceptive CLBP due to vertebral joint overload subsequent to functional instability of the lumbar spine. This condition may occur due to disruption of the motor control system to the key stabilizing muscles in the lumbar spine, particularly the lumbar multifidus muscle (MF). This review presents the evidence for MF involvement in CLBP, mechanisms of action of disruption of control of the MF, and options for restoring control of the MF as a treatment for NSCLBP. Imaging assessment of motor control dysfunction of the MF in individual patients is fraught with difficulty. MRI or ultrasound imaging techniques, while reliable, have limited diagnostic or predictive utility. For some patients, restoration of motor control to the MF with specific exercises can be effective, but population results are not persuasive since most patients are unable to voluntarily contract the MF and may be inhibited from doing so due to arthrogenic muscle inhibition. Targeting MF control with restorative neurostimulation promises a new treatment option. © 2017 The Authors. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.

  2. Specific and non-specific match effects in negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labossière, Danielle I; Leboe-McGowan, Jason P

    2018-01-01

    The negative priming effect occurs when withholding a response to a stimulus impairs generation of subsequent responding to a same or a related stimulus. Our goal was to use the negative priming procedure to obtain insights about the memory representations generated by ignoring vs. attending/responding to a prime stimulus. Across three experiments we observed that ignoring a prime stimulus tends to generate higher identity-independent, non-specific repetition effects, owing to an overlap in the coarse perceptual form of a prime distractor and a probe target. By contrast, attended repetition effects generate predominantly identity-specific sources of facilitation. We use these findings to advocate for using laboratory phenomena to illustrate general principles that can be of practical use to non-specialists. In the case of the negative priming procedure, we propose that the procedure provides a useful means for investigating attention/memory interactions, even if the specific cause (or causes) of negative priming effects remain unresolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L. Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D’Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. Objectives To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non

  4. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L Susan; Skoetz, Nicole; Pilkington, Karen; Vempati, Ramaprabhu; D'Adamo, Christopher R; Berman, Brian M

    2017-01-12

    Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g. education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non-exercise intervention such as education (seven trials), an exercise intervention (three trials), or both exercise and non-exercise interventions (two trials). All trials were at high risk of performance and detection bias because

  5. Methods of reducing non-specific adsorption in microfluidic biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seokheun; Chae, Junseok

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of biomolecules is a persistent challenge in microfluidic biosensors. Microfluidic biosensors often have immobilized bioreceptors such as antibodies, enzymes, DNAs, etc, via linker molecules such as SAMs (self-assembled monolayers) to enhance immobilization. However, the linker molecules are very susceptible to NSA, causing false responses and decreasing sensitivity. In this paper, we present design methods to reduce the NSA of alkanethiol SAMs, which are popular linker molecules on microfluidic biosensors. Three design parameters were studied for two different chain-length SAMs (n = 2 and 10): (i) SAM incubation time, (ii) surface roughness [0.8 nm and 4.4 nm RMS (root mean square)] and (iii) gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation. NSA was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The results suggest that increased SAM incubation time reduces NSA, and that short-chain SAMs respond more favorably than the long-chain SAMs. Both SAMs were shown to be sensitive to surface roughness, and long-chain SAMs reduced NSA by 75%. Gold crystal re-growth along (1 1 1) the target orientation profoundly reduced NSA on the short-chain SAM. On a gold surface where surface roughness was 0.8 nm and there was strong directional alignment along the (1 1 1) gold crystal, final concentrations of nonspecifically bound proteins were 0.05 ng mm −2 (fibrinogen) and 0.075 ng mm −2 (lysozyme)—significantly lower than other known methods. The results show that optimizing three parameters (SAM incubation time, gold surface roughness and gold crystal orientation) improved SAM sensitivity for fibrinogen–anti-fibrinogen conjugates by a factor of 5 in 2.94 pM, suggesting that the methods are effective for reducing NSA in microfluidic biosensors.

  6. Results of investigations of non-specific humoral-type response in workers exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Loch, T.

    1989-12-01

    In the group of 30 workers exposed to beryllium a statistically significant increase in the level of immunoglobulins of class A was found in comparison with the control group (p<0.01). This may be an early indicator of a process taking place in the respiratory system. Results of measurement of immunoglobulins, as non-specific indicators, are of limited value in the evaluation of the influence of the occupational factor; at the same time they point to the usefulness of testing for the specific indicators of humoral reactivity in persons whose work involves contact with beryllium or its compounds. (author)

  7. Empirical models in the description of prickly pear shoot (Nopal drying kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the technological process involved in the drying kinetics of fresh-cut prickly pear shoots through numerical and analytical solutions. Shoots of two different prickly pear species were used, ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’. Drying was performed at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and weighing procedures were made continuously. The experimental data were expressed as moisture ratio. The Page model showed the best fit to the drying kinetics of minimally processed ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots, with the best coefficients of determination and Chi-square. Peleg and Wang & Singh models can not be used to simulate the drying of ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots within the evaluated range of temperatures, showing an incoherent graphic pattern.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of lindgrenite with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiasheng; Xue Dongfeng

    2007-01-01

    Lindgrenite [Cu 3 (OH) 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 ] with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture has been synthesized via a simple and mild hydrothermal route in the absence of any external inorganic additives or organic structure-directing templates. The hierarchical lindgrenite particles are hollow and prickly spheres, which are comprised of numerous small crystal strips that are aligned perpendicularly to the spherical surface. Two factors are important for the formation of hollow and prickly architecture in the present process. One is the general phenomenon of Ostwald ripening in solution, which can be responsible for the hollow structure; the other is that lindgrenite crystals have a rhombic growth habit, which plays an important role in the formation of prickly surface. Furthermore, Cu 3 Mo 2 O 9 with the similar size and morphology can be easily obtained by a simple thermal treatment of the as-prepared lindgrenite in air atmosphere. - Graphical abstract: Lindgrenite [Cu 3 (OH) 2 (MoO 4 ) 2 ] with a hollow and prickly sphere-like architecture has been synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The hierarchical lindgrenite particles are hollow and prickly spheres, which are comprised of numerous crystal strips that are aligned perpendicularly to the spherical surface. Cu 3 Mo 2 O 9 with the similar size and morphology can be easily obtained by a thermal treatment of the as-prepared lindgrenite

  9. Laser heat hyperalgesia is not a feature of non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Ritter, A; Puta, C; Nötzel, D; Miltner, W H R; Weiss, T

    2014-11-01

    Based upon studies using mechanical pin-prick, pressure, electrical or heat stimuli applied to painful and/or pain-free parts of the body, chronic low back pain (CLBP) has been shown to be associated with generalized and enhanced pain sensitivity and altered brain responses to noxious stimuli. To date, no study examined the processing of noxious laser heat pulses, which are known to selectively excite thermal nociceptors located in the superficial skin layers, in CLBP. We studied laser heat pain thresholds (LHPTs) and nociceptive laser-evoked brain electrical potentials (LEPs) following skin stimulation of the pain-affected back and the pain-free abdomen using noxious laser heat stimulation in 16 CLBP patients and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). We observed no statistically significant differences in LHPTs between CLBP patients and HCs, neither on the back nor on the abdomen. Furthermore, we found no evidence for altered brain responses between CLBP patients and HCs in response to stimulation of the back and abdomen in single-trial latencies and amplitudes of LEP components (N2, P2). The results are in contrast to previous studies showing hypersensitivity to different experimental noxious stimuli (e.g., contact heat). We argue that these discrepancies may be due to low spatial and temporal summation within the central nervous system following laser heat stimulation. Our results indicate important methodological differences between laser heat and thermode stimulation that should be taken into account when interpreting results, such as from thermal quantitative sensory testing. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  10. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  11. Non-specific binding of Na+ and Mg2+ to RNA determined by force spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, C. V.; Alemany, A.; Ritort, F.

    2012-01-01

    RNA duplex stability depends strongly on ionic conditions, and inside cells RNAs are exposed to both monovalent and multivalent ions. Despite recent advances, we do not have general methods to quantitatively account for the effects of monovalent and multivalent ions on RNA stability, and the thermodynamic parameters for secondary structure prediction have only been derived at 1M [Na+]. Here, by mechanically unfolding and folding a 20 bp RNA hairpin using optical tweezers, we study the RNA thermodynamics and kinetics at different monovalent and mixed monovalent/Mg2+ salt conditions. We measure the unfolding and folding rupture forces and apply Kramers theory to extract accurate information about the hairpin free energy landscape under tension at a wide range of ionic conditions. We obtain non-specific corrections for the free energy of formation of the RNA hairpin and measure how the distance of the transition state to the folded state changes with force and ionic strength. We experimentally validate the Tightly Bound Ion model and obtain values for the persistence length of ssRNA. Finally, we test the approximate rule by which the non-specific binding affinity of divalent cations at a given concentration is equivalent to that of monovalent cations taken at 100-fold concentration for small molecular constructs. PMID:22492710

  12. [YANG's pricking-cupping therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a multi-center randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Xiru; Hu, Zhihai; Sun, Aijun; Ma, Yanwen; Chen Yingying; Zhang, Xuzhi; Liu, Meiling; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shuoshuo; Zhang, Yunjia; Li, Yijing; Shen, Weidong

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of YANG's pricking-cupping therapy for knee osteoar thritis (KOA). Methods This was a multi-center randomized parallel controlled trial. One hundred and seventy one patients with KOA were randomly allocated to a pricking-cupping group (89 cases) and a conventional acu puncture group (82 cases). Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Dubi (ST 35) and ashi points were selected in the two groups. Patients in the pricking-cupping group were treated with YANG's pricking-cupping therapy; the seven-star needles were used to perform pricking at acupoints, then cupping was used until slight bleeding was observed. Patients in the conventional acupuncture group were treated with semi-standardized filiform needle therapy. The treatment was given for 4 weeks (from a minimum of 5 times to a maximum of 10 times). The follow-up visit was 4 weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) were adopted for the efficacy assessments. The pain score, stiffness score, physical function score and total score of WOMAC were all reduced after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit in the two groups (all P0. 05), each score and total score of WOMAC in the pricking-cupping group were lower than those in the conventional acupuncture group after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit (Pcupping group were lower than those in the conventional acupuncture group after 4-week treatment and during follow-up visit (P cupping and conventional acupuncture therapy can both significantly improve knee joint pain and function in patients with KOA, which are relatively safe. The pricking cupping therapy is superior to conventional acupuncture with the identical selection of acupoints.

  13. A pilot evaluation of whole blood finger-prick sampling for point-of-care HIV viral load measurement: the UNICORN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Sarah; Lewis, Heather; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Kuldanek, Kristin; Thornhill, John; Muir, David; Bonnissent, Alice; Timson, Georgina; Frater, John

    2017-10-20

    There is a global need for HIV viral load point-of-care (PoC) assays to monitor patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. UNICORN was the first study of an off-label protocol using whole blood finger-prick samples tested with and without a simple three minute spin using a clinic-room microcentrifuge. Two PoC assays were evaluated in 40 HIV-positive participants, 20 with detectable and 20 with undetectable plasma viral load (pVL) (<20 copies/ml). Using 100 µl finger-prick blood samples, the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load and HIV-1 Qual cartridges were compared with laboratory pVL assessment (TaqMan, Roche). For participants with undetectable viraemia by TaqMan, there was poor concordance without centrifugation with the TaqMan platform with only 40% 'undetectable' using Xpert VL and 25% 'not detected' using the Qual assay. After a 3 minute spin, 100% of samples were undetectable using either assay, showing full concordance with the TaqMan assay. Defining a lower limit of detection of 1000 copies/ml when including a spin, there was 100% concordance with the TaqMan platform with strong correlation (rho 0.95 and 0.94; p < 0.0001 for both assays). When including a simple microcentrifugation step, finger-prick PoC testing was a quick and accurate approach for assessing HIV viraemia, with excellent concordance with validated laboratory approaches.

  14. Extraction and determination of polyphenols and betalain pigments in the Moroccan Prickly pear fruits (Opuntia ficus indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khatabi

    2016-09-01

    This study has permitted us equally to value betalain pigments extracted from fruity juice. These are the betalains present in the epidermis and the pulp of the prickly pear confers on it its color varying from yellow to purple. Results show that yellow and red prickly pears contain imported strengths in betalains. Our work shows that the red prickly pear contains betaxanthin pigments in excess of the indicaxanthin that permits to valorize human’s potential spring of genuine colorings. Betalains and polyphenols are antioxidants that contribute to nutritional prickly pears’ quality and to their products of transformation.

  15. Local anesthetic effects of Lidocaine cream: randomized controlled trial using a standardized prick pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberger, Katharina; Krause, Karoline; Maier, Kristina; Zschocke, Ina; Radtke, Marc; Augustin, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    ELA-max (4% lidocaine) and EMLA cream (lidocaine-prilocaine 2.5%) are topicals used for superficial anesthesia. Only few studies have been published on their comparative effectiveness in close-to-practice pain models. (1) To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of lidocaine cream compared with lidocaine-prilocaine cream and placebo. (2) To assess the safety and tolerability. Randomized, three-arm, double-blind trial in 40 healthy volunteers comparing the anesthetic effects of Lidocaine and lidocaine-prilocaine cream to placebo at various time points (0-120 min). A standardized pain was induced by lancet pricks and measured by a visual analogue scale. Intra-individual comparison between the test areas was performed in a cross-over design. Lidocaine showed significantly reduced pain compared to placebo at all assessment points. Pain reduction was achieved significantly earlier using lidocaine occlusively (30 min). No significant differences were found concerning the anesthetic efficacy of lidocaine and lidocaine-prilocaine cream. There were no relevant adverse events. This study confirms that a topical preparation with 4% lidocaine is an effective and safe treatment option for superficial anesthesia. It supports the claim that an occlusive application is more rapid in action. 4% lidocaine is of value as a rapidly-acting local anesthetic for the treatment of minor surgical procedures.

  16. A study of ′cough trick′ technique in reducing vaccination prick pain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram S. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ′cough trick′ (CT technique is used in reducing intramuscular prick (IMP pain during vaccinations and also for brief painful procedures like subcutaneous injection, intravenous cannulation, and so forth. We present the utility study of this technique in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A Randomized Crossover Volunteer Study of 50 early adolescent male children (age 11-13 receiving immunizations was performed. Participants were recruited from four outpatient pediatric clinics. The strategy required a single "warm-up" cough of moderate force, followed by a second cough that coincided with needle puncture. The principle outcome was self-reported pain. Results: Paired ′t′ test revealed that the procedure was effective at a statistically and clinically significant level for participants. Children found the procedure acceptable and effective. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CT can be an effective strategy for the reduction of pain for male adolescent children undergoing routine immunizations. However, additional research is needed with a larger sample size with different age groups and also including girl children.

  17. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Adil; Ozturk, Ebru; Zeyrek, Fadile; Onur, Kahraman; Sirmatel, Ocal; Kat, Nurcan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  18. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Adil [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozturka26@hotmail.com; Ozturk, Ebru [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Zeyrek, Fadile [Department of Microbiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Onur, Kahraman [Department of Urology, SSK Sanliurfa Hastanesi, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Sirmatel, Ocal [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Kat, Nurcan [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2005-11-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  19. Role of posterior-anterior vertebral mobilization versus thermotherapy in non specific lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Aftab Ahmed Mirza; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Ali, Syed Shahzad; Rahmani, Asim; Siddiqui, Faizan

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is the foremost cause to hamper an individual's functional activities in Pakistan. Its impact on the quality of life and work routine makes it a major reason for therapeutic consultations. About 90% of the cases with LBP are non-specific. Various options are available for the treatment of LBP. Posterior-anterior vertebral mobilization, a manual therapy technique; and thermotherapy are used in clinical practice, however evidence to gauge their relative efficacy is yet to be synthesised. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of posterior-anterior vertebral mobilization versus thermotherapy in the management of non-specific low back pain along with general stretching exercises. A randomised controlled trial with two-group pretest-posttest design was conducted at IPM&R, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS). A total of 60 Non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) patients with ages from 18 to 35 years were inducted through non-probability and purposive sampling technique. Baseline screening was done using an assessment form (Appendix-I). Subjects were allocated into two groups through systematic random sampling. Group-A (experimental group) received posterior-anterior vertebral mobilization with general stretching exercises while group B (control group) received thermotherapy with general stretching exercises. Pain and functional disability were assessed using NPRS and RMDQ respectively. Pre & post treatment scores were documented. A maximum drop-out rate of 20% was assumed. Recorded data were entered into SPSS V-19. Frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Intragroup and intergroup analyses were done using Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Mann-Whitney Test respectively. A P-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pre and post treatment analysis revealed that P-values for both pain and disability were less than 0.05, suggesting significant difference in NPRS and RMDQ scores. Whereas, median scores for

  20. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral...... was 1.04 (0.53 to 2.04) when OPV at birth (OPV0) was not given, suggesting that early priming with OPV was important for the effect of 2-dose MV. The effect of OPV0 depended on age of administration; the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.45 (0.29 to 0.71) for children receiving OPV0 in the first week of life...

  1. A Simple Method for the Preparation of ZnO Prickly Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Zhi LI; Xin Yu SONG; Si Xiu SUN; Jin Xin GUO

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of ZnO prickly spheres using precipitation followed by heating treatment was investigated. Zn(OH)2 precursor was prepared by precipitation process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O in mixed 1-propanol-water solvent. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the anionic surfactant was added to control the morphology. The size and structure of ZnO prickly spheres were studied using XRD, TEM and SEM. The results showed that the morphologies and size of the spheres strongly depended on the volume ratio of 1-propanol /water and molar ratio of SDS/Zn2+. ZnO prickly spheres composed of nanorods could be obtained, when the volume ratio of 1-propanol/water = 2:3 and the molar ratio of Zn2+/SDS ≈ 450:1.

  2. Human finger-prick induced pluripotent stem cells facilitate the development of stem cell banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong-Kee; Toh, Cheng-Xu Delon; Ma, Dongrui; Yang, Binxia; Liu, Tong Ming; Lu, Jun; Wong, Chee-Wai; Tan, Tze-Kai; Li, Hu; Syn, Christopher; Tan, Eng-Lee; Lim, Bing; Lim, Yoon-Pin; Cook, Stuart A; Loh, Yuin-Han

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients can be a good model for studying human diseases and for future therapeutic regenerative medicine. Current initiatives to establish human iPSC (hiPSC) banking face challenges in recruiting large numbers of donors with diverse diseased, genetic, and phenotypic representations. In this study, we describe the efficient derivation of transgene-free hiPSCs from human finger-prick blood. Finger-prick sample collection can be performed on a "do-it-yourself" basis by donors and sent to the hiPSC facility for reprogramming. We show that single-drop volumes of finger-prick samples are sufficient for performing cellular reprogramming, DNA sequencing, and blood serotyping in parallel. Our novel strategy has the potential to facilitate the development of large-scale hiPSC banking worldwide.

  3. Detection of Pathogen Exposure in African Buffalo Using Non-Specific Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline K. Glidden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting exposure to new or emerging pathogens is a critical challenge to protecting human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Yet, current techniques to detect infections typically target known pathogens of humans or economically important animals. In the face of the current surge in infectious disease emergence, non-specific disease surveillance tools are urgently needed. Tracking common host immune responses indicative of recent infection may have potential as a non-specific diagnostic approach for disease surveillance. The challenge to immunologists is to identify the most promising markers, which ideally should be highly conserved across pathogens and host species, become upregulated rapidly and consistently in response to pathogen invasion, and remain elevated beyond clearance of infection. This study combined an infection experiment and a longitudinal observational study to evaluate the utility of non-specific markers of inflammation [NSMI; two acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ and TNF-α] as indicators of pathogen exposure in a wild mammalian species, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer. Specifically, in the experimental study, we asked (1 How quickly do buffalo mount NSMI responses upon challenge with an endemic pathogen, foot-and-mouth disease virus; (2 for how long do NSMI remain elevated after viral clearance and; (3 how pronounced is the difference between peak NSMI concentration and baseline NSMI concentration? In the longitudinal study, we asked (4 Are elevated NSMI associated with recent exposure to a suite of bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens in a wild population? Among the four NSMI that we tested, haptoglobin showed the strongest potential as a surveillance marker in African buffalo: concentrations quickly and consistently reached high levels in response to experimental infection, remaining elevated for almost a month. Moreover, elevated haptoglobin was

  4. Utilization of Prickly Pear Peels to Improve Quality of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Sallam, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study utilization of prickly pear peels to improve quality of pan bread. Prickly pear peels powder added to wheat flour 72 % at levels 1.0 and 2.0% to make pan beard. In this study, evaluation of nutrients and chemical constitutes and functional properties of prickly pear peels as well as the rheological properties of dough contained prickly pear peels at levels 1% and 2% has been conducted. Then evaluated organoleptic characteristics of pan bread made of it also determined staling rate. Results showed that prickly pear peels had higher content of 32.67 % fiber, 14.25 % pectin and 87.82 % ascorbic acid, and higher contents of antioxidant components. It consists of 441.11 mg/100 g, total phenols, 35.2 flavonoids mg/100 g and DPPH radical-scavenging 62.14%, also water holding capacity was 1.8 ml H 2 O / g , oil holding capacity 2.35 (ml oil/g) and foam stability 7.15%. The major phenolic compounds Oleuro 1264.407, pyrogallo 1149.68, Benzoic 982.37, 3-oH Tyrosol 588.53, Ellagic 413.26, Chorogenic 271.10, Protocatechuic acid 176.02, P-oH- Benzoic 112.78, Epicatechin105.99, Gallic acid 61.26 ppm. The results revealed that addition of prickly pear peels to wheat flour increased the nutrition values of pan bread made of it due to high contents of fiber, ascorbic acid and natural antioxidants, and also decreased staling which improves the quality of pan bread, as well as increases shelf-life of pan bread.

  5. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike L.T. Berendsen

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: We found a general time-dependent pattern of non-specific effects of vaccination, with positive associations for vaccinations given early in life and negative associations for vaccinations given later in infancy. If confirmed in further research, our findings may provide a new perspective on the non-specific effects of vaccination.

  6. Nanoparticles modify dendritic cell homeostasis and induce non-specific effects on immunity to malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Sue D; Kong, Ying Y; Hanley, Jennifer; Fuchsberger, Martina; Crimeen-Irwin, Blessing; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Many current vaccines to a specific pathogen influence responses to other pathogens in a process called heterologous immunity. We propose that their particulate nature contributes to non-specific effects. Herein, we demonstrate polystyrene nanoparticles modulate dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis, thereby promoting a persistent enhanced state of immune readiness to a subsequent infectious challenge. Particles (approximately 40 nm and 500 nm carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles; PSNPs) alone or conjugated to a model antigen were injected in mice, and DCs in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and bone-marrow (BM) quantified by flow cytometry. BM cells were tested for capacity to generate DCs upon culture with granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mice were challenged with Plasmodium yoelli. Blood parasitaemias were monitored by GIEMSA. Sera was analyzed for antibodies by ELISA. Intradermal administration of 40 nm PSNPs induced anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, increased numbers and proportions of DCs in the dLN, and increased the capacity of BM to generate DCs. Consistent with these unexpected changes, 40 nm PSNPs pre-injected mice had enhanced ability to generate immunity to a subsequent malarial infection. Intradermal administration of 40 nm PSNPs modifies DC homeostasis, which may at least in part explain the observed beneficial heterologous effects of current particulate vaccines. Further nanotechnological developments may exploit such strategies to promote beneficial non-specific effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Depth profile analysis of non-specific fluorescence and color of tooth tissues after peroxide bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Zoladz, James; Schwarz, Björn-Olaf; Duschner, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    To examine laboratory changes of endogenous non-specific fluorescence and color throughout subsurface of tooth structures prior to and following peroxide bleaching. Extracted human teeth were cross sectioned and mounted on glass slides. Cross sections were examined for internal color (digital camera) and nonspecific fluorescence (microRaman spectroscopy) throughout the tooth structure at specified locations. Surfaces of sections were then saturation bleached for 70 hours with a gel containing 6% hydrogen peroxide. Cross sections were reexamined for color and non-specific fluorescence changes. Unbleached enamel, dentin-enamel junction and dentin exhibit different CIELab color and non-specific fluorescence properties. Bleaching of teeth produced significant changes in color of internal cross sections and substantial reductions of non-specific fluorescence levels within enamel dentin and DEJ. Enamel and dentin non-specific fluorescence were reduced to common values with bleaching with enamel and the DEJ showing larger reductions than dentin.

  8. Results of a Pilates exercise program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, M C; Rodríguez-Torres, J; Cabrera-Martos, I; Díaz-Pelegrina, A; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, M E; Castellote-Caballero, Y

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a Pilates exercise program on disability, pain, lumbar mobility, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. University laboratory. A total of 54 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n=27) included in a Pilates exercise program or to a control group ( n=27) receiving information in a form of a leaflet. Disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), current, average and pain at it least and at its worst (Visual Analogue Scales), lumbar mobility (modified Shober test), flexibility (finger-to-floor test) and balance (single limb stance test) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. A between-group analysis showed significant differences in the intervention group compared to the control group for both disability scores, the Rolland-Morris questionnaire (mean change±standard deviation of 5.31±3.37 and 2.40±6.78 respectively and between-groups mean difference of 3.2 ± 4.12, p=0.003) and the Oswestry Disability Index ( ppain ( p=0.002) and pain at it least ( p=0.033), flexibility (0.032) and balance (0.043). An 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in improving disability, pain, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

  9. Effects of radiotherapy on non-specific immunological parameters in patients with malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Iwaki, Kazuo; Ohtsuka, Shin-ichi; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Gi, Hidefuku

    1983-01-01

    The non-specific immunological parameters of 37 patients with malignant brain tumors were analysed by means of 1) purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test, 2) lymphocyte counts, and 3) phytohemagglutinin (PHA) blastogenesis. The PPD skin reaction and PHA blastogenesis were already depressed preoperatively in patients with malignant brain tumors as compared to those in normal controls. When radiotherapy was confined to the head, lymphocyte counts and PHA blastogenesis were further depressed, but gradually recovered to preoperative levels within 6 months after the completion of radiotherapy. In the cases with medulloblastoma and germinoma who received whole cerebrospinal axis irradiation, lymphocyte counts and PHA blastogenesis were more markedly depressed and took more than 6 months after completion of the radiotherapy to recover to their preoperative levels. The result of the PPD skin test, on the other hand, was not affected and was rather enhanced by radiotherapy, showing a marked dissociation from the changes in lymphocyte counts and PHA blastogenesis. The results of PPD skin test on discharge from hospital were relatively well correlated with the prognosis of the patients. The profound immunosuppressive influence of radiotherapy and the natural course of recovery should be taken into consideration if any immunological treatments are to be undertaken with or after the course of radiotherapy. (author)

  10. A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yi; Han Deqiang; Jean Dezert

    2016-01-01

    In the theory of belief functions, the measure of uncertainty is an important concept, which is used for representing some types of uncertainty incorporated in bodies of evidence such as the discord and the non-specificity. For the non-specificity part, some traditional measures use for reference the Hartley measure in classical set theory;other traditional measures use the simple and heuristic function for joint use of mass assignments and the cardinality of focal elements. In this paper, a new non-specificity measure is proposed using lengths of belief intervals, which represent the degree of imprecision. Therefore, it has more intuitive physical meaning. It can be proved that our new measure can be rewritten in a general form for the non-specificity. Our new measure is also proved to be a strict non-specificity measure with some desired properties. Numerical examples, simulations, the related analyses and proofs are provided to show the characteristics and good properties of the new non-specificity definition. An example of an application of the new non-specificity measure is also presented.

  11. Effects of Hydrotherapy on postural control and electromyography parameters in men with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mahjur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of hydrotherapy on postural control and electromyography parameters in men with chronic non-specific low back pain. Thirty men with chronic non-specific LBP divided into two hydrotherapy and control groups, randomly and equally. Electromyographic activity of erector spinae muscles and balance measured for both of groups before and after intervention. Hydrotherapy program was consisted of 24 sessions. Subjects in control group didn’t have any special activity. Two-way variance was used to interpret the data and correlated and independent T-tests were used for analysis of data at the significance level of (P0.05. However, a significant difference observed between two groups in balance index (P<0.05.

  12. Preventing the dental needle prick injury (DNPI) : a new approach to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of serious occupational hazards of infectious diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis B and C, Lassa and Ebola Virus diseases which can be contracted through such injuries can be quite costly to the dental health care worker and to the healthcare system in general. Dental needle prick injury (DNPI) prevention devices ...

  13. The effect of Kinesio Taping on postural control in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Soheila; Rojhani-Shirazi, Zahra; Shokri, Esmaeil; García-Muro San José, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in postural control during upright standing in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain and the effect of Kinesio taping on the postural control. Twenty subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain and twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The center of pressure excursion was evaluated before the intervention for both groups, and immediately after intervention for the low back pain group. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney test and repeated measure ANOVA were used for the statistical analysis of the data. There were significant differences in the center of pressure excursion between the low back pain group versus the healthy group. The results of the ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean COP displacement and velocity before Kinesio Taping, immediately after, and 24 h after in the low back pain group. There are poor postural control mechanisms in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain. Kinesio taping seems to change postural control immediately and have lasting effects until the day after. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Massage and modality effects on treatment of sub-acute and chronic non specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Panahi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP is the second most common medical complaint. It’s estimated that about 70-85% of the population will suffer at least one episode of LBP during their life. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of massage and modality in patient with sub-acute and chronic non-specific LBPMethods: In this clinical trial study 30 women (MeanAge: 33.96±10.93 with sub-acute and chronic non-specific LBP (Mean pain-duration:9.68±3.38 were included in the study and randomized into two equal groups; massage and modality. Patients in both group underwent 10 sessions treatment period. Pain (numerical-pain-scale,NRS, functional disability index (oswestry-disability-index,ODI and lumbar-flexion(modified-schober-testwere recorded before and immediately after treatment period. Data was analyzed using paired t-test and independent sample t-test.Results: Significant improvement showed in both groups separately in pain-intensity, disability level, and flexion after treatment (P<0.001. Statically significant improvement was seen in massage group in comparison to modality group for NRS & ODI after treatment (PNRS=0.015, PODI=0.013. There was a not significant change in point of lumber flexion between two groupsConclusion: The results showed that both massage and modality had beneficial effects on the improvement of pain, functional disability and lumbar flexion in patients with non-specific LBP. It seems that massage is better than modality for non-specific LBP in a short period of time.

  15. Protective effect of a non specific inflammation on bone marrow protein synthesis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Roques, P.; Court, L.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiations exert a decrease in mouse bone marrow total protein synthesis. A non-specific inflammatory process induced with polyacrylamide microbeads stimulates spleen and marrow protein synthesis and protects the medullar protein synthesis in irradiated mice [fr

  16. A non-specific biomarker of disease activity in HIV/AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A general non-specific marker of disease activity that could alert the clinician and prompt further investiga- tion would be of ... laration of Helsinki, the National Health Act and the ..... CD8+ lymphocytes and neopterin are related to.

  17. The diagnosis value of BV combined test kit for non specific bacterial vaginitis%细菌性阴道病联合测定试剂盒对非特异细菌性阴道炎的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷玉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨细菌性阴道病(BV)联合测定试剂盒对阴道炎的诊断效能,评估其临床价值.方法 采集妇科门诊患者阴道分泌物进行白带常规检查(白细胞、上皮细胞、阴道毛滴虫、真菌孢子),同时用BV联合测定试剂盒检测BV.结果 1 200例标本中,共检出滴虫阳性检出率为4.4%,真菌孢子为10.8%,BV为11.9%.结论 对阴道炎患者阴道分泌物同时进行滴虫、真菌孢子、BV检测,能更好反映阴道炎患者的病原体感染状况,有利于临床医生对症治疗;BV检测可作为妇科门诊患者白带常规筛查项目进行推广应用.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of the bacterial vaginosis(BV) combined test kit and to assess the clinical value. Methods Collect the vaginal secrtion samples from the patients with vaginitis in the Gynecologic Outpatient Department, take the leucorrhea routine examination which included leukocyte、 epithelial trichomonas vaginalis 、fungal spores, and use the BV combined test kit to detect BV. Results In 1 200 cases, 4.4% were positive with trichomonas vagiralis, 10. 8% with fungal spores and 11.9 % with BV. Conclusion Simultaneously, the trichomonas vaginalis,fungal spores and BV of the vaginal secretion from the vaginitis patients were detected, which can better reflect the status of pathogen infection of vaginal secretion from the padents and help clinical doctors to make symptomatic treatment. So BV detection can be used as screening program of leukorrhea routine examination for the outpatients from Gynaecology Department in the local area.

  18. Inter-tester reliability of a new diagnostic classification system for patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom Erik; Olsen, Steen; Laslett, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Most patients referred to physiotherapy with low back pain are without a precise medical diagnosis. Identification of subgroups of non-specific low back pain patients may improve clinical outcomes and research efficiency. A pathoanatomic classification system has been developed, classifying...... modest level of total agreement (39%) for the system as a whole might indicate that the utility of the system for general screening purposes is limited, compared with the utility in identification of particular syndromes. Due to low prevalence of positive findings in some of the syndromes, future work...... should focus on testing reliability on a larger sample of patients, and testing of validity and feasibility of the system....

  19. Significance of non-specific complaints in asymptomatic cerebral infarction. Approach based on the cerebral circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakayori, Osamu; Kitamura, Shin; Nagazumi, Atsushi; Terashi, Akirou [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Seventy-three cases with asymptomatic cerebral infarction detected by MR scanning and 80 cases of past stroke patients were evaluated. The regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using the SPECT, idoine-123-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method was measured. Twenty-two patients with non-specific complaints (dizziness, numbness of the extremities, headache, etc.) without cerebrovascular risk factors were also examined as controls. Fifty-two percent of the asymptomatic infarction cases had non-specific complaints. The regional CBF in all cerebral non-specific complaints showed significantly lower values as compared to the controls. There was no difference in CBF values between the asymptomatic infarction cases with non-specific complaints and the past stroke patients. Among the asymptomatic infarction patients, cases with both non-specific complaints and hypertension displayed significantly lower CBF values, especially in the frontal and temporal cortical regions, than did cases without non-specific complaints or hypertension. These findings suggest that the patient`s complaints should be taken into consideration when determining the clinical treatment of asymptomatic infarction. (author)

  20. Passive Stretch Versus Active Stretch on Intervertebral Movement in Non - Specific Neck Pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El - Aziz, A.H.; Amin, D.I.; Moustafa, I.

    2016-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the most common and painful musculoskeletal conditions. Point prevalence ranges from 6% to 22% and up to 38% of the elderly population, while lifetime prevalence ranges from 14,2% to 71%. Up till now no randomized study showed the effect between controversy of active and passive stretch on intervertebral movement. The purpose: the current study was to investigate the effect of the passive and active stretch on intervertebral movement in non - specific neck pain. Material and methods: Forty five subjects from both sexes with age range between 18 and 30 years and assigned in three groups, group I (15) received active stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group II (15) received passive stretch, ultrasound and TENS. Group III (15) received ultrasound and TENS. The radiological assessment was used to measure rotational and translational movement of intervertebral movement before and after treatment. Results: MANOVA test was used for radiological assessment before and after treatment there was significant increase in intervertebral movement in group I as p value =0.0001. Conclusion: active stretch had a effect in increasing the intervertebral movement compared to the passive stretch

  1. Serial high resolution CT in non-specific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic value of the initial pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Screaton, N.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: nicholas.screaton@papworth.nhs.uk; Hiorns, M.P. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Lee, K.S. [Samsung Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea); Franquet, T. [Hospital de Saint Pau, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Johkoh, T. [Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ichikado, K. [First Department of Internal Medicine, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Colby, T.V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine/Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Mueller, N.L. [Department of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relationship between initial CT pattern and serial changes in CT findings and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serial high resolution (HR) CTs and PFTs were retrospectively analyzed in 38 cases of histologically proven NSIP, including 4 with cellular NSIP, 13 with mixed cellular and fibrotic NSIP, and 21 with fibrotic NSIP. The presence and extent of various CT findings were assessed. A fibrosis index (defined as the ratio of the extent of a reticular/honeycomb pattern to the overall extent of abnormal parenchyma) was derived. RESULTS: The predominant CT pattern was reticular/honeycomb in 27 (84%) cases and ground-glass/consolidation in 6 (16%) cases. Between scans, mean disease extent reduced by 5.2%. Disease extent reduced by >10% in 13 (34%) and increased by >10% in 6 (16%) patients. Histopathological subtype of NSIP did not correlate with individual CT pattern, predominant pattern, fibrosis index or serial change in disease extent on CT or PFTs. Response on follow-up CT was associated with fibrosis index, predominant pattern and extent of consolidation on initial CT. CONCLUSION: In NSIP disease, progression on CT correlates with the predominant CT pattern, fibrosis index, and extent of consolidation but not with histopathological subtype. An inflammatory (ground-glass/consolidation) predominant pattern is associated with better outcome in terms of disease extent on HRCT.

  2. Conditioning pain stimulation does not affect itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine pricks but aggravates neurogenic inflammation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Imai, Yosuke; Petersen, Kristian Kjær

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether itch induced by intra-epidermal histamine is subjected to modulation by a standardized conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. CPM was induced by computer-controlled cuff pressure algometry and histamine was introduced to the volar...... forearm by skin prick test punctures. Moreover, neurogenic inflammation and wheal reactions induced by histamine and autonomic nervous system responses (heart rate variability and skin conductance) were monitored. CPM did not modulate the intensity of histamine-induced itch suggesting that pruriceptive...... signaling is not inhibited by pain-recruited endogenous modulation, however, CPM was found to aggravate histamine-induced neurogenic inflammation, likely facilitated by efferent sympathetic fibers....

  3. Clinimetric evaluation of methods to measure muscle functioning in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits-Engelsman Bouwien CM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. Methods A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases from 1980 to January 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinimetric properties of identified measurement methods, using a checklist of generally accepted criteria for reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement, construct validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Results The search identified a total of 16 studies. The instruments or tests included were: muscle endurance tests for short neck flexors, craniocervical flexion test with an inflatable pressure biofeedback unit, manual muscle testing of neck musculature, dynamometry and functional lifting tests (the cervical progressive iso-inertial lifting evaluation (PILE test and the timed weighted overhead test. All the articles included report information on the reproducibility of the tests. Acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability was demonstrated for t enduranctest for short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test. Construct validity and responsiveness have hardly been documented for tests on muscle functioning. Conclusion The endurance test of the short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test can be regarded as appropriate instruments for measuring different aspects of neck muscle function in patients with non-specific neck pain. Common methodological flaws in the studies were their small sample size and an inappropriate description of the study design.

  4. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  5. Characteristics of prickly lettuce seed oil in relation to methods of extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A A

    1976-01-01

    Samples of seed oil of prickly lettuce (Lactuca Sacriola oleifera) which had been obtained by pressing or by extracting with acetone, ethyl ether, petroleum ether or carbon tetrachloride were analysed for the following parameters: viscosity, saponification number, iodine number, thiocyanogen value, unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acids, peroxide number and fatty acid composition. The different parameters varied in part considerably in relation to the method of production (pressing or solvent extraction) and to the solvent. It is tried to interprete these relationships.

  6. Analgesia with breastfeeding in addition to skin-to-skin contact during heel prick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, Miguel Ángel; del Rey Hurtado de Mendoza, Beatriz; Jiménez Figueroa, Lourdes; Medina, Virginia; Iglesias Fernández, Beatriz; Vázquez Rodríguez, María; Escudero Huedo, Virginia; Medina Malagón, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the analgesic effect (measured with Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS)) of breastfeeding (BF) in addition to skin-to-skin contact (SSC) versus other methods of non-pharmacological analgesia during blood sampling through heel lance in healthy term neonates. Randomised controlled trial. Tertiary level maternity ward. One hundred thirty-six healthy term newborns. healthy term neonates, wish to breastfeed and absence of feeding during the previous 60 min. Neonates were randomly assigned to four groups: Group breastfed with SSC (BF+SSC Group) (n=35); Group sucrose with SSC (Sucrose+SSC Group) (n=35); SSC Group (n=33); or Sucrose Group (n=33). Babies were recorded with a video camera. Three observers watched the videos and measured NIPS score at three time points (t0: 2 min before heel prick; t1: During heel prick; and t2: 2 min after the heel prick). The influences of non-pharmacological methods on crying time, percentage of crying while sampling, heart rate, number of attempts and duration of sampling were also studied. BF+SSC Group achieved a significant lower median NIPS score (value=1) compared with other groups (value=2, 4 and 4, respectively). The percentage of neonates with moderate-to-severe pain was also lower in the BF+SSC Group. Both groups BF+SSC and Sucrose+SSC achieved a significant lower percentage of crying compared with SSC Group. This study suggests that BF in addition to SSC provides superior analgesia to other kinds of non-pharmacological analgesia in healthy term neonates during heel prick.

  7. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, Siham; Kouhila, Mohammed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Idlimam, Ali; Jamali, Abdelkrim

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 deg. C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 deg. C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m 3 /s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m 2 of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square (χ 2 ) of 4.6572 10 -5

  8. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)

  9. Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

    2012-01-01

    Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life.

  10. A comparison between activities for non-specific esterases and esterproteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of non-specific esterases and esterproteases from kidney, lung, and liver have been carried out in polyacrylamide gels. By use of zone electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and 2-dimensional electrophoresis it was found that most of the esterprotease bands had the same...... localization in the gels as non-specific esterase bands. A number of esterase bands showed no activity towards the esterprotease substrates and a single kidney band possessed esterprotease activity only. Isozymes of the ES-6 and ES-9 zones showed sex dependent esterprotease reactions. In sections esterase...

  11. Effect of Environmental and Behavioral Interventions on Pain Intensity in Preterm Infants for Heel Prick Blood Sampling in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharlooei, Fatemeh; Marofi, Maryam; Abdeyazdan, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32-37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t -test in SPSS software. The paired t -test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time ( P = 0.42) and 2 minutes before sampling ( P = 0.12). However, at the sampling time ( P = 0.0), and 5 minutes ( P = 0.001) and 30 minutes after the sampling ( P = 0.001), mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.

  12. Characterisation of Fractures and Fracture Zones in a Carbonate Aquifer Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Pricking Probe Methodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Sandor; Kovacs, Attila; Kuslits, Lukács; Facsko, Gabor; Gribovszki, Katalin; Kalmar, Janos; Szarka, Laszlo

    2018-04-01

    Position, width and fragmentation level of fracture zones and position, significance and characteristic distance of fractures were aimed to determine in a carbonate aquifer. These are fundamental parameters, e.g. in hydrogeological modelling of aquifers, due to their role in subsurface water movements. The description of small scale fracture systems is however a challenging task. In the test area (Kádárta, Bakony Mts, Hungary), two methods proved to be applicable to get reasonable information about the fractures: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Pricking-Probe (PriP). PriP is a simple mechanical tool which has been successfully applied in archaeological investigations. ERT results demonstrated its applicability in this small scale fracture study. PriP proved to be a good verification tool both for fracture zone mapping and detecting fractures, but in certain areas, it produced different results than the ERT. The applicability of this method has therefore to be tested yet, although its problems most probably origin from human activity which reorganises the near-surface debris distribution. In the test site, both methods displayed fracture zones including a very characteristic one and a number of individual fractures and determined their characteristic distance and significance. Both methods prove to be able to produce hydrogeologically important parameters even individually, but their simultaneous application is recommended to decrease the possible discrepancies.

  13. Treatment of Non-specific Urethritis in Males with Demeclocycine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Ganguli

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty patients with non-specific urethritis were treated with demeclocycline hydrochiloride in doses of 600 mg and 900 mg respectively per day for three weeks. The cure rates obtained were 90% and 88% respectively. The side effects included stoeaatitis one; nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea in 5; and phototbyicity in two cases.

  14. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under

  15. Core outcome measurement instruments for clinical trials in non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Boers, Maarten; Deyo, Richard A; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Corbin, Terry P; Costa, Leonardo O P; Foster, Nadine E; Grotle, Margreth; Koes, Bart W; Kovacs, Francisco M; Christine Lin, Chung-Wei; Maher, Chris G; Pearson, Adam M; Peul, Wilco C; Schoene, Mark L; Turk, Dennis C; van Tulder, Maurits W; Terwee, Caroline B; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2017-01-01

    To standardize outcome reporting in clinical trials of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP), an international multidisciplinary panel recommended physical functioning, pain intensity, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as core outcome domains. Given the lack of consensus on

  16. Clinical importance of non-specific lipid transfer proteins as food allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.

    2002-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) have recently been identified as plant food allergens. They are good examples of true food allergens, in the sense that they are capable of sensitizing, i.e. inducing specific IgE, as well as of eliciting severe symptoms. This is in contrast with most

  17. Non-specific myiases of domestic animals in Czech and Slovac Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minář, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2004), s. 107-109 ISSN 1336-300X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : non-specific myiasis * domestic animals * Lucilia sericata Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  18. Results of a non-specific immunomodulation therapy on chronic heart failure (ACCLAIM trial): a placebo-controlled randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre-Amione, G.; Anker, S.D.; Bourge, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled s......Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo......-controlled study of a device-based non-specific immunomodulation therapy (IMT) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV chronic heart failure, left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, and hospitalisation for heart failure or intravenous drug therapy in an outpatient setting......-0 . 95; p=0.02) and a 39% (0.61; 95% CI 0 . 46-0.80; p=0 . 0003) reduction in the risk of primary endpoint events, respectively. Interpretation Non-specific immunomodulation may have a role as a potential treatment for a large segment of the heart failure population, which includes patients without...

  19. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hurdle technology applied to prickly pear beverages for inhibiting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, R; Escobedo-Avellaneda, Z; Tejada-Ortigoza, V; Martín-Belloso, O; Valdez-Fragoso, A; Welti-Chanes, J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of pH reduction (from 6·30-6·45 to 4·22-4·46) and the addition of antimicrobial compounds (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in prickly pear beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of Villanueva (V, Opuntia albicarpa) and Rojo Vigor (RV, Opuntia ficus-indica) varieties during 14 days of storage at 25°C, was evaluated. RV variety presented the highest microbial inhibition. By combining pH reduction and preservatives, reductions of 6·2-log10 and 2·3-log10 for E. coli and S. cerevisiae were achieved respectively. Due to the low reduction of S. cerevisiae, pulsed electric fields (PEF) (11-15 μs/25-50 Hz/27-36 kV cm(-1)) was applied as another preservation factor. The combination of preservatives, pH reduction and PEF at 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for V variety, and 11 μs/50 Hz, 13-15 μs/25-50 Hz for RV, had a synergistic effect on S. cerevisiae inhibition, achieving at least 3·4-log10 of microbial reduction immediately after processing, and more than 5-log10 at fourth day of storage at 25°C maintained this reduction during 21 days of storage (P > 0·05). Hurdle technology using PEF in combination with other factors is adequate to maintain stable prickly pear beverages during 21 days/25°C. Significance and impact of the study: Prickly pear is a fruit with functional value, with high content of nutraceuticals and antioxidant activity. Functional beverages formulated with the pulp and peel of this fruit represent an alternative for its consumption. Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are micro-organisms that typically affect fruit beverage quality and safety. The food industry is looking for processing technologies that maintain quality without compromising safety. Hurdle technology, including pulsed electric fields (PEF) could be an option to achieve this. The combination of PEF, pH reduction and preservatives is an alternative to obtain safe and minimally processed

  1. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  2. Managing patients with acute and chronic non-specific neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhusen, Simon Sidenius; Bussières, André; French, Simon David

    2017-01-01

    was mainly reserved for chronic patients. Danish chiropractors' compliance with guidelines for neck-pain patients was low, but is neither worse nor better than what is seen for other complaints or health disciplines. Our findings suggest a need for active knowledge translation strategies and robust......Background: Non-specific neck pain represents a quarter of all chiropractic patient visits in Denmark. Evidence informed practice can help ensure providers use best available treatment, speed up patient recovery rate and reduce healthcare utilization. It is generally believed that Danish...... chiropractors treat according to best practice, but we do not know if this is true for management of neck-pain. The objective of this study was to investigate how Danish chiropractors treat patients with acute and chronic non-specific neck pain and determine if management is compliant with recent Canadian...

  3. Myxoviruses do not induce non-specific alterations in membrane permeability early on in infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, K.A.; Micklem, K.J.; Bogomolova, N.N.; Boriskin, Y.S.; Pasternak, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The permeability characteristics of cells infected with myxoviruses have been studied by measuring the concentrative uptake of nutrients, the concentration of intracellular K + , and the maintenance of the Na + gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells either show no change at all (Sendai virus-infected BHK cells and measles virus-infected Vero cells) or they show a decreased ability to concentrate nutrients, while intracellular K + and the Na + gradient remain unchanged (Sendai and influenza virus-infected L-1210 cells, measles virus-infected lymphocytes and mumps virus-infected L-41 cells). In no case, therefore, was a change observed that resembles the non-specific increase in membrane permeability induced by haemolytic paramyxoviruses (35, 42) or the non-specific membrane leakiness postulated to take place in infected cells (8, 9). A preliminary account of some of these findings has been presented (39)

  4. A rapid challenge protocol for determination of non-specific bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Nielsen, N H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1986-01-01

    A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... hyperreactivity since individual dose titration is easily performed, and the method could be valuable in epidemiological and occupational surveys as well.......A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... challenge. The patients inhaled histamine chloride 8 mg/ml at every eighth breath until resistance to breathing (Rt) was increased by 60%. The number of inhalations (NI) or the provocative concentration (PC60-Rt) of histamine increasing Rt by 60% were determined in 68 patients. The new method correlated...

  5. Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies...... have relied on distances to waste sites to assign exposure status, and have not investigated whether the exposure-symptoms associations are direct or mediated by odor annoyance. In this study, individual-level exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non......-urban residences (n=454) during 2005-2010 were characterized by data from emission-dispersion validated models. Logistic regression and mediating analyses were used to examine associations between exposures and questionnaire-based data on annoyance and non-specific symptoms, after adjusting by person...

  6. Non-specific Inflammatory Disease Showed Abnormal FDG Uptake in Lower Extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyung Ah; Kong, Eun Jung; Cho, Ihn Ho; Hong, Young Hoon; Lee, Choong Ki

    2008-01-01

    Including malignancy, various disease can show abnormal uptake in bone marrow. 1,2) We report a case of non-specific inflammatory FDG uptake in bone marrow mimicking malignancy. A 35-year old woman with fever of unknown origin (FUO) underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT to find out fever focus and unknown malignancy. 18 F-FDG was injected and imaged 1hr after injection with Discovery ST (GE, USA). 18 F-FDG PET/CT whole body image showed abnormal uptake in lower extremities. MRI and biopsy was also done in the sites of abnormal uptake. PET and MRI suspect malignancy, but biopsy result was non-specific inflammatory process. The patient was improved her clinical condition after antibiotics therapy

  7. [Observation of curative effect of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua

    2011-10-01

    To compare the differences of curative effects of herpes zoster treated with acupuncture based on syndrome differentiation combined with pricking and cupping and simple pricking and cupping. Eighty-six cases were randomly divided into an observation group (43 cases) and a control group (43 cases). In observation group, acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation i.e. Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), etc. were selected and pricking and cupping at affected parts were applied, and the cases were classified into damp heat in liver and gallbladder, damp retention and spleen deficiency, and qi deficiency and blood stasis. In control group, all the cases were simplely treated with pricking and cupping at affected parts. The treatment was given once a day, and seven days were made one session. The curative effect was evaluated after 2 courses, and the follow-up was carried on after 1 month. The cured and markedly effective rate was 93.0% (40/43) in observation group, superior to that of 67.4% (29/43) in control group (P 0.05). The cured and markedly effective rate of damp retention and spleen deficiency: 93.8% (15/16) in observation group, superior to that of 60.0% (9/15) in control group (P cupping therapy is high pertinent and effective, the postherpetic neuralgia can be reduced significantly and the curative effect is superior to that of simple pricking and cupping.

  8. Biological risk indicators for recurrent non-specific low back pain in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Stratton, G; Reilly, T; Unnithan, V B

    2005-03-01

    A matched case-control study was carried out to evaluate biological risk indicators for recurrent non-specific low back pain in adolescents. Adolescents with recurrent non-specific low back pain (symptomatic; n = 28; mean (SD) age 14.9 (0.7) years) and matched controls (asymptomatic; n = 28; age 14.9 (0.7) years) with no history of non-specific low back pain participated. Measures of stature, mass, sitting height, sexual maturity (Tanner self assessment), lateral flexion of the spine, lumbar sagittal plane mobility (modified Schober), hip range of motion (Leighton flexometer), back and hamstring flexibility (sit and reach), and trunk muscle endurance (number of sit ups) were performed using standardised procedures with established reliability. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed, with the presence/absence of recurrent low back pain as the dependent variable and the biological measures as the independent variables. Hip range of motion, trunk muscle endurance, lumbar sagittal plane mobility, and lateral flexion of the spine were identified as significant risk indicators of recurrent low back pain (plow back pain in a group of adolescents. These risk indicators identify the potential for exercise as a primary or secondary prevention method.

  9. Structural Changes of Lumbar Muscles in Non-specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Oosterwijck, Jessica Van; Meeus, Mira; Danneels, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar muscle dysfunction due to pain might be related to altered lumbar muscle structure. Macroscopically, muscle degeneration in low back pain (LBP) is characterized by a decrease in cross-sectional area and an increase in fat infiltration in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. In addition microscopic changes, such as changes in fiber distribution, might occur. Inconsistencies in results from different studies make it difficult to draw firm conclusions on which structural changes are present in the different types of non-specific LBP. Insights regarding structural muscle alterations in LBP are, however, important for prevention and treatment of non-specific LBP. The goal of this article is to review which macro- and/or microscopic structural alterations of the lumbar muscles occur in case of non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP), recurrent low back pain (RLBP), and acute low back pain (ALBP). Systematic review. All selected studies were case-control studies. A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and Web of Science. Only full texts of original studies regarding structural alterations (atrophy, fat infiltration, and fiber type distribution) in lumbar muscles of patients with non-specific LBP compared to healthy controls were included. All included articles were scored on methodological quality. Fifteen studies were found eligible after screening title, abstract, and full text for inclusion and exclusion criteria. In CLBP, moderate evidence of atrophy was found in the multifidus; whereas, results in the paraspinal and the erector spinae muscle remain inconclusive. Also moderate evidence occurred in RLBP and ALBP, where no atrophy was shown in any lumbar muscle. Conflicting results were seen in undefined LBP groups. Results concerning fat infiltration were inconsistent in CLBP. On the other hand, there is moderate evidence in RLBP that fat infiltration does not occur, although a larger muscle fat index was found in the erector spinae

  10. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  11. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  12. Effect of core stabilization exercises versus conventional exercises on pain and functional status in patients with non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inani, Sumit B; Selkar, Sohan P

    2013-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) results in significant level of disability, producing significant restriction on usual activity such as an inability to work. Nearly two third of the adults are affected by non-specific low back pain at some point in their lives. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of core stabilization exercises in comparison with conventional exercises on pain, functional status in patients with non-specific LBP. Thirty patients diagnosed with non-specific LBP participated with age group between 20-50 years and divided in to 2 groups, one with core stabilization exercises and other conventional exercises, 15 subjects each. Three months study, pre and post treatment outcome measures used were VAS for pain intensity and Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index for functional status (disability). Data were analyzed using student 't' test (paired and unpaired). Whereas both groups improved significantly from the initiation of treatment, a between-group comparison revealed significantly greater (ppain and functional status for experimental group compared to control group. Core stabilization exercises were found to be more effective in reducing pain and improving functional status by decreasing disability of patients with non-specific low back pain in comparison with conventional exercises.

  13. Identification of fluorescent compounds with non-specific binding property via high throughput live cell microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Nath

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compounds exhibiting low non-specific intracellular binding or non-stickiness are concomitant with rapid clearing and in high demand for live-cell imaging assays because they allow for intracellular receptor localization with a high signal/noise ratio. The non-stickiness property is particularly important for imaging intracellular receptors due to the equilibria involved. METHOD: Three mammalian cell lines with diverse genetic backgrounds were used to screen a combinatorial fluorescence library via high throughput live cell microscopy for potential ligands with high in- and out-flux properties. The binding properties of ligands identified from the first screen were subsequently validated on plant root hair. A correlative analysis was then performed between each ligand and its corresponding physiochemical and structural properties. RESULTS: The non-stickiness property of each ligand was quantified as a function of the temporal uptake and retention on a cell-by-cell basis. Our data shows that (i mammalian systems can serve as a pre-screening tool for complex plant species that are not amenable to high-throughput imaging; (ii retention and spatial localization of chemical compounds vary within and between each cell line; and (iii the structural similarities of compounds can infer their non-specific binding properties. CONCLUSION: We have validated a protocol for identifying chemical compounds with non-specific binding properties that is testable across diverse species. Further analysis reveals an overlap between the non-stickiness property and the structural similarity of compounds. The net result is a more robust screening assay for identifying desirable ligands that can be used to monitor intracellular localization. Several new applications of the screening protocol and results are also presented.

  14. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahtela, T.; Burbach, G. J.; Bachert, C.

    2014-01-01

    , asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy). The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed. For each allergen, the wheal size in mm with an 80% positive predictive value (PPV) for being clinically relevant was calculated. ResultsDepending on the allergen, from 40% (blatella...... by providing quantitative decision points. MethodsThe GA(2)LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis...... SPT reactions had a smaller risk of sensitizations being clinically relevant compared with adults. The 80% PPV varied from 3 to 10mm depending on the allergen. ConclusionThese reading keys' for 18 inhalant allergens can help interpret SPT results with respect to their clinical significance. A SPT form...

  15. Association between alcohol consumption and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, Kristian; Bødtger, Uffe; Linneberg, Allan

    2007-01-01

    respiratory disease and lifestyle habits, including alcohol consumption. SPT positivity was defined as a positive reaction (> or =3 mm) against at least 1 of 10 common inhalant allergens. RESULTS: Before and after adjustment for sex, age, smoking, atopic predisposition, and pet keeping, no significant...

  16. The association of asthma, nasal allergies, and positive skin prick tests with obesity, leptin, and adiponectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R. B.; Jones, M.; Forsberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundCross-sectional and longitudinal reports show that obese adults have more asthma than non-obese adults. A proposed mechanism is via effects of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) on the immune system. ObjectiveWe wished to measure the associations of asthma and other atopic diseases wit...

  17. A guide to performing skin-prick testing in practice: tips and tricks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-16

    Apr 16, 2013 ... individuals to produce specific immunoglobulin E antibodies to environmental ... pollens and moulds.1,3,6-9 Common food allergens in children include cow's milk .... Cats, dogs and other animals with fur. Inhalant allergens:.

  18. On the relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients with non-specific neck pain. While a linear relationship between pain intensity and postural sway has been described in low back pain patients, no such investigation has been conducted in adults with non-specific neck pain....

  19. Effects of core stabilization with and without conventional physical therapy for the management of non-specific low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukat, F.; Ahmed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of core stabilization exercises with conventional physiotherapy for the management of non-specific low back pain (LBP). Methodology: This experimental comparative study was conducted at Department of Physiotherapy, PSRD hospital, Ferozpur Road Lahore. The study involved 40 subjects diagnosed with non-specific LBP with age ranges from 18 - 65 years. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups: treated with core stabilization exercises and conventional physiotherapy. Group - B (Control Group): In this group, patients were treated by conventional physiotherapy alone. The outcome measures were pain and physical functional outcomes. Pain was measured by using Visual Analo- gue Scale (V AS) and the physical functional outcomes of patients were measured by using Modified Oswes- tery Disability Questionnaire (MODQ). Results: By applying paired t-test in group - A, the p-values obtained for VAS and MODQ were statisti- cally significant (i.e., p = 0.000, p = 0.000 respectively) while in group - B, the p-values for VAS and MODQ were also found to be significant (p = 0.000, p = 0.000 respectively). By applying repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA), p-values were find to be insignificant for VAS (p = 0.09) and MODQ (p = 0.018). Conclusion: Both groups showed improvement in severity of pain and functional activity but the group- A that was given core stabilization exercises along with conventional treatment showed same improve- ment in pain and functional status as shown by group- B so any of the intervention can be used to gain better results as both are equally effective. (author)

  20. Simplified immunoassay for rapid Dengue serotype diagnosis, revealing insensitivity to non-specific binding interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C.C.L. Loureiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proof of concept of an immunoassay, which is easy to implement, for rapid Dengue virus (DENV serotype diagnosis, in the early infection stage, is reported. The four-layer assay is immobilized onto a thin gold film and relies on a low cost, disposable polymer biochip for optical surface plasmon resonance sensing and detection. The protocol comprises Neutravidin-Biotin mediated monoclonal antibody (MAB attachment as the functionalized sensing element. Formation of the MAB-DENV complex results in a pronounced thickness change that is optically recorded in real time, employing a microfluidic set-up. Virus presence is confirmed by atomic force microscopy from the same sample. Serum samples were collected from a patient in acute febrile state. Simultaneous serological analysis by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, independently, confirmed presence of DENV2 and DENV3. The protocol proved applicable in presence of strong non-specific binding interference that originates from, and is caused by, various blood, serum and other body fluid constituents. False positive indications for both, negative serum and blood control samples were not observed. The achievable limit of detection was estimated to be 2×104 particles/ml. Eventually, the method can be modified towards detection of other viruses by using the same protocol. Keywords: Immuno-assay, Dengue virus detection, Non-specific binding

  1. Non-specific effects of vaccines: plausible and potentially important, but implications uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam; Curtis, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    Non-specific effects (NSE) or heterologous effects of vaccines are proposed to explain observations in some studies that certain vaccines have an impact beyond the direct protection against infection with the specific pathogen for which the vaccines were designed. The importance and implications of such effects remain controversial. There are several known immunological mechanisms which could lead to NSE, since it is widely recognised that the generation of specific immunity is initiated by non-specific innate immune mechanisms that may also have wider effects on adaptive immune function. However, there are no published studies that demonstrate a mechanistic link between such immunological phenomena and clinically relevant NSE in humans. While it is highly plausible that some vaccines do have NSE, their magnitude and duration, and thus importance, remain uncertain. Although the WHO recently concluded that current evidence does not justify changes to immunisation policy, further studies of sufficient size and quality are needed to assess the importance of NSE for all-cause mortality. This could provide insights into vaccine immunobiology with important implications for infant health and survival. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. A fine structural localization of the non-specific cholinesterase activity in glomerular nerve formations (endings).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubový, P

    1990-01-01

    Snout glabrous skin (rhinarium) of the cat is innervated not only by typical simple lamellar corpuscles but also glomerular formations. In contrast to simple lamellar corpuscles, glomerular nerve formations are located away the dermal papillae. In cross sections, glomerular nerve formation consists of several axonal profiles enveloped by 1-2 cytoplasmic lamellae of Schwann cells. The space among them is filled by collagenous microfibrils and the basal lamina-like material. Capsule was composed from fibroblast-like cells without definite basal lamina. An electron-dense reaction product due to non-specific cholinesterase activity was associated with Schwann cells and their processes surrounding unmyelinated terminal portion of the sensory axons. Abundant reaction product was bound to the collagenous microfibrils and was deposited in extracellular matrix between Schwann cell processes. These results are further evidence for the presence of the non-specific cholinesterase molecules as integral component of the extracellular matrix in sensory corpuscles. On the basis of histochemical study two possible explanation are considered for functional involving of this enzyme in sensory nerve formations.

  3. Effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain intensity in preterm infants for heel prick blood sampling in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Baharlooei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent researches suggest that preterm infants understand pain and stress. Because of the wide range of effects of pain on infants, the present study was conducted on the effect of environmental and behavioral interventions on pain due to heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial was conducted among 32 infants with gestational age of 32–37 weeks in the intervention and control groups. The effects of noise reduction by earplugs, light reduction by blindfolds, reduction of nursing manipulation, and creation of intrauterine position for neonates, 30 minutes before taking blood samples until 30 minutes after it, were measured during the intervention stage. Data were collected using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS in 5 stages (before intervention, 2 minutes before sampling, during the sampling, and 5 minutes and 30 minutes after the sampling. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and paired t-test in SPSS software. Results: The paired t-test results showed no significant differences between the control and intervention stages in terms of pain scores at base time (P = 0.42 and 2 minutes before sampling (P = 0.12. However, at the sampling time (P = 0.0, and 5 minutes (P = 0.001 and 30 minutes after the sampling (P = 0.001, mean pain score in the intervention stage was significantly less than that in the control stage. Conclusions: Based on the findings, environmental and behavioral interventions reduced pain and facilitated heel-prick blood sampling in preterm infants.

  4. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  5. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  6. Optimization of the BLASTN substitution matrix for prediction of non-specific DNA microarray hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Aron Charles; Friis, Pia; Wernersson, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    BLASTN accuracy by modifying the substitution matrix and gap penalties. We generated gene expression microarray data for samples in which 1 or 10% of the target mass was an exogenous spike of known sequence. We found that the 10% spike induced 2-fold intensity changes in 3% of the probes, two......-third of which were decreases in intensity likely caused by bulk-hybridization. These changes were correlated with similarity between the spike and probe sequences. Interestingly, even very weak similarities tended to induce a change in probe intensity with the 10% spike. Using this data, we optimized the BLASTN...... substitution matrix to more accurately identify probes susceptible to non-specific hybridization with the spike. Relative to the default substitution matrix, the optimized matrix features a decreased score for A–T base pairs relative to G–C base pairs, resulting in a 5–15% increase in area under the ROC curve...

  7. Clinical Profile and Response to Chemotherapeutic Agents in Non-specific Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Pandhi

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological and clinical profile of 159 patients having non-specific iiretbritis is repoed. The majority (67.39o of patients were unm and most (70.4% of the we m re in the age group of 21-30 years. The incubation period in the majority (69.2% of patients was 1-4 weeks. Almost all the (98.1% patients complained of dysuria but urethral discharge was seen only in 48.4% of patients. Out of tetracycline′s doxycline, erythromycin and cotrimoxazole tried in this study, tetracycline′s in the dosage of 2 gm/day for 3 weeks was found to give the best (90.5%′cure rate.

  8. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Lin Shumei; Yanga Feng

    2005-01-01

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

  9. The effect of group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain in a sitting position: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beladev, Noa; Masharawi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active group-exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) in a sitting position. 25 females with NSCLBP underwent 8 group sitting-exercise sessions of a 45 minute duration, over an 8 week period. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion were measured twice, for reliability tests and cut-off score values, with a 1 week interval between measurements, prior to intervention and subsequently, six weeks following intervention. Several significant changes in outcome measures were indicated following intervention compared with baseline (p position, improved the functional, painful status and lumbar ranges of motion in the sagittal plane of women suffering from non specific chronic low back pain. As sitting is considered the most common posture in today's workplace, applying this protocol during working hours would be very effective.

  10. The Outwardly Rectifying Current of Layer 5 Neocortical Neurons that was Originally Identified as "Non-Specific Cationic" Is Essentially a Potassium Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Revah

    Full Text Available In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer 5 neocortical neurons, blockade of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels leaves a cesium current that is outward rectifying. This current was originally identified as a "non-specific cationic current", and subsequently it was hypothesized that it is mediated by TRP channels. In order to test this hypothesis, we used fluorescence imaging of intracellular sodium and calcium indicators, and found no evidence to suggest that it is associated with influx of either of these ions to the cell body or dendrites. Moreover, the current is still prominent in neurons from TRPC1-/- and TRPC5-/- mice. The effects on the current of various blocking agents, and especially its sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium, suggest that it is not a non-specific cationic current, but rather that it is generated by cesium-permeable delayed rectifier potassium channels.

  11. Non-specific symptoms as clues to changes in emotional well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumberg Gari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Somatic symptoms are a common reason for visits to the family physician. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between non-specific symptoms and changes in emotional well-being and the degree to which the physician considers the possibility of mental distress when faced with such patients. Methods - Patients who complained of two or more symptoms including headache, dizziness, fatigue or weakness, palpitations and sleep disorders over one year were identified from the medical records of a random sample of 45 primary care physicians. A control group matched for gender and age was selected from the same population. Emotional well-being was assessed using the MOS-SF 36 in both groups. Results - The study group and the control group each contained 110 patients. Completed MOS questionnaires were obtained from 92 patients, 48 patients with somatic symptoms and 44 controls. Sixty percent of the patients with somatic symptoms experienced decreased emotional well being compared to 25% in the control group (p = 0.00005. Symptoms of dizziness, fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly linked with mental health impairments. Primary care physicians identified only 6 of 29 patients (21% whose responses revealed functional limitations due to emotional problems as suffering from an emotional disorder and only 6 of 23 patients (26% with a lack of emotional well being were diagnosed with an emotional disorder. Conclusions - Non-specific somatic symptoms may be clues to changes in emotional well-being. Improved recognition and recording of mental distress among patients who complain of these symptoms may enable better follow up and treatment.

  12. Similar efficacy from specific and non-specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment of muscular dystrophy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Jeovanna; Floyd, Kyle T; Rastogi, Neha; Schultz, Eric J; Chadwick, Jessica A; Swager, Sarah A; Zins, Jonathan G; Kadakia, Feni K; Smart, Suzanne; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise P; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Raman, Subha V; Janssen, Paul M L; Rafael-Fortney, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist improved cardiac and skeletal muscle function and pathology in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. MR is present in limb and respiratory skeletal muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor. The goals of the current study were to compare the efficacy of the specific MR antagonist eplerenone with the non-specific MR antagonist spironolactone, both in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril. Three groups of n=18 dystrophin-deficient, utrophin-haploinsufficient male mice were given chow containing: lisinopril plus spironolactone, lisinopril plus eplerenone, or no drug, from four to 20 weeks-of-age. Eighteen C57BL/10 male mice were used as wild-type controls. In vivo measurements included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, conscious electrocardiography, and grip strength. From each mouse in the study, diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus , and cardiac papillary muscle force was measured ex vivo , followed by histological quantification of muscle damage in heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and abdominal muscles. MR protein levels were also verified in treated muscles. Treatment with specific and non-specific MR antagonists did not result in any adverse effects to dystrophic skeletal muscles or heart. Both treatments resulted in similar functional and pathological improvements across a wide array of parameters. MR protein levels were not reduced by treatment. These data suggest that spironolactone and eplerenone show similar effects in dystrophic mice and support the clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  13. Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christybapita, D; Divyagnaneswari, M; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2007-10-01

    Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. The results indicated that E. alba aqueous extract administered as feed supplement significantly enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with aqueous extract for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. No significant modulation was noticed in all the cellular responses tested after 3 weeks of feeding, while reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase content showed significant enhancement after 1 week of feeding with aqueous extract. When challenged with A. hydrophila after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of feeding, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in the treated fish. The highest dose of 1% gave better protection than the other doses with the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of 64, 75 and 32 after feeding for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. alba aqueous leaf extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of O. mossambicus against A. hydrophila.

  14. Immunogenicity, immunological cross reactivity and non-specific irritant properties of the exudate gums, arabic, karaya and tragacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, S; Ferguson, A; Anderson, D M

    1986-01-01

    An animal model has been used to investigate the immunogenicity and non-specific irritant properties of exudate gums. The materials studied were four preparations of gum arabic (Acacia spp.), two of gum karaya (Sterculia spp.), two of gum tragacanth (Astralagus spp.) and a residue obtained after ethanol extraction of gum arabic. Groups of animals were intradermally immunized with the gum in complete Freund's adjuvant. Serum antibody levels were measured by an ELISA technique and delayed hypersensitivity responses by a footpad swelling test. Antigenic cross-reactivity within each gum species was tested in a crossover fashion. All gum preparations elicited systemic immune responses after immunization. Further processing reduced immunogenicity, although there was no evidence that systemic immunity to these complex polysaccharide antigens responses could be completely abolished by processing or purification. The ethanolic extract, and some of the gum preparations, particularly tragacanth and karaya, caused considerable footpad swelling when injected intradermally. It is concluded that processing and awareness of subspecies differences can reduce the inherent immunogenicity and potential irritant effects of exudate gums.

  15. Remarks on “A new non-specificity measure in evidence theory based on belief intervals”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ABELLÁN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two types of uncertainty co-exist in the theory of evidence: discord and non-specificity. From 90s, many mathematical expressions have arisen to quantify these two parts in an evidence. An important aspect of each measure presented is the verification of a coherent set of properties. About non-specificity, so far only one measure verifies an important set of those properties. Very recently, a new measure of non-specificity based on belief intervals has been presented as an alternative measure that quantifies a similar set of properties (Yang et al., 2016. It is shown that the new measure really does not verify two of those important properties. Some errors have been found in their corresponding proofs in the original publication. Keywords: Additivity, Imprecise probabilities, Non-specificity, Subadditivity, Theory of evidence, Uncertainty measures

  16. Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, J A; van Tulder, M W; Malmivaara, A; Koes, B W

    2005-07-20

    Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low-back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult non-specific acute, subacute and chronic low-back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 3, 2004), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL databases to October 2004; citation searches and bibliographic reviews of previous systematic reviews. Randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise therapy for adult non-specific low-back pain and measuring pain, function, return-to-work/absenteeism, and/or global improvement outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and outcomes at short, intermediate, and long-term follow-up. Sixty-one randomized controlled trials (6390 participants) met inclusion criteria: acute (11), subacute (6) and chronic (43) low-back pain (1 unclear). Evidence was found of effectiveness in chronic populations relative to comparisons at all follow-up periods; pooled mean improvement was 7.3 points (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.9) for pain (out of 100), 2.5 points (1.0 to 3.9) for function (out of 100) at earliest follow-up. In studies investigating patients (i.e. presenting to healthcare providers) mean improvement was 13.3 points (5.5 to 21.1) for pain, 6.9 (2.2 to 11.7) for function, representing significantly greater improvement over studies where participants included those recruited from a general population (e.g. with advertisements). There is some evidence of effectiveness of graded-activity exercise program in subacute low-back pain in occupational settings, though the evidence for other types of exercise therapy in other populations is inconsistent. There was evidence of equal effectiveness relative to comparisons in acute populations [pain: 0.03 points (95% CI, -1.3 to 1.4)]. This review largely reflects limitations of the literature, including low quality studies with heterogeneous

  17. Effect of guava leaves on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhuo-Jia; Yang, Keng; Lin, Hei-Zhao; Guo, Zhi-Xun

    2014-09-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf extracts have antiviral and antibacterial activity against shrimp pathogens such as yellow-head virus (YHV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and Vibrio harveyi, which make it a potential water disinfectant for use in shrimp culture. In this study, the safety of guava leaf supplementation in shrimp was evaluated by studying its influence on growth and the non-specific immune response of Penaeus monodon. Six diets containing different levels of guava leaves (0% [basal diet], 0.025% [G1], 0.05% [G2], 0.1% [G3], 0.2% [G4], and 0.4% [G5]) were fed to groups of shrimp (1.576 ± 0.011 g body weight) in triplicate for 56 days. Growth performance (final body weight, WG, PWG, SGR) of shrimp fed guava leaf diets was significantly higher (P 0.05) were found. Dietary supplementation with guava leaf improved the activities of prophenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in serum, and of superoxide dismutase (SOD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and lysozyme (LSZ) both in serum and hepatopancreas of shrimp. In the experimental groups, the activities of these enzymes followed a similar pattern of change; they increased initially at low levels of dietary supplementation and then decreased with increasing concentrations of dietary guava leaf. Serum PO and SOD activities in shrimp fed the G1 diet reached 7.50 U ml(-1) and 178.33 U ml(-1), respectively, with PO activity being significantly higher than in controls. In shrimp fed the G1 diet, SOD, ACP, and AKP activities in hepatopancreas were significantly higher than in the controls, reaching 57.32 U g(-1), 23.28 U g(-1), and 19.35 U g(-1) protein, respectively. The highest activities of serum ACP, AKP, LSZ, and of hepatopancreas LSZ, were observed in the G3 diet group. Total nitric oxide synthase (TNOS) activity was highest (64.80 U ml(-1)) in the G4 diet group, which was significantly higher than that observed in the control group. These results suggest that dietary

  18. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  19. Females have stronger neurogenic response than males after non-specific nasal challenge in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic, Dejan; Baudoin, Tomislav; Megla, Zeljka Bukovec; Geber, Goran; Scadding, Glenis; Kalogjera, Livije

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies show female predominance in the prevalence of non- allergic rhinitis (NAR) and local allergic rhinitis (LAR). Experimental studies show female patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) demonstrate higher levels of sensitivity to irritants and airway hyperresponsiveness than males. Bronchial asthma shows female predominance in post-puberty patients, and gender interaction with severe asthma endotypes. Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine and chronic cough, syndromes, which are commonly related to neurokinin substance P (SP) in the literature, also show strong female predominance. Studies have demonstrated that sex hormones, primarily oestrogens, affect mast cell activation. Mast cell proteases can amplify neurogenic inflammatory responses including the release of SP. Based on human epidemiological data and animal experimental data we hypothesized that female patients have different interaction between mast cell activation and neurogenic inflammation, i.e. substance P release, resulting in a different nasal symptom profile. To test the hypothesis we performed allergen and non-specific nasal challenges in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) out of season and looked for gender differences in subjective and objective responses. The interaction between subjective and objective reactivity was evaluated through the comparison of subjective symptom scores, concentrations of neurokinin substance P (SP) and cellular markers in nasal lavages after low doses of nasal allergen challenges. Female allergic subjects tended to have higher substance P (SP) concentrations both before and after non-specific challenges. The difference between post-allergen and post - hypertonic saline (HTS) challenge was highly significant in female patients (p = 0.001), while insignificant in male subjects (p = 0.14). Female patients had significantly stronger burning sensation after HTS challenge than male. These data indicate difference in the

  20. The efficacy of Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides with and without Isometric Exercise Training in Non-specific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abid; Shakil-Ur-Rehman, Syed; Sibtain, Fozia

    2014-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of Sustained Natural Apophyseal Glides (SNAGs) with and without Isometric Exercise Training Program (IETP) in Non-specific Neck Pain (NSNP) Methods: This randomized control trial of one year duration was conducted at out-patient department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) Peshawar, Pakistan from July 2012 to June 2013. The sample of 102 patients of NSNP were randomly selected through simple random sampling technique, and placed into two groups. The SNAGs manual physical therapy technique with IETP was applied on 51 patients in group A and SNAGs manual physical therapy techniques was applied alone on 51 patients in group B. The duration of intervention was 6 weeks, at 4 times per week. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for neck pain were assessment tools used for all patients before and after 6 weeks of physical therapy intervention. All the patients were assessed through NDI and VAS before intervention and at the completion of 6 weeks program. The data of all 102 was analyzed by SPSS-20 and statistical test was applied at 95% level of significance determine the efficacy of both the treatments interventions and compare with each other. The patients in group A, treated with SNAGs and followed by IETP for 6 weeks, demonstrated more improvement in pain and physical activity as assessed by VAS (p=0.013) and NDI (p=0.003), as compared to the patients treated with SNAGS alone, as pain and function assessed by VAS (p=0.047) and NDI (p=0.164). In group A the NDI score improved from 40 to 15 and VAS from 7 to 4, while in group B the NDI score improved from 42 to 30 and VAS from 7 to 4. Patients with non-specific neck pain treated with SNAGs manual physical therapy techniques and followed by IETP was more effective in reduction of pain and enhancement of function, as compared to those patients treated with SNAGs manual physical therapy techniques alone.

  1. In Vivo Imaging of Prostate Cancer Tumors and Metastasis Using Non-Specific Fluorescent Nanoparticles in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Genevois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing interest in the use of nanoparticles (NPs in nanomedicine, there is a crucial need for imaging and targeted therapies to determine NP distribution in the body after systemic administration, and to achieve strong accumulation in tumors with low background in other tissues. Accumulation of NPs in tumors results from different mechanisms, and appears extremely heterogeneous in mice models and rather limited in humans. Developing new tumor models in mice, with their low spontaneous NP accumulation, is thus necessary for screening imaging probes and for testing new targeting strategies. In the present work, accumulation of LipImageTM 815, a non-specific nanosized fluorescent imaging agent, was compared in subcutaneous, orthotopic and metastatic tumors of RM1 cells (murine prostate cancer cell line by in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging techniques. LipImageTM 815 mainly accumulated in liver at 24 h but also in orthotopic tumors. Limited accumulation occurred in subcutaneous tumors, and very low fluorescence was detected in metastasis. Altogether, these different tumor models in mice offered a wide range of NP accumulation levels, and a panel of in vivo models that may be useful to further challenge NP targeting properties.

  2. Non-specific activities of the major herbicide-resistance gene BAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Bastien; Hochstrasser, Ramon; Guyer, Luzia; Francisco, Rita; Aubry, Sylvain; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-12-01

    Bialaphos resistance (BAR) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) genes, which convey resistance to the broad-spectrum herbicide phosphinothricin (also known as glufosinate) via N-acetylation, have been globally used in basic plant research and genetically engineered crops 1-4 . Although early in vitro enzyme assays showed that recombinant BAR and PAT exhibit substrate preference toward phosphinothricin over the 20 proteinogenic amino acids 1 , indirect effects of BAR-containing transgenes in planta, including modified amino acid levels, have been seen but without the identification of their direct causes 5,6 . Combining metabolomics, plant genetics and biochemical approaches, we show that transgenic BAR indeed converts two plant endogenous amino acids, aminoadipate and tryptophan, to their respective N-acetylated products in several plant species. We report the crystal structures of BAR, and further delineate structural basis for its substrate selectivity and catalytic mechanism. Through structure-guided protein engineering, we generated several BAR variants that display significantly reduced non-specific activities compared with its wild-type counterpart in vivo. The transgenic expression of enzymes can result in unintended off-target metabolism arising from enzyme promiscuity. Understanding such phenomena at the mechanistic level can facilitate the design of maximally insulated systems featuring heterologously expressed enzymes.

  3. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  4. Changes in Hematological, Biochemical and Non-specific Immune Parameters of Olive Flounder, , Following Starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplicate groups of fed and starved olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (body weight: 119.8±17.46 g, were examined over 42 days for physiological changes using hematological, biochemical, and non-specific immune parameters. No significant differences in concentrations of blood hemoglobin and hematocrit and plasma levels of total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and cortisol were detected between fed and starved groups at any sampling time throughout the experiment. In contrast, plasma total protein concentrations were significantly lower in starved fish than in fed fish from day 7 onwards. Moreover, plasma lysozyme concentrations were significantly higher in starved flounder from day 21 onwards. This result confirms that the response of olive flounder to short-term (less than about 1.5 months starvation consists of a readjustment of metabolism rather than the activation of an alarm-stress response. The present results indicate that starvation does not significantly compromise the health status of fish despite food limitation.

  5. Chronic Recurrent Non-specific Parotitis: A Case Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, Saibaba; Kandula, Srinivas; Shilpa, Patil; Kokila, Ganganna

    2017-01-01

    Chronic recurrent non-specific parotitis is characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling and pain of unknown etiology in the parotid gland. Sialography is a hallmark in the diagnosis of salivary gland disorders; newer imaging modalities like CT-Sialography, sialoendoscopy and MRI can be used. Various treatment modalities have been tried, from conservative approach to surgical excision depending on the recurrence rate and severity of the condition. Although symptomatic treatment with antibiotics and analgesic, injection of intraductal medicament, aggressive treatment like duct ligation or excision of gland are some of the treatment modalities, there is no established algorithm as to which treatment method should be opted in such clinical situation. A 20 years old male patient reported with pain and salty taste in the mouth that had began before a week. Examination revealed an elevated right parotid papilla; ropy, cloudy appearing saliva was oozing out on milking the gland. Unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rate was assessed using drooling method. Sialography was used as a diagnostic and a therapeutic aid. In our case, sialography as a treatment showed a good response with no recurrence after two years of follow-up. We highlighted the role of sialography as a therapeutic aid. Recurrent attacks significantly affect the quality of life and also lead to progressive gland destruction. Preventing or reducing the frequency of recurrence remains the goal of therapeutic procedure. Hence, conventional sialography is useful in the diagnosis and also effective as a therapeutic aid in recurrent parotitis.

  6. Deposition of chemically reactive and repellent sites on biosensor chips for reduced non-specific binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, R P; Gubala, V; Le, N C H; Nam, Le Cao Hoai; Volcke, C; Doyle, C; James, B; Daniels, S; Williams, D E

    2010-08-01

    The performances of new polymeric materials with excellent optical properties and good machinability have led the biomedical diagnostics industry to develop cheap disposable biosensor platforms appropriate for point of care applications. Zeonor, a type of cycloolefin polymer (COP), is one such polymer that presents an excellent platform for biosensor chips. These polymer substrates have to be modified to have suitable physico-chemical properties for immobilizing proteins. In this work, we have demonstrated the amine functionalization of COP substrates, by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD), through codeposition of ethylene diamine and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane precursors, for building chemistries on the plastic chip. The elemental composition, adhesion, ageing and reactivity of the plasma polymerized film were examined. The Si-O functionality present in amino silane contributed for a good interfacial adhesion of the coating to COP substrates and also acted as a network building layer for plasma polymerization. Wet chemical modification was then carried out on the amine functionalized chips to create chemically reactive isothiocyanate sites and protein repellent fluorinated sites on the same chip. The density of the reactive and repellent sites was altered by choosing appropriate mixtures of homofunctional phenyldiisothiocyanate (PDITC), pentafluoroisothiocyanate (5FITC) and phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) compounds. By tailoring the density of reactive binding sites and protein repellent sites, the non-specific binding of ssDNA has been decreased to a significant extent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Gene and Association with Non-specific Digestive Disorder in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Fu Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP12 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 12 serves as a suppressor factor in the inflammatory response and protects the host against inflammation-induced damage. In the present study, we aimed to study the polymorphisms of NLRP12 gene and its association with susceptibility to non-specific digestive disorder (NSDD in rabbits. We re-sequenced the entire coding region of the rabbit NLRP12 gene and detected a total of 19 SNPs containing 14 synonymous and five non-synonymous variations. Among them, the coding SNP (c.1682A>G, which would carry a potential functional implication, was subsequently subjected to genotyping for case-control association study (272 cases and 267 controls. The results revealed that allele A was significantly protective against NSDD with an odds ratio value of 0.884 (95% confidence interval, 0.788 to 0.993; p = 0.038. We also experimentally induced NSDD in growing rabbits by feeding a fibre-deficient diet and subsequently investigated NLRP12 mRNA expression. The mRNA expression of NLRP12 in healthy status was significantly higher than that in severe NSDD (p = 0.0016. The highest expression was observed in individuals carrying the protective genotype AA (p = 0.0108. These results suggested that NLRP12 was significantly associated with the NSDD in rabbits. However, the precise molecular mechanism of NLRP12 involving in the development of rabbit NSDD requires further research.

  8. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Milne, David; Antoniou, Katerina M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U.; Hansel, Trevor T.; Hansell, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV 1 ; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  9. Non-specific interstitial pneumonia in cigarette smokers: a CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina [Georg August University of Goettingen, Department of Radiology, Goettingen (Germany); Milne, David [Green Lane Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Antoniou, Katerina M. [University of Crete, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Nicholson, Andrew G. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Tennant, Rachel C.; Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansel, Trevor T. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Clinical Trials Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The goal of this study was to seek indirect evidence that smoking is an aetiological factor in some patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Ten current and eight ex-smokers with NSIP were compared to controls including 137 current smokers with no known interstitial lung disease and 11 non-smokers with NSIP. Prevalence and extent of emphysema in 18 smokers with NSIP were compared with subjects meeting GOLD criteria for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; group A; n = 34) and healthy smokers (normal FEV{sub 1}; group B; n = 103), respectively. Emphysema was present in 14/18 (77.8%) smokers with NSIP. Emphysema did not differ in prevalence between NSIP patients and group A controls (25/34, 73.5%), but was strikingly more prevalent in NSIP patients than in group B controls (18/103, 17.5%, P < 0.0005). On multiple logistic regression, the likelihood of emphysema increased when NSIP was present (OR = 18.8; 95% CI = 5.3-66.3; P < 0.0005) and with increasing age (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.99-1.11; P = 0.08). Emphysema is as prevalent in smokers with NSIP as in smokers with COPD, and is strikingly more prevalent in these two groups than in healthy smoking controls. The association between NSIP and emphysema provides indirect support for a smoking pathogenesis hypothesis in some NSIP patients. (orig.)

  10. Clinical effect of deep water running on non-specific low back pain: A randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Cuesta-Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate clinical effect of deep water running(DW R on non-specific low back pain. Outcome measures were pain, disability,general health and physical fitness.  Materials and methods: Experimental, randomized,  controlled trial involving 46 persons with CLBP over 15 weekswith two experimental processes, each three times a week. Evidence-basedProgram (EBP, personalized physical exercise program, manual therapy andhealth educa tion was the common process to which was added 20 minutes ofpersonalized intensity DW R at the aerobic threshold. Measurements were made at the beginning and end of the studyof pain, disability, general health and physical fitness.  R esults: The pain of CLBP were homogeneous at baseline.Significant changes between group were don’t found for pain in favour of the EBP+DW R group (p<0.3. The within-group differences were highly significant for all clinical and functional variables. The effect was clinically relevant forpain in the EBP+DW R group (0.70 and in the EBP group (0.58, and for disability degree it was also relevant in theEBP+DW R group (0.48 and relevant for the EBP group (0.36. Conclusion: Significant improvement was seen inCLBP when EBP was complemented with the high-intensity exercise of DW R.

  11. Clinical and immunological features of chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the activity of cytokines for determination of their pathogenic role and effective action of the individual factors of the immune system in infants with chronic non&specific non&ulcerative colitis (CNNC. Patients and methods. It is studied 60 children in the age from 1 to 3 years with CNNC, who were under hospitalization. The control group consisted of 30 apparently healthy children of appropriate age. Immunological status of children was evaluated on the base of determination of cytokine concentration in the blood serum by the method of Enzyme-Immuno-Sorbent-Assay. Results. It is found that during the CNNC in infants and the concentration and ratio of the different groups of cytokines in the blood serum undergoes significant changes — increasing the concentration of pro&inflammatory cytokines (IL&1α, IL&6, IL&8, TNF-α and decreases the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 is the IL-10, wherein the content growth factors is changing — by increased hepatocytes growth factor and reduced intestinal trefoil factor. Conclusions. Found changes of cytokines state can be regarded as a violation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms that is the basis of pathogenesis of the formation of a chronic inflammatory process in the infant's intestine.

  12. Yoga Treatment for Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Alison; Gould Fogerite, Susan

    Wieland LS, Skoetz N, Pilkington K, Vempati R, D׳Adamo CR, Berman BM. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2017, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD010671. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010671.pub2. Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain. To assess the effects of yoga for treating chronic non-specific low back pain, compared to no specific treatment, a minimal intervention (e.g., education), or another active treatment, with a focus on pain, function, and adverse events. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases, and four trials registers to 11 March 2016 without restriction of language or publication status. We screened reference lists and contacted experts in the field to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials of yoga treatment in people with chronic non-specific low back pain. We included studies comparing yoga to any other intervention or to no intervention. We also included studies comparing yoga as an adjunct to other therapies, versus those other therapies alone. Two authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted outcome data, and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to obtain missing or unclear information. We evaluated the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 12 trials (1080 participants) carried out in the USA (seven trials), India (three trials), and the UK (two trials). Studies were unfunded (one trial), funded by a yoga institution (one trial), funded by non-profit or government sources (seven trials), or did not report on funding (three trials). Most trials used Iyengar, Hatha, or Viniyoga forms of yoga. The trials compared yoga to no intervention or a non

  13. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  14. Isolated endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent adult after a thorn prick to the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Alice L; Gruener, Anna M; Milligan, Iain D; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Stanford, Miles R

    2017-06-01

    To report the case of an immunocompetent adult presenting with endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis. A woman in her thirties presented with symptoms and signs of a unilateral anterior uveitis. After initial improvement with topical corticosteroids, she continued to develop a panuveitis with an associated drop in vision to counting fingers. A vitreous biopsy confirmed Fusarium solani by 18S rRNA fungal gene detection and PCR sequencing. Despite treatment with pars plana vitrectomy, intravitreal amphotericin B and systemic voriconazole her visual outcome was poor. Detailed review of her antecedent history revealed the route of acquisition to be a thorn prick to the hand two weeks prior to presentation. This patient's endophthalmitis most likely resulted from cutaneous inoculation of Fusarium solani with subsequent hematogenous spread. Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is well recognized in the immunocompromised but is very rarely seen in the immunocompetent. This case highlights the importance of thorough history-taking and consideration of fungal endophthalmitis in the differential diagnosis of a treatment-refractory uveitis.

  15. Pectin isolated from prickly pear (Opuntia SSP) modifies LDL metabolism in cholesterol-fed guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.L.; McNamara, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dietary pectin on plasma and hepatic cholesterol (CH) levels, plasma lipoprotein profiles, hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding to hepatic membranes were investigated by feeding 1% pectin to guinea pigs on a high CH diet. Animals were fed either chow + 0.25% CH (HC diet) or the CH diet + 1% prickly pear pectin (HC-P diet) for 25 days. Plasma CH levels were decreased 26% by the HC-P with 33% decreases in LDL and KDL. LDL peak density shifted from 1.040 to 1.055 g/ml with pectin. Hepatic total, free and esterified CH levels were reduced 60, 40 and 85% respectively by the HC-P diet. In contrast, HMG-CoA reductase activity was unaffected. 125 I-LDL binding to hepatic membranes was increased by intake of the HC-P diet compared to the HC diet. The affinity of the apo B/E receptor for LDL was not affected by dietary pectin while the receptor number was increased 1.5-fold in animals on the HC-P diet. These data suggest that the parameters of HC metabolism affected by dietary pectin are consistent with an increased demand on the hepatic CH pools which possibly results from increased fecal excretion of bile acids

  16. Reduction of non-specific adsorption of drugs to plastic containers used in bioassays or analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Tominaga; Yamazaki, Yuri; Miyamoto, Yohei

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific adsorption (NSA) of drugs to plastic or glass containers used in clinical use is well known, but methods for reducing NSA have been rarely reported. We assessed the NSA to various containers and then investigated methods to reduce NSA. Probe drugs (methotrexate, warfarin, chloroquine, propranolol, verapamil, digoxin and paclitaxel) dissolved in water were incubated in conventional or low-adsorption containers for 4h at 4 degrees C and the NSA was determined by HPLC. They were also dissolved in aqueous methanol or acetonitrile and the NSA to a conventional polypropylene microplate was determined. Finally, tissue culture microplates were coated with silane coupling agents and the effects of the coatings were evaluated. Hydrophobic drugs (paclitaxel, verapamil and digoxin) were highly adsorbed to conventional plastic microplates, but in addition to hydrophobic drugs, positively charged drugs were well adsorbed to the tissue culture microplate. Low-adsorption microplates could reduce NSA below 15%, but positively charged or neutral hydrophobic drugs showed relatively higher adsorption. Acetonitrile showed stronger NSA inhibition than that of methanol, but the peak shapes of methotrexate and chloroquine were broadened and split. Among the silane coupling agents, GPTMS suppressed the NSA below 10%. Also, AATMS resembled the NSA pattern of GPTMS, but it increased the adsorption of methotrexate to 29%. On conventional plastic microplates, NSA is mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions, but on tissue culture microplates and low-adsorption microplates, in addition to hydrophobic interactions, ionic interactions play a role in the NSA. Therefore, to reduce the NSA to plastic containers, both hydrophobic and ionic interactions should be reduced using amphiphilic organic solvents or neutral and hydrophilic coatings. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motor unit potential morphology differences in individuals with non-specific arm pain and lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Linda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology of non-specific arm pain (NSAP is unclear and the diagnosis is made by excluding other specific upper limb pathologies, such as lateral epicondylitis or cervical radiculopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine: (i if the quantitative parameters related to motor unit potential morphology and/or motor unit firing patterns derived from electromyographic (EMG signals detected from an affected muscle of patients with NSAP are different from those detected in the same muscle of individuals with lateral epicondylitis (LE and/or control subjects and (ii if the quantitative EMG parameters suggest that the underlying pathophysiology in NSAP is either myopathic or neuropathic in nature. Methods Sixteen subjects with NSAP, 11 subjects with LE, eight subjects deemed to be at-risk for developing a repetitive strain injury, and 37 control subjects participated. A quantitative electromyography evaluation was completed using decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG. Needle- and surface-detected EMG signals were collected during low-level isometric contractions of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB muscle. DQEMG was used to extract needle-detected motor unit potential trains (MUPTs, and needle-detected motor unit potential (MUP and surface detected motor unit potential (SMUP morphology and motor unit (MU firing rates were compared among the four groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Post hoc analyses were performed using Tukey's pairwise comparisons. Results Significant group differences were found for all MUP variables and for MU firing rate (p p p p p Conclusion The size-related parameters suggest that the NSAP group had significantly smaller MUPs and SMUPs than the control and LE subjects. Smaller MUPs and SMUPs may be indicative of muscle fiber atrophy and/or loss. A prospective study is needed to confirm any causal relationship between smaller MUPs and SMUPs and NSAP as found

  18. Hepatitis A - frequency in children with non-specific abdominal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R.; Ghafoor, T.; Sarfraz, M.; Hasan, N.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the frequency of subclinical hepatitis 'A' in children having non-specific abdominal symptoms. Subjects and Methods: Three hundred and sixty children of either gender, < 12 years of age, presenting with vague abdominal symptoms and no jaundice were evaluated for hepatitis. Eighty-eight (24.4%) children meeting the inclusion criteria of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), twice the upper limits of normal (90 IU/L), and normal serum bilirubin were labeled as subclinical hepatitis. Results: A total of 360 children were evaluated for vague abdominal symptoms and 96 (26.7%) of them had hepatitis on laboratory profile. Eight patients developed early jaundice and were excluded from the study. Out of 88 (24.4%) cases of subclinical hepatitis, 82 (93.2%) had hepatitis-A, 03 (3.4%) had hepatitis-B, while no causative agent was found in 03 (3.4%) children. The common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, malaise, fatigue and fever. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly was documented in 56% and 43% cases respectively. A history of exposure to a patient with hepatitis was present in 14/88 (15.9%) cases whereas no child was vaccinated against HAV. Serum ALT level declined to normal limits within 4 weeks for 77/88 (87.5%) cases and within 6 weeks for 84/88 (95.4%). All cases recovered spontaneously with out any complication. Conclusion: Hepatitis-A was rampant in children presenting with vague abdominal symptoms in our series. (author)

  19. Non-specific phospholipase C4 mediates response to aluminum toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl ePejchar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum ions (Al have been recognized as a major toxic factor for crop production in acidic soils. The first indication of the Al toxicity in plants is the cessation of root growth, but the mechanism of root growth inhibition is largely unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al on the expression, activity and function of the non-specific phospholipase C4 (NPC4, a plasma membrane-bound isoform of NPC, a member of the plant phospholipase family, in Arabidopsis thaliana.We observed a lower expression of NPC4 using GUS assay and a decreased formation of labeled diacylglycerol, product of NPC activity, using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine as a phospholipase substrate in Arabidopsis WT seedlings treated with AlCl3 for 2 h. The effect on in situ NPC activity persisted for longer Al treatment periods (8, 14 h. Interestingly, in seedlings overexpressing NPC4, the Al-mediated NPC-inhibiting effect was alleviated at 14 h. However, in vitro activity and localization of NPC4 were not affected by Al, thus excluding direct inhibition by Al ions or possible translocation of NPC4 as the mechanisms involved in NPC-inhibiting effect. Furthermore, the growth of tobacco pollen tubes rapidly arrested by Al was partially rescued by the overexpression of AtNPC4 while Arabidopsis npc4 knockout lines were found to be more sensitive to Al stress during long-term exposure of Al at low phosphate conditions.Our observations suggest that NPC4 plays a role in both early and long-term responses to Al stress.

  20. Hepatitis A--frequency in children with non-specific abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Rahat; Ghafoor, Tariq; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Hasan, Najmul

    2004-06-01

    To study the frequency of subclinical hepatitis 'A' in children having non-specific abdominal symptoms. A descriptive study. This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Peshawar from June to December 2000. Three hundred and sixty children of either gender, hepatitis. Eighty eight (24.4%) children meeting the inclusion criteria of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), twice the upper limits of normal (90 IU/L), and normal serum bilirubin were labelled as subclinical hepatitis. A total of 360 children were evaluated for vague abdominal symptoms and 96 (26.7%) of them had hepatitis on laboratory profile. Eight patients developed early jaundice and were excluded from the study. Out of 88 (24.4%) cases of subclinical hepatitis, 82 (93.2%) had hepatitis-A, 03 (3.4%) had hepatitis-B, while no causative agent was found in 03 (3.4%) children. The common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain/discomfort, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, malaise, fatigue and fever. Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly was documented in 56% and 43% cases respectively. A history of exposure to a patient with hepatitis was present in 14/88 (15.9%) cases whereas no child was vaccinated against HAV. Serum ALT level declined to normal limits within 4 weeks for 77/88 (87.5%) cases and within 6 weeks for 84/88 (95.4%). All cases recovered spontaneously with out any complication. Hepatitis-A was rampant in children presenting with vague abdominal symptoms in our series.

  1. High bacterial loads of Ureaplasma may be associated with non-specific cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Cao, Guojun; Zhao, Zhen; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Yanqun

    2014-09-01

    Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum are commonly found in the cervix of women with non-chlamydial and non-gonococcal cervicitis or non-specific cervicitis (NSC). However their contribution to the aetiology of NSC is controversial. U. parvum and U. urealyticum were identified and quantified in cervical swabs collected from 155 women with NSC and 312 controls without NSC, using real-time PCR. The relative bacterial quantification was then calculated using the Ureaplasma copy number divided by the number of host cells; this is important for the correction of bias linked to the number of cells harvested in different swabs. Ureaplasma was detected in 58.7% (91/155) of NSC patients: U. parvum in 30.3%, U. urealyticum in 16.1%, and mixed infection in 12.3%. It was also detected in 54.5% (170/312) of controls: U. parvum in 33.0%, U. urealyticum in 11.5%, and mixed infection in 9.9%. There were no significant differences for U. parvum, U. urealyticum, or mixed infection between the 2 groups (p > 0.05). However, both biovars were present at higher concentrations in NSC patients than in controls (p 10 copies/1000 cells as a reference, the positive rate of U. parvum in NSC patients was 16.1%, significantly higher than that in controls at 5.1% (relative risk 3.145, p Ureaplasma can adhere to host cells, colonize, internalize, and subsequently produce pathological lesions. A high density of Ureaplasma in the cervix may be associated with the aetiology of NSC.

  2. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with acute non-specific chest pain in emergency and cardiology departments after the introduction of high-sensitivity troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilangkovan, Nivethitha; Mickley, Hans; Diederichsen, Axel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of clinical, cardiac-related endpoints and mortality among patients presenting to an emergency or cardiology department with non-specific chest pain (NSCP), and who receive testing with a high-sensitivity troponin. A second objective was to identify risk...... factors for the above-noted endpoints during 12 months of follow-up. DESIGN: A prospective multicentre study. SETTING: Emergency and cardiology departments in Southern Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study enrolled 1027 patients who were assessed for acute chest pain in an emergency or cardiology department...

  3. Pain relief is associated with decreasing postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, René; Walker, B.

    2012-01-01

    is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed......Background: Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship...... in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS 11). The patients received three manual interventions (e. g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. Results...

  4. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, R.; Walker, B.

    2011-01-01

    compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were......Background: Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between...... pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90...

  5. Core outcome domains for clinical trials in non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Deyo, Richard A; Terwee, Caroline B; Boers, Maarten; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Corbin, Terry P; Costa, Leonardo O P; Foster, Nadine E; Grotle, Margreth; Koes, Bart W; Kovacs, Francisco M; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Chris G; Pearson, Adam M; Peul, Wilco C; Schoene, Mark L; Turk, Dennis C; van Tulder, Maurits W; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2015-06-01

    Inconsistent reporting of outcomes in clinical trials of patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) hinders comparison of findings and the reliability of systematic reviews. A core outcome set (COS) can address this issue as it defines a minimum set of outcomes that should be reported in all clinical trials. In 1998, Deyo et al. recommended a standardized set of outcomes for LBP clinical research. The aim of this study was to update these recommendations by determining which outcome domains should be included in a COS for clinical trials in NSLBP. An International Steering Committee established the methodology to develop this COS. The OMERACT Filter 2.0 framework was used to draw a list of potential core domains that were presented in a Delphi study. Researchers, care providers and patients were invited to participate in three Delphi rounds and were asked to judge which domains were core. A priori criteria for consensus were established before each round and were analysed together with arguments provided by panellists on importance, overlap, aggregation and/or addition of potential core domains. The Steering Committee discussed the final results and made final decisions. A set of 280 experts was invited to participate in the Delphi; response rates in the three rounds were 52, 50 and 45%. Of 41 potential core domains presented in the first round, 13 had sufficient support to be presented for rating in the third round. Overall consensus was reached for the inclusion of three domains in this COS: 'physical functioning', 'pain intensity' and 'health-related quality of life'. Consensus on 'physical functioning' and 'pain intensity' was consistent across all stakeholders, 'health-related quality of life' was not supported by the patients, and all the other domains were not supported by two or more groups of stakeholders. Weighting all possible argumentations, the Steering Committee decided to include in the COS the three domains that reached overall consensus and

  6. Construction and analysis of a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein database (nsLTPDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Nai-Jyuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs are small and basic proteins. Recently, nsLTPs have been reported involved in many physiological functions such as mediating phospholipid transfer, participating in plant defence activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, and enhancing cell wall extension in tobacco. However, the lipid transfer mechanism of nsLTPs is still unclear, and comprehensive information of nsLTPs is difficult to obtain. Methods In this study, we identified 595 nsLTPs from 121 different species and constructed an nsLTPs database -- nsLTPDB -- which comprises the sequence information, structures, relevant literatures, and biological data of all plant nsLTPs http://nsltpdb.life.nthu.edu.tw/. Results Meanwhile, bioinformatics and statistics methods were implemented to develop a classification method for nsLTPs based on the patterns of the eight highly-conserved cysteine residues, and to suggest strict Prosite-styled patterns for Type I and Type II nsLTPs. The pattern of Type I is C X2 V X5-7 C [V, L, I] × Y [L, A, V] X8-13 CC × G X12 D × [Q, K, R] X2 CXC X16-21 P X2 C X13-15C, and that of Type II is C X4 L X2 C X9-11 P [S, T] X2 CC X5 Q X2-4 C[L, F]C X2 [A, L, I] × [D, N] P X10-12 [K, R] X4-5 C X3-4 P X0-2 C. Moreover, we referred the Prosite-styled patterns to the experimental mutagenesis data that previously established by our group, and found that the residues with higher conservation played an important role in the structural stability or lipid binding ability of nsLTPs. Conclusions Taken together, this research has suggested potential residues that might be essential to modulate the structural and functional properties of plant nsLTPs. Finally, we proposed some biologically important sites of the nsLTPs, which are described by using a new Prosite-styled pattern that we defined.

  7. Construction and analysis of a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein database (nsLTPDB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nai-Jyuan; Lee, Chi-Ching; Cheng, Chao-Sheng; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fen; Chen, Ming-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small and basic proteins. Recently, nsLTPs have been reported involved in many physiological functions such as mediating phospholipid transfer, participating in plant defence activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens, and enhancing cell wall extension in tobacco. However, the lipid transfer mechanism of nsLTPs is still unclear, and comprehensive information of nsLTPs is difficult to obtain. In this study, we identified 595 nsLTPs from 121 different species and constructed an nsLTPs database--nsLTPDB--which comprises the sequence information, structures, relevant literatures, and biological data of all plant nsLTPs http://nsltpdb.life.nthu.edu.tw/. Meanwhile, bioinformatics and statistics methods were implemented to develop a classification method for nsLTPs based on the patterns of the eight highly-conserved cysteine residues, and to suggest strict Prosite-styled patterns for Type I and Type II nsLTPs. The pattern of Type I is C X2 V X5-7 C [V, L, I] × Y [L, A, V] X8-13 CC × G X12 D × [Q, K, R] X2 CXC X16-21 P X2 C X13-15C, and that of Type II is C X4 L X2 C X9-11 P [S, T] X2 CC X5 Q X2-4 C[L, F]C X2 [A, L, I] × [D, N] P X10-12 [K, R] X4-5 C X3-4 P X0-2 C. Moreover, we referred the Prosite-styled patterns to the experimental mutagenesis data that previously established by our group, and found that the residues with higher conservation played an important role in the structural stability or lipid binding ability of nsLTPs. Taken together, this research has suggested potential residues that might be essential to modulate the structural and functional properties of plant nsLTPs. Finally, we proposed some biologically important sites of the nsLTPs, which are described by using a new Prosite-styled pattern that we defined.

  8. Progesterone impairs antigen-non-specific immune protection by CD8 T memory cells via interferon-γ gene hypermethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yushi; Li, Hui; Ding, Jie; Xia, Yixin; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM), which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm) cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense against LM. However, whether and how increased progesterone during pregnancy modulates CD8 Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ production and immune protection against LM remain poorly understood. Here we show in pregnant women that increased serum progesterone levels are associated with DNA hypermethylation of IFN-γ gene promoter region and decreased IFN-γ production in CD8 Tm cells upon antigen-non-specific stimulation ex vivo. Moreover, IFN-γ gene hypermethylation and significantly reduced IFN-γ production post LM infection in antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells are also observed in pregnant mice or progesterone treated non-pregnant female mice, which is a reversible phenotype following demethylation treatment. Importantly, antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells from progesterone treated mice have impaired anti-LM protection when adoptive transferred in either pregnant wild type mice or IFN-γ-deficient mice, and demethylation treatment rescues the adoptive protection of such CD8 Tm cells. These data demonstrate that increased progesterone impairs immune protective functions of antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells via inducing IFN-γ gene hypermethylation. Our findings thus provide insights into a new mechanism through which increased female sex hormone regulate CD8 Tm cell functions during pregnancy.

  9. Progesterone impairs antigen-non-specific immune protection by CD8 T memory cells via interferon-γ gene hypermethylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women and animals have increased susceptibility to a variety of intracellular pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes (LM, which has been associated with significantly increased level of sex hormones such as progesterone. CD8 T memory(Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ responses are critically required in the host defense against LM. However, whether and how increased progesterone during pregnancy modulates CD8 Tm cell-mediated antigen-non-specific IFN-γ production and immune protection against LM remain poorly understood. Here we show in pregnant women that increased serum progesterone levels are associated with DNA hypermethylation of IFN-γ gene promoter region and decreased IFN-γ production in CD8 Tm cells upon antigen-non-specific stimulation ex vivo. Moreover, IFN-γ gene hypermethylation and significantly reduced IFN-γ production post LM infection in antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells are also observed in pregnant mice or progesterone treated non-pregnant female mice, which is a reversible phenotype following demethylation treatment. Importantly, antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells from progesterone treated mice have impaired anti-LM protection when adoptive transferred in either pregnant wild type mice or IFN-γ-deficient mice, and demethylation treatment rescues the adoptive protection of such CD8 Tm cells. These data demonstrate that increased progesterone impairs immune protective functions of antigen-non-specific CD8 Tm cells via inducing IFN-γ gene hypermethylation. Our findings thus provide insights into a new mechanism through which increased female sex hormone regulate CD8 Tm cell functions during pregnancy.

  10. Is physiotherapy integrated virtual walking effective on pain, function, and kinesiophobia in patients with non-specific low-back pain? Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Yelvar, Gul Deniz; Çırak, Yasemin; Dalkılınç, Murat; Parlak Demir, Yasemin; Guner, Zeynep; Boydak, Ayşenur

    2017-02-01

    According to literature, virtual reality was found to reduce pain and kinesiophobia in patients with chronic pain. The purpose of the study was to investigate short-term effect of the virtual reality on pain, function, and kinesiophobia in patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain METHODS: This randomised controlled study in which 44 patients were randomly assigned to the traditional physiotherapy (control group, 22 subjects) or virtual walking integrated physiotherapy (experimental group, 22 subjects). Before and after treatment, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), TAMPA Kinesiophobia Scale (TKS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), Timed-up and go Test (TUG), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and Single-Leg Balance Test were assessed. The interaction effect between group and time was assessed by using repeated-measures analysis of covariance. After treatment, both groups showed improvement in all parameters. However, VAS, TKS, TUG, and 6MWT scores showed significant differences in favor of the experimental group. Virtual walking integrated physiotherapy reduces pain and kinesiophobia, and improved function in patients with subacute and chronic non-specific low-back pain in short term.

  11. Effect of thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery on postoperative incision pain as well as non-specific and specific immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Long Wu1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery on postoperative incision pain as well as non-specific and specific immune response. Methods: 56 patients with esophageal cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2011 and February 2016 were collected, the operation methods and related laboratory tests were reviewed, and then they were divided into the thoracoscope group (n=27 who accepted thoracoscopic surgery and the open surgery group (n=29 who accepted traditional thoracotomy. Before operation and 1 d after operation, immune scatter turbidimetry was used to detect serum levels of pain mediators, and flow cytometer was used to detect the levels of nonspecific immune indexes and specific immune indexes. Results: Before operation, the differences in serum pain mediators as well as nonspecific immune response and specific immune response indexes were not statistically significant between two groups of patients (P>0.05. 1 d after operation, serum pain mediators 5-HT, K+ and NE levels of thoracoscope group were lower than those of open surgery group (P<0.05; nonspecific immune response indexes NK cell as well as C3 and C4 levels in peripheral blood of thoracoscope group were significantly higher than those of open surgery group (P<0.05; specific immune response indexes CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA and IgG levels in peripheral blood of thoracoscope group were significantly higher than those of open surgery group (P<0.05. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic esophagus cancer surgery causes less damage, has lighter inhibition on the immune response system, and is an ideal operation method for patients with early middle esophagus cancer.

  12. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  13. In Vitro Propagation of Three Moroccan Prickly Pear Cactus Opuntia and Plant Establishment in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissam EL FINTI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia is one of the most widespread cacti, primarily due to their edible fruit and vegetable mass used as feed. The high demand for young plants of Opuntia made it necessary to find a rapid method of multiplication of the cactus, the safest method consisting in vitro micropropagation of species belonging to this genus. With aim of large production of plant material, a propagation system of three important prickly pear cactus cultivar (Opuntia ficus-indica in Morocco was developed. Segments of healthy young cladode (containing one areole were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog medium (MS containing adenine sulfate (40 mg/1, monosodium phosphate (50 mg/l, sucrose (50 g/l, phytagel (0.3% and benzyladenine (BA at 22.2 μM, to start the process of micropropagation. In vitro-developed shoots from areoles were used as secondary explants to induce shoot development in the MS medium with 5 mg/l of BA. All of the three studied cultivars showed an important multiplication rate in this medium. ‘Sidi Ifni M’ (‘Moussa’ cultivar shows the greatest number of shoots followed by ‘Sidi Ifni A’ (‘Aissa’ and ‘Delahia’ 17.26, 14.12 and 12.13 respectively. Rooting of in vitro-generated shoots was achieved most efficiently on half-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA or IAA. Rooting frequencies were in the range from 95 to 100% and the highest mean number of root (19.1 was obtained with IBA for ‘Delahia’ cultivar. All micropropagated plants were transferred to greenhouse and all of them survived acclimatization process and showed good overall growth.

  14. The effect of soil environment on germination and emergence of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kapeluszny

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 mature achenes of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L. were collected from a winter wheat crop growing on loess-derived brown earth soil, from the side of a dirt road, and from a hybrid alfalfa crop growing on heavy rendzina soil. In March 2008 the germination ability of achenes and the length of roots and above-ground parts of L. serriola seedlings were determined. The experiment was set up as a completely randomized design in 6 replicates and it was done in dishes. The dishes were filled with loess-derived brown soil and podzolic soil derived from light loamy sand with different pH values of 4.5, 5.5 and 7.0 obtained using laboratory methods. The second experiment evaluated the effect of medium type and light conditions on the germination of Lactuca serriola achenes. The experimental design was the same as in the above described experiment. The study found that there were significantly more germinating seeds from the plants growing in the alfalfa crop and on the dirt roadside compared to the plants from the wheat crop. Emerging plants showed higher germination ability on loess-derived soil with a pH of 5.5 and 7.0 than on podzolic soil derived from sand with the same pH. Lactuca serriola prefers soils rich in calcium compounds, and developing segetal cenopopulations produce diaspores capable of germination, thereby the numbers of individuals can increase and the continuity of this species in crop fields can be maintained. Seeds germinated significantly better in the dark than under the conditions of 12-hour illumination.

  15. Our experience with atopy patch tests with aeroallergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celakovská, Jarmila; Ettlerová, Kvetuse; Ettler, Karel; Vanecková, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Aim of our study was to evaluate the importance of atopy patch testing with aeroallergens as a diagnostic method in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. The complet dermatological and allergological examinations were performed in 29 patients; 10 men, 19 women with the average age of 27.8 years, min. 17, max. 57 years; with the median SCORAD 24.2 points, s.d. 13.3 points. Wormwood, grass, dog dander, cat dander, dermatophagoides pharinae, dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and birch pollen were examined in diagnostic procedures. Skin prick tests, specific IgE were examined; the atopy patch tests were performed with aeroallergens for skin prick tests in concentration 1 x skin prick tests. Specific IgE and skin prick tests to one or more tested aeroallergens were positive altogether in 27 patients; atopy patch tests were positive only in one of these patients. For atopy patch testing with aeroallergens the concentration of 1 x skin prick tests is low to confirme the eczematic reaction in patients suffering from allergy to inhallant allergens.

  16. Persistent non-specific FDG uptake on PET imaging following hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Hongming; Chacko, Thomas K.; Hickeson, Marc; Stevenson, Karen; Feng, Qi; Ponzo, Fabio; Alavi, Abass [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, 110 Donner Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Garino, Jonathan P. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19802 (United States)

    2002-10-01

    prosthesis. The average time interval between arthroplasty and FDG-PET scan in these patients was 71.3 months. In only four prostheses (19%, 4 of 21) was no abnormally increased FDG uptake seen around the prostheses or adjacent sites. The average time interval in these patients was 114.8 months. It is concluded that following hip arthroplasty, non-specifically increased FDG uptake around the head or neck of the prosthesis persists for many years, even in patients without any complications. Therefore, to minimize the number of false-positive results for infection with PET studies obtained to evaluate a painful hip prosthesis, caution should be exercised when interpreting FDG uptake around the head or neck portion of the prosthesis. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of the aetiological factors of non-specific (non gonococcal urethritis, taking burning micturition as criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuravi Anandam

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of 90 cases of non-specific urethritis investigated, aetiological factors could be found in 58 cases. However, in 45 cases i.e. 50%, the causative factors turned out to be common factors like pyogenic, fungal, and trichomonal infections only.

  18. Office workers' risk factors for the development of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paksaichol, A.; Janwantanakul, P.; Purepong, N.; Pensri, P.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review prospective cohort studies to gain insights into risk factors for the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers as well as to assess the strength of evidence. Publications were systematically searched from 1980 - March 2011 in

  19. Comparing non-specific physical symptoms in environmentally sensitive patients: prevalence, duration, functional status and illness behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the potential clinical relevance of non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) reported by patients with self-reported environmental sensitivities. This study aimed to assess NSPS in people with general environmental sensitivity (GES) and idiopathic environmental

  20. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Kelfkens, G.; Schipper, M.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS) and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on

  1. A systematic review on the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine for chronic non-specific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinstein, Sidney M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Kuijpers, Ton; Ostelo, Raymond; Verhagen, Arianne P; de Boer, Michiel R; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), acupuncture and herbal medicine for chronic non-specific LBP. A comprehensive search was conducted by an experienced librarian from the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) in multiple databases up to

  2. A systematic review on the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine for chronic non-specific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rubinstein (Sidney); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke); T. Kuijpers (Ton); R.W.J.G. Ostelo (Raymond); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); M.R. de Boer (Michiel Robert); B.W. Koes (Bart); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), acupuncture and herbal medicine for chronic non-specific LBP. A comprehensive search was conducted by an experienced librarian from the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) in multiple

  3. Effect of multiple honey doses on non-specific acute cough in children. An open randomised study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli Sopo, S; Greco, M; Monaco, S; Varrasi, G; Di Lorenzo, G; Simeone, G

    2015-01-01

    Honey is recommended for non-specific acute paediatric cough by the Australian guidelines. Current available randomised clinical trials evaluated the effects of a single evening dose of honey, but multiple doses outcomes have never been studied. To evaluate the effects of wildflower honey, given for three subsequent evenings, on non-specific acute paediatric cough, compared to dextromethorphan (DM) and levodropropizine (LDP), which are the most prescribed over-the-counter (OTC) antitussives in Italy. 134 children suffering from non-specific acute cough were randomised to receive for three subsequent evenings a mixture of milk (90ml) and wildflower honey (10ml) or a dose of DM or LDP adjusted for the specific age. The effectiveness was evaluated by a cough questionnaire answered by parents. Primary end-point efficacy was therapeutic success. The latter was defined as a decrease in cough questionnaire score greater than 50% after treatment compared with baseline values. Three children were excluded from the study, as their parents did not complete the questionnaire. Therapeutic success was achieved by 80% in the honey and milk group and 87% in OTC medication group (p=0.25). Milk and honey mixture seems to be at least as effective as DM or LDP in non-specific acute cough in children. These results are in line with previous studies, which reported the health effects of honey on paediatric cough, even if placebo effect cannot be totally excluded. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache, fatigue, nausea and sleep problems and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the general population has been a subject of ongoing scientific debate and public concern. A limited number of epidemiological studies

  5. Non-specific interactions are sufficient to explain the position of heterochromatic chromocenters and nucleoli in interphase nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooijer, de S.; Wellink, J.; Mulder, B.; Bisseling, T.

    2009-01-01

    The organization of the eukaryote nucleus into functional compartments arises by self-organization both through specific protein–protein and protein–DNA interactions and non-specific interactions that lead to entropic effects, such as e.g. depletion attraction. While many specific interactions have

  6. Immediate effects of Pilates based therapeutic exercise on postural control of young individuals with non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susana; Correia, Christophe; Félix, Gonçalo; Lopes, Mário; Cruz, Ana; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Low back pain affects the person's ability to keep balance, especially in challenging conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of Pilates exercises on postural sway and dynamic balance of young individuals with non-specific low back pain. Controlled laboratory design. Forty-six participants with non-specific low back pain were randomized to a Pilates (n=23, 10 males; age: 21.8±3.2years) and a control group (n=23, 9 males; age: 22.8±3.6years). Postural sway was assessed with a force platform and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test, before and after the intervention or rest period. To assess postural sway, participants stood still on an unstable surface set on the force plate for 90s, with eyes closed. The intervention lasted 20min and consisted on four Pilates exercises: single leg stretch (level 1), pelvic press (level 1), swimming (level 1) and kneeling opposite arm and leg reach. At baseline, no differences were found between groups. The Pilates group improved in all the postural sway values (area of CoP: 11.5±3.4 to 9.7±2.7cm 2 , p=0.002 and CoP velocity: 2.8±0.6 to 2.3±0.5cm/s, pControl group only improved in CoP velocity, however, this improvement was significantly inferior compared to the Pilates group. Pilates exercises immediately improved postural sway and dynamic balance in young adults with non-specific low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Usual interstitial pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonia: serial thin-section CT findings correlated with pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Man Pyo; Chung Myung Jin; Han, Joung Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Colby, Thomas V. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale (United States); Kim, Seon Woo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We wanted to demonstrate and compare the serial high-resolution CTs (HRCT) and the pulmonary function test (PFT) findings of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and the non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The serial HRCT scans and the PFT results were retrospectively analysed and compared for 35 patients having UIP without significant honeycombing (UIP-w/o hc, < 5% of honeycombing at CT), 35 patients having UIP with honeycombing (UIP-w/i hc, {>=} 5% of honeycombing), and 25 patients with NSIP. The mortality rates were also compared. Follow-up CT scans were available in 75 patients (29 UIP-w/o hc patients, 22 UIP-w/i hc patients and 24 NSIP patients) and the follow-up periods ranged from 150 to 2,370 days. The initial and follow-up PFT data were available for 71 patients. On the initial CT, significant differences were present between the UIP-w/i hc patients and both the UIP-w/o hc patients and the NSIP patients in the overall extent, ground-glass opacity (GGO) away from the reticulation, reticulation and honeycombing (all {rho} < 0.05). Improvement was noticed in five (17%) of 29 UIP-w/o hc patients, none of 22 UIP-w/i hc patients, and 9 (37%) of 24 NSIP patients; deterioration was noted in six (21%) UIP-w/o hc patients, two (9%) UIP-w/i hc patients and three (13%) NSIP patients ({rho} 0.044 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.637 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} = 0.007 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). The serial changes of the pulmonary function in the NSIP patients were different from those noted for the UIP-w/i hc and UIP-w/o hc patients ({rho} = 0.440 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.022 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} =0.003 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). Five (14%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/o hc, 16 (46%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/i hc and three (12%) of the 25 patients with NSIP died ({rho} = 0.002, comparison for the three groups). On CT, NSIP and UIP-w/o hc patients have similar patterns of parenchymal abnormalities and

  8. Finite Element Analysis and Die Design of Non-specific Engineering Structure of Aluminum Alloy during Extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.-C.; Lu, Y.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extension applies to industrial structure, light load, framework rolls and conveyer system platform. Many factors must be controlled in processing the non-specific engineering structure (hollow shape) of the aluminum alloy during extrusion, to obtain the required plastic strain and desired tolerance values. The major factors include the forming angle of the die and temperature of billet and various materials. This paper employs rigid-plastic finite element (FE) DEFORM 3D software to investigate the plastic deformation behavior of an aluminum alloy (A6061, A5052, A3003) workpiece during extrusion for the engineering structure of the aluminum alloy. This work analyzes effective strain, effective stress, damage and die radius load distribution of the billet under various conditions. The analytical results confirm the suitability of the current finite element software for the non-specific engineering structure of aluminum alloy extrusion.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument in treatment of non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a common problem and different forms of manual therapy are used in its treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to critically appraise the literature that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument for non-specific neck pain. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, MANTIS and CINAHL were searched from their inception to October 2005 for all English language randomised clinical trials that directly compared manipulation, mobilisation and the Activator instrument. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select the studies and these studies were then evaluated using validated criteria. Results Five such studies were identified. The methodological quality was mostly poor. Findings from the studies were mixed and no one therapy was shown to be more effective than the others. Conclusion Further high quality research has to be done before a recommendation can be made as to the most effective manual method for non-specific neck pain.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise and Physical Activity on Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rebecca; Bloxham, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a major health issue in Western countries and 60%–80% of adults are likely to experience low back pain. This paper explores the impact of back pain on society and the role of physical activity for treatment of non-specific low back pain. A review of the literature was carried out using the databases SPORTDiscuss, Medline and Google Scholar. A general exercise programme that combines muscular strength, flexibility and aerobic fitness is beneficial for rehabilitation of non-specific chronic low back pain. Increasing core muscular strength can assist in supporting the lumbar spine. Improving the flexibility of the muscle-tendons and ligaments in the back increases the range of motion and assists with the patient’s functional movement. Aerobic exercise increases the blood flow and nutrients to the soft tissues in the back, improving the healing process and reducing stiffness that can result in back pain. PMID:27417610

  11. The Arabidopsis thaliana non-specific phospholipase C2 is involved in the response to Pseudomonas syringae attack

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krčková, Zuzana; Kocourková, Daniela; Daněk, Michal; Brouzdová, Jitka; Pejchar, Přemysl; Janda, Martin; Pokotylo, I.; Ott, P.G.; Valentová, O.; Martinec, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 2 (2018), s. 297-310 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1942 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * effector-triggered immunity * flagellin * MAMP-triggered immunity * non-specific phospholipase C * phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C * Pseudomonas syringae * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  12. High-throughput bioscreening system utilizing high-performance affinity magnetic carriers exhibiting minimal non-specific protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Naohiro; Nishio, Kosuke; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yasuno, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Tada, Masaru; Nakagawa, Takashi; Sandhu, Adarsh; Abe, Masanori; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    For affinity purification of drug target protein we have developed magnetic carriers, narrow in size distribution (184±9 nm), which exhibit minimal non-specific binding of unwanted proteins. The carriers were highly dispersed in aqueous solutions and highly resistant to organic solvents, which enabled immobilization of various hydrophobic chemicals as probes on the carrier surfaces. Utilizing the carriers we have automated the process of separation and purification of the target proteins that had been done by manual operation previously.

  13. ATRX mutation in two adult brothers with non-specific moderate intellectual disability identified by exome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Moncini, S.; Bedeschi, M.F.; Castronovo, P.; Crippa, M.; Calvello, M.; Garghentino, R.R.; Scuvera, G.; Finelli, P.; Venturin, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe two adult brothers affected by moderate non-specific intellectual disability (ID). They showed minor facial anomalies, not clearly ascribable to any specific syndromic patterns, microcephaly, brachydactyly and broad toes. Both brothers presented seizures. Karyotype, subtelomeric and FMR1 analysis were normal in both cases. We performed array-CGH analysis that revealed no copy-number variations potentially associated with ID. Subsequent exome sequence analysis allow...

  14. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejer René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less with non-specific low back pain. Methods Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11, an equal number of patients (n = 11 was enrolled per pain score. Results Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. Conclusions COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.

  15. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2011-07-15

    Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11), an equal number of patients (n = 11) was enrolled per pain score. Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.

  16. The effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in the management of chronic non-specific neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in chronic non-specific neck pain. For this randomised controlled trial total 68 patients (34 each group) with chronic non-specific neck pain were recruited from Alain Poly Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi between May, 2012 and August, 2012. Simple randomisation method was used to assign participants into isometric exercise group and general exercise groups. The isometric exercise group performed exercises for neck muscle groups with a rubber band and general exercises group performed active range of movement exercises for all neck movements. Patients in both groups received 3 supervised treatment sessions per week for 12 weeks. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and goniometer were used to assess pain, disability and neck range of movements at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both interventions showed statistically significant improvements in pain, function and range of movement p = 0.001f or isometric exercise group, p = 0.04 for general exercises group and p = 0.001 for range of movement. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire score was better in isometric exercises group as compared to general exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain however; isometric exercises are clinically more effective than general exercises.

  17. Non-specific Effect of Vaccines: Immediate Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young J. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-specific effects (NSEs of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses. The vaccination induced an immediate release of cytokines and infiltration of leukocytes into the respiratory tract, moderating the immune perturbation caused by RSV infection. The potency of protection against RSV challenge was significantly reduced in TLR3-/- TLR7-/- mice, confirming that the TLR3/7 signaling pathways are necessary for the observed immediate and short-term protection. The results suggest that CAIVs provide short-term, non-specific protection against genetically unrelated respiratory pathogens. The additional benefits of CAIVs in mitigating acute respiratory infections for which vaccines are not yet available need to be assessed in future studies.

  18. [Design of an educational tool for Primary Care patients with chronic non-specific low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Current scientific evidence on the management of chronic non-specific low back pain highlights the benefits of physical exercise. This goal is frequently undermined due to lack of education of the subjects on the multifactorial, benign, and non-specific nature of low back pain, which can lead to a chronic disease with genuine psychosocial risk factors. Its influence may not only interfere with individual decision to adopt more adaptive coping behaviors, but also with the endogenous mechanisms of pain neuromodulation. Thus, the educational strategies and control of these factors have become important objectives to be incorporated into the management of the disorder and research guidelines. This paper presents the theoretical models and the scientific basis on which it has based the design of an educational tool for patients with chronic non-specific low back pain treated in Primary Care physiotherapy. Structure, content and objectives are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual preferences for physical exercise as secondary prevention for non-specific low back pain: A discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Aboagye

    Full Text Available Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP. Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults.In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a web-based questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives, each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to analyze the responses.The final study population consisted of 112 participants. The participants' preferred exercise option was aerobic (i.e., cardiovascular rather than strength training, group exercise with trainer supervision, rather than individual or unsupervised exercise. They also preferred high intensity exercise performed at least once or twice per week. The most popular types of incentive were exercise during working hours and a wellness allowance rather than coupons for sports goods. The results show that the relative value of some attribute levels differed between young adults (age ≤ 44 years and older adults (age ≥ 45 years in terms of the level of trainer supervision required, exercise intensity, travel time to exercise location and financial incentives. For active study participants, exercise frequency (i.e., twice per week, 1.15; CI: 0.25; 2.06 influenced choice of exercise. For individuals with more than one child, travel time (i.e., 20 minutes, -0.55; CI: 0

  20. Efficacy of two sperm preparation techniques in reducing non-specific bacterial species from human semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabath K Abeysundara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Artificial reproductive techniques using seminal preparations with bacteria may cause pelvic inflammatory disease and its sequalae. Aims: To assess efficacy of two sperm preparation techniques to clear bacteria and the effect of bacteriospermia on sperm recovery rates. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among males of subfertile couples. Subjects and Methods: Semen samples were randomly allocated into swim-up method (group S, n = 68 and density gradient method (group D, n = 50 for sperm preparation. Seminal fluid analysis and bacterial cultures were performed in each sample before and after sperm preparation. Statistical Analysis: McNemar′s chi-squared test and independent samples t-test in SPSS version 16.0 were used. Results: Organisms were found in 86 (72.88% out of 118 samples, before sperm preparation; Streptococcus species (n = 40, 46.51% of which 14 were Group D Streptococcus species, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species (n = 17, 19.76%, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 13, 15.11%, Coliform species (n = 11, 12.79% of which 09 were Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium species (n = 5, 5.81%. There was a statistically significant reduction of culture positive samples in raw vs. processed samples; in group S, 49 (72.05% vs. 16 (23.52% and in group D, 37 (74% vs. 18 (36%. In group S and D, mean (SD recovery rates of culture positive vs. culture negative samples were 39.44% (SD-14.02 vs. 44.22% (SD-22.38, P = 0.39 and 52.50% (SD-37.16 vs. 49.58% (SD-40.32, P = 0.82 respectively. Conclusions: Both sperm preparation methods significantly reduced bacteria in semen, but total clearance was not achieved. Sperm recovery rate was not affected by bacteriospermia.

  1. The effect of non-weight bearing group-exercising on females with non-specific chronic low back pain: a randomized single blind controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masharawi, Youssef; Nadaf, Nedal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of active non-weight-bearing (NWB) group exercising on women with non specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Forty females with NSCLBP were assigned in a randomized control longitudinal single blinded pilot study. 20 of them were assigned to a NWB bi-weekly group exercise class and 20 females were included in the control group. The exercises involved the entire lumbo-pelvic spine aimed at improving lumbar mobility/flexibility and stability. Pain intensity (VAS), back specific disability (Rolland Morris questionnaire-RMQ), and lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion measurements were taken prior to intervention (t(0)), immediately following 4 weeks of intervention (t(1)) and 8 weeks later (t(fu)). Reliability trials were conducted on 10 females. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical significance (p exercising improves functional, painful status, lumbar flexion and extension ranges of motion in women suffering from NSCLBP.

  2. Production of Solar Cells in Space from Non Specific Ores by Utilization of Electronically Enhanced Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    An ideal method of construction in space would utilize some form of the Universal Differentiator and Universal Constructor as described by Von Neumann (1). The Universal Differentiator is an idealized non ore specific extractive device which is capable of breaking any ore into its constituent elements, and the Universal Constructor can utilize these elements to build any device with controllability to the nanometer scale. During the Human Exploration Initiative program in the early 1990s a conceptual study was done (2) to understand whether such devices were feasible with near term technology for the utilization of space resources and energy. A candidate system was proposed which would utilize electronically enhanced sputtering as the differentiator. Highly ionized ions would be accelerated to a kinetic energy at which the interaction between them and the lattice elections in the ore would be at a maximum. Experiments have shown that the maximum disintegration of raw material occurs at an ion kinetic energy of about 5 MeV, regardless of the composition and structure of the raw material. Devices that could produce charged ion beams in this energy range in space were being tested in the early 1990s. At this energy, for example an ion in a beam of fluorine ions yields about 8 uranium ions from uranium fluoride, 1,400 hydrogen and oxygen atoms from ice, or 7,000 atoms from sulfur dioxide ice. The ions from the disintegrated ore would then be driven by an electrical field into a discriminator in the form of a mass spectrometer, where the magnetic field would divert the ions into collectors for future use or used directly in molecular beam construction techniques. The process would require 10-7 Torr vacuum which would be available in space or on the moon. If the process were used to make thin film silicon solar cells (ignoring any energy inefficiency for beam production), then energy break even for solar cells in space would occur after 14 days.

  3. The Evaluation of Pelvic Cross Syndrome in Patients with Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Masoud A'rab

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was the investigation of relationship between muscle imbalance syndrome in the lumbo-pelvic area (Pelvic Cross Syndrome which includes the combination of weakness of phasic muscles and tightness of postural muscles, lordosis and chronic low back pain. Materials & Methods: This study was a comparative - cross-sectional and case – control research. A convenience sample of 600 subjects participated in this study. The size of lordosis, strength of abdominal and gluteal muscles and the extensibility of iliopsoas and back extensor muscles were measured in each group. The best cut-off values obtained from Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis were used to categorize subjects as having weak or tight muscles in accordance with the assumptions. The lumbar lordosis in subjects with and without patterns of muscle impairments, and the association between lordosis and low back pain was assessed. Data were analyzed by using statistical methods such as: ICC, Kolmogroff – Smirnoff, Independent T test and ANOVA. Results: The Findings of this study showed no significant difference in the degree of lordosis in subjects with and without patterns of muscle impairment in pelvic cross syndrome (P=0.38 and no significant difference in the lordosis between subjects with and without low back pain among those with specific patterns of muscle impairment in pelvic cross syndrome (P=0.62. Data also showed no significant association between degree of lordosis and low back pain (P=0.25. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not support the Pelvic Cross Syndrome theory, which indicates certain patterns of muscle impairment would lead to exaggerated LL and LBP. Our data show a relationship between muscle impairment and occurrence of LBP, but probably not via changing the degree of lumbar lordosis as it has been proposed in PCS theory.

  4. Variations in CCL3L gene cluster sequence and non-specific gene copy numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edberg Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs of the gene CC chemokine ligand 3-like1 (CCL3L1 have been implicated in HIV-1 susceptibility, but the association has been inconsistent. CCL3L1 shares homology with a cluster of genes localized to chromosome 17q12, namely CCL3, CCL3L2, and, CCL3L3. These genes are involved in host defense and inflammatory processes. Several CNV assays have been developed for the CCL3L1 gene. Findings Through pairwise and multiple alignments of these genes, we have shown that the homology between these genes ranges from 50% to 99% in complete gene sequences and from 70-100% in the exonic regions, with CCL3L1 and CCL3L3 being identical. By use of MEGA 4 and BioEdit, we aligned sense primers, anti-sense primers, and probes used in several previously described assays against pre-multiple alignments of all four chemokine genes. Each set of probes and primers aligned and matched with overlapping sequences in at least two of the four genes, indicating that previously utilized RT-PCR based CNV assays are not specific for only CCL3L1. The four available assays measured median copies of 2 and 3-4 in European and African American, respectively. The concordance between the assays ranged from 0.44-0.83 suggesting individual discordant calls and inconsistencies with the assays from the expected gene coverage from the known sequence. Conclusions This indicates that some of the inconsistencies in the association studies could be due to assays that provide heterogenous results. Sequence information to determine CNV of the three genes separately would allow to test whether their association with the pathogenesis of a human disease or phenotype is affected by an individual gene or by a combination of these genes.

  5. EFFICACY OF POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION VERSUS STATIC STRECHING IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Haritha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.

  6. The Non-Specific Binding of Fluorescent-Labeled MiRNAs on Cell Surface by Hydrophobic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ting; Lin, Zongwei; Ren, Jianwei; Yao, Peng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Qunye

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs about 22 nt long that play key roles in almost all biological processes and diseases. The fluorescent labeling and lipofection are two common methods for changing the levels and locating the position of cellular miRNAs. Despite many studies about the mechanism of DNA/RNA lipofection, little is known about the characteristics, mechanisms and specificity of lipofection of fluorescent-labeled miRNAs. Therefore, miRNAs labeled with different fluorescent dyes were transfected into adherent and suspension cells using lipofection reagent. Then, the non-specific binding and its mechanism were investigated by flow cytometer and laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that miRNAs labeled with Cy5 (cyanine fluorescent dye) could firmly bind to the surface of adherent cells (Hela) and suspended cells (K562) even without lipofection reagent. The binding of miRNAs labeled with FAM (carboxyl fluorescein) to K562 cells was obvious, but it was not significant in Hela cells. After lipofectamine reagent was added, most of the fluorescently labeled miRNAs binding to the surface of Hela cells were transfected into intra-cell because of the high transfection efficiency, however, most of them were still binding to the surface of K562 cells. Moreover, the high-salt buffer which could destroy the electrostatic interactions did not affect the above-mentioned non-specific binding, but the organic solvent which could destroy the hydrophobic interactions eliminated it. These results implied that the fluorescent-labeled miRNAs could non-specifically bind to the cell surface by hydrophobic interaction. It would lead to significant errors in the estimation of transfection efficiency only according to the cellular fluorescence intensity. Therefore, other methods to evaluate the transfection efficiency and more appropriate fluorescent dyes should be used according to the cell types for the accuracy of results.

  7. Pain relief is associated with decreasing postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alexander; Fejer, René; Walker, Bruce

    2012-03-21

    Increased postural sway is well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby a linear relationship between higher pain intensities and increasing postural sway has been described. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate whether this relationship is maintained if pain levels change in adults with non-specific low back pain. Thirty-eight patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Postural sway was measured by three identical static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11). The patients received three manual interventions (e.g. manipulation, mobilization or soft tissue techniques) at 3-4 day intervals, postural sway measures were obtained at each occasion. A clinically relevant decrease of four NRS scores in associated with manual interventions correlated with a significant decrease in postural sway. In contrast, if no clinically relevant change in intensity occurred (≤ 1 level), postural sway remained similar compared to baseline. The postural sway measures obtained at follow-up sessions 2 and 3 associated with specific NRS level showed no significant differences compared to reference values for the same pain score. Alterations in self-reported pain intensities are closely related to changes in postural sway. The previously reported linear relationship between the two variables is maintained as pain levels change. Pain interference appears responsible for the altered sway in pain sufferers. This underlines the clinical use of sway measures as an objective monitoring tool during treatment or rehabilitation.

  8. The Non-Specific Binding of Fluorescent-Labeled MiRNAs on Cell Surface by Hydrophobic Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Lu

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs about 22 nt long that play key roles in almost all biological processes and diseases. The fluorescent labeling and lipofection are two common methods for changing the levels and locating the position of cellular miRNAs. Despite many studies about the mechanism of DNA/RNA lipofection, little is known about the characteristics, mechanisms and specificity of lipofection of fluorescent-labeled miRNAs.Therefore, miRNAs labeled with different fluorescent dyes were transfected into adherent and suspension cells using lipofection reagent. Then, the non-specific binding and its mechanism were investigated by flow cytometer and laser confocal microscopy. The results showed that miRNAs labeled with Cy5 (cyanine fluorescent dye could firmly bind to the surface of adherent cells (Hela and suspended cells (K562 even without lipofection reagent. The binding of miRNAs labeled with FAM (carboxyl fluorescein to K562 cells was obvious, but it was not significant in Hela cells. After lipofectamine reagent was added, most of the fluorescently labeled miRNAs binding to the surface of Hela cells were transfected into intra-cell because of the high transfection efficiency, however, most of them were still binding to the surface of K562 cells. Moreover, the high-salt buffer which could destroy the electrostatic interactions did not affect the above-mentioned non-specific binding, but the organic solvent which could destroy the hydrophobic interactions eliminated it.These results implied that the fluorescent-labeled miRNAs could non-specifically bind to the cell surface by hydrophobic interaction. It would lead to significant errors in the estimation of transfection efficiency only according to the cellular fluorescence intensity. Therefore, other methods to evaluate the transfection efficiency and more appropriate fluorescent dyes should be used according to the cell types for the accuracy of results.

  9. Does cervical lordosis change after spinal manipulation for non-specific neck pain? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Michael; Branney, Jonathan; de Vries, Bas Penning; Breen, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    The association between cervical lordosis (sagittal alignment) and neck pain is controversial. Further, it is unclear whether spinal manipulative therapy can change cervical lordosis. This study aimed to determine whether cervical lordosis changes after a course of spinal manipulation for non-specific neck pain. Posterior tangents of C2 and C6 were drawn on the lateral cervical fluoroscopic images of 29 patients with subacute/chronic non-specific neck pain and 30 healthy volunteers matched for age and gender, recruited August 2011 to April 2013. The resultant angle was measured using 'Image J' digital geometric software. The intra-observer repeatability (measurement error and reliability) and intra-subject repeatability (minimum detectable change (MDC) over 4 weeks) were determined in healthy volunteers. A comparison of cervical lordosis was made between patients and healthy volunteers at baseline. Change in lordosis between baseline and 4-week follow-up was determined in patients receiving spinal manipulation. Intra-observer measurement error for cervical lordosis was acceptable (SEM 3.6°) and reliability was substantial ICC 0.98, 95 % CI 0.962-0991). The intra-subject MDC however, was large (13.5°). There was no significant difference between lordotic angles in patients and healthy volunteers (p = 0.16). The mean cervical lordotic increase over 4 weeks in patients was 2.1° (9.2) which was not significant (p = 0.12). This study found no difference in cervical lordosis (sagittal alignment) between patients with mild non-specific neck pain and matched healthy volunteers. Furthermore, there was no significant change in cervical lordosis in patients after 4 weeks of cervical spinal manipulation.

  10. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T

    2000-01-01

    A novel protein (IWF5) comprising 92 amino acids has been purified from the intercellular washing fluid of sugar beet leaves using cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Based on amino acid sequence homology, including the presence of eight...... cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...

  11. Effects of ambient air pollution from municipal solid waste landfill on children's non-specific immunity and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunjiang; Yu, Ziling; Sun, Peng; Lin, Bigui; Li, Liangzhong; Wang, Zhengdong; Ma, Ruixue; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Guo, Shu

    2018-05-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the association between air pollutant (AP) and respiratory health of 951 children residing near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Northern China. Results showed that students in non-exposure areas had significantly higher levels of lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), and better lung capacity than students in exposure areas (p landfill sites were more likely to have deficient non-specific immunity and impaired lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of a HUBER exercise system mediated sensorimotor training protocol on proprioceptive system, lumbar movement control and quality of life in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatkar, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Maryam; Hadadnezhad, Malihe; Farivar, Niloufar

    2017-08-03

    There is a relation between deficits of the proprioceptive system and movement control dysfunction in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) but, the exact mechanism of this relation is unknown. Exercise therapy has been recognized as an effective method for low back pain treatment. In spite of this, it is not clear which of the various exercise therapy programs lead to better results. Therefore, the present analyze the efficacy of a HUBER study aims to exercise system mediated sensorimotor training protocol on proprioceptive system, lumbar movement control (LMC) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Quasi-experimental study. 53 patients with chronic non-specific LBP (mean age 37.55 ± 6.67 years,and Body Mass Index (BMI) 22.4 ± 3.33) were selected by using Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) and were assigned into two experimental (N= 27) and control groups (N= 26) The experimental group underwent a five-week (10 sessions) Sensorimotor training by using the Human Body Equalizer (HUBER) spine force under the supervision of an investigator. The movement control battery tests, the HUBER machine testing option, goniometer and visual analogue scale used for movement control, neuromuscular coordination, proprioception and LBP assessment respectively. The assessments were completed in pre-test and after five weeks. The paired and sample T tests were used for data analysis in SPSS program version 18 (Significance level were set at a P value pain scores of subjects with chronic non-specific LBP in the sensorimotor group (P= 0.001). In this study, only the short term effects of the sensorimotor training were examined. The results suggest that a sensorimotor training program causes significant improvement in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Future research should be carried out with a larger sample size to examine the long term effects of the sensorimotor training program on treatment of patients with chronic non-specific

  13. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Movement Images and Existential Problematics in the Novel by S. Beckett “More Pricks than Kicks”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il’ya N. Chernyshev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the semantic prerequisites for the use of images associated with movement in S. Beckett’s novel «More Pricks than Kicks» and their functioning in the context of the existential problematic of the work. A great influence on the author’s early prose was made by the modernist tradition and, in particular, the work of J. Joyce. Numerous allusions and a complex system of characters, the distinguishing features of which are the peculiarities of their movement, allowed the writer to express his views on the problem of human existence. This study suggests looking at the figurative component of S. Beckett’s early work from the viewpoint of phenomenological analysis.

  15. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide as a predictor of response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms and insignificant bronchodilator reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, David B; Buhl, Roland; Chan, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic non-specific respiratory symptoms are difficult to manage. This trial aimed to evaluate the association between baseline fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and the response to inhaled corticosteroids in patients with non-specific respiratory symptoms. METHODS: In this doub...

  16. Inhibition of Pain and Pain-Related Brain Activity by Heterotopic Noxious Counter-Stimulation and Selective Attention in Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Alexandra; Rustamov, Nabi; Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Tessier, Jessica; Lehmann, Alexandre; Descarreaux, Martin; Rainville, Pierre; Piché, Mathieu

    2017-10-10

    The aim of the present study was to assess inhibition of pain and somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) by heterotopic noxious counter-stimulation (HNCS) and by selective attention in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Seventeen patients and age/sex-matched controls were recruited (10 men, 7 women; mean age ± SD: 43.3 ± 10.4 and 42.7 ± 11.1, respectively). On average, patients with LBP reported pain duration of 7.6 ± 6.5 years, light to moderate disability (19.3 ± 5.7/100) and low clinical pain intensity (21.8 ± 1.5/100), while pain catastrophizing, state and trait anxiety and depressive symptoms were not significantly different between groups (all p's >0.05). HNCS and selective attention had differential inhibitory effects on pain and SEP, but no difference was observed between groups. Across both groups, HNCS decreased pain (p = 0.06) as well as the N100 and the N150 components of SEP (p's selective attention only decreased pain (p attention was directed toward the HNCS stimulus (pselective attention. Importantly, this experiment was carefully designed to control for non-specific effects associated with the repetition of the test stimulus and the effect of an innocuous counter-stimulation. It remains to be determined if these results hold for patients with severe LBP and psychological symptoms or whether symptom severity may be associated with pain inhibition deficits. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Bruce

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique® (GT, a soft tissue massage therapy using hand-held stainless steel instruments. The objective of this trial is to determine the efficacy of SMT and GT compared to a placebo for the treatment of non specific thoracic spine pain. Methods Eighty four eligible people with non specific thoracic pain mid back pain of six weeks or more will be randomised to one of three groups, either SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound. Each group will receive up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at the Murdoch University Chiropractic student clinic over a 4-week period. Treatment outcomes will be measured at baseline, one week after their first treatment, upon completion of the 4-week intervention period and at three, six and twelve months post randomisation. Outcome measures will include the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Intention to treat analysis will be utilised in the statistical analysis of any group treatment effects. Trial Registration This trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 7th February 2008. Trial number: ACTRN12608000070336

  18. [Effect of joss stick moxibustion combined with pricking and cupping for acute herpes zoster and its mechanism of analgesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guoping; Su, Meiling; Zhu, Dingyu; Zhang, Linyun; Lin, Wang; Huang, Li; Wu, Mingxia

    2017-12-12

    To observe the effects of conventional western medication and joss stick moxibustion combined with pricking and cupping for herpes zoster in acute stage, and to explore its analgesic mechanism. Seventy patients with acute herpes zoster were randomized into an observation group (33 cases after 2 dropping) and a control group (34 cases after 1 dropping). Patients in the observation group were treated with joss stick moxibustion combined with pricking and cupping at local ashi points for 7 times, once every other day. Oral acyclovir, vitamin B 1 and mecobalamin tablets were applied in the control group for continuous 14 days, and interferon injection was used for continuous 6 days, etc. The herpes evaluation indexes of blister stopping time, scab time and decrustation time as well as pain intensity were observed before and after treatment. Peripheral serum substance P (SP) content of herpes local situation was detected. The comprehensive effects were evaluated. The blister stopping time, scab time and decrustation time in the observation group were shorter than those in the control group (all P 0.05). The pain beginning to ease time and duration time in the observation group were better than those in the control group (both P 0.05). The cured rate of the observation group was better than that of the control group [66.7% (22/33) vs 58.8% (20/34), P cupping are effective for herpes zoster, which have quicker and good analgesic effects than conventional western medication. Its mechanism may be related to reducing the content of SP more fast and to a larger degree.

  19. Perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific influences on rereading benefits for spatially transformed text: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Heather; Reingold, Eyal M

    2012-12-01

    The present study used eye tracking methodology to examine rereading benefits for spatially transformed text. Eye movements were monitored while participants read the same target word twice, in two different low-constraint sentence frames. The congruency of perceptual processing was manipulated by either applying the same type of transformation to the word during the first and second presentations (i.e., the congruent condition), or employing two different types of transformations across the two presentations of the word (i.e., the incongruent condition). Perceptual specificity effects were demonstrated such that fixation times for the second presentation of the target word were shorter for the congruent condition compared to the incongruent condition. Moreover, we demonstrated an additional perceptually non-specific effect such that second reading fixation times were shorter for the incongruent condition relative to a baseline condition that employed a normal typography (i.e., non-transformed) during the first presentation and a transformation during the second presentation. Both of these effects (i.e., perceptually specific and perceptually non-specific) were similar in magnitude for high and low frequency words, and both effects persisted across a 1 week lag between the first and second readings. We discuss the present findings in the context of the distinction between conscious and unconscious memory, and the distinction between perceptually versus conceptually driven processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ATRX mutation in two adult brothers with non-specific moderate intellectual disability identified by exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncini, S; Bedeschi, M F; Castronovo, P; Crippa, M; Calvello, M; Garghentino, R R; Scuvera, G; Finelli, P; Venturin, M

    2013-12-01

    In this report, we describe two adult brothers affected by moderate non-specific intellectual disability (ID). They showed minor facial anomalies, not clearly ascribable to any specific syndromic patterns, microcephaly, brachydactyly and broad toes. Both brothers presented seizures. Karyotype, subtelomeric and FMR1 analysis were normal in both cases. We performed array-CGH analysis that revealed no copy-number variations potentially associated with ID. Subsequent exome sequence analysis allowed the identification of the ATRX c.109C>T (p.R37X) mutation in both the affected brothers. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of the mutation in the brothers and showed that the mother is a healthy carrier. Mutations in the ATRX gene cause the X-linked alpha thalassemia/mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome (MIM #301040), a severe clinical condition usually associated with profound ID, facial dysmorphism and alpha thalassemia. However, the syndrome is clinically heterogeneous and some mutations, including the c.109C>T, are associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum, with patients displaying a less severe phenotype with only mild-moderate ID. In the case presented here, exome sequencing provided an effective strategy to achieve the molecular diagnosis of ATR-X syndrome, which otherwise would have been difficult to consider due to the mild non-specific phenotype and the absence of a family history with typical severe cases.

  1. Propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobin; Gong, Shiyuan; Yu, Denghang; Yuan, Hanwen

    2009-03-01

    The effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulated from propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts at the ratio of 3:1 (w/w) on non-specific immune response of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.1%, 0.5% or 1.0% TCM extracts for five weeks. The respiratory burst and phagocytic activities of blood leukocytes, lysozyme and natural haemolytic complement activities in plasma were measured weekly. After five weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Chinese sucker with different dosage of TCM extracts stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme activity in plasma. They had no effect on plasma natural haemolytic complement activity. All dosage of treated groups showed reduced mortality following A. hydrophila infection. Feed containing 0.5% TCM extracts was the most effective with the mortality of the fish significantly reduced by 35% compared to the control. The results indicate that propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts in combination enhances the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker against A. hydrophila.

  2. Ultrasensitive human thyrotropin (h TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) set up, through identification and minimization of non specific bindings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroni, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    An IRMA of h TSH, based on magnetic solid phase separation, was studied especially for what concerns its non specific bindings. These were identified as a product of the interaction between an altered form of radioiodinated anti-h TSH monoclonal antibody ( 125 I-m AB) and the uncoupled magnetizable cellulose particle (matrix). Apparently this form of 125 I-m AB is a type of aggregate that can be partly resolved from the main peak on Sephadex G-200 and further minimized via a single pre-incubation with the same matrix. Solid phase saturation with milk proteins, tracer storage at 4 0 C and serum addition during incubation were also found particularly effective is preventing its formation. These findings were used in order to reproducibly decrease non specific bindings to values 60 /B O ) up to values of 300-500. This way we obtained h TSH radio assays with functional sensitivities of about 0.05 m IU/L and analytical sensitivities of the order of 0.02 m IU/L, which classify them at least as among the best second generation assays and that are excellent indeed for magnetic IRMA s. A more optimistic sensitivity calculation, based on Rodbard's definition, provided values down to 0.008 m IU/L. Such sensitivities, moreover, were obtained in a very reproducible way and all over the useful tracer life. (author). 83 refs, 13 figs, 25 tabs

  3. Validity and everyday clinical applicability of lumbar muscle fatigue assessment methods in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge H; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Peranzoni, Matteo; Naik, Ganesh; Imperio, Grace; Cleland, Joshua A; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    This systematic literature review aimed at examining the validity and applicability in everyday clinical rehabilitation practise of methods for the assessment of back muscle fatiguability in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP). Extensive research was performed in MEDLINE, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases from their inception to September 2014. Potentially relevant articles were also manually looked for in the reference lists of the identified publications. Studies examining lumbar muscle fatigue in people with CNSLBP were selected. Two reviewers independently selected the articles, carried out the study quality assessment and extracted the results. A modified Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) scale was used to evaluate the scientific rigour of the selected works. Twenty-four studies fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the systematic review. We found conflicting data regarding the validity of methods used to examine back muscle fatigue. The Biering-Sorensen test, performed in conjunction with surface electromyography spectral analysis, turned out to be the most widely used and comparatively, the most optimal modality currently available to assess objective back muscle fatigue in daily clinical practise, even though critical limitations are discussed. Future research should address the identification of an advanced method for lower back fatigue assessment in patients with CNSLBP which, eventually, might provide physical therapists with an objective and reliable test usable in everyday clinical practise. Implications for Rehabilitation Despite its limitations, the Biering-Sorensen test is currently the most used, convenient and easily available fatiguing test for lumbar muscles. To increase validity and reliability of the Biering

  4. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, S. de; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  5. How accurate and safe is diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, J.H.; Wensing, M.; Knulst, A.C.; Krebitz, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Vries, de S.C.; Penninks, A.H.; Aalberse, R.C.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, van R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  6. How accurate and safe is the diagnosis of hazelnut allergy by means of commercial skin prick test reagents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Krebitz, Monika; Breiteneder, Heimo; de Vries, Sacco; Penninks, André H.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Sue L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to tree nuts, like hazelnuts, ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. These allergies can start at early childhood and are, in contrast to other food allergies, not always outgrown by the patient. Tree nut allergy is frequently associated with severe reactions.

  7. A case of non-specific interstitial pneumonia with recurrent gastric carcinoma and anti-Jo-1 antibody positive myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisutani, Chikara; Ito, Isao; Kitaichi, Masanori; Tanabe, Naoya; Mishima, Michiaki; Kadowaki, Seizo

    2016-07-01

    We report the first case of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) in a patient with cancer-associated myositis (CAM) that emerged along with the recurrence of the cancer. A 60-year-old woman, with a history of partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer 11 years ago, presented with exertional dyspnea with anti-Jo-1 antibody-positive myositis. Surgical lung biopsy showed NSIP with metastatic gastric cancer. Accordingly, her condition was diagnosed as CAM with cancer recurrence. In patients with a history of cancer, development of myositis may indicate cancer recurrence; therefore, careful observation would be necessary. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Aluminum ions alter the function of non-specific phospholipase C through the changes in plasma membrane physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejchar, Přemysl; Martinec, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The first indication of the aluminum (Al) toxicity in plants growing in acidic soils is the cessation of root growth, but the detailed mechanism of Al effect is unknown. Here we examined the impact of Al stress on the activity of non-specific phospholipase C (NPC) in the connection with the processes related to the plasma membrane using fluorescently labeled phosphatidylcholine. We observed a rapid and significant decrease of labeled diacylglycerol (DAG), product of NPC activity, in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with AlCl₃. Interestingly, an application of the membrane fluidizer, benzyl alcohol, restored the level of DAG during Al treatment. Our observations suggest that the activity of NPC is affected by Al-induced changes in plasma membrane physical properties.

  9. Effect of Non-specific HCN1 Blocker CsCl on Spatial Learning and Memory in Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xin; GUO Lianjun; YIN Guangfu; ZONG Xiangang; AI Yongxun

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that HCN1 is primarily expressed in hippocampus, however little is known about its effects on spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we investigated the effects of non-specific HCN1 blocker CsCl on spatial learning and memory by using Morris water maze and in situ hybridization in mice. The results showed CsCl 160 mg/kg ip for 4 days, and the mean escape latency was 34 s longer than that of normal control (P<0.01). In hippocampal tissues, staining for the HCN1 mRNA was stronger in the DG and CA1 region of the hippocampus (P <0.05, P<0.05, when CsCl-administration group was compared with normal group). Our results suggested that CsCl could significantly affect the spatial learning and memory in mice, and HCN channel is involved in the process of learning and memory.

  10. High non-specific binding of the {beta}{sub 1}-selective radioligand 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Law, M.P. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Department of Nuclear Medicine; Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). MRC Clinical Sciences Centre; Kopka, K. [Muenster Univ. (DE). Department of Nuclear Medicine] [and others

    2003-08-01

    Aim: As results of cardiac biopsies suggest, myocardial {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. However, changes in cardiac {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptors vary. With suitable radiopharmaceuticals single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) offer the opportunity to assess {beta}-adrenoceptors non-invasively. Among the novel racemic analogues of the established {beta}{sub 1}-selective adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 89.406 the iodinated 2-I-ICI-H showed high affinity and selectivity to {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in murine ventricular membranes. The aim of this study was its evaluation as a putative subtype selective {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic radioligand in cardiac imaging. Methods: Competition studies in vitro and in vivo were used to investigate the kinetics of 2-I-ICI-H binding to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors in mice and rats. In addition, the radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H from the silylated precursor 2-SiMe{sub 3}-ICI-H was established. The specific activity was 80 GBq/{mu}mol, the radiochemical yield ranged from 70 to 80%. Results: The unlabelled compound 2-I-ICI-H showed high {beta}{sub 1}-selectivity and -affinity in the in vitro competition studies. In vivo biodistribution studies apparently showed low affinity to cardiac {beta}-adrenoceptors. The radiolabelled counterpart 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H showed a high degree of non-specific binding in vitro and no specific binding to cardiac {beta}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors in vivo. Conclusion: Because of its high non-specific binding 2-{sup 125}I-ICI-H is no suitable radiotracer for imaging in vivo. (orig.)

  11. Effectiveness and safety of moxibustion treatment for non-specific lower back pain: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jungtae; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Yeoncheol; Seo, Byung-Kwan; Cho, Yeeun; Kang, Jung Won; Lee, Yoon Jae; Ha, In-Hyuk; Lee, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sanghoon; Nam, Dongwoo

    2017-06-23

    Many patients experience acute lower back pain that becomes chronic pain. The proportion of patients using complementary and alternative medicine to treat lower back is increasing. Even though several moxibustion clinical trials for lower back pain have been conducted, the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion intervention is controversial. The purpose of this study protocol for a systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion treatment for non-specific lower back pain patients. We will conduct an electronic search of several databases from their inception to May 2017, including Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Wanfang Database, Chongqing VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Korean Medical Database, Korean Studies Information Service System, National Discovery for Science Leaders, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System, the Korea Institute of Science and Technology, and KoreaMed. Randomised controlled trials investigating any type of moxibustion treatment will be included. The primary outcome will be pain intensity and functional status/disability due to lower back pain. The secondary outcome will be a global measurement of recovery or improvement, work-related outcomes, radiographic improvement of structure, quality of life, and adverse events (presence or absence). Risk ratio or mean differences with a 95% confidence interval will be used to show the effect of moxibustion therapy when it is possible to conduct a meta-analysis. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented at an international academic conference for dissemination. Our results will provide current evidence of the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion treatment in non-specific lower back pain patients, and thus will be beneficial to patients, practitioners, and policymakers

  12. Predictors of disability and absenteeism in workers with non-specific low back pain: A longitudinal 15-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Cantin, Vincent; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify baseline predictors of disability and absenteeism in workers with a history of non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred workers with a history of non-specific LBP participated in three evaluations (baseline, 7 and 15 months follow-up). Current and past history of LBP, clinical pain intensity, disability, absenteeism, fear-avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing, pain hypervigilance, work satisfaction and patient stratification based on "risk of poor clinical outcome assessment" (RPCO) were evaluated using questionnaires and interviews. In addition, cutaneous heat pain thresholds, cutaneous heat pain tolerance thresholds, conditioned pain modulation (CPM), trunk kinematics and muscle activity were measured during each evaluation. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of LBP disability and absenteeism at 15-months. Sixty-eight workers returned for the 15-month follow-up and among this sample, 49% reported disability and 16% reported absenteeism at follow-up. Baseline clinical pain intensity predicted disability (OR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.03-1.13) at 15-month while work satisfaction (OR = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.87-0.99) and RPCO (OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.05-2.16) predicted absenteeism. These results remained significant after adjustments for age, gender as well as type of work and intervention. This study highlights the importance of clinical pain and psychological factors in the prediction and potentially the prevention of future disability. Screening tools assessing these risk factors can be useful to evaluate workers with past history of low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics of antigen specific and non-specific polyclonal B-cell responses during lethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Rolland

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and composition of the polyclonal B-cell activation associated to malaria infection, antigen-specific and non-specific B-cell responses were evaluated in the spleens of mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL or injected with lysed erythrocytes or plasma from P. yoelii infected mice or with P. falciparum culture supernatants. Spleen/body weigth ratio, numbers of nucleated spleen cells and Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells increased progressively during the course of infection,in parallel to the parasitemia. A different pattern of kinetics was observed when anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell plaque forming cells response were studied: maximum values were observed at early stages of infection, whereas the number of total Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cells were not yet altered. Conversely, at the end of infection, when these latter values reached their maximum, the anti-sheep red blood cell and anti-trinitrophenylated-sheep red blood cell specific responses were normal or even infranormal. In mice injected with Plasmodium-derived material, a higher increase in antigen-specific PFC was observed, as compared to the increase of Immunoglobulin-containing and Immunoglobulin-secreting cell numbers. This suggested a "preferential" (antigen-plus mitogen-induced stimulation of antigen-specific cells rather than a generalized non-specific (mitogen-induced triggering of B-lymphocytes. On the basis of these and previous results, it is suggested that polyclonal B-cell activation that takes place during the course of infection appears as a result of successive waves of antigen-specific B-cell activation.

  14. Specific versus non-specific immune responses in an invertebrate species evidenced by a comparative de novo sequencing study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeline Deleury

    Full Text Available Our present understanding of the functioning and evolutionary history of invertebrate innate immunity derives mostly from studies on a few model species belonging to ecdysozoa. In particular, the characterization of signaling pathways dedicated to specific responses towards fungi and Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila melanogaster challenged our original view of a non-specific immunity in invertebrates. However, much remains to be elucidated from lophotrochozoan species. To investigate the global specificity of the immune response in the fresh-water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, we used massive Illumina sequencing of 5'-end cDNAs to compare expression profiles after challenge by Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria or after a yeast challenge. 5'-end cDNA sequencing of the libraries yielded over 12 millions high quality reads. To link these short reads to expressed genes, we prepared a reference transcriptomic database through automatic assembly and annotation of the 758,510 redundant sequences (ESTs, mRNAs of B. glabrata available in public databases. Computational analysis of Illumina reads followed by multivariate analyses allowed identification of 1685 candidate transcripts differentially expressed after an immune challenge, with a two fold ratio between transcripts showing a challenge-specific expression versus a lower or non-specific differential expression. Differential expression has been validated using quantitative PCR for a subset of randomly selected candidates. Predicted functions of annotated candidates (approx. 700 unisequences belonged to a large extend to similar functional categories or protein types. This work significantly expands upon previous gene discovery and expression studies on B. glabrata and suggests that responses to various pathogens may involve similar immune processes or signaling pathways but different genes belonging to multigenic families. These results raise the question of the importance

  15. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  16. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  17. A systematic review on the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine for chronic non-specific low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Sidney M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Kuijpers, Ton; Ostelo, Raymond; Verhagen, Arianne P; de Boer, Michiel R; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the effects of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), acupuncture and herbal medicine for chronic non-specific LBP. A comprehensive search was conducted by an experienced librarian from the Cochrane Back Review Group (CBRG) in multiple databases up to December 22, 2008. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with chronic non-specific LBP, which evaluated at least one clinically relevant, patient-centred outcome measure were included. Two authors working independently from one another assessed the risk of bias using the criteria recommended by the CBRG and extracted the data. The data were pooled when clinically homogeneous and statistically possible or were otherwise qualitatively described. GRADE was used to determine the quality of the evidence. In total, 35 RCTs (8 SMT, 20 acupuncture, 7 herbal medicine), which examined 8,298 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these (2 SMT, 8 acupuncture, 7 herbal medicine) were thought to have a low risk of bias. In general, the pooled effects for the studied interventions demonstrated short-term relief or improvement only. The lack of studies with a low-risk of bias, especially in regard to SMT precludes any strong conclusions; however, the principal findings, which are based upon low- to very-low-quality evidence, suggest that SMT does not provide a more clinically beneficial effect compared with sham, passive modalities or any other intervention for treatment of chronic low-back pain. There is evidence, however, that acupuncture provides a short-term clinically relevant effect when compared with a waiting list control or when acupuncture is added to another intervention. Although there are some good results for individual herbal medicines in short-term individual trials, the lack of homogeneity across studies did not allow for a pooled estimate of the effect. In general, these results are in agreement with other recent systematic reviews on

  18. A novel method for neck coordination exercise – a pilot study on persons with chronic non-specific neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björklund Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is a common problem and is often associated with changes in sensorimotor functions, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity of the neck, altered coordination of the cervical muscles, and increased postural sway. In line with these findings there are studies supporting the efficacy of exercises targeting different aspects of sensorimotor function, for example training aimed at improving proprioception and muscle coordination. To further develop this type of exercises we have designed a novel device and method for neck coordination training. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical applicability of the method and to obtain indications of preliminary effects on sensorimotor functions, symptoms and self-rated characteristics in non-specific chronic neck pain Methods The study was designed as an uncontrolled clinical trial including fourteen subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. A new device was designed to allow for an open skills task with adjustable difficulty. With visual feedback, subjects had to control the movement of a metal ball on a flat surface with a rim strapped on the subjects' head. Eight training sessions were performed over a four week period. Skill acquisition was measured throughout the intervention period. After intervention subjects were interviewed about their experience of the exercise and pain and sensorimotor functions, including the fast and slow components of postural sway and jerkiness-, range-, position sense-, movement time- and velocity of cervical rotation, were measured. At six-month follow up, self-rated pain, health and functioning was collected. Results The subjects improved their skill to perform the exercise and were overall positive to the method. No residual negative side-effects due to the exercise were reported. After intervention the fast component of postural sway (p = 0.019 and jerkiness of cervical rotation (p = 0.032 were reduced. The follow up

  19. [Importance of accurate assessment of capillary blood glucose level in diagnosis: misleading results in handlers of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pantoja, José; Landróguez Salinas, Sergio; Barrero Luque, Susana; Pérez Pérez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause symptoms of neuroglycopenia that can be easily confused with symptoms of greater clinical importance such as stroke. Appropriate differential diagnosis between these 2 processes will be essential for guiding the treatment approach. We report a case in which stroke was initially suspected because hypoglycemia was masked by the incorrect capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement technique used in treating an itinerant vendor of prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica). We studied the effects of prickly pear handling on the CBG levels in 11 vendors before and after they handled the fruit. CBG levels were noticeably higher after the fruit was handled in all cases. Our observations reveal the need to measure both capillary and venous blood glucose levels to rule out hypoglycemia in patients with acute neurological symptoms.

  20. Regulation of growth, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) in biofloc systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinghua; Ren, Yichao; Li, Yuquan; Xia, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Bioflocs are not only a source of supplemental nutrition but also provide substantial probiotic bacteria and bioactive compounds, which play an important role in improving physiological health of aquatic organisms. A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the growth, intestinal microbiota, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber in biofloc systems with different carbon sources (glucose, sucrose and starch). Control (no biofloc) and three biofloc systems were set up, and each group has three replicates. The results showed that biofloc volume (BFV) and total suspended solids (TSS) increased in the sequences of glucose > sucrose > starch and green sea cucumber > white sea cucumber during the experiment. The highest specific growth rates (SGRs) were observed in biofloc system with glucose as carbon source, which also had relatively lower glucose, lactate and cortisol levels in coelomic fluid and higher glycogen content in muscle compared to other groups. There were significant increased Bacillus and Lactobacillus counts of sea cucumber intestine in biofloc systems, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) also showed obvious ascending trends. Significant increases in total coelomocytes counts (TCC), phagocytosis, respiratory burst, complement C3 content and lysozyme (LSZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities of sea cucumber were all found in biofloc system (glucose). The expression patterns of most immune-related genes (i.e. Hsp90, Hsp70, c-type lectin (CL), toll-like receptor (TLR)) were up-regulated, suggesting the promotion of pathogen recognition ability and immune signaling pathways activation by biofloc. Furthermore, green and white sea cucumber had significantly higher survival rates in biofloc systems during the 14-day challenge test. In conclusion, biofloc technology could improve growth and physiological health of A. japonicus, by optimizing intestinal

  1. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Hartmann, Mechthild; Seidler, Günther H; Eich, Wolfgang

    2013-08-30

    Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient.Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma.Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later.The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0-10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment.In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed.The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed on an intention-to-treat basis

  2. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...... was used to determine the clinical relevance of sensitizations against the 18 most frequent inhalant allergens in Europe. The study population consisted of patients referred to one of the 17 allergy centres in 14 European countries (n = 3034, median age = 33 years). The aim of the study was to assess...

  3. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  4. Protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice upon ethanol-induced damages in rat erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais

    2012-05-01

    Juice from the fruit of the cactus Opuntia ficus indica is claimed to possess several health-beneficial properties. The present study was carried out to determine whether O. ficus indica f. inermis fruit extract might have a protective effect upon physiological and morphological damages inflicted to erythrocytes membrane by chronic ethanol poisoning, per os, in rat. Chemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and betalains. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w, per day for 90 days) induced an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonylated proteins levels and a decrease of glutathione (GSH) level in erythrocyte. Ethanol administration also reduced the scavenging activity in plasma and enhanced erythrocytes hemolysis, as compared to control rats. In addition, ethanol intake increased the erythrocyte shape index by +895.5% and decreased the erythrocyte diameter by -61.53% as compared to controls. In animals also given prickly pear juice during the same experimental period, the studied parameters were much less shifted. This protective effect was found to be dose-dependent. It is likely that the beneficial effect of the extract is due to the high content of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of carotenoid profile of Spanish Sanguinos and Verdal prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, spp.) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, M P; Gómez-Maqueo, A; García-Cayuela, T; Welti-Chanes, J

    2017-12-15

    Carotenoid profiles of different tissues (peel, pulp and whole fruit) of Spanish Sanguinos (red) and Verdal (orange) prickly pears (Opuntia ficus-indica spp.) have been characterized in detail and quantified for the first time. Carotenoids were determined by HPLC-PDA-MS (APCI + ), using a reverse phase C 30 column. A total of 9 xantophylls and 4 hydrocarbon carotenes were identified. Also, minor amounts of chlorophyll a, a' and b can be observed in Opuntia peel extracts. All carotenoids were found to be present in their free form (no carotenoid esters were detected). The RAE was highest in Opuntia peels, showing values from 19.20 to 16.48µg/100g fresh weigth, for Sanguinos and Verdal Opuntia fruits, respectively. The main carotenoid in Opuntia peel extracts was (all-E)-lutein with 1132.51 and 767.98µg/100g fresh weigth, followed by (all-E)-β-carotene with 200.40 and 173.50µg/100g fresh weigth for Sanguinos and Verdal varieties of Opuntia fruits, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Armazenamento de figo-da-índia em pó Storage of the prickly pear powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícera G. C. de Lisbôa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas a estabilidade do figo-da-índia em pó acondicionado em embalagens laminadas durante 100 dias de armazenamento, sob condições controladas de temperatura e umidade relativa e as amostras a cada 20 dias, por meio do teor de água, atividade de água, acidez total titulável, açúcares redutores e cor (luminosidade, intensidade de vermelho e de amarelo. Observou-se que as embalagens laminadas não evitaram a absorção de água, enquanto a atividade de água aumentou e os açúcares redutores diminuíram com o tempo; por outro lado, a acidez total titulável diminuiu mas apenas nos primeiros vinte dias; enfim, todas as amostras sofreram escurecimento durante o armazenamento.The stability of the prickly pear power packed in laminated roll for 100 days storage under controlled temperature and relative humidity was evaluated. The material was evaluated every 20 days, through the moisture content, water activity, total acidity, sugars and color (brightness, red and yellow colour intensity. It was found during storage of powder samples, that the laminated packaging did not prevent the water absorption, while water activity increased and reduced sugars decreased with time, the total acidity decreased in the first twenty days, keeping stable thereafter in all samples and there was a darkening of the powder samples stored at 40 ºC.

  7. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  8. Solvation study of the non-specific lipid transfer protein from wheat by intermolecular NOEs with water and small organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepinsh, Edvards; Sodano, Patrick; Tassin, Severine; Marion, Didier; Vovelle, Francoise; Otting, Gottfried

    1999-01-01

    Intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) were measured between the protons of various small solvent or gas molecules and the non-specific lipid transfer protein (ns-LTP) from wheat. Intermolecular NOEs were observed with the hydrophobic pocket in the interior of wheat ns-LTP, which grew in intensity in the order cyclopropane (saturated solution) < methane (140 bar) < ethane (40 bar) < acetonitrile (5% in water) < cyclohexane (saturated solution) < benzene (saturated solution). No intermolecular NOEs were observed with dioxane (5% in water). The intermolecular NOEs were negative for all of the organic molecules tested. Intermolecular NOEs between wheat ns-LTP and water were weak or could not be distinguished from exchange-relayed NOEs. As illustrated by the NOEs with cyclohexane versus dioxane, the hydrophobic pocket in wheat ns-LTP preferably binds non-polar molecules. Yet, polar molecules like acetonitrile can also be accommodated. The pressure dependence of the NOEs between methane and wheat ns-LTP indicated incomplete occupancy, even at 190 bar methane pressure. In general, NOE intensities increased with the size of the ligand molecule and its vapor pressure. NMR of the vapor phase showed excellent resolution between the signals from the gas phase and those from the liquid phase. The vapor concentration of cyclohexane was fivefold higher than that of the dioxane solution, supporting the binding of cyclohexane versus uptake of dioxane

  9. The effects of spinal support device on pain and extensibility of the hamstrings in patients with non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Tae; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Moon, Jong Hoon; Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Won, Young Sik; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal support device (SSD) on pain and hamstring extensibility in patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). [Subjects and Methods] 20 patients with NSLBP were recruited and randomly assigned to either the SSD group or the control group. In the SSD group, SSD was applied; in the control group, bed rest in supine position was performed. Both groups underwent treatment 20 min/day, 3 times a week, for a duration of 4 weeks. To assess the hamstring extensibility, sit and reach test (SRT) was performed. To assess pain pressure threshold (PPT) of the sacroiliac joint, a pressure algometer was used. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to quantify pain. [Results] The SSD group showed a significant improvement in sacroiliac joint pain with increased VAS, and the control group showed a significantly increased VAS after intervention. In the SSD group, VAS was significantly increased, but SRT was not changed compared with the control group. [Conclusion] These results demonstrated that an application of SSD effectively attenuates low back pain. Therefore, SSD may be a suitable intervention for pain control in patients with NSLBP.

  10. A comparative study on the distribution of non-specific esterase amongst the various constituents of retinas of some vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H R; Tewari, H B

    1979-01-01

    A wide coverage of the retinae of a large number of animals (Calotes, Varanus, Naja, Athene, Passer, Streptopelia, Psittacula and Funambulus) from the point of view of the histoenzymological distribution of non-specific esterase amongst the various constituents reveals mostly identical patterns. They are as follows: 1. Outer segments - positive in all cases. 2. Outer plexiform layer - equipped with enzymatic activity in all the instances. 3. Inner nuclear layer - thin cytoplasmic rim of the neurons characterized by positive activity; the nuclei of the neurons are completely negative. 4. Inner plexiform layer - this layer is endowed with the enzymatic activity. 5. Ganglion cells - negative in all cases. 6. Nerve fibres of the layer of nerve fibres, situated adjasent to ganglion cells are positive in all the animals; in case of squirrel oligodandroglial cells present in the region have demonstrated activity of a high order. On of the high-lights of the present contribution is demarcation of the inner plexiform layer into three stratified zones, equipped with enzymatic activity in Calotes, Streptopelia, Naja and Funambulus. Such stratifications are not seen in Varanus, Passer and Psittacula. The significance of the various patterns and the equipment of the enzyme in various constituents at various locals have been discussed in relation to the metabolic functions, zone-wise and interzone-wise in visual processes of various animals.

  11. Comparison of the efficacy of dexketoprofen and diclofenac in treatment of non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeziński, Krzysztof; Wordliczek, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Work-related loads, improper lifestyle, increasing obesity, and lack of adequate prophylaxy render low back pain (LBP) one of the most common causes of chronic pain worldwide. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two analgesic drugs on the effectiveness of therapy measured by pain intensity. and the degree of disability during treatment of chronic low back pain syndrome The retrospective analysis involved 185 patients undergoing treatment for chronic low back pain syndrome with dexketoprofen (DEX) and diclofenac (DIC). Patients' gender. place of residence. cause of the pain as well as pain intensity in the visual-analogue scale (VAS) and the disability degree (Oswestry Disability Index - ODI) were analysed. From the first week of treatment to the end of the observation. the DEX group exhibited significantly lower values of pain intensity on the disability index. The correlation coefficients between the parameters were significantly higher in the DEX group. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the choice of NSAIDs was the most significant factor determining the effectiveness of the treatment. The cause of the pain and place of residence did not have any impact on the treatment efficacy. The pharmacological properties of dexketoprofen contribute to its beneficial effect on the therapy used. which validates the potential use of DEX in LBP management. The significantly increased correlation between the aforementioned parameters suggests that administration of dexketoprofen in the management of non-specific low back pain results in a more rapid return to full physical activity and therefore more prompt return to work.

  12. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    Non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) is a common disorder, particularly in physically active growing children. Foot radiographs are usually obtained as part of the clinical evaluation in routine orthopaedic practice. However, there is still controversy about the specific findings on radiographs, and it is unclear what information is present on radiographs that may alter the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of patients with the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis to assess the yield of routine radiographs of the foot. A prospective study was performed on 61 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis in a single-surgeon practice. Standard anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing foot radiographs were obtained for each patient. Seventy-one sets of foot radiographs were reviewed to determine whether radiographs had an impact on diagnosis and management. Patients with antecedent trauma, penetrating injury, foot deformity, achilles tendonitis, bursitis and infections were excluded from the study. Seventy foot radiographs were considered to be normal. The radiographs changed the diagnosis in only one patient, in whom a simple bone cyst of the calcaneous was seen. Calcaneal apophysitis is a self-limiting disease, and patients can be treated conservatively. Neither the sclerosis nor the fragmentation of the apophysis could be used to establish the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis. Therefore, obtaining radiographs as an initial step in their evaluation does not seem to be justified. (orig.)

  13. Secretin-stimulated MR cholangio-pancreatography in the evaluation of asymptomatic patients with non-specific pancreatic hyperenzymemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, Francescamaria, E-mail: fra.donati@katamail.co [2nd Department of Radiology, Pisa University-Hospital, Via Paradisa 2, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Boraschi, Piero; Gigoni, Roberto; Salemi, Simonetta [2nd Department of Radiology, Pisa University-Hospital, Via Paradisa 2, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Faggioni, Lorenzo; Bertucci, Cristina; Cecchi, Claudia; Bartolozzi, Carlo [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Rome 67, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Falaschi, Fabio [2nd Department of Radiology, Pisa University-Hospital, Via Paradisa 2, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic value of secretin-stimulated MRCP (SS-MRCP) compared with conventional MRCP in asymptomatic patients with mild elevations of pancreatic enzymes. Materials and methods: Eighty asymptomatic patients with pancreatic hyperenzymemia underwent MR imaging at 1.5 T-device (Signa EXCITE, GE Healthcare). After the acquisition of axial T1w,T2w sequences, and conventional MRCP, SS-MRCP was performed using a single-slice coronal breath-hold, thick-slab, SSFSE T2w sequence, repeated every 30 s up to 15 min following intravenous injection of secretin (Secrelux, Sanochemia). Results: On the basis of the standards of reference, our final diagnoses were: negative findings (n = 23), pancreas divisum (n = 22), mild chronic pancreatitis (n = 14), inflammatory ampullary stenosis (n = 3), juxtapapillary duodenal diverticulum (n = 1), small cystic lesions (<1 cm) (n = 22; 5/22 cases associated with pancreas divisum). The image quality of SS-MRCP was significantly higher than that of conventional MRCP (p < 0.0001). Standards of reference did not differ significantly from of SS-MRCP findings (p = 0.5), while was statistically different from those of conventional MRCP (p < 0.0001). A significant difference was found between conventional MRCP and SS-MRCP findings (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: In asymptomatic patients with non-specific pancreatic hyperenzymemia SS-MRCP may represent the best non-invasive diagnostic technique, since it gives morphological and functional information.

  14. Effects of dietary nucleotides on growth, non-specific immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zehong; Yi, Lina; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-11-01

    A 9-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotides (NT) on growth, immune response and disease resistance of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (initial weight: 5.87 ± 0.03 g). Four graded levels of dietary NT were designed as 0, 150, 375 and 700 mg/kg, respectively. After the feeding trial, sea cucumbers were challenged with Vibrio splendidus for the determination of disease resistance. The results showed that the specific growth rates were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the diet with 375 mg/kg NT than those fed the basal diet without NT supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with nucleotides (≥ 375 mg/kg) had significantly higher phagocytic activities in coelomic fluid (P 0.05). After being challenged with V. splendidus, the cumulative mortalities of sea cucumber fed diets with 150 and 375 mg/kg NT were significantly lower than that in the treatment without dietary nucleotide supplementation (P sea cucumber in vivo. In conclusion, it was showed that dietary NT does increase the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumber. The optimum dietary NT supplementation level for sea cucumber was found to be 375 mg/kg. The application of dietary NT may present a novel strategy for health management in sea cucumber's aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimizing the non-specific binding of nanoparticles to the brain enables active targeting of Fn14-positive glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Craig S; Perez, Jimena G; Cheng, Emily; Zhang, Clark; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Hanes, Justin; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Woodworth, Graeme F; Kim, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    A major limitation in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadly primary brain cancer, is delivery of therapeutics to invading tumor cells outside of the area that is safe for surgical removal. A promising way to target invading GBM cells is via drug-loaded nanoparticles that bind to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), thereby potentially improving efficacy and reducing toxicity. However, achieving broad particle distribution and nanoparticle targeting within the brain remains a significant challenge due to the adhesive extracellular matrix (ECM) and clearance mechanisms in the brain. In this work, we developed Fn14 monoclonal antibody-decorated nanoparticles that can efficiently penetrate brain tissue. We show these Fn14-targeted brain tissue penetrating nanoparticles are able to (i) selectively bind to recombinant Fn14 but not brain ECM proteins, (ii) associate with and be internalized by Fn14-positive GBM cells, and (iii) diffuse within brain tissue in a manner similar to non-targeted brain penetrating nanoparticles. In addition, when administered intracranially, Fn14-targeted nanoparticles showed improved tumor cell co-localization in mice bearing human GBM xenografts compared to non-targeted nanoparticles. Minimizing non-specific binding of targeted nanoparticles in the brain may greatly improve the access of particulate delivery systems to remote brain tumor cells and other brain targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation and characterization of a tomato non-specific lipid transfer protein involved in polygalacturonase-mediated pectin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassen, Monic M M; Barrett, Diane M; van der Valk, Henry C P M; Woltering, Ernst J

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of the ripening process of tomato fruit is softening. Softening is accompanied by hydrolysis of the pectin in the cell wall by pectinases, causing loss of cell adhesion in the middle lamella. One of the most significant pectin-degrading enzymes is polygalacturonase (PG). Previous reports have shown that PG in tomato may exist in different forms (PG1, PG2a, PG2b, and PGx) commonly referred to as PG isoenzymes. The gene product PG2 is differentially glycosylated and is thought to associate with other proteins to form PG1 and PGx. This association is thought to modulate its pectin-degrading activity in planta. An 8 kDa protein that is part of the tomato PG1 multiprotein complex has been isolated, purified, and functionally characterized. This protein, designated 'activator' (ACT), belongs to the class of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). ACT is capable of 'converting' the gene product PG2 into a more active and heat-stable form, which increases PG-mediated pectin degradation in vitro and stimulates PG-mediated tissue breakdown in planta. This finding suggests a new, not previously identified, function for nsLTPs in the modification of hydrolytic enzyme activity. It is proposed that ACT plays a role in the modulation of PG activity during tomato fruit softening.

  17. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children?

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    Kose, Ozkan [Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, Orthopaedics and Traumatology Clinic, Diyarbakir (Turkey); Diclekent Bulvari, Ataslar Serhat Evleri, Diyarbakir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) is a common disorder, particularly in physically active growing children. Foot radiographs are usually obtained as part of the clinical evaluation in routine orthopaedic practice. However, there is still controversy about the specific findings on radiographs, and it is unclear what information is present on radiographs that may alter the diagnosis and management. The purpose of this study was to review a consecutive series of patients with the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis to assess the yield of routine radiographs of the foot. A prospective study was performed on 61 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis in a single-surgeon practice. Standard anteroposterior and lateral weight-bearing foot radiographs were obtained for each patient. Seventy-one sets of foot radiographs were reviewed to determine whether radiographs had an impact on diagnosis and management. Patients with antecedent trauma, penetrating injury, foot deformity, achilles tendonitis, bursitis and infections were excluded from the study. Seventy foot radiographs were considered to be normal. The radiographs changed the diagnosis in only one patient, in whom a simple bone cyst of the calcaneous was seen. Calcaneal apophysitis is a self-limiting disease, and patients can be treated conservatively. Neither the sclerosis nor the fragmentation of the apophysis could be used to establish the diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis. Therefore, obtaining radiographs as an initial step in their evaluation does not seem to be justified. (orig.)

  19. Effect of thoracic mobilization on respiratory parameters in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babina, R; Mohanty, P P; Pattnaik, M

    2016-02-19

    Altered respiratory function has been found to be associated with back pain. Limited chest excursion in subjects with chronic low back pain (CLBP) may be due to co-contraction or bracing of erector spinae and abdominal muscles; their flexed spinal posture; and/or their compromised spinal stability resulting from dysfunctional transversus abdominis. To check for the effects of thoracic mobilization on respiratory parameters in subjects with chronic non-specific low back pain. Sixty-two subjects (excluding 11 dropouts) with CLBP of age group 30-60 were randomly allocated to two groups. Both groups received individualized treatment for low back pain (LBP) and HEP (home exercise program) regime of breathing exercises. In addition, group 1 received Maitland's Central postero-anterior vertebral pressure for thoracic spine (T1-T8). Total treatment duration was 10 sessions in 2 weeks (5 sessions/week). Results showed significant improvement in respiratory parameters viz. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Sustained Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (SMIP) and Chest Wall Expansion (CWE) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in both groups (pchronic low back pain with or without radiation to lower limbs when treated with thoracic central PA mobilization, in addition to LBP specific treatment and breathing exercises, show an improvement in respiratory parameters and reduction in disability.

  20. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase production by human dental pulp stromal cells is enhanced by high density cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Dennis, Caitriona; Yang, Xuebin B; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The cell surface hydrolase tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (also known as MSCA-1) is used to identify a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with high mineralising potential and is found on subsets of cells within the dental pulp. We aim to determine whether TNAP is co-expressed by human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) alongside a range of BMSC markers, whether this is an active form of the enzyme and the effects of culture duration and cell density on its expression. Cells from primary dental pulp and culture expanded hDPSCs expressed TNAP. Subsequent analyses revealed persistent TNAP expression and co-expression with BMSC markers such as CD73 and CD90. Flow cytometry and biochemical assays showed that increased culture durations and cell densities enhanced TNAP expression by hDPSCs. Arresting the hDPSC cell cycle also increased TNAP expression. These data confirm that TNAP is co-expressed by hDPSCs together with other BMSC markers and show that cell density affects TNAP expression levels. We conclude that TNAP is a potentially useful marker for hDPSC selection especially for uses in mineralised tissue regenerative therapies.

  1. Exploitation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains to improve shelf life, rheological, sensory and functional features of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) fruit puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Vincentini, Olimpia; Lanera, Alessia; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were identified from raw prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.). Five autochthonous strains were selected based on the kinetics of growth and acidification on prickly pear fruit juice, and the capacity to synthesize exo-polysaccharides. All selected Leuc. mesenteroides strains showed an in vitro mucilage-degrading capability. A protocol for processing and storage of fermented prickly pear fruit puree (FP) was set up. Unstarted FP and chemically acidified FP were used as the controls. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers during 21 days of storage at 4 °C. Contaminating Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts were found only in the controls. Viscosity and serum separation distinguished started FP compared to the controls. Colour parameters, browning index, sensory attributes, antimicrobial activity, vitamin C and betalains levels were positively affected by lactic acid fermentation. Increase of free radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate soluble extract suggested an effect of selected strains on phenolic profiles. Started FP markedly inhibited the inflammatory status of Caco-2/TC7 cells, and also contributed to maintaining the integrity of tight junctions. Started FP scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 on Caco-2 cells. All selected strain variously affected the immunomodulatory activity towards anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochemical characterization of different prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) cultivars and botanical parts: UHPLC-ESI-MSn metabolomics profiles and their chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Legua, Pilar; Del Rio, Daniele; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Prickly pear is an important source of bioactive compounds. However, a comprehensive characterization of the phytochemical profile of its aerial botanical parts, considering genotypic differences, has not been conducted. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition of four botanical parts (fruit pulp and skin, and young and adult cladodes) of six cultivars. Analysis was carried out by using two non-targeted UHPLC-ESI-MS n experimental conditions and assisted with multivariate analysis to facilitate data interpretation. Up to 41 compounds, mainly (poly)phenolic molecules, were identified and quantified, 23 compounds being reported for the first time in Opuntia ficus-indica. Phenolic composition varied significantly depending on the part of the plant. Betalains were detected only in the fruit of a red cultivar. This study provided novel insights in terms of identification of bioactives and thorough characterization of botanical parts of prickly pears. This information may be used for the development of prickly pear-derived products with high levels of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do the key prognostic factors for non-specific neck pain have moderation effects? - A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Arun Prasad; Robinson, Hilde Stendal; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke

    2018-05-01

    Neck pain is one of the common musculoskeletal conditions prevalent in the general population in Norway. Patients with neck pain, seek treatment from different health professionals such as general practitioners, physiotherapists, chiropractors and alternative medicine practitioners. The interventions for neck pain are typically provided in a primary care or specialised healthcare setting depending on the general practitioners' referral patterns. Clinicians are interested to know the various prognostic factors that can explain the recovery from neck pain. In order to know this, studies have explored and reported on a range of prognostic factors that contribute to the outcomes in patients with neck pain. This information is currently available only for neck pain following whiplash injury that has a traumatic origin. There is limited information on the role of prognostic factors specifically for non-specific neck pain without a traumatic episode. Moreover, there is a lack of data on whether there are interactions (moderation effects) between the prognostic factors. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis to elucidate whether the same set of prognostic factors found in neck pain associated with whiplash injuries are also identified in patients with neck pain without trauma. Additionally, we hypothesize that the association between a prognostic factor and the outcome variable (s) would be dependent on the third variable, thereby confirming the moderation effects. Clinicians could make informed decisions in the clinical management of neck pain with the knowledge of prognostic factors that explain the outcomes. It could also be used for the development of new interventions or for modifying the existing ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  5. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07

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    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The average body weight (5.320 ± 0.018, percent weight gain (227.66 ± 0.28, specific growth rate (2.080 ± 0.015, hepatosomatic index (1.197 ± 0.00 and viscerosomatic index (4.421 ± 0.150 were significantly increased in the fish feed with seaweed containing 5% of Sargassum wightii (S. wightii when compared with other seaweeds and control diet. Hotwater extract of S. wightii (1% was significantly enhanced the immune response in fish when compared with other diets (0.5% and 2%. S. wightii showed good immunostimulation properties. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry result showed that the hot-water extract of S. wightii seaweed contained fatty acids. Conclusions: Trash fish feed will reduce the production cost and also provide evidence that aqueous leaf extract of S. wightii (1% was added to a formulated fish diet which could activate the non-specific immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Mugil cephalus.

  6. C-terminal sequences of hsp70 and hsp90 as non-specific anchors for tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Andrew J; Russell, Lance C; Chinkers, Michael

    2009-10-12

    Steroid-hormone-receptor maturation is a multi-step process that involves several TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) proteins that bind to the maturation complex via the C-termini of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) and hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90). We produced a random T7 peptide library to investigate the roles played by the C-termini of the two heat-shock proteins in the TPR-hsp interactions. Surprisingly, phages with the MEEVD sequence, found at the C-terminus of hsp90, were not recovered from our biopanning experiments. However, two groups of phages were isolated that bound relatively tightly to HsPP5 (Homo sapiens protein phosphatase 5) TPR. Multiple copies of phages with a C-terminal sequence of LFG were isolated. These phages bound specifically to the TPR domain of HsPP5, although mutation studies produced no evidence that they bound to the domain's hsp90-binding groove. However, the most abundant family obtained in the initial screen had an aspartate residue at the C-terminus. Two members of this family with a C-terminal sequence of VD appeared to bind with approximately the same affinity as the hsp90 C-12 control. A second generation pseudo-random phage library produced a large number of phages with an LD C-terminus. These sequences acted as hsp70 analogues and had relatively low affinities for hsp90-specific TPR domains. Unfortunately, we failed to identify residues near hsp90's C-terminus that impart binding specificity to individual hsp90-TPR interactions. The results suggest that the C-terminal sequences of hsp70 and hsp90 act primarily as non-specific anchors for TPR proteins.

  7. Subscales measuring symptoms of non-specific depression, anhedonia, and anxiety in the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Alan; McVey, Cynthia

    2008-06-01

    There has been considerable research and clinical interest in the comorbidity of anxiety and depression in the post-partum period, and specifically in the possibility that the commonly used Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) incorporates an anxiety component. We hypothesized that the recommended version of factor analysis (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, & Strahan, 1999) would identify such covert dimensions more reliably than the commonly used principal components analysis with varimax rotation and eigenvalues greater than 1. Principal axis factor extraction with parallel analysis and oblique (direct quartimin) factor rotation was applied to the 10 EPDS items. The study used a sample of recent mothers recruited and assessed via e-mail and the Internet (N=440). In addition to the EPDS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Scales (PANAS) were also administered. Three factors were found, which were identified as 'non-specific depressive symptoms', 'anhedonia', and 'anxietal symptoms' subscales, respectively. These subscales were regressed on the HADS anxiety and depression and the PANAS positive and negative affectivity scales, with results substantially consistent with current structural models of the taxonomy of the emotional disorders. The data were obtained from a self-selected non-clinical sample. In addition, it is known that the use of computer-based assessment may tend to inflate self-report scores. It was concluded that there is now sufficient evidence that clinicians should not assume the EPDS to be unidimensional, but should assess all three subscales when screening for susceptibility to post-partum depression and/or post-partum anxiety.

  8. Interplay among pain intensity, sleep disturbance and emotion in patients with non-specific low back pain

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    Shilabant Sen Sribastav

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low back pain (LBP is the most common problem worldwide. There are several negative consequences of LBP, such as sleep disorders, work leave, disability, depression, anxiety, and poor quality of life. In this study, we designed to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with non-specific LBP(NSLBP, and cross-correlation among sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and pain intensity in patients with NSLBP. Aim In this study, we designed to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with NSLBP, and cross-correlation among sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and pain intensity in patients with NSLBP. Methods A cross-sectional self-assessment questionnaire survey was carried out in an outpatient clinic. Anonymous assessments were used to characterize the presence of NSLBP, PSQI, VAS, SF-36 form, ODI, BAI and BDI. Cross-correlation among the severity of NSLBP and sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression and life quality were evaluated. Results Patients with NSLBP have a higher incidence of sleep disorder, anxiety and depression, and higher ODI scores than healthy people without LPB (P < 0.01. NSLBP patients with sleep disorders have more severe anxiety, depression, an increased VAS score and poor daily living (P < 0.05. NSLBP patients with anxiety have declined sleep quality, poor daily living, decreased work and social skills, and increased LBP severity (P < 0.05. NSLBP patients with depression have declined sleep quality, poor daily living, decreased work and social skills (P < 0.05. Significant associations were found between the severity of NSLBP and sleep disorders, anxiety and ODI scores. Conclusion Psychological and social factors play an important role in the development of NSLBP. NSLBP leads to sleep disorders, which decrease the sleep quality and increase the unpleasant emotions and memories in return; these can exacerbate the severity of LBP, with the cycle repeating to form a vicious circle.

  9. Manual therapy compared with physical therapy in patients with non-specific neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneweg, Ruud; van Assen, Luite; Kropman, Hans; Leopold, Huco; Mulder, Jan; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2017-01-01

    Manual therapy according to the School of Manual Therapy Utrecht (MTU) is a specific type of passive manual joint mobilization. MTU has not yet been systematically compared to other manual therapies and physical therapy. In this study the effectiveness of MTU is compared to physical therapy, particularly active exercise therapy (PT) in patients with non-specific neck pain. Patients neck pain, aged between 18-70 years, were included in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a one-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures were global perceived effect and functioning (Neck Disability Index), the secondary outcome was pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale for Pain). Outcomes were measured at 3, 7, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. Multilevel analyses (intention-to-treat) were the primary analyses for overall between-group differences. Additional to the primary and secondary outcomes the number of treatment sessions of the MTU group and PT group was analyzed. Data were collected from September 2008 to February 2011. A total of 181 patients were included. Multilevel analyses showed no statistically significant overall differences at one year between the MTU and PT groups on any of the primary and secondary outcomes. The MTU group showed significantly lower treatment sessions compared to the PT group (respectively 3.1 vs. 5.9 after 7 weeks; 6.1 vs. 10.0 after 52 weeks). Patients with neck pain improved in both groups without statistical significantly or clinically relevant differences between the MTU and PT groups during one-year follow-up. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00713843.

  10. Investigating organic multilayers by spectroscopic ellipsometry: specific and non-specific interactions of polyhistidine with NTA self-assembled monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Solano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A versatile strategy for protein–surface coupling in biochips exploits the affinity for polyhistidine of the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA group loaded with Ni(II. Methods based on optical reflectivity measurements such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE allow for label-free, non-invasive monitoring of molecule adsorption/desorption at surfaces.Results: This paper describes a SE study about the interaction of hexahistidine (His6 on gold substrates functionalized with a thiolate self-assembled monolayer bearing the NTA end group. By systematically applying the difference spectra method, which emphasizes the small changes of the ellipsometry spectral response upon the nanoscale thickening/thinning of the molecular film, we characterized different steps of the process such as the NTA-functionalization of Au, the adsorption of the His6 layer and its eventual displacement after reaction with competitive ligands. The films were investigated in liquid, and ex situ in ambient air. The SE investigation has been complemented by AFM measurements based on nanolithography methods (nanografting mode.Conclusion: Our approach to the SE data, exploiting the full spectroscopic potential of the method and basic optical models, was able to provide a picture of the variation of the film thickness along the process. The combination of δΔi+1,i(λ, δΨi+1,i(λ (layer-addition mode and δΔ†i',i+1(λ, δΨ†i',i+1(λ (layer-removal mode difference spectra allowed us to clearly disentangle the adsorption of His6 on the Ni-free NTA layer, due to non specific interactions, from the formation of a neatly thicker His6 film induced by the Ni(II-loading of the NTA SAM.

  11. Effect of Excoecaria agallocha on non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis niloticus against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laith, A A; Mazlan, A G; Effendy, A W; Ambak, M A; Nurhafizah, W W I; Alia, A S; Jabar, A; Najiah, M

    2017-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of Excoecaria agallocha leaf extracts on immune mechanisms and resistance of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, after challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae. Fish were divided into 6 groups; groups 1-5 fed with E. agallocha leaf extracts at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50mgkg -1 level, respectively. Group 6 were fed without extract addition and acted as control. E. agallocha extracts were administered as feed supplement in fish diet for 28days and the hematological, immunological, and growth performance studies were conducted. Fish were infected with S. agalactiae at a dose of 15×105CFUmL -1 and the total white blood cell (WBC), phagocytosis and respiratory burst activities of leukocytes, serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, total protein, albumin, and globulin levels were monitored and mortalities recorded for 15days post infection. Results revealed that feeding O. niloticus with 50mgkg -1 of E. agallocha enhanced WBC, phagocytic, respiratory burst, serum bactericidal and lysozyme activities on day 28 pre-challenge and on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th day post-challenge as compared to control. Total protein and albumin were not enhanced by E. agallocha diet. E. agallocha increased the survival of fish after challenge with S. agalactiae. The highest mortality rate (97%) was observed in control fish and the lowest mortality (27%) was observed with group fed with 50mgkg -1 extract. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. agallocha methanolic leaf extract in O. niloticus enhances the non-specific immunity and disease resistance against S. agalactiae pathogen. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Physical risk factors for developing non-specific neck pain in office workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Deokhoon; Zoe, Michaleff; Johnston, Venerina; O'Leary, Shaun

    2017-07-01

    Identifying risk factors associated with the development of work-related neck pain in office workers is necessary to facilitate the development of prevention strategies that aim to minimise this prevalent and costly health problem. The aim of this systematic review is to identify individual worker (e.g., lifestyle activity, muscular strength, and posture) and workplace (e.g., ergonomics and work environment) physical factors associated with the development of non-specific neck pain in office workers. Studies from 1980 to 2016 were identified by an electronic search of Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psychlnfo and Proquest databases. Two authors independently screened search results, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias using the epidemiological appraisal instrument (EAI). A random effect model was used to estimate the risk of physical factors for neck pain. Twenty papers described the findings of ten prospective cohort studies and two randomized controlled trials. Low satisfaction with the workplace environment (pooled RR 1.28; CI 1.07-1.55), keyboard position close to the body [pooled RR 1.46; (CI 1.07-1.99)], low work task variation [RR 1.27; CI (1.08-1.50)] and self-perceived medium/high muscular tension (pooled RR 2.75/1.82; CI 1.60 /1.14-4.72/2.90) were found to be risk factors for the development of neck pain. This review found evidence for a few number of physical risk factors for the development of neck pain, however, there was also either limited or conflicting factors. Recommendations for future studies evaluating risk factors are reported and how these may contribute to the prevention of neck pain in office workers.

  13. Differences in personal and lifestyle characteristics among Zimbabwean high school adolescents with and without recurrent non-specific low back pain: a two part cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Naidoo, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) is increasingly becoming common among adolescents worldwide. A recent study in Zimbabwe showed a relatively high prevalence (28.8 %) among high school students. Influential associated factors, however, remain unclear. This is a significant shortcoming. The aim was to determine personal or lifestyle-related factors associated with recurrent NSLBP among high school adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. This study was part of a large epidemiological study conducted in two continuous parts. Part one sought to determine self-reported associated factors among 532 participants (mean age =16 ± 1.72 years) drawn randomly from selected government schools using a reliable and content-validated questionnaire (Kappa coefficient, k = 0.32-1). Part two purposively identified adolescents ( N  = 64, median age =17 years, interquartile range, IQR = 15-18 years) with a history of 'severe' recurrent NSLBP from part one based on a specific eligibility criteria and compared body mass index, relative school bag weight and hamstring flexibility with matched adolescents without NSLBP. Data was analysed using Statistica version 11. Independent t -tests or χ 2 tests of association were used for continuous and categorical data, respectively. The statistical significance was set at p  hamstrings [χ 2 (1) =7.6, p  = 0.006]. Although conclusions from this study are hesitant because of the cross-sectional nature of the study and the relatively small sample size in follow-up study, recurrent NSLBP is associated with perceptions of a heavy school bag, duration of school bag carriage, no sports participation, prolonged sitting on entertainment activities, and tight hamstrings. These findings add to the importance of promoting physical activity at school or home especially aimed at improving muscle flexibility.

  14. Non-specific low back pain in primary care in the Spanish National Health Service: a prospective study on clinical outcomes and determinants of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Alfonso

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Spanish National Health Service is a universal and free health care system. Non-specific low back pain (LBP is a prevalent disorder, generating large health and social costs. The objectives of this study were to describe its management in primary care, to assess patient characteristics that influence physicians' decisions, and to describe clinical outcome at 2 months. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 648 patients with non-specific low back pain was recruited by 75 physicians (out of 361 – 20.8% working in 40 primary care centers in 10 of the 17 administrative regions in Spain, covering 693,026 out of the 40,499,792 inhabitants. Patients were assessed on the day they were recruited, and prospectively followed-up 14 and 60 days later. The principal patient characteristics that were analyzed were: sex, duration of the episode, history of LBP, working status, severity of LBP, leg pain and disability, and results of straight leg raising test. Descriptors of management were: performance of the straight leg raising test, ordering of diagnostic procedures, prescription of drug treatment, referral to physical therapy, rehabilitation or surgery, and granting of sick leave. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between patients' baseline characteristics and physicians' management decisions. Only workers were included in the models on sick leave. Results Mean age (SD of included patients was 46.5 (15.5 years, 367 (56.6% were workers, and 338 (52.5% were females. Median (25th–75th interquartile range duration of pain when entering the study was 4 (2–10 days and only 28 patients (4.3% had chronic low back pain. Diagnostic studies included plain radiographs in 43.1% of patients and CT or MRI scans in 18.8%. Drug medication was prescribed to 91.7% of patients, 19.1% were sent to physical therapy or rehabilitation, and 9.6% were referred to surgery. The main determinants of the clinical management were duration

  15. The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and non-specific synovitis by intra-articular injection of radioactive colloidal gold (198Au)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, thirty-nine knee and three ankle effusions and pains unresponsive to the usual methods of therapy were treated by intra-articular injection of radioactive colloidal gold from November 1964 to January 1979 and followed up. Thirteen cases had classical rheumatoid arthritis: fifteen non-specific synovitis: two pigmented villonodular synovitis: one post-synovectomy, and one tuberculous arthritis. The results were as follows: 1) In eleven cases (84.6 %) of rheumatoid arthritis fourteen cases (93.3 %) of non-specific synovitis, and five cases (50.0 %) of osteoarthritis, the effusion disappeared. 2) In twelve cases (92.3 %) of rheumatoid arthritis, thirteen cases (86.7 %) of non-specific synovitis, and only two cases (20.0 %) of oseoarthritis, the pain disappeared. 3) As a whole, in thirty-three cases (78.6 %), the effusion disappeared and in twenty-eight cases (66.7 %) the pain disappeared. (author)

  16. Non-specific effects of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles vaccinations? An analysis of surveillance data from Navrongo, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaga, Paul; Nielsen, Jens; Adjuik, Martin; Debpuur, Cornelius; Ross, David A; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Studies from low-income countries have suggested that routine vaccinations may have non-specific effects on child mortality; measles vaccine (MV) is associated with lower mortality and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) with relatively higher mortality. We used data from Navrongo, Ghana, to examine the impact of vaccinations on child mortality. Vaccination status was assessed at the initiation of a trial of vitamin A supplementation and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Within the placebo group, we compared the mortality over the first 4 months and the full 2 years of follow-up for different vaccination status groups with different likelihoods of additional vaccinations during follow-up. The frequency of additional vaccinations was assessed among children whose vaccination card was seen at 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Among children with a vaccination card, more than 75% received missing DTP or MV during the first 12 months of follow-up, whereas only 25% received these vaccines among children with no vaccination card at enrollment. Children without a card at enrollment had a significant threefold higher mortality over the 2-year follow-up period than those fully vaccinated. The small group of children with DTP3-4 but no MV at enrollment had lower mortality than children without a card and had the same mortality as fully vaccinated children. In contrast, children with 1-2 DTP doses but no MV had a higher mortality during the first 4 months than children without a card [MRR = 1.65 (0.95, 2.87)]; compared with the fully vaccinated children, they had significantly higher mortality after 4 months [MRR = 2.38 (1.07, 5.30)] and after 2 years [MRR = 2.41 (1.41, 4.15)]. Children with 0-2 DTP doses at enrollment had higher mortality after 4 months (MRR = 1.67 (0.82, 3.43) and after 2 years [MRR = 1.85 (1.16, 2.95)] than children who had all three doses of DTP at enrollment. As hypothesised, DTP vaccination was associated with higher child mortality than measles

  17. Specific and Non-Specific Factors of Humoral Immunity as Markers for Pregnancy Loss in Women with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Andrievskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the changes in humoral immunity and their association with complications of pregnancy (spontaneous abortions, threatened miscarriage, premature birth depending on the gestational age and recurrence of cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI. A direct relationship between the frequency of detection of an anti-CMV IgG antibody titer of 1:1600 and the prevalence of acute respiratory disease during pregnancy has been identified. We found an imbalance in the production of the non-specific antibodies (an increase in the blood levels of total IgM and a decrease in IgA and IgG levels in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 6 to 8 weeks of gestation and spontaneous abortion, as well as in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 15 to 21 weeks of gestation and the risk of the late miscarriage, compared to those with relapsed CMVI at 9 to 14 weeks and 22 to 32 weeks of gestation. An increase in blood levels of total IgM and IgG and a decrease in IgA level was identified in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 9 to14 weeks of gestation and a threatened abortion, as well as in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 22 to 32 weeks of gestation and preterm birth. The obtained data of the imbalance in the primary and secondary immune response in CMV- seropositive pregnant women during relapsed CMVI indicate disturbances in the systemic and local intercellular interactions of immunocompetent cells, which lead to an imbalance in the production of antibodies involved in the elimination of viral agents and to the development of a systemic inflammatory response that complicates the course of pregnancy. CMVI relapse at 7 to 8 weeks of gestation is associated with reproductive losses; a risk for threatened miscarriage, threatened premature labor, and retrochorial hematoma increases significantly with CMVI relapse in the more remote gestational age.

  18. The cellular prion protein interacts with the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase in membrane microdomains of bioaminergic neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ermonval

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cellular prion protein, PrP(C, is GPI anchored and abundant in lipid rafts. The absolute requirement of PrP(C in neurodegeneration associated to prion diseases is well established. However, the function of this ubiquitous protein is still puzzling. Our previous work using the 1C11 neuronal model, provided evidence that PrP(C acts as a cell surface receptor. Besides a ubiquitous signaling function of PrP(C, we have described a neuronal specificity pointing to a role of PrP(C in neuronal homeostasis. 1C11 cells, upon appropriate induction, engage into neuronal differentiation programs, giving rise either to serotonergic (1C11(5-HT or noradrenergic (1C11(NE derivatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The neuronal specificity of PrP(C signaling prompted us to search for PrP(C partners in 1C11-derived bioaminergic neuronal cells. We show here by immunoprecipitation an association of PrP(C with an 80 kDa protein identified by mass spectrometry as the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP. This interaction occurs in lipid rafts and is restricted to 1C11-derived neuronal progenies. Our data indicate that TNAP is implemented during the differentiation programs of 1C11(5-HT and 1C11(NE cells and is active at their cell surface. Noteworthy, TNAP may contribute to the regulation of serotonin or catecholamine synthesis in 1C11(5-HT and 1C11(NE bioaminergic cells by controlling pyridoxal phosphate levels. Finally, TNAP activity is shown to modulate the phosphorylation status of laminin and thereby its interaction with PrP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of a novel PrP(C partner in lipid rafts of neuronal cells favors the idea of a role of PrP in multiple functions. Because PrP(C and laminin functionally interact to support neuronal differentiation and memory consolidation, our findings introduce TNAP as a functional protagonist in the PrP(C-laminin interplay. The partnership between TNAP and PrP(C in neuronal cells may

  19. A Non-specific Setaria italica Lipid Transfer Protein Gene Plays a Critical Role under Abiotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanlin; Li, Jianrui; Jiao, Licong; Li, Cong; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are a class of cysteine-rich soluble proteins having small molecular weights. LTPs participate in flower and seed development, cuticular wax deposition, also play important roles in pathogen and abiotic stress responses. A non-specific LTP gene ( SiLTP ) was isolated from a foxtail millet ( Setaria italica ) suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for differentially expressed genes after abiotic stress treatments. A semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that SiLTP was expressed in all foxtail millet tissues. Additionally, the SiLTP promoter drove GUS expression in root tips, stems, leaves, flowers, and siliques of transgenic Arabidopsis . Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the SiLTP expression was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol, and abscisic acid (ABA). SiLTP was localized in the cytoplasm of tobacco leaf epidermal cells and maize protoplasts. The ectopic expression of SiLTP in tobacco resulted in higher levels of salt and drought tolerance than in the wild type (WT). To further assess the function of SiLTP, SiLTP overexpression (OE) and RNA interference (RNAi)-based transgenic foxtail millet were obtained. SiLTP -OE lines performed better under salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, the RNAi lines were much more sensitive to salt and drought compared than WT. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrids indicated that the transcription factor ABA-responsive DRE-binding protein (SiARDP) could bind to the dehydration-responsive element of SiLTP promoter in vitro and in vivo , respectively. Moreover, the SiLTP expression levels were higher in SiARDP -OE plants compared than the WT. These results confirmed that SiLTP plays important roles in improving salt and drought stress tolerance of foxtail millet, and may partly be upregulated by SiARDP. SiLTP may provide an effective genetic resource for molecular breeding in crops to enhance salt and drought

  20. A multimedia campaign to improve back beliefs in patients with non-specific low back pain: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Bamarni, Jiman; van Tulder, Maurits W; Anema, Johannes R

    2017-05-18

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and costly disorders worldwide. To reduce its burden in the Netherlands, implementation of a multidisciplinary guideline for LBP was supported by a multifaceted eHealth campaign for patients with LBP. The current study aims 1) to evaluate whether the implementation strategy was performed as planned; 2) to assess the feasibility, barriers and facilitators of the patient based eHealth campaign; 3) to gain insight into the satisfaction and experiences of patients with various ethnic backgrounds with the implementation strategy and to make a comparison between them; and 4) to explore the association between exposure to and satisfaction with the implementation strategy. This process evaluation was performed using the Linnan and Steckler framework, and used a mixed methods approach for data collection and analysis. The relationship between satisfaction of patients and exposure to the strategy was statistically examined. Semi-structured interviews were analysed using qualitative data analysis methods. Two hundred and fourteen patients participated in the quantitative, and 44 in the qualitative analysis. Most were female and had a high level of education. Many patients did not use the campaign at all or only once, and those that did rated it as reasonable. Patient satisfaction with the campaign increased significantly with an increase in its use. Qualitative analysis showed that four main themes played a role in campaign rating and use: satisfaction with intervention components, perceived benefits of the intervention, usage of the intervention, and satisfaction with the medium used. This process evaluation showed that the eHealth campaign was used only by a small proportion of patients with non-specific LBP. It seemed that the campaign was offered to the patients too late, that the lay-out of the campaign did not meet patient needs, and that healthcare providers rarely discussed the campaign with their patients, while

  1. Influence of specific and non-specific endothelin receptor antagonists on renal morphology in rats with surgical renal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, A; Amann, K; Wagner, J; Gehlen, F; Münter, K; Ritz, E

    1996-03-01

    Studies in experimental models of chronic renal failure suggest an important role for the endothelin system in the development of renal scarring. Endothelin receptor (ETR) anatagonists interfere with progression, but it has not been resolved (i) whether this is true for all models of renal damage, (ii) to what extent the effect is modulated by systemic blood pressure and (iii) whether the effect is similar for ETAR and ETA/ETBR antagonists. 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) by surgical ablation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Comparison of ACE inhibitor Trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day), ETAR antagonist BMS 182874 (30 mg/kg/day) and ETAR/ETBR antagonist Ro 46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) by gavage. Duration of the experiment eight weeks. Systolic blood pressure by tail plethysmography. Perfusion fixation of kidneys and morphometric analysis ET-1 and ETA/ETBR by quantitative PCR. SNX caused a significant (P < 0.01) increase of systolic blood pressure (170 +/- 8.6 mmHg) compared to sham operated controls (131 +/- 5.3 mmHg). Blood pressure was significantly (P < 0.001) lower with Trandolapril (128 +/- 5.3 mmHg), but not with BMS 182874 (153 +/- 5.9 mmHg) or Ro 46-2005 (167 +/- 7.6 mmHg). Compared to sham operated rats (0.03 +/- 0.01) glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the untreated SNX group (0.9 +/- 0.15). Significantly lower GSI was found in Trandolapril treated (0.29 +/- 0.04), BMS 182874 treated (0.36 +/- 0.05), and Ro 46-2005 treated animals (0.45 +/- 0.11). The effect of BMS 182874 was accompanied by lower tubulointerstitial damage index. Mean glomerular volume was dramatically increased (P < 0.001) in SNX rats as compared to sham operated animals. This glomerular enlargement was partially prevented by Trandolapril (P < 0.05), but not by either ETR antagonist. ET-1 mRNA tended to be higher in SNX irrespective of treatment, while ETAR and ETBR mRNA were significantly lower. Both specific (ETAR) and non-specific (ETA/ETBR) endothelin antagonists

  2. Dynamic multi-segmental postural control in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain compared to pain-free controls: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Michael A; Wirth, Brigitte; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    Reduced postural control is thought to contribute to the development and persistence of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP). It is therefore frequently assessed in affected patients and commonly reported as the average amount of postural sway while standing upright under a variety of sensory conditions. These averaged linear outcomes, such as mean centre of pressure (CP) displacement or mean CP surface areas, may not reflect the true postural status. Adding nonlinear outcomes and multi-segmental kinematic analysis has been reported to better reflect the complexity of postural control and may detect subtler postural differences. In this cross-sectional study, a combination of linear and nonlinear postural parameters were assessed in patients with CNLBP (n = 24, 24-75 years, 9 females) and compared to symptom-free controls (CG, n = 34, 22-67 years, 11 females). Primary outcome was postural control measured by variance of joint configurations (uncontrolled manifold index, UI), confidence ellipse surface areas (CEA) and approximate entropy (ApEn) of CP dispersion during the response phase of a perturbed postural control task on a swaying platform. Secondary outcomes were segment excursions and clinical outcome correlates for pain and function. Non-parametric tests for group comparison with P-adjustment for multiple comparisons were conducted. Principal component analysis was applied to identify patterns of segmental contribution in both groups. CNLBP and CG performed similarly with respect to the primary outcomes. Comparison of joint kinematics revealed significant differences of hip (P postural differences in CNLBP patients with low to moderate pain status.

  3. [Clinical-demographic factors associated with fear-avoidance in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain in Primary Care: secondary analysis of intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio; Clavero-Cano, Susana; Pérez-González, Rita; Martinez-Calderon, Javier; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro

    2018-01-30

    To describe some sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of subjects with Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain (NCLBP) in Primary Care, as well as to investigate their association with Fear-Avoidance (FA). Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of an intervention study. Basic Health Areas in Costa del Sol Health District (Málaga, Spain). An analysis was performed on 147 subjects with NCLBP from a previous intervention study database in Primary Care Physiotherapy (PCP). Characteristics: age 18-65; understanding of the Spanish language; absence of cognitive disorders, fibromyalgia or dorsolumbar surgery, and to be able to perform physical exercise. The main variable was FA level (FABQ and the FABQ-PA and FABQ-W) sub-scales. Clinical variables included: pain (NRPS-11), disability (RMQ), evolution, previous treatments and diagnostic imaging. The sociodemographic variables included: gender, age, educational level, and employment status. Just over half (51.7%) of the subjects had high FA on the FABQ-PA sub-scale. Sick leave (SL) [β=24.45 (P=.009 * ); β=13.03 (P=.016 * ); β=14.04 (P=.011 * ) for FABQ, FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively]; primary studies level [β=15.09 (P=.01 * ); β=9.73 (P=.01 * ) for FABQ and FABQ-PA], and disability [β=1.45 (P<.001); β=0.61 (P<.001); β=0.68 (P<.001) for FABQ, FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively] were associated with FA when they were modeled by multivariate regression. Some sociodemographic and clinical features of the NCLBP population are presented. Imaging tests (81.63%) and previous passive treatments (55.78%) could reflect problems of adherence to recommendations of CPGs. Sick leave, primary studies level, and disability were associated with FA. The findings should be interpreted in the light of possible limitations. Some suggestions for clinical practice are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene therapy on craniosynostosis and craniofacial morphology in the FGFR2C342Y/+ mouse model of Crouzon craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E; Nam, H K; Liu, J; Hatch, N E

    2015-04-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial bones, has traditionally been described as a disease of increased bone mineralization. However, multiple mouse models of craniosynostosis display craniosynostosis simultaneously with diminished cranial bone volume and/or density. We propose an alternative hypothesis that craniosynostosis results from abnormal tissue mineralization through the downregulation of tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) enzyme downstream of activating mutations in FGFRs. Neonatal Crouzon (FGFRC342Y/+) and wild-type (FGFR+/+) mice were injected with lentivirus to deliver a recombinant form of TNAP. Mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postnatal. Serum was collected to test for alkaline phosphatase (AP), phosphorus, and calcium levels. Craniofacial bone fusion and morphology were assessed by micro-computed tomography. Injection with the TNAP lentivirus significantly increased serum AP levels (increased serum AP levels are indicative of efficient transduction and production of the recombinant protein), but results were variable and dependent upon viral lot and the litter of mice injected. Morphological analysis revealed craniofacial form differences for inferior surface (p=0.023) and cranial height (p=0.014) regions between TNAP lentivirus-injected and vehicle-injected Crouzon mice. With each unit increase in AP level, the odds of lambdoid suture fusion decreased by 84.2% and these results came close to statistical significance (p=0.068). These results suggest that TNAP deficiency may mediate FGFR2-associated craniosynostosis. Future studies should incorporate injection of recombinant TNAP protein, to avoid potential side effects and variable efficacy of lentiviral gene delivery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The efficacy of manual therapy and exercise for treating non-specific neck pain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Benjamin; Hall, Toby; Bossert, Jean; Dugeny, Axel; Cagnie, Barbara; Pitance, Laurent

    2017-11-06

    To review and update the evidence for different forms of manual therapy (MT) and exercise for patients with different stages of non-specific neck pain (NP). MEDLINE, Cochrane-Register-of-Controlled-Trials, PEDro, EMBASE. A qualitative systematic review covering a period from January 2000 to December 2015 was conducted according to updated-guidelines. Specific inclusion criteria only on RCTs were used; including differentiation according to stages of NP (acute - subacute [ASNP] or chronic [CNP]), as well as sub-classification based on type of MT interventions: MT1 (HVLA manipulation); MT2 (mobilization and/or soft-tissue-techniques); MT3 (MT1 + MT2); and MT4 (Mobilization-with-Movement). In each sub-category, MT could be combined or not with exercise and/or usual medical care. Initially 121 studies were identified for potential inclusion. Based on qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, 23 RCTs were identified for review. Evidence for ASNP: MODERATE-evidence: In favour of (i) MT1 to the cervical spine (Cx) combined with exercises when compared to MT1 to the thoracic spine (Tx) combined with exercises; (ii) MT3 to the Cx and Tx combined with exercise compared to MT2 to the Cx with exercise or compared to usual medical care for pain and satisfaction with care from short to long-term. Evidence for CNP: STRONG-evidence: Of no difference of efficacy between MT2 at the symptomatic Cx level(s) in comparison to MT2 on asymptomatic Cx level(s) for pain and function. MODERATE to STRONG-evidence: In favour of MT1 and MT3 on Cx and Tx with exercise in comparison to exercise or MT alone for pain, function, satisfaction with care and general-health from short to moderate-terms. MODERATE-evidence: In favour (i) of MT1 as compared to MT2 and MT4, all applied to the Cx, for neck mobility, and pain in the very short term; (ii) of MT2 using sof-tissue-techniques to the Cx and Tx or MT3 to the Cx and Tx in comparison to no-treatment in the short-term for pain and disability

  6. Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wingbermühle (Roel); E. van Trijffel (Emiel); Nelissen, P.M. (Paul M.); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractQuestion: Which multivariable prognostic model(s) for recovery in people with neck pain can be used in primary care? Design: Systematic review of studies evaluating multivariable prognostic models. Participants: People with non-specific neck pain presenting at primary care.

  7. Linkage map positions and allelic diversity of two Mal d 3 (non-specific lipid transfer protein) genes in the cultivated apple (Malus domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Z.S.; Weg, van de W.E.; Schaart, J.G.; Meer, van der I.M.; Kodde, L.P.; Laimer, M.; Breiteneder, H.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) of Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apricot, cherry, plum and apple, represent major allergens for Mediterranean atopic populations. As a first step in elucidating the genetics of nsLTPs, we directed the research reported here towards identifying the

  8. Risk and prognostic factors for non-specific musculoskeletal pain : A synthesis of evidence from systematic reviews classified into ICF dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakke, Sandra E.; Soer, Remko; Takken, Tim; Reneman, Michiel F.

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of risk factors for the occurrence and prognostic factors for persistence of non-specific musculoskeletal pain (MSP) are mentioned in the literature. A systematic review of all these factors is not available. Thus a systematic review was conducted to evaluate MSP risk factors and

  9. Assessing the perception of trunk movements in military personnel with chronic non-specific low back pain using a virtual mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosink, M.; McFadyen, B.J.; Hebert, L.J.; Jackson, P.L.; Bouyer, L.J.; Mercier, C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pain, including chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP), is often associated with body perception disturbances, but these have generally been assessed under static conditions. The objective of this study was to use a "virtual mirror" that scaled visual movement feedback to assess body

  10. Cost-effectiveness of exercise therapy in the treatment of non-specific neck pain and low back pain : a systematic review with meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes; van Dongen, Johanna M; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cost-effectiveness of exercise therapy in the treatment of patients with non-specific neck pain and low back pain. DESIGN: Systematic review of economic evaluations. DATA SOURCES: The search was performed in 5 clinical and 3 economic electronic databases. ELIGIBILITY

  11. Reduction of the non-specific binding of DNA to gamma-globulin in Farr radioimmunoassay by addition of dextran sulfate and calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakizaka, A; Okuhara, E [Akita Univ. (Japan)

    1979-01-23

    The effect of non-specific binding caused by the interaction between gamma-globulin and denatured DNA was markedly reduced by addition of dextran sulfate or CaCl/sub 2/ at alkaline pH. This method was shown to be applicable in the detection of anti-DNA antibodies in sera from cases of human systemic lupus erythematosus.

  12. Histochemical studies on genetical control of hormonal enzyme inducibility in the mouse. I. Non-specific esterase activity and regional histology of the epididymis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blecher, S R; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    As a base line for future cell genetical studies the authors record the distribution of non-specific esterase reaction in the various histologically distinguishable cell types of the mouse epididymis. The findings are correlated with previous descriptions of the lobar structure of the organ...

  13. The evaluation of fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. for fresh fruit production in the Pretoria region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Wessels

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.

  14. PEG Functionalization of Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonator Biosensors to Minimize Non-Specific Adsorption during Targeted, Label-Free Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyongjing Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM optical microresonator biosensors are a powerful tool for targeted detection of analytes at extremely low concentrations. However, in complex environments, non-specific adsorption can significantly reduce their signal to noise ratio, limiting their accuracy. To overcome this, poly(ethylene glycol (PEG can be employed in conjunction with appropriate recognition elements to create a nonfouling surface capable of detecting targeted analytes. This paper investigates a general route for the addition of nonfouling elements to WGM optical biosensors to reduce non-specific adsorption, while also retaining high sensitivity. We use the avidin-biotin analyte-recognition element system, in conjunction with PEG nonfouling elements, as a proof-of-concept, and explore the extent of non-specific adsorption of lysozyme and fibrinogen at multiple concentrations, as well as the ability to detect avidin in a concentration-dependent fashion. Ellipsometry, contact angle measurement, fluorescence microscopy, and optical resonator characterization methods were used to study non-specific adsorption, the quality of the functionalized surface, and the biosensor’s performance. Using a recognition element ratio to nonfouling element ratio of 1:1, we showed that non-specific adsorption could be significantly reduced over the controls, and that high sensitivity could be maintained. Due to the frequent use of biotin-avidin-biotin sandwich complexes in functionalizing sensor surfaces with biotin-labeled recognition elements, this chemistry could provide a common basis for creating a non-fouling surface capable of targeted detection. This should improve the ability of WGM optical biosensors to operate in complex environments, extending their application towards real-world detection.

  15. An evaluation of the diagnostic value of different skin tests with egg in clinically egg-allergic children having atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine K; Høst, Arne; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Skin testing is a common diagnostic procedure in food allergy, but the final diagnosis of food allergy is based on the clinical response to food challenge. We studied the value of the skin prick-prick test (SPT), skin application food test (SAFT) and atopy patch test (APT) with fresh egg extract......-allergic children were positive in SPT and 40-60% in APT. In APT and in SPT false-positive reactions to egg were observed. In this study comprising a small number of patients including control subjects, neither SAFT nor APT with fresh whole egg extract were able to increase the diagnostic accuracy in detecting egg...

  16. Comparison of hand grip strength and upper limb pressure pain threshold between older adults with or without non-specific shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Calvo Lobo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a high prevalence of non-specific shoulder pain associated with upper limb functional limitations in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal clinically important differences (MCID of grip strength and pressure pain threshold (PPT in the upper limb between older adults with or without non-specific shoulder pain. Methods A case-control study was carried out following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria. A sample of 132 shoulders (mean ± SD years with (n = 66; 76.04 ± 7.58 and without (n = 66; 75.05 ± 6.26 non-specific pain were recruited. The grip strength and PPT of the anterior deltoid and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB muscles were assessed. Results There were statistically significant differences (mean ± SD; P-value for anterior deltoid PPT (2.51 ± 0.69 vs 3.68 ± 0.65, kg/cm2; P < .001, ECRB PPT (2.20 ± 0.60 vs 3.35 ± 0.38 kg/cm2; P < .001 and grip strength (20.78 ± 10.94 vs 24.63 ± 9.38 kg; P = .032 between shoulders with and without non-specific pain, respectively. Discussion The MCID of 1.17 kg/cm2, 1.15 kg/cm2 and 3.84 kg were proposed for anterior deltoid PPT, ECRB PPT and grip strength, respectively, to assess the upper limb of older adults with non-specific shoulder pain after treatment. In addition, univariate and multivariate (linear regression and regression trees analyses may be used to consider age distribution, sex, pain intensity, grip strength and PPT in older adults including clinical and epidemiological studies with non-specific shoulder pain.

  17. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) in northern China form a novel clade with Fusarium torreyae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue; O'Donnell, Kerry; Aoki, Takayuki; Smith, Jason A; Kasson, Matthew T; Cao, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Canker disease of prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China in the past 25 y. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal isolates were recovered from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provinces in China. These isolates were identified by conducting BLASTN queries of NCBI GenBank and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS rDNA), a portion of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1) gene, and genes encoding RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest (RPB2) subunits. Results of these analyses suggested that 30/38 isolates belonged to two novel fusaria most closely related to the Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia Arn.) pathogen, Fusarium torreyae in Florida and Georgia. These three canker-inducing tree pathogens form a novel clade within Fusarium here designated the F. torreyae species complex (FTOSC). BLASTN queries of GenBank also revealed that 5/38 isolates recovered from cankers represented an undescribed phylogenetic species within the F. solani species complex (FSSC) designated FSSC 6. Stem inoculations of three fusaria on Z. bungeanum resulted in consistent canker symptoms from which these three fusaria were recovered. The two novel fusaria, however, induced significantly larger lesions than FSSC 6. Herein, the two novel prickly ash pathogens are formally described as F. zanthoxyli and F. continuum. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Clinimetric evaluation of methods to measure muscle functioning in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, C.H. de; Heuvel, S.P. van den; Staal, J.B.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Hendriks, E.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle

  19. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzerling, L M; Burbach, G J; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    . It was, therefore, crucial to standardize and harmonize procedures in allergy diagnosis and treatment within Europe. AIMS: The Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN), with partners and collaborating centres across Europe, was in a unique position to take on this task. The current study...

  20. Undergoing Diagnostic Evaluation for Possible Cancer Affects the Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Presenting with Non-Specific Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Lindhardt, Bjarne Ørskov

    2016-01-01

    Aim Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer can affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to examine the HRQoL in patients undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer due to non-specific symptoms and further to investigate the impact of socio...... diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQoL around the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Patients with non-specific symptoms reported an affected HRQoL while undergoing a diagnostic evaluation for possible cancer. Morbidity, being unemployed and receiving a cancer diagnosis had the greatest effect on HRQo...... in the study; 680 (81%) also completed follow-up. Twenty-two percent of the patients received a cancer diagnosis at the end of follow-up. Patients presented initially with a high burden of symptoms, less role and emotional functioning and a lower global health/QoL. Most domains improved after diagnosis...

  1. Micromorfologia Foliar de Espécies de Sida spp. (guanxumas Leaf Micromorphology of Sida spp. Species (prickly sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.B. Albert

    2002-12-01

    influenced by the morphological and physical-chemical characteristics of the leaf surface on which the herbicide solution is sprayed. The topography of the leaf surface, thickness of the cuticle, and the degree and type of epicuticular wax and the presence and type of trichomes, are characteristics that influence the distribution of the herbicide spray solution on the leaf surface and thus the efficacy of weed control. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to obtain information on the morphological characteristics of three foliar surfaces of prickly sida (Sida rhombifolia, Sida glaziovii and Sida cordifolia. The experiment was conducted at the Electronic Microscopic Center Applied to Agriculture (NAP/MEPA, of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba-SP, Brazil. The experiment using electronic microscopy technique showed that the species S. rhombifolia presented a higher amount of epicuticle-striped wax while the species S. cordifolia presented a flat and smooth cuticle. The species S. glaziovii showed the highest amount of trichomes on the adaxial foliar surface. All the species analyzed had stomata in both surfaces of the leaves, with a predominance of the anomocytic type.

  2. Proportional lumbar spine inter-vertebral motion patterns: a comparison of patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, Fiona E.; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Paul W.; Breen, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Identifying biomechanical subgroups in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) populations from inter-vertebral displacements has proven elusive. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) has excellent repeatability and provides continuous standardised inter-vertebral kinematic data from fluoroscopic sequences allowing assessment of mid-range motion. The aim of this study was to determine whether proportional continuous IV rotational patterns were different in patients and controls. A ...

  3. Changes in endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer under the action of combined treatment including non-specific active immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendyug, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    The state of endocrine thymus function in patients with breast cancer of the 1st-4th stage and in 31 patients with precancerous diseases is studied. It is established that considerable decrease of thymus serous factor (TSF) content in all patients is observed. Radiation- and polychemotherapy carried out decreases the endocrine thymus function. Inclusions of non-specific active immunotherapy in patients' treatment promote the increase of TSF content, that increases treatment efficiency

  4. Effects of Functional Fascial Taping on pain and function in patients with non-specific low back pain: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Mei; Alexander, Ron; Lo, Sing Kai; Cook, Jill

    2012-10-01

    To compare the short-term and medium-term effect of Functional Fascial Taping to placebo taping on pain and function in people with non-specific low back pain. A pilot randomized controlled trial with a 2-week intervention, and 2-, 6- and 12-week follow-up. Individuals with non-specific low back pain recruited from local communities. Forty-three participants with non-specific low back pain for more than 6 weeks were randomized into either Functional Fascial Taping group (n = 21) or placebo group (n = 22). The intervention group was treated with Functional Fascial Taping while the control group was treated with placebo taping. Both groups received four treatments over 2 weeks. Worst and average pain and function were assessed at baseline, after the 2-week intervention, and at 6 and 12 weeks follow-up. The Functional Fascial Taping group demonstrated significantly greater reduction in worst pain compared to placebo group after the 2-week intervention (P = 0.02, effect size = 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.11-1.34). A higher proportion of participants in Functional Fascial Taping group attained the minimal clinically important difference in worst pain (P = 0.007) and function (P = 0.007) than those in placebo group after the 2-week intervention. There were no significant differences in either group's disability rating or clinically important difference in average pain at any time. Functional Fascial Taping reduced worst pain in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain during the treatment phase. No medium-term differences in pain or function were observed.

  5. A STUDY TO ANALYSE THE EFFICACY OF MODIFIED PILATES BASED EXERCISES AND THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRAIL

    OpenAIRE

    U.Albert Anand,; P.Mariet Caroline,; B.Arun,; G.Lakshmi Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. Low back pain is the most common musculoskeletal symptoms seen in 85 % of individuals in their life time. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP) is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Modified Pilates based exercises for patients with ...

  6. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Andersen, Andreas; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Lisse, Ida M; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton C

    2010-11-30

    girls (intention to treat mortality rate ratio 0.64 (0.42 to 0.98)), although this was not significantly different from the effect in boys (0.95 (0.64 to 1.42)) (interaction test, P=0.18). The effect did not differ between the dry season and the rainy season. As neonatal vitamin A supplementation is not WHO policy, the analyses were done separately for the 3402 children who did not receive neonatal vitamin A. In these children, the two dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine schedule was associated with a significantly lower mortality between 4.5 and 36 months of age (intention to treat mortality rate ratio 0.59 (0.39 to 0.89)). The effect was again significant for girls but not statistically significant from the effect in boys. When measles cases were censored, the intention to treat mortality rate ratio was 0.65 (0.43 to 0.99). Although the overall effect did not reach statistical significance, the results may indicate that a two dose schedule with Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 and 9 months of age has beneficial non-specific effects on children's survival, particularly for girls and for children who have not received neonatal vitamin A. This should be tested in future studies in different locations. Clinical trials NCT00168558.

  7. Vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce epitope-specific T cell responses but confers non-specific protective immunity in a malaria model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Apte

    Full Text Available Vaccines against many pathogens for which conventional approaches have failed remain an unmet public health priority. Synthetic peptide-based vaccines offer an attractive alternative to whole protein and whole organism vaccines, particularly for complex pathogens that cause chronic infection. Previously, we have reported a promising lipid core peptide (LCP vaccine delivery system that incorporates the antigen, carrier, and adjuvant in a single molecular entity. LCP vaccines have been used to deliver several peptide subunit-based vaccine candidates and induced high titre functional antibodies and protected against Group A streptococcus in mice. Herein, we have evaluated whether LCP constructs incorporating defined CD4(+ and/or CD8(+ T cell epitopes could induce epitope-specific T cell responses and protect against pathogen challenge in a rodent malaria model. We show that LCP vaccines failed to induce an expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+ T cells following primary immunization or by boosting. We further demonstrated that the LCP vaccines induced a non-specific type 2 polarized cytokine response, rather than an epitope-specific canonical CD8(+ T cell type 1 response. Cytotoxic responses of unknown specificity were also induced. These non-specific responses were able to protect against parasite challenge. These data demonstrate that vaccination with lipid core peptides fails to induce canonical epitope-specific T cell responses, at least in our rodent model, but can nonetheless confer non-specific protective immunity against Plasmodium parasite challenge.

  8. Efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of Zelesse® for the treatment of non-specific vulvovaginitis in paediatric patients: The NINESSE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fátima; Rodríguez, Carmen-Amparo; Palomo, María-Lourdes; Català, Pere; Fernández, Santiago; Huerta, Ibone; Velasco, Syra; Nieto, Concepción

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of Zelesse®, an intimate hygiene wash solution, in the relief of the symptoms and signs of non-specific vulvovaginitis in paediatric patients. Methods The NINESSE Study was a prospective, observational, multicentre study involving females aged 2-8 years who attended paediatric offices with symptoms suggestive of non-specific vulvovaginitis. They were administered Zelesse® as a single treatment for 15 ± 5 days. Pruritus, burning, dysuria, erythema, leucorrhoea and oedema were evaluated before and after treatment. Results A total of 71 paediatric patients were enrolled in the study (mean ± SD age, 4.5 ± 1.9 years). The most significant effects were observed for pruritus and burning, where 98.4% (62 of 63) and 96.9% (63 of 65) of the patients improved after treatment, respectively. Zelesse® demonstrated a beneficial effect on dysuria, erythema, leucorrhoea and oedema. The effects on the symptoms and signs were observed within the first week of treatment; although 44.9% (31 of 69) of patients experienced improvements after 2-3 days. Zelesse® was well accepted and tolerated by most patients. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Zelesse® was very effective for the relief of the symptoms and signs of non-specific vulvovaginitis, in particular pruritus, burning and erythema, in females aged 2-8 years.

  9. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  10. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jacquin

    Full Text Available Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host, and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction, we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish. During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus, such a

  11. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of non-specific acute low back pain: a randomised controlled multicentre trial protocol [ISRCTN65814467

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Barquin Dulce

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain and its associated incapacitating effects constitute an important healthcare and socioeconomic problem, as well as being one of the main causes of disability among adults of working age. The prevalence of non-specific low back pain is very high among the general population, and 60–70% of adults are believed to have suffered this problem at some time. Nevertheless, few randomised clinical trials have been made of the efficacy and efficiency of acupuncture with respect to acute low back pain. The present study is intended to assess the efficacy of acupuncture for acute low back pain in terms of the improvement reported on the Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ on low back pain incapacity, to estimate the specific and non-specific effects produced by the technique, and to carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis. Methods/Design Randomised four-branch controlled multicentre prospective study made to compare semi-standardised real acupuncture, sham acupuncture (acupuncture at non-specific points, placebo acupuncture and conventional treatment. The patients are blinded to the real, sham and placebo acupuncture treatments. Patients in the sample present symptoms of non specific acute low back pain, with a case history of 2 weeks or less, and will be selected from working-age patients, whether in paid employment or not, referred by General Practitioners from Primary Healthcare Clinics to the four clinics participating in this study. In order to assess the primary and secondary result measures, the patients will be requested to fill in a questionnaire before the randomisation and again at 3, 12 and 48 weeks after starting the treatment. The primary result measure will be the clinical relevant improvement (CRI at 3 weeks after randomisation. We define CRI as a reduction of 35% or more in the RMQ results. Discussion This study is intended to obtain further evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture on acute low back pain

  12. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2015-01-01

    .53-0.89) compared with unvaccinated children. There was no benefit for children receiving BCG-first or DTP1-first. The female-male MRR was 0.79 (0.64-0.96) among unvaccinated children, but was significantly inversed with 1.45 (1.00-2.10) for children receiving DTP vaccination (test of homogeneity, p=0.......006). Children who had received DTP simultaneously with MV or DTP after MV had significantly higher mortality (MRR=2.59 [1.32-5.07]) compared with children having MV-only as their most recent vaccination. After 9 months, the female-male MRR was 0.61 (0.31-1.19) for measles-vaccinated children but remained 1...

  13. A pilot study on using acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to treat chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazunori; Itoh, Satoko; Katsumi, Yasukazu; Kitakoji, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    The present study tests whether a combined treatment of acupuncture and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is more effective than acupuncture or TENS alone for treating chronic low back pain (LBP). Thirty-two patients with chronic LBP were randomly allocated to four groups. The acupuncture group (ACP) received only acupuncture treatment at selected acupoints for low back pain; the TENS group (TENS) received only TENS treatment at pain areas; the acupuncture and TENS group (A&T) received both acupuncture and TENS treatments; the control group (CT) received topical poultice (only when necessary). Each group received specific weekly treatment five times during the study. Outcome measures were pain intensity in terms of visual analogue scale (VAS) and QOL of low back in terms of Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ). The ACP, TENS and A&T groups all reported lower VAS and RDQ scores. Significant reduction in pain intensity (PTENS treatment is effective in pain relief and QOL of low back improvement for the sampled patients suffering from chronic LBP.

  14. Non-Specific Root Transport of Nutrient Gives Access to an Early Nutritional Indicator: The Case of Sulfate and Molybdate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Maillard

    Full Text Available Under sulfur (S deficiency, crosstalk between nutrients induced accumulation of other nutrients, particularly molybdenum (Mo. This disturbed balanced between S and Mo could provide a way to detect S deficiency and therefore avoid losses in yield and seed quality in cultivated species. Under hydroponic conditions, S deprivation was applied to Brassica napus to determine the precise kinetics of S and Mo uptake and whether sulfate transporters were involved in Mo uptake. Leaf contents of S and Mo were also quantified in a field-grown S deficient oilseed rape crop with different S and N fertilization applications to evaluate the [Mo]:[S] ratio, as an indicator of S nutrition. To test genericity of this indicator, the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also assessed with other cultivated species under different controlled conditions. During S deprivation, Mo uptake was strongly increased in B. napus. This accumulation was not a result of the induction of the molybdate transporters, Mot1 and Asy, but could be a direct consequence of Sultr1.1 and Sultr1.2 inductions. However, analysis of single mutants of these transporters in Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that other sulfate deficiency responsive transporters may be involved. Under field conditions, Mo content was also increased in leaves by a reduction in S fertilization. The [Mo]:[S] ratio significantly discriminated between the plots with different rates of S fertilization. Threshold values were estimated for the hierarchical clustering of commercial crops according to S status. The use of the [Mo]:[S] ratio was also reliable to detect S deficiency for other cultivated species under controlled conditions. The analysis of the leaf [Mo]:[S] ratio seems to be a practical indicator to detect early S deficiency under field conditions and thus improve S fertilization management.

  15. Clinically defined non-specific symptoms in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: A retrospective before-after study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliatsas, Christos, E-mail: c.baliatsas@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Kamp, Irene van, E-mail: irene.van.kamp@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Bolte, John, E-mail: john.bolte@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Kelfkens, Gert, E-mail: gert.kelfkens@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Dijk, Christel van, E-mail: Christel.Van.Dijk@amsterdam.nl [Department of Research, Information and Statistics (OIS), Municipality of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spreeuwenberg, Peter, E-mail: p.spreeuwenberg@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Hooiveld, Mariette, E-mail: m.hooiveld@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Lebret, Erik, E-mail: erik.lebret@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Yzermans, Joris, E-mail: J.Yzermans@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500 m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a > 30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of > 6 years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment. - Highlights: • There was an important increase in the total number of MPBS at T1 compared to T0. • Prevalence of NSS was

  16. Clinically defined non-specific symptoms in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations: A retrospective before-after study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Kamp, Irene van; Bolte, John; Kelfkens, Gert; Dijk, Christel van; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-01-01

    The number of mobile phone base station(s) (MPBS) has been increasing to meet the rapid technological changes and growing needs for mobile communication. The primary objective of the present study was to test possible changes in prevalence and number of NSS in relation to MPBS exposure before and after increase of installed MPBS antennas. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing two time periods with high contrast in terms of number of installed MPBS. Symptom data were based on electronic health records from 1069 adult participants, registered in 9 general practices in different regions in the Netherlands. All participants were living within 500 m from the nearest bases station. Among them, 55 participants reported to be sensitive to MPBS at T1. A propagation model combined with a questionnaire was used to assess indoor exposure to RF-EMF from MPBS at T1. Estimation of exposure at T0 was based on number of antennas at T0 relative to T1. At T1, there was a > 30% increase in the total number of MPBS antennas. A higher prevalence for most NSS was observed in the MPBS-sensitive group at T1 compared to baseline. Exposure estimates were not associated with GP-registered NSS in the total sample. Some significant interactions were observed between MPBS-sensitivity and exposure estimates on risk of symptoms. Using clinically defined outcomes and a time difference of > 6 years it was demonstrated that RF-EMF exposure to MPBS was not associated with the development of NSS. Nonetheless, there was some indication for a higher risk of NSS for the MPBS-sensitive group, mainly in relation to exposure to UMTS, but this should be interpreted with caution. Results have to be verified by future longitudinal studies with a particular focus on potentially susceptible population subgroups of large sample size and integrated exposure assessment. - Highlights: • There was an important increase in the total number of MPBS at T1 compared to T0. • Prevalence of NSS was

  17. A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B; D'andrea, L.; Felber, F.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; den Nijs, H.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the

  18. Repeated touch and needle-prick stimulation in the neonatal period increases the baseline mechanical sensitivity and postinjury hypersensitivity of adult spinal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, Nynke J; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Bert A; Fitzgerald, Maria; Kwok, Charlie H T

    2018-03-08

    Noxious stimulation at critical stages of development has long-term consequences on somatosensory processing in later life, but it is not known whether this developmental plasticity is restricted to nociceptive pathways. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated neonatal noxious or innocuous hind paw stimulation on adult spinal dorsal horn cutaneous mechanical sensitivity. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes received 4 unilateral left hind paw needle pricks (NPs, n = 13) or 4 tactile (cotton swab touch) stimuli, per day (TC, n = 11) for the first 7 days of life. Control pups were left undisturbed (n = 17). When adult (6-8 weeks), lumbar wide-dynamic-range neuron activity in laminae III-V was recorded using in vivo extracellular single-unit electrophysiology. Spike activity evoked by cutaneous dynamic tactile (brush), pinch and punctate (von Frey hair) stimulation, and plantar receptive field areas were recorded, at baseline and 2 and 5 days after left plantar hind paw incision. Baseline brush receptive fields, von Frey hair, and pinch sensitivity were significantly enhanced in adult NP and TC animals compared with undisturbed controls, although effects were greatest in NP rats. After incision, injury sensitivity of adult wide-dynamic-range neurons to both noxious and dynamic tactile hypersensitivity was significantly greater in NP animals compared with TC and undisturbed controls. We conclude that both repeated touch and needle-prick stimulation in the neonatal period can alter adult spinal sensory neuron sensitivity to both innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation. Thus, spinal sensory circuits underlying touch and pain processing are shaped by a range of early-life somatosensory experiences.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. Use of finger-prick dried blood spots (fpDBS) and capillary electrophoresis for carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) screening in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaso, Anna; Sorio, Daniela; Vandoros, Anthula; De Palo, Elio F; Bortolotti, Federica; Tagliaro, Franco

    2016-10-01

    Continued progress in chronic alcohol abuse investigation requires the development of less invasive procedures for screening purposes. The application of finger-prick and related dried blood spots (fpDBS) for carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) detection appears suitable for this aim. Therefore, the goal of this project was to develop a screening method for CDT using fpDBS with CZE analysis. Blood samples prepared by finger-prick were placed on DBS cards and left to air dry; each dried fpDBS disc was shredded into small pieces and suspended in acid solution (60 μL of HCl 120 mmol/L). After centrifugation (10 min at 1500 × g), the collected sample was adjusted to pH 3.5. After an overnight incubation, the pH was neutralised and an iron rich solution was added. After 1 h, CZE analysis was carried out. A group of 47 individuals was studied. Parallel serum samples were collected from each investigated subject and the %CDT for each sample was measured using HPLC and CZE techniques. The fpDBS transferrin sialo isoform electropherograms were similar to those obtained with serum. Moreover, fpDBS CZE CDT percentage levels demonstrated significant statistical correlation with those obtained from serum for both HPLC and CZE %CDT (p < 0.01; r 2 = 0.8913 and 0.8976, respectively), with %CDT from 0.8 to 13.7% for fpDBS and from 0.7 to 12.7% for serum. The newly developed fpDBS procedure for CDT analysis provides a simple and inexpensive tool for use in population screening. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dealing with the problem of non-specific in situ mRNA hybridization signals associated with plant tissues undergoing programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokela Anne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In situ hybridization is a general molecular method typically used for the localization of mRNA transcripts in plants. The method provides a valuable tool to unravel the connection between gene expression and anatomy, especially in species such as pines which show large genome size and shortage of sequence information. Results In the present study, expression of the catalase gene (CAT related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the polyamine metabolism related genes, diamine oxidase (DAO and arginine decarboxylase (ADC, were localized in developing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seeds. In addition to specific signals from target mRNAs, the probes continually hybridized non-specifically in the embryo surrounding region (ESR of the megagametophyte tissue, in the remnants of the degenerated suspensors as well as in the cells of the nucellar layers, i.e. tissues exposed to cell death processes and extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during Scots pine seed development. Conclusions In plants, cell death is an integral part of both development and defence, and hence it is a common phenomenon in all stages of the life cycle. Our results suggest that extensive nucleic acid fragmentation during cell death processes can be a considerable source of non-specific signals in traditional in situ mRNA hybridization. Thus, the visualization of potential nucleic acid fragmentation simultaneously with the in situ mRNA hybridization assay may be necessary to ensure the correct interpretation of the signals in the case of non-specific hybridization of probes in plant tissues.

  1. Returning to work - a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of multimodal non-specific back pain rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Therese; Jensen, Irene; Bergström, Gunnar; Busch, Hillevi

    2015-01-01

    To explore and describe health professionals' experience of working with return to work (RTW) in multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain. An interview study using qualitative content analysis. Fifteen participants were interviewed, all were working with multimodal rehabilitation for people with non-specific back pain in eight different rehabilitation units. The participants experienced RTW as a long-term process reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation (MMR). Their attitudes and, their patients' condition, impacted on their work which focused on psychological and physical well-being as well as participation in everyday life. They often created an action plan for the RTW process, however the responsibility for its realisation was transferred to other actors. The participants described limited interventions in connection with patients' workplaces. Recommended support in the RTW process in MMR comprises the provision of continuous supervision of vocational issues for the health care professionals, the development of guidelines and a checklist for how to work in close collaboration with patients' workplaces and employers, the provision of long-term follow-up in relation to the patients' work, and the development of proper interventions in order to promote transitions between all the different actors involved. Rehabilitation programs targeting return to work (RTW) for people with non-specific back pain needs to include features concretely focusing on vocational issues. Health and RTW is often seen as a linear process in which health comes before RTW. Rehabilitation programs could be tailored to better address the reciprocal relationship between health and work, in which they are interconnected and affect each other. The RTW process is reaching beyond the time frames of the multimodal rehabilitation but further support from the patients are asked for. The rehabilitation programs needs to be designed to provide long

  2. Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingbermühle, Roel W; van Trijffel, Emiel; Nelissen, Paul M; Koes, Bart; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2018-01-01

    Which multivariable prognostic model(s) for recovery in people with neck pain can be used in primary care? Systematic review of studies evaluating multivariable prognostic models. People with non-specific neck pain presenting at primary care. Baseline characteristics of the participants. Recovery measured as pain reduction, reduced disability, or perceived recovery at short-term and long-term follow-up. Fifty-three publications were included, of which 46 were derivation studies, four were validation studies, and three concerned combined studies. The derivation studies presented 99 multivariate models, all of which were at high risk of bias. Three externally validated models generated usable models in low risk of bias studies. One predicted recovery in non-specific neck pain, while two concerned participants with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Discriminative ability of the non-specific neck pain model was area under the curve (AUC) 0.65 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.71). For the first WAD model, discriminative ability was AUC 0.85 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.91). For the second WAD model, specificity was 99% (95% CI 93 to 100) and sensitivity was 44% (95% CI 23 to 65) for prediction of non-recovery, and 86% (95% CI 73 to 94) and 55% (95% CI 41 to 69) for prediction of recovery, respectively. Initial Neck Disability Index scores and age were identified as consistent prognostic factors in these three models. Three externally validated models were found to be usable and to have low risk of bias, of which two showed acceptable discriminative properties for predicting recovery in people with neck pain. These three models need further validation and evaluation of their clinical impact before their broad clinical use can be advocated. PROSPERO CRD42016042204. [Wingbermühle RW, van Trijffel E, Nelissen PM, Koes B, Verhagen AP (2018) Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: a systematic review

  3. A novel Trojan-horse targeting strategy to reduce the non-specific uptake of nanocarriers by non-cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Hao; Yang, Sugeun; Ma, Xuehua; Li, Zihou; Tan, Mingqian; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-11-01

    One big challenge with active targeting of nanocarriers is non-specific binding between targeting molecules and non-target moieties expressed on non-cancerous cells, which leads to non-specific uptake of nanocarriers by non-cancerous cells. Here, we propose a novel Trojan-horse targeting strategy to hide or expose the targeting molecules of nanocarriers on-demand. The non-specific uptake by non-cancerous cells can be reduced because the targeting molecules are hidden in hydrophilic polymers. The nanocarriers are still actively targetable to cancer cells because the targeting molecules can be exposed on-demand at tumor regions. Typically, Fe3O4 nanocrystals (FN) as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents were encapsulated into albumin nanoparticles (AN), and then folic acid (FA) and pH-sensitive polymers (PP) were grafted onto the surface of AN-FN to construct PP-FA-AN-FN nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results confirm successful construction of PP-FA-AN-FN. According to difference of nanoparticle-cellular uptake between pH 7.4 and 5.5, the weight ratio of conjugated PP to nanoparticle FA-AN-FN (i.e. graft density) and the molecular weight of PP (i.e. graft length) are optimized to be 1.32 and 5.7 kDa, respectively. In vitro studies confirm that the PP can hide ligand FA to prevent it from binding to cells with FRα at pH 7.4 and shrink to expose FA at pH 5.5. In vivo studies demonstrate that our Trojan-horse targeting strategy can reduce the non-specific uptake of the PP-FA-AN-FN by non-cancerous cells. Therefore, our PP-FA-AN-FN might be used as an accurately targeted MRI contrast agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator on 172 cases of primary lung cancer (Stage III, IV) treated with radiation combined with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Shuji; Imajo, Yoshinari; Hamada, Fumio; Miyaji, Chihiro

    1982-01-01

    The clinical effect of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator OK-432 and/or PSK was studied about 172 cases of primary lung cancer (Stage III, IV). In 91 cases in stage III, fifty percent survival period was found to be 11.5 months for 63 cases with OK-432 and/or PSK, and 7.5 months for 28 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. In 81 cases in stage IV, fifty percent survival period was found to be 6.7 months for 45 cases with OK-432 and/or PSK, and 3.3 months for 36 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. (author)

  5. The effects of spinal support device on pain and extensibility of the hamstrings in patients with non-specific low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Eun Tae; Jung, Jin-Hwa; Moon, Jong Hoon; Jung, Kyoung-Sim; Won, Young Sik; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal support device (SSD) on pain and hamstring extensibility in patients with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP). [Subjects and Methods] 20 patients with NSLBP were recruited and randomly assigned to either the SSD group or the control group. In the SSD group, SSD was applied; in the control group, bed rest in supine position was performed. Both groups underwent treatment 20?min/day, 3 times a week, for a duration of 4...

  6. Evaluation of the rapid plasma reagin "teardrop" card test for screening of syphilis in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, E; Van de Velden, L; Ndoye, I; Piot, P; Meheus, A

    1993-01-01

    The availability of simple diagnostic methods may contribute to more efficient control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries. For the detection of syphilis, a simple rapid plasma reagin (RPR) "teardrop" assay for finger-prick blood samples was developed in 1962. The reliability of this test is compared with RPR, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) assays performed on venous blood samples. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the finger-stick RPR teardrop assay for diagnosis of syphilis in settings with poor medical resources. Pregnant women evaluated at two health centers in Pikine, Senegal were tested for STDs. The RPR teardrop assay was performed on plasma from blood samples obtained by finger prick, and standard RPR, TPHA, and FTA-Abs procedures were performed on serum obtained by vein puncture. The sensitivity and specificity of the finger-prick RPR teardrop assay were 69.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and its reactivity was correlated with RPR serum antibody titer. The finger-prick RPR teardrop assay is not a reliable alternative to the classic serum RPR test.

  7. Effect of dietary supplemented andrographolide on growth, non-specific immune parameters and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Kusunur Ahamed; Raman, Ram Prakash; Prasad, Kurcheti Pani; Kumar, Kundan; Nilavan, Ezhil; Kumar, Saurav

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of dietary andrographolide (EC 50%) on growth, non-specific immune parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fishes were fed with formulated diet containing andrographolide as T0 (0.00%), T1 (0.05%), T2 (0.10%), T3 (0.20%), T4 (0.40%) and T5 (0.80%) for 42 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 42 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (RPS) was recorded over 14 days post challenge. Blood and serum samples were collected for nonspecific immune parameters on 14, 28 and 42 days of feeding and growth performance was evaluated at the end of experiment. The results revealed that fishes fed with andrographolide showed significant (p andrographolide were found to be significantly (p andrographolide at the level of 0.10% showed significantly (P andrographolide supplemented diet has a stimulatory effect on non-specific immune parameters along with improved growth performance and increased disease resistance against A. hydrophila infection in L. rohita fingerlings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The clinical reasoning process in randomized clinical trials with patients with non-specific neck pain is incomplete: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maissan, Francois; Pool, Jan; de Raaij, Edwin; Mollema, Jürgen; Ostelo, Raymond; Wittink, Harriet

    2018-06-01

    Primarily to evaluate the completeness of the description of the clinical reasoning process in RCTs with patients with non-specific neck pain with an argued or diagnosed cause i.e. an impairment or activity limitation. Secondly, to determine the association between the completeness of the clinical reasoning process and the degree of risk of bias. Pubmed, Cinahl and PEDro were systematically searched from inception to July 2016. RCTs (n = 122) with patients with non-specific neck pain receiving physiotherapy treatment published in English were included. Data extraction included study characteristics and important features of the clinical reasoning process based on the Hypothesis-Oriented Algorithm for Clinicians II (HOAC II)]. Thirty-seven studies (30%) had a complete clinical reasoning process of which 8 (6%) had a 'diagnosed cause' and 29 (24%) had an 'argued cause'. The Spearmans rho association between the extent of the clinical reasoning process and the risk of bias was -0.2. In the majority of studies (70%) the described clinical reasoning process was incomplete. A very small proportion (6%) had a 'diagnosed cause'. Therefore, a better methodological quality does not necessarily imply a better described clinical reasoning process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of dietary carbohydrate on non-specific immune response, hepatic antioxidative abilities and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanpeng; Ge, Xianping; Lin, Heizhao; Niu, Jin

    2014-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) levels on non-specific immune responses, hepatic antioxidative status and disease resistance of juvenile golden pompano. Fish were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing various CHO levels for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Vibrio harveyi and survival rate was recorded for the next 12 days. Plasma total protein and albumin content, respiratory burst activity, alkaline phosphatase, slightly increased with dietary starch level from 0% to 16.8%, but significantly decreased at dietary starch levels of 16.8%-28%. Plasma lysozyme, complement 3 and complement 4 levels increased with increasing dietary carbohydrate up to 11.2% and then declined (P 0.05) with those of the other treatments. After challenge, fish fed 11.2% and 16.8% dietary CHO showed higher survival rate than that of fish in 0% CHO group (P 0.05). The results of this study suggest that ingestion of 11.2-16.8% dietary CHO can enhance the non-specific immune responses, increase the hepatic antioxidant abilities, and improve resistance to V. harveyi infection of juvenile golden pompano. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  11. An exploration of fluoroscopically guided spinal steroid injections in patients with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Neve

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leon Neve1, John Orchard2, Nathan Gibbs3, Willem van Mechelen4, Evert Verhagen4, Ken Sesel5, Ian Burgess6, Brett Hines61VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3South Sydney Sports Medicine, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4EMGO, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 5Sydney X-ray Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Mater Imaging, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Fluoroscopically guided lumbar cortisone injections have been proven useful in cases of lower-limb pain caused by lumbar disc prolapse (with evidence levels ll-1/ll-2. These injections are also sometimes used clinically in sports medicine for patients with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain, where no prolapse or other obvious cause of nerve-impingement is diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or computed tomography (CT, even though this treatment scenario has not been adequately studied for this last diagnosis.Objectives: To explore whether fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar cortisone injections may be a valid treatment method for non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain.Study design: Retrospective case series.Methods: Patients were selected from databases at two sports clinics and divided into two groups: Group D, with back-related lower-limb pain and disc prolapse proven on CT or MR; and Group N, with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain. Patients were sent a questionnaire regarding: symptoms, improvement, effect of injections, satisfaction, side effects and other used treatments. Outcomes were compared between Group D and N.Results: 153 patients were eligible for the study (Group D: 93/Group N: 60. Eventually 110 patients responded (Group D: 67/Group N: 43. Twelve percent of Group D and 14% of Group N indicated that the injections had fully cured their symptoms. Altogether, 27% of Group D and 24% of Group N were certain the injections had improved their symptoms in the

  12. Authorised allergen products for intracutaneous testing may no longer be available in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Ludger; Werfel, Thomas; Vogelberg, Christian; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Background: Beside the skin prick test, the intracutaneous test represents the most important skin test method for detecting type-1 allergies. With the incorporation of European directives into national law, test allergens used for allergy diagnosis are deemed medicinal products within the meaning of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz) and therefore require marketing authorisation for distribution in Germany. The high costs of acquiring and maintaining these authorisations ...

  13. No diagnostic utility of antibody patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis vs. patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, L T; Loft, A G; Christiansen, A A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether antibody response patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes can discriminate patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) from patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). METHOD: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA antibodies against K. pneumoniae...... capsular serotypes K2, K26, K36, and K50 were measured, and antibody seropositivity compared between groups and analysed for patient correlation in five different groups: (a) 96 patients fulfilling the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axSpA; (b) 38...... ankylosing spondylitis (AS) served as the negative and positive control groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in IgG and IgA seropositivity against all serotypes between the axSpA, non-axSpA, and LBP groups. No significant correlations were found between anti-Klebsiella antibodies and age, gender, HLA-B27...

  14. The non-specific symptoms of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma resulting in delayed diagnosis: A case-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Dina Jarjis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL is a rare entity that has become known as a distinct clinical condition recently. In general, BIA-ALCL patients with a history of breast implants present with non-specific implant-related complications, resulting in delayed diagnosis and appropriate treatment because of the lack of awareness of BIA-ALCL. The cause and pathogenesis have still not been identified, and there are no evidence-based guidelines on how this condition should be detected, treated or followed up because of the rarity of available data. We present the first published Danish case of anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative BIA-ALCL, and review the current literature to raise awareness of and discuss management options for this rare clinical entity.

  15. Characteristics and outcome in patients with non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer referred to a fast track cancer patient pathway; a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sara Falk; Ravn, Pernille; Thorsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2012 a new cancer patient pathway for patients with non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer (NSSC-CPP) was introduced in Denmark. Limited information is available about the patients referred to the NSSC-CPP and the investigational course. The aim was to describe the population...... and the investigational course, estimate the prevalence of cancer and one-year mortality, and identify factors associated with a subsequent cancer diagnosis in patients referred to the NSSC-CPP. Method: This cohort study included patients with at least one visit at the NSSC-CPP at North Zealand Hospital in Denmark (NOH......) from October 1st 2013 to September 30th 2014. Data was based on retrospective reviews of the patient files. Logistic regression identified factors associated with a subsequent cancer diagnosis. Multivariate analyses were adjusted by age, gender, smoking status and alcohol consumption. Kaplan...

  16. Genetic localisation of MRX27 to Xq24-26 defines another discrete gene for non-specific X-linked mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedeon, A.K.; Connor, J.M.; Mulley, J.C. [Univ. of Adelaide (Australia); Connor, J.M. [Duncan Guthrie Inst. of Medical Genetics, Yorkhill (United Kingdom); Glass, I.A. [Univ. of California, San Franciso, CA (United States)

    1996-07-12

    A large family with non-specific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) was first described in 1991, with a suggestion of linkage to Xq26-27. The maximum lod score was 1.60 ({theta} = 0.10) with the F9 locus. The localization of this MRX gene has now been established by linkage to microsatellite markers. Peak pairwise lod scores of 4.02 and 4.01 ({theta} = 0.00) were attained at the DXS1114 and DXS994 loci respectively. This MRX gene is now designated MRX27 and is localized to Xq24-26 by recombination events detected by DXS424 and DXS102. This regional localization spans 26.2 cM on the genetic background map and defines another distinct MRX interval by linkage to a specific region of the X chromosome. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. A workplace exercise versus health promotion intervention to prevent and reduce the economic and personal burden of non-specific neck pain in office personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, V; O'Leary, S; Comans, T

    2014-01-01

    practice ergonomic and neck exercise program reduce productivity losses and risk of developing neck pain in asymptomatic workers, or decrease severity of neck pain in symptomatic workers, compared to a best practice ergonomics and general health promotion program? DESIGN: Prospective cluster randomised......INTRODUCTION: Non-specific neck pain is a major burden to industry, yet the impact of introducing a workplace ergonomics and exercise intervention on work productivity and severity of neck pain in a population of office personnel is unknown. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does a combined workplace-based best...... ergonomics intervention plus 1-hour weekly health information sessions for 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Primary (productivity loss) and secondary (neck pain and disability, muscle performance, and quality of life) outcome measures will be collected using validated scales at baseline, immediate post...

  18. THE USE OF SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF INTESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Shklyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative assessment of the quality of life of IBS patients in the treatment process with the use of specific and non-specific questionnaires.Materials and methods: a dynamic study of quality of life in 40 patients of IBS with the use of questionnaires GSRS and SF-36.Results: marked decrease in the severity of syndromes on all 6 scales of the questionnaire GSRS, and after 1 to 3 weeks of treatment dynamics was gained statistically significant, and total score improved significantly already after 1 week of therapy. Positive dynamics was obtained on the two scales of the questionnaire SF-36 (social functioning, and emotional functioning, as well as physical and psychological components of health.Conclusions: the high sensitivity of specific questionnaire GSRS and diagnostic significance of nonspecific SF-36 questionnaire in patients with IBS, the necessity to combine them.

  19. CMV-specific T cell isolation from G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood: depletion of myeloid progenitors eliminates non-specific binding of MHC-multimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloki, Lorea; Ciaurriz, Miriam; Mansilla, Cristina; Zabalza, Amaya; Perez-Valderrama, Estela; Samuel, Edward R; Lowdell, Mark W; Ramirez, Natalia; Olavarria, Eduardo

    2014-11-19

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell infusion to immunocompromised patients following allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (allo-HSCT) is able to induce a successful anti-viral response. These cells have classically been manufactured from steady-state apheresis samples collected from the donor in an additional harvest prior to G-CSF mobilization, treatment that induces hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization to the periphery. However, two closely-timed cellular collections are not usually available in the unrelated donor setting, which limits the accessibility of anti-viral cells for adoptive immunotherapy. CMV-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) manufacture from the same G-CSF mobilized donor stem cell harvest offers great regulatory advantages, but the isolation using MHC-multimers is hampered by the high non-specific binding to myeloid progenitors, which reduces the purity of the cellular product. In the present study we describe an easy and fast method based on plastic adherence to remove myeloid cell subsets from 11 G-CSF mobilized donor samples. CMV-specific CTLs were isolated from the non-adherent fraction using pentamers and purity and yield of the process were compared to products obtained from unmanipulated samples. After the elimination of unwanted cell subtypes, non-specific binding of pentamers was notably reduced. Accordingly, following the isolation process the purity of the obtained cellular product was significantly improved. G-CSF mobilized leukapheresis samples can successfully be used to isolate antigen-specific T cells with MHC-multimers to be adoptively transferred following allo-HSCT, widening the accessibility of this therapy in the unrelated donor setting. The combination of the clinically translatable plastic adherence process to the antigen-specific cell isolation using MHC-multimers improves the quality of the therapeutic cellular product, thereby reducing the clinical negative effects associated with undesired

  20. Kinesio Taping® is not better than placebo in reducing pain and disability in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Maurício A.; Sousa, Manoel V.; Neves, Luciana A. F. S.; Cezar, Aline A. C.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kinesio Taping ® has been widely used in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether this type of tape is more effective than placebo taping in patients with chronic lower back pain. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping ® in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain against a placebo tape and a control group. Method: This is a 3-arm, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Sixty patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomized into one of the three groups: Kinesio Taping ® group (n=20), Micropore® (placebo) group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Patients allocated to both the Kinesio Taping ® group and the placebo group used the different types of tape for a period of 48 hours. The control group did not receive any intervention. The outcomes measured were pain intensity (measured by an 11-point numerical rating scale) and disability (measured by the 24-item Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). A blinded assessor measured the outcomes at baseline, 48 hours and 7 days after randomization. Results: After 48 hours, there was a statistically significant difference between the Kinesio Taping ® group versus the control group (mean between-group difference = -3.1 points, 95% CI=-5.2 to -1.1, p=0.003), but no difference when compared to the placebo group (mean between-group difference= 1.9 points, 95% CI=-0.2 to 3.9, p=0.08). For the other outcomes no differences were observed. Conclusions: The Kinesio Taping ® is not better than placebo (Micropore®) in patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:26647750

  1. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Luz Maurício Antônio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j

  2. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j PMID:23298183

  3. High Concentrations of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Detected in Serum from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Can Be Explained by Non-Specific Antibody Reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Makoveichuk

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4 is suggested to be a master regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Our aim was to study whether the previously reported high levels of ANGPTL4 detected in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA by ELISA was due to any specific molecular form of this protein (oligomers, monomers or fragments. ANGPTL4 levels were first determined in serum from 68 RA patients and 43 age and sex matched control subjects and the mean values differed by a factor of 5.0. Then, ANGPTL4 was analyzed after size exclusion chromatography (SEC of serum samples. With serum from one of the RA patients with high levels of ANGPTL4, the dominant reactivity was found in fractions corresponding to high-molecular weight proteins. In addition, a minor peak of reactivity eluting late from the column was found both in the patient and in controls. By the use of HeteroBlock®, and by careful selection of antibodies, we documented non-specific reactions for ANGPTL4 in 39% of samples from the RA patients, most likely due to cross-reactivity of the antibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF. The corresponding figure for control subjects was 6.3%. After corrections for non-specific reactions, the mean level of ANGPTL4 in serum from RA patients was still significantly higher than in control individuals (mean levels were 101±62 and 67±39 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.02. We re-analyzed samples from our previously published studies on ANGPL4 levels in patients on hemodialysis and patients with diabetes type 2. These samples did not show false positive reactions. The levels of ANGPTL4 were comparable to those detected previously.

  4. High Concentrations of Angiopoietin-Like Protein 4 Detected in Serum from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Can Be Explained by Non-Specific Antibody Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Ruge, Toralph; Nilsson, Solveig; Södergren, Anna; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is suggested to be a master regulator of plasma triglyceride metabolism. Our aim was to study whether the previously reported high levels of ANGPTL4 detected in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by ELISA was due to any specific molecular form of this protein (oligomers, monomers or fragments). ANGPTL4 levels were first determined in serum from 68 RA patients and 43 age and sex matched control subjects and the mean values differed by a factor of 5.0. Then, ANGPTL4 was analyzed after size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of serum samples. With serum from one of the RA patients with high levels of ANGPTL4, the dominant reactivity was found in fractions corresponding to high-molecular weight proteins. In addition, a minor peak of reactivity eluting late from the column was found both in the patient and in controls. By the use of HeteroBlock®, and by careful selection of antibodies, we documented non-specific reactions for ANGPTL4 in 39% of samples from the RA patients, most likely due to cross-reactivity of the antibodies with rheumatoid factor (RF). The corresponding figure for control subjects was 6.3%. After corrections for non-specific reactions, the mean level of ANGPTL4 in serum from RA patients was still significantly higher than in control individuals (mean levels were 101±62 and 67±39 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.02). We re-analyzed samples from our previously published studies on ANGPL4 levels in patients on hemodialysis and patients with diabetes type 2. These samples did not show false positive reactions. The levels of ANGPTL4 were comparable to those detected previously.

  5. Effects of preferred-exercise prescription compared to usual exercise prescription on outcomes for people with non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial [ACTRN12608000524392

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    Keating Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP has become a significant problem due to high healthcare utilization, rising costs of care and perceived limitations of effectiveness of many current treatments. Systematic reviews have repeatedly concluded that, on average across participants, exercise for NSCLBP appears effective in decreasing pain and improving function. Not all people with NSCLBP benefit from exercise programs and it would assist care-providers and care-seekers if factors that impact on program effectiveness and success were identified. Methods and design The study will be a randomised controlled trial comparing an exercise rehabilitation program informed by a participant preferences questionnaire compared to a program without this guideline for patients with chronic low back pain. A sample of 150 patients will be recruited in Melbourne, Australia through community-based healthcare clinics that provide supervised exercise rehabilitation programs for people with non-specific chronic low back pain. Clinicians will be randomly assigned to exercise preferences questionnaire or no questionnaire and participants will be allocated in a concealed manner. A qualitative focus group study of exercise instructor feedback about the exercise preferences instrument will be embedded in the research design. Two qualitative focus group studies will also be conducted for participants in the intervention and the control groups to obtain feedback about participants' experiences of the two types of exercise programs. The primary outcomes will be functional ability, pain, fear avoidance, exercise adherence. Discussion This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of individualised exercise prescription compared to usual exercise prescription for NSCLP and, using feedback following the trial, refine the exercise preferences questionnaire.

  6. Antimicrobial drugs for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under six in low and middle income countries: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

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    Hart C Anthony

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high proportion of children with persistent diarrhoea in middle and low income countries die. The best treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug treatment for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause. Methods We included randomized comparisons of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under the age of six years in low and middle income countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL to May 2008 for relevant randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials. We summarised the characteristics of the eligible trials, assessed their quality using standard criteria, and extracted relevant outcomes data. Where appropriate, we combined the results of different trials. Results Three trials from South East Asia and one from Guatemala were included, all were small, and three had adequate allocation concealment. Two were in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause, and two were in patients in whom known bacterial or parasitological causes of diarrhoea had been excluded. No difference was demonstrated for oral gentamicin compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 6 or 7 days; 2 trials, n = 151; and for metronidazole compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 3, 5 and 7 days; 1 trial, n = 99. In one small trial, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim appeared better than placebo in relation to diarrhoea at seven days and total stool volume (n = 55. Conclusion There is little evidence as to whether or not antimicrobials help treat persistent diarrhoea in young children in low and middle income countries.

  7. Antimicrobial drugs for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under six in low and middle income countries: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background A high proportion of children with persistent diarrhoea in middle and low income countries die. The best treatment is not clear. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial drug treatment for persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause. Methods We included randomized comparisons of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea of unknown or non-specific cause in children under the age of six years in low and middle income countries. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to May 2008 for relevant randomized or quasi randomized controlled trials. We summarised the characteristics of the eligible trials, assessed their quality using standard criteria, and extracted relevant outcomes data. Where appropriate, we combined the results of different trials. Results Three trials from South East Asia and one from Guatemala were included, all were small, and three had adequate allocation concealment. Two were in patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause, and two were in patients in whom known bacterial or parasitological causes of diarrhoea had been excluded. No difference was demonstrated for oral gentamicin compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 6 or 7 days; 2 trials, n = 151); and for metronidazole compared with placebo (presence of diarrhoea at 3, 5 and 7 days; 1 trial, n = 99). In one small trial, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim appeared better than placebo in relation to diarrhoea at seven days and total stool volume (n = 55). Conclusion There is little evidence as to whether or not antimicrobials help treat persistent diarrhoea in young children in low and middle income countries. PMID:19257885

  8. Effectiveness of Back School program versus hydrotherapy in elderly patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Cosimo; Romiti, Davide

    2014-06-24

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major cause of disability, for which clinical practice guidelines suggest exercise programs, such as Back School program (stretching and selective muscle reinforcement techniques) and Hydrotherapy technique, as an effective treatment to reduce pain intensity and disability. We enrolled 56 elderly individuals, affected by non-specific CLBP, whose pain had worsened in the last three months, which were randomly allocated to Back School (group A) or to Hydrotherapy program (group B). Each group underwent two one-hour-treatment sessions per week, over a 12-week period. Each patient was evaluated using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) V2.0 at the beginning (T0), at the end of treatment (T1) and at the 3-month follow-up (T2). At T1 and T2 we observed a highly significant statistical difference in the values measured  in both groups: at T1 in group A RMDQ improvement of 3.26±1.02 (p<0.001) and SF-36 of 13.30±1.44 (p<0.001); in group B RMDQ improvement of 4.96±0.71 (p<0.001) and SF-36 of 14.19±1.98 (p<0.001). We have also evaluated the difference in effectiveness of the two programs and no significant statistical differences were found between the two groups. Back School program and Hydrotherapy could be valid treatment options in the rehabilitation of non-specific CLBP in elderly people. Both therapies proved to be effective and can be used in association with other rehabilitation programs. We believe that Back School program should be favored for its simplicity and the small number of resources required. 

  9. Kinesio Taping® is not better than placebo in reducing pain and disability in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

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    Maurício A. Luz Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kinesio Taping® has been widely used in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether this type of tape is more effective than placebo taping in patients with chronic lower back pain. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain against a placebo tape and a control group. Method: This is a 3-arm, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Sixty patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomized into one of the three groups: Kinesio Taping® group (n=20, Micropore® (placebo group (n=20 and control group (n=20. Patients allocated to both the Kinesio Taping® group and the placebo group used the different types of tape for a period of 48 hours. The control group did not receive any intervention. The outcomes measured were pain intensity (measured by an 11-point numerical rating scale and disability (measured by the 24-item Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. A blinded assessor measured the outcomes at baseline, 48 hours and 7 days after randomization. Results: After 48 hours, there was a statistically significant difference between the Kinesio Taping® group versus the control group (mean between-group difference = -3.1 points, 95% CI=-5.2 to -1.1, p=0.003, but no difference when compared to the placebo group (mean between-group difference= 1.9 points, 95% CI=-0.2 to 3.9, p=0.08. For the other outcomes no differences were observed. Conclusions: The Kinesio Taping® is not better than placebo (Micropore® in patients with chronic low back pain.

  10. Probable hypoglycemic adverse drug reaction associated with prickly pear cactus, glipizide, and metformin in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Diana M; Freyer, Craig W

    2010-01-01

    To report a case of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking prickly pear cactus (PPC), glipizide, and metformin. A 58-year-old Mexican male with type 2 diabetes mellitus being treated with metformin 1000 mg twice daily and extended-release glipizide 10 mg daily was referred to the pharmacist for medication education. He denied taking herbal supplements or experiencing hypoglycemia. Two hemoglobin A(1c) values (6.8% and 6.7%) obtained over the past year demonstrated glycemic control, which was supported by his reported fasting blood glucose readings of 113-132 mg/dL. One month later, the patient reported 4 hypoglycemic events with blood glucose readings of 49-68 mg/dL, which resulted in discontinuation of glipizide. One month later, the patient denied any further hypoglycemia. During medication reconciliation he reported consuming crude PPC pads daily for 2 months for glucose control. Literature suggests that PPC has an effect on lowering blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although few identified data describe ADRs from combining PPC with other agents used in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. A literature search of MEDLINE (through December 2009) using the search terms diabetes mellitus, prickly pear cactus, nopal, opuntia, metformin, glipizide, glyburide, glimepiride, and sulfonylurea revealed no case reports of the described ADR. One case report describing the blood glucose-lowering effect of PPC in a patient concurrently taking oral antihyperglycemics documented an episode of hypoglycemia, although the Naranjo probability scale was not applied. One patient survey discovered the most common drug-herbal interaction in the given population to be between PPC and antihyperglycemic agents, resulting in hypoglycemia. In our case, use of the Naranjo probability scale suggests the ADR to be probable. The mechanism may be due to the additive glucose lowering of the 3 agents consumed concurrently by the

  11. Improvements in skin-testing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Warner W

    2006-01-01

    Allergy skin testing is the primary modality used in the diagnosis of allergic diseases and guides development of treatment and avoidance plans. The goal of the Allergist is to skin test the appropriate population with a device and technique that minimizes pain while maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The debate involving the use of intradermal versus skin-prick testing in the diagnosis of aeroallergy has been long lasting. Past and present medical literature will be reviewed, establishing the lack of diagnostic use of intradermal testing in the setting of aeroallergy. New skin devices continue to be developed with a trend toward production of multidevices. Performance characteristics of various skin test devices will be reviewed with an emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and variability of skin-prick testing devices. Significant statistical differences exist between all devices tested and reported in the literature. Whether these statistical differences equate to clinical differences is not known. With this review the practicing allergist should carefully evaluate multiple different devices and choose a device that suits their practice needs. In addition, allergists must ensure that technicians are sufficiently trained on the correct use of their device and should conduct continuing education to ensure that proper skin testing techniques are being used in their practice. Finally, the use of skin testing in pediatrics will be reviewed with a focus on safety. Care should be taken when skin testing infants < or = 6 months of age, especially in the setting of eczema and a family history of atopy.

  12. Adaptive genomic divergence under high gene flow between freshwater and brackish-water ecotypes of prickly sculpin (Cottus asper) revealed by Pool-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennenmoser, Stefan; Vamosi, Steven M; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genomic basis of adaptive divergence in the presence of gene flow remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In prickly sculpin (Cottus asper), an abundant euryhaline fish in northwestern North America, high genetic connectivity among brackish-water (estuarine) and freshwater (tributary) habitats of coastal rivers does not preclude the build-up of neutral genetic differentiation and emergence of different life history strategies. Because these two habitats present different osmotic niches, we predicted high genetic differentiation at known teleost candidate genes underlying salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. We applied whole-genome sequencing of pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) to explore adaptive divergence between two estuarine and two tributary habitats. Paired-end sequence reads were mapped against genomic contigs of European Cottus, and the gene content of candidate regions was explored based on comparisons with the threespine stickleback genome. Genes showing signals of repeated differentiation among brackish-water and freshwater habitats included functions such as ion transport and structural permeability in freshwater gills, which suggests that local adaptation to different osmotic niches might contribute to genomic divergence among habitats. Overall, the presence of both repeated and unique signatures of differentiation across many loci scattered throughout the genome is consistent with polygenic adaptation from standing genetic variation and locally variable selection pressures in the early stages of life history divergence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Agreement between the Skin Prick Test and Specific Serum IgE for Egg White and Cow's Milk Allergens in Young Infant with Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Jong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of SPT agreed well with those of sIgE. This finding provides a rationale for using SPT, and suggests that SPT can be used along with sIgE to detect food sensitization in young infants with AD.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Treatment With Anti-IgE Antibodies (Omalizumab) in a Patient With Severe Asthma and Negative Skin-Prick Test Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Maarten; Pauw, Ronald G.; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; van Minnen, Cees A.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    It is now well recognized that treatment with anti-IgE antibodies like omalizumab is a valuable option in patients with allergic asthma who remain symptomatic despite optimal treatment. To our knowledge, treatment with omalizumab in patients with nonallergic asthma has not been reported. We present

  15. Electrical stimulation for chronic non-specific low back pain in a working-age population: a 12-week double blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Hughes, Matthew; Biggs, Jeremy

    2013-03-28

    Non-invasive electrotherapy is commonly used for treatment of chronic low back pain. Evidence for efficacy of most electrotherapy modalities is weak or lacking. This study aims to execute a high-quality, double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 1) H-Wave(®) Device stimulation plus usual care with 2) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) plus usual care, and 3) Sham electrotherapy plus usual care to determine comparative efficacy for treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain patients. Chronic non-specific low back pain patients between ages of 18-65 years, with pain of at least 3 months duration and minimal current 5/10 VAS pain. Patients will have no significant signs or symptoms of lumbosacral nerve impingement, malignancy, spinal stenosis, or mood disorders. Double blind RCT with 3 arms and 38 subjects per arm. Randomization by permuted blocks of random length, stratified by Workers Compensation claim (yes vs. no), and use of opioids. The null hypothesis of this study is that there are no statistically significant differences in functional improvement between treatment types during and at the end of a 12-week week treatment period. Subjective data will be collected using Filemaker Pro™ database management collection tools. Objective data will be obtained through functional assessments. Data will be collected at enrollment and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks for each participant by a blinded assessor. H-Wave(®) device stimulation (Intervention A) plus usual care, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) (Intervention B) plus usual care, and sham electrotherapy plus usual care (control). Each treatment arm will have identical numbers of visits (4) and researcher contact time (approximately 15 hours). Oswestry Disability Index. Secondary measures include: Rowland Morris Instrument, VAS pain score, functional evaluation including strength when pushing and pulling, pain free range of motion in flexion and extension

  16. Crystal structure of peach Pru p 3, the prototypic member of the family of plant non-specific lipid transfer protein pan-allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Nicola; Berni, Rodolfo; Folli, Claudia; Folloni, Silvia; Cianci, Michele; Pantano, Sergio; Helliwell, John R; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2006-02-24

    This study describes the three-dimensional crystal structure of a non-specific lipid transport protein (ns-LTP) from Rosaceae. Whilst ns-LTPs from species other than Rosaceae, such as nuts, cereals, grape, oranges and vegetables are also responsible for plant food allergies, this is less frequent compared with ns-LTPs from Rosaceae in the Mediterranean area. In this heterologously expressed peach Pru p3, a ligand is present inside the central cavity of the protein, presumably a fatty acid that was present or produced in the culture medium of the expression organism Escherichia coli. Moreover, the two molecules of ns-LTP present in the asymmetric unit bind this ligand in a different way, suggesting a significant degree of plasticity for the peach ns-LTP binding cavity, despite the presence of four disulphide bridges. Two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit: molecule A is a fully liganded protein, while molecule B apparently represents a partially liganded state. Also, molecular dynamics simulation, along with other evidence, suggests that these two molecular conformations represent different states in solution. Comparison of the 3D models of different ns-LTPs justifies the evidence of a high degree of conservation of the putative IgE binding epitopes among proteins of the Rosaceae family and the presence of significant amino acid replacements in correspondence of the same regions in ns-LTPs of botanical species unrelated to Rosaceae.

  17. Effects of l-tryptophan on the growth, intestinal enzyme activities and non-specific immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Endong; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng

    2018-04-01

    In order to reveal the effects of l-tryptophan (Trp) on the physiology and immune response of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) exposed to crowding stress, four density groups of sea cucumbers (i.e. 4, 8, 16 and 32 individuals per 40 L water, represented as L, ML, MH and H) were fed with diets containing 0, 1, 3 and 5% l-tryptophan respectively for 75 days. The results showed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of the sea cucumber fed with diet with 3% Trp (L, 2.1; ML, 1.76; MH, 1.2; H, 0.7) were significantly higher than those fed with basal diet without Trp supplementation (P sea cucumber fed diets with Trp (3%) had significantly higher phagocytic activities (0.28 OD540/10 6  cells, H) in coelomic fluid and respiratory burst activities (0.105 OD630/10 6  cells, MH) (P < .05). The results suggested that Trp cannot improve superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity at L, ML and MH densities. The alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP) significantly decreased at H stress density. Under the experimental conditions, the present results confirmed that a diet supplemented with 3% Trp was able to enhance intestinal enzyme activities, non-specific immune response and higher growth performance of A. japonicus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of low back mobility and stability exercises from Pilates in non-specific low back pain: A study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Iã Ferreira; Souza, Catiane; Schneider, Alexandre Tavares; Chagas, Leandro Campos; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2018-05-01

    There is some evidence in the literature about the effectiveness of the Pilates methods in the low back pain. Moreover, Pilates focus on exercises that empathizes the stability and/or mobility of the spine. Therefore, it is discussed in the literature whether higher levels of stability or mobility of the lumbar spine generates better results, both in performance and rehabilitation for low back pain. Compare the effects of the low back mobility and stability exercises from Pilates Method on low back pain, disability and movement functionality in individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain. 28 participants will be randomized into two exercise protocol from Pilates methods, one focusing on low back stability and other on low back mobility. Low back pain (visual analogic scale), low back disability (Oswestry) and movement functionality (7 functional movement tasks) will be evaluated before and after 10 sessions of Pilates exercise by the same trained assessor. A mixed designed ANOVA with two factors will be used. This study is the first to compare these outcomes for chronic low back pain participants with two exercises protocol focusing on low back mobility and stability and the results will evaluate what to prioritize with Pilates exercises to give better results for that population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Redox active molecules cytochrome c and vitamin C enhance heme-enzyme peroxidations by serving as non-specific agents for redox relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subarna; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► At low concentrations, cytochrome c/vitamin C do not catalyze peroxidations. ► But low levels of cytochrome c/vitamin C enhance diverse heme peroxidase activities. ► Enhancement positively correlates to the concentration of peroxide in reaction. ► Reducible additives serve as non-specific agents for redox relay in the system. ► Insight into electron transfer processes in routine and oxidative-stress states. -- Abstract: We report that incorporation of very low concentrations of redox protein cytochrome c and redox active small molecule vitamin C impacted the outcome of one-electron oxidations mediated by structurally distinct plant/fungal heme peroxidases. Evidence suggests that cytochrome c and vitamin C function as a redox relay for diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction system, without invoking specific or affinity-based molecular interactions for electron transfers. The findings provide novel perspectives to understanding – (1) the promiscuous role of cytochrome b 5 in the metabolism mediated by liver microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing systems and (2) the roles of antioxidant molecules in affording relief from oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurav; Raman, R P; Pandey, P K; Mohanty, Snatashree; Kumar, Abhay; Kumar, Kundan

    2013-02-01

    Modulation of the immune responses using active bio-ingredients as a possible prophylaxis measure has been novel prospect for aquaculture. The present study evaluated the effects of azadirachtin EC 25% on non-specific immune responses in goldfish Carassius auratus and resistance against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila. The experimental trial for effects of azadirachtin on immuno-haematoloical parameters in goldfish was conducted by feeding the various levels of azadirachtin as control T(0) (without azadirachtin), T(1) (0.1%), T(2) (0.2%), T(3) (0.4%), T(4) (0.8%) and T(5) (1.6%) for a period of 28 days. Fishes were challenged with A. hydrophila 28 days post feeding and relative percentage survival (%) was recorded over 14 days post infection. Immuno-haematoloical (total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, NBT activity, phagocytic activity, serum lysozyme activity, myeloperoxidase activity, total immunoglobulin) and serum biochemical parameters (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and blood glucose) of fishes were examined at 14 and 28 days of feedings. Fish fed with azadirachtin, showed significantly (p 0.05) in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Azadirachtin at the concentration of 4 g kg(-1) showed significantly (p azadirachtin EC 25% (4 g kg(-1)) showed higher NBT activity, serum lysozyme, protein profiles, leukocyte counts and resistance against A. hydrophila infection and thus, can be used as a potential immunostimulant in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Colette C; Brisson-Lougarre, Andrée A; Biasini, Ghislaine G; Grozdea, Jean J; Fournier, Didier D

    2002-01-01

    In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exhibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnant with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome) displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases) were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate), allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60-80% of activity. Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome.

  2. Characteristics of chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents attending a rheumatology outpatients clinic: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain (CNSMSP may develop in childhood and adolescence, leading to disability and reduced quality of life that continues into adulthood. The purpose of the study was to build a biopsychosocial profile of children and adolescents with CNSMSP. Methods CNSMSP subjects (n = 30, 18 females, age 7-18 were compared with age matched pain free controls across a number of biopsychosocial domains. Results In the psychosocial domain CNSMSP subjects had increased levels of anxiety and depression, and had more somatic pain complaints. In the lifestyle domain CNSMSP subjects had lower physical activity levels, but no difference in television or computer use compared to pain free subjects. Physically, CNSMSP subjects tended to sit with a more slumped spinal posture, had reduced back muscle endurance, increased presence of joint hypermobility and poorer gross motor skills. Conclusion These findings support the notion that CNSMSP is a multidimensional biopsychosocial disorder. Further research is needed to increase understanding of how the psychosocial, lifestyle and physical factors develop and interact in CNSMSP.

  3. The Drosophila Gr28bD product is a non-specific cation channel that can be used as a novel thermogenetic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Aditi; Salari, Autoosa; Berigan, Benton R; Miguel, Kayla C; Amirshenava, Marzie; Robinson, Abbey; Zars, Benjamin C; Lin, Jenna L; Milescu, Lorin S; Milescu, Mirela; Zars, Troy

    2018-01-17

    Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila. Our results show that Gr28bD expression in Xenopus oocytes produces a non-specific cationic current that is activated by elevated temperatures. This current is non-inactivating and non-voltage dependent. When expressed in Drosophila motor neurons, Gr28bD can be used to change the firing pattern of individual cells in a temperature-dependent fashion. Finally, we show that pan-neuronal or motor neuron expression of Gr28bD can be used to alter fruit fly behavior with elevated temperatures. Together, these results validate the potential of the Gr28bD gene as a founding member of a new class of thermogenetic tools.

  4. Redox active molecules cytochrome c and vitamin C enhance heme-enzyme peroxidations by serving as non-specific agents for redox relay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subarna [Heme and Flavo Proteins Laboratory, 204, Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 (India); Manoj, Kelath Murali, E-mail: satyamjayatu@yahoo.com [Heme and Flavo Proteins Laboratory, 204, Center for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632014 (India)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At low concentrations, cytochrome c/vitamin C do not catalyze peroxidations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer But low levels of cytochrome c/vitamin C enhance diverse heme peroxidase activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancement positively correlates to the concentration of peroxide in reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reducible additives serve as non-specific agents for redox relay in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight into electron transfer processes in routine and oxidative-stress states. -- Abstract: We report that incorporation of very low concentrations of redox protein cytochrome c and redox active small molecule vitamin C impacted the outcome of one-electron oxidations mediated by structurally distinct plant/fungal heme peroxidases. Evidence suggests that cytochrome c and vitamin C function as a redox relay for diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction system, without invoking specific or affinity-based molecular interactions for electron transfers. The findings provide novel perspectives to understanding - (1) the promiscuous role of cytochrome b{sub 5} in the metabolism mediated by liver microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing systems and (2) the roles of antioxidant molecules in affording relief from oxidative stress.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DWARF MISTLETOE ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI (DC. M. BIEB. AND ITS PRINCIPAL HOST EASTERN PRICKLY JUNIPER JUNIPERUS DELTOIDES R. P. ADAMS DISTRIBUTION IN CRIMEA USING GIS TECHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kukushkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study highlights the distribution pattern of juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri, a semi-parasite of the Eastern prickly juniper (Juniperus deltoides, in Crimea. A. oxycedri has considerably narrower range in Crimea as compared to its principal host and its ubiquitous distribution is rather sporadic. Nature observations characterize A. oxycedri as a thermophilic and mezo-хerophytic species confined to the low-mountain terrains with mild sub-Mediterranean climate. Significant sites of permanent infection have been discovered at the Crimean coast and in the warmest southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains to the south from the Belbek River valley. Greek juniper (J. excelsa is a codominant species growing side by side with J. deltoids in the majority of localities examined that have the high infection rate. Generally, J. excelsa is an insusceptible species in relation to the parasite; nevertheless, it is affected by A. oxycedri at several sites. Birds feeding habit to consume J. excelsa and J. deltoides fleshy berry-like cones helps to maintain the high infection rate and to disseminate mistletoe seeds at the distance of approximately 4 km. Modeling ecological niche and creating maps of potential range of the parasite and its principal host using MaxEnt 3.3.3k software have demonstrated that A. oxycedri distribution in Crimea at present may be wider than it has been currently observed. It is noteworthy that while modeling such bioclimatic indicators as the minimum winter temperatures and the elevation above sea level were irrelevant for establishing the distribution range of the parasite. Presumably the limited distribution of A. oxycedri can be attributed to the history of forming J. deltoides range in the late Pleistocene – Holocene, alongside with a low speed of the parasite dissemination from Quaternary refugia in the southernmost part of the Crimean Peninsula.

  6. Genetic evaluations of Chinese patients with odontohypophosphatasia resulting from heterozygosity for mutations in the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jia; Zhang, Li; Liu, Tang; Wang, Yewei

    2017-08-01

    Hypophosphatasia is a rare heritable metabolic disorder characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralization accompanied by a deficiency of tissue-non-specific (liver/bone/kidney) isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase activity, caused by a number of loss-of-function mutations in the alkaline phosphatase liver type gene. We seek to explore the clinical manifestations and identify the mutations associated with the disease in a Chinese odonto- hypophosphatasia family. The proband and his younger brother affected with premature loss of primary teeth at their 2-year-old. They have mild abnormal serum alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxy vitamin D values, but the serum alkaline phosphatase activity of their father, mother and grandmother, who showed no clinical symptoms of hypophosphatasia, was exhibited significant decreased. In addition to premature loss of primary teeth, the proband and his younger brother showed low bone mineral density, X-rays showed that they had slight metaphyseal osteoporosis changes, but no additional skeletal abnormalities. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and analysis revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism c.787T>C (p.Y263H) in exon 7 and/or a novel mutation c.-92C>T located at 5'UTR were found in the affected individuals. We examined all individuals of an odonto- hypophosphatasia family by clinical and radiographic examinations as well as laboratory assays. Furthermore, all 12 exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the alkaline phosphatase liver type gene were amplified and directly sequenced for further analysis and screened for mutations. Our present findings suggest the single nucleotide polymorphism c.787T>C and c.-92C>T should be responsible for the odonto- hypophosphatasia disorders in this family.

  7. Exercise prescription for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: a qualitative exploration of decision making in physiotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Rob; Swinkels, Annette; Mitchell, Theresa; Palmer, Shea

    2016-12-01

    Providing an effective exercise prescription process for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a challenging task. Emerging research has indicated that partnership in care and shared decision making are important for people with NSCLBP and calls for further investigation into the approaches used to prescribe exercise. To explore how shared decision making and patient partnership are addressed by physiotherapists in the process of exercise prescription for patients with NSCLBP. A qualitative study using a philosophical hermeneutic approach. Eight physiotherapists were each observed on three occasions undertaking their usual clinical activities (total n=24 observations). They conducted brief interviews after each observation and a later in depth semi-structured interview. Iterative hermeneutic strategies were used to interpret the texts and identify the characteristics and processes of exercise prescription for patients with NSCLBP. The findings revealed how physiotherapy practice often resulted in unequal possibilities for patient participation which were in turn linked to the physiotherapists' assumptions about the patients, clinical orientation, cognitive and decision making processes. Three linked themes emerged: (1) I want them to exercise, (2) which exercise? - the tension between evidence and everyday practice and (3) compliance-orientated more than concordance based. This research, by focusing on a patient-centred approach, makes an important contribution to the body of evidence relating to the management of NSCLBP. It challenges physiotherapists to critically appraise their approaches to the prescription of exercise therapy in order to improve outcomes for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical effect of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator on 172 cases of primary lung cancer (stage 3, 4) treated with radiation combined with chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyoshi, Yukio; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Imajo, Yoshinari

    1981-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979, 209 cases of primary lung cancer admitted the department of radiology were treated with radiation combined with chemotherapy. The clinical effect of concomitant use of non-specific immunopotentiator OK-432 and PSK was studied about stage 3, and stage 4. Survival curves were evaluated between the patients with OK-432 and/or PSK and those without immunotherapy. In 91 cases in stage 3, fifty percent survival period was found to be 12.2 months for 27 cases with OK-432, 14.4 months for 12 cases with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, 9.0 months for 24 cases with PSK, and 7.5 months for 28 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. Noticeable prolongation of fifty percent survival period was observed in the cases with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, OK-432, and PSK, inorder, as compared with those without immunotherapy. One-year survival rate was 51.9% for cases with OK-432, 66.7% with combined use OK-432 and PSK, 34.8% with PSK, and 25.0% without immunotherapy, respectively. In 81 cases in stage 4, fifty percent survival period was found to be 7.0 months for 24 cases with OK-432, 5.0 months for 8 cases with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, 7.6 months for 13 cases with PSK, and 3.3 months for 36 cases without immunotherapy, respectively. One-year survival rate was 16.7% for cases with OK-432, 25.0% with combined use of OK-432 and PSK, 15.4% with PSK and 5.6% without immunotherapy, respectively. (J.P.N.)

  9. Annual incidence of non-specific low back pain as an occupational disease attributed to whole-body vibration according to the National Dutch Register 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, P Paul F M; van der Molen, Henk F; Schop, Astrid; Moeijes, Fred; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain (nLBP) is the second most important reason for sick leave in the Netherlands, and more than 50% of the workers on sick leave attribute these complaints to their work. To stimulate recognition and prevention, an occupational disease (OD) registration-guideline was implemented for the assessment of the work-relatedness of nLBP in the Netherlands in 2005. The aim of this study is to present the annual incidence of nLBP as an OD and specifically for whole-body vibration (WBV) including patient characteristics such as age, sick leave and actions initiated by the occupational physician (OP). The data were retrieved from the National Dutch Register for 2005-2012. Each year about 118 OPs reported 509 cases (SD 139) of nLBP as an OD in a Dutch working population of 7.5 million workers (8% of all annual reported ODs). Less than 1% of these cases were attributed to WBV: 94% were men, 45% were between 51 and 60 years and 35% were on sick leave for more than 2 weeks. Most initiated actions were ergonomic interventions (35%). The number of notified cases of nLPB as an occupational disease attributed to whole-body vibration is low with less than 1% of all cases in the Netherlands. An explanation is that other work-related risk factors for nLBP such as lifting are more frequently occurring, more visible and have a higher attributable risk than WBV. However, continuing attention for WBV remains warranted given a higher percentage of cases with sick leave of more than 2 weeks.

  10. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Colette C; Brisson-Lougarre, Andrée A; Biasini, Ghislaine G; Grozdea, Jean J; Fournier, Didier D

    2002-01-01

    Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome) displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. Results To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases) were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate), allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60–80% of activity. Conclusion Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome. PMID:11818032

  11. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozdea Jean J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. Results To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate, allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60–80% of activity. Conclusion Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome.

  12. Assessing the perception of trunk movements in military personnel with chronic non-specific low back pain using a virtual mirror.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyke Roosink

    Full Text Available Chronic pain, including chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP, is often associated with body perception disturbances, but these have generally been assessed under static conditions. The objective of this study was to use a "virtual mirror" that scaled visual movement feedback to assess body perception during active movement in military personnel with CNSLBP (n = 15 as compared to military healthy control subjects (n = 15. Subjects performed a trunk flexion task while sitting and standing in front of a large screen displaying a full-body virtual mirror-image (avatar in real-time. Avatar movements were scaled to appear greater, identical, or smaller than the subjects' actual movements. A total of 126 trials with 11 different scaling factors were pseudo-randomized across 6 blocks. After each trial, subjects had to decide whether the avatar's movements were "greater" or "smaller" than their own movements. Based on this two-alternative forced choice paradigm, a psychophysical curve was fitted to the data for each subject, and several metrics were derived from this curve. In addition, task adherence (kinematics and virtual reality immersion were assessed. Groups displayed a similar ability to discriminate between different levels of movement scaling. Still, subjects with CNSLBP showed an abnormal performance and tended to overestimate their own movements (a right-shifted psychophysical curve. Subjects showed adequate task adherence, and on average virtual reality immersion was reported to be very good. In conclusion, these results extend previous work in patients with CNSLBP, and denote an important relationship between body perception, movement and pain. As such, the assessment of body perception during active movement can offer new avenues for understanding and managing body perception disturbances and abnormal movement patterns in patients with pain.

  13. Development and application of a newly designed massage instrument for deep cross-friction massage in chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yong-Soon; Yu, Ki-Pi; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kwak, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jong Yun

    2012-02-01

    To introduce a newly designed massage instrument, the Hand Grip T-bar (HT-bar) and use it to relieve chronic non-specific low back pain (nLBP) through deep cross-friction massage (roptrotherapy). 22 subjects (9 males and 13 females, aged 51.6±6.7) with chronic nLBP were allocated randomly to a Roptrotherapy group (n=12) and a Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) group (n=10). The Roptrotherapy group received deep cross-friction massage with the HT-bar, which was made of metal and had a cylinder for increasing weight and grooves for an easy grip. It was applied across the middle and lower back for 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week for 2 weeks. The TENS group received TENS for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. The outcome was measured on the pain numeric rating scale (PNRS), by the Oswestry disability index (ODI), and by the Roland & Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) at pre-treatment, at immediate post-treatment and 2 weeks later. The application of the HT-bar was assessed by a questionnaire to 19 therapists. At post-treatment, immediately and 2 weeks later, both groups showed significant improvement in PNRS, ODI and RMDQ. During the two weeks after post-treatment, however, the Roptrotherapy group improved in PNRS, ODI and RMDQ, but the TENS group did not. Over 80% of the therapists responded that the HT-bar was useful and comfortable. This study suggests that deep cross-friction massage can be a beneficial therapeutic technique and that the HT-bar can be a useful instrument in deep cross-friction massage for chronic nLBP patients.

  14. Effectiveness of core stabilization exercises and routine exercise therapy in management of pain in chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Waseem; Karimi, Hossein; Gilani, Syed Amir

    2017-01-01

    non-specific low back pain.

  15. Proportional lumbar spine inter-vertebral motion patterns: a comparison of patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Fiona E; Thomas, Peter W; Thompson, Paul; Breen, Alan C

    2014-10-01

    Identifying biomechanical subgroups in chronic, non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) populations from inter-vertebral displacements has proven elusive. Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) has excellent repeatability and provides continuous standardised inter-vertebral kinematic data from fluoroscopic sequences allowing assessment of mid-range motion. The aim of this study was to determine whether proportional continuous IV rotational patterns were different in patients and controls. A secondary aim was to update the repeatability of QF measurement of range of motion (RoM) for inter-vertebral (IV) rotation. Fluoroscopic sequences were recorded of passive, recumbent coronal and sagittal motion, which was controlled for range and velocity. Segments L2-5 in 40 primary care CNSLBP patients and 40 matched controls were compared. Patients also completed the von Korff Chronic Pain Grade and Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire. Sequences were processed using automated image tracking algorithms to extract continuous inter-vertebral rotation data. These were converted to continuous proportional ranges of rotation (PR). The continuous proportional range variances were calculated for each direction and combined to produce a single variable representing their fluctuation (CPRV). Inter- and intra-rater repeatability were also calculated for the maximum IV-RoM measurements obtained during controlled trunk motion to provide an updated indication of the reliability and agreement of QF for measuring spine kinematics. CPRV was significantly higher in patients (0.011 vs. 0.008, Mann-Whitney two-sided p = 0.008), implying a mechanical subgroup. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found its sensitivity and specificity to be 0.78 % (60-90) and 0.55 % (37-73), respectively (area under the curve 0.672). CPRV was not correlated with pain severity or disability. The repeatability of maximum inter-vertebral range was excellent, but range was only significantly greater in patients

  16. Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific low back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallel-group pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Korea. In this context, we conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatment for PNSLBP. Methods We recruited 32 participants (21 in the wet-cupping group and 11 in the waiting-list group who had been having PNSLBP for at least 3 months. The participants were recruited at the clinical research centre of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korea. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to wet-cupping and waiting-list groups. Following the practice of traditional Korean medicine, the treatment group was provided with wet-cupping treatment at two acupuncture points among the BL23, BL24 and BL25 6 times within 2 weeks. Usual care, including providing brochures for exercise, general advice for PNSLBP and acetaminophen, was allowed in both groups. Separate assessors participated in the outcome assessment. We used the 0 to100 numerical rating scale (NRS for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire for pain intensity (PPI and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ, and we assessed acetaminophen use and safety issues. Results The results showed that the NRS score for pain decreased (-16.0 [95% CI: -24.4 to -7.7] in the wet-cupping group and -9.1 [-18.1 to -0.1] in the waiting-list group, but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p = 0.52. However, the PPI scores showed significant differences between the two groups (-1.2 [-1.6 to -0.8] for the wet-cupping group and -0.2 [-0.8 to 0.4] for the waiting-list group, p Conclusion This pilot study may provide preliminary data on the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatments for PNSLBP. Future full-scale randomised controlled trials will be needed to provide firm evidence of the effectiveness of this intervention

  17. Evaluation of wet-cupping therapy for persistent non-specific low back pain: a randomised, waiting-list controlled, open-label, parallel-group pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-In; Kim, Tae-Hun; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kang, Jung Won; Kim, Kun Hyung; Choi, Jun-Yong; Kang, Kyung-Won; Kim, Ae-Ran; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, So-Young; Choi, Sun-mi

    2011-06-10

    Persistent non-specific low back pain (PNSLBP) is one of the most frequently experienced types of back pain around the world. Wet-cupping is a common intervention for various pain conditions, especially in Korea. In this context, we conducted a pilot study to determine the effectiveness and safety of wet-cupping treatment for PNSLBP. We recruited 32 participants (21 in the wet-cupping group and 11 in the waiting-list group) who had been having PNSLBP for at least 3 months. The participants were recruited at the clinical research centre of the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Korea. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to wet-cupping and waiting-list groups. Following the practice of traditional Korean medicine, the treatment group was provided with wet-cupping treatment at two acupuncture points among the BL23, BL24 and BL25 6 times within 2 weeks. Usual care, including providing brochures for exercise, general advice for PNSLBP and acetaminophen, was allowed in both groups. Separate assessors participated in the outcome assessment. We used the 0 to 100 numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, the McGill Pain Questionnaire for pain intensity (PPI) and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODQ), and we assessed acetaminophen use and safety issues. The results showed that the NRS score for pain decreased (-16.0 [95% CI: -24.4 to -7.7] in the wet-cupping group and -9.1 [-18.1 to -0.1] in the waiting-list group), but there was no statistical difference between the groups (p = 0.52). However, the PPI scores showed significant differences between the two groups (-1.2 [-1.6 to -0.8] for the wet-cupping group and -0.2 [-0.8 to 0.4] for the waiting-list group, p cupping group during 4 weeks (p = 0.09). The ODQ score did not show significant differences between the two groups (-5.60 [-8.90 to -2.30] in the wet-cupping group and -1.8 [-5.8 to 2.2] in the waiting-list group, p = 0.14). There was no report of adverse events due to wet-cupping. This pilot study may

  18. Effects of dietary chitosan and Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xu; Dong, Xiao-Hui; Tan, Bei-Ping; Yang, Qi-Hui; Chi, Shu-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yu; Liu, Xian-Qin

    2011-09-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of various levels of dietary Bacillus subtilis and chitosan on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and protection against Vibrio harveyi infection in cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Fish were fed with the control diet and six different experimental diets containing three graded levels of B. subtilis at 2 × 10(10) CFU g(-1) (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 g kg(-1) diet) for each of two levels of chitosan (3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) diet). The results of 8 weeks feeding trial showed that the survival rate ranged from 81.3% to 84.0% with no significant difference (P > 0.05). The SGR (%) in the fish fed with dietary treatments was significantly higher than that of the control fish except diet 6 group with 2.0 g kg(-1)B. subtilis and 3.0 g kg(-1) chitosan. The serum lysozyme activities were significantly higher in 6.0 g kg(-1) chitosan groups and no significant differences were observed among B. subtilis levels. The serum ACP activities were significantly higher in 3.0 g kg(-1) chitosan groups at 0.0 and 1.0 g kg(-1)B. subtilis levels; at low chitosan level, the cobia fed diets with 1.0 g kg(-1)B. subtilis had significantly higher serum ACP activity, but at high chitosan level, the cobia fed diets with 2.0 g kg(-1)B. subtilis had significantly higher serum ACP activity. The phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity in the fish fed with dietary treatments was significantly higher than that of the control fish except diet 3 group with 6.0 g kg(-1) chitosan. Moreover, fish fed the diet containing 2.0 g kg(-1)B. subtilis and 6.0 g kg(-1) chitosan had significantly higher post-challenge survival on the 7th day following V. harveyi infection and post-challenge survival showed clearly the synergistic effect of chitosan and B. subtilis. Based on these results, the combination of 1.0 g kg(-1)B. subtilis and 6.0 g kg(-1) chitosan is optimal for the growth, innate immunity and disease resistance of cobia with an 8-week oral

  19. The value of qualitative and quantitative assessment of lesion to cerebral cortex signal ratio on double inversion recovery sequence in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques from non-specific T2 hyperintensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamcan, Salih; Battal, Bilal; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Etlik, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan; Tasdemir, Serdar [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Bozkurt, Yalcin [Golcuk Military Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the usefulness of the visual assessment and to determine diagnostic value of the lesion-to-cerebral cortex signal ratio (LCSR) measurement in the differentiation of demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2 hyperintensities on double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence. DIR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences of 25 clinically diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 25 non-MS patients with non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were evaluated visually and LCSRs were measured by two observers independently. On DIR sequence, the calculated mean LCSR ± SD for demyelinating plaques and non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions were 1.60 ± 0.26 and 0.75 ± 0.19 for observer1, and 1.61 ± 0.27 and 0.74 ± 0.19 for observer2. LCSRs of demyelinating plaques were significantly higher than other non-specific T2-hyperintense lesions on DIR sequence. By using the visual assessment demyelinating plaques were differentiated from non-specific T2-hyperintensities with 92.8 % sensitivity, 97.5 % specificity and 95.1 % accuracy for observer1 and 92.8 % sensitivity, 95 % specificity and 93.9 % accuracy for observer2. Visual assessment and LCSR measurement on DIR sequence seems to be useful for differentiating demyelinating MS plaques from supratentorial non-specific T2 hyperintensities. This feature can be used for diagnosis of MS particularly in patients with only supratentorial T2-hyperintense lesions who are categorized as radiologically possible MS. (orig.)

  20. Effects of McGill stabilization exercises and conventional physiotherapy on pain, functional disability and active back range of motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanpour, Arsalan; Azghani, Mahmoud Reza; Taghipour, Mohammad; Salahzadeh, Zahra; Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the effects of "McGill stabilization exercises" and "conventional physiotherapy" on pain, functional disability and active back flexion and extension range of motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty four patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomly assigned to McGill stabilization exercises group (n=17) and conventional physiotherapy group (n=17). In both groups, patients performed the corresponding exercises for six weeks. The visual analog scale (VAS), Quebec Low Back Pain Disability Scale Questionnaire and inclinometer were used to measure pain, functional disability, and active back flexion and extension range of motion, respectively. [Results] Statistically significant improvements were observed in pain, functional disability, and active back extension range of motion in McGill stabilization exercises group. However, active back flexion range of motion was the only clinical symptom that statistically increased in patients who performed conventional physiotherapy. There was no significant difference between the clinical characteristics while compared these two groups of patients. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that McGill stabilization exercises and conventional physiotherapy provided approximately similar improvement in pain, functional disability, and active back range of motion in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. However, it appears that McGill stabilization exercises provide an additional benefit to patients with chronic non-specific low back, especially in pain and functional disability improvement.

  1. Basophil activation test: food challenge in a test tube or specialist research tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Oral food challenge (OFC) is the gold-standard to diagnose food allergy; however, it is a labour and resource-intensive procedure with the risk of causing an acute allergic reaction, which is potentially severe. Therefore, OFC are reserved for cases where the clinical history and the results of skin prick test and/or specific IgE do not confirm or exclude the diagnosis of food allergy. This is a significant proportion of patients seen in Allergy clinics and results in a high demand for OFC. The basophil activation test (BAT) has emerged as a new diagnostic test for food allergy. With high diagnostic accuracy, it can be particularly helpful in the cases where skin prick test and specific IgE are equivocal and may allow reducing the need for OFC. BAT has high specificity, which confers a high degree of certainty in confirming the diagnosis of food allergy and allows deferring the performance of OFC in patients with a positive BAT. The diagnostic utility of BAT is allergen-specific and needs to be validated for different allergens and in specific patient populations. Standardisation of the laboratory methodology and of the data analyses would help to enable a wider clinical application of BAT.

  2. A core outcome set for clinical trials on non-specific low back pain: study protocol for the development of a core domain set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiarotto, Alessandro; Terwee, Caroline B; Deyo, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of patch test in children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan Sozmen, Sule; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta; Gioia, Edoardo; Mastrorilli, Carla; Rizzuti, Laura; Caffarelli, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gold standard test for confirming whether a child has clinical hypersensitivity reactions to foods is the oral food challenge. Therefore, there is increasing interest in simpler diagnostic markers of food allergy, especially in children, to avoid oral food challenge. The goal of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of atopy patch test in comparison with oral food challenge. We investigated 243 children (mean age, 51 months) referred for evaluation of suspected egg or cow's milk allergy. Skin prick test and atopy patch test were carried out, and after a 2 weeks elimination diet, oral food challenge was performed. Two hundred and forty-three children underwent OFC to the suspected food. We found clinically relevant food allergies in 40 (65%) children to egg and in 22 (35%) to cow's milk. The sensitivity of skin prick test for both milk and egg was 92%, specificity 91%, positive predictive value 35%, and negative predictive value of 93%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of atopy patch test for both milk and egg were 21%, 73%, 20%, and 74%, respectively. Our study suggests that there is insufficient evidence for the routine use of atopy patch test for the evaluation of egg and cow's milk allergy. OFC remains gold standard for the diagnosis of egg and milk allergy even in the presence of high costs in terms of both time and risks during application. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Study protocol of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary intervention in the evolution of non-specific sub-acute low back pain in the working population: cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Kort Nelleke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP, with high incidence and prevalence rate, is one of the most common reasons to consult the health system and is responsible for a significant amount of sick leave, leading to high health and social costs. The objective of the study is to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial educational group intervention (MBEGI of non-specific sub-acute LBP in comparison with the usual care in the working population recruited in primary healthcare centres. Methods/design The study design is a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a MBEGI in comparison with the usual care of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Measures on effectiveness and costs of both interventions will be obtained from a cluster randomised controlled clinical trial carried out in 38 Catalan primary health care centres, enrolling 932 patients between 18 and 65 years old with a diagnosis of non-specific sub-acute LBP. Effectiveness measures are: pharmaceutical treatments, work sick leave (% and duration in days, Roland Morris disability, McGill pain intensity, Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB and Golberg Questionnaires. Utility measures will be calculated from the SF-12. The analysis will be performed from a social perspective. The temporal horizon is at 3 months (change to chronic LBP and 12 months (evaluate the outcomes at long term. Assessment of outcomes will be blinded and will follow the intention-to-treat principle. Discussion We hope to demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of MBEGI, see an improvement in the patients' quality of life, achieve a reduction in the duration of episodes and the chronicity of non-specific low back pain, and be able to report a decrease in the social costs. If the intervention is cost-effectiveness and cost-utility, it could be applied to Primary Health Care Centres. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN58719694

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF NON SPECIFIC IMMUNE SYSTEM ON COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio AGAINST KOI HERPESVIRUS DISEASE (KHVD BY ADDITION OF ASCORBIC ACID ON FISH DIET: A FIELD SCALE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research with the aim to know the optimal feeding frequency of supplemented ascorbic acid (microencapsulated vitamin C CFC-90 on the dose of 750 mg/kg feed to control Koi Herpesvirus (KHV disease infecting common carp has been done in field condition. Fish were reared in floating cages with the size of 3.5 m x 3.5 m x 2.0 m and stocking density of 1,250 fish/cage with the size range of ± 10 g/fish. The treatments applied in the research were: (A daily application, (B every 3 days application, and (C without vitamin C addition as the control. Fish test were challenged to KHV infection on the mid cultivation by cohabitation method in the laboratory scale for 2 weeks. Examination on behavior, clinical sign, and mortality of fish test conducted daily. The results showed that the highest survival rate was found on the application of vitamin C every 3 days (60.16%; and followed by every day (52.00%, and the lowest was found on the control group (47.36%.

  6. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  7. Pollen food allergy syndrome in Turkey: Clinical characteristics and evaluation of its association with skin test reactivity to pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Seςil Kepil; Özgüςlü, Selcan

    2017-09-17

    There is limited data regarding pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS) in Turkey. To investigate the clinical characteristics and possible risk factors of PFAS in Turkey, and to evaluate if there was an association between skin test reactivity to pollens and presence of PFAS. A total of 254 consecutive adult patients with pollen sensitivity were prospectively recruited. Patients were interviewed with a questionnaire including a list of pollen-associated foods. Patients were classified as having PFAS if they reported clear allergic symptoms compatible with PFAS. All participants underwent skin prick tests (SPT) to a panel of common aeroallergens, prick-to-prick tests with culprit fresh foods were performed in patients who gave consent. Self-reported PFAS was observed in 49 patients (19.3%). The most common culprit foods were kiwi, peach, tomato, melon and watermelon. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that potential risk factors for PFAS were having asthma (OR=2.392, P=0.044) and tree pollen sensitization (OR=2.904, P=0.004). There were no significant differences in the SPT wheal sizes to individual pollen extracts between patients with and without PFAS with a positive SPT result for that pollen extract (P> 0.05). PFAS is frequent in pollen sensitized adults in Turkey. The most commonly implicated foods are kiwi, peach,tomato, melon and watermelon, in our geographical region. SPT wheal sizes to pollen extracts seems to be similar in patients with and without PFAS.

  8. Technetium-99m labelled hydrazinonicotinamido human non-specific polyclonal immunoglobulin G for detection of infectious foci: a comparison with two other technetium-labelled immunoglobulin preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claessens, R.A.M.J. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Boerman, O.C. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Koenders, E.B. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, W.J.G. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Meer, J.W.M. van der [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Corstens, F.H.M. [University Hospital Nijmegen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    1996-04-01

    In this study we compared the tissue distribution of three different {sup 99m}Tc-hIgG preparations in groups of five Wistar rats with a focal intramuscular infection with Staphylococcus aureus. We compared {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG with {sup 99m}Tc-hIgG labelled via the so-called Schwarz method (reduction of disulphide bonds) and with the {sup 99m}Tc-labelled commercially available Technescan-HIG. Unlike the HYNIC linker, in the two other labelling methods free sulph-hydryl groups are involved in the binding of {sup 99m}Tc. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the labelled preparations and of plasma samples revealed aggregate or polymer formation in all three agents; this was least pronounced in the product labelled by means of the Schwarz method. The tested preparations did not show signs of degradation in vitro. The difference in linker chemistry was reflected in the tissue distribution. Thus the biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG was significantly different from the distribution of the two other preparations: abscess (1.4%{+-}0.2%ID/g), muscle, liver, spleen, plasma, lung, bone marrow, and small intestine concentrations were higher at 24 h p.i.; kidney uptake (1.19%{+-}0.08%ID/g) was significantly lower. The abscess-to-plasma and the abscess-to-muscle ratios (0.5 and 11, respectively), however, were in the same range for the three preparations tested. Quantitative analysis of the scintigraphs revealed that the total body clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG was significantly slower than for the other agents. The abscess uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG as a percentage of the remaining body activity was significantly higher. Based on its high abscess uptake, its low uptake in the kidneys and the high percentage of its abscess uptake in relation to the remaining body activity, we conclude that {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-hIgG seems superior to the two other preparations tested for the detection of infections. (orig.). With 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Preparation and characterization of molecularly-imprinted polymers for extraction of sanshool acid amide compounds followed by their separation from pepper oil resin derived from Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Jin, Xinkai; Li, Yao; Chen, Guangjing; Chen, Kewei; Kan, Jianquan

    2018-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared using the molecular structure analogs of sanshool as template molecule, 2-vinylpyridine and β-cyclodextrin as double functional monomers, ethylene dimethacrylate as cross linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. The structural characteristics of the polymers were determined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Dynamic adsorption and isothermal adsorption were also investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used to prepare a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction column in order to separate acid amide components from pepper oil resin derived from Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum). After eluting, the percentage of acid amide components was enhanced to 92.40 ± 1.41% compared with 23.34 ± 1.21% in the initial pepper oil resin, indicating good properties of purification of molecularly imprinted polymers and potential industrial application. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Evaluation of influence of stretching therapy and ergonomic factors on postural control in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gawda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objectives. [/b]The vertical orientation of the body in the upright standing position is maintained by keeping the body’s centre of gravity (COG upright, above the base of support, by a dynamic interplay of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory control systems. The objectives of this study were: to compare the postural control strategy between people with and without low back pain (LBP, to estimate the influence of the stretching therapy on the postural control strategy, and to discover the relationship between the restriction of spine mobility and occurrence of some ergonomic factors. [b]Materials and methods.[/b] The study consisted of 32 patients with LBP and 25 healthy controls. Postural characteristics of the subjects were measured with the use of a computerized force platform. The software programme filters and measures COG sway velocity in different conditions. Additional measurements and tests were conducted in patients after stretching therapy. Based on survey research, all individuals were selected and evaluated from the aspect of ergonomics. [b]Results[/b]. The results of the COG sway velocity vary under the testing conditions. From the aspect of ergonomic attitude and influence of the rehabilitation, results varied in the groups. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Ergonomic factors are often accompanied by the appearance of LBP. The restrictions within the musculoskeletal system cause disorders in muscle synergies, which is expressed by an increase in the angular velocity of the COG. In patients with chronic back pain syndrome, selected stretching therapy techniques improves the range of motion of the spine and reduces pain.

  11. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...

  12. Validation of a Non-Specific Dye Real-Time PCR Assay for Porcine Adulteration in Meatball Using ND5 Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Porcine adulteration in meatball samples were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, based on the ND5 primer obtained by previous study. This work consisted of three stages which were annealing temperature optimization, method validation, and application. DNA template was extracted using phenol-CIAA (chloroform-iso amyl alcohol method. The optimum annealing temperature for ND5 primers (forward primer 5'-CATTCGCCTCACTCACATTAACC-3' and reverse primer 5'-AAGAGAGAGTTCTACGGTCTGTAG-3' was 58.0 °C, obtained after testing annealing at 50.5 to 59.5 °C gradient temperature with 5 °C interval. Melting curve analysis was done at 65.0 to 95.0 °C, with increasing temperature for 0.5 °C per 2 sec. Method was validated for its specificity, precision and limit of detection. RT-PCR method with ND5 primers produced 227 bp DNA fragment with 78.50 °C Tm value. From eight commercial meatball samples, one was detected containing porcine. The methods showed high specificity and precision, with experimentally determined limits for porcine were no less than 1%.

  13. Effects of dietary sweet potato leaf meal on the growth, non-specific immune responses, total phenols and antioxidant capacity in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmann, Rebecca T; Islam, Shahidul; Phillips, Harold; Adam, Zelalem; Everette, Jace

    2013-04-01

    Traditional energy sources in catfish diets have become costly, and economical alternatives are needed. Sweet potato leaves are underutilised agricultural by-products that provide energy and substantial amounts of phenols, which affect animal and human health. There is little information on the effects of these compounds on catfish, or the capacity of catfish to accumulate dietary phenols. Catfish enriched with phenols have marketing potential as functional foods. This study investigated the effects of diets with sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performance, health and total phenolic compounds in catfish. SPLM was substituted for wheat middlings in three diets fed to groups of juvenile catfish for 10 weeks. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity and lysozyme activity were similar among diets. Haematocrit was lower in fish fed diets with SPLM, but within the normal range. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity in the whole body were similar among treatments. SPLM was an effective energy source for catfish up to the maximum level tested (230 g kg(-1) diet). SPLM did not enhance total phenols in catfish, but there were no apparent antinutritional effects of the meal on catfish growth, health or survival. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Laboratory testing in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, Stefan K G; Kahaly, George J

    2012-09-01

    The clinical diagnosis of hypo- or hyperthyroidism is difficult (full text available online: http://education.amjmed.com/pp1/272). Clinical symptoms and signs are often non-specific, and there is incomplete correlation between structural and functional thyroid gland changes. Laboratory testing is therefore indispensible in establishing the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Similar considerations apply to treatment monitoring. Laboratory testing also plays a crucial role in establishing the most likely cause for a patient's hyperthyroidism. Finally, during pregnancy, when isotopic scanning is relatively contraindicated and ultrasound is more difficult to interpret, laboratory testing becomes even more important. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. An investigation of the reproducibility of ultrasound measures of abdominal muscle activation in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Chris G.; Latimer, Jane; Hodges, Paul W.; Shirley, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) measures are used by clinicians and researchers to evaluate improvements in activity of the abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain. Studies evaluating the reproducibility of these US measures provide some information; however, little is known about the reproducibility of these US measures over time in patients with low back pain. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reproducibility of ultrasound measurements of automatic activation of the lateral abdominal wall muscles using a leg force task in patients with chronic low back pain. Thirty-five participants from an existing randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial participated in the study. A reproducibility analysis was undertaken from all patients using data collected at baseline and after treatment. The reproducibility of measurements of thickness, muscle activation (thickness changes) and muscle improvement/deterioration after intervention (differences in thickness changes from single images made before and after treatment) was analysed. The reproducibility of static images (thickness) was excellent (ICC2,1 = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96–0.97, standard error of the measurement (SEM) = 0.04 cm, smallest detectable change (SDC) = 0.11 cm), the reproducibility of thickness changes was moderate (ICC2,1 = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65–0.76, SEM = 15%, SDC 41%), while the reproducibility of differences in thickness changes from single images with statistical adjustment for duplicate measures was poor (ICC2,1 = 0.44, 95% CI 0.33–0.58, SEM = 21%, SDC = 66.5%). Improvements in the testing protocol must be performed in order to enhance reproducibility of US as an outcome measure for abdominal muscle activation. PMID:19415347

  16. Differences in pain perception, health-related quality of life, disability, mood, and sleep between Brazilian and Spanish people with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana P. Rodrigues-De-Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Cultural and social factors play an important role in the development and persistence of Low Back Pain (LBP. Nevertheless, there are few studies investigating differences in LBP features between countries. Objective To determine differences in pain perception between individuals with LBP living in Brazil and Spain. Method Thirty Spanish individuals and 30 age- and sex-comparable Brazilian individuals with LBP were recruited from the Public Health Services of both countries. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and the pain rating index (PRI, the number of words chosen (NWC, and the present pain index (PPI extracted from the McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to assess pain. The Oswestry Disability Index, the Short Form-36, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were also applied. Differences between countries and the correlation between demographic and clinical variables in each country were assessed with parametric and the nonparametric tests. Results A significant Country by Gender interaction was found for the PRI total score (P=0.038, but not for intensity of pain, disability, PPI, or NWC, in which Spanish women exhibited greater pain ratio than Spanish men (P=0.014, and no gender differences were identified in Brazilians. The Spanish group showed a consistent pattern of correlations for clinical data. Within Brazilian patients, fewer correlations were found and all of the coefficients were lower than those in the Spanish group. Conclusion The pain perception in patients with LBP is different depending on the country. Within Spanish patients, LBP is considered a more global entity affecting multidimensional contexts.

  17. Cross friction algometry (CFA): Comparison of pressure pain thresholds between patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasyn, Andre; Lassat, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Palpation is widely used to assess muscular sensitivity in clinical settings but still remains a subjective evaluation. This cross-sectional study assessed a newly developed cross-friction algometry making palpation measurable. The objective was to investigate the reliability of pressure pain thresholds obtained using Cross-Friction Algometry (CFA-PPTs) measured at the level of Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus central muscle parts, and to compare the CFA-PPTs between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (nCLBP) and matching healthy subjects. Patients presenting nCLBP to GP's and send into a Pain Center and healthy subjects recruited via university ad valvas & flyers distribution. 30 patients with nCLBP were measured for cross-friction algometry. Other evaluations consisted of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The inter- and intra-reliability were tested and found to be sufficient. The mean CFA-PPT values of the Erector spinae at levels T8, T10, L1 & L3 and the Gluteus maximus of the nCLBP group were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to the CFA-PPT values of the healthy group. The greatest difference (-58%) was found at L1 Erector spinae level and at the superior part of the Gluteus maximus measuring point (-59%). Within the group of patients with nCLBP it was surprising to notice that there was no significant correlation between all the reference points measured using CFA-PPTs and the outcomes of the VAS and ODI scores. With the aid of CFA, the importance of local muscular disorder in the lumbar part of the Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus in patients with nCLBP is obviously demonstrated, but also reveals the very large inter-individual differences in muscular fibrosis sensitivity and/or pain behavior in daily life. This possibly re-opens the debate on which influences can be put forward as the most important: the central or the peripheral sensitization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gadermaier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celery (Apium graveolens represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. METHODOLOGY: 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP and nPru p 3 (peach LTP using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected patients with reactivity to LTP under investigation were evaluated. Specific IgE titers and cross-inhibitions were performed in ELISA and allergen microarray. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified LTPs; IgG titers were determined in ELISA and mediator release was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. Simulated endolysosomal digestion was performed using microsomes obtained from human DCs. RESULTS: IgE testing showed a sensitization prevalence of 25.6% to Api g 2, 18.6% to Art v 3, and 28.6% to Pru p 3 and frequent co-sensitization and correlating IgE-reactivity was observed. 10/32 patients suffering from LTP-related allergy reported symptoms upon consumption of celery stalks which mainly presented as OAS. Considerable IgE cross-reactivity was observed between Api g 2, Art v 3, and Pru p 3 with varying inhibition degrees of individual patients' sera. Simulating LTP mono-sensitization in a mouse model showed development of more congruent antibody specificities between Api g 2 and Art v 3. Notably, biologically relevant murine IgE cross-reactivity was restricted to the latter and diverse from Pru p 3 epitopes. Endolysosomal processing of LTP showed generation of similar clusters, which presumably represent T-cell peptides. CONCLUSIONS: Api g 2 represents a relevant celery stalk allergen in the LTP-sensitized population. The molecule displays common B cell epitopes and endolysosomal peptides that encompass T cell epitopes with pollen and plant-food derived LTP.

  19. Sensitization prevalence, antibody cross-reactivity and immunogenic peptide profile of Api g 2, the non-specific lipid transfer protein 1 of celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Gabriele; Hauser, Michael; Egger, Matthias; Ferrara, Rosetta; Briza, Peter; Santos, Keity Souza; Zennaro, Danila; Girbl, Tamara; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens) represents a relevant allergen source that can elicit severe reactions in the adult population. To investigate the sensitization prevalence and cross-reactivity of Api g 2 from celery stalks in a Mediterranean population and in a mouse model. 786 non-randomized subjects from Italy were screened for IgE reactivity to rApi g 2, rArt v 3 (mugwort pollen LTP) and nPru p 3 (peach LTP) using an allergen microarray. Clinical data of 32 selected patients with reactivity to LTP under investigation were evaluated. Specific IgE titers and cross-inhibitions were performed in ELISA and allergen microarray. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified LTPs; IgG titers were determined in ELISA and mediator release was examined using RBL-2H3 cells. Simulated endolysosomal digestion was performed using microsomes obtained from human DCs. IgE testing showed a sensitization prevalence of 25.6% to Api g 2, 18.6% to Art v 3, and 28.6% to Pru p 3 and frequent co-sensitization and correlating IgE-reactivity was observed. 10/32 patients suffering from LTP-related allergy reported symptoms upon consumption of celery stalks which mainly presented as OAS. Considerable IgE cross-reactivity was observed between Api g 2, Art v 3, and Pru p 3 with varying inhibition degrees of individual patients' sera. Simulating LTP mono-sensitization in a mouse model showed development of more congruent antibody specificities between Api g 2 and Art v 3. Notably, biologically relevant murine IgE cross-reactivity was restricted to the latter and diverse from Pru p 3 epitopes. Endolysosomal processing of LTP showed generation of similar clusters, which presumably represent T-cell peptides. Api g 2 represents a relevant celery stalk allergen in the LTP-sensitized population. The molecule displays common B cell epitopes and endolysosomal peptides that encompass T cell epitopes with pollen and plant-food derived LTP.

  20. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging

    OpenAIRE

    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  1. The effectiveness and cost-evaluation of manual therapy and physical therapy in patients with sub-acute and chronic non specific neck pain. Rationale and design of a Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Assen Luite

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manual Therapy applied to patients with non specific neck pain has been investigated several times. In the Netherlands, manual therapy as applied according to the Utrecht School of Manual Therapy (MTU has not been the subject of a randomized controlled trial. MTU differs in diagnoses and treatment from other forms of manual therapy. Methods/Design This is a single blind randomized controlled trial in patients with sub-acute and chronic non specific neck pain. Patients with neck complaints existing for two weeks (minimum till one year (maximum will participate in the trial. 180 participants will be recruited in thirteen primary health care centres in the Netherlands. The experimental group will be treated with MTU during a six week period. The control group will be treated with physical therapy (standard care, mainly active exercise therapy, also for a period of six weeks. Primary outcomes are Global Perceived Effect (GPE and functional status (Neck Disability Index (NDI-DV. Secondary outcomes are neck pain (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS, Eurocol, costs and quality of life (SF36. Discussion This paper presents details on the rationale of MTU, design, methods and operational aspects of the trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00713843

  2. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the Vibrio alginolyticus infection of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Tseng, Tzu-Yu; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-07-01

    This research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of Taiwan abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the Vibrio alginolyticus infection. The non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (O2(-)), phenoloxidase (PO), phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic rate (PR) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were enhanced via in-vitro experiment. In the in-vivo experiment, the observed data presented that the haemolymph lysate supernatant (HLS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were not significant enhanced, but the total haemocyte count (THC), O2(-), PO, phagocytic index (PI), phagocytic ratio (PR) and other parameters of immune were significantly promoted after treated with beta-1,3-1,6-glucan. In the challenge experiment, the survival rates of abalone in the 40 and 80 μl/ml groups of beta-1,3-1,6-glucan were observed from 6.67% up to 33.33% and 36.67% after injection with Vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-specific granulomatous or tuberculous mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of breast tuberculosis is due to rare occurrence and mistaken identity with breast cancer and pyogenic breast abscess. A 70-year-old woman presented with a gradually increasing swelling in the right breast involving the outer upper quadrant since 6 months. Examination of the axilla revealed no lymphadenopathy. FNAC from the lump was inconclusive. Straw-colored discharge from the FNAC site was negative for acid-fast bacilli on Z-N staining and on culture. Modified radical mastectomy was done since malignancy could not be ruled out. Histopathology showed features of granulomatous mastitis. Lymph nodes recovered from the specimen showed caseation necrosis. Anti-tubercular treatment was given to the patient, and she has remained asymptomatic over 1 year of follow-up so far. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurring in the breast is extremely rare and is uncommon even in countries where the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is high.

  4. Tumour imaging with non specific substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, W.B. van der.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction concerning tumour imaging in nuclear medicine is given as well as the formulation of the problem treated in this thesis. In a literature review the most important tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals used until now are described together with their clinical significance in the diagnosis of malignancy. The mechanism of uptake and subcellular distribution of most of the radiopharmaceuticals reviewed are discussed in chapter three with special reference to gallium-citrate. An ionic model to explain the distribution patterns of a number of these tumour imaging radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues has been proposed. Evidence for the validity of this model is presented with specific reference to the ionic state of the reagents concerned. EXperimental evidence to support the proposed model is presented, with reference to the biologic behaviour of the radiopharmaceuticals in normal and pathological tissues. A limited number of selected case reports demonstrate how the results of the earlier described investigations can be applied to explain phenomena observed in clinical studies with ionic substances. The results obtained are discussed and the validity of the data with respect to the proposed model has been investigated. (Auth.)

  5. Digestibilidad in situ de dietas con harina de nopal deshidratado conteniendo un preparado de enzimas fibrolíticas exógenas In situ digestibility in dehydrated ground prickly pear diets containing a fybrolitic enzymes product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Medina Romo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un preparado de enzimas fibrolíticas exógenas (celulasas y xilanasas en la degradabilidad in situ de la materia seca (DisMS, fibra detergente neutro (DFDNr y fibra detergente ácido residual (DFDAr, en dietas altas o bajas en harina de nopal deshidratado. Se aplicaron concentraciones de 0, 1, 2 y 3 g de enzima por kilogramo de materia seca al inicio y 24 horas antes de la degradación in situ. Se determinó la concentración de ácidos grasos volátiles totales y de nitrógeno amoniacal a las 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 y 24 horas después de aplicarse la enzima. No se observaron efectos en DisMS, DFDNr y DFDAr; la aplicación al inicio de la degradación in situ mostró valores más altos que a 24 horas para DisMS y DFDNr, pero fue menor para DFDAr. No se observaron diferencias en las interacciones entre niveles de enzima, tipo de dieta y tiempo de pretratamiento. La aplicación de 1 y 3 g de enzima, en la dieta con bajo contenido de harina de nopal, tuvo efectos en el incremento de los ácidos grasos volátiles totales; para el nitrógeno amoniacal, los mejores resultados ocurrieron con 0 y 1 g de enzima.It was evaluated the effect of a fybrolitic enzyme product (cellulases and xylanases on in situ digestibility of dry matter (DisMS, residual neutral detergent fiber (DFDNr and acid detergent fiber (DFDAr, in dehydrated ground prickly pear diets with a low or high level. Enzyme concentrations of 0, 1, 2, and 3 g kg-1 of dry matter applied at the beginning (0 hour and 24 hours before starting in situ digestibility were used. Total volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen were determined at: 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours after the enzyme application. There were no effects on DisMS, DFDNr, and DFDAr. Initial application of enzyme concentrations (0 hour was higher than 24 hours for DisMS and DFDNr but lower for DFDAr. No differences were observed in interactions among enzyme level, diet and application time. Application of 1 and 3 g of

  6. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  7. Ultrasensitive human thyrotropin (h TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) set up, through identification and minimization of non specific bindings; Ensaio imunoradiometrico ultra-sensivel de tireotrofina humana (hTSH) obtido mediante a identificacao e minimizacao de ligacoes inespecificas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroni, C N

    1994-12-31

    An IRMA of h TSH, based on magnetic solid phase separation, was studied especially for what concerns its non specific bindings. These were identified as a product of the interaction between an altered form of radioiodinated anti-h TSH monoclonal antibody ({sup 125} I-m AB) and the uncoupled magnetizable cellulose particle (matrix). Apparently this form of {sup 125} I-m AB is a type of aggregate that can be partly resolved from the main peak on Sephadex G-200 and further minimized via a single pre-incubation with the same matrix. Solid phase saturation with milk proteins, tracer storage at 4{sup 0} C and serum addition during incubation were also found particularly effective is preventing its formation. These findings were used in order to reproducibly decrease non specific bindings to values <0.1% (or <70 cpm), increasing thus the signal-to-noise ratio (B{sub 60}/B{sub O}) up to values of 300-500. This way we obtained h TSH radio assays with functional sensitivities of about 0.05 m IU/L and analytical sensitivities of the order of 0.02 m IU/L, which classify them at least as among the best second generation assays and that are excellent indeed for magnetic IRMA s. A more optimistic sensitivity calculation, based on Rodbard`s definition, provided values down to 0.008 m IU/L. Such sensitivities, moreover, were obtained in a very reproducible way and all over the useful tracer life. (author). 83 refs, 13 figs, 25 tabs.

  8. The Effect of Stabilization Exercises on Objective Outcome Measures in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review with Particular Emphasis On Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common and costly health problems. Changes in muscle activity and recruitment of lumbar deep muscles which are responsible for lumbar spine stability have been reported in patients with LBP. Different exercise programs are used in the treatment of such patients to improve spinal stability. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the effect of stabilization exercises on objective outcome measures in patients with non-specific chronic LBP in previous randomized controlled trials. Materials & Methods: A literature search for the period of 2000-2012 was performed, using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google scholar, Science Direct, OVID and CINAHL databases. Low back pain, stabilization exercise, motor control exercise, segmental stabilization, transverse abdominis muscle, multifidus muscle, electromyography, ultrasound, ultrasonography, and randomized controlled trial were used as keywords. Muscle recruitment, postural balance control, muscle endurance, muscle size and lumbar range of motion were studied as objective outcome measures.  Results: In total, of 158 articles, 13 articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria of the study. There was a wide variation among studies in terms of methodology, main outcome measures, sample size, procedure, etc. The results demonstrated that stabilization exercise was more effective than other interventions on activity pattern of deep muscles, postural balance control, muscle endurance and range of motion, while it was not significantly different with other interventions on deep muscle size.  Conclusion: It seems that stabilization exercise has considerable effect on activity pattern of deep muscles, postural control, muscle endurance and range of motion and can be considered as an effective intervention in the treatment of patients with non-specific chronic LBP

  9. Effects of replacing soybean meal with rubber seed meal on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junming; Mai, Kangsen; Chen, Liqiao; Mi, Haifeng; Zhang, Lu

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with rubber seed meal (RSM) on growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus). Five experimental diets were formulated with 0 (control), 10, 20, 30, and 40% RSM replacing graded levels of SBM, respectively. Fish were fed one of the five experimental diets for eight weeks, and then challenged by A. hydrophila via intraperitoneal injection and kept for seven days. Dietary RSM inclusion level up to 30% did not affect the weight gain and daily growth coefficient, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Fish fed diet with 40% RSM showed the lowest serum total antioxidant capacity, lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, respiratory burst and phagocytic activities. Dietary RSM inclusion gradually depressed the post-challenge survival rate, and that was significantly lower in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. Conversely, the inclusion of RSM generally increased the serum total cholesterol level, the plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and these were significantly higher in fish fed diet with 40% RSM compared to fish fed the control diet. The results indicated that RSM can be included at level up to 30% in diet for tilapia without obvious adverse effects on the growth, antioxidant capacity, non-specific immune response and resistance to A. hydrophila infection, whereas these were depressed by a further inclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Janse, J J; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Achterberg, R A; Verweij, J J; Fernández-Rivas, M; Versteeg, S A; Potts, J; Minelli, C; van Ree, R; Burney, P; Yazdanbakhsh, M

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in (sub)tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing, and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country. Schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. Of the 732 children included, 34.9% had opisthorchiasis. The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was 12.8%, while much higher, 24.0%, when measured by sIgE. Atopic symptoms in the past year (flexural eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis) were reported in 12.4% of the children. SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing. Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms. There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Colite ulcerativa inespecífica em crianças e adolescentes: análise de casuística Non-specific ulcerative colitis in children and adolescents: casuistic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelma A. de Figueirêdo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever uma série de casos de colite ulcerativa inespecífica, com ênfase nas manifestações iniciais, propedêutica e intervalo entre os primeiros sintomas e o diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva de casos de colite ulcerativa inespecífica, cujos sintomas iniciaram antes de 20 anos de idade. Os pacientes foram selecionados nos Serviços de Gastroenterologia Pediátrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais e do Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco. RESULTADOS: foram encontrados 29 pacientes com diagnóstico de colite ulcerativa inespecífica, sendo 15 (51,7% pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade ao início dos sintomas variou entre 0,3 a 15,8 anos. Os sintomas mais freqüentes ao diagnóstico foram diarréia (89,7% e dor abdominal (82,8%. A manifestação extra-intestinal mais comum foi artralgia/artrite (41,4%. A relação peso para a idade estava abaixo do percentil 3 em 13,8% dos pacientes. O intervalo de tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico variou entre 0,1 e 10,9 anos. CONCLUSÕES: o intervalo entre os sintomas iniciais e o diagnóstico ainda continua elevado na nossa Região devido ao somatório de vários fatores.OBJECTIVES: to describe a series of non-specific ulcerative colitis with focus on the initial manifestation of the disease, propedeutics and interval between the first symptoms and diagnosis. METHODS: retrospective analysis of non-specific ulcerative colitis with symptoms appearing before 20 years old. Patients were selected in the Pediatrics Gastroenterology Services of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais and of the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco. RESULTS: 29 patients with the diagnosis of non-specific ulcerative colitis were identified with fifteen patients (51.7% of the male sex. The age of the beginning of the symptoms varied between 0.3 to 15.8. The most frequent symptoms of the diagnosis were diarrhea (89

  12. The prevalence of skin-test-positive allergic rhinitis in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Jørgensen, T; Nielsen, N H

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is disputed whether increases in self-reported respiratory allergy represent a true increase or merely increased recognition. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of skin-prick-test (SPT)-positive allergic rhinitis had increased in an adult general population in Copenhagen...... (participation rate 74.6%) and 482 (participation rate 53.4%) subjects were examined in 1990 and 1998, respectively. Diagnoses of SPT-positive allergic rhinitis were based on a history of nasal symptoms on exposure to allergens and SPT positivity to allergens. RESULTS: The prevalence of a diagnosis of SPT...

  13. Performance evaluation of the microINR® point-of-care INR-testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, J; van Zyl, M C; Raubenheimer, J

    2018-04-01

    Point-of-care International Normalised Ratio (INR) testing is used frequently. We evaluated the microINR ® POC system for accuracy, precision and measurement repeatability, and investigated instrument and test chip variability and error rates. Venous blood INRs of 210 patients on warfarin were obtained with Thromborel ® S on the Sysmex CS-2100i ® analyser and compared with capillary blood microINR ® values. Precision was assessed using control materials. Measurement repeatability was calculated on 51 duplicate finger-prick INRs. Triplicate finger-prick INRs using three different instruments (30 patients) and three different test chip lots (29 patients) were used to evaluate instrument and test chip variability. Linear regression analysis of microINR ® and Sysmex CS2100i ® values showed a correlation coefficient of 0.96 (P < .0001) and a positive proportional bias of 4.4%. Dosage concordance was 93.8% and clinical agreement 95.7%. All acceptance criteria based on ISO standard 17593:2007 system accuracy requirements were met. Control material coefficients of variation (CV) varied from 6.2% to 16.7%. The capillary blood measurement repeatability CV was 7.5%. No significant instrument (P = .93) or test chip (P = .81) variability was found, and the error rate was low (2.8%). The microINR ® instrument is accurate and precise for monitoring warfarin therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  15. The influence of a series of five dry cupping treatments on pain and mechanical thresholds in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain - a randomised controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In this preliminary trial we investigated the effects of dry cupping, an ancient method for treating pain syndromes, on patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sensory mechanical thresholds and the participants' self-reported outcome measures of pain and quality of life were evaluated. Methods Fifty patients (50.5 ± 11.9 years) were randomised to a treatment group (TG) or a waiting-list control group (WL). Patients in the TG received a series of 5 cupping treatments over a period of 2 weeks; the control group did not. Self-reported outcome measures before and after the cupping series included the following: Pain at rest (PR) and maximal pain related to movement (PM) on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), pain diary (PD) data on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). In addition, the mechanical-detection thresholds (MDT), vibration-detection thresholds (VDT), and pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) were determined at pain-related and control areas. Results Patients of the TG had significantly less pain after cupping therapy than patients of the WL group (PR: Δ-22.5 mm, p = 0.00002; PM: Δ-17.8 mm, p = 0.01). Pain diaries (PD) revealed that neck pain decreased gradually in the TG patients and that pain reported by the two groups differed significantly after the fifth cupping session (Δ-1.1, p = 0.001). There were also significant differences in the SF-36 subscales for bodily pain (Δ13.8, p = 0.006) and vitality (Δ10.2, p = 0.006). Group differences in PPT were significant at pain-related and control areas (all p cupping treatments appeared to be effective in relieving chronic non-specific neck pain. Not only subjective measures improved, but also mechanical pain sensitivity differed significantly between the two groups, suggesting that cupping has an influence on functional pain processing. Trial registration The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01289964). PMID

  16. The influence of a series of five dry cupping treatments on pain and mechanical thresholds in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain - a randomised controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobos Gustav J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this preliminary trial we investigated the effects of dry cupping, an ancient method for treating pain syndromes, on patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sensory mechanical thresholds and the participants' self-reported outcome measures of pain and quality of life were evaluated. Methods Fifty patients (50.5 ± 11.9 years were randomised to a treatment group (TG or a waiting-list control group (WL. Patients in the TG received a series of 5 cupping treatments over a period of 2 weeks; the control group did not. Self-reported outcome measures before and after the cupping series included the following: Pain at rest (PR and maximal pain related to movement (PM on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS, pain diary (PD data on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS, Neck Disability Index (NDI, and health-related quality of life (SF-36. In addition, the mechanical-detection thresholds (MDT, vibration-detection thresholds (VDT, and pressure-pain thresholds (PPT were determined at pain-related and control areas. Results Patients of the TG had significantly less pain after cupping therapy than patients of the WL group (PR: Δ-22.5 mm, p = 0.00002; PM: Δ-17.8 mm, p = 0.01. Pain diaries (PD revealed that neck pain decreased gradually in the TG patients and that pain reported by the two groups differed significantly after the fifth cupping session (Δ-1.1, p = 0.001. There were also significant differences in the SF-36 subscales for bodily pain (Δ13.8, p = 0.006 and vitality (Δ10.2, p = 0.006. Group differences in PPT were significant at pain-related and control areas (all p Conclusions A series of five dry cupping treatments appeared to be effective in relieving chronic non-specific neck pain. Not only subjective measures improved, but also mechanical pain sensitivity differed significantly between the two groups, suggesting that cupping has an influence on functional pain processing. Trial registration The trial was registered at

  17. The influence of a series of five dry cupping treatments on pain and mechanical thresholds in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain--a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Rampp, Thomas; Saha, Felix Joyonto; Dobos, Gustav J; Musial, Frauke

    2011-08-15

    In this preliminary trial we investigated the effects of dry cupping, an ancient method for treating pain syndromes, on patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sensory mechanical thresholds and the participants' self-reported outcome measures of pain and quality of life were evaluated. Fifty patients (50.5 ± 11.9 years) were randomised to a treatment group (TG) or a waiting-list control group (WL). Patients in the TG received a series of 5 cupping treatments over a period of 2 weeks; the control group did not. Self-reported outcome measures before and after the cupping series included the following: Pain at rest (PR) and maximal pain related to movement (PM) on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS), pain diary (PD) data on a 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). In addition, the mechanical-detection thresholds (MDT), vibration-detection thresholds (VDT), and pressure-pain thresholds (PPT) were determined at pain-related and control areas. Patients of the TG had significantly less pain after cupping therapy than patients of the WL group (PR: Δ-22.5 mm, p = 0.00002; PM: Δ-17.8 mm, p = 0.01). Pain diaries (PD) revealed that neck pain decreased gradually in the TG patients and that pain reported by the two groups differed significantly after the fifth cupping session (Δ-1.1, p = 0.001). There were also significant differences in the SF-36 subscales for bodily pain (Δ13.8, p = 0.006) and vitality (Δ10.2, p = 0.006). Group differences in PPT were significant at pain-related and control areas (all p cupping treatments appeared to be effective in relieving chronic non-specific neck pain. Not only subjective measures improved, but also mechanical pain sensitivity differed significantly between the two groups, suggesting that cupping has an influence on functional pain processing. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01289964).

  18. Effects of functional taping compared with sham taping and minimal intervention on pain intensity and static postural control for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain: a randomised clinical trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassi, F J; Del Antônio, T; Moraes, R; George, S Z; Chaves, T C

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the immediate and 1-month effects of functional taping to lumbar spine for pain intensity and postural control in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomised clinical trial. One hundred and twenty participants aged 18 to 50 years. Participants will be allocated at random to receive one of three interventions: functional star-shape taping for 7 days, sham functional taping for 7 days or minimal intervention, one session. The primary outcomes will be pain intensity and postural control. Four measurements of static posturography will be conducted: pre-intervention, immediately after application of the tape, 7 days post-intervention (after removal of the tape) and 1-month follow-up. The secondary outcomes will be low-back-pain-related disability, global perceived effect of treatment and fear avoidance beliefs. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed on three occasions: pre-intervention, 7 days post-intervention and at 1-month follow-up. All statistical analyses will be conducted following intention-to-treat principles, and the treatment effects will be calculated using linear mixed models. The results of this study will determine the effects of functional taping on pain intensity and postural control compared with sham taping and minimal intervention. NCT02546466. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  19. A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

    2012-06-01

    Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. HPLC-DAD DETERMINATION OF BERBERINE, CHELERYTHRINE AND SANGUINARINE IN THE MEXICAN PRICKLY POPPY (Argemone mexicana L. PAPAVERACEAE, A MEDICINAL PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. Xool-Tamayo

    Full Text Available A sensitive, simple, rapid and reliable HPLC-DAD method for the analysis of the benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIA's content in Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae is presented. This method allows the simultaneous separation and quantitation of berberine (Bn, chelerythrine (C and sanguinarine (S in extracts from A. mexicana tissues, reducing time of analysis in comparison to previous reports. Alkaloids were separated on a C18 Hypersil Gold column using an acetonitrile gradient (20 to 70% in 1% acetic acid in water. Alkaloids were identified based on retention times and UV spectra and quantified at 254 nm. Linearity between 0.5-20 µg mL-1 was observed for Bn, C and S, with limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ of 0.11 and 0.33 for Bn, 0.10 and 0.30 for C and 0.05 and 0.15 for S, respectively. Maximal intra- and inter-day variation values were < 0.49% in all cases, with alkaloids' recoveries higher than 95%. System suitability tests (SST, including resolution (Rs, retention factor (K', selectivity (α, tailing factor and number of theoretical plates were performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP, fulfilling recommended values. The method proved to be efficient and reproducible when analyzing different tissues of field-collected A. mexicana plants.

  1. Detection of antigens of allergic diseases in children by radioallergosorbent test (RAST), 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Junko

    1977-01-01

    Detection of antigens mainly by RAST, measurement of immunoglobulin, and investigation of clinical history were performed on children with intractable bronchial asthma. The results were compared with those in cases of mild or moderate degree, and they were discussed. The obtained results were as follows: 1) Cases, of which the occurrence age of disease was under 2 years old, hold a majority in intractable cases, and the ratio was twice that of the control group. 2) A result of skin test was generally lower positive rate in the intractable group as compared to the control group. However, a result of prick test for buckwheat antigen in the intractable group showed higher positive rate than that in the control group. The intractable group tended to be separated into two extreme groups, one which showed positive to most of inhaled antigens in skin test, and another which showed negative to all antigens. 3) As a result of RAST, 13% of the intractable group showed positive to egg white out of food antigens, and it was three times the ratio of positive in the control group. One case showed strong positive to rice. 4) Two thirds of cases which showed positive in RAST for food antigens showed negative in prick test. 5) Total IgE in the serum of the intractable group was clearly lower in values than that of the control group. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Effect of three pretreatment techniques on the chemical composition and on the methane yields of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear) biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, P S; Catalán, E; Folino, A; Sánchez, A; Komilis, D

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is an emerging biomass that has the potential to be us