WorldWideScience

Sample records for pricing programs offered

  1. The effects of affiliations on the initial public offering pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Geranio, Manuela; Mazzoli, Camilla; Palmucci, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of affiliations between lead managers, venture capitalists, and institutional investors on the Initial Public Offering (IPO) pricing. Using a sample of 1996 US IPOs issued between 1997 and 2010, we find that affiliations strongly and positively affect the offer price by improving the information production process. We also show that the underpricing is affected by affiliations because of conflicts of interest that exist between the players: when an institutional ...

  2. Pre-Auction Offers in Asymmetric First-Price and Second-Price Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, René; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    We consider “must-sell” auctions with asymmetric buyers. First, we study auctions with two asymmetric buyers, where the distribution of valuations of the strong buyer is “stretched” relative to that of the weak buyer. Then, it is known that ineffcient first-price auctions aremore profitable...... never increase the profitability of second-price auctions, since they introduce the wrong kind of favoritism from the perspective of seller profits....... for the seller than effcient second-price auctions. This is because the former favor the weak buyer. However, we show that the seller can do one better by augmenting the first-price auction by a pre-auction offer made exclusively to the strong buyer. Should thestrong buyer reject the offer, the object is simply...

  3. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Prices Spring and Summer 2013 Day ticket: same price weekends, public holidays and weekdays: Children from 5 to 15 years old: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF Adults from 16 years old: 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5 Tickets available at the Staff Association Secretariat.

  4. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Prices Spring and Summer 2013 Day ticket: same price weekends, public holidays and weekdays: – Children from 5 to 15 years old: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults from 16 years old: 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF – Bonus! Free for children under 5 Tickets available at the Staff Association Secretariat.

  5. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Prices Spring and Summer 2012 Half-day ticket: 5 hours, same price weekends, public holidays and weekdays. Children from 5 to 15 years old: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF Adults from 16 years old: 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5. Aquaparc Les Caraïbes sur Léman 1807 Le Bouveret (VS)

  6. PSE ampersand G standard pricing offer: The price is right...so come on down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccaro, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Standard Offer is a mechanism that is superior to a bidding process both in administrative efficiency and in the resulting cost for open-quotes performance basedclose quotes DSM: The timing is improved. DSM measures must be installed during the period of the Standard Offering (about 2 years). There is surety of a contract if an ESCO can negotiate a commitment from a host. In the PSE ampersand G process, the contract provisions are being developed through a collaborative process chaired by the BRC with participation from all the major groups that will either participate in, or pay for the Standard Offer. The ultimate price to non participating ratepayers has been predetermined to be a significant discount from avoided cost. The timing of the Standard Offer provides for new capacity blocks to be determined every two years with redefined avoided cost associated with each new offering

  7. Price-Taker Offering Strategy in Electricity Pay-as-Bid Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzi, Nicolò; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The recent increase in the deployment of renewable energy sources may affect the offering strategy of conventional producers, mainly in the balancing market. The topics of optimal offering strategy and self-scheduling of thermal units have been extensively addressed in the literature. The feasible...... operating region of such units can be modeled using a mixed-integer linear programming approach, and the trading problem as a linear programming problem. However, the existing models mostly assume a uniform pricing scheme in all market stages, while several European balancing markets (e.g., in Germany...... and Italy) are settled under a pay-as-bid pricing scheme. The existing tools for solving the trading problem in pay-as-bid electricity markets rely on non-linear optimization models, which, combined with the unit commitment constraints, result in a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem. In contrast...

  8. Setting Offer Prices by Housing Developers - Selected Issues in the Light of Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with selected theoretical issues pertaining to the setting of asking prices by housing developers. Determinants of the buyer’s and seller’s reservation prices have been identified. The advantages and disadvantages, in terms of behavioral economics, of the pricing strategies practiced by housing developers have been indicated. The strategy based on fixing an asking price roughly equal to the estimated market value of the property was compared with the strategy based on offering an inflated asking price (with the assumption of price negotiations. A second comparison concerned the strategy of price disclosure compared with the strategy of price non-disclosure.

  9. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    New offers : Discover the theater Galpon in Geneva. The Staff Association is happy to offer to its members a discount of 8.00 CHF on a full-price ticket (tickets of 15.00 CHF instead of 22.00 CHF) so do not hesitate anymore (mandatory reservation by phone + 4122 321  21 76 as tickets are quickly sold out!). For further information, please see our website: http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/fr/content/th%C3%A9%C3%A2tre-du-galpon  

  10. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Cardinal, K.

    2004-09-01

    Utilities first began offering consumers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. Since then, the number of U.S. utilities offering green pricing programs has steadily grown. Today, more than 500 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or about 16% of all utilities nationally--offer their customers green power options. Because some of these utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other public power entities, the number of distinct programs is slightly more than 100. Through these programs, more than 33 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs, or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers must pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2003 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data provided in this report can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  11. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Do not hesitate to benefit of our offers in our partners: Théâtre de Carouge Discount of 5 CHF for all shows (30 CHF instead of 35 CHF) and on season tickets « first performance » ( 132 CHF instead 162 CHF) and also on « classical » ( 150 CHF instead of 180 CHF) upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. Théâtre La Comédie de Genève  20% off on tickets (full price – also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. 40% off on annual subscriptions (access to the best seats, pick up tickets at the last minute): 200 CHF for 9 shows (about 22 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF. Discounted card: 60 CHF and single price ticket of 16 CHF.

  12. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  13. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaiser, Marshall [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  14. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Passeport Gourmand   Are you dying for a nice meal? The “Passeport Gourmand” offers discounted prices to the members of the Staff Association (available until April 2015 and on sale in the Staff Association Secretariat): Passeport gourmand Ain / Savoie/ Haute Savoie: 56 CHF instead of 79 CHF. Passeport gourmand Geneva / neighbouring France:72 CHF instead of 95 CHF. To the members of the Staff Association: Benefit of reduced tickets: CHF 10 (instead of  18 CHF at the desk) on sale to the secretariat of the Staff Association, Building 510-R010 (in front of the Printshop).

  15. Offering A Price Transparency Tool Did Not Reduce Overall Spending Among California Public Employees And Retirees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sunita; Hatfield, Laura A; Hicks, Andrew L; Sinaiko, Anna D; Chernew, Michael E; Cowling, David; Gautam, Santosh; Wu, Sze-Jung; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-08-01

    Insurers, employers, and states increasingly encourage price transparency so that patients can compare health care prices across providers. However, the evidence on whether price transparency tools encourage patients to receive lower-cost care and reduce overall spending remains limited and mixed. We examined the experience of a large insured population that was offered a price transparency tool, focusing on a set of "shoppable" services (lab tests, office visits, and advanced imaging services). Overall, offering the tool was not associated with lower shoppable services spending. Only 12 percent of employees who were offered the tool used it in the first fifteen months after it was introduced, and use of the tool was not associated with lower prices for lab tests or office visits. The average price paid for imaging services preceded by a price search was 14 percent lower than that paid for imaging services not preceded by a price search. However, only 1 percent of those who received advanced imaging conducted a price search. Simply offering a price transparency tool is not sufficient to meaningfully decrease health care prices or spending. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    New season 2015-2016 The new season was revealed in May, and was warmly welcomed by the press, which is especially enthusiastic about the exceptional arrival of Fanny Ardand in September in the framework of Cassandre show. Discover the programme 2015-2016. The theatre La Comédie proposes different offers to our members Benefit from a reduction of 20 % on a full price ticket during all the season: from 38 CHF to 23 CHF ticket instead of 50 CHF to 30 CHF depending on the show. Buy two seasonal tickets at the price of one (offers valid upon availability, and until 30 september 2015) 2 Cards Libertà for 240 CHF instead of 480 CHF. Cruise freely through the season with 8 perfomances of your choice per season. These cards are transferrable, and can be shared with one or more accompanying persons. 2 Abo Piccolo for 120 CHF instead of 240 CHF. Let yourself be surprised a theatre performance with our discovery seasonal tickets, which includes 4 flagship perfomances for the season. ...

  17. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  18. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  19. Optimal hydro scheduling and offering strategies considering price uncertainty and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalão, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Contreras, J.

    2012-01-01

    Hydro energy represents a priority in the energy policy of Portugal, with the aim of decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels. In this context, optimal hydro scheduling acquires added significance in moving towards a sustainable environment. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach is considered to enable optimal hydro scheduling for the short-term time horizon, including the effect of head on power production, start-up costs related to the units, multiple regions of operation, and constraints on discharge variation. As new contributions to the field, market uncertainty is introduced in the model via price scenarios and risk management is included using Conditional Value-at-Risk to limit profit volatility. Moreover, plant scheduling and pool offering by the hydro power producer are simultaneously considered to solve a realistic cascaded hydro system. -- Highlights: ► A mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach is considered for optimal hydro scheduling. ► Market uncertainty is introduced in the model via price scenarios. ► Risk management is included using conditional value-at-risk. ► Plant scheduling and pool offering by the hydro power producer are simultaneously considered. ► A realistic cascaded hydro system is solved.

  20. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    THEATRE FORUM DE MEYRIN 1, place des Cinq-Continents 1217 Meyrin    Special offer for members of the Staff Association: Reduced ticket prices for the play Love is my sin (in English) from 15 to 17 March at 8.30pm http://www.forum-meyrin.ch/main.php?page=119&s=12   First category: 37 CHF instead of 46 CHF Second category (seats towards the sides): 30 CHF instead of 38 CHF Please present your CERN card and your Staff Association membership card at the ticket office. Ticket reservation: tel. 022 989 34 34 (from Monday to Friday 2pm to 6pm) or e-mail : billetterie@forum-meyrin.ch  

  1. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS OFFERED IN TURKISH UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengül CETINTAS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available n this study, the departments of philology and teaching, which take place in higher education programs in Turkey and give education in foreign language, have been examined. 23 different languages are offered to philology students who wants to attend to faculty of literature. Students can prefer classical languages besides modern languages. However, English, German, French, Arabic and Japanese are offered to the students of teaching department. To teach another foreign language, pedagogical formation is also required.This study focuses on the departments of German Language Teaching and German Language and Literature. From this point, the place and the importance of other philology and foreign language teaching departments in Turkish higher education have been examined.

  2. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The “La Comédie” theatre unveiled its programme for the season 2016–2017 in late May, and it was met with great enthusiasm by the press. Leading names of the European and Swiss theatre scenes, such as director Joël Pommerat who recently won four Molière awards, will make an appearance! We are delighted to share this brand new, rich and varied programme with you. The “La Comédie” theatre has various discounts for our members Buy 2 subscriptions for the price of 1 : 2 cards “Libertà” for CHF 240.- instead of CHF 480.- Cruise freely through the season with an 8-entry card valid for the shows of your choice. These cards are transferable and can be shared with one or more accompanying persons. 2 cards “Piccolo” for CHF 120 instead of CHF 240.- This card lets you discover 4 shows which are suitable for all audiences (offers valid while stock lasts and until October 31, 20...

  3. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * Next “vente privée” from 21st to 26th November 2011 New BCGE Business partner benefits As you may remember thanks to our BCGE business partner agreement you benefit from various advantages such as free annual subscription on your Silver or Gold credit card both for yourself and your partner (joint account). Please be informed that as of October 1st  2011 the below mentioned features will be added to your annual credit card subscription : MasterCard/Visa Silver and Gold: travel cancellation as well as related services such as holiday interruption best guaranteed price Only for Ma...

  4. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  5. Optimal Offering and Operating Strategy for a Large Wind-Storage System as a Price Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2017-01-01

    Wind farms and energy storage systems are playing increasingly more important roles in power systems, which makes their offering non-negligible in some markets. From the perspective of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS), this paper proposes an integrated strategy of day-ahead offering...... and real-time operation policies to maximize their overall profit. As participants with large capacity in electricity markets can influence cleared prices by strategic offering, a large scaled WFESS is assumed to be a price maker in day-ahead markets. Correspondingly, the strategy considers influence...

  6. Utility green pricing programs: a statistical analysis of program effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.; Scott, O.; Lori, B.; Blair, S.

    2005-01-01

    Utility green pricing programs represent one way in which consumers can voluntarily support the development of renewable energy. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably. Based on a survey of utility program managers in the United States, this article provides insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. We find that program length has a substantial impact on customer participation and purchases; to achieve higher levels of success, utilities will need to remain committed to their product offering for some time. Our findings also suggest that utilities should consider higher renewable energy purchase thresholds for residential customers in order to maximize renewable energy sales. Smaller utilities are found to be more successful than larger utilities, and we find some evidence that providing private benefits to nonresidential participants can enhance success. Interestingly, we find little evidence that the cost of the green pricing product greatly impacts customer participation and renewable energy sales, at least over the narrow range of premiums embedded in our data set, and for the initial set of green power purchasers. (author)

  7. Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.

    2004-02-01

    The term green pricing refers to programs offered by utilities in traditionally regulated electricity markets, which allow customers to support the development of renewable energy sources by paying a small premium on their electric bills. Since the introduction of the concept in the United States, the number of unique utility green pricing programs has expanded from just a few programs in 1993 to more than 90 in 2002. About 10% of U.S. utilities offered a green pricing option to about 26 million consumers by the end of 2002. This report provides: (1) aggregate industry data on consumer response to utility programs, which indicate the collective impact of green pricing on renewable energy development nationally; and (2) market data that can be used by utilities as a benchmark for gauging the relative success of their green pricing programs. Specifically, the paper presents current data and trends in consumer response to green pricing, as measured by renewable energy sales, participants, participation rates, and new renewable energy capacity supported. It presents data on various aspects of program design and implementation, such as product pricing, ownership of supplies, retention rates, marketing costs, the effectiveness of marketing techniques, and methods of enrolling and providing value to customers.

  8. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  9. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  10. Electricity distribution. Price control, reliability and customer services: response to OFFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This document presents the views of the National Consumer Council to a recent consultation paper from OFFER, the body responsible for regulation of the United Kingdom electric power industry. The financial performance of the Regional Electricity Companies (RECs) is reviewed by examining how it relates to the prices paid by domestic consumers. A critical analysis is presented of OFFER's notion of the revision of the existing price control mechanism for the distribution businesses within the RECs. Standards of performance, debt and consumer disconnection are also examined. (UK)

  11. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Special offers for our members       Go Sport in Val Thoiry is offering 15% discount on all purchases made in the shop upon presentation of the Staff Association membership card (excluding promotions, sale items and bargain corner, and excluding purchases using Go Sport  and Kadéos gift cards. Only one discount can be applied to each purchase).  

  12. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    L'Occitane en Provence proposes the following offer: 10 % discount on all products in all L'Occitane shops in Metropolitan France upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and a valid ID. This offer is valid only for one person, is non-transferable and cannot be combined with other promotions.

  13. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    CERN was selected and participated in the ranking "Best Employers" organized by the magazine Bilan. To thank CERN for its collaboration, the magazine offers a reduction to the subscription fee for all employed members of personnel. 25% off the annual subscription: CHF 149.25 instead of CHF 199 .— The subscription includes the magazine delivered to your home for a year, every other Wednesday, as well as special editions and access to the e-paper. To benefit from this offer, simply fill out the form provided for this purpose. To get the form, please contact the secretariat of the Staff Association (Staff.Association@cern.ch).

  14. Quality assurance programs from laboratories offering radiological protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Garcia, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Jova Sed, L.; Morales Monzon, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of an adequate program for quality assurance in institutions servicing radiological protection programs will become an additional tool to achieve security targets included in that program. All scientific and technical services offered by CPHR employ quality assurance systems

  15. Offers

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    New offer for our members. The Staff Association CERN staff has recently concluded a framework agreement with AXA Insurance Ltd, General-Guisan-Strasse 40, 8401 Winterthur. This contract allows you to benefit from a preferential tariff and conditions for insurances: Motor vehicles for passenger cars and motorcycles of the product line STRADA: 10% discount Household insurance (personal liability and household contents) the product line BOX: 10% discount Travel insurance: 10% discount Buildings: 10% discount Legal protection: 10% discount AXA is number one on the Swiss insurance market. The product range encompasses all non-life insurance such as insurance of persons, property, civil liability, vehicles, credit and travel as well as innovative and comprehensive solutions in the field of occupational benefits insurance for individuals and businesses. Finally, the affiliate AXA-ARAG (legal expenses insurance) completes the offer. Armed with your staff association CERN card, you can always get the off...

  16. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    proposes the following offer: 15% discount for the Staff Association members who enroll their children in summer FUTUREKIDS activities. Extracurricular Activities For Your Children The FUTUREKIDS Geneva Learning Center is open 6 days a week and offers a selection of after-school extracurricular activities for children and teenagers (ages 5 to 16). In addition to teaching in its Learning Centers, Futurekids collaborates with many private schools in Suisse Romande (Florimont, Moser, Champittet, Ecole Nouvelle, etc.) and with the Département de l'Instruction Publique (DIP) Genève. Courses and camps are usually in French but English groups can be set up on demand. FUTUREKIDS Computer Camps (during school holidays) FUTUREKIDS Computer Camps are a way of having a great time during vacations while learning something useful, possibly discovering a new hobby or even, why not, a future profession. Our computer camps are at the forefront of technology. Themes are diverse and suit all ...

  17. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

      Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * Next “vente privée” from 22th to 29th November 2010

  18. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

      Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * Next “vente privée” from 25th to 27th March 2011  

  19. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Single tariff Adulte/Enfant Tickets “Zone terrestre” 20 euros instead of 25 euros. Access to Aqualibi: 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your ticket SA member. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. More information on our website : http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Walibi.html

  20. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    CARLSON WAGONLIT TRAVEL

    2011-01-01

    Special offer   From 14th to 28th February 2011: no CWT service fee! For any new reservation of a holiday package (flight + hotel/apartment) from a catalog “summer 2011” For any additional information our staff is at your disposal from Monday – Friday, from 8h30 to 16h30. Phone number 72763 or 72797 Carlson Wagonlit Tavel, Agence du CERN  

  1. Offers

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Banque cantonale de Genève (BCGE) The BCGE Business partner programme devised for members of the CERN Staff Association offers personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. The advantages are linked to salary accounts (free account keeping, internet banking, free Maestro and credit cards, etc.), mortgage lending, retirement planning, investment, credit, etc. The details of the programme and the preferential conditions are available on our website: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/BCGE.html.  

  2. Value pricing pilot program : lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This "Lessons Learned Report" provides a summary of projects sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Congestion and Value Pricing Pilot Programs from 1991 through 2006 and draws lessons from a sample of projects with the richest an...

  3. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10 % reduction on all products in the Sephora shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry all year round. Plus 20 % reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 21st November to 1st December 2012 Please contact the Staff Association Secretariat to get the discount voucher.

  4. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * Next “vente privée” from 21st to 26th May 2012 Please contact the Staff Association Secretariat to get the discount voucher  

  5. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The « Théâtre de Carouge » offers a 5.- CHF discount for all shows (30.- CHF instead of 35.- CHF) and for the season tickets "Premières représentations" (132.- CHF instead of 162.- CHF) and "Classique" (150.- CHF instead of 180.- CHF). Please send your reservation by email to smills@tcag.ch via your professional email address. Please indicate the date of your reservation, your name and firstname and your telephone number A confirmation will be sent by email. Your membership card will be asked when you collect the tickets. More information on www.tcag.ch and www.tcag.ch/blog/

  6. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10 % reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20 % reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * Next “vente privée” from 11th to 23rd November 2013 Please contact the Staff Association Secretariat to get the discount voucher.  

  7. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10 % reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. Plus 20 % reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. * Next “vente privée” from 24th September to 6th November 2014 Please contact the Staff Association Secretariat to get the discount voucher.  

  8. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    At the UN Cultural kiosk (door C6) This offer is meant for international civil servants, members of diplomatic missions as well as official delegates under presentation of their accreditation card. Matthew Lee & 5 musiciens Du Blues, du Boogie, du Rock’n’Roll 28 octobre 2011 à 20h30 Théâtre du Léman Quai du Mont-Blanc 19 Hôtel Kempinski Genève Matthew Lee is an exciting pianist singer combining classic Rock’n’Roll with timeless ballads. He revisits the standards, being alternately Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry, Little Richards and many others... He is a showman with a soulful voice and displays virtuosity during his piano solos. Simply amazing! 20 % reduction Tickets from 32 to 68 CHF Kiosque Culturel ONU Palais des Nations Porte 6 Avenue de la Paix 8-14 1211 Genève 10 Tél. 022 917 11 11 info@kiosqueonu.ch

  9. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    FUTUREKIDS proposes 15% discount for the Staff Association members who enroll their children in FUTUREKIDS activities. New workshop for 12-15 year olds, on how to develop applications for Android phones. Easter activities calendar Extracurricular Activities For Your Children The FUTUREKIDS Geneva Learning Center is open 6 days a week and offers a selection of after-school extracurricular activities for children and teenagers (ages 5 to 16). In addition to teaching in its Learning Centers, Futurekids collaborates with many private schools in Suisse Romande (Florimont, Moser, Champittet, Ecole Nouvelle, etc.) and with the Département de l'Instruction Publique (DIP) Genève. Courses and camps are usually in French but English groups can be set up on demand. FUTUREKIDS Computer Camps (during school holidays) FUTUREKIDS Computer Camps are a way of having a great time during vacations while learning something useful, possibly discovering a new hobby or even, why not, a fut...

  10. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    RRP Communication organizes cultural events such as concerts, shows, sporting events. The members of the Staff Association profits from a reduction of 10 CHF per ticket. How to proceed: The ticket reservation is made by mail info@rrp.ch. You need to give the following information: Name of the show, and which date chosen Number of tickets, and category Name and surname Address Telephone number Mention “offer CERN”, and attach a photocopy of your Staff Association member card. After your reservation, you will be sent a copy with a payslip to the address mentioned above. Once paid, the members have the possibility to: pick up their ticket(s) from the cash register the evening of the show (opens 1 hour before the show) by showing their member card; receive the ticket(s) to the address indicated above, by registered mail, subject to an extra cost of 10CHF. Next show : More information at http://www.rrp.ch/

  11. Offer

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    DETAILS OF THE AGREEMENT WITH BCGE The BCGE Business partner programme devised for members of the CERN Staff Association offers personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. The advantages are linked to salary accounts (free account keeping, internet banking, free Maestro and credit cards, etc.), mortgage lending, retirement planning, investment, credit, etc. The details of the programme and the preferential conditions are available on the Staff Association web site and from the secretariat (http://cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/BCGE.html). To benefit from these advantages, you will need to fill in the form available on our site, which must then be stamped by the Staff Association as proof that you are a paid-up member.  

  12. Urban farmers' markets: accessibility, offerings, and produce variety, quality, and price compared to nearby stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Maroko, Andrew R; Sanon, Omar; Frias, Rafael; Schechter, Clyde B

    2015-07-01

    Most food-environment research has focused narrowly on select stores and restaurants. There has been comparatively less attention to non-storefront food sources like farmers' markets (FMs), particularly in urban communities. The objective of the present study was to assess FMs' potential contribution to an urban food environment in terms of specific foods offered, and compare FM accessibility as well as produce variety, quality, and price to that of nearby stores. Investigators conducted a detailed cross-sectional assessment of all FMs in Bronx County, NY, and of the nearest store(s) selling produce within a half-mile walking distance (up to two stores per FM). The study included 26 FMs and 44 stores. Investigators assessed accessibility (locations of FMs and stores relative to each other, and hours of operation for each), variety (the number and type of all food items offered at FMs and all fresh produce items offered at stores), quality (where produce items were grown and if they were organic), and price (including any sales prices or promotional discounts). Analyses included frequencies, proportions, and variable distributions, as well as mixed-effect regressions, paired t-tests, and signed rank tests to compare FMs to stores. Geographic information systems (GIS) allowed for mapping of FM and store locations and determining street-network distances between them. The mean distance between FMs and the nearest store selling fresh produce was 0.15 miles (range 0.02-0.36 miles). FMs were open substantially fewer months, days, and hours than stores. FMs offered 26.4 fewer fresh produce items on average than stores (p values operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A three-stage strategy for optimal price offering by a retailer based on clustering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi-Kohan, N.; Shayesteh, E.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative strategy for optimal price offering to customers for maximizing the profit of a retailer is proposed. This strategy is based on load profile clustering techniques and includes three stages. For the purpose of clustering, an improved weighted fuzzy average K-means is proposed. Also, in this paper a new acceptance function for increasing the profit of the retailer is proposed. The new method is evaluated by implementation on a group of 300 customers of a 20 kV distribution network. (author)

  14. A three-stage strategy for optimal price offering by a retailer based on clustering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi-Kohan, N.; Shayesteh, E. [Islamic Azad University (Garmsar Branch), Garmsar (Iran); Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, an innovative strategy for optimal price offering to customers for maximizing the profit of a retailer is proposed. This strategy is based on load profile clustering techniques and includes three stages. For the purpose of clustering, an improved weighted fuzzy average K-means is proposed. Also, in this paper a new acceptance function for increasing the profit of the retailer is proposed. The new method is evaluated by implementation on a group of 300 customers of a 20 kV distribution network. (author)

  15. Stock Price Performance Following Equity Offerings at Oslo Stock Exchange: Is Investing in SEO Companies Hazardous to Your Wealth?

    OpenAIRE

    Grieg, Benedicte Willumsen

    2012-01-01

    I examine the stock price performance following a seasoned equity offering at Oslo Stock Exchange. Through an empirical analysis I find that the existence of a negative announcement effect associated with issuing seasoned equity, as well as a long-run underperformance, is also applicable in the Norwegian market. The level of asymmetry can to a large extent explain the price drop and varies with characteristics like sector, offering size, floatation method, and pre-offer performance. The long-...

  16. Ontario's standard offer programs: moving toward a cleaner energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shervill, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Ontario Standard Offer Program is designed to ensure reliable, long-term electricity supply for Ontario. The functional areas of the program are planning, conservation and supply sector development. The long-term plan is to create a self-sustaining electricity market in Ontario with 2700 MW renewable sources by 2010 including wind, waterpower, solar photovoltaic (PV) and biomass

  17. Setting Offer Prices by Housing Developers - Selected Issues in the Light of Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmann Iwona

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with selected theoretical issues pertaining to the setting of asking prices by housing developers. Determinants of the buyer’s and seller’s reservation prices have been identified. The advantages and disadvantages, in terms of behavioral economics, of the pricing strategies practiced by housing developers have been indicated. The strategy based on fixing an asking price roughly equal to the estimated market value of the property was compared with the strategy based on offerin...

  18. Examination of the Fish Price Offered for Sale During 2012-2013 Fishing Season in Sinop, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şennan Yücel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the monthly price distribution of the offered fish species for sale within the scope of information received from the centers engaged in the sale of retail fish during 2012-2013 fishing season in Sinop, Turkey. The enterprises were grouped as I (the most, II (middle and III (the least according to the sales volume and fish species. Each group was represented by two different fish enterprise and so a total of six separate enterprises were determined by purpose sampling method. During the study, sale prices and fish species were obtained twice every month at the same time of day. It was determined that anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda, twait shad (Alosa fallax nilotica, needlefish (Belone belone, mullet (Mugil cephalus, shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa, brown meagre (Sciana umbra, common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris, annular bream (Diplodus annularis, tub gurnard (Trigla lucerna, picarel (Maena smaris, turbot (Psetta maxima, red mullet (Mullus barbatus, whiting (Merlangus merlangus, scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus, goby (Gobius niger were offered for sale in fish markets. While the prices of higher economic valued fish species like anchovy, bluefish, atlantic bonito and turbot prices were different between the enterprises, the prices of horse mackerel, red mullet and whiting species were not different. When considering the fish prices based on years, the prices of horse mackerel, bluefish, atlantic bonito, red mullet and haddock during 2012-2013 years were close to the average price of 2008-2012 years and the prices of anchovy and turbot during 2012-2013 years were higher than the average price of 2008-2012 years in Sinop.

  19. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  20. Share Price Analyst With PBV, DER, And EPS At Initial Public Offering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto Kriswanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Underpricing and overpricing are commonly happened in stocks market. Underpricing happened when IPO pricing was lower than closing price in the first day stock been trade in the market. There were some measurements to be used, like Price to Book Value (PBV, Price Earning Ratio (PER, Earning Per Share (EPS, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Net Profit Margin (NPM, Size of Company (Size and Company Age (Age. The type of research was quantitative with a comparative analysis which focused on the study of literature to support research by describing theories related to the title of the study, data collection of financial statements, and annual reports of companies going public as well as Fact Book published. This article used data from 78 companies that did IPOin 2010 to 2013. This research finds that some statistic used to show majority variables that influence to underpricing is PBV, PER, DER,and Size.

  1. Utility Green-Pricing Programs: What Defines Success? (Topical Issues Brief); TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    2001-01-01

    ''Green pricing'' is an optional service through which customers can support a greater level of investment by their electric utility in renewable energy technologies. Electric utilities in 29 states are now implementing green-pricing programs. This report examines important elements of green-pricing programs, including the different types of programs offered, the premiums charged, customer response, and additional factors that experience indicates are key to the development of successful programs. The best-performing programs tend to share a number of common attributes related to product design, value creation, product pricing, and program implementation. The report ends with a list of ''best practices'' for utilities to follow when developing and implementing programs

  2. Utility Green-Pricing Programs: What Defines Success? (Topical Issues Brief)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    2001-09-13

    ''Green pricing'' is an optional service through which customers can support a greater level of investment by their electric utility in renewable energy technologies. Electric utilities in 29 states are now implementing green-pricing programs. This report examines important elements of green-pricing programs, including the different types of programs offered, the premiums charged, customer response, and additional factors that experience indicates are key to the development of successful programs. The best-performing programs tend to share a number of common attributes related to product design, value creation, product pricing, and program implementation. The report ends with a list of ''best practices'' for utilities to follow when developing and implementing programs.

  3. The Impact of the Location on the Price Offered by Accommodation Establishments in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Švec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between the price of accommodation and the urban space and character of the place. The price and spatial connections (together with the quality of the provided services become an important motive for clients when choosing a concrete accommodation establishment. As the competition is very difficult in the field of accommodation establishments and the supply multiply surpasses the demand, there is an intensive search for miscellaneous strategies of engaging in the competition. The built-up territory of the town České Budějovice was chosen as a model territory. The prices of the summer season 2012 have been entered into the analysis. The impact of the location was assessed on the level of the type of land-use. The distribution of the accommodation establishments in the studied is highly uneven, without any more significant tendency to the creation of the spatial clusters. It is fundamentally influenced especially by the distance of the historical center. A price map was formed identifying the zones with the above-average prices, as well as the zones with the highly below-average prices.

  4. Opportunities to Improve Air Quality through Transportation Pricing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to give state and local air quality and transportation planners,elected government officials, and other interested parties background information on transportation pricing programs.

  5. Pricing initial public offerings in premature capital markets : the case of Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schindele, I.; Perotti, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of underpricing at initial public offerings in theHungarian Initial Public Offerings (IPO) market in 1990-1998, a period of transition from socialist to market economy and immaturity of the domestic capital market. The evidence suggests that political issues

  6. Application Service Program (ASP) Price Elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Jaeweon; Cho Wanwoo; Jang Ho; Kwak Youngsik

    2010-01-01

    Although the price elasticities for off-line industry are well documented in academic field, the report of price elasticities for on-line to a given brand or industry in practice have beenrelatively rare. The researcher aims to try to full this gap by applying a price response function to Home Trading System’s on-line transaction data for the first time in Korean securities market. The different price elasticities among seven brands were found from -0.819 to -1.811. These results suggested th...

  7. Renewables without limits : moving Ontario to advanced renewable tariffs by updating Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-11-01

    The Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) promotes the development of community-owned renewable energy generation. It was emphasized that in order to achieve OSEA's original objectives of developing as much renewable energy as quickly as possible through community participation, changes are needed to Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer contract (SOC) program. This report examined the status of Ontario's SOC program and proposed changes to the program as part of the program's first two-year review. The report provided a summary of the program and discussed each of the program's goals, notably to encourage broad participation; eliminate barriers to distributed renewable generation; provide a stable market for renewable generation; stimulate new investment in renewable generation; provide a rigorous pricing model for setting the tariffs; create a program applicable to all renewable technologies; provide a simple, streamlined, and cost-effective application process; and provide a dispute resolution process. The program goals as developed by the Ontario Power Authority and Ontario Energy Board were discussed with reference to mixed results to date; simplicity; removing barriers; balancing targets with value to ratepayers; and building on the efforts of OSEA. Advanced renewable tariffs (ART) and tariff determination was also discussed along with ART's in Germany, France, Spain and Ontario. Inflation indexing; tariff degression; proposed new tariffs by technology; and other costs and factors affecting profitability were also reviewed. ref., tabs

  8. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity? This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a ``base`` that is typical of US utilities; a ``surplus`` utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a ``deficit`` utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  9. The effects of utility DSM programs on electricity costs and prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1991-11-01

    More and more US utilities are running more and larger demand-side management (DSM) programs. Assessing the cost-effectiveness of these programs raises difficult questions for utilities and their regulators. Should these programs aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric-energy services or should they minimize the price of electricity This study offers quantitative estimates on the tradeoffs between total costs and electricity prices. This study uses a dynamic model to assess the effects of energy-efficiency programs on utility revenues, total resource costs, electricity prices, and electricity consumption for the period 1990 to 2010. These DSM programs are assessed under alternative scenarios. In these cases, fossil-fuel prices, load growth, the amount of excess capacity the utility has in 1990, planned retirements of power plants, the financial treatment of DSM programs, and the costs of energy- efficient programs vary. These analyses are conducted for three utilities: a base'' that is typical of US utilities; a surplus'' utility that has excess capacity, few planned retirements, and slow growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes; and a deficit'' utility that has little excess capacity, many planned retirements, and rapid growth in fossil-fuel prices and incomes. 28 refs.

  10. Pricing Strategy Selection Using Fuzzy Linear Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Alaybeyoğlu; Y. Esra Albayrak

    2013-01-01

    Marketing establishes a communication network between producers and consumers. Nowadays, marketing approach is customer-focused and products are directly oriented to meet customer needs. Marketing, which is a long process, needs organization and management. Therefore strategic marketing planning becomes more and more important in today’s competitive conditions. Main focus of this paper is to evaluate pricing strategies and select the best pricing strategy solution while considering internal a...

  11. Offering strategy of a price-maker energy storage system in day-ahead and balancing markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vespermann, Niklas Peter René Erich; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    . The offering strategy of a price-maker ESS operator is formulated as a bilevel model, where the upper-level problem represents the profit maximization of the ESS operator and the lower-level problem simulates the market-clearing outcome. This methodological framework can be used either to assess market...... efficiency distortion or as a trading strategy from the perspective of the ESS operator. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behavior may improve ESS expected profit but reduces social welfare, especially for high ESS energy-to-power ratios....

  12. Green Pricing Program Marketing Expenditures: Finding the Right Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Miller, M.

    2009-09-01

    In practice, it is difficult to determine the optimal amount to spend on marketing and administering a green pricing program. Budgets for marketing and administration of green pricing programs are a function of several factors: the region of the country; the size of the utility service area; the customer base and media markets encompassed within that service area; the point or stage in the lifespan of the program; and certainly, not least, the utility's commitment to and goals for the program. All of these factors vary significantly among programs. This report presents data on programs that have funded both marketing and program administration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) gathers the data annually from utility green pricing program managers. Programs reporting data to NREL spent a median of 18.8% of program revenues on marketing their programs in 2008 and 16.6% in 2007. The smallest utilities (those with less than 25,000 in their eligible customer base) spent 49% of revenues on marketing, significantly more than the overall median. This report addresses the role of renewable energy credit (REC) marketers and start-up costs--and the role of marketing, generally, in achieving program objectives, including expansion of renewable energy.

  13. Tax Administration: IRS Should Evaluate the Changes to Its Offer in Compromise Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) Offer in Compromise (OIC) Program. An offer in compromise is an agreement between a taxpayer and the IRS to settle or compromise the taxpayer's tax liability for less than the full amount owed...

  14. 78 FR 7387 - Continuation of 2008 Farm Bill-Dairy Forward Pricing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...] Continuation of 2008 Farm Bill--Dairy Forward Pricing Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... the Dairy Forward Pricing Program contained in the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008... associations of producers may enter into forward price contracts under the Dairy Forward Pricing Program...

  15. Dynamic electricity pricing for electric vehicles using stochastic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, João; Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi; Borges, Nuno; Vale, Zita

    2017-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an important source of uncertainty, due to their variable demand, departure time and location. In smart grids, the electricity demand can be controlled via Demand Response (DR) programs. Smart charging and vehicle-to-grid seem highly promising methods for EVs control. However, high capital costs remain a barrier to implementation. Meanwhile, incentive and price-based schemes that do not require high level of control can be implemented to influence the EVs' demand. Having effective tools to deal with the increasing level of uncertainty is increasingly important for players, such as energy aggregators. This paper formulates a stochastic model for day-ahead energy resource scheduling, integrated with the dynamic electricity pricing for EVs, to address the challenges brought by the demand and renewable sources uncertainty. The two-stage stochastic programming approach is used to obtain the optimal electricity pricing for EVs. A realistic case study projected for 2030 is presented based on Zaragoza network. The results demonstrate that it is more effective than the deterministic model and that the optimal pricing is preferable. This study indicates that adequate DR schemes like the proposed one are promising to increase the customers' satisfaction in addition to improve the profitability of the energy aggregation business. - Highlights: • A stochastic model for energy scheduling tackling several uncertainty sources. • A two-stage stochastic programming is used to tackle the developed model. • Optimal EV electricity pricing seems to improve the profits. • The propose results suggest to increase the customers' satisfaction.

  16. Price or Privilege? Customer Perception on Loyalty Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnan Furinto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to understand how customers perceive loyalty programs. The author argues that types of loyalty programs could be classified into two: price based and privilege based. This research models that customer perceptions on loyalty programs, differ between these two types, and is contingent upon the relationship between customers and firm. Using settings of air-line domestic passengers and bank customers in Indonesia, the research provides evidence that price based rewards are perceived to provide higher utility perception in contractual relationships compared to non contractual relationships. However, this research failed to provide empirical support that privilege based rewards are perceived to provide higher utility perception in non contractual relation-ship compared to contractual relationship. Firms are therefore, encouraged to incorporate affective elements into their loyalty programs, on top of monetary elements, in order for the loyalty programs to be better perceived by their customers.

  17. Price-Anderson Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This first annual report on DOE's Price Anderson Amendments Act enforcement program covers the activities, accomplishments, and planning for calendar year 1996. It also includes the infrastructure development activities of 1995. It encompasses the activities of the headquarters' Office of Enforcement in the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) and Investigation and the coordinators and technical advisors in DOE's Field and Program Offices and other EH Offices. This report includes an overview of the enforcement program; noncompliances, investigations, and enforcement actions; summary of significant enforcement actions; examples where enforcement action was deferred; and changes and improvements to the program

  18. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open until 31 October. Reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  19. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  20. Proposed Accreditation Standards for Degree-Granting Correspondence Programs Offered by Accredited Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw-Hill Continuing Education Center, Washington, DC.

    A study on proposed accreditation standards grew out of a need to (1) stimulate the growth of quality correspondence degree programs; and (2) provide a policy for accreditation of correspondence degree programs so that graduates would be encouraged to pursue advanced degree programs offered elsewhere by educational institutions. The study focused…

  1. Price-Anderson Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities in the Department of Energy's Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) Enforcement Program in calendar year 1997 and highlights improvements planned for 1998. The DOE Enforcement Program involves the Office of Enforcement and Investigation in the DOE Headquarters Office of Environment, Safety and Health, as well as numerous PAAA Coordinators and technical advisors in DOE Field and Program Offices. The DOE Enforcement Program issued 13 Notices of Violation (NOV's) in 1997 for cases involving significant or potentially significant nuclear safety violations. Six of these included civil penalties totaling $440,000. Highlights of these actions include: (1) Brookhaven National Laboratory Radiological Control Violations / Associated Universities, Inc.; (2) Bioassay Program Violations at Mound / EG ampersand G, Inc.; (3) Savannah River Crane Operator Uptake / Westinghouse Savannah River Company; (4) Waste Calciner Worker Uptake / Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Company; and (5) Reactor Scram and Records Destruction at Sandia / Sandia Corporation (Lockheed-Martin). Sandia / Sandia Corporation (Lockheed-Martin)

  2. 47 CFR 54.413 - Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a Link Up program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a... § 54.413 Reimbursement for revenue forgone in offering a Link Up program. (a) Eligible telecommunications carriers may receive universal service support reimbursement for the revenue they forgo in...

  3. Administrators' Perceptions of Motives to Offer Online Academic Degree Programs in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakan; Yildirim, Soner

    2018-01-01

    Although the number of online academic degree programs offered by universities in Turkey has become increasingly significant in recent years, the current lack of understanding of administrators' motives that contribute to initiating these programs suggests there is much to be learned in this field. This study aimed to investigate administrators'…

  4. 44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.7 Offers and appeals under the SRL program. (a) Consultation. States and communities... mitigation activity. These consultations shall be initiated in the early stages of the project development...

  5. 76 FR 3192 - Value Pricing Pilot Program Participation, Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Value Pricing Pilot Program... Value Pricing Pilot (VPP) program, which was published on October 19, 2010, at 75 FR 64397. The original... interest at the following Web site: http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/tolling_pricing/participation.htm . FOR FURTHER...

  6. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng

    2006-04-06

    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  7. City of Camden, New Jersey Program offering widespread energy recovery (power): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, Stanley [City of Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Development and Planning Bureau of Housing Services

    2013-12-31

    The Camden Residential POWER Program, Program Offering Widespread Energy Recovery, is a program designed to benefit Camden homeowners, stabilize neighborhoods and put local contractors to work. Camden POWER granted up to $18,600 to fund energy efficient home improvements and necessary life/safety rehabilitation repairs. The program was designed as a self-sustaining, neighborhood approach to bringing long-term energy and financial savings to the community. Valuable home upgrades were completed, including high-efficiency furnaces, hot water heaters, insulation, insulated roofs and blower door guided air-sealing. The goal of all improvements were to reduce energy consumption, lower utility bills, improve property values and promote neighborhood stabilization.

  8. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  9. Special Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions.     TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for all active and retired staff.     Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret.     Walibi: reduced prices for children and adults at this French attraction park in Les Avenières.       FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers.       For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  10. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Are you a member of the Staff Association? Did you know that as a member you can benefit from the following special offers: BCGE (Banque Cantonale de Genève): personalized banking solutions with preferential conditions. TPG: reduced rates on annual transport passes for active and retired staff. Aquaparc: reduced ticket prices for children and adults at this Swiss waterpark in Le Bouveret. FNAC: 5% reduction on FNAC vouchers. For more information about all these offers, please consult our web site: http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Offers.html

  11. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  12. Survey of Experiential Entrepreneurship Education Offerings among Top Undergraduate Entrepreneurship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Richard; Noyes, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze experiential entrepreneurship education offerings--programs and courses--among the "Top 25" undergraduate schools of entrepreneurship in the USA. The motivation is to understand the array and vitality of experiential initiatives across the country. A related aim is to unearth obstacles to…

  13. Directory of Academic Institutions and Organizations Offering Drug, Alcohol, and Employee Assistance Program Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This directory lists academic institutions, State offices of alcohol and drug abuse, and national organizations which offer drug, alcohol, and employee assistance program (EAP) educational resources. A matrix format is used. Entries include name, address, telephone number, and contact person. A dot appears directly under column headings which are…

  14. The effectiveness of a cardiometabolic prevention program in general practices offering integrated care programs including a patient tailored lifestyle treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, M.; Eppink, L.; Nielen, M.; Badenbroek, I.; Stol, D.; Schellevis, F.; Wit, N. de

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim: Selective cardio-metabolic prevention programs (CMP) may be especially effective in well-organized practices. We studied the effect of a CMP program in the academic primary care practices of the Julius Health Centers (JHC) that offer integrated cardiovascular disease management

  15. 75 FR 10272 - Notice Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program-Contract Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Regarding 340B Drug Pricing Program--Contract Pharmacy Services AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... drug pricing program by which manufacturers who sell covered outpatient drugs to particular covered... provisions, which had been previously limited to the Alternative Methods Demonstration Project program. FOR...

  16. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  17. Mothers' and fathers' attendance in a community-based universally offered parenting program in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna; Salari, Raziye

    2016-05-01

    Using a public health perspective, this study examined the characteristics of mothers and fathers who attended, compared to those who did not attend, a community-based practitioner-led universally offered parenting program. Mothers (141) and fathers (96) of 4- to 5-year-olds completed a set of questionnaires, including their demographic characteristics, their child's behavioral and emotional problems, and their own parenting behavior. They were all then given the opportunity to attend level 2 of the Triple P--Positive Parenting Program. During the first six months of the study, 33 mothers and 11 fathers opted to attend the program. The relation between program attendance and parental characteristics was similar for mothers and fathers. In general, fathers, non-native and lower educated parents were less likely to attend the program. Mothers, but not fathers, were more likely to attend if they reported more child behavior problems, while fathers, but not mothers, were observed at a trend level to attend if they perceived their child as having more emotional problems. In addition, parents in general were more likely to attend if they used more harsh parenting strategies. Although the universal offer did not reach parents universally, generally those parents who needed it were more likely to attend. Furthermore, this study shows that different factors may impact mothers' and fathers' attendance; therefore, parental data should be analyzed separately and different recruitment strategies should be used for mothers and fathers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), known as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. On August 21, 2017, HHS solicited comments on further delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule to July 1, 2018 (82 FR 39553). HHS proposed this action to allow a more deliberate process of considering alternative and supplemental regulatory provisions and to allow for sufficient time for additional rulemaking. After consideration of the comments received on the proposed rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule, to July 1, 2018.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the Louisiana Home Energy Rebate Offer program using IPMVP guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G. [Center for Energy Studies, Louisiana State University, Energy Coast and Environment Building, Nicholson Extension Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The Louisiana Home Energy Rebate Offer (HERO) is a residential energy conservation program established in 1999 to provide rebates for qualified applicants to build new homes that are more energy efficient or improve the energy efficiency of existing homes. Energy conservation programs require careful evaluation because of the high cost to implement the measures and the expectation that they will reduce energy use. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that residential energy conservation measures in a hot and humid climate can be evaluated using the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP), a best practice methodology commonly used in industrial and commercial performance-based contracts, but rarely, if ever, applied to residential programs. Using a random sample of 60 HERO participants, we were able to construct statistically significant electricity consumption baseline models for 90% of households. We determined that more than half of the sample participants consumed more electricity after their efficiency improvement, with an average net household savings of 172 kWh/yr, about 1% pre-retrofit consumption. A description of the baseline model construction, preliminary program evaluation, and recommendations are provided. All program conclusions are considered preliminary until a larger and more comprehensive study is conducted. (author)

  20. Preliminary assessment of the Louisiana Home Energy Rebate Offer program using IPMVP guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2010-01-01

    The Louisiana Home Energy Rebate Offer (HERO) is a residential energy conservation program established in 1999 to provide rebates for qualified applicants to build new homes that are more energy efficient or improve the energy efficiency of existing homes. Energy conservation programs require careful evaluation because of the high cost to implement the measures and the expectation that they will reduce energy use. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that residential energy conservation measures in a hot and humid climate can be evaluated using the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP), a best practice methodology commonly used in industrial and commercial performance-based contracts, but rarely, if ever, applied to residential programs. Using a random sample of 60 HERO participants, we were able to construct statistically significant electricity consumption baseline models for 90% of households. We determined that more than half of the sample participants consumed more electricity after their efficiency improvement, with an average net household savings of 172 kWh/yr, about 1% pre-retrofit consumption. A description of the baseline model construction, preliminary program evaluation, and recommendations are provided. All program conclusions are considered preliminary until a larger and more comprehensive study is conducted.

  1. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  2. Crop Insurance Inaccurate FCIC Price Forecasts Increase Program Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    ...) how FCIC can improve its forecast accuracy. We found that FCIC's corn, wheat, and soybeans price forecasts exhibit large bias errors that exceed those of other available alternative forecasts and that FCIC would have spent...

  3. FHWA operations support : port peak pricing program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report evaluates the applicability, Federal policy implications, and possible public and private sector roles related to peak pricing strategies at ports and intermodal facilities in the U.S. A number of ports and intermodal terminals are consid...

  4. Do Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Offer Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Australia and New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Susie H; Bray, Janet E; Stub, Dion; Krum, Henry; Finn, Judith

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation may provide an ideal environment to train high-risk cardiac patients and their families in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, whether this training is currently offered is unknown. The aims of this study were to: 1) describe the prevalence of CPR training in cardiac rehabilitation programs in Australia and New Zealand (NZ); and 2) examine perceived barriers and attitudes of cardiac rehabilitation coordinators towards providing CPR training. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of Australian and NZ cardiac rehabilitation coordinators. We received 253 completed surveys (46.7% response rate) (Australia n=208, NZ n=45). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training was included in 23.9% of Australian programs and 56.6% in NZ. Common barriers to CPR training included lack of resources (49.7%) and a lack of awareness to provide CPR training for this high-risk group (33.7%). The majority of coordinators believed that lay people should be trained in CPR (96.3%) and were comfortable with recommending CPR training to this high-risk group (89.4%). While cardiac rehabilitation coordinators have positive attitudes towards CPR training, it is not currently part of most programs - particularly in Australia. Organisations formulating cardiac rehabilitation recommendations and guidelines should give consideration to include the provision of CPR training. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program offers a regional model for incremental 'fee for value' payment reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, David A; Mason, Margaret H

    2012-09-01

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan partnered with providers across the state to create an innovative, "fee for value" physician incentive program that would deliver high-quality, efficient care. The Physician Group Incentive Program rewards physician organizations-formal groups of physicians and practices that can accept incentive payments on behalf of their members-based on the number of quality and utilization measures they adopt, such as generic drug dispensing rates, and on their performance on these measures across their patient populations. Physicians also receive payments for implementing a range of patient-centered medical home capabilities, such as patient registries, and they receive higher fees for office visits for incorporating these capabilities into routine practice while also improving performance. Taken together, the incentive dollars, fee increases, and care management payments amount to a potential increase in reimbursement of 40 percent or more from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan for practices designated as high-performing patient-centered medical homes. At the same time, we estimate that implementing the patient-centered medical home capabilities was associated with $155 million in lower medical costs in program year 2011 for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan members. We intend to devote a higher percentage of reimbursement over time to communities of caregivers that offer high-value, system-based care, and a lower percentage of reimbursement to individual physicians on a service-specific basis.

  6. Disclosure, apology, and offer programs: stakeholders' views of barriers to and strategies for broad implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sigall K; Smulowitz, Peter B; Woodward, Alan C; Mello, Michelle M; Duva, Anjali Mitter; Boothman, Richard C; Sands, Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    The Disclosure, Apology, and Offer (DA&O) model, a response to patient injuries caused by medical care, is an innovative approach receiving national attention for its early success as an alternative to the existing inherently adversarial, inefficient, and inequitable medical liability system. Examples of DA&O programs, however, are few. Through key informant interviews, we investigated the potential for more widespread implementation of this model by provider organizations and liability insurers, defining barriers to implementation and strategies for overcoming them. Our study focused on Massachusetts, but we also explored themes that are broadly generalizable to other states. We found strong support for the DA&O model among key stakeholders, who cited its benefits for both the liability system and patient safety. The respondents did not perceive any insurmountable barriers to broad implementation, and they identified strategies that could be pursued relatively quickly. Such solutions would permit a range of organizations to implement the model without legislative hurdles. Although more data are needed about the outcomes of DA&O programs, the model holds considerable promise for transforming the current approach to medical liability and patient safety. © 2012 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  7. Harem: Hardwood lumber remanufacturing program for maxmizing value based on size, grade and current market prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Schwehm; P. Klinkhachorn; Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system computer program which will determine the optimum way to edge and trim a hardwood board so as to yield the highest dollar value based on the grade, size of each board, and current market prices. The program uses the Automated Hardwood Lumber Grading Program written by Klinkhachorn, et al. for determining the grade of each board...

  8. Summary of Research on Online and Blended Learning Programs That Offer Differentiated Learning Options. REL 2017-228

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, R. Marc; Melluzzo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the methodology, measures, and findings of research on the influence on student achievement outcomes of K-12 online and blended face-to-face and online learning programs that offer differentiated learning options. The report also describes the characteristics of the learning programs. Most of the examined programs used…

  9. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas; Rosenberg, Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level

  10. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. In accordance with a January 20, 2017, memorandum from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Freeze Pending Review," HRSA issued an interim final rule that delayed the effective date of the final rule published in the Federal Register (82 FR 1210, (January 5, 2017)) to May 22, 2017. HHS invited commenters to provide their views on whether a longer delay of the effective date to October 1, 2017, would be more appropriate. After consideration of the comments received on the interim final rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017 final rule, to October 1, 2017.

  11. The opportunities and rewards of distance learning programs offered by the university of Newcastle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The University of Newcastle offers, via the distance learning mode of study, three innovative postgraduate programs designed for Nuclear Medicine Scientists and Practitioners. The Graduate Diploma in Nuclear Medicine is designed for Nuclear Medicine Scientists who have been absent from the work force for an extended period of time or have completed a qualification in medical imaging, who are currently working as a Nuclear Medicine Scientist. The Graduate Diploma fosters and encourages a greater depth of knowledge of Nuclear Medicine through the understanding and application of clinical skills. The Master of Nuclear Medicine is designed to develop within Nuclear Medicine Scientists and Practitioners a greater depth of knowledge of Nuclear Medicine through the acquisition and application of research skills. The Master of Applied Management (Health) is designed for Nuclear Medicine Scientists, practitioners, health managers and administrators who desire to acquire essential management skills while expanding their clinical skills. Graduates of the Graduate Diploma are eligible to sit the certification examination for the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board in the United States of America. They may also eligible to apply to the Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Accreditation Board for interim accreditation. Graduates of the Masters of Nuclear Medicine enjoy the same opportunities as per the Graduate Diploma. They also enjoy a greater success with promotion and have the skills necessary to develop a rewarding career in research. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. Extent of Drug Coverage across Generic Drug Discount Programs offered by Community Pharmacies: A look at five Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshali K. Patel, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions are expensive to treat because of the ongoing prescription cost burden. Generic drug discount programs (GDDPs that offer generics at discounted price may prove beneficial to reduce pharmacy costs for the same.Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which GDDPs provide drug coverage for five common chronic conditions.Methods: A content analyses of preexisting information was conducted. Extent of coverage based on top 200 generic drugs prescribed during 2008 for the treatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension, mental disorders, arthritis, pulmonary/respiratory conditions, and diabetes were identified. Commonly prescribed medications for these diseases were identified using published peer reviewed clinical guidelines. List of drugs covered under a GDDP for stores, Wal-Mart, Walgreens, CVS, Kroger, HEB, Target, and Randalls were obtained and compared to assess drug coverage by retail dollar sales and sales volume. Descriptive statistics and frequency/percentage of coverage were reported using SAS 9.2.Results: GDDPs covered the highest number of drugs for hypertension (21-27 across different GDDPs and the least (3-5 across different GDDPs for pulmonary/respiratory conditions. Arthritis (5-11, mental disorders (6-11 and diabetes (5-7 had similar coverage. When compared to the top 200 drugs by retail dollars spent during 2008, hypertension (68%-87% and diabetes (63%-88% had the highest coverage followed by respiratory conditions (30%-50%, arthritis (22%-48%, and mental disorders (21%-38%. Similar result was obtained when GDDP coverage was compared with the top 200 generic drugs by sales volume, where diabetes (63-88% and hypertension (57%-74% had the highest coverage and mental disorders remained the lowest (23%-37%.Conclusion/Implications: Drug coverage in GDDPs varied by pharmacies across the five common chronic conditions evaluated which may limit accessibility of these programs for

  13. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY... Assistance Program (EAAP) and clarifying the definition of ``active shipping order.'' DATES: Effective Date... address that matter this rule amends in the payment calculation for semi-processed and reginned motes in 7...

  14. Dynamic pricing for demand response considering market price uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali Fotouhi; Soares, Joao; Morais, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Retail energy providers (REPs) can employ different strategies such as offering demand response (DR) programs, participating in bilateral contracts, and employing self-generation distributed generation (DG) units to avoid financial losses in the volatile electricity markets. In this paper......, the problem of setting dynamic retail sales price by a REP is addressed with a robust optimization technique. In the proposed model, the REP offers price-based DR programs while it faces uncertainties in the wholesale market price. The main contribution of this paper is using a robust optimization approach...

  15. Urban Extension's New Nontraditional Offering: Parent-Child Reading Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Dorothy P.; Tsamaase, Marea; Humphrey, Ronnie; Crenshaw, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is causing a major shift in Extension's programming throughout the United States. We present results of a nontraditional urban program (the Parent-Child Reading Enhancement Program) that is being implemented by Alabama Cooperative Extension System's Urban Affairs and New Nontraditional Programs unit. Findings suggest that this…

  16. Heart and lung organ offer acceptance practices of transplant programs are associated with waitlist mortality and organ yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Andrew; Valapour, Maryam; Skeans, Melissa A; Salkowski, Nicholas; Colvin, Monica; Kasiske, Bertram L; Israni, Ajay K; Snyder, Jon J

    2018-04-19

    Variation in heart and lung offer acceptance practices may affect numbers of transplanted organs and create variability in waitlist mortality. To investigate these issues, offer acceptance ratios, or adjusted odds ratios, for heart and lung transplant programs individually and for all programs within donation service areas (DSAs) were estimated using offers from donors recovered July 1, 2016-June 30, 2017. Logistic regressions estimated the association of DSA-level offer acceptance ratios with donor yield and local placement of organs recovered in the DSA. Competing risk methodology estimated the association of program-level offer acceptance ratios with incidence and rate of waitlist removals due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant. Higher DSA-level offer acceptance was associated with higher yield (odds ratios [ORs]: lung, 1.04 1.11 1.19 ; heart, 1.09 1.21 1.35 ) and more local placement of transplanted organs (ORs: lung, 1.01 1.12 1.24 ; heart, 1.47 1.69 1.93 ). Higher program-level offer acceptance was associated with lower incidence of waitlist removal due to death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant (hazard ratios [HRs]: heart, 0.80 0.86 0.93 ; lung, 0.67 0.75 0.83 ), but not with rate of waitlist removal (HRs: heart, 0.91 0.98 1.06 ; lung, 0.89 0.99 1.10 ). Heart and lung offer acceptance practices affected numbers of transplanted organs and contributed to program-level variability in the probability of waitlist mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Course Length Versus Course Price: Marketing Factors in Program Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    Recent program planning literature involving adult education has attempted to draw upon techniques from marketing management. Most of the literature has, however, not explored the relationship between adult education program decision needs and fundamental marketing concepts. Adult educators and marketing managers are conducting similar daily…

  18. Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming for Adapting to the Change of Stock Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Mabu, Shingo; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    The key in stock trading model is to take the right actions for trading at the right time, primarily based on the accurate forecast of future stock trends. Since an effective trading with given information of stock prices needs an intelligent strategy for the decision making, we applied Genetic Network Programming (GNP) to creating a stock trading model. In this paper, we propose a new method called Real Time Updating Genetic Network Programming (RTU-GNP) for adapting to the change of stock prices. There are three important points in this paper: First, the RTU-GNP method makes a stock trading decision considering both the recommendable information of technical indices and the candlestick charts according to the real time stock prices. Second, we combine RTU-GNP with a Sarsa learning algorithm to create the programs efficiently. Also, sub-nodes are introduced in each judgment and processing node to determine appropriate actions (buying/selling) and to select appropriate stock price information depending on the situation. Third, a Real Time Updating system has been firstly introduced in our paper considering the change of the trend of stock prices. The experimental results on the Japanese stock market show that the trading model with the proposed RTU-GNP method outperforms other models without real time updating. We also compared the experimental results using the proposed method with Buy&Hold method to confirm its effectiveness, and it is clarified that the proposed trading model can obtain much higher profits than Buy&Hold method.

  19. Philippine Astronomy Convention 2009 Abstract: Program Offerings in Astronomy in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. R. F.

    2009-03-01

    The formal academic programs in Astronomy of the Rizal Technological University are the first such programs in the Philippines. The Master of Science in Astronomy program is envisioned to provide the student with a wide range of knowledge in many areas of Astronomy, leaning towards the descriptive aspects of knowledge. The student will choose the field or research most suitable to his or her interests. Three of these researches done while enrolled in the program, and even researches completed before the student actually enrolled in the program, may be considered as his or her thesis. The program suits professionals in all persuasions who wish to study Astronomy either for professional advancement or plainly for the love of the science or for intellectual satisfaction. Non-science majors can enroll. In 2008, the RTU Graduate School decided to ladderize the MS program and the Graduate Diploma in Astronomy was designed. This program is suited for science educators, astronomy lecturers and entrepreneurs, members of astronomical societies, and plain astronomy enthusiasts who like to gain in-depth knowledge in the most important aspects of astronomy. A bachelor's degree in any field is required. The program can be finished in two semesters and one summer. If the student opts to continue in the MS in Astronomy program, all the courses he or she has earned in the Diploma will be credited. The Bachelor of Science in Astronomy Technology is an intensive baccalaureate degree program designed to prepare students to become future research scientists and technologists in the field of Astronomy. The BS in Astronomy Technology is a cross-fertilized program, integrating interrelated sciences, such as engineering, geology, remote sensing, physics, atmospheric and environmental science, biology and biochemistry, and even philosophy and entrepreneurship into the study. Thus, the B.S. in Astronomy Technology program gives the student excellent job opportunities in many fields.

  20. Pricing Programs Spur Growth of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    marketing of the "green power" product is a critical element of success. Other key factors include whether the program creates "personal value" for customers and the extent to which a utility given utilities and their customers a powerful new tool to foster environmentally friendly energy

  1. Library Standards and Guidelines for Institutions Affiliated with or Offering Extension Programs of Andrews University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneise, Harvey, Ed.; And Others

    Andrews University (Michigan), which is sponsored by the General Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists, extends its academic program to 14 other institutions, three in the United States and abroad. The program permits students in other countries to obtain a recognized, quality tertiary or graduate education. Andrews' research library, the James…

  2. The International Studies Minor in Practice: Program Offerings and Student Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning, Marijke; Quinn, John James

    2011-01-01

    International studies programs are increasingly popular at colleges and universities across the United States, and most prior research and efforts have been has focused on the international studies major. However, institutions may often find it much easier to create a minor rather than a major program given scarce resources and a preexisting…

  3. Using employee experts to offer an interprofessional diabetes risk reduction program to fellow employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Thomas L; Gillespie, Nicole D; Skrabal, Maryann Z; Faulkner, Michele A; Skradski, Jessica J; Ferguson, Liz A; Pagenkemper, Joni J; Moore, Geri A; Jorgensen, Diane

    2013-03-01

    A recent increase in the incidence of diabetes and pre-diabetes is causing many employers to spend more of their healthcare benefit budgets to manage the conditions. A self-insured university in the USA has implemented an interprofessional diabetes mellitus risk reduction program using its own employee faculty and staff experts to help fellow employees manage their diabetes and pre-diabetes. The interprofessional team consists of five pharmacists, a dietitian, an exercise physiologist, a health educator and a licensed mental health practitioner. In addition, the participant's physician serves as a consultant to the program, as does a human resources healthcare benefits specialist and a wellness coordinator. The volunteer program takes place at the worksite during regular business hours and is free of charge to the employees. The faculty and staff delivering the program justify the cost of their time through an interprofessional educational model that the program will soon provide to university students.

  4. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging through Chance Constrained Mixed-Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method through chance constrained mixed-integer programming designed to alleviate the possible congestion in the future distribution network with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In order to represent the stochastic...

  5. 41 CFR 102-192.175 - What types of support does GSA offer to Federal agency mail management programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in mail management and mail operations; (b) Identifying better business practices and sharing them... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of support does GSA offer to Federal agency mail management programs? 102-192.175 Section 102-192.175 Public...

  6. The effect of state renewable portfolio standards on consumer participation in green pricing programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, James L.

    In the last several years, two mechanisms for increasing the supply of renewable electricity have become increasingly popular: renewable portfolio standards, a state policy of mandating increased production of green power; and green pricing programs, which allow customers to purchase green power through their utilities. These mechanisms have been effective in increasing the adoption of renewable energy; however, it is unclear whether they interact in a way that is mutually beneficial or counterproductive. It is important to understand the effect of renewable portfolio standards on the voluntary market for green energy, especially as Congress considers a nationwide portfolio standard. The effectiveness of a renewable portfolio standard may be undercut if it leads customers to purchase less green power. This study analyzes the relationship between the passage and implementation of a renewable portfolio standard and two measures of enrollment in utility green pricing programs. Using eight years of data for all fifty states, the study utilizes multiple regression analysis with fixed-effects estimation. The results indicate that the passage of a renewable portfolio standard has a positive and statistically significant effect on green pricing enrollment within the state. At the same time, the rate at which states increase the stringency of the renewable portfolio standard is found to have no effect on enrollment. Although further study is needed to determine if additional factors are responsible for the observed increase in green pricing enrollment, this study provides evidence that such programs do not harm, and may in fact encourage, voluntary purchases of green power.

  7. Dynamic Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes h...... of dynamic pricing can lead to increased willingness of consumers to participate in DR programs which in turn improve the operation of liberalized electricity markets.......Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes...

  8. Restaurant owners' perspectives on a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions, Los Angeles County, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren; Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2014-03-20

    Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic.

  9. Restaurant Owners’ Perspectives on a Voluntary Program to Recognize Restaurants for Offering Reduced-Size Portions, Los Angeles County, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Lauren; Kuo, Tony; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the portion size of food and beverages served at restaurants has emerged as a strategy for addressing the obesity epidemic; however, barriers and facilitators to achieving this goal are not well characterized. Methods In fall 2012, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health conducted semistructured interviews with restaurant owners to better understand contextual factors that may impede or facilitate participation in a voluntary program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions. Results Interviews were completed with 18 restaurant owners (representing nearly 350 restaurants). Analyses of qualitative data revealed 6 themes related to portion size: 1) perceived customer demand is central to menu planning; 2) multiple portion sizes are already being offered for at least some food items; 3) numerous logistical barriers exist for offering reduced-size portions; 4) restaurant owners have concerns about potential revenue losses from offering reduced-size portions; 5) healthful eating is the responsibility of the customer; and 6) a few owners want to be socially responsible industry leaders. Conclusion A program to recognize restaurants for offering reduced-size portions may be a feasible approach in Los Angeles County. These findings may have applications for jurisdictions interested in engaging restaurants as partners in reducing the obesity epidemic. PMID:24650622

  10. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Pricing Weather Derivatives under Issuer Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Karl Härdle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contingent claims with payoff based on a pre-specified weather index. Firms exposed to weather risk can transfer it to financial markets via weather derivatives. We develop a utility-based model for pricing baskets of weather derivatives under default risk on the issuer side in over-the-counter markets. In our model, agents maximise the expected utility of their terminal wealth, while they dynamically rebalance their weather portfolios over a finite investment horizon. Using dynamic programming approach, we obtain semi-closed forms for the equilibrium prices of weather derivatives and for the optimal strategies of the agents. We give an example on how to price rainfall derivatives on selected stations in China in the universe of a financial investor and a weather exposed crop insurer.

  11. The role of complementarity and partner brand price level in new product introduction strategy using bundle offers: A study on the quality perception of bundle components.

    OpenAIRE

    Khandeparkar, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    New products are often bundled with strong brands as an introduction strategy. This study helps to understand the scenarios which will be most beneficial to both the products in the bundle. The enhancement effect and categorisation theory is used to explain that the new product's quality perception is higher when it is bundled with a strong brand of a higher price and this effect is moderated by the complementarity of the bundled components. Also, the quality perception of the strong brand is...

  12. Law and Justice CTE Program Offers a Hands-On Approach to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Tom Washburn, founder of the Law and Justice Program in Fulton County Schools in Atlanta, Georgia, sees career and technical education (CTE) as a framework for gains in reading comprehension, public speaking, math and science. "It's a holistic approach to learning, framed by law and justice. Behind the scenes we're reading novels, improving…

  13. Opportunity Knocks: Pipeline Programs Offer Minority Students a Path to Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Minority students have traditionally been underrepresented in dental schools, which is why enrichment and pipeline programs aimed at helping minority students are necessary. That reality is reflected in their woeful underrepresentation among practicing dentists. Hispanics made up only 5.8 percent of practicing dentists in 2011, according to the…

  14. Parenting programs during adolescence: Outcomes from universal and targeted interventions offered in real-world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Elin K; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Anders G

    2018-04-26

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to explore short and long-term outcomes of five different group-based parenting programs offered to parents of 10 to 17-year-olds. Three hundred and fifteen parents (277 mothers and 38 fathers) who had enrolled in a parenting program (universal: Active Parenting, COPE; Connect; targeted: COMET; Leadership training for parents of teenagers [LFT]) answered questionnaires at three measurement waves (baseline, post-measurement, and one-year follow-up). The questions concerned parenting style, parental mental health, family climate and adolescent mental health. Results revealed small to moderate changes in almost all outcome variables and in all parenting programs. Overall, parents in COMET reported the largest short and long-term changes. No substantial differences in change were seen between the other programs. The results support the general effectiveness of parenting programs for parents of adolescents. © 2018 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Relevant Skills for Forensic Accountants – Can the Romanian Accounting Education Programs offer them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobițan Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania for becoming a forensic accountant it is necessary, as preliminary conditions, first,to have a bachelor`s degree in accounting or finance, and second, to attain a certification, aschartered accountant, given by the professional body, CECCAR, and after that, as forensicaccountant. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the Romanian academic educationand the professional education can assure all the relevant skills for a forensic accountant. In orderto achieve the objective, first, the authors investigated the most important studies which have thepurpose to identify the relevant skills for a forensic accountant. Second, the authors reviewed thecurriculum of the most important faculties with the aim to find and connect different courses withdifferent skills. The purpose was to determine how the forensic accounting education, offered to theprofessional accountants, assures them, all the relevant skills that are necessary in the profession.

  16. Planning and development of the Better Bites program: a pricing manipulation strategy to improve healthy eating in a hospital cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Mina L; Patsch, Amy J; Smith, Jennifer Howard; Behrens, Timothy K; Charles, Tami; Bailey, Taryn R

    2013-07-01

    The Better Bites program, a hospital cafeteria nutrition intervention strategy, was developed by combining evidence-based practices with hospital-specific formative research, including key informant interviews, the Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants, hospital employee surveys, and nutrition services staff surveys. The primary program components are pricing manipulation and marketing to promote delicious, affordable, and healthy foods to hospital employees and other cafeteria patrons. The pricing manipulation component includes decreasing the price of the healthy items and increasing the price of the unhealthy items using a 35% price differential. Point-of-purchase marketing highlights taste, cost, and health benefits of the healthy items. The program aims to increase purchases of healthy foods and decrease purchases of unhealthy foods, while maintaining revenue neutrality. This article addresses the formative research, planning, and development that informed the Better Bites program.

  17. Gas and electricity providers. Offensive of alternate providers, launching of green offers, price-based conquest: which perspectives for the market and the competitive game by 2019?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    As the end of regulated tariffs for industries and local communities resulted in a total new deal on the electric power and gas providing market, notably with newcomers who decided to cut prices, this study aims at identifying actual perspectives for the power and gas markets by 2019, and actual levers of action for providers to gain market shares. After a synthesis and a proposal of some strategic conclusions, the report proposes an analysis of the activity and of its perspectives: determining factors, overview of the activity until 2016 (power and gas provisions in France, production and consumption prices for gas and for electric power, regulated tariffs), and provisional scenario by 2019 regarding electricity and gas provisions in France. A second part analyses the external environment through a discussion of external drivers and brakes, and an analysis of demand. The third part reports an analysis of the competitive landscape (market shares per strategic groups, in power providing and in gas providing, and switch rate between residential and non-residential customers). The last part addresses development axes and proposes a discussion of offensive conquest strategies, a discussion of actor positioning on green energies, a discussion of supply adaptation and targeting depending on customers with an analysis of three specific segments (mobility, data centres, and self-consumption), and a discussion of the diversification of services

  18. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  19. Developing a goal programming model for ideal/mutual house price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiddin, Nor Syuhadah; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Sulaiman, Nor Intan Saniah

    2015-12-01

    One cannot deny the importance of a house as a living need. Unfortunately, the unreasonable house price makes it approximately impossible to be owned, mostly for middle income group. Nowadays, the middle income house buyers have two alternatives, whether to buy it from a private developer or through PR1MA and My First Home scheme, since both parties have their own advantages. Goal programming has been employed to resolve the multi objective problem among parties. Due to the complex decision making in house price determination between the parties, this study purposely modeled the problem using interval goal programming approach. Goal programming and interval goal programming can be differ based on their goal (i.e. the aspire level) which is in the form of interval. This study employed primary data and secondary data, which primary data is acquired from semi-structured interview with private developer, while secondary data is the data obtained from literature review. Initial result shows the satisfactory house price over preferences and needs of the decision makers, which are RM454, 050.00 for the private developer, RM322, 880.00 for the government and range of RM2380.95 to RM245, 100.00 for the house buyer. This suggests the house price range that is satisfied by all parties which is about RM238, 000.95 to RM460, 000.00.The satisfaction might occurred when they are all cooperating, which the way could enlighten the impact of collaboration between the parties. This could be the limitations for this study.

  20. Development of a metrics dashboard for monitoring involvement in the 340B Drug Pricing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karralli, Rusol; Tipton, Joyce; Dumitru, Doina; Scholz, Lisa; Masilamani, Santhi

    2015-09-01

    An electronic tool to support hospital organizations in monitoring and addressing financial and compliance challenges related to participation in the 340B Drug Pricing Program is described. In recent years there has been heightened congressional and regulatory scrutiny of the federal 340B program, which provides discounted drug prices on Medicaid-covered drugs to safety net hospitals and other 340B-eligible healthcare organizations, or "covered entities." Historically, the 340B program has lacked a metrics-driven reporting framework to help covered entities capture the value of 340B program involvement, community benefits provided to underserved populations, and costs associated with compliance with 340B eligibility requirements. As part of an initiative by a large health system to optimize its 340B program utilization and regulatory compliance efforts, a team of pharmacists led the development of an electronic dashboard tool to help monitor 340B program activities at the system's 340B-eligible facilities. After soliciting input from an array of internal and external 340B program stakeholders, the team designed the dashboard and associated data-entry tools to facilitate the capture and analysis of 340B program-related data in four domains: cost savings and revenue, program maintenance costs, community benefits, and compliance. A large health system enhanced its ability to evaluate and monitor 340B program-related activities through the use of a dashboard tool capturing key metrics on cost savings achieved, maintenance costs, and other aspects of program involvement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of an Influenza Vaccination Program Offering Microneedle Patch for Vaccine Delivery in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Wong

    Full Text Available The influenza vaccine coverage rate of children is low in Hong Kong. Microneedle patches (MNPs is a technology under development for painless delivery of vaccines. This study aimed to examine the potential clinical outcomes and direct medical costs of an influenza program offering MNP vaccine to children who have declined intramuscular (IM vaccine in Hong Kong.A decision model was designed to compare potential outcomes between IM vaccine program and a program offering MNP vaccine to those declined IM vaccine (IM/MNP program in a hypothetical cohort of children over one-year time horizon. The model outcomes included direct medical cost, influenza infection rate, mortality rate, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs loss. Model inputs were retrieved from published literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of model results.In base-case analysis, IM/MNP program was more costly per child (USD19.13 versus USD13.69; USD1 = HKD7.8 with lower influenza infection rate (98.9 versus 124.8 per 1,000 children, hospitalization rate (0.83 versus 1.05 per 1,000 children and influenza-related mortality rate (0.00042 versus 0.00052 per 1,000 children when compared to IM program. The incremental cost per QALY saved (ICER of IM/MNP program versus IM program was 27,200 USD/QALY. Using gross domestic product (GDP per capita of Hong Kong (USD40,594 as threshold of willingness-to-pay (WTP per QALY, one-way sensitivity analysis found ICER of IM/MNP to exceed WTP when duration of illness in outpatient setting was 1.39-time of IM vaccine cost. In 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations, IM/MNP program was the preferred option in 57.28% and 91.68% of the time, using 1x and 3x GDP per capita as WTP threshold, respectively.Acceptance of IM/MNP program as the preferred program was subject to the WTP threshold, duration of illness in outpatient settings, and cost of MNP vaccine.

  2. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing through Quadratic Programming for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2015-01-01

    ) calculates dynamic tariffs and publishes them to the aggregators, who make the optimal energy plans for the flexible demands. The DLMP through QP instead of linear programing as studied in previous literatures solves the multiple solution issue of the ag- gregator optimization which may cause......This paper presents the distribution locational mar- ginal pricing (DLMP) method through quadratic programming (QP) designed to alleviate the congestion that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of flexible demands. In the DLMP method, the distribution system operator (DSO...

  3. Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry R

    2012-02-01

    We examined health effects associated with 3 tobacco control interventions in Washington State: a comprehensive state program, a state policy banning smoking in public places, and price increases. We used linear regression models to predict changes in smoking prevalence and specific tobacco-related health conditions associated with the interventions. We estimated dollars saved over 10 years (2000-2009) by the value of hospitalizations prevented, discounting for national trends. Smoking declines in the state exceeded declines in the nation. Of the interventions, the state program had the most consistent and largest effect on trends for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cancer. Over 10 years, implementation of the program was associated with prevention of nearly 36,000 hospitalizations, at a value of about $1.5 billion. The return on investment for the state program was more than $5 to $1. The combined program, policy, and price interventions resulted in reductions in smoking and related health effects, while saving money. Public health and other leaders should continue to invest in tobacco control, including comprehensive programs.

  4. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  5. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    For members of the Staff Association Aquaparc is celebrating its 10th anniversary We have a limited number of Aquaparc tickets valid for the whole day at the following prices: adult: 28 CHF instead of 46 CHF child: 23 CHF instead of 38 CHF

  6. OFFER - WALIBI

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      WALIBI The summer is here, do not hesitate to benefit of the discounted price of our partner Walibi for a great fun! Single rate Adult/Children of 21.50 euros - Please pass by the SA secretariat to buy your ticket Free for children under 3 years old, with limited access to the attractions.  

  7. Beyond the Price Effect in Time-of-Use Programs: Results from a Municipal Utility Pilot, 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Susan; Peters, Jane; Moezzi, Mithra; Woods, James

    2009-08-12

    This paper discusses results of a two-year collaborative research project between the authors and the Demand Response Research Center focused on behavioral response to a voluntary time-of-use pilot rate offered by the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD) under the PowerChoice label. The project had two purposes: one was to assess the potential for increasing demand response through the introduction of enhanced information and real-time consumption feedback; the second was to better understand behavioral response to a TOU rate. Three successive waves of telephone surveys collected details about reasons for participation, actions taken, capacities and constraints to altering behavior, and a range of salient conditions, such as demographics and dwelling characteristics. Pre- and post-program interval meter data for participants and a comparison sample of households were also collected and analyzed to consider initial and season-change price effects of the rate and the effect of supplemental information treatments on response. Over half of surveyed participating households reported that they had made a great deal of effort to adjust their electricity consumption to the rate. Despite this, load data analysis revealed only minimal price effects; and, though households subjected to information treatments seemed to have learned from these treatments, load data analysis again detected only minimal effects on load. Given the currently high hopes for behavioral intervention and residential TOU rates, these unexpected results require explanation. We suggest a number of possibilities and discuss some implications for TOU programs, and for understanding demand response behavior and approaches to experiments with TOU rates.

  8. 76 FR 78095 - Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 0584-AD54 [FNS-2007-0023] Applying for Free and Reduced Price Meals in the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program and for Benefits in the Special Milk Program, and Technical... school meals to implement nondiscretionary provisions of the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act...

  9. Breast cancer survivors' barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; St-Aubin, Anik; Brunet, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and motives experienced by women attending an 8-week group-based physical activity program offered in the community following treatment for breast cancer. Seven women were interviewed during the first and last week of the program. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Factors that hindered women's continued participation could be subdivided into situational barriers, which encompassed community (i.e., distance of center and traffic) and institutional factors (i.e., competing roles and responsibilities), and internal barriers, which consisted of cancer-specific limitations. Motives for initial and continued participation were situational (i.e., gaining social support, networking, and being around similar others) and internal (i.e., feeling a sense of personal fulfillment, acquiring health benefits, and recovering from cancer). The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of women's motives to engage in a group-based physical activity program after treatment for breast cancer. Further, they underscore the necessity of considering situational and internal barriers when developing group-based physical activity programs to increase regular participation, optimize adherence, and reduce drop-out.

  10. Do 'enabling technologies' affect customer performance in price-responsive load programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Heffner, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Price-responsive load (PRL) programs vary significantly in overall design, the complexity of relationships between program administrators, load aggregators, and customers, and the availability of ''enabling technologies''. Enabling technologies include such features as web-based power system and price monitoring, control and dispatch of curtailable loads, communications and information systems links to program participants, availability of interval metering data to customers in near real time, and building/facility/end-use automation and management capabilities. Two state agencies - NYSERDA in New York and the CEC in California - have been conspicuous leaders in the demonstration of demand response (DR) programs utilizing enabling technologies. In partnership with key stakeholders in these two states (e.g., grid operator, state energy agencies, and program administrators), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed 56 customers who worked with five contractors participating in CEC or NYSERDA-sponsored DR programs. We combined market research and actual load curtailment data when available (i.e., New York) or customer load reduction targets in order to explore the relative importance of contractor's program design features, sophistication of control strategies, and reliance on enabling technologies in predicting customer's ability to deliver load reductions in DR programs targeted to large commercial/industrial customers. We found preliminary evidence that DR enabling technology has a positive effect on load curtailment potential. Many customers indicated that web-based energy information tools were useful for facilitating demand response (e.g., assessing actual performance compared to load reduction contract commitments), that multiple notification channels facilitated timely response, and that support for and use of backup generation allowed customers to achieve significant and predictable load

  11. How to offer culturally relevant type 2 diabetes screening: lessons learned from the South asian diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Draanen, Jenna; Shafique, Ammara; Farissi, Aziz; Wickramanayake, Dilani; Kuttaiya, Sheela; Oza, Shobha; Stephens, Neil

    2014-10-01

    The literature on diabetes mellitus in the South Asian population clearly states the high-risk status of this group, yet there is a lack of effective models of culturally relevant, community-based screening and education programs for such a group. The South Asian Diabetes Prevention Program (SADPP) was developed to enhance equitable access to diabetes prevention resources for the South Asian communities in Toronto by offering language-specific and culturally relevant services. The SADPP model works through 3 participant education sessions plus an additional attachment and enrolment component. The screening tool that SADPP uses to provide participants with their individual risk score at the first education session is derived from the multiculturally validated Canadian Diabetes Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CANRISK), which has been modified to reflect the distinctive characteristics of the South Asian population. After analyzing the risk scores, 32% of participants were at increased risk, 40% were at high risk, 21% were at very high risk and only 7% were found to be at low risk of diabetes development. Evaluations of the program conducted in 2010 and 2013 revealed that the program is achieving its objectives and that participants increase their knowledge and self-efficacy related to diabetes prevention after program participation. Participants reported that the presentation from the nurse and dietitian, the question-and-answer time, the healthy eating demonstration, the multiple languages of delivery and the convenient location were especially beneficial. Those working in the field are encouraged to adapt this model and to contribute to the development of culturally relevant, community-driven diabetes prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What can a pilot congestive heart failure disease management program tell us about likely return on investment?: A case study from a program offered to federal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanVonno, Catherine J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Smith, Mark W; Thomas, Eileen G; Kelley, Doniece; Goetzel, Ron; Berg, Gregory D; Jain, Susheel K; Walker, David R

    2005-12-01

    In 1999, the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Federal Employee Program (FEP) implemented a pilot disease management program to manage congestive heart failure (CHF) among members. The purpose of this project was to estimate the financial return on investment in the pilot CHF program, prior to a full program rollout. A cohort of 457 participants from the state of Maryland was matched to a cohort of 803 nonparticipants from a neighboring state where the CHF program was not offered. Each cohort was followed for 12 months before the program began and 12 months afterward. The outcome measures of primary interest were the differences over time in medical care expenditures paid by FEP and by all payers. Independent variables included indicators of program participation, type of heart disease, comorbidity measures, and demographics. From the perspective of the funding organization (FEP), the estimated return on investment for the pilot CHF disease management program was a savings of $1.08 in medical expenditure for every dollar spent on the program. Adding savings to other payers as well, the return on investment was a savings of $1.15 in medical expenditures per dollar spent on the program. The amount of savings depended upon CHF risk levels. The value of a pilot initiative and evaluation is that lessons for larger-scale efforts can be learned prior to full-scale rollout.

  13. Joint pricing and production management: a geometric programming approach with consideration of cubic production cost function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.

  14. Beyond Fees and Charges: The Need for a Pricing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugman, Sarah Jones

    1985-01-01

    As citizens demand governmental accountability, recreation agencies must devote attention to determining the cost of programs and to justifying the fee structure assigned to each program. This article addresses the need for proper pricing and offers a plan for establishing a pricing strategy. (MT)

  15. Milton Hydro's Energy Drill Program : demand response based on behavioural responses to price signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, D.; Heeney, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Drill Program is a demand response tool and economic instrument based on a fire drill protocol. The aim of the program is to reduce peak demand and emissions and improve system reliability and price volatility. This presentation provided details of an Energy Drill pilot program, conducted in Milton, Ontario. Customized approaches were used in the buildings partaking in the drill, which included the Milton Hydro Headquarters, the Robert Baldwin Public School, and a leisure centre. Building assessments inventoried building systems and equipment usage patterns. Pilot monitoring and evaluation was conducted through the use of checklists completed by marshals and building coordinators. Energy use data was tracked by Milton Hydro, and report cards were sent after each drill. A short-term drop in demand was observed in all the buildings, as well as overall reductions in peak period demand. Energy consumption data for all the buildings were provided. Results of the pilot program suggested that rotating the drills among participating buildings may prove to be a more effective strategy for the program to adopt in future. A greater emphasis on energy efficiency was also recommended. It was concluded that the eventual roll-out strategy should carefully consider the number and types of buildings involved in the program; internal commitment to the program; available resources; and timing for implementation. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Offers INTERSOCCER

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Summer Football camps   New offer to the members of the Staff Association – INTERSOCCER: 12% discount on summer football camps and courses for children (bilingual) so do not hesitate anymore!    

  17. An overview of course offered by the USA, UK and France to support Nuclear Power Program (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2012-01-01

    In her presentation, speaker address a topic on nuclear education that offered by USA, UK and France to support nuclear power program. Her presentation actually assist students that are willing to explore several courses related to nuclear energy and its application. The speaker also explained briefly the impact of major nuclear accidents such as Fukushima that can influence the participation of students to study in these fields. She also outlines several nuclear stake holders and also some activities to support nuclear application such as planning, research, engineering, environmental impact assessment and others. She also explain in detail the needs to develop human capital especially for this field. At the end of her lectures, she tried to suggest several recommendations so that the audients can use in order to review their own strategies and planning for future training and studies. (author)

  18. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    standard practice is to deflate costs to constant dollars (the dependent variable in the analogous regression) using a previously determined price ...I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5489 March 2016 The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in...DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013]. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

  19. A first formal link between the price equation and an optimization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2002-07-07

    The Darwin unification project is pursued. A meta-model encompassing an important class of population genetic models is formed by adding an abstract model of the number of successful gametes to the Price equation under uncertainty. A class of optimization programs are defined to represent the "individual-as-maximizing-agent analogy" in a general way. It is then shown that for each population genetic model there is a corresponding optimization program with which formal links can be established. These links provide a secure logical foundation for the commonplace biological principle that natural selection leads organisms to act as if maximizing their "fitness", provides a definition of "fitness", and clarifies the limitations of that principle. The situations covered do not include frequency dependence or social behaviour, but the approach is capable of extension.

  20. Special offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    Special discount to the members of the Staff Association Aquaparc Discounted prices on admission of whole day. Children from 5 to 15 years: 26.– CHF instead of 35.– CHF; Adults from 16 years: 32.– CHF instead of 43.– CHF.Tickets on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. BCGE Account management on salary account and annual subscription to credit cards free of charge. Other benefits on mortgage loan and financial planning. Comédie de Genève 20% off on full price tickets (also available for partner): from 24 to 32 CHF a ticket instead of 30 to 40 CHF depending on the shows. Ezee Suisse 15% off on the range of electric bikes upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card before payment. FNAC 5% discount on gifts card available in four Swiss shops without any restriction. Gifts card on sale to the Staff Association Secretariat. FutureKids 15% off for the Staff Association members who enrol their children of 5 to 16 years old in ...

  1. Price and Healthfulness of Snacks in 32 YMCA After-School Programs in 4 US Metropolitan Areas, 2006-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S.; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Wiecha, Jean L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. Methods We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was...

  2. Price and healthfulness of snacks in 32 YMCA after-school programs in 4 US metropolitan areas, 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Rebecca S; Andry, Analisa; Lee, Rebekka M; Wiecha, Jean L; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-01-01

    A common perception is that healthful foods are more expensive than less healthful foods. We assessed the cost of beverages and foods served at YMCA after-school programs, determined whether healthful snacks were more expensive, and identified inexpensive, healthful options. We collected daily snack menus from 32 YMCAs nationwide from 2006 to 2008 and derived prices of beverages and foods from the US Department of Agriculture price database. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations of healthful snacks and of beverage and food groups with price (n = 1,294 snack-days). We identified repeatedly served healthful snacks consistent with Child and Adult Care Food Program guidelines and reimbursement rate ($0.74/snack). On average, healthful snacks were approximately 50% more expensive than less healthful snacks ($0.26/snack; SE, 0.08; P = .003). Compared to water, 100% juice significantly increased average snack price, after controlling for other variables in the model. Similarly, compared to refined grains with trans fats, refined grains without trans fat significantly increased snack price, as did fruit and canned or frozen vegetables. Fresh vegetables (mostly carrots or celery) or whole grains did not alter price. Twenty-two repeatedly served snacks met nutrition guidelines and the reimbursement rate. In this sample of after-school programs, healthful snacks were typically more expensive than less healthful options; however, we identified many healthful snacks served at or below the price of less healthful options. Substituting tap water for 100% juice yielded price savings that could be used toward purchasing more healthful foods (eg, an apple). Our findings have practical implications for selecting snacks that meet health and reimbursement guidelines.

  3. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  4. Offering Strategy of a Flexibility Aggregator in a Balancing Market Using Asymmetric Block Offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobo, Lucien Ali; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Vespermann, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    scenarios are used to find optimal load-shifting offers under uncertainty. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed-integer linear program and can be solved with reasonable computational time. This work is taking place in the framework of the real-life demonstration project EcoGrid 2.0, which......In order to enable large-scale penetration of renewables with variable generation, new sources of flexibility have to be exploited in the power systems. Allowing asymmetric block offers (including response and rebound blocks) in balancing markets can facilitate the participation of flexibility...... aggregators and unlock load-shifting flexibility from, e.g., thermostatic loads. In this paper, we formulate an optimal offering strategy for a risk-averse flexibility aggregator participating in such a market. Using a price-taker approach, load flexibility characteristics and balancing market price forecast...

  5. Nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price: a validation study with linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillot, Matthieu; Ferguson, Elaine L; Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole

    2008-06-01

    Nutrient profiling ranks foods based on their nutrient content. They may help identify foods with a good nutritional quality for their price. This hypothesis was tested using diet modeling with linear programming. Analyses were undertaken using food intake data from the nationally representative French INCA (enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) survey and its associated food composition and price database. For each food, a nutrient profile score was defined as the ratio between the previously published nutrient density score (NDS) and the limited nutrient score (LIM); a nutritional quality for price indicator was developed and calculated from the relationship between its NDS:LIM and energy cost (in euro/100 kcal). We developed linear programming models to design diets that fulfilled increasing levels of nutritional constraints at a minimal cost. The median NDS:LIM values of foods selected in modeled diets increased as the levels of nutritional constraints increased (P = 0.005). In addition, the proportion of foods with a good nutritional quality for price indicator was higher (P linear programming and the nutrient profiling approaches indicates that nutrient profiling can help identify foods of good nutritional quality for their price. Linear programming is a useful tool for testing nutrient profiling systems and validating the concept of nutrient profiling.

  6. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  7. Special offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  8. Mixed integer nonlinear programming model of wireless pricing scheme with QoS attribute of bandwidth and end-to-end delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmeilyana, Puspita, Fitri Maya; Indrawati

    2016-02-01

    The pricing for wireless networks is developed by considering linearity factors, elasticity price and price factors. Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming of wireless pricing model is proposed as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO 13.0. The solutions are expected to give some information about the connections between the acceptance factor and the price. Previous model worked on the model that focuses on bandwidth as the QoS attribute. The models attempt to maximize the total price for a connection based on QoS parameter. The QoS attributes used will be the bandwidth and the end to end delay that affect the traffic. The maximum goal to maximum price is achieved when the provider determine the requirement for the increment or decrement of price change due to QoS change and amount of QoS value.

  9. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  10. Use of a training program to enhance NICU nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behaviors and offering supportive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2003-06-01

    This study tested the use of a developmentally supportive care (DSC) training program in the form of videotaped and personalized instruction to increase nurses' cognitive abilities for assessing preterm infant behavioral signals and offering supportive care. The study used a two-group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental repeated measures design. The participants were 25 NICU nurses, 13 in the intervention group, and 12 in the control group. An instrument developed for the purpose of the study was a video test that measured the effectiveness of the DSC training. The video test questionnaires were administered to the participants twice with an interval of four weeks. ANCOVA controlling the baseline scores was used for data analysis. In general, the results support the hypothesis that nurses' cognitive abilities were enhanced after the DSC training. The increase in nurses' cognitive abilities is the prerequisite for behavioral change, based on the assumptions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura, 1986). As nurses' cognitive abilities increased, it would be possible that nurse behaviors in taking care of these preterm infants might change. Therefore, the author recommends that in order to improve NICU care quality and the outcomes of preterm infants, the concepts of developmentally supportive care be incorporated into NICU caregiving practice by educating nurses.

  11. 7 CFR 1494.501 - Submission of offers to CCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS EXPORT BONUS PROGRAMS Export Enhancement... contract unit price, delivery terms (e.g., FOB, C&F, etc.); the nature of any arrangements or... CCC bonus; (B) The intention to submit an offer; or (C) The methods or factors used to calculate the...

  12. 78 FR 10265 - Pricing for the 2013 Commemorative Coin Programs-Silver and Clad Coin Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    .... SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing prices for the 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Centennial Silver.... Introductory Product price Regular price 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Centennial $54.95 $59.95 Proof Silver Dollar 2013 Girl Scouts of the USA Centennial 50.95 55.95 Uncirculated Silver Dollar 2013 5-Star Generals...

  13. 48 CFR 552.216-71 - Economic Price Adjustment-Special Order Program Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... updated index, the Contractor shall have waived its right to an upward price adjustment for the balance of... Contractors shall have waived its right to an upward price adjustment for that option period. Alternatively... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic Price Adjustment...

  14. Pricing products: juxtaposing affordability with quality appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Choosing appropriate product prices is 1 of the most crucial steps in creating an effective contraceptive social marketing (CSM) sales campaign. The Social Marketing Forum conducted an informal survey of social marketing project managers, international contractors, and marketing consultants to determine how CSM programs cope with pricing problems and ways to circumvent some obstacles. According to Diana Altman, a family planning consultant, low prices that make products available to needy individuals are more important than the program's self sufficiency, yet if prices are too low, consumers think the products were unusable in the US and thus were dumped on local markets. Other key factors include commercial competition, spiraling inflation rates, and problems with rising prices and retailer/distributor margins. A sampling of per capita gross national products indicates the poverty level of most CSM projects' target market. Consequently, CSM projects must set low pices, regardless of program operating costs. The goal often is to increase the demand and availability for contraceptives. The fact that social marketing products must pass through retail networks to reach consumers complicates the pricing equation. To deal with the problem, India's Nirodh program gives a 25% margin to distributors/wholesalers, compared to 6% offered on most other goods. Retailers also receive a 25% margin, more than double the commercial rate. Once prices are set, increases pose hazards. Local government approval often is a prerequisite and can require lengthy negotiations. Market studies remain a valuable approach to effective pricing, according to PNA's Mallamad and other research consultants. They cite such effective research strategies as test marketing products and asking consumers how prices affect buying habits. Further, CSM projects can jump over some pricing hurdles through creative marketing. An effective pricing strategy alone cannot produce a successful CSM program. Pricing

  15. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  16. Free and Reduced-Price Meal Application and Income Verification Practices in School Nutrition Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junehee; Lee, Yee Ming; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study assessed current practices and attitudes of school nutrition program (SNP) management staff regarding free and reduced-price (F-RP) meal application and verification in SNPs. Methods: Stratified, randomly selected 1,500 SNP management staff in 14 states received a link to an online questionnaire and/or a printed…

  17. A Descriptive Analysis of Supply Factors and Prices for USDA Foods in the National School Lunch Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Schools that participate in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) receive a portion of their annual federal funding as commodity entitlement foods--now called USDA Foods--rather than cash payments. Due to rising food prices in recent years, it has been recommended that schools compare the costs and benefits of commodity and…

  18. 75 FR 76472 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0602] Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications; Request for Notification of Stakeholder Intention To Participate...

  19. FPL-PELPS : a price endogenous linear programming system for economic modeling, supplement to PELPS III, version 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Henry Spelter; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    This report provides documentation and user information for FPL-PELPS, a personal computer price endogenous linear programming system for economic modeling. Originally developed to model the North American pulp and paper industry, FPL-PELPS follows its predecessors in allowing the modeling of any appropriate sector to predict consumption, production and capacity by...

  20. A multi-stage stochastic program for supply chain network redesign problem with price-dependent uncertain demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan; Keyvanshokooh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we address a multi-period supply chain network redesign problem in which customer zones have price-dependent stochastic demand for multiple products. A novel multi-stage stochastic program is proposed to simultaneously make tactical decisions including products' prices and strategic...... redesign decisions. Existing uncertainty in potential demands of customer zones is modeled through a finite set of scenarios, described in the form of a scenario tree. The scenarios are generated using a Latin Hypercube Sampling method and then a forward scenario construction technique is employed...

  1. 16 CFR 502.101 - Introductory offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT Retail Sale Price Representations § 502.101 Introductory offers. (a... retail sale at a price lower than the anticipated ordinary and customary retail sale price. (b) The...

  2. THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTS, PRICE AND SERVICE QUALITY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION IN “RICE FOR THE POORS” PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surip N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and analyze the partial influence of product variables, price and service quality on consumer satisfaction in Indonesian government’s “Rice for the Poors” (“Beras Miskin”, abbreviated as “Raskin” program, as well as the influence of product variable, price and service quality simultaneously to customer satisfaction in the program. The sampling method used is proportionate stratified random sampling. The research is conducted in West Bandung regency, Jawa Barat (West Java Province with a population of 86.908 RTS-PM, and data collection was conducted on October 2015. The method of analysis used in this research is the analysis of correlation and linear regression. The results of the study conclude that the variable of product, price and quality of service simultaneously or partially possess positive and significant effect on consumer satisfaction in Raskin program. The service quality is one of the strong variables that influence the consumer satisfaction, followed by price and product variables.

  3. Automated Critical PeakPricing Field Tests: 2006 Pilot ProgramDescription and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-06-19

    During 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology evaluation for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) Emerging Technologies Programs. This report summarizes the design, deployment, and results from the 2006 Automated Critical Peak Pricing Program (Auto-CPP). The program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying automation systems that allow customers to participate in critical peak pricing (CPP) with a fully-automated response. The 2006 program was in operation during the entire six-month CPP period from May through October. The methodology for this field study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment, and evaluation of sites' participation in actual CPP events through the summer of 2006. LBNL recruited sites in PG&E's territory in northern California through contacts from PG&E account managers, conferences, and industry meetings. Each site contact signed a memorandum of understanding with LBNL that outlined the activities needed to participate in the Auto-CPP program. Each facility worked with LBNL to select and implement control strategies for demand response and developed automation system designs based on existing Internet connectivity and building control systems. Once the automation systems were installed, LBNL conducted communications tests to ensure that the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) correctly provided and logged the continuous communications of the CPP signals with the energy management and control system (EMCS) for each site. LBNL also observed and evaluated Demand Response (DR) shed strategies to ensure proper commissioning of controls. The communication system allowed sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of signals for pre-cooling, a DR strategy used at a few sites. Measurement of demand response was conducted using two different baseline models for estimating peak load savings. One

  4. Effect of management, marketing, and certified health programs on the sale price of beef calves sold through a livestock video auction service from 1995 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Jon T; King, Michael E; Grotelueschen, Dale M; Rogers, Glenn M; Stokka, Gerald S

    2011-08-15

    To evaluate and update the previously quantified effects of management, marketing, and certified health programs on the sale price of beef calves sold through a livestock video auction service. Longitudinal study. 41,657 lots representing 5,042,272 beef calves sold from 1995 through 2009. Data describing each lot of beef calves marketed from 1995 through 2009 by a livestock video auction service were obtained from sale catalogues. For each year of the study, multiple regression analysis was used to quantify the effect of management, marketing, and certified health programs on sale price. Sale date, base sale weight, quadratic effect of base weight, sex of calf, region of origin, breed description, inclusion in a certified health program, and number of calves in the lot significantly affected sale price for every year of the study. Variation in body weight, flesh score, and number of days between sale and delivery date had significant effects on price in most of the years; frame score and calves with horns affected price in 7 of 15 years; age and source verification influenced sale price in every year since source verification was introduced in 2005; and the auction service's progressive genetics program increased price during the 1 year that program was available. Some management, marketing, and certified health initiatives have consistently increased the sale price of beef calves, and producers can increase the price of their calves by implementing these practices.

  5. The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= qÜìêëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=ff= = The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly...The Role of Inflation and Price Escalation Adjustments in Properly Estimating Program Costs: F-35 Case Study Stanley Horowitz, Assistant Division...Graduate School of Engineering and Management, Air Force Institute of Technology Cost and Price Collaboration Venkat Rao, Professor, Defense

  6. From policy to practice: Addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a community partnership between afterschool programs (ASPs) and grocery store to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit/vegetable (FV) daily, while eliminating sugar-based foods/beverages. Methods A single-group, pre- with multiple post-test design (Spring 2011–2013) in four large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/day was used along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. Results At baseline FV, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and desserts were served 0.1±0.5, 1.7±2.0, and 2.0±1.4 days/wk. By Spring 2013, FV increased to 5.0±0.0 days/wk, while SSB and desserts were eliminated. Eighty-four percent of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000–$3,000 savings over a standard 180day school year. Conclusions and Implications This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. PMID:24268299

  7. From policy to practice: addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Moore, Justin B; Webster, Collin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a community partnership between after-school programs (ASPs) and grocery stores to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit or vegetable (FV) daily while eliminating sugar-based foods and beverages. A single-group, pretest with multiple posttest design (spring, 2011-2013) in 4 large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/d was used, along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. At baseline, FV, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts were served 0.1 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 2.0, and 2.0 ± 1.4 d/wk. By spring, 2013, FV increased to 5.0 ± 0.0 d/wk, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. A total of 84% of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000-$3,000 savings over a standard 180-day school year. This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  8. Price elasticity matrix of demand in power system considering demand response programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinyao; Hui, Hongxun; Yang, Shengchun; Li, Yaping; Ding, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The increasing renewable energy power generations have brought more intermittency and volatility to the electric power system. Demand-side resources can improve the consumption of renewable energy by demand response (DR), which becomes one of the important means to improve the reliability of power system. In price-based DR, the sensitivity analysis of customer’s power demand to the changing electricity prices is pivotal for setting reasonable prices and forecasting loads of power system. This paper studies the price elasticity matrix of demand (PEMD). An improved PEMD model is proposed based on elasticity effect weight, which can unify the rigid loads and flexible loads. Moreover, the structure of PEMD, which is decided by price policies and load types, and the calculation method of PEMD are also proposed. Several cases are studied to prove the effectiveness of this method.

  9. Determinants of contractor pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing strategies used by major defense contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified and discussed: penetration, which calls for a relatively low initial price followed by little reduction in price over time, and skimming, which calls for a relatively high initial price coupled with greater reduction in price over time. It is argued that contractor pricing strategy will depend on features of the defense program under consideration and featur...

  10. 13 CFR 124.502 - How does an agency offer a procurement to SBA for award through the 8(a) BD program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... history, if any, of the requirement; (10) The names and addresses of any small business contractors which... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does an agency offer a procurement to SBA for award through the 8(a) BD program? 124.502 Section 124.502 Business Credit and...

  11. Indonesian Christian Teachers' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs Offered by ACSI-I and Indonesian National Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwani, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This is a study to examine Indonesian Christian Teachers' Perceptions of the effectiveness of professional development programs offered by the Association of Christian Schools International Indonesia (ACSI-I) and by the Indonesian National Department of Education. The study was focused on how Indonesian Christian teachers perceived the…

  12. A Tenured Faith and an Adjunct Faculty: Successes and Challenges in Instructor Formation at Catholic Colleges that Offer Business Programs in an Accelerated Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrall, Doug; Newcomb, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Many Catholic colleges in the United States offer Business programs in an accelerated format, featuring evening courses for adult learners, with few faculty contact hours than traditional classes. Most of these institutions believe in the ideals of Catholic Social Teaching and wish to integrate those principles into their curricula for the sake of…

  13. Impact of trained champions of comprehensive school physical activity programs on school physical activity offerings, youth physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Russell L; Castelli, Darla M; Pulling Kuhn, Ann C; Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Beighle, Aaron; Aija, Rahma; Calvert, Hannah G; Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2014-12-01

    A quasi-experimental cluster-controlled design was used to test the impact of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) professional development on changes in school physical activity (PA) offerings, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behaviors of 9-14 year-old children during school. Two groups of Louisiana elementary and middle school physical education teachers (N=129) attended a CSPAP summer workshop (95 in 2012=intervention, 34 in 2013=control) and were assessed on school PA offerings (teacher-reported; pre, mid, and post). During the 2012-2013 school year, intervention teachers received CSPAP support while implementing new school PA programs. MVPA and sedentary behaviors were assessed (accelerometry; baseline and post) on a sample of 231 intervention, 120 control students from 16 different schools. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that intervention teachers reported significantly more PA offerings during school (3.35 vs. 2.37) and that involve staff (1.43 vs. 0.90). Three-level, mixed model regressions (stratified by sex) indicated that students overall spent less time in MVPA and more time being sedentary during school, but the effects were significantly blunted among intervention students, especially boys. This study provides preliminary evidence for CSPAP professional development programs to influence school-level PA offerings and offset student-level declines in MVPA and increases in sedentary behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Technology Training for Older Job-Seeking Adults: The Efficacy of a Program Offered through a University-Community Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Jessica; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults who lose their jobs face challenges in finding new employment due to fundamental limitations in their technology skills. While training could give them the skills they need, older workers often have less access to training programs than younger workers. This study examined the feasibility of using an e-learning training program…

  15. Education and Outreach Programs Offered by the Center for High Pressure Research and the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, G. A.

    2003-12-01

    Major research facilities and organizations provide an effective venue for developing partnerships with educational organizations in order to offer a wide variety of educational programs, because they constitute a base where the culture of scientific investigation can flourish. The Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences (COMPRES) conducts education and outreach programs through the Earth Science Educational Resource Center (ESERC), in partnership with other groups that offer research and education programs. ESERC initiated its development of education programs in 1994 under the administration of the Center for High Pressure Research (CHiPR), which was funded as a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center from 1991 to 2002. Programs developed during ESERC's association with CHiPR and COMPRES have targeted a wide range of audiences, including pre-K, K-12 students and teachers, undergraduates, and graduate students. Since 1995, ESERC has offered inquiry-based programs to Project WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) students at a high school and undergraduate level. Activities have included projects that investigated earthquakes, high pressure mineral physics, and local geology. Through a practicum known as Project Java, undergraduate computer science students have developed interactive instructional tools for several of these activities. For K-12 teachers, a course on Long Island geology is offered each fall, which includes an examination of the role that processes in the Earth's interior have played in the geologic history of the region. ESERC has worked with Stony Brook's Department of Geosciences faculty to offer courses on natural hazards, computer modeling, and field geology to undergraduate students, and on computer programming for graduate students. Each summer, a four-week residential college-level environmental geology course is offered to rising tenth graders from the Brentwood, New York schools in partnership with

  16. 75 FR 64397 - Value Pricing Pilot Program Participation, Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... usage and assessing relatively higher prices for travel during peak periods is the same as that used in many other sectors of the economy to respond to peak-use demands. For example, airlines, hotels, and... phases; 10. An itemized budget broken down by task and funding year (i.e., Year 1, Year 2, etc.), which...

  17. TARGET CONTROLLING METHOD OF THE PRICING PROCESS IN THE TOURISM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sagalakova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Key stages of the pricing process in the tourism enterprises are investigated: subprocess of establishing of nominal value of the new tourism product price and subprocess of adjustment of the established price depending on a situation in the tourism market. For establishing of nominal value of the price it is offered by use of optimizing model, which maximizes the usefulness function of structural parts of the tourism product price. For adjustment of the tourism product price under change of external conditions procedure of installation of the target with use of the process behavior charts of the pricing process is applied. The new methodology of the pricing process controlling in the tourism enterprises, which based on complex application of methods of the statistical processes control and a method of dynamic programming, is presented in article and fully considers one of key features of the tourism sphere - seasonal fluctuations of the tourism product price.

  18. Perceptions of incentives offered in a community-based malaria diagnosis and treatment program in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkot, Camilla; Naidi, Laura; Seehofer, Liesel; Miles, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    What motivates community-based health workers to provide care in rural and remote areas, often on a voluntary or casual basis, is a key question for program managers and public health officials. This paper examines how a range of incentives offered as part of the Marasin Stoa Kipa program, a community-based malaria diagnosis and treatment program that has been implemented since 2007 within a major oil and gas development area in Papua New Guinea, are perceived and critiqued by community-based health workers. Nineteen interviews and seven focus group discussions with the workers who deliver services and members of the communities served by the program, conducted between November 4 and 25, 2015, reveal a pattern of mixed motivations and changes in motivation over time. This can be attributed partly to the unique social and economic circumstances in which the program is operating. Changes in the burden of disease as well as in global and national health services policy with implications for local level program operations also had an impact, as did the nature of relationships between program managers, community-based health workers, and program beneficiaries. Overall, the findings suggest that while financial and in-kind incentives can be a useful tool to motivate voluntary or minimally-compensated community-based health workers, they must be carefully structured to align with local social, economic, and epidemiological realities over the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Survey of Utility Experience with Real Time Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2004-12-01

    While more than 70 utilities in the U.S. have offered voluntary RTP tariffs on either a pilot or permanent basis, most have operated in relative obscurity. To bring this broad base of experience to bear on policymakers current efforts to stimulate price responsive demand, we conducted a survey of 43 voluntary RTP tariffs offered in 2003. The survey involved telephone interviews with RTP program managers and other utility staff, as well as a review of regulatory documents, tariff sheets, program evaluations, and other publicly available sources. Based on this review of RTP program experience, we identify key trends related to: utilities motivations for implementing RTP, evolution of RTP tariff design, program participation, participant price response, and program outlook. We draw from these findings to discuss implications for policymakers that are currently considering voluntary RTP as a strategy for developing price responsive demand.

  20. The Role of Policies in Supporting the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Experiences with Ontario, Canada’s Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adachi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems. In November, 2006, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP, offering owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10 MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of CAD $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. This paper analyzes the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. Experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified.

  1. Impact of oil prices, economic diversification policies and energy conservation programs on the electricity and water demands in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Michael; Alsayegh, Osamah A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the influences of oil revenue and government's policies toward economic developments and energy efficiency on the electricity and water demands. A Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model was developed based on historic data of oil income, gross domestic product (GDP), population and electric load and water demand over the past twelve years (1998–2010). Moreover, the model took into account the future mega projects, annual new connected loads and expected application of energy conservation programs. It was run under six circumstances representing the combinations of three oil income scenarios and two government action policies toward economic diversification and energy conservation. The first government policy is the status quo with respect to economic diversification and applying energy conservation programs. The second policy scenario is the proactive strategy of raising the production of the non-oil sector revenue and enforcing legislations toward energy demand side management and conservation. In the upcoming 20 years, the average rates of change of the electric load and water demand increase are 0.13 GW and 3.0 MIGD, respectively, per US dollar oil price increase. Moreover, through proactive policy, the rates of average load and water demand decrease are 0.13 GW and 2.9 MIGD per year, respectively. - Highlights: • Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model is presented. • Strong association between oil income and electricity and water demands. • Rate of change of electric load per US dollar oil price change is 0.13 GW. • Rate of change of water demand per US dollar oil price change is 3.0 MIGD. • By 2030, efficiency lowers electric load and water demand by 10 and 6%, respectively

  2. Optimal stochastic energy management of retailer based on selling price determination under smart grid environment in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Stochastic energy management of retailer under smart grid environment is proposed. • Optimal selling price is determined in the smart grid environment. • Fixed, time-of-use and real-time pricing are determined for selling to customers. • Charge/discharge of ESS is determined to increase the expected profit of retailer. • Demand response program is proposed to increase the expected profit of retailer. - Abstract: In this paper, bilateral contracting and selling price determination problems for an electricity retailer in the smart grid environment under uncertainties have been considered. Multiple energy procurement sources containing pool market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), distributed generation (DG) units, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic (PV) system and wind turbine (WT)) and energy storage system (ESS) as well as demand response program (DRP) as virtual generation unit are considered. The scenario-based stochastic framework is used for uncertainty modeling of pool market prices, client group demand and variable climate condition containing temperature, irradiation and wind speed. In the proposed model, the selling price is determined and compared by the retailer in the smart grid in three cases containing fixed pricing, time-of-use (TOU) pricing and real-time pricing (RTP). It is shown that the selling price determination based on RTP by the retailer leads to higher expected profit. Furthermore, demand response program (DRP) has been implemented to flatten the load profile to minimize the cost for end-user customers as well as increasing the retailer profit. To validate the proposed model, three case studies are used and the results are compared.

  3. The importance of marginal cost electricity pricing to the success of greenhouse gas reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient reduction of GHG emissions requires appropriate retail pricing of off-peak electricity. However, off-peak electricity for residential consumers is priced at 331% above its marginal cost in the United States as a whole (June 2009). Even for the 1% of residences that are on some form of time-of-use (TOU) rate schedule, the off-peak rate is almost three times higher than the marginal cost. A barrier to marginal-cost based TOU rates is that less than 9% of U.S. households have the 'smart' meters in place that can measure and record the time of consumption. Policies should be put in place to achieve full deployment. Another important barrier is consumer concern about TOU rate design. Two TOU rate designs (baseline and two-part tariff) are described that utilize marginal-cost based rates, ensure appropriate cost recovery, and minimize bill changes from current rate structures. A final barrier is to get residences on to these rates. Should a marginal-cost based TOU rate design remain an alternative for which residences could 'opt-in,' or become the default choice, or become mandatory? Time-invariant rates are a historical anachronism that subsidize very costly peak-period consumption and penalize off-peak usage to our environmental detriment. They should be phased out. - Highlights: → Off-peak electricity for residences is priced at 331% above marginal cost in the US. → This inefficiently deters vehicle electrification that could reduce GHG emissions. → 9% of U.S. households have the 'smart' meters necessary for time-of-use rates. → Time-invariant rates cause substantial environmental harm and should be phased out.

  4. Optimum residential load management strategy for real time pricing (RTP) demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujano-Rojas, Juan M.; Monteiro, Cláudio; Dufo-López, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers that utilizes the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. The strategy considers predictions of electricity prices, energy demand, renewable power production, and power-purchase of energy of the consumer in determining the optimal relationship between hourly electricity prices and the use of different household appliances and electric vehicles in a typical smart house. The proposed strategy is illustrated using two study cases corresponding to a house located in Zaragoza (Spain) for a typical day in summer. Results show that the proposed model allows users to control their diary energy consumption and adapt their electricity bills to their actual economical situation. - Highlights: ► This work shows an optimal load management strategy for residential consumers. ► It has been considered the communication infrastructure of the future smart grid. ► A study case shows the optimal utilization of some appliances and electric vehicles. ► Results showed that the proposed model allows users to reduce their electricity bill.

  5. Maintaining the potential of a psycho-educational program: efficacy of a booster session after an intervention offered family caregivers at disclosure of a relative's dementia diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine; Lachance, Lise; Lévesque, Louise; Zarit, Steven Howard; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Booster sessions as a means of maintaining the benefits of psycho-educational programs have received little attention in caregiving research. Caregivers were offered a booster session following participation in a program entitled Learning to Become a Family Caregiver (LBFC) intended to facilitate transition to the caregiver role after diagnostic disclosure of dementia in a relative. The 90-minute booster session served to review program content and afforded the opportunity to discuss and practice learned skills. This study sought to test the efficacy of the booster session in maintaining or recovering program effects at six months post-program. Participants in the program were randomly assigned to a group that received the booster session (n = 31) or a group that did not (n = 29). A third control group was also formed, which continued to receive only the usual care provided in memory clinics. Eligible participants - French-speaking primary caregivers of a relative diagnosed with Alzheimer's in the past nine months - were recruited in memory clinics in Quebec (Canada). Participants were blindly assessed before randomization and six months after the booster session on outcomes associated with a healthy role transition. Prediction analyses revealed one significant positive effect of the booster session: emergence of preparedness to provide care. Moreover, with or without the booster session, the program continued to have a positive effect on psychological distress and contributed to the emergence of self-efficacy in dealing with caregiving situations. The booster session had no significant effect on knowledge of services, planning for future care needs, use of reframing as a coping strategy, perceived informal support, and family conflicts. The limited effect observed is discussed in terms of the booster session's content and intensity. Recommendations are made for designing future research on the effect of booster sessions, including the importance of including a

  6. Price smarter on the Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  7. Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants' purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Package Policy on Fruit and Vegetable Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Powell, Lisa M.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants’ purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. PMID:24183996

  9. GROWTH OR RETRACTION: WHAT TENDENCIES DO INDICES FOR VACANCY OFFER, REGISTRATIONS AND NUMBER OF GRADUATES IN BRAZILIAN ACCOUNTING SCIENCE PROGRAMS EXPOSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Silva Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify possible tendencies from offered vacancy indices, registrations and number of graduates in the field of Accounting Science, both in presential and distance education, from 1995 to 2012. Expansion policies and the increasing access of the Brazilian Higher Education System (“Sistema de Educação Superior” (SES, institutionalized by the government, are considered as a context to understand these tendencies. The main data sources used were micro data from the Higher Education Census (“Censo de Educação Superior” (CES from 1995 to 2012. This study carried out descriptive and analytical procedures in a trending movement for these indices from 1995 to 2012. The results suggest that the growth in the offer of vacancies was expressive throughout the period. This movement was not followed in the same rate by the number of interested candidates to compete for a position in the Accounting Science program. There is an oversupply on offers for vacancies with a rising tendency in private institutions. The evolution in the registration rate in distant education courses (“Cursos de Educação à Distância” (EAD is inconstant. There is a concentration of enrolled students at a lower number in Higher Education Institutions (“Instituições de Ensino Superior” (IES of a public nature, in contrast with the pulverized distribution on registrations among a higher number of private IES. The completion rate in Accounting Science presents high and low alternate periods for the presential modality. However, there is evidence on high evasion and/or retention index. The course assessment tools indicate possible problems in the offering of the education service and deficiencies regarding the under graduation of students in Accounting Science.

  10. A survey of utility experience with real time pricing: implications for policymakers seeking price responsive demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Economists and policy makers frequently propose real time pricing (RTP) as a strategy for facilitating price responsive demand, thereby improving the performance of electricity markets and regional networks. While theoretically appealing, many practical and empirical issues related to RTP remain unresolved or poorly understood. Over the past two decades, more than 70 utilities in the U.S. have offered voluntary RTP tariffs, on either a pilot or permanent basis. However, most have operated in relative obscurity, and little information has made its way into the public domain. To address this gap, we conducted a conducted a comprehensive review of voluntary RTP programs in the U.S. by surveying 43 U.S. utilities and reviewing regulatory documents, tariffs, program evaluations, and other publicly available sources. Based on this review of RTP program experience, we identify key trends related to utilities' motivations and goals for implementing RTP, evolution of RTP tariff design, program participation, participant price response, and program outlook. Experience with voluntary RTP programs has been mixed. Several utilities have demonstrated that voluntary RTP programs are capable of generating significant load reductions. However, most programs have attracted relatively few participants and therefore have generated quite limited load reductions. About 2700 non-residential customers were enrolled in RTP programs in 2003, representing more than 11 000 MW of load. We then draw from these findings to identify implications for policy makers and regulators that are currently considering RTP as a strategy for facilitating price responsive demand

  11. First-Year Analysis of a New, Home-Based Palliative Care Program Offered Jointly by a Community Hospital and Local Visiting Nurse Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Katherine; Weisse, Carol S; Pratt, David S; DiSorbo, Philip

    2017-03-01

    There is a growing need for home-based palliative care services, especially for seriously ill individuals who want to avoid hospitalizations and remain with their regular outside care providers. To evaluate the effectiveness of Care Choices, a new in-home palliative care program provided by the Visiting Nurse Services of Northeastern New York and Ellis Medicine's community hospital serving New York's Capital District. This prospective cohort study assessed patient outcomes over the course of 1 year for 123 patients (49 men and 74 women) with serious illnesses who were new enrollees in the program. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and after 1 month on service. Satisfaction with care was measured after 1 and 3 months on service. The number of emergency department visits and inpatient hospitalizations pre- and postenrollment was measured for all enrollees. Patients were highly satisfied (72.7%-100%) with their initial care and reported greater satisfaction ( P care service. An in-home palliative care program offered jointly through a visiting nurse service and community hospital may be a successful model for providing quality care that satisfies chronically ill patients' desire to remain at home and avoid hospital admissions.

  12. Nonlinear Pricing of Information Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Sundararajan

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal pricing for information goods under incomplete information, when both unlimited-usage (fixed-fee) pricing and usage-based pricing are feasible, and administering usage-based pricing may involve transaction costs. It is shown that offering fixed- fee pricing in addition to a non-linear usage-based pricing scheme is always profit-improving in the presence of any non-zero transaction costs, and there may be markets in which a pure fixed-fee is optimal. This implies th...

  13. Reducing the Burden of Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Setting prices for undergraduate education and assessing their effects on consumers and institutions is complicated by widespread price discounting. Student aid programs, credit, subsidized employment, and tax policy can reduce the actual costs paid by students and their families. (MSE)

  14. Pricing strategies for information goods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    gaming, and education. ... Traditional cost-based pricing ... traditional optimisation models (for instance, the integer programming model described in ...... (1998), many of the key results that shaped modern reasoning about price and product ...

  15. Examination of Nondesignated Preliminary Surgery Residents Recruited Since the Inception of Supplementary Offer and Acceptance Program: Lessons Learned From a Large Academic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja-Cruz, Maria; Travis, Claire; Benge, Michael; Caufield, Barbara; Nehler, Mark

    The majority of surgery programs roster non-designated preliminary (NDP) residents. We and others have reported on the success of NDP resident mentoring with regard to categorical position placement. Lacking is a focus on the candidates themselves and differences based on initial career of choice. NDP residents' files since the institution of SOAP were reviewed for demographics, initial career choice, financial burden, region of medical school of origin, application and interview history, and pre-screen interview candidate score (high score of 22 - data includes USMLE scores, major clerkship grades, and AOA) used for categorical recruitment. From 2012-16 79 NDP residents have been recruited at UCDenver (82% via SOAP). Median age was 28 years, majority were single (73%), and male (82%). Thirty percent belonged to an under-represented minority group. Mean debt was $156,000 but 20% owe over $250,000. 90% attended US medical schools with 65% from the NRMP "South" region. 86% were recruited as fourth year students. NDPs were categorized as failing to match in general surgery (38%), surgical subspecialties (47%), or other (15%). NDPs applied to median of 68 programs (range 7-200) and granted a median of 8 interviews (range 0-24). NDPs had a mean pre-screening interview score of 13 out of 22 and only 9% would have met the standard threshold to obtain a categorical surgery interview. There were no differences in pre-screening scores in the three groups. 95% NDPs (excluding present year) successfully completed their R1 year (three resigned - one obtained a general surgery spot mid-year and two after matching in non-general surgery fields). 68% NDPs placed in categorical positions after the R1 year. The placement was better for the surgical subspecialty group compared to the other two. The bias is that due to a more competitive applicant pool recruiting NDPs from surgical subspecialties would be optimal. However, those unmatched surgical subspecialty candidates are no better

  16. An Evaluation with Respect to e-Learning and Economic Analysis of the Graduate Program Offered in Anadolu University’s Institute of Educational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren KESIM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An Evaluation with Respect to e-Learning and Economic Analysis of the Graduate Program Offered in Anadolu University’s Institute of Educational Sciences Prof. Dr. Coskun BAYRAK Anadolu University Eskisehir, TURKEY Res. Ass. Eren KESIM Anadolu University Eskisehir, TURKEY ABSTRACT In this study, an e-learning platform was formed to enable school teachers and administrators to attend graduate programs in the field of educational administration, supervision, planning and economics. In this framework, for the non-thesis educational administration, supervision, planning and economics graduate programs to be conducted in the Institute of Educational Sciences in Anadolu University with using the e-learning method, cost of technical infrastructure for e-learning method, unit costs of students attending a program, cost advantage per credit and time advantage between e-learning and formal education were calculated. In addition, profitability of educational investment in e-learning and application of e-learning were discussed. A descriptive research method is used in the study. Research universe is the students, attending educational administration supervision planning and economics graduate program in Anadolu University’s Institute of Educational Sciences in the 2003-2004 academic year. Universe but not sampling, was used as the research universe in this study. In evaluation and economic analysis of the e-learning model, inflation rate and risk free rate of interest variables are used as the main variables. The value of annually compound rate of nine months Treasury bill (29.90 %, opened bids on November 4, 2003 was used as the risk free rate of interest in the economic analysis. In the economic analysis of the non thesis web based application model of educational administration, supervision, planning and economics program as an educational investment, five year present values of discount rates were calculated according to the %29.90 discount rate value

  17. Selecting Lower Priced Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Harold L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A program used to teach moderately to severely mentally handicapped students to select the lower priced items in actual shopping activities is described. Through a five-phase process, students are taught to compare prices themselves as well as take into consideration variations in the sizes of containers and varying product weights. (VW)

  18. Integrated multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming for supplier selection considering imperfect-quality and price-quantity discounts in a multiple sourcing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Ter; Chen, Huang-Mu; Zhuang, Zheng-Yun

    2014-05-01

    Supplier selection (SS) is a multi-criteria and multi-objective problem, in which multi-segment (e.g. imperfect-quality discount (IQD) and price-quantity discount (PQD)) and multi-aspiration level problems may be significantly important; however, little attention had been given to dealing with both of them simultaneously in the past. This study proposes a model for integrating multi-choice goal programming and multi-segment goal programming to solve the above-mentioned problems by providing the following main contributions: (1) it allows decision-makers to set multiple aspiration levels on the right-hand side of each goal to suit real-world situations, (2) the PQD and IQD conditions are considered in the proposed model simultaneously and (3) the proposed model can solve a SS problem with n suppliers where each supplier offers m IQD with r PQD intervals, where only ? extra binary variables are required. The usefulness of the proposed model is explained using a real case. The results indicate that the proposed model not only can deal with a SS problem with multi-segment and multi-aspiration levels, but also can help the decision-maker to find the appropriate order quantities for each supplier by considering cost, quality and delivery.

  19. 75 FR 69591 - Medicaid Program; Withdrawal of Determination of Average Manufacturer Price, Multiple Source Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ..., Multiple Source Drug Definition, and Upper Limits for Multiple Source Drugs AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... withdrawing the definition of ``multiple source drug'' as it was revised in the ``Medicaid Program; Multiple Source Drug Definition'' final rule published in the October 7, 2008 Federal Register. DATES: Effective...

  20. Price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  1. Pricing Strategy. Unit 10. Level 2. Instructor Guide. PACE: Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 302-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on pricing strategy in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 2 of learning--planning for a…

  2. Pricing Strategy. Unit 10. Level 3. Instructor Guide. PACE: Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 303-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on pricing strategy in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 3 of learning--starting and…

  3. Pricing Strategy. Unit 10. Level 1. Instructor Guide. PACE: Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship. Third Edition. Research & Development Series No. 301-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This instructor guide for a unit on pricing strategy in the PACE (Program for Acquiring Competence in Entrepreneurship) curriculum includes the full text of the student module and lesson plans, instructional suggestions, and other teacher resources. The competencies that are incorporated into this module are at Level 1 of learning--understanding…

  4. Foods and beverages offered in US public secondary schools through the National School Lunch Program from 2011-2013: Early evidence of improved nutrition and reduced disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2015-09-01

    To present data on trends in foods and beverages offered through the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) in public middle and high schools in the years immediately preceding and following implementation of new NSLP standards. From 2011 to 2013, primary data collection through the annual Youth, Education, and Society study involved use of mailed questionnaires to obtain data on NSLP meals from schools attended by nationally representative samples of US 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) grade students (N=792 middle schools and 751 high schools). Each school was weighted to represent the percentage of target grade students enrolled, thus allowing analyses examining changes over time in the percentage of students enrolled in (attending) schools with specified NSLP measure outcomes, as well as disparities in NSLP measures based on school characteristics. Significantly more US secondary students attended schools with specified NSLP measures in 2013 than in 2011; increases were observed at both middle and high school levels. Increase rates for some NSLP measures were moderated by school characteristics; where this was the case, moderating associations decreased prior NSLP nutrition environment disparities that were especially evident in smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of minority students. Meaningful improvements have been made in the nutritional content of NSLP meals offered to US secondary students; these improvements have reduced prior NSLP meal disparities associated with school characteristics. Schools will need continued help with implementation and compliance monitoring in order to have the best opportunity to improve the nutrition environments for US students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New product pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    One of the most uncertain elements in budget planning is estimating production costs of items that have heretofore only been produced in prototype configurations and quantities. This paper examines the design and development of a mathematical model which computes appropriate prices for new and unique products. The resulting model offers a producer a fair return on his investment and the consumer a fair purchase price

  6. AKRO: Standard Prices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  7. Pricing and Fee Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1986-01-01

    Defines key terms and discusses things to consider when setting fees for a continuing education program. These include (1) the organization's philosophy and mission, (2) certain key variables, (3) pricing strategy options, and (4) the test of reasonableness. (CH)

  8. Study design for a clinical trial to examine food price elasticity among participants in federal food assistance programs: A laboratory-based grocery store study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Conrad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a protocol for a study investigating the effect of food price changes on purchasing decisions among individuals participating in federal food assistance programs and among those not participating in these programs. We use a laboratory-based grocery store design, which provides greater control over factors influencing food purchasing than in situ experiments in actual grocery stores. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on eggs because they are highly nutritious, easy to prepare, can be included in many different dishes, and are a part of a wide range of cultural food menus. The primary aim of this study is to compare the own-and cross-price elasticity of eggs between individuals participating in federal food assistance programs and those not participating in these programs. Our secondary aims are to 1 compare the own- and cross-price elasticity of eggs between overweight/obese individuals and non-overweight/obese individuals, 2 examine whether delay discounting moderates the effect of income on own- and cross-price elasticity, 3 examine whether subjective social status moderates the effect of participation in federal food assistance programs on the purchase of high nutrient-dense foods, and 4 examine whether usual psychological stress level moderates the effect of subjective social status on the purchase of high-nutrient dense foods. The results of this study will provide information about the drivers of food demand among low-income adults. A better understanding of these drivers is needed to develop effective nutrition interventions for this large population. Keywords: Price elasticity, Food assistance, Egg, Obesity, Social status, Stress

  9. Application of auctions as a pricing mechanism for the interchange of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.L.; Coppinger, S.S.; Sheble, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    The expected move to a market-based electric power industry will significantly change electric utility operations. These changes will fundamentally alter the pricing of electric power. How this pricing will be accomplished is a key issue. Traditionally, embedded cost based methods have been used. Recently, spot-pricing has received attention as a possible approach in a market-based electric power environment. Another market-based approach is the use of auctions. This paper will present the application of a sequential sealed-bid and sealed-offer auction to the pricing of electric power by using linear programming

  10. Optimal offering strategy for a concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, R.; Baringo, L.; Conejo, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Concentrating solar power (CSP) plants are becoming economically viable. ► CSP production is positively correlated with the demand. ► CSP plants can be made dispatchable by using molten salt storage facilities. ► Integrating CSP plants in a market constitutes a relevant challenge. -- Abstract: This paper provides a methodology to build offering curves for a concentrating solar power plant. This methodology takes into account the uncertainty in the thermal production from the solar field and the volatility of market prices. The solar plant owner is a price-taker producer that participates in a pool-based electricity market with the aim of maximizing its expected profit. To enhance the value of the concentrating solar power plant, a molten salt heat storage is considered, which allows producing electricity during periods without availability of the solar resource. To derive offering curves, a mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed, which is robust from the point of view of the uncertainty associated with the thermal production of the solar field and stochastic from the point of view of the uncertain market prices.

  11. Pricing the Services of the Computer Center at the Catholic University of Louvain. Program on Institutional Management in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecquet, Ignace; And Others

    Principles are outlined that are used as a basis for the system of pricing the services of the Computer Centre. The system illustrates the use of a management method to secure better utilization of university resources. Departments decide how to use the appropriations granted to them and establish a system of internal prices that reflect the cost…

  12. Convex Programming and Bootstrap Sensitivity for Optimized Electricity Bill in Healthcare Buildings under a Time-Of-Use Pricing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gordillo-Orquera

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient energy management is strongly dependent on determining the adequate power contracts among the ones offered by different electricity suppliers. This topic takes special relevance in healthcare buildings, where noticeable amounts of energy are required to generate an adequate health environment for patients and staff. In this paper, a convex optimization method is scrutinized to give a straightforward analysis of the optimal power levels to be contracted while minimizing the electricity bill cost in a time-of-use pricing scheme. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the constraints in the optimization problems, which are analyzed in terms of both their empirical distribution and their bootstrap-estimated statistical distributions to create a simple-to-use tool for this purpose, the so-called mosaic-distribution. The evaluation of the proposed method was carried out with five-year consumption data on two different kinds of healthcare buildings, a large one given by Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, and a primary care center, Centro de Especialidades el Arroyo, both located at Fuenlabrada (Madrid, Spain. The analysis of the resulting optimization shows that the annual savings achieved vary moderately, ranging from −0.22 % to +27.39%, depending on the analyzed year profile and the healthcare building type. The analysis introducing mosaic-distribution to represent the sensitivity score also provides operative information to evaluate the convenience of implementing energy saving measures. All this information is useful for managers to determine the appropriate power levels for next year contract renewal and to consider whether to implement demand response mechanisms in healthcare buildings.

  13. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  14. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  15. Innovative gas offers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, O.; Mela, P.; Chatelain, F.

    2007-01-01

    New energy offers are progressively made available as the opening of gas market to competition becomes broader. How are organized the combined offers: gas, electricity, renewable energies and energy services? What are the marketing strategies implemented? Three participants at this round table present their offer and answer these questions. (J.S.)

  16. Price performance following stock's IPO in different price limit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yue; Li, Ming-Xia

    2018-01-01

    An IPO burst occurred in China's stock markets in 2015, while price limit trading rules usually help to reduce the short-term trading mania on individual stocks. It is interesting to make clear the function of the price limits after IPOs. We firstly make a statistical analysis based on all the IPO stocks listed from 1990 to 2015. A high dependency exists between the activities in stock's IPO and various market environment. We also focus on the price dynamics in the first 40 trading days after the stock listed. We find that price limit system will delay the price movement, especially for the up-trend movements, which may lead to longer continuous price limit hits. Similar to our previous work, many results such as ;W; shape can be also observed in the future daily return after the price limit open. At last, we find most IPO measures show evident correlations with the following price limit hits. IPO stocks with lower first-day turnover and earning per share will be followed with a longer continuous price limit hits and lower future daily return under the newest trading rules, which give us a good way to estimate the occurrence of price limit hits and the following price dynamics. Our analysis provides a better understanding of the price dynamics after IPO events and offers potential practical values for investors.

  17. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  18. 48 CFR 25.503 - Group offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 25.503... PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 25.503 Group offers. (a) If the solicitation or an offer specifies that award can be made only on a group of line items or on all line items...

  19. 48 CFR 225.503 - Group offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Group offers. 225.503... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Evaluating Foreign Offers-Supply Contracts 225.503 Group offers. Evaluate group offers in accordance with FAR 25.503, but apply the evaluation...

  20. Is a HIV vaccine a viable option and at what price? An economic evaluation of adding HIV vaccination into existing prevention programs in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Leelahavarong, Pattara; Teerawattananon, Yot; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Akaleephan, Chutima; Premsri, Nakorn; Namwat, Chawetsan; Peerapatanapokin, Wiwat; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to determine the maximum price at which HIV vaccination is cost-effective in the Thai healthcare setting. It also aims to identify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics and risk behavior changes among vaccine recipients to determine how they affect this cost-effectiveness. Methods A semi-Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and health outcomes of HIV prevention programs combined with HIV vaccination in comparison to the existing HIV...

  1. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  2. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  3. Many Eligible Children Don't Participate in School Nutrition Programs: Reauthorization Offers Opportunities to Improve. National Issue Brief Number 85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    This brief uses data from the 2013 Current Population Survey's Food Security Supplement to document levels of participation in two of the largest programs authorized by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010--the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program--by region and place type (rural, suburban, and city), to identify…

  4. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  5. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... secure reasonable premium and copayment pricing through multiple tier options to allow enrollees to... program that offers premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and... regulations to establish VADIP, a pilot program that would offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled...

  6. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  7. Discussion: the supply price control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    Following the paper given by the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) at the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries (CRI) seminar on Regulatory Policy and the Energy Sector held in November 1992, the issue of Supply Price Controls is debated. The role of OFFER as standing between Government and the Regional Electricity Companies is explored in a question and answer session, covering areas such as pool versus, contract prices, market forces, regulatory arrangements for the electricity supply, price discrimination and franchise markets. (UK)

  8. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the competitive...

  9. Oligopolistic Competition in Price and Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubovik (Andrei); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe consider an oligopolistic market where firms compete in price and quality and where consumers are heterogeneous in knowledge: some consumers know both the prices and quality of the products offered, some know only the prices and some know neither. We show that two types of signalling

  10. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  11. Pricing strategies of the supermarket sector

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Joana Lobato da Fonseca Sáragga

    2014-01-01

    The food retail industry is a very competitive market. Supermarkets use a combination of price, quality of products and service to lure consumers and increase their profit. This work project draws upon both empirical and theoretical literatures to understand the different pricing strategies that the supermarket sector uses. Everyday Low Price, Promotional, Zone Pricing and Loyalty Programs are the most common pricing strategies in this industry. By using data from the Portuguese supermarket l...

  12. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  13. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  14. 39 CFR 551.6 - Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pricing. 551.6 Section 551.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS SEMIPOSTAL STAMP PROGRAM § 551.6 Pricing. (a) The Semipostal Authorization Act, as amended by Public Law 107-67, section 652, 115 Stat. 514 (2001), prescribes that the price...

  15. Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    , the entry of new generic competitors is useful for lowering the real transaction price of purchases made by pharmacies (dynamic price competition at ex-factory level), although this effect is weaker or non-significant for official ex-factory prices and consumer prices in some countries. When maximum reimbursement systems such as reference pricing or similar types are applied, pharmacies are seen to receive large discounts on the price they pay for the pharmaceuticals, although these discounts are not transferred to the consumer price. The percentage discount offered to pharmacies in a country that uses a price-cap system combined with reference pricing is positively and significantly related to the number of generic competitors in the market for the pharmaceutical (dynamic price competition at ex-factory level).

  16. Meeting competition through negotiated pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.; Raper, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental premise of negotiated pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) tool is that price determines cost. As the ultimate objective of energy efficiency is to increase electromotive work while conserving resources, negotiated prices can have a significant impact as a DSM tool to force costs down. Three examples are offered of the effect of negotiated pricing as a DSM tool. The examples are a small hydroelectric company and an electric utility authority owned, a utility-to-customer example of negotiated pricing with the Public Service Company of Oklahoma's (PSO) system, and a large paper mill on PSO's system. Some of the major problems associated with negotiated pricing, outside of the human effort of finding and training knowledgeable and skilled negotiators, are: obtaining enough information about the customer or potential customer to be able to determine that in negotiating prices the utility is not giving away more benefits than the utility will gain; developing a pricing plan that fits both the customer's and utility's existing and potential future mode of operation; assuring that other customers who cannot negotiate on their own behalf are not adversely affected by utility revenue shortfalls; making such negotiated prices available to all similarly situated customers, so as not to inadvertently create unfair competitive advantages among them; and defining the shared benefits before and after the fact as a result of having negotiated prices in the first place

  17. Freemium Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing...... into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...

  18. SaaS architecture and pricing models

    OpenAIRE

    Laatikainen, Gabriella; Ojala, Arto

    2014-01-01

    In the new era of computing, SaaS software with different architectural characteristics might be priced in different ways. Even though both pricing and architectural characteristics are responsible for the success of the offering; the relationship between architectural and pricing characteristics has not been studied before. The present study fills this gap by employing a multi-case research. The findings accentuate that flexible and well-designed architecture enables different pricing models...

  19. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, J.

    2001-01-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  20. The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Rjabchenko; V.V. Bozhkova

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of pricing principles at domestic industrial enterprisesTheoretical and methodological aspects of marketing pricing formation are investigated in the article. The aim of this research is systematization of marketing pricing principles and formation of corresponding offers concerning perfection of a domestic industrial enterprises pricing policy.The results of the analysis. The authors note that pricing principles are important element of pricing methodology which form basic posit...

  1. PRICING STRATEGY FOR DIGITAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MAGDALENA CRIVEANU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current society imposes an alert pace on companies that need to adapt to change, become more flexible and adopt new strategies to maintain market share. Digital marketing is a useful tool for promoting products, as customers can access a range of product information at any time and from anywhere. At the same time, another advantage on the part of companies is the lower promotion costs as compared to traditional promotional methods, as well as the establishment of a connection and a communication bridge with each client. The most important component in the process of purchasing a product is inevitably the price. It communicates a series of information about the product and the customer so that the price can be an important element of persuasion in relation to other marketing strategies. Most of the time, the smallest price is the most important factor in making a decision about buying a product, and digital marketing offers the posibility to compare prices. In this sense, digital marketing can provide both an advantage and a disadvantage for traders, as the small price may invalidate other marketing strategies or product features. In this sense, pricing is a challenge for marketing departments because the pricing strategy is deferring from the sterile formula of pricing which meant covering costs and making profit. This paper aims to analyze the extent to which price is an important element in purchasing a product, as well as highlighting a variety of methods and techniques used in pricing. Quantitative research is based on a questionnaire applied to 100 respondents in order to identify the correct pricing strategy. Research results communicate an important message to merchants who have to adjust the price of each buyer individually, so that the buyer profile is particularly important in setting the price.

  2. State Approved Programs of Teacher Preparation Offered by Kentucky Colleges and Universities (as of July 1, 1981). Teacher Education Circular #352.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Div. of Teacher Education and Certification.

    Characteristics of 23 Kentucky teacher education programs, at institutions which qualify for consideration under the Interstate Certification Contract for classroom teachers, are provided in this report. The process that culminates in institutional accreditation and teacher certification in Kentucky is outlined and is followed by a listing of the…

  3. Extracting product offers from e-shop websites

    OpenAIRE

    Horch, Andrea; Kett, Holger; Weisbecker, Anette

    2016-01-01

    On-line retailers as well as e-shoppers are very interested in gathering product records from the Web in order to compare products and prices. The consumers compare products and prices to find the best price for a specific product or they want to identify alternatives for a product whereas the on-line retailers need to compare their offers with those of their competitors for being able to remain competitive. As there is a huge number and vast array of product offers in the Web the product dat...

  4. Information Uncertainty in Electricity Markets: Introducing Probabilistic Offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We propose a shift from the current paradigm of electricity markets treating stochastic producers similarly to conventional ones in terms of their offers. We argue that the producers’ offers should be probabilistic to reflect the limited predictability of renewable energy generation, while we...... should design market mechanisms to accommodate such offers. We argue that the transition from deterministic offers is a natural next step in electricity markets, by analytically proving our proposal’s equivalence with a two-price conventional market....

  5. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Courir shops propose the following offer: 15% discount on all articles (not on sales) in the Courir shops (Val Thoiry, Annemasse and Neydens) and 5% discount on sales upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and an identity card before payment. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  6. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 25 € instead of 31 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your Staff Association member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.  

  7. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  8. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  9. Price Strategies in Banking Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cetina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All organizations must settle a price for the services they offer. The price for services is an important element of the marketing mix, being an important income source for the organization. The settlement of a correct price, both for the market and the competition, is a significant element for the sector of financial - banking services. Another important factor to take into consideration is the fact that the banks do not settle only the prices for individual services, but also coordinate their prices for service packages. As the competition in the financial - banking services has intensified, the settlement of correct prices has become an essential element for the marketing strategy. Nevertheless it is important to remind that the price is not a central element. There are other significant grounds, the price being only one of the elements of the marketing mix. Although in Romania many customers may be sensitive in present to the price, as the competition will increase, the quality of the services will become more important to the customers, and the demand will be complex.

  10. Marketplace pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As discussed in this chapter, interest in marketplace pricing has been increasing in recent years, reflecting the societal trend toward substituting competition for regulation where appropriate. Competition is valuable because it encourages utilities to make efficient decisions with a minimum of regulatory intervention. It enhances efficiency through the incentive for innovation by the regulated companies and by increasing the likelihood they will come forward with proposals for better services, lower prices or both. Ultimately, consumers are beneficiaries. Marketplace pricing is emblematic of the view that the degree of regulation should reflect the degree of market power, that workably competitive markets should be allowed to operate with as little regulatory interference as possible. The Edison Electric Institute has made perhaps the most detailed proposal on marketplace pricing. It and others perceive numerous benefits from this method of pricing transmission services. Given the undeniable market power resulting from line ownership, FERC has emphasized the need to find a workably competitive market before approving such proposals. The ability to make this distinction without a full-blown antitrust review for every transaction is questionable, and FERC has yet to provide generic guidance. Finally, FERC's legal ability to depart from cost-based standards is questionable

  11. A robust flexible-probabilistic programming method for planning municipal energy system with considering peak-electricity price and electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.; Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.; An, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A robust flexible probabilistic programming method is developed for planning MES. • Multiple uncertainties with various violations and satisfaction levels are examined. • Solutions of considering peak electricity prices and electric vehicles are analyzed. • RFPP-MES can better improve energy system reliability and abate pollutant emission. - Abstract: Effective electric power systems (EPS) planning with considering electricity price of 24-h time is indispensable in terms of load shifting, pollutant mitigation and energy demand-supply reliability as well as reducing electricity expense of end-users. In this study, a robust flexible probabilistic programming (RFPP) method is developed for planning municipal energy system (MES) with considering peak electricity prices (PEPs) and electric vehicles (EVs), where multiple uncertainties regarded as intervals, probability distributions and flexibilities as well as their combinations can be effectively reflected. The RFPP-MES model is then applied to planning Qingdao’s MES, where electrical load of 24-h time is simulated based on Monte Carlo. Results reveal that: (a) different time intervals lead to changes of energy supply patterns, the energy supply patterns would tend to the transition from self-supporting dominated (i.e. in valley hours) to outsourcing-dominated (i.e. in peak hours); (b) 15.9% of total imported electricity expense would be reduced compared to that without considering PEPs; (c) with considering EVs, the CO_2 emissions of Qingdao’s transportation could be reduced directly and the reduction rate would be 2.5%. Results can help decision makers improve energy supply patterns, reduce energy system costs and abate pollutant emissions as well as adjust end-users’ consumptions.

  12. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  13. What We Offer | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunities We recognize that employee benefit programs are an important part of the total compensation package, and are committed to providing you with comprehensive benefit options. The Frederick National Laboratory's prime contractor, Leidos

  14. Measuring the influence of Canadian carbon stabilization programs on natural gas exports to the United States via a 'bottom-up' intertemporal spatial price equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.A.; Vikas, S.; Ribar, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a study of the impact of Canadian carbon stabilization programs on exports of natural gas to the United States. This work was based on a study conducted for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The Gas Systems Analysis model (GSAM), developed by ICF Consulting for the US Department of Energy, was used to gauge the overall impact of the stabilization programs on the North American natural gas market. GSAM is an intertemporal, spatial price equilibrium (SPE) type model of the North American natural gas system. Salient features of this model include characterization of over 17 000 gas production reservoirs with explicit reservoir-level geologic and economic information used to build up the supply side of the market. On the demand side, four sectors, residential, commercial, industrial and electric power generation, are characterized in the model. Lastly, both above and below ground storage facilities as well as a comprehensive pipeline network are used with the supply and demand side characterizations to arrive at estimates of market equilibrium prices and quantities and flows. 35 refs

  15. 47 CFR 51.503 - General pricing standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General pricing standard. 51.503 Section 51.503... Pricing of Elements § 51.503 General pricing standard. (a) An incumbent LEC shall offer elements to... commission— (1) Pursuant to the forward-looking economic cost-based pricing methodology set forth in §§ 51...

  16. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  17. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  18. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  19. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  20. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the water parks! Walibi: Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your ticket purchased at the Staff Association. Bonus! Free for children under 100 cm, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * Aquaparc: Day ticket: -  Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF -  Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5 years old.

  1. Penilaian Saham PT Pembangunan Perumahan Properti Dalam Rangka Initial Public Offering

    OpenAIRE

    Khoirudin, Rifki

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to estimate fair value per share of PT Pembangunan Perumahan Properti Tbk. as a comparison value to the offered price, set at the time of Initial Public Offering (IPO). This research also aimed to determine whether the price offered at the time of IPO was undervalued or overvalued. Information used in this research was in the form of secondary data of PT Pembangunan Perumahan Properti, financial report of comparable companies, and stock prices of comparable companies. The ...

  2. PENILAIAN SAHAM PT PEMBANGUNAN PERUMAHAN PROPERTI DALAM RANGKA INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING

    OpenAIRE

    Rifki Khoirudin

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to estimate fair value per share of PT Pembangunan Perumahan Properti Tbk. as a comparison value to the offered price, set at the time of Initial Public Offering (IPO). This research also aimed to determine whether the price offered at the time of IPO was undervalued or overvalued. Information used in this research was in the form of secondary data of PT Pembangunan Perumahan Properti, financial report of comparable companies, and stock prices of comparable companies. The ...

  3. Theoretical and Methodological Considerations on the Public Offers

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Catalina SAVA

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the most important characteristics of the public offers, both from the theoretical and methodological view. The European Union emphasizes clarity and transparency. The author focuses on specific provisions of European Directive and Romanian law and regulations related to voluntary and mandatory takeover bids, on characteristics such as price, offeror and offeeree right, offer timetable.

  4. "Photographing money" task pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhongxiang

    2018-05-01

    "Photographing money" [1]is a self-service model under the mobile Internet. The task pricing is reasonable, related to the success of the commodity inspection. First of all, we analyzed the position of the mission and the membership, and introduced the factor of membership density, considering the influence of the number of members around the mission on the pricing. Multivariate regression of task location and membership density using MATLAB to establish the mathematical model of task pricing. At the same time, we can see from the life experience that membership reputation and the intensity of the task will also affect the pricing, and the data of the task success point is more reliable. Therefore, the successful point of the task is selected, and its reputation, task density, membership density and Multiple regression of task positions, according to which a nhew task pricing program. Finally, an objective evaluation is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the established model and solution method, and the improved method is pointed out.

  5. Offer for our members

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The Staff Association CERN staff has recently concluded a framework agreement with AXA Insurance Ltd, General-Guisan-Strasse 40, 8401 Winterthur. This contract allows you to benefit from a preferential tariff and conditions for insurances: Motor vehicles for passenger cars and motorcycles of the product line STRADA: 10% discount Household insurance (personal liability and household contents) the product line BOX: 10% discount Travel insurance: 10% discount Buildings: 10% discount Legal protection: 10% discount AXA is number one on the Swiss insurance market. The product range encompasses all non-life insurance such as insurance of persons, property, civil liability, vehicles, credit and travel as well as innovative and comprehensive solutions in the field of occupational benefits insurance for individuals and businesses. Finally, the affiliate AXA-ARAG (legal expenses insurance) completes the offer. For those of you already insured with the company, contact your current advisor. Others may contact a counsel...

  6. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    La banque LCL propose aux membres de l’Association du personnel les avantages suivants : – Un barème Privilège sur le Prêt immobilier – Des avantages tarifaires sur l’épargne, notamment l’assurance-vie. – Un taux préférentiel de prêt à la consommation. En outre, jusqu’au 30 septembre 2013, elle offre 50€ à tous les nouveaux clients, membres de l'Association du personnel. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Tickets "Zone terrestre" : 21 € instead of de 26 €. Access to Aqualibi : 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. * * * * * * * Full day ticket: – Children : 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF &...

  7. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The warm weather arrives, it's time to take advantage of our offers Walibi and Aquapark! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 € Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Half-day ticket (5 hours): – Children: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF – Adults : 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Free for children under 5.

  8. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  9. The Pricing of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2004-11-01

    The report focuses on the pricing of natural gas. The motivation has been the wish of the Norwegian authorities to increase the use of natural gas and that this should follow market conditions. The pricing of gas occurs at present in various ways in the different markets. The report identifies to main factors behind the pricing. 1) The type of market i.e. how far the liberalization of the gas markets has gone in the various countries. 2) The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies. The gas markets are undergoing as the energy markets in general, a liberalization process where the traditional monopoly based market structures are replaced by markets based on competition. There are great differences in the liberalization development of the various countries, which is reflected in the various pricing principles applied for the trade of gas in the countries. The analysis shows that the net-back-pricing is predominant in some countries i.e. that the price is in various ways indexed towards and follow the development of the price of alternative energy carriers so that the gas may be able to compete. The development towards trade places for gas where the pricing is based on offer and demand is already underway. As the liberalization of the European gas markets progresses it is expected that the gas price will be determined increasingly at spot markets instead of through bilateral agreements between monopolistic corporations. The development within the regulation, climate and tax policies and to what extent this may influence the gas prices in the future, are also studied. There seem to be effects that may pull in both directions but it is evident that these political variables will influence the gas pricing in the international market to a large extent and thereby also the future internal natural gas market

  10. Essays on measurement and evaluation of demand side management programs in the electricity industry, and impacts of firm strategy on stock price in the biotechnology industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres Motola, Miguel A.

    Essay one estimates changes in small business customer energy consumption (kWh) patterns resulting from a seasonally differentiated pricing structure. Econometric analysis leverages cross-sectional time series data across the entire population of affected customers, from 2007 through the present. Observations include: monthly energy usage (kWh), relevant customer segmentations, local daily temperature, energy price, and region-specific economic conditions, among other variables. The study identifies the determinants of responsiveness to seasonal price differentiation. In addition, estimated energy consumption changes occurring during the 2010 summer season are reported for the average customer and in aggregate grouped by relevant customer segments, climate zone, and total customer base. Essay two develops an econometric modeling methodology to evaluate load impacts for short duration demand response events. The study analyzes time series data from a season of direct load control program tests aimed at integrating demand response into the wholesale electricity market. I have combined "fuzzy logic" with binary variables to create "fuzzy indicator variables" that allow for measurement of short duration events while using industry standard model specifications. Typically, binary variables for every hour are applied in load impact analysis of programs dispatched in hourly intervals. As programs evolve towards integration with the wholesale market, event durations become irregular and often occur for periods of only a few minutes. This methodology is innovative in that it conserves the degrees of freedom in the model while allowing for analysis of high frequency data using fixed effects. Essay three examines the effects of strategies, intangibles, and FDA news on the stocks of young biopharmaceutical firms. An event study methodology is used to explore those effects. This study investigates 20,839 announcements from 1990 to 2005. Announcements on drug development

  11. Is a HIV vaccine a viable option and at what price? An economic evaluation of adding HIV vaccination into existing prevention programs in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerapatanapokin Wiwat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to determine the maximum price at which HIV vaccination is cost-effective in the Thai healthcare setting. It also aims to identify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics and risk behavior changes among vaccine recipients to determine how they affect this cost-effectiveness. Methods A semi-Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and health outcomes of HIV prevention programs combined with HIV vaccination in comparison to the existing HIV prevention programs without vaccination. The estimation was based on a lifetime horizon period (99 years and used the government perspective. The analysis focused on both the general population and specific high-risk population groups. The maximum price of cost-effective vaccination was defined by using threshold analysis; one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. The study employed an expected value of perfect information (EVPI analysis to determine the relative importance of parameters and to prioritize future studies. Results The most expensive HIV vaccination which is cost-effective when given to the general population was 12,000 Thai baht (US$1 = 34 Thai baht in 2009. This vaccination came with 70% vaccine efficacy and lifetime protection as long as risk behavior was unchanged post-vaccination. The vaccine would be considered cost-ineffective at any price if it demonstrated low efficacy (30% and if post-vaccination risk behavior increased by 10% or more, especially among the high-risk population groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were the most sensitive to change in post-vaccination risk behavior, followed by vaccine efficacy and duration of protection. The EVPI indicated the need to quantify vaccine efficacy, changed post-vaccination risk behavior, and the costs of vaccination programs. Conclusions The approach used in this study differentiated it from other economic evaluations and can be applied for the economic

  12. Is a HIV vaccine a viable option and at what price? An economic evaluation of adding HIV vaccination into existing prevention programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelahavarong, Pattara; Teerawattananon, Yot; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Akaleephan, Chutima; Premsri, Nakorn; Namwat, Chawetsan; Peerapatanapokin, Wiwat; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2011-07-05

    This study aims to determine the maximum price at which HIV vaccination is cost-effective in the Thai healthcare setting. It also aims to identify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics and risk behavior changes among vaccine recipients to determine how they affect this cost-effectiveness. A semi-Markov model was developed to estimate the costs and health outcomes of HIV prevention programs combined with HIV vaccination in comparison to the existing HIV prevention programs without vaccination. The estimation was based on a lifetime horizon period (99 years) and used the government perspective. The analysis focused on both the general population and specific high-risk population groups. The maximum price of cost-effective vaccination was defined by using threshold analysis; one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. The study employed an expected value of perfect information (EVPI) analysis to determine the relative importance of parameters and to prioritize future studies. The most expensive HIV vaccination which is cost-effective when given to the general population was 12,000 Thai baht (US$1 = 34 Thai baht in 2009). This vaccination came with 70% vaccine efficacy and lifetime protection as long as risk behavior was unchanged post-vaccination. The vaccine would be considered cost-ineffective at any price if it demonstrated low efficacy (30%) and if post-vaccination risk behavior increased by 10% or more, especially among the high-risk population groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were the most sensitive to change in post-vaccination risk behavior, followed by vaccine efficacy and duration of protection. The EVPI indicated the need to quantify vaccine efficacy, changed post-vaccination risk behavior, and the costs of vaccination programs. The approach used in this study differentiated it from other economic evaluations and can be applied for the economic evaluation of other health interventions not available in

  13. 48 CFR 2825.203 - Evaluating offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Evaluating offers. 2825.203 Section 2825.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs FOREIGN ACQUISITION Buy American Act-Construction Materials 2825.203 Evaluating offers. The HCA, or...

  14. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  15. Durable-Goods Monopolists, Network Effects and Penetration Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cyrus C.Y. Chu; Hung-Ken Chien

    2005-01-01

    We study the pricing problem of a durable-goods monopolist. With network effects, consumption externalities among heterogeneous groups of consumers generate a discontinuous demand function. Consequently, the lessor has to offer a low price in order to reach the mass market, whereas the seller has the option to build a customer base by setting a lower initial price and raise the price later in the mass market, which explains the practice of introductory pricing. Contrary to the existing litera...

  16. Ethical aspect price decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Price decision making in a marketing program framework creatings is a complicated and delicated part of marketing management, especially to keep in sight culminating of mass external factors. In a market economies price policy as a marketing mix instrument rarely is regulated by the law, which opening the ethical aspect questions of price decision making process. The ethics in the price decision making means consideration of the inner law of the individual (marketing managers and/or consumers, whose irreverence does not entail any juridical sanctions, rather its application is sanctioned by the self - awareness. The acception and stability of the ethical aspect price decision making are determined by the characteristic of selected marketing environment.

  17. Evaluación de los programas de control prenatal para adolescentes en el valle de Aburrá, 2003 Evaluation of prenatal control programs offered to teenagers in Valle de Aburrá, Colombia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Adolfo Salazar

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: la investigación que se presenta a continuación tuvo como objetivo identificar y evaluar los programas de control prenatal para adolescentes ofrecidos en el valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia, durante el año 2003. Materiales y métodos: se revisaron varias fuentes primarias y se elaboró un listado de todas las instituciones de salud del valle de Aburrá. Se hicieron entrevistas telefónicas con los respectivos directores para establecer cuáles instituciones tenían un programa de control prenatal exclusivo para adolescentes y a estas instituciones se les aplicó un formato de evaluación para determinar si cumplían con los estándares internacionales descritos en la literatura como esenciales en un programa de control prenatal para adolescentes. Resultados: sólo una de las 101 instituciones de salud que ofrecían control prenatal tenía un programa exclusivo para adolescentes. Sin embargo, a la luz de la evaluación, dicho programa no cumplía con los estándares de un programa de control prenatal para adolescentes. Conclusión: a pesar de que en Colombia el embarazo en adolescentes es un problema de salud pública, los programas de control prenatal para adolescentes no se han implementado en el valle de Aburrá. Establecerlos constituye una de las estrategias para resolver esta problemática. Objective : this investigation had the aim of identifying and evaluating the prenatal control programs offered to teenagers in the Aburrá Valley region of Colombia in 2003. Methodology: through various sources a list was compiled which included all the health institutions in the Aburrá Valley region. The institutions which offered exclusive teenage prenatal control were identified by telephone and a questionnaire was applied to them with the purpose of knowing if they met the international standards described in relevant sources as being essential in a teenage prenatal control program. Results: in only one of the 101 health

  18. The nuclear power implications of OPEC prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is generally assumed - not unreasonably - that quadrupling oil prices offers a great opportunity to nuclear power and that installation rates should now be much than if prices had stayed down. It is argued that this view is too facile: the effect of raised oil prices on Western economies is complex and longlasting; nuclear power prospects are at least as likely to be depressed as enhanced - unless more weight is given to long-term strategic factors. (author)

  19. Price formation and market mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    World markets for nuclear fuel have changed greatly since the 1970s. In earlier days, firms specializing in mining, conversion, enrichment and fabrication negotiated directly with end users, primarily under long term contracts at specified prices. This old model is gone. Market structure has been transformed: traditional suppliers now compete with traders, some of whom can offer a much larger menu of products and terms than primary suppliers. Utilities act as traders, converters as brokers, brokers as traders, producers as buyers, and so on. De-enrichment, de-conversion, loans, swaps, interchanges and other new kinds of transactions have proliferated. These changes in market structure and market mechanisms have been accompanied by substantial changes in price formation, that is the process by which market price is set. Today, the level and direction of price are set in a trading dominated spot market environment, fuelled by inventory liquidation and Soviet and other non-traditional supply. (author)

  20. 78 FR 69553 - Domestic Competitive Products Pricing and Mailing Standards Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... online intercept request. Retail customers who file their request through usps.com may add extra services... January 2012. The existing Commercial Base prices offer lower prices to customers who use online and other... $15.45. Commercial Base prices offer lower prices to customers who use online and other authorized...

  1. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... under the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). FDA is requesting input on the identified principles for... adhere to these principles, and performance goals for this program. FDA plans to review the comments... drug marketing applications were submitted each year for FDA review. The number of participants in the...

  2. Branch-and-price for staff rostering: An efficient implementation using generic programming and nested column generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg; Mason, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel generic programming implementation of a column-generation algorithm for the generalized staff rostering problem. The problem is represented as a generalized set partitioning model, which is able to capture commonly occurring problem characteristics given in the literature. Colu...

  3. Review of Online Programming Characteristics and Pricing at Private Not-for-Profit Two Year Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Online programming has expanded greatly within higher education and much attention has been spent on public two year colleges (more commonly known as community colleges) and both private and public four year institutions. This research seeks to expand understanding of the small market of private not-for-profit two year colleges within the United…

  4. Understanding retail gasoline pricing : An empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruzikas, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    Retail gasoline markets offer an abundance of price data at the daily and, more recently, hourly level. Firms in this industry use sophisticated price strategies. Moreover, there have been a number of important recent market developments. All this makes retail gasoline a promising industry to study

  5. Can voluntary pooled procurement reduce the price of antiretroviral drugs? a case study of Efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Wook; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2017-05-01

    : A number of strategies have aimed to assist countries in procuring antiretroviral therapy (ARV) at lower prices. In 2009, as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) commenced a voluntary pooled procurement scheme, however, the impact of the scheme on ARV prices remains uncertain. This study aims to estimate the effect of VPP on drug prices using Efavirenz as a case study. This analysis uses WHO Global price report mechanism (GPRM) data from 2004 to 2013. Due to the highly skewed distribution of drug Prices, a generalized linear model (GLM) was used to conduct a difference-in-difference estimation of drug price changes over time. These analyses found that voluntary pooled procurement reduced both the ex-works price of generic Efavirenz and the incoterms price by 16.2 and 19.1%, respectively ( P <  0.001) in both cases). The year dummies were also statistically significant from 2006 to 2013 ( P <  0.001), indicating a strong decreasing trend in the price of Efavirenz over that period. Voluntary pooled procurement significantly reduced the price of 600 mg generic Efavirenz between 2009 and 2013. Voluntary pooled procurement therefore offers a potentially effective strategy for the reduction in HIV drug prices and the improvement of technical efficiency in HIV programming. Further work is required to establish if these findings hold also for other drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Pricing decision-making units

    OpenAIRE

    R F&aauml;re; S Grosskopf; D Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    In this note we extend the standard DEA paradigm to address the question of how one can price DMUs (decision-making units). To do this we use an adjoint transformation to the technology generated by these DMUs which links to traditional linear programming theory of the firm and is similar to pricing portfolios in financial markets. We also provide a numerical example illustrating the practicality of the proposed method.

  7. 48 CFR 19.806 - Pricing the 8(a) contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing the 8(a) contract...) Program) 19.806 Pricing the 8(a) contract. (a) The contracting officer shall price the 8(a) contract in accordance with subpart 15.4. If required by subpart 15.4, the SBA shall obtain certified cost or pricing...

  8. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  9. Offer - La Comédie theatre

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    The “La Comédie” theatre unveiled its programme for the season 2017–2018. We are delighted to share this brand new, rich and varied programme with you. The “La Comédie” theatre has various discounts for our members Buy 2 subscriptions for the price of 1 : 2 cards “Libertà” for CHF 240.- instead of CHF 480.- Cruise freely through the season with an 8-entry card valid for the shows of your choice. These cards are transferable and can be shared with one or more accompanying persons. 2 cards “Piccolo” for CHF 120 instead of CHF 240.- This card lets you discover 4 shows which are suitable for all audiences (offers valid while stock lasts) Benefit from a reduction of 20 % on a full price ticket during all the season: from CHF 40.- to CHF 24.- ticket instead of CHF 50.- to CHF 30.- depending on the show (Also valid for one accompanying person). Interested in one of these offers? Create an ac...

  10. Optimizing Household Chlorination Marketing Strategies: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Price and Promotion on Adoption in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michael; Camille, Eveline; Velcine, Christophe; Guillaume, Rose-Kerline; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0.10 bottles per household per month ( P sales agents increased purchases at mid-range prices; however, the additional revenue did not offset visit cost. Choosing the lowest price and conducting visits maximizes chlorine purchase, whereas slightly raising the retail price and not conducting visits maximizes cost recovery. For the equivalent cost, price discounts increase purchases 4.2 times as much as adding visits at the current retail price. In this context, price subsidies may be a more cost-effective use of resources than household visits, though all marketing strategies tested offer cost-effective ways to achieve incremental health impact. Decisions about pricing and promotion for health products in developing countries affect health impact, cost recovery, and cost-effectiveness, and tradeoffs between these goals should be made explicit in program design.

  11. Pricing hospital care: Global budgets and marginal pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-08-01

    The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) is adding financial incentives to increase the volume of surgeries provided by hospitals using a marginal pricing approach. The objective of this study is to calculate marginal costs of surgeries based on assumptions regarding hospitals' availability of labor and equipment. This study is based on observational clinical, administrative and financial data generated by hospitals. Hospital inpatient and outpatient discharge summaries from the province are linked with detailed activity-based costing information, stratified by assigned case mix categorizations. To reflect a range of operating constraints governing hospitals' ability to increase their volume of surgeries, a number of scenarios are proposed. Under these scenarios, estimated marginal costs are calculated and compared to prices being offered as incentives to hospitals. Existing data can be used to support alternative strategies for pricing hospital care. Prices for inpatient surgeries do not generate positive margins under a range of operating scenarios. Hip and knee surgeries generate surpluses for hospitals even under the most costly labor conditions and are expected to generate additional volume. In health systems that wish to fine-tune financial incentives, setting prices that create incentives for additional volume should reflect knowledge of hospitals' underlying cost structures. Possible implications of mis-pricing include no response to the incentives or uneven increases in supply. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. 48 CFR 570.303-3 - Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Late offers, modifications of offers, and withdrawals of offers. 570.303-3 Section 570.303-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROPERTY Contracting Procedures for Leasehold Interests in Real Property 570.303-3 Late offers...

  13. Offer

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Le parc ouvre ses portes le samedi 4 avril 2015!   La Chasse aux Oeufs du 4 au 26 avril En plus de ses 25 attractions et spectacles, le parc proposera aux enfants de 3 à 12 ans de relever le challenge d’une course aux oeufs dans un jardin de Pâques reconstitué ! Autant de petits oeufs à trouver dans un temps limite ; tout cela au milieu de lapins, poules, fleurs et autres oeufs géants pour repartir avec des gourmandises en chocolat de la marque Revillon Chocolatier.   Profitez de notre offre spéciale pour nos membres : Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 21,50 euros au lieu de 27 euros Accès à l’Aqualibi : 5 euros au lieu de 8 euros sur présentation du billet d’entrée au tarif membre AP. Entrée gratuite pour les enfants de moins de 3 ans, avec accès limité aux attractions. Les billet...

  14. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Bénéficiez du tarif spécial de 35 CHF/personne + 1 accompagnant au Théâtre de Carouge  en étant membre de l’Association du personnel.  Envoyez votre réservation par mail à smills@tcag.ch via votre adresse mail professionnelle. Indiquez la date de votre réservation, votre nom, prénom et numéro de téléphone. Une confirmation de réservation vous sera retournée par mail. La présentation de votre carte de membre sera demandée lors du retrait des billets.   De Molière – Mise en scène de Jean Liermier Argan, veuf, remarié avec Béline qui n’attend que la mort de son mari pour hériter, multiplie saignées, purges et autres ingestions de remèdes. Angélique, sa fille, vuet &a...

  15. OFFERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Nouveau partenaire - Joy’s Club   Venez profiter des remises au Joy’s Club / Minigolf à Divonne-les-bains en tant que membre de l’Association ! Sur présentation de votre carte membre, vous bénéficierez d’une remise immédiate telle que : - Pour une partie adulte : 6 euros au lieu de 7 euros - Pour une partie enfant : 4 euros au lieu de 5 euros - Pour le mini Park : 6 euros au lieu de 7 euros Pour plus de renseignements, n’hésitez pas à demander au Secrétariat de l’Association ou à consulter notre site web: http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/fr/socioculturel/offres  

  16. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    12 % discount on football camps and courses for children from 3 to 13 years old, with bilingual coaches.   Now also courses during the autumn holidays! In order to get the discount you need to register online, then send a mail to info@intersoccer.ch with a scan of your membership card to recieve a refund of the discount.

  17. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff association

    2014-01-01

        Envie de soirée au théâtre, n’hésitez pas à bénéficier de nos offres pour nos membres ! Théâtre de Carouge : Réduction de 5 CHF pour tous les spectacles (30 CHF au lieu de 35 CHF) Le théâtre de Carouge vous présente sa nouvelle pièce : La double insconstance Du vedredi 21 mars au dimanche 6 avril 2014 De Marivaux Mise en scène de Philippe Mentha Audio-description le mardi 1er avril et le samedi 5 avril 2014 Il règne un doux mélange de révoltes et de séductions, de ruses et de fatalité dans cette Double Inconstance de Marivaux que met en scène Philippe Mentha, membre fondateur du Théâtre de Carouge et directeur depuis plus de trente ans du Théâtre Kléber-Méleau. L’allure d...

  18. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free.

  19. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Découvrez les plus belles tables de Suisse romande et de France voisine en bénéficiant des réductions suivantes sur chaque repas, pendant une année : 50 % pour 2 personnes, 40 % pour 3 personnes, 30 % pour 4 personnes, 20 % pour 5 à 6 personnes. Comment ça marche ? Faites votre choix parmi les 110 restaurants de votre région et réservez votre table pour 2, 3, 4, 5 ou 6 personnes. Présentez votre Passeport Gourmand dès votre arrivée. Savourez votre repas et profitez d’une réduction exceptionnelle sur votre addition (hors boissons, menu du jour et business lunch). Quels sont vos avantages ? Profitez du prix préférentiel pour les membres de l’association du CERN : – Passeport Gourmand Genève : CHF 75.- (au lieu de CHF 95.-) – Passeport Gourmand Ain/Savoie/Haute-Savoie : CHF 59.- (au lieu de CH...

  20. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Si cette offre vous intéresse, merci d’envoyer un mail à mh.boulanger@comedie.ch avec le détail de votre réservation via votre adresse mail professionnelle. Le retrait des places se fait à la billetterie sur présentation de votre carte de membre de l’Association du personnel. Pour toute commande d’abonnement ou de carte de réduction par courrier ou internet, cocher le tarif collectif en indiquant le nom de l’entreprise et en joignant un justificatif nominatif. Pour tout renseignement, n’hésitez pas à contacter Marie-Hélène Boulanger : –  Tel. : 022 809 60 86 –  email : mh.boulanger@comedie.ch

  1. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Découvrez les plus belles tables de Suisse romande et de France voisine en bénéficiant des réductions suivantes sur chaque repas, pendant une année : 50 % pour 2 personnes / 40 % pour 3 personnes / 30 % pour 4 personnes / 20 % pour 5 à 6 personnes. Comment ça marche ? Faites votre choix parmi les 110 restaurants de votre région et réservez votre table pour 2, 3, 4, 5 ou 6 personnes. Présentez votre Passeport Gourmand dès votre arrivée. Savourez votre repas et profitez d’une réduction exceptionnelle sur votre addition (hors boissons, menu du jour et business lunch). Quels sont vos avantages ? Profitez du prix préférentiel pour les membres de l’association du CERN : – Passeport Gourmand Genève : CHF 75.- (au lieu de CHF 95.-) – Passeport Gourmand Ain/Savoie/Haute-Savoie : CHF 59.- (au lieu de...

  2. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Concert Scoop music tour sur le parc Walibi ! Vendredi 12 Juillet Vous trouverez la présentation de l’événement et les vidéos des artistes attendus avec leurs titres faisant vibrer les radios en ce moment sur le site internet http://www.walibi.com/rhone-alpes/fr-fr/evenements/scoop-music-tour. Le concert est gratuit et débute à la fermeture du parc avec une première partie surprise. Profitez donc d’une belle journée sur le parc et finissez en beauté avec le concert de l’été !

  3. Offers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    To our members 5% discount on Fnac vouchers Vouchers of 50.-, 100.- et 200. - CHF Valid in the 4 shops in Switzerland without restriction on purchases. On sale in the office of Secretariat of the staff Association.

  4. 17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(s); (iv) The intention of the offeror to make purchases pursuant to the foreign tender offer(s) is... consideration paid outside of the tender offer that is greater than the tender offer price; and (G) Purchases or... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibiting purchases outside...

  5. The Obstacle Version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle: Application to the Pricing of American Options Under Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Bruno; Vu, Thanh Nam

    2010-01-01

    We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.

  6. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  7. Unit Pricing and Alternatives: Developing an Individualized Shopping Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cude, Brenda; Walker, Rosemary

    1985-01-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the teaching of unit pricing in consumer economics classes by identifying ways to teach the costs as well as the benefits of unit pricing and realistic guidelines for suggesting situations in which it is most appropriate. Alternatives to unit pricing will also be explored. (CT)

  8. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Proposal for a new program leading to the Master of Science degree in environmental studies to be offered jointly by the Medical University of South Carolina and the University of Charleston, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) and the University of Charleston, South Carolina (UCSC) propose to offer the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Studies. The proposed starting date is August 1994. The purpose of this interdisciplinary program is to offer nationally and internationally recognized graduate level training in the areas of environmental policy, science, and health risk assessment. Special emphasis will be placed on human health. Included in this proposal are a needs assessment for environmental science professionals along with employment projections and salary expectations. The Environmental Science program is described and its relationship to other programs within MUSC and UCSC, as well as its relation to similar programs at other institutions are examined. Enrollment is discussed, admission requirements and standards outlined, and the curriculum is described. Academic and physical resources are examined and estimated costs are given.

  9. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  10. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  11. A uniform price auction with locational price adjustments for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Mount, T.; Schulze, W.; Zimmerman, R.; Thomas, R.

    1999-01-01

    Competitive electricity markets which rely on centralized dispatch require a mechanism to solicit offers from competing generators. Ideally, such an auction mechanism, provides incentives to submit offers equal to the marginal cost of generation for each generator. Economic theory suggests that the Uniform Price auction is an appropriate institution. However, an efficient implementation of this auction in an electricity context requires that the offers used in the auction reflect the appropriate locational price adjustments for transmission losses and congestion. This paper describes a uniform price auction that incorporates locational price adjustments on a Web-based platform suitable for experimentation. Preliminary results show dramatically different price and revenue results when compared with a simple continuous Discriminative auction. (author)

  12. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  13. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atil, Ahmed; Lahiani, Amine; Nguyen, Duc Khuong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we use the recently developed nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas prices. Our approach allows us to simultaneously test the short- and long-run nonlinearities through positive and negative partial sum decompositions of the predetermined explanatory variables. It also offers the possibility to quantify the respective responses of gasoline and natural gas prices to positive and negative oil price shocks from the asymmetric dynamic multipliers. The obtained results indicate that oil prices affect gasoline prices and natural gas prices in an asymmetric and nonlinear manner, but the price transmission mechanism is not the same. Important policy implications can be learned from the empirical findings. - Highlights: • The pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas prices is examined. • We use a NARDL model to test for the long-run and short-run asymmetric reactions. • Both gasoline and natural gas prices significantly adjust to changes in the price of oil. • Negative oil shocks have greater effects than positive oil shocks. • Policy implications are discussed

  14. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  15. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; the Application of Mental Health Parity Requirements to Coverage Offered by Medicaid Managed Care Organizations, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and Alternative Benefit Plans. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    This final rule will address the application of certain requirements set forth in the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, to coverage offered by Medicaid managed care organizations, Medicaid Alternative Benefit Plans, and Children’s Health Insurance Programs.

  16. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors described...

  17. A framework for the assessment of the oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. de; Guimaraes Lodi, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wide diversity of interpretations in the literature about the mechanisms that govern oil prices. None of them has been able to produce reasonable price forecasts. Estimates of future oil prices, or at least of a range of prices, are essential for policy-making. A better understanding of the interplay of the forces that affect oil prices is absolutely necessary. This paper aims to offer a contribution to the improvement of this understanding. It suggests a rational analytical framework to estimate the future price of oil, based on the objectives and policies of the major players in the oil market. (author)

  18. Competitive Pricing by a Price Leader

    OpenAIRE

    Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...

  19. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  20. Pricing of Claims in Discrete Time with Partial Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien Dahl, Kristina, E-mail: kristrd@math.uio.no [University of Oslo, Department of Mathematics (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the pricing problem of a seller with delayed price information. By using Lagrange duality, a dual problem is derived, and it is proved that there is no duality gap. This gives a characterization of the seller's price of a contingent claim. Finally, we analyze the dual problem, and compare the prices offered by two sellers with delayed and full information respectively.

  1. Pricing of Claims in Discrete Time with Partial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rognlien Dahl, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We consider the pricing problem of a seller with delayed price information. By using Lagrange duality, a dual problem is derived, and it is proved that there is no duality gap. This gives a characterization of the seller’s price of a contingent claim. Finally, we analyze the dual problem, and compare the prices offered by two sellers with delayed and full information respectively

  2. Electricity transmission pricing. How contracts must reflect costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuttleworth, G.

    1996-01-01

    Two basic structures of transmission systems are distinguished: transmission channels offered through an integrated electric utility and open access offered over an independent network. The first structure allows the application of 'top-down pricing', where transmission prices are derived from customer tariffs less avoidable generation costs. Transmission prices in the second structure must be derived from a 'bottom-up' analysis of transmission costs, including building capacity, marginal losses, and congestion. 5 refs

  3. TARGET CONTROLLING METHOD OF THE PRICING PROCESS IN THE TOURISM ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    N. Sagalakova

    2016-01-01

    Key stages of the pricing process in the tourism enterprises are investigated: subprocess of establishing of nominal value of the new tourism product price and subprocess of adjustment of the established price depending on a situation in the tourism market. For establishing of nominal value of the price it is offered by use of optimizing model, which maximizes the usefulness function of structural parts of the tourism product price. For adjustment of the tourism product price under change of ...

  4. Price Forecasting of Electricity Markets in the Presence of a High Penetration of Wind Power Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Talari; Miadreza Shafie-khah; Gerardo J. Osório; Fei Wang; Alireza Heidari; João P. S. Catalão

    2017-01-01

    Price forecasting plays a vital role in the day-ahead markets. Once sellers and buyers access an accurate price forecasting, managing the economic risk can be conducted appropriately through offering or bidding suitable prices. In networks with high wind power penetration, the electricity price is influenced by wind energy; therefore, price forecasting can be more complicated. This paper proposes a novel hybrid approach for price forecasting of day-ahead markets, with high penetration of wind...

  5. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  6. Hedging electricity price volatility using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear power is an important asset to reduce the volatility of electricity prices. • Unpredictability of fossil fuels and carbon prices makes power prices very volatile. • The dynamics of fossil fuels and carbon prices is described by Brownian motions. • LCOE values, volatilities and correlations are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations. • Optimal portfolios of generating technologies are get using a mean–variance approach. - Abstract: The analysis presented in this paper aims to put in some evidence the role of nuclear power as hedging asset against the volatility of electricity prices. The unpredictability of natural gas and coal market prices as well as the uncertainty in environmental policies may affect power generating costs, thus enhancing volatility in electricity market prices. The nuclear option, allowing to generate electricity without carbon emissions, offers the possibility to reduce the volatility of electricity prices through optimal diversification of power generating technologies. This paper provides a methodological scheme to plan well diversified “portfolios” of generating capacity that minimize the electricity price risk induced by random movements of fossil fuels market prices and by unpredictable fluctuations of carbon credits prices. The analysis is developed within a stochastic environment in which the dynamics of fuel prices as well as the dynamics of carbon credits prices is assumed to evolve in time according to well defined Brownian processes. Starting from market data and using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate generating cost values, the hedging argument is developed by selecting optimal portfolio of power generating technologies using a mean–variance approach

  7. Short-term Consumer Benefits of Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...

  8. Prices on the way up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    It may have taken until the very last day of the month, but prices are finally on the way up. On July 31, a US utility concluded at least two transactions for a minimum of 250,000 lbs U3O8 equivalent, pushing the top of NUKEM's price range up 10 cents. After three months with prices languishing below US$7.85, the price range now stands at US$7.75-$7.95. The pace of new demand held steady in July versus June, with more than 3.4 million lbs equivalent in new requests entering the market. There was one difference: The new demand in July was characterized by longer lead time. Most new demand in June required delivery by the end of the fourth quarter, a lead time of about 3 to 6 months. In July, buyers accepted delivery anywhere from 4 to 9 months out, with most delivery requests landing in 1993. This jump in lead times is largely due to one seller in the market offering first and second quarter 1993 deliveries near the bottom of the price range to utilities with flexible needs

  9. Family Home Food Environment and Nutrition-Related Parent and Child Personal and Behavioral Outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Friend, Sarah; Horning, Melissa; Flattum, Colleen; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Kubik, Martha Y

    2018-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a significant positive association between frequent family meals and children's dietary intake; however, the promotion of healthful family meals has not been rigorously tested for key food environment and nutrition-related behavioral outcomes in a randomized trial. To describe family home food environment and nutrition-related parent and child personal and behavioral outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program, the first rigorously tested family meals intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention. Randomized controlled trial. Baseline, postintervention (12 months, 93% retention), and follow-up (21 months, 89% retention) data (surveys and dietary recalls) were collected. Children aged 8 to 12 years (N=160) and their parents were randomized to intervention (n=81) or control (n=79) groups. The intervention included five parent goal-setting calls and 10 monthly sessions delivered to families in community settings that focused on experiential nutrition activities and education, meal planning, cooking skill development, and reducing screen time. Family home food environment outcomes and nutrition-related child and parent personal and behavioral outcomes. Analyses used generalized linear mixed models. Primary comparisons were contrasts between intervention and control groups at postintervention and follow-up, with adjustments for child age and parent education. Compared with control parents, intervention parents showed greater improvement over time in scores of self-efficacy for identifying appropriate portion sizes, with significant differences in adjusted means at both post-intervention (P=0.002) and follow-up (P=0.01). Intervention children were less likely to consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage daily at post-intervention than control children (P=0.04). The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program involved the entire family and targeted personal, behavioral, and

  10. Offering Incentives from the Outside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2017-01-01

    Incentives offer a good deal of underexplored opportunities to help manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. This study has two primary objectives. First, it furthers the discussion of how external third parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available ...

  11. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  12. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate...... the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  13. Price Endogeneity and Marginal Cost Effects on Incentive Compatible Stormwater Management Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Matthew C.; Willis, David B.; Hayes, John C.; Privette, Charles V., III

    2010-01-01

    Incentive based stormwater management policies offer the prospect of reducing urban stormwater runoff while increasing developer profits. An incentive compatible Stormwater Banking Program (SBP) is presented that allows developers to build at higher residential densities in exchange for including low impact stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the development’s stormwater management infrastructure. Price endogeneity presents itself when the smaller residential lots created by buildi...

  14. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER -the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  15. Pricing regulations in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoletti, G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the structure and functions of Great Britain's essential electric power regulatory authority institutionalized by the 1989 British Electricity Act, i.e., the Office of Electricity Regulation, OFFER, and the responsibilities and tasks of the head of OFFER - the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES). In particular, with regard to the latter, the paper describes how the DGES works together with regional electricity commissions to ensure the respect, by the various utilities, of consumer price caps and compliance with overall quality of service standards, as well as, to oversee 'pooling' activities by producers and distributors

  16. One TV, One Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Imbs; Haroon Mumtaz; Morten O. Ravn; Hélène Rey

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique dataset on television prices across European countries and regions to investigate the sources of differences in price levels. Our findings are as follows: (i) Quality is a crucial determinant of price differences. Even in an integrated economic zone as Europe, rich economies tend to consume higher quality goods. This effect accounts for the lion’s share of international price dispersion. (ii) Sizable international price differentials subsist even for the same television sets. ...

  17. Value-based pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  18. Cruise tourism: a hedonic pricing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Espinet-Rius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect on price of different cruise industry characteristics from the point of view of actual prices. The analysis is carried out from the supply side but taking into account the real prices paid by customers. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses the hedonic price methodology. To develop this research, a database of more than 36,000 prices paid by cruise passengers and different characteristics of ships in 2013 was built. To obtain the results, ten models have been developed with significant adjusted R2 of between 0.85 and 0.93 making the models and results robust. Findings - The results show that the main attributes affecting prices are the number of nights of the itinerary, the departure date, the number of days before departure the booking is made, the accommodation type and some facilities, such as casinos, cinemas and swimming pools. The results also yield a ranking of ship companies based on price and quality dimensions. Finally, the authors suggest some implications for management and new research. Originality/value - This paper offers a new approach in the academic literature of the cruise industry in two respects. First, in its use of a broad database of actual prices paid by passengers – more than 36,000 observations. Second, in the application of the hedonic pricing methodology, widely used in the tourism sector (see the Methodology and Database section but until now not in the cruising segment.

  19. Modeling of demand response in electricity markets : effects of price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, E.C.; Tuan, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A design mechanism for the optimal participation of customer load in electricity markets was presented. In particular, this paper presented a modified market model for the optimal procurement of interruptible loads participating in day-ahead electricity markets. The proposed model considers the effect of price elasticity and demand-response functions. The objective was to determine the role that price elasticity plays in electricity markets. The simulation model can help the Independent System Operator (ISO) identify customers offering the lowest price of interruptible loads and load flow patterns that avoid problems associated with transmission congestion and transmission losses. Various issues associated with procurement of demand-response offerings such as advance notification, locational aspect of load, and power factor of the loads, were considered. It was shown that demand response can mitigate price volatility by allowing the ISO to maintain operating reserves during peak load periods. It was noted that the potential benefits of the demand response program would be reduced when price elasticity of demand is taken into account. This would most likely occur in actual developed open electricity markets, such as Nordpool. This study was based on the CIGRE 32-bus system, which represents the Swedish high voltage power system. It was modified for this study to include a broad range of customer characteristics. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs

  20. Winning One Program at a Time: A Systemic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Adam; Zimmerman, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Many Universities are missing an opportunity to focus student recruitment marketing efforts and budget at the program level, which can offer lower priced advertising opportunities with higher conversion rates than traditional University level marketing initiatives. At NC State University, we have begun to deploy a scalable, low-cost, program level…

  1. Energy prices and agricultural commodity prices: Testing correlation using copulas method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koirala, Krishna H.; Mishra, Ashok K.; D'Antoni, Jeremy M.; Mehlhorn, Joey E.

    2015-01-01

    The linear relationships between energy prices and prices for agricultural commodities such as corn and soybeans may have been affected, over the last several years, by policy legislations in the farm sector, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, and the Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2014. Using high-frequency data and newer methodology, this study investigates dependence between agricultural commodity futures prices and energy futures prices. Results reveal that agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated and exhibit positive and significant relationship. Findings from this study highlight that an increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodities. - Highlights: • Energy policy mandates production of 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol by 2015. • Energy-intensive agriculture has a link between energy sector and crop production costs. • We investigate correlation between energy prices and agricultural commodity prices. • Agricultural commodity and energy future prices are highly correlated. • Increase in energy price increases the price of agricultural commodity

  2. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  3. The adoption of residential solar photovoltaic systems in the presence of a financial incentive: A case study of consumer experiences with the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program in Ontario (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Christopher William Junji

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In response, the Ontario Government, through the Ontario Power Authority (OPA), introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP) in November, 2006. The RESOP offers owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. To act on this purpose, the experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified. This thesis was conducted in three phases--a literature review, preliminary key informant interviews, and primary RESOP participant interviews--with each phase informing the scope and design of the subsequent stage. First, a literature survey was completed to identify and to understand the potential drivers and barriers to the adoption of a solar PV system from the perspective of a consumer. Second, nine key informant interviews were completed to gain further understanding regarding the specific intricacies of the drivers and barriers in the case of Ontario, as well as the overall adoption system in the province. These interviews were conducted between July and September, 2008. Third, interviews with 24 RESOP participants were conducted; they constitute the primary data set. These

  4. Customer Strategies for Responding to Day-Ahead Market HourlyElectricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Chuck; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Boisvert, Dick; Cappers, Peter; Pratt, Donna; Butkins, Kim

    2005-08-25

    Real-time pricing (RTP) has been advocated as an economically efficient means to send price signals to customers to promote demand response (DR) (Borenstein 2002, Borenstein 2005, Ruff 2002). However, limited information exists that can be used to judge how effectively RTP actually induces DR, particularly in the context of restructured electricity markets. This report describes the second phase of a study of how large, non-residential customers' adapted to default-service day-ahead hourly pricing. The customers are located in upstate New York and served under Niagara Mohawk, A National Grid Company (NMPC)'s SC-3A rate class. The SC-3A tariff is a type of RTP that provides firm, day-ahead notice of hourly varying prices indexed to New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) day-ahead market prices. The study was funded by the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s PIER program through the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC). NMPC's is the first and longest-running default-service RTP tariff implemented in the context of retail competition. The mix of NMPC's large customers exposed to day-ahead hourly prices is roughly 30% industrial, 25% commercial and 45% institutional. They have faced periods of high prices during the study period (2000-2004), thereby providing an opportunity to assess their response to volatile hourly prices. The nature of the SC-3A default service attracted competitive retailers offering a wide array of pricing and hedging options, and customers could also participate in demand response programs implemented by NYISO. The first phase of this study examined SC-3A customers' satisfaction, hedging choices and price response through in-depth customer market research and a Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) demand model (Goldman et al. 2004). This second phase was undertaken to answer questions that remained unresolved and to quantify price response to a higher level of granularity. We accomplished these

  5. Wind offering in energy and reserve markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, T.; Pinson, P.; Morais, H.

    2016-09-01

    The increasing penetration of wind generation in power systems to fulfil the ambitious European targets will make wind power producers to play an even more important role in the future power system. Wind power producers are being incentivized to participate in reserve markets to increase their revenue, since currently wind turbine/farm technologies allow them to provide ancillary services. Thus, wind power producers are to develop offering strategies for participation in both energy and reserve markets, accounting for market rules, while ensuring optimal revenue. We consider a proportional offering strategy to optimally decide upon participation in both markets by maximizing expected revenue from day-ahead decisions while accounting for estimated regulation costs for failing to provide the services. An evaluation of considering the same proportional splitting of energy and reserve in both day- ahead and balancing market is performed. A set of numerical examples illustrate the behavior of such strategy. An important conclusion is that the optimal split of the available wind power between energy and reserve strongly depends upon prices and penalties on both market trading floors.

  6. Constrained Monopoly Pricing with Random Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Basaluzzo, Gabriel; Miravete, Eugenio J

    2007-01-01

    We present a flexible model of monopoly nonlinear pricing with endogenous participation decisions of heterogeneous consumers. We make use of the moments that define the few self-selecting tariff options that are commonly used to implement the optimal nonlinear tariff to estimate how demand and cost variables affect the pricing strategies offered by incumbent monopolists in several early U.S. local cellular telephone markets through the different elements of the theoretical model: marginal cos...

  7. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  8. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  9. Negotiation as a form of persuasion: arguments in first offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaravi, Yossi; Ganzach, Yoav; Pazy, Asya

    2011-08-01

    In this article we examined aspects of negotiation within a persuasion framework. Specifically, we investigated how the provision of arguments that justified the first offer in a negotiation affected the behavior of the parties, namely, how it influenced counteroffers and settlement prices. In a series of 4 experiments and 2 pilot studies, we demonstrated that when the generation of counterarguments was easy, negotiators who did not add arguments to their first offers achieved superior results compared with negotiators who used arguments to justify their first offer. We hypothesized and provided evidence that adding arguments to a first offer was likely to cause the responding party to search for counterarguments, and this, in turn, led him or her to present counteroffers that were further away from the first offer.

  10. Equilibrium prices supported by dual price functions in markets with non-convexities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2004-06-01

    The issue of finding market clearing prices in markets with non-convexities has had a renewed interest due to the deregulation of the electricity sector. In the day-ahead electricity market, equilibrium prices are calculated based on bids from generators and consumers. In most of the existing markets, several generation technologies are present, some of which have considerable non-convexities, such as capacity limitations and large start up costs. In this paper we present equilibrium prices composed of a commodity price and an uplift charge. The prices are based on the generation of a separating valid inequality that supports the optimal resource allocation. In the case when the sub-problem generated as the integer variables are held fixed to their optimal values possess the integrality property, the generated prices are also supported by non-linear price-functions that are the basis for integer programming duality. (Author)

  11. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  12. Do higher-priced generic medicines enjoy a competitive advantage under reference pricing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2012-11-01

    In many countries with generic reference pricing, generic producers and distributors compete by means of undisclosed discounts offered to pharmacies in order to reduce acquisition costs and to induce them to dispense their generic to patients in preference over others. The objective of this article is to test the hypothesis that under prevailing reference pricing systems for generic medicines, those medicines sold at a higher consumer price may enjoy a competitive advantage. Real transaction prices for 179 generic medicines acquired by pharmacies in Spain have been used to calculate the discount rate on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies. Two empirical hypotheses are tested: the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical presentations for which there are more generic competitors; and, the discount rate at which pharmacies acquire generic medicines is higher for those pharmaceutical forms for which the consumer price has declined less in relation to the consumer price of the brand drug before generic entry (higher-priced generic medicines). An average discount rate of 39.3% on acquisition versus reimbursed costs to pharmacies has been observed. The magnitude of the discount positively depends on the number of competitors in the market. The higher the ratio of the consumer price of the generic to that of the brand drug prior to generic entry (i.e. the smaller the price reduction of the generic in relation to the brand drug), the larger the discount rate. Under reference pricing there is intense price competition among generic firms in the form of unusually high discounts to pharmacies on official ex-factory prices reimbursed to pharmacies. However, this effect is highly distorting because it favours those medicines with a higher relative price in relation to the brand price before generic entry.

  13. Shaping the offer of hotel services for internet sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlešič Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the consumer's preferences in booking hotel services over the internet. A conjoint analysis was used in establishing whether the price is the most important factor in deciding on a hotel service and which elements of the service can be used as a competitive advantage. Although the price does play a pivotal role in the consumer's decision, within an acceptable price range he will take into account the bonuses offered by the hotel. Among the bonuses, free parking and free internet access play an important role, while free access to pornographic films and free wine with dinner are not an important factor. Room colour does not play a role in the consumer's decision making process regarding hotel services.

  14. Uranium price formation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The modern uranium industry came into existence in 1946. Until 1966, its sole customer was the Atomic Energy Commission, whose needs for U 3 O 8 relative to industry capacity declined over the years. The development of the commercial market after 1965 coincided with a period of excess capacity and falling nominal and real prices. Gradually in 1973 and dramatically thereafter, market conditions changed and prices rose as utilities sought larger quantities of U 3 O 8 and longer term contracts. Questions about availability of long-run supplies were raised, given the known reserve base. The response of the supply of U 3 O 8 to incentives offered first by the AEC and later by the utilities in the context of new and developing market conventions is examined. The methodology used is microeconomic analysis, qualitatively applied to the history of price formation in the market. Because the study emphasizes the implications of the history of uranium price formation for forecasting supply response, the study presents many different kinds of data and evaluates their quality and appropriateness for forecasting. A simple, very-useful framework for analyzing the history of the market for U 3 O 8 was developed and used to describe supply responses in selected important periods of the industry's development. It is concluded that the response of supply of U 3 O 8 to rising prices or to expectations of demand growth has been impressively strong. The potential reserve inventory is large enough to meet the needs for nuclear power generation through the end of this century. The price necessary to induce producers to find and produce these reserves is uncertain, partly because of problems inherent in estimating long-run supply curves and partly because recent inflation has created major uncertainties about the cost of future supplies

  15. 7 CFR 3431.17 - VMLRP service agreement offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VMLRP service agreement offer. 3431.17 Section 3431... Administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program § 3431.17 VMLRP service agreement offer. The Secretary will make an offer to successful applicants to enter into an agreement with the Secretary to...

  16. 48 CFR 619.804-2 - Agency offering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency offering. 619.804-2 Section 619.804-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL... offering. (a) When applicable, this notification shall identify that the offering is in accordance with the...

  17. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of creating political markets, and political prices, here understood as market distortion. This paper studies the ‘politics’ of pricing by following the adoption of the first feed-in tariff in France. Pricing as a way of achieving non-economic ends, such as climate mitigation, brings the values of several...... public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  18. Medicare Program; Revisions to Payment Policies Under the Physician Fee Schedule and Other Revisions to Part B for CY 2017; Medicare Advantage Bid Pricing Data Release; Medicare Advantage and Part D Medical Loss Ratio Data Release; Medicare Advantage Provider Network Requirements; Expansion of Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program Model; Medicare Shared Savings Program Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    This major final rule addresses changes to the physician fee schedule and other Medicare Part B payment policies, such as changes to the Value Modifier, to ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services, as well as changes in the statute. This final rule also includes changes related to the Medicare Shared Savings Program, requirements for Medicare Advantage Provider Networks, and provides for the release of certain pricing data from Medicare Advantage bids and of data from medical loss ratio reports submitted by Medicare health and drug plans. In addition, this final rule expands the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program model.

  19. Integrated model for pricing, delivery time setting, and scheduling in make-to-order environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmdare, Hamid Sattari; Lotfi, M. M.; Honarvar, Mahboobeh

    2018-03-01

    Usually, in make-to-order environments which work only in response to the customer's orders, manufacturers for maximizing the profits should offer the best price and delivery time for an order considering the existing capacity and the customer's sensitivity to both the factors. In this paper, an integrated approach for pricing, delivery time setting and scheduling of new arrival orders are proposed based on the existing capacity and accepted orders in system. In the problem, the acquired market demands dependent on the price and delivery time of both the manufacturer and its competitors. A mixed-integer non-linear programming model is presented for the problem. After converting to a pure non-linear model, it is validated through a case study. The efficiency of proposed model is confirmed by comparing it to both the literature and the current practice. Finally, sensitivity analysis for the key parameters is carried out.

  20. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING FEDERAL SUPPLY SCHEDULE CONTRACTING Establishing and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... determining the Government's price negotiation objectives, consider the following factors: (1) Aggregate...

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of mixed-integer linear programming for day-ahead hydro-thermal self-scheduling considering price uncertainty and forced outage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeily, Ali; Ahmadi, Abdollah; Raeisi, Fatima; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Esmaeel Nezhad, Ali; Janghorbani, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    A new optimization framework based on MILP model is introduced in the paper for the problem of stochastic self-scheduling of hydrothermal units known as HTSS Problem implemented in a joint energy and reserve electricity market with day-ahead mechanism. The proposed MILP framework includes some practical constraints such as the cost due to valve-loading effect, the limit due to DRR and also multi-POZs, which have been less investigated in electricity market models. For the sake of more accuracy, for hydro generating units’ model, multi performance curves are also used. The problem proposed in this paper is formulated using a model on the basis of a stochastic optimization technique while the objective function is maximizing the expected profit utilizing MILP technique. The suggested stochastic self-scheduling model employs the price forecast error in order to take into account the uncertainty due to price. Besides, LMCS is combined with roulette wheel mechanism so that the scenarios corresponding to the non-spinning reserve price and spinning reserve price as well as the energy price at each hour of the scheduling are generated. Finally, the IEEE 118-bus power system is used to indicate the performance and the efficiency of the suggested technique. - Highlights: • Characterizing the uncertainties of price and FOR of units. • Replacing the fixed ramping rate constraints with the dynamic ones. • Proposing linearized model for the valve-point effects of thermal units. • Taking into consideration the multi-POZs relating to the thermal units. • Taking into consideration the multi-performance curves of hydroelectric units.

  2. 17 CFR 230.504 - Exemption for limited offerings and sales of securities not exceeding $1,000,000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... require the public filing and delivery to investors of a substantive disclosure document before sale, and... only to “accredited investors” as defined in § 230.501(a). (2) The aggregate offering price for an... § 230.504 fails to meet the limitation on the aggregate offering price, it does not affect the...

  3. New offer for our members

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Evolution 2, your specialist for Outdoor Adventures Be it for a ski lesson, a parachute jump or for a mountain bike descent, come live an unforgettable experience with our outdoor specialists. Benefit from a 10 % discount on all activities: Offer is open to SA members and their family members living in the same household, upon presentation of the membership card. Offer available for all bookings made between 1 June 2018 and 30 May 2019. Offer available on all the Evoltion2 sites. A wide range of summer and winter activities. More information on http://evolution2.com/ Contact and reservation : +33 (0)4.50.02.63.35 management@evolution2.com

  4. Pricing Strategy, Pricing Stability and Financial Condition in the Defense Aerospace Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Jeffrey Carl; Keavney, Patrick Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The purpose of this research is to determine if pricing strategy and pricing stability for products in the defense aerospace industry can be predicted based on a firm's financial condition. The sample for this research includes 17 contractors and 52 missile and aircraft programs. Two separate issues are addressed. The first issue concerns the relationship between financial condition and contractor pricing strategy. The second concerns the...

  5. Towards electricity markets accommodating uncertain offers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    formulation of an electricity market, based on the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) reduces the impact of poor estimates for both the stochastic producers and the system operator. We introduce a simulation setting which first demonstrates that impact and then proceed to illustrate the main features......The use of renewable energy sources of energy and in particular wind and solar has been on the rise over the last decades with plans to increase it even more. Such developments introduce significant challenges in existing power systems and can result in high electricity prices and costly...... infrastructure investments. In this paper we propose a new electricity market mechanism whereby the uncertain and dynamic nature of wind power and other stochastic sources is embedded in the market mechanism itself, by modelling producers’ bids as probabilistic estimates. An extension on the bilevel programming...

  6. Pricing of Marine Products and Services in the Modular Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Liping; Al-Ajlouni, Omar

    WHAT IS THE ISSUE? Pricing can be a particular challenging issue for marine suppliers with multiple products and services especially when suppliers want to address specific customer needs and at the same time achieves the efficiency in pricing. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Appropriate pricing of products-and-services...... in the market. Lastly, customer satisfaction and loyalty will be increased accordingly. WHAT CAN BE DONE? The pricing challenge for multiple products and services can be overcome by applying the modular concept on pricing, where each product or service is offered as a module, so suppliers can either set...

  7. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  8. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  9. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  10. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  11. Why are product prices in online markets not converging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available Why are product prices in online markets dispersed in spite of very small search costs? To address this question, we construct a unique dataset from a Japanese price comparison site, which records price quotes offered by e-retailers as well as customers' clicks on products, which occur when they proceed to purchase the product. The novelty of our approach is that we seek to extract useful information on the source of price dispersion from the shape of price distributions rather than focusing merely on the standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of prices, as previous studies have done. We find that the distribution of prices retailers quote for a particular product at a particular point in time (divided by the lowest price follows an exponential distribution, showing the presence of substantial price dispersion. For example, 20 percent of all retailers quote prices that are more than 50 percent higher than the lowest price. Next, comparing the probability that customers click on a retailer with a particular rank and the probability that retailers post prices at a particular rank, we show that both decline exponentially with price rank and that the exponents associated with the probabilities are quite close. This suggests that the reason why some retailers set prices at a level substantially higher than the lowest price is that they know that some customers will choose them even at that high price. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that price dispersion in online markets stems from heterogeneity in customers' preferences over retailers; that is, customers choose a set of candidate retailers based on their preferences, which are heterogeneous across customers, and then pick a particular retailer among the candidates based on the price ranking.

  12. Why Are Product Prices in Online Markets Not Converging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Why are product prices in online markets dispersed in spite of very small search costs? To address this question, we construct a unique dataset from a Japanese price comparison site, which records price quotes offered by e-retailers as well as customers’ clicks on products, which occur when they proceed to purchase the product. The novelty of our approach is that we seek to extract useful information on the source of price dispersion from the shape of price distributions rather than focusing merely on the standard deviation or the coefficient of variation of prices, as previous studies have done. We find that the distribution of prices retailers quote for a particular product at a particular point in time (divided by the lowest price) follows an exponential distribution, showing the presence of substantial price dispersion. For example, 20 percent of all retailers quote prices that are more than 50 percent higher than the lowest price. Next, comparing the probability that customers click on a retailer with a particular rank and the probability that retailers post prices at a particular rank, we show that both decline exponentially with price rank and that the exponents associated with the probabilities are quite close. This suggests that the reason why some retailers set prices at a level substantially higher than the lowest price is that they know that some customers will choose them even at that high price. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that price dispersion in online markets stems from heterogeneity in customers’ preferences over retailers; that is, customers choose a set of candidate retailers based on their preferences, which are heterogeneous across customers, and then pick a particular retailer among the candidates based on the price ranking. PMID:24015219

  13. Postgraduates courses offered to nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jorge Araujo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the official masters that the Spanish Universities have offered during the academic course 2010/2011.Material and methods: Descriptive observational and transversal court study, in which it has analysed 170 university official masters and in which it has used a questionnaire with a total of 15 questions elaborated for this work.Results: 52 Spanish Universities of the 75 that there is have offered during the academic course 2010/2011 official masters that can realise for graduated in infirmary. By areas, the official masters more offered have been the ones of nutrition and alimentary security. 76,33% of the official masters have a length of 1 academic year. Almost the half of the official masters have an orientation researcher-professional and almost 40% researcher. 62,65% of the masters give of face-to-face way. In 52,1% of the official masters do not realise external practices and 86,2% has continuity with the doctorate.Conclusions: It has seen that it is necessary that expand the number of masters including other fields of study that contribute to a main specialisation of the professionals of the infirmary. An important percentage of official masters give in face-to-face modality, and there is very few offered on-line or to distance.

  14. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  15. Delegating Pricing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bhardwaj

    2001-01-01

    An outstanding problem in marketing is why some firms in a competitive market delegate pricing decisions to agents and other firms do not. This paper analyzes the impact of competition on the delegation decision and, in turn, the impact of delegation on prices and incentives. The theory builds on the simplest framework of competition in two dimensions: prices and (sales agents') effort. Specifically, we are interested in answering the following questions: (1) Does competition affect the price...

  16. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  17. Flexible Consumers Reserving Electricity and Offering Profitable Downward Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Höning, Nicolas; La Poutré, Han; Strunz, K.

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractPrevious work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This work models a flexible consumer in a novel two-settlement electricity auction. The consumer buys electricity on an ahead market and offers downward regulation on the balancing market. Bidding in two- set...

  18. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  19. Press point on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilansky, J.L.

    2005-06-01

    This document presents information and statistical data on the prices of the crude oils, refining and petroleum products, at the date of the 28 June 2005: evolution of the barrel price, supply and demand, geo-policy, consumption, diesel and gasoline, prices at the service station. (A.L.B.)

  20. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  1. Simulating Price-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  2. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  3. Wealth Transfers from Implementing Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    Adoption of real-time electricity pricing %u2014 retail prices that vary hourly to reflect changing wholesale prices %u2014 removes existing cross-subsidies to those customers that consume disproportionately more when wholesale prices are highest. If their losses are substantial, these customers are likely to oppose RTP initiatives unless there is a supplemental program to offset their loss. Using data on a random sample of 636 industrial and commercial customers in southern California, I sho...

  4. Customer expectations and current offers from food trucks in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, An

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine whether there is a gap between what customers expect and what the food trucks in Helsinki offers in term of diversity of products, price, time and location of service. Do the current offers match with what customers would like to have? The food truck concept has a long history and since 2008 became an international phenomenon. However, it is still relatively young in Helsinki. There are concerted efforts from different parties included the city’s au...

  5. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    OpenAIRE

    van Oest, R.D.; Paap, R.

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to learn how many prices observed in the past are used for reference price formation. Furthermore, we learn to what extent households have sufficient price knowledge to form an internal reference price...

  6. Incentive pricing and cost recovery at the basin scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Incentive pricing programs have potential to promote economically efficient water use patterns and provide a revenue source to compensate for environmental damages. However, incentive pricing may impose disproportionate costs and aggravate poverty where high prices are levied for basic human needs. This paper presents an analysis of a two-tiered water pricing system that sets a low price for subsistence needs, while charging a price equal to marginal cost, including environmental cost, for discretionary uses. This pricing arrangement can promote efficient and sustainable water use patterns, goals set by the European Water Framework Directive, while meeting subsistence needs of poor households. Using data from the Rio Grande Basin of North America, a dynamic nonlinear program, maximizes the basin's total net economic and environmental benefits subject to several hydrological and institutional constraints. Supply costs, environmental costs, and resource costs are integrated in a model of a river basin's hydrology, economics, and institutions. Three programs are compared: (1) Law of the River, in which water allocations and prices are determined by rules governing water transfers; (2) marginal cost pricing, in which households pay the full marginal cost of supplying treated water; (3) two-tiered pricing, in which households' subsistence water needs are priced cheaply, while discretionary uses are priced at efficient levels. Compared to the Law of the River and marginal cost pricing, two-tiered pricing performs well for efficiency and adequately for sustainability and equity. Findings provide a general framework for formulating water pricing programs that promote economically and environmentally efficient water use programs while also addressing other policy goals.

  7. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  8. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  9. The Temptation of Zero Price: Event-Related Potentials Evidence of How Price Framing Influences the Purchase of Bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiying; Mo, Zan; Zhang, Huijun; Wang, Cuicui; Fu, Huijian

    2018-01-01

    Studies have revealed that consumers are susceptible to price framing effect, a common cognitive bias, due to their limited capacity in processing information. The effect of price framing in a bundling context and its neural correlates, however, remain not clearly characterized. The present study applied the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach to investigate the role of price framing in information processing and purchase decision making in a bundling context. Three price frames were created with practically identical total prices (with a maximum difference of ¥0.1, which was about equal to 0.016 US dollars) for a bundle with two components, a focal product and a tie-in product. In normal price condition (NP), both the focal and tie-in products were offered at a normal discounted price; in zero price condition (ZP), the tie-in product was offered free while the total price of the bundle remained the same as NP; whereas in low price condition (LP), the tie-in product was offered at a low token price (¥0.1), and the focal product shared the same price as the focal product of ZP. The behavioral results showed a higher purchase rate and a shorter reaction time for ZP in contrast to NP. Neurophysiologically, enlarged LPP amplitude was elicited by ZP relative to NP, suggesting that ZP triggered a stronger positive affect that could motivate decision to buy. Thus, this study provides both behavioral and neural evidence for how different price framing information is processed and ultimately gives rise to price framing effect in purchase decision making.

  10. The Temptation of Zero Price: Event-Related Potentials Evidence of How Price Framing Influences the Purchase of Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiying; Mo, Zan; Zhang, Huijun; Wang, Cuicui; Fu, Huijian

    2018-01-01

    Studies have revealed that consumers are susceptible to price framing effect, a common cognitive bias, due to their limited capacity in processing information. The effect of price framing in a bundling context and its neural correlates, however, remain not clearly characterized. The present study applied the event-related potentials (ERPs) approach to investigate the role of price framing in information processing and purchase decision making in a bundling context. Three price frames were created with practically identical total prices (with a maximum difference of ¥0.1, which was about equal to 0.016 US dollars) for a bundle with two components, a focal product and a tie-in product. In normal price condition (NP), both the focal and tie-in products were offered at a normal discounted price; in zero price condition (ZP), the tie-in product was offered free while the total price of the bundle remained the same as NP; whereas in low price condition (LP), the tie-in product was offered at a low token price (¥0.1), and the focal product shared the same price as the focal product of ZP. The behavioral results showed a higher purchase rate and a shorter reaction time for ZP in contrast to NP. Neurophysiologically, enlarged LPP amplitude was elicited by ZP relative to NP, suggesting that ZP triggered a stronger positive affect that could motivate decision to buy. Thus, this study provides both behavioral and neural evidence for how different price framing information is processed and ultimately gives rise to price framing effect in purchase decision making. PMID:29731705

  11. The Temptation of Zero Price: Event-Related Potentials Evidence of How Price Framing Influences the Purchase of Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have revealed that consumers are susceptible to price framing effect, a common cognitive bias, due to their limited capacity in processing information. The effect of price framing in a bundling context and its neural correlates, however, remain not clearly characterized. The present study applied the event-related potentials (ERPs approach to investigate the role of price framing in information processing and purchase decision making in a bundling context. Three price frames were created with practically identical total prices (with a maximum difference of ¥0.1, which was about equal to 0.016 US dollars for a bundle with two components, a focal product and a tie-in product. In normal price condition (NP, both the focal and tie-in products were offered at a normal discounted price; in zero price condition (ZP, the tie-in product was offered free while the total price of the bundle remained the same as NP; whereas in low price condition (LP, the tie-in product was offered at a low token price (¥0.1, and the focal product shared the same price as the focal product of ZP. The behavioral results showed a higher purchase rate and a shorter reaction time for ZP in contrast to NP. Neurophysiologically, enlarged LPP amplitude was elicited by ZP relative to NP, suggesting that ZP triggered a stronger positive affect that could motivate decision to buy. Thus, this study provides both behavioral and neural evidence for how different price framing information is processed and ultimately gives rise to price framing effect in purchase decision making.

  12. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    access pricing with congestion and in which investments in infrastructure are lumpy. To fix ideas, the model is formulated in the context of airport infrastructure investments, which captures both the element of congestion and the lumpiness involved in infrastructure investments. The optimal investment program suggests how many units of capacity should be installed and at which times. Because time is continuous in the model, the discounted cost -- despite the lumpiness of capacity additions -- can be made to vary continuously by varying the time a capacity addition is made. The main results that emerge from the analysis can be described as follows: First, the global demand for air travel rises with time and experiences an upward jump whenever a capacity addition is made. Second, the access price is constant and stays at the basic level when the system is not congested. When the system is congested, a congestion surcharge is imposed on top of the basic level, and the congestion surcharge rises with the level of congestion until the next capacity addition is made at which time the access price takes a downward jump. Third, the individual demand for air travel is constant before congestion sets in and after the last capacity addition takes place. During a time interval in which congestion rises, the individual demand for travel is below the level that prevails when there is no congestion and declines as congestion worsens. The third essay contains a model of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines, both when pipeline operators are regulated and when they behave strategically. The high sunk costs involved in building a pipeline network constitute a serious barrier of entry, and competitive behaviour in the transmission pipeline sector cannot be expected. Most of the economic analyses of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines are carried out from the regulatory perspective, and the access price paid by shippers are cost-based. The model formalized

  13. The offerings from the Hyperboreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, C A

    1983-08-01

    The ancient Greeks believed that the fruits of agriculture could be harvested only if one first appeased the spirit of the primitive avatars from which the edible crop had been evolved over the centuries through hybridization and cultivation. On occasion, this appeasement was secured through the sacrifice of a human victim, a person who for various reasons could be considered to represent a similar primitivism. By the classical age, this extreme form of sacrificial appeasement appears to have been reserved for times of unusual crisis, such as pestilence or natural disaster, for at such times, the resurgent forces of primitivism seemed to threaten the entire civilization with regression back to its wilder origins. Other forms of appeasement were ordinarily substituted for the actual offering of a human victim. Amongst these was the enactment of puberty rites, for the natural growth and maturation of an individual could be thought to symbolize this same evolutionary process. Each infant is born as a wild creature who must develop into a socialized adult through the metaphoric death of its former self as it assumes the responsibilities of civilized life in crossing the threshold to sexual maturity. A similar symbolic victim was customarily represented by the offering of first fruits. A portion of the cultivated crop was prematurely cut and consecrated to redeem and release the ripening harvest from the dangerous contamination with the spirits of its pre-agricultural precedents. On the island of Delos, a special version of this consecration was performed. Each year, the various Greek cities would send a sheaf of unripened grain to the sanctuary of the god Apollo and his twin sister Artemis. Amongst these annual offerings, there was one that was supposed to have originated from the Hyperboreans, a mythical people who were thought to live in the original homeland of the two gods. This special Hyperborean offering differed from the others, for it was said to contain a

  14. What We Offer | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunities We recognize that employee benefit programs are an important part of the total compensation package, and are committed to providing you with comprehensive benefit options. The Frederick National Lab's prime contractor, Leidos Biomedi

  15. Estimating customer preferences for new pricing products. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goett, A.A.

    1998-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a review of various methods to analyze customer preferences for electric service pricing products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different techniques for analyzing preferences for electric service and pricing products in a competitive retail electricity market. In this market, competing providers will offer a variety of electric services under different price structures, and customers will face the decision of choosing a single electric service provider and pricing plan. The service and price characteristics that utilities offer will largely determine their market shares and profitability. Understanding preferences will be critical to quantifying the effects of service and pricing attributes on market share and profitability in the deregulated retail electricity market

  16. Nuclear liability and the Price--Anderson Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Price-Anderson Act is viewed as meeting public needs in a unique and responsible way, reflecting the far-sightedness of those involved in the early development of nuclear power who saw the importance of building safety into each step of the program. An extension of the Act is advised as a first step in recognizing that many potential and real disasters (e.g., dam breaks, floods, etc.) are man-made rather than ''Acts of God''. Rather than abolish the Price-Anderson Act because it is unique, the case is made for extending it to cover these other situations. Provisions of the Act are examined in terms of the role of negligence in nuclear accidents, and the conclusion is reached that public concern for reactor safety should not be affected. Limited assets on the part of insurers and insurance pools have made government involvement important but not a real subsidy because of high premiums. Premiums in the new amendment are paid retroactively when there is an accident, which relieves the problem of anticipating what premiums may be needed in the future. This limits government liability and, combined with the waiver of defenses against liability, offers better protection for the public. Recommendations for allowing tort law to operate above the $560 million Price-Anderson limits are criticized, and a counter proposal is made for reassessing the figure at an appropriate limit and extending insurance to competitive industries

  17. No Refund or Full Refund: When Should a Fashion Brand Offer Full Refund Consumer Return Service for Mass Customization Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsan-Ming Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analytically explore in this paper the consumer return policy under fashion mass customization (MC program. To be specific, we model the stochastic fashion MC program with the consideration of consumer demand uncertainty. If a consumer return policy is implemented, we further consider return uncertainty. By modeling the optimization objective of the risk averse MC fashion brand via a mean-variance approach, we derive the closed-form optimal solution under each case. We then conduct both analytical and numerical sensitivity analyses. For the scenario with full refund and return, we reveal the analytical conditions under which the optimal retail price and the optimal number of options available for customization (called the “optimal modularity level” vary monotonically with respect to the salvage value and the return service charge. For the scenario when there is no refund and return, we show that the optimal retail price and the optimal modularity level are decreasing in the MC fashion brand's degree of risk aversion, the demand uncertainty, and the price-demand sensitivity coefficient. In addition, our numerical analysis indicates that whether the risk averse MC fashion brand would prefer offering consumer return with full refund to no return depends heavily on the demand-return correlation (DRC parameter.

  18. Setting Fair Prices – Fundamental Principle Of Sustainable Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Cătoiu, Iacob; Vrânceanu, Diana Maria; Filip, Alina

    2010-01-01

    In commercial area, the price has a major importance, being frequently considered among the main criteria used in buying decision process. Price fairness derives from equity theory and it is focused on assuring in a transaction a reasonable report between the customer’s sacrifice and the value offered by the seller. In three marketing experiments we have evaluated customers’ fairness perceptions of differential prices, this tactic being frequently used by sellers. One important finding was th...

  19. Oil Market and Prices Prospects for 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international crude oil prices started the year 2014 within parameters comparable to those of the precedent year: WTI (USA recorded 92 $/barrel, on the American spot market, considered a minimum value for the last 5 weeks, while Brent (Great Britain had a more stable evolution, on the spot Rotterdam market, staying around a value of 107,50 $/barrel. Despite analysts’ forecasts, which during the last 3 years staked on a lower oil price, as a consequence of the spectacular increase in non-OPEC oil production, namely of shale oil, the international oil price, namely that of Brent, closed each of the last 3 years around the same level, of 108 $/barrel. As for 2014, the great majority of oil analysts estimates again a decline of oil prices, as a result of a significant rise of oil offer globally, which will greatly surpass the demand rise.

  20. Pricing Schemes in Cloud Computing: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Artan Mazrekaj; Isak Shabani; Besmir Sejdiu

    2016-01-01

    Cloud Computing is one of the technologies with rapid development in recent years where there is increasing interest in industry and academia. This technology enables many services and resources for end users. With the rise of cloud services number of companies that offer various services in cloud infrastructure is increased, thus creating a competition on prices in the global market. Cloud Computing providers offer more services to their clients ranging from infrastructure as a service (IaaS...

  1. Market based solutions for power pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar

    2002-06-01

    The report examines how the price for effect reserves, spot market power and regulated power is formed provided ideal market conditions rule. Primarily the price determining factors in a market for power reserves are examined and how the connection between this market and the energy market (the spot market) is. In a free market there would be a balance between what the actors may obtain by operating in the open market for power reserves/regulated power on the one hand and the market for spot power on the other. Primarily we suppose that the desired amount of power reserve is known. Secondly the problem constellation is extended to comprise the size of the effect reserves i.e. the optimising of the requirement to the power reserves. The optimal amount of power reserves is obtained when there is a balance between the cost and the benefit. This optimal balance is achieved when expected macro economical loss due to outfacing balances against the cost of maintaining larger reserves. By using a simple model it is demonstrated that a system operator regulates the maximal price in the regulated market and this equals the rationing price. The actors will offer sufficient reserves even if the reserve price is zero (provided risk neutrality). If the maximal price for regulated power is lower the price of effect reserves will rise. Based on the same simple model calculations are made for how short and long term market balance will be for increasing demands

  2. Analysing the relationship between wholesale and end-user prices in the Nordic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.E.; Johnsen, T.A.; Naervae, T.; Wasti, S.

    2004-09-01

    Efficient pricing in a deregulated market means prices which closely reflect the cost of obtaining electricity in the wholesale market. This research report analyses and explains the relationship between wholesale prices (especially Spot Prices) and end-user prices for residential, industrial and commercial users in the Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian electricity markets. The report primarily analyses the closeness of wholesale and end-user price patterns (the primary tracking period is 1998-2003, focusing especially closely on Finland and the period 2002-2003). The report reveals that Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish end- user prices can all be said to follow spot prices (and other wholesale prices) to a greater or lesser extent. The relationship is however complex and, especially regarding spot prices, clearly closest in Norway, followed by Sweden and then Finland. Whilst, overall, Finnish prices seem quite competitive and Nordic end-user prices currently seem to be extremely similar, there is some cause for concern in Finland. In particular, very few customers have spot based tariffs; wholesale prices (including spot prices) appear to sometimes have been used as an excuse for end-user price rises; Finnish suppliers have often been slow to respond to post-spike spot price reductions; offer prices are currently often higher than standard variable prices; and suppliers seem quite free to follow any pricing strategy, regardless of the presence of competition. Six factors are identified which influence end-user prices and their relationship with wholesale (and particularly spot) prices: hydro-dependency; concentration and entry barriers; cultural and historical determination; legislation; pricing strategies; the competitive environment. The report additionally specifically illustrates a wide variety of possible supplier strategies which might explain Finnish end-user pricing. Spot prices seem to provide only a minor explanation for Finnish end-user prices. (orig.)

  3. Flexible Demand Management under Time-Varying Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yong

    optimization problem when the objective is to minimize the expected total cost and discomfort, then since the decision maker is likely to be risk-averse, and she wants to protect herself from price spikes, we study the robust optimization problem to address the risk-aversion of the decision maker. We conduct numerical studies to evaluate the price of robustness. Next, we present a detailed model that manages multiple types of flexible demand in the absence of knowledge regarding the distributions of related stochastic processes. Specifically, we consider the case in which time-varying prices with general structures are offered to users, and an energy management system for each household makes optimal energy usage, storage, and trading decisions according to the preferences of users. Because of the uncertainties associated with electricity prices, local generation, and the arrival processes of demand, we formulate a stochastic dynamic programming model, and outline a novel and tractable ADP approach to overcome the curses of dimensionality. Then, we perform numerical studies, whose results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ADP approach. At last, we propose another approximation approach based on Q-learning. In addition, we also develop another decentralization-based heuristic. Both the Q-learning approach and the heuristic make necessary assumptions on the knowledge of information, and each of them has unique advantages. We conduct numerical studies on a testing problem. The simulation results show that both the Q-learning and the decentralization based heuristic approaches work well. Lastly, we conclude the paper with some discussions on future extension directions.

  4. Value and Pricing of MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose M. Baker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed in this article is the potential for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs to transform higher education delivery, accessibility, and costs. Next, five major value propositions for MOOCs are considered (headhunting, certification, face-to-face learning, personalized learning, integration with services external to the MOOC, marketing. Then, four pricing strategies for MOOCs are examined (cross-subsidy, third-party, “freemium”, nonmonetary. Although the MOOC movement has experienced growing pains similar to most innovations, we assert that the unyielding pace of improvements in network technologies combined with the need to tame the costs of higher education will create continuing demand for MOOC offerings.

  5. Bond Pricing with Default Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

    1997-01-01

    We offer a new model for pricing bonds subject to default risk. The event of default is remodeled as the first time that a state variable that captures the solvency of the issue goes below a certain level. The payoff to the bond in case of default is a constant fraction of the value of a security with the same promised payoffs but without the risk of default. We show that our model is very tractable under different models of interest rate risk and of the interaction between default risk and i...

  6. Cross hedging and forward-contract pricing of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.-K.; Hoang, K.; Horowitz, I.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the problem of an electric-power marketer offering a fixed-price forward contract to provide electricity that it purchases from a potentially volatile and unpredictable fledgling spot energy market. One option for the risk-averse marketer who wants to hedge against the spot-price volatility is to engage in cross hedging to reduce the contract's profit variance, and to determine the forward-contract price as a risk-adjusted price - the sum of a baseline price and a risk premium. We show how the marketer can estimate the spot-price relationship between two wholesale energy markets for the purpose of cross hedging, as well as the optimal hedge and the forward contract's baseline price and risk premium

  7. Cross hedging and forward-contract pricing of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, C.-K.; Hoang, K. [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., 353 Sacramento Street, Suite 1700, 94111 San Francisco, CA (United States); Horowitz, I. [Decision and Information Sciences, Warrington College of Business Administration, University of Florida, 32611 Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We consider the problem of an electric-power marketer offering a fixed-price forward contract to provide electricity that it purchases from a potentially volatile and unpredictable fledgling spot energy market. One option for the risk-averse marketer who wants to hedge against the spot-price volatility is to engage in cross hedging to reduce the contract's profit variance, and to determine the forward-contract price as a risk-adjusted price - the sum of a baseline price and a risk premium. We show how the marketer can estimate the spot-price relationship between two wholesale energy markets for the purpose of cross hedging, as well as the optimal hedge and the forward contract's baseline price and risk premium.

  8. Price consciousness and purchase intentions for new food products: the moderating effect of product category knowledge when price is unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in JOURNAL of FOOD PRODUCTS MARKETING in July 2013, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/10454446.2013.724363. This study examines the degree to which consumers’ price consciousness affects their purchase intentions for a newly introduced product when the price of the product is unknown. Based on data from 186 consumers exposed to a new product offering, the results show that price consciousness...

  9. 7 CFR 1131.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.53 Section 1131.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1005.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.53 Section 1005.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.53 Section 1124.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.53 Section 1126.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.53 Section 1030.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.53 Section 1033.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  16. 7 CFR 1001.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.53 Section 1001.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  17. 7 CFR 1007.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.53 Section 1007.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1006.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.53 Section 1006.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  19. Multivariate Option Pricing Using Dynamic Copula Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; Genest, C.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the behavior of multivariate option prices in the presence of association between the underlying assets.Parametric families of copulas offering various alternatives to the normal dependence structure are used to model this association, which is explicitly assumed to vary over

  20. Giving you the business - Competitive pricing of selected Predicasts' databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The pricing policies of different data-base services offering Predicast data bases are examined from a user perspective. The services carrying these data bases are listed; the problems introduced by varying exchange rates and seemingly idiosyncratic price structures are discussed; and numerous specific examples are given.

  1. Integrated forward/reverse logistics network design under uncertainty with pricing for collection of used products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattahi, Mohammad; Govindan, Kannan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses design and planning of an integrated forward/reverse logistics network over a planning horizon with multiple tactical periods. In the network, demand for new products and potential return of used products are stochastic. Furthermore, collection amounts of used products...... with different quality levels are assumed dependent on offered acquisition prices to customer zones. A uniform distribution function defines the expected price of each customer zone for one unit of each used product. Using two-stage stochastic programming, a mixed-integer linear programming model is proposed....... To cope with demand and potential return uncertainty, Latin Hypercube Sampling method is applied to generate fan of scenarios and then, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios. Due to the problem complexity, a novel simulation-based simulated annealing algorithm...

  2. IB Offering Certificate for Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) organization, best known in the United States for its prestigious two-year diploma program for juniors and seniors, will enter new terrain this fall as it formally rolls out an initiative centered on a variety of career pathways that includes engineering, culinary arts, and automotive technology. The move comes…

  3. Arbitrage Pricing, Capital Asset Pricing, and Agricultural Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Louise M. Arthur; Colin A. Carter; Fay Abizadeh

    1988-01-01

    A new asset pricing model, the arbitrage pricing theory, has been developed as an alternative to the capital asset pricing model. The arbitrage pricing theory model is used to analyze the relationship between risk and return for agricultural assets. The major conclusion is that the arbitrage pricing theory results support previous capital asset pricing model findings that the estimated risk associated with agricultural assets is low. This conclusion is more robust for the arbitrage pricing th...

  4. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  5. 41 CFR 102-73.125 - How much of a price preference must Federal agencies give when acquiring leased space using the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permits tradeoffs among price and non-price factors, the Government will give a price evaluation... is offered or remains in the competition, the Government will give a 2.5 percent price preference to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How much of a price...

  6. Pricing and University Autonomy: Tuition Deregulation in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates changes in tuition policies in the wake of tuition deregulation in Texas, which in 2003 transferred tuition-setting authority from the state legislature to institutions. We find that price increases accelerated, particularly at the most selective institutions. Institutions also began differentiating price by undergraduate program, raising relative prices for the most costly and lucrative majors, including engineering, business, nursing, and architecture. Price increases were particularly large for institutions with the highest initial costs and for programs with a high earnings premium within institutions, though lower for institutions with more low-income students. These distinctions suggest that public postsecondary institutions respond to microeconomic incentives when given greater autonomy to set price, and take some measures to alleviate impacts on low-income students. The Texas experience suggests that decentralized price-setting generates greater price differentiation within the public higher education system, both across and within institutions.

  7. Cost Indexing and Unit Price Adjustments for Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    This project was focused on the assimilation of information regarding unit price adjustment clauses, or PACs, : that are offered for construction materials at the state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). It is intended to : provide the South Carol...

  8. Availability, quality and price of produce in low-income neighbourhood food stores in California raise equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi; Brown, Daniel M; Sun, Betty C; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B

    2018-06-01

    To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. Cross-sectional statewide survey. Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price. Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods. Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation. The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.

  9. STS pricing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  10. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  11. Price schedules coordination for electricity pool markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legbedji, Alexis Motto

    2002-04-01

    We consider the optimal coordination of a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints, which is formally interpreted as a resource-allocation problem. Many decomposition techniques were proposed to circumvent the difficulty of solving large systems with limited computer resources. The considerable improvement in computer architecture has allowed the solution of large-scale problems with increasing speed. Consequently, interest in decomposition techniques has waned. Nonetheless, there is an important class of applications for which decomposition techniques will still be relevant, among others, distributed systems---the Internet, perhaps, being the most conspicuous example---and competitive economic systems. Conceptually, a competitive economic system is a collection of agents that have similar or different objectives while sharing the same system resources. In theory, constructing a large-scale mathematical program and solving it centrally, using currently available computing power can optimize such systems of agents. In practice, however, because agents are self-interested and not willing to reveal some sensitive corporate data, one cannot solve these kinds of coordination problems by simply maximizing the sum of agent's objective functions with respect to their constraints. An iterative price decomposition or Lagrangian dual method is considered best suited because it can operate with limited information. A price-directed strategy, however, can only work successfully when coordinating or equilibrium prices exist, which is not generally the case when a weak duality is unavoidable. Showing when such prices exist and how to compute them is the main subject of this thesis. Among our results, we show that, if the Lagrangian function of a primal program is additively separable, price schedules coordination may be attained. The prices are Lagrange multipliers, and are also the decision variables of a dual program. In addition, we propose a new form of

  12. Pricing of new vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

  13. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  14. Introduction to pricing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of pricing issues the proper pricing of transmission services is essential to efficient operation of the grid. Wheeling rights have little meaning if capacity on existing lines is scarce and there is no incentive to build new lines. Depending on the type of transmission pricing policies FERC adopts, the Commission may be able to encourage more voluntary wheeling service, and to influence decisions to build or upgrade the supply of facilities

  15. Cost and Price Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    described below which relies on questionnaires administered to subject matter experts in both cost analysis and price analysis to determine the value of...additional reports or data that the price analyst used in determining their final negotiated position. The cost analyst section of the questionnaire...an analysis at the individual element level rather than at a total price level to determine the major changes from the awarded contract to the new

  16. 1988 coal price negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senmura, Akira

    1988-12-01

    In the negotiation on raw coal price for 1988, which began at the end of 1987, Australia requested price rise of 4 - 5 dollars for the reason of rise of Australian dollars, conditions of mines, price drop in the past five years, and world supply/demand of coal. Japan insisted to maintain the price of preceding year. The talk ended in a dead lock which could last a long time. Negotiation on the Canadian coal price also encountered difficulties but an agreement was obtained in March as Japan accepted the increased price. After which, Japan and Australia agreed to raise the price by 2.90 dollars and an increase over last year. Producing countries also requested a wide price rise as 7.50 dollars for general coal, making in this area very difficult to progress. Finally, they agreed to raise the price by 6.30 dollars and the electric power utility in Japan responded by importing of U.S. coal, which has a lower heat output but is also cheaper. It depends on Australia for 70% of coal supply but started to diversify the source. 3 tabs.

  17. Are internet prices sticky?

    OpenAIRE

    Lünnemann, Patrick; Wintr, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the behaviour of Internet prices. It compares price rigidities on the Internet and in traditional brick-and-mortar stores and provides a cross-country perspective. The data set covers a broad range of items typically sold over the Internet. It includes more than 5 million daily price quotes downloaded from price comparison web sites in France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US. The following results emerge from our analysis. First, and contrary to the recent findings for co...

  18. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  19. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  20. Alternative pricing methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in competitive market forces and growing recognition of the deficiencies in current practices, FERC and others are exploring alternatives to embedded cost pricing. A number of these alternatives are discussed in this chapter. Marketplace pricing, discussed briefly here, is the subject of the next chapter. Obviously, the pricing formula may combine several of these methodologies. One utility of which the authors are aware is seeking a price equal to the sum of embedded costs, opportunity costs, line losses, value of service, FERC's percentage adder formula and a contract service charge

  1. Customizing Prices in Online Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Reinartz

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is the dynamic adjustment of prices to consumers depending on the value these customers attribute to a good. Underlying the concept of dynamic pricing is what marketers call price customization. Price customization is the charging of different prices to end consumers based on a discriminatory variable. Internet technology will serve as a great enabling tool for making dynamic pricing accessible to many industries.

  2. Relating price strategies and price-setting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This article addresses the relationship between price strategies and price-setting practices. The first derive from a normative tradition in the pricing literature and the latter from a descriptive tradition. Price strategies are visible in the market, whereas price-setting practices are

  3. Intranational Price Convergence and Price Stickiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Heebøll, Christian; Hansen, Niels Lynggaard

    2017-01-01

    We show that estimates of the half-life of deviations from LOOP are biased when not taking into account the precision when aggregating over types of goods. Using a comprehensive dataset with monthly price data for 124 homogeneous products across regions in Denmark over the period 1997–2010 we find...... a large positive aggregation bias. On average, we find that the half-life is 8.4 months when taking the bias into account compared to 28.7 months when applying the standard method. The heterogeneity in estimated half-life can be explained by price stickiness, distance between regions and whether the good...

  4. Factors influencing global antiretroviral procurement prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Forsythe, Steven; Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2009-11-18

    Antiretroviral medicines (ARVs) are one of the most costly parts of HIV/AIDS treatment. Many countries are struggling to provide universal access to ARVs for all people living with HIV and AIDS. Although substantial price reductions of ARVs have occurred, especially between 2002 and 2008, achieving sustainable access for the next several decades remains a major challenge for most low- and middle-income countries. The objectives of the present study were twofold: first, to analyze global ARV prices between 2005 and 2008 and associated factors, particularly procurement methods and key donor policies on ARV procurement efficiency; second, to discuss the options of procurement processes and policies that should be considered when implementing or reforming access to ARV programs. An ARV-medicines price-analysis was carried out using the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization. For a selection of 12 ARVs, global median prices and price variation were calculated. Linear regression models for each ARV were used to identify factors that were associated with lower procurement prices. Logistic regression models were used to identify the characteristics of those countries which procure below the highest and lowest direct manufactured costs. Three key factors appear to have an influence on a country's ARV prices: (a) whether the product is generic or not; (b) the socioeconomic status of the country; (c) whether the country is a member of the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Factors which did not influence procurement below the highest direct manufactured costs were HIV prevalence, procurement volume, whether the country belongs to the least developed countries or a focus country of the United States President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief. One of the principal mechanisms that can help to lower prices for ARV over the next several decades is increasing procurement efficiency. Benchmarking prices could be one useful tool to achieve this.

  5. Assuring Quality in Online Offerings: Insights from a University's Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, Connie B.; Budden, Heather L.; Hall, Michelle; Longman, Debbie G.

    2015-01-01

    As the growth of online education offered by universities accelerates and spreads, universities are increasingly grappling with concerns related to widespread availability and the maintenance of academic quality. The "Quality Matters at Southeastern" Program fosters quality through a peer review process and offers a certification process…

  6. 31 CFR 50.13 - Offer, purchase, and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 50.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Disclosures as Conditions for Federal Payment § 50.13 Offer, purchase, and renewal. An insurer is deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of providing disclosure “at the time of offer, purchase...

  7. Incorporating price-responsive customers in day-ahead scheduling of smart distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazidi, Mohammadreza; Monsef, Hassan; Siano, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Proposing a model for incorporating price-responsive customers in day-ahead scheduling of smart distribution networks; this model provides a win–win situation. • Introducing a risk management model based on a bi-level information-gap decision theory and recasting it into its equivalent single-level robust optimization problem using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions. • Utilizing mixed-integer linear programing formulation that is efficiently solved by commercial optimization software. - Abstract: Demand response and real-time pricing of electricity are key factors in a smart grid as they can increase economic efficiency and technical performances of power grids. This paper focuses on incorporating price-responsive customers in day-ahead scheduling of smart distribution networks under a dynamic pricing environment. A novel method is proposed and formulated as a tractable mixed integer linear programming optimization problem whose objective is to find hourly sale prices offered to customers, transactions (purchase/sale) with the wholesale market, commitment of distribution generation units, dispatch of battery energy storage systems and planning of interruptible loads in a way that the profit of the distribution network operator is maximized while customers’ benefit is guaranteed. To hedge distribution network operator against financial risk arising from uncertainty of wholesale market prices, a risk management model based on a bi-level information-gap decision theory is proposed. The proposed bi-level problem is solved by recasting it into its equivalent single-level robust optimization problem using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions. Performance of the proposed model is verified by applying it to a modified version of the IEEE 33-bus distribution test network. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Policy offers protection from harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  9. The supply price control: issues for review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) sets out the issues involved in the current review of supply price controls for the twelve regional electricity companies (RECs) in the United Kingdom. The Government's current energy policy is outlined, drawing a distinction between electricity from fossil and non-fossil fuel sources. RECs are obliged by the licencees to purchase economically and OFFER seeks to monitor this process, both within Government limits. This history of price controls is outlined and the author considers what form the next supply control should take, bearing in mind generation costs and aims towards energy efficiency. The OFFER consultative document has now been published and public debate of these issues will follow. (UK)

  10. Price learning during grocery shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

  11. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  12. Poverty and price transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in t...

  13. Essays on asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazliben, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    The dissertation consists of three chapters that represent separate papers in the area of asset pricing. The first chapter studies investors optimal asset allocation problem in which mean reversion in stock prices is captured by explicitly modeling transitory and permanent shocks. The second chapter

  14. Pricing transmission services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaden, E.

    1995-01-01

    The price structure for transmission of electric power through the main lines in Sweden is analyzed. After deregulation of the electricity market, the main transmission lines are owned by a separate national company, with no interests from the power producers. Comparisons are made to ideal marginal price structures. 6 refs

  15. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  16. PRODUCT OFFERING AS PART OF THE NPD PROCESS IN TECHNOLOGY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    MATTI J. HAVERILA

    2012-01-01

    We present an exploratory investigation of how managers conceptualize and perceive the product offering effort variables in successful and unsuccessful New Product Development (NPD) projects, and explore the role that product offering effort variables play in differentiating between successful and unsuccessful NPD outcomes. Our findings indicate that managers rely on two broad types of product offering factors, "product effort" and "price/cost effort", during the NPD process so that there are...

  17. Pricing Mechanism in Information Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinming; Wang, Huaqing

    2018-01-01

    We study three pricing mechanisms' performance and their effects on the participants in the data industry from the data supply chain perspective. A win-win pricing strategy for the players in the data supply chain is proposed. We obtain analytical solutions in each pricing mechanism, including the decentralized and centralized pricing, Nash Bargaining pricing, and revenue sharing mechanism.

  18. Price Formation by Bargaining and Posted Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kultti, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    We study markets with two types of agents. Sellers have an indivisible good for sale, and their reservation value is zero. Buyers are randomly matched with sellers, and they value the good at unity. Sellers may be matched with any positive number of buyers, and they may choose to determine the price

  19. How to Find the Price That's Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Five primary methods used by recreation and park agencies to establish a price are reviewed: (1) going-rate pricing; (2) demand oriented pricing; (3) variable cost pricing; (4) partial overhead pricing; and (5) average cost pricing. (CJ)

  20. Policy on energy pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, M. G.

    1977-10-15

    Some economic principles of energy pricing in a market type economy in which there is consumer sovereignty are discussed. Thus resources will be allocated via the production processes in line with the preferences of consumers as revealed by their purchases of goods and services. Prices play the crucial role of coordinating instruments in this allocative process. It is assumed that all the energy industries are in the public sector. The following topics are discussed: the specification of objectives for the energy sector; marginal cost pricing; problems associated with the measurement of marginal costs; some aspects of the environmental costs associated with energy production and use, and some issues related to time differentiated tariffs; the modification of prices to achieve financial targets; and the use of energy prices to achieve income distribution objectives.

  1. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  2. Russian energy prices, taxes and costs 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Russian energy industry may be the country's most promising exporter, but it is struggling to free itself from the heavy regulation and economic distortions inherited from the Soviet era. This analysis examines Russian price and tax policies as well as production costs in 1993, and their effect on supply and demand in the oil, coal, gas and electricity sectors. The study underscores the broad consensus among both Western and Russian experts that primary energy prices should be lifted to world levels. It offers a framework for addressing the great question about how fast this should be done in a country undergoing a tremendous social and political transformation

  3. Value based pricing: the least valued pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenen, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Pricing has been one of the least researched topics in marketing, although within these pricing strategies: cost-plus pricing is considered as the leading pricing strategy worldwide. Why should companies use such an unprofitable strategy, where fighting for a higher market share due to low prices is more a rule than exception? VBP is one of the most underestimated strategies by organizations. The definition of VBP is: 'value pricing applies to products that have the potential of being differe...

  4. Trend Analysis of Cassava Price and Growth Rate in Nigeria | Igwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trend Analysis of Cassava Price and Growth Rate in Nigeria. ... Abstract. The research work was on trend analysis of cassava output and price. The period ... There is need to encourage private sector investment on the industries to expand existing market on the price offer for cassava and encourage large scale production.

  5. 77 FR 43662 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin... is lowering the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The product will now be offered for sale at a price of $54.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director for...

  6. 77 FR 40704 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver... States Mint is announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The coin will be offered for sale at a price of $45.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director...

  7. A reference-dependent model of the price-quality heuristic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gneezy, A.; Gneezy, U.; Lauga, D.O.

    2014-01-01

    People often use price as a proxy for quality, resulting in a positive correlation between prices and product liking, known as the "price- quality" (P-Q) heuristic. Using data from three experiments conducted at a winery, this article offers a more complex and complete reference-dependent model of

  8. 16 CFR 233.2 - Retail price comparisons; comparable value comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business). This may be done either on a temporary or a permanent basis, but in either case the advertised...) Another commonly used form of bargain advertising is to offer goods at prices lower than those being... be reasonably certain that the higher price he advertises does not appreciably exceed the price at...

  9. 78 FR 65214 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Only One Offer-Further Implementation (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... exclusions. In accordance with FAR 19.805-1, an acquisition offered to the SBA shall be awarded on the basis... certified cost or pricing data is covered in FAR 15.4 and associated clauses in 52.215, OMB clearance 9000... 15.4 and associated clauses in FAR 52.215, and in OMB clearance 9000-013, Cost or Pricing Data...

  10. Gasoline prices and the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The concerns that have been raised about gasoline prices in Newfoundland were addressed and the reasons why they differ significantly from one part of Newfoundland to another were examined. A research and investigation program was established to identify the factors contributing to the price of, and price variation in gasoline sold in the province. Companies directly involved in the gasoline retail business in the province were invited to answer an extensive questionnaire which asked detailed, confidential information concerning the company's operations. This report contains the results of the analysis of the responses, and provides a comprehensive picture of the operation of the petroleum industry. It also contains a series of recommendations for the government with respect to monitoring price fluctuations, gathering data about the industry, and constructing an independently owned and operated terminal storage facility. The report recommends against direct regulation. tabs., figs

  11. Information pricing based on trusted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zehua; Zhang, Nan; Han, Hongfeng

    2018-05-01

    Personal information has become a valuable commodity in today's society. So our goal aims to develop a price point and a pricing system to be realistic. First of all, we improve the existing BLP system to prevent cascading incidents, design a 7-layer model. Through the cost of encryption in each layer, we develop PI price points. Besides, we use association rules mining algorithms in data mining algorithms to calculate the importance of information in order to optimize informational hierarchies of different attribute types when located within a multi-level trusted system. Finally, we use normal distribution model to predict encryption level distribution for users in different classes and then calculate information prices through a linear programming model with the help of encryption level distribution above.

  12. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...... represents the clearing of the market and the second stage models the system operation under a number of plausible wind production realizations. This formulation co-optimizes energy and reserve, and allows deriving both pool energy prices and balancing energy prices. These prices result in both cost recovery...... for producers and revenue reconciliation. A case study of realistic size is used to illustrate the functioning of the proposed pricing scheme....

  13. 7 CFR 1124.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.50 Section 1124.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1030.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.50 Section 1030.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.50. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1000.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... advanced pricing factors. 1000.53 Section 1000.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture..., component prices, and advanced pricing factors. (a) On or before the 5th day of the month, the market... administrator for each Federal milk marketing order shall announce the following prices and pricing factors for...

  16. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  17. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  18. The offer to eligible clients and gas purchase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, G.; Brun, C.; Lautard, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    This article gathers 4 presentations given at the 2003 natural gas congress of Paris about the impacts of the deregulation of the natural gas market. The first presentation presents the impact of the UK gas market deregulation on the energy expenses of the French tire manufacturer Michelin. The second presentation treats of Gaz de France offer to eligible clients. The third presentation presents the operation of the gas hub of Zeebrugge and the arbitration of prices, and the last presentation deals with the gas trading activity of Total company. (J.S.)

  19. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  20. Prospects for oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.

    1992-01-01

    The basic argument presented is that the oil price is set in an administrated market. The administration is undertaken by the controllers of excess capacity to produce crude oil. The extent to which the administrated price matches the market price is a function, first, of the strength and effectiveness of the market controller and, secondly, of the state of supply and demand and expectations in the market. Currently, the market is operating close to capacity, what limited excess capacity exists is located mainly in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabians appear to be following a low price objective. While the Saudi Arabians pursue volume, the short term project, in the balance of a political upheaval, is that oil prices will remain below the $21 per barrel agreed in July 1990. There is a view that Saudi Arabia would take quick action to reverse a price collapse, but attention is drawn to previous miscalculations with respect to price collapse. Should political circumstances allow the return of Iraq to the oil market, then excess capacity within the Gulf members of OPEC will return and control will be much more difficult. (UK)