WorldWideScience

Sample records for prices review board

  1. Why monetary board: Monetary board and endogenic price flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Tamara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model which proves that a unilateral exchange rate fixing, i.e. monetary board, as opposed to certain opinions, is an optimal policy since it increases flexibility of nominal prices, which is the ultimate goal of a flexible exchange rate policy. A suitable calibration of the model shows that the higher the initial price flexibility, the lower the difference needed for "utility increase" in getting the producers to switch from fixed to flexible prices. The results obtained in all cases indicate that exchange rate fixing increases price flexibility, which proves that a unilateral exchange rate fixing, i.e. monetary board, could be an optimal monetary policy.

  2. Pricing Currency Risk under Currency Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Schmukler, Sergio L.; Servén, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Currency risk is one of the two components of the total interest rate differential. Hard pegs, such as currency boards, are meant to reduce or even eliminate currency risk, thus, reducing domestic interest rates. This paper investigates the patterns and determinants of the currency risk premium in two currency boards—Argentina and Hong Kong. Despite the presumed rigidity of currency boards, the currency premium is almost always positive and at times very large. Its term structure is usually u...

  3. 76 FR 57712 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's.... Bostic, Jr., Arnold A. Jackson, Theodore A. Johnson, Steven J. Jost, J. Steven Landefeld, Jennifer Madans...

  4. Defense Contract Audit Agency Reviews of Price Proposals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Auditors perform field pricing reviews of contractor price proposals when procurement office information is insufficient to perform the cost or price analysis needed to negotiate contract prices...

  5. Review of uranium market price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragatham Kumar; Nik Arlina Nik Ali; Koh You Beng

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is used as an abundant source of concentrated energy and is the principal fuel for the generation of electricity by nuclear reactors. In nuclear reactors, the uranium fuel is assembled in such a way that a controlled fission chain reaction can be achieved. Since uranium is the main source of nuclear energy, demand prospects for uranium has increased dramatically with the renewed global interest in nuclear power generation in recent years. Although the global uranium market is relatively small worldwide, compared to other mineral and energy sources, it is a very important market as nuclear power generation accounts for about 18% of global electricity supply. After reaching historic lows in 1990s, uranium prices have risen substantially in recent years. The outlook for nuclear power has changed since 2000, with concerns over global warming, proven excellent safety record, competitive costs, progress on nuclear waste disposal issues and also continuing new nuclear plant construction around the world. These and various other influencing factors have resulted in the uranium market evolving from one that was driven by excess secondary supplies to that by primary production. This paper reviews the global market prices for the years 1987 until 2006 and the factors, which influence the changes in global uranium market prices. (Author)

  6. Asset Pricing - A Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Minqiang

    2010-01-01

    I first introduce the early-stage and modern classical asset pricing and portfolio theories. These include: the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the arbitrage pricing theory (APT), the consumption capital asset pricing model (CCAPM), the intertemporal capital asset pricing model (ICAPM), and some other important modern concepts and techniques. Finally, I discuss the most recent development during the last decade and the outlook in the field of asset pricing.

  7. 76 FR 67402 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Executive Service (SES), Senior Level (SL), and Scientific or Professional (ST) Performance Review Boards...; White, Dave. Research, Education and Economics (REE) Bartuska, Ann; Jacobs-Young, Chavonda; Woteki...

  8. 78 FR 67333 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... eligible to serve on the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics.... Arnold William G. Bostic, Jr. Stephen B. Burke Joanne Buenzli Crane Susan R. Helper Ron S. Jarmin Enrique...

  9. 77 FR 61379 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... eligible to serve on the Performance Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics.... Arnold William G. Bostic, Jr. Joanne Buenzli Crane Justin R. Ehrenwerth Ron S. Jarmin Theodore A. Johnson...

  10. 75 FR 57440 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics... the Performance Review Board in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior... Callahan, Nancy M. Gordon, Howard R. Hogan, Arnold A. Jackson, Theodore A. Johnson, Steven J. Jost, J...

  11. 78 FR 22545 - Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Harriette H. Charbonneau, Director of Human Resources, Federal Maritime... prescribed by the Office of Personnel Management, one or more performance review boards. The board shall..., Managing Director 15. Austin L. Schmitt, Director, Strategic Planning and Regulatory Review [FR Doc. 2013...

  12. 76 FR 65503 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... CONTACT: Andrea Burckman, Director, Executive Resources Division, Human Capital and Client Services... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Office of Management... of Education is composed of career and non-career senior executives. The PRB reviews and evaluates...

  13. 78 FR 66384 - Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the members of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board. DATES: November 5, 2013...

  14. 77 FR 54570 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY... the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review.... The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial summary rating of the senior executive's performance...

  15. 75 FR 62501 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board: Update... Development, Office of Inspector General's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board. DATES: September... reference-- USAID OIG Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 5...

  16. 78 FR 66785 - SES Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Safety Board. Steven E. Goldberg, Chief Financial Officer, National Transportation Safety Board. John.... Goldberg's rating review). Anthony P. Scardino, Chief Financial Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office... CONTACT: Emily T. Carroll, Chief, Human Resources Division, Office of Administration, National...

  17. North American oriented strand board markets, arbitrage activity, and market price dynamics: A smooth transition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry Goodwin; Matthew Holt; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2011-01-01

    Price dynamics for North American oriented strand board markets are examined. The role of transactions costs are explored vis-à-vis the law of one price. Nonlinearities induced by unobservable transactions costs are modeled by estimating time-varying smooth transition autoregressions (TV-STARs). Results indicate that nonlinearity and structural change are important...

  18. North American Oriented Strand Board Markets, Arbitrage Activity, and Market Price Dynamics: A Smooth Transition Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Barry K.; Holt, Matthew T.; Prestemon, Jeffery P.

    2008-01-01

    Price dynamics for North American oriented strand board (OSB) markets are examined. The role of transactions costs are explored vis-a-vis the law of one price. Weekly data, February 3rd, 1995 through October 9th, 2009, are used in the analysis. Nonlinearities induced by unobservable transactions costs are modeled by estimating Time-Varying Smooth Transition Autoregressions (TV-STARs). Results indicate that nonlinearity and structural change are important features of these markets; price...

  19. Tobacco price boards as a promotional strategy-a longitudinal observational study in Australian retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, Megan; Scollo, Michelle; White, Sarah; Lindorff, Kylie; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-07-22

    Price boards in tobacco retailers are one of the few forms of tobacco promotion remaining in Australia. This study aimed to examine how these boards were used to promote products over a period of rapidly rising taxes. Observations were made in a panel of 350 stores in Melbourne, Australia, in November of 2013 (just before) and in 2014 and 2015 (after 12.5% increases in tobacco duty). Fieldworkers unobtrusively noted the presence and characteristics of price boards, and the brand name, size and price of the product at the top of each board. Price boards were common in all store types apart from newsagent/lottery agents. The characteristics of the top-listed product changed notably over time: premium brands accounted for 66% of top-listed products in 2013, significantly declining to 43% in 2015, while packs of 20 cigarettes increased in prominence from 32% to 45%. The prevalence of packs of 20 cigarettes in budget market segments tripled from 2013 (13%) and 2014 (11%) to 32% in 2015, with no change in the proportion of packs that were under $A20 from 2014 (37%) to 2015 (36%). The rate of increase in the average price of the top-listed pack correspondingly flattened from 2014 to 2015 compared with 2013-2014. Price boards promote tobacco products in ways that undermine the effectiveness of tax policy as a means of discouraging consumption. Communication to consumers about prices should be restricted to information sheets provided to adult smokers on request at the point of sale. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. 77 FR 65685 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9747-4] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... performance review boards. This board shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's... performance of the senior executive. Members of the 2012 EPA Performance Review Board are: Benita Best-Wong...

  1. Balanced Ethics Review: A Guide for Institutional Review Board Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames Dhai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pocket-book size manual is to assist Institutional Review Board (IRB members and chairs conduct ethics review by balancing the two major morally relevant considerations in health research

  2. Getting started with Review Board

    CERN Document Server

    Rawat, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise, to-the-point guide with a practical walkthrough of the code review workflow using the features present in Reviewboard. The various concepts and features are explained through screenshots so that even if you do not have a running installation of Reviewboard in front of you, you can still gain practical knowledge.This book is intended for web programmers or quality control staff who perform or participate in code reviews and who are using (or planning to use) Reviewboard for conducting code reviews. No prior knowledge of Reviewboard is assumed.

  3. 32 CFR 881.3 - Individual Service Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual Service Review Board. 881.3 Section... Individual Service Review Board. (a) The Commander, Headquarters Air Force Personnel Center (HQ AFPC/CC) establishes the Individual Service Review Board as necessary. (b) The Board consists of military members in...

  4. 78 FR 55244 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... the membership of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Senior Executive Service (SES... rating of a senior executive's performance, the executive's response, and the higher level official's...

  5. Money Price Relationship under the Currency Board System: The Case of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Togay; Nezir Kose

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the endogenous money hypothesis is examined for the Argentinean economy employing exogeneity tests by using monthly data for the time period 1991-2001 within the frame of money and price relationship in a Currency Board-like system. Empirical results support the hypothesis which suggests that money supply is endogenous.

  6. Brand placement on price boards after tobacco display bans: a point-of-sale audit in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Durkin, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to explore how cigarette brands are arranged on boards listing tobacco products and/or prices following the 1 January 2011 ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Victoria, Australia. An audit undertaken in late 2011 gathered information on the prevalence and contents of tobacco product information displays ('price boards'). We examined how often all or most of the brands listed at the top of price boards were owned by the same tobacco company, and whether premium, mainstream and value brands were listed in prominent positions more frequently in different store types and socio-economic areas (SES). Of the 281 stores audited, 64% (179) had legible price boards. Of the 178 with factory-made products, 11% arranged brands alphabetically, 2% by price and 87% did so in some other way. In 65% of stores where brands were arranged in some other way, at least three of the top four positions were devoted to brands owned by the same tobacco company. Premium brands were given greater prominence than would be expected by market share. Neighbourhood SES was significantly related to the representation in the most prominent price board positions of brands from the most appropriate market segment. Price boards are being used to target brands to consumers. Jurisdictions should also prohibit price board display when they ban tobacco product display; prices might instead be itemised in alphabetical order on a list only viewable upon customer request.

  7. 78 FR 77125 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9904-20-OARM] Senior Executive Service Performance Review... review boards. This board shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's... performance of the senior executive. Members of the 2013 EPA Performance Review Board are: Benita Best-Wong...

  8. Food consumption and food prices in Kenya : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Abr. sum.: This report reviews government policies concerning consumer food prices in Kenya. In respect of official food pricing, Kenya can be said to pursue a 'cheap food' policy. It was found that most foods falling under price control measures showed less price increases than the average rate of

  9. 5 CFR 317.502 - Qualifications Review Board certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Career Appointments § 317.502 Qualifications Review Board certification. (a) A Qualification Review Board (QRB) convened by OPM must certify the executive... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications Review Board certification...

  10. 75 FR 69063 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Designation of Performance Review Board Chair. SUMMARY: This notice provides the Performance Review Board Chair designee for the Department of Energy. DATES: This appointment is effective as...

  11. 78 FR 70029 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy ACTION: Designation of Performance Review Board Co-Chairs. SUMMARY: This notice provides the Performance Review Board Co-Chairs designees for the Department of Energy. DATES: This appointment is...

  12. 77 FR 64969 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Designation of Performance Review Board Chair. SUMMARY: This notice provides the Performance Review Board Chair designee for the Department of Energy. DATES: This appointment is effective as...

  13. 77 FR 66191 - Senior Executive Service-Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Senior Executive Service--Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office... performance review boards. The board reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior executive's... performance of the senior executive. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. John Berry, Director. The following...

  14. 76 FR 70713 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Designation of Performance Review Board Chair. SUMMARY: This notice provides the Performance Review Board Chair designee for the Department of Energy. DATES: This appointment is effective as...

  15. Price-Anderson Act: Congressional review begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Every 10 years Congress reviews, amends, and extends the Price-Anderson Act of 1957, which was designed to encourage the new nuclear industry by guaranteeing insurance beyond the level provided by private insurers. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is recommending five congressional actions for the 1987 extension: reauthorization, replacement of the absolute insurance limitation with an annual limitation of liability, raising the retrospective premium per reactor per incident from $5 million to $10 million, raising the statute of limitations on claims for 20 to 30 years, and retaining current language dealing with extraordinary events. Two bills, H.R. 421 and H.R. 3277, were introduced with provisions that broaden the opportunity for victims compensation and eliminate the subsidy aspect. Hearings began in July, with reactions from the National Taxpayers Union and Nuclear insurance underwriters in conflict over the limitations on liability. DOE and DOE contractors urge continuation of the Price-Anderson limitation

  16. The supply price control: issues for review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) sets out the issues involved in the current review of supply price controls for the twelve regional electricity companies (RECs) in the United Kingdom. The Government's current energy policy is outlined, drawing a distinction between electricity from fossil and non-fossil fuel sources. RECs are obliged by the licencees to purchase economically and OFFER seeks to monitor this process, both within Government limits. This history of price controls is outlined and the author considers what form the next supply control should take, bearing in mind generation costs and aims towards energy efficiency. The OFFER consultative document has now been published and public debate of these issues will follow. (UK)

  17. 76 FR 76122 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... change in the membership of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board for the Chemical Safety... Senior Executive Service (SES) and makes recommendations as to final annual performance ratings for...

  18. 78 FR 67147 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards for the Federal... actions for members of the Senior Executive Service. DATES: This notice is effective November 5, 2013. FOR...

  19. 78 FR 57837 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... change in the membership of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board for the Chemical Safety... Senior Executive Service (SES) and makes recommendations as to final annual performance ratings for...

  20. 76 FR 78257 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards for the Federal... appropriate personnel actions for members of the Senior Executive Service. DATES: This notice is effective...

  1. 75 FR 1028 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... change in the membership of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board for the Chemical Safety... performance ratings of members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) and makes recommendations as to final...

  2. 77 FR 70779 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards for the Federal... actions for members of the Senior Executive Service. DATES: This notice is effective November 27, 2012...

  3. 77 FR 62211 - Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Services (SES) Performance Review Board... International Development, Office of Inspector General's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... Performance Review Boards. The board shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of each USAID OIG senior...

  4. Computerized information management for institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Maureen N; Gugerty, Brian; Levine, Richard; Ho, Vincent B

    2005-01-01

    The use of human subjects for medical research in most industrialized nations requires the scientific and ethical scrutiny of research proposals by a governing institutional review board (IRB) or its equivalent. As part of their primary charge to protect human subjects, IRBs are responsible for the regulatory oversight of not only the research protocol itself but also the research conduct of the investigators and, if applicable, the funding sponsor. This article will discuss the regulatory requirements for an accurate account of IRB protocols and investigators and present an overview of the general flow of information for an IRB protocol. The current and potential uses of information management systems by IRBs will also be reviewed and accompanied by a discussion of the potential advantages and disadvantages of various computerized information systems for management of clinical research.

  5. Working with the institutional review board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Wesley G

    2009-01-15

    Working with an institutional review board (IRB) to ensure compliance and ethical conduct of research involving human subjects is discussed. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and Food and Drug Administration regulations for the conduct of human research are grounded in the principles of the Belmont Report. By establishing the requirements for the function and operation of the IRB, the criteria needed for the review and approval of research, and the requirements for obtaining and documenting informed consent, the federal regulations help ensure the safety, rights and welfare of subjects. In developing research protocols and submissions to the IRB, the investigator should include clear, detailed information that addresses the regulatory requirements for the review and approval of research. Before starting a research study, review and approval by the IRB is required unless the study is determined to be minimal risk and fits one of the defined categories. Some research projects involving observation of public behavior, collection of anonymous surveys of nonvulnerable individuals in which the information is not considered sensitive, and evaluation of standard education practices may be exempt from DHHS regulations. Informed consent is central to the protection of human subjects and is required unless the IRB allows a waiver or alteration of informed consent. Once the study is approved, the investigator must conduct the study as approved by the IRB and continue to meet the regulatory requirements related to modifications, reporting unanticipated events, and continuing review. IRB review is integral to ensuring regulatory compliance and ethical conduct of research involving human subjects. Working closely with the IRB or colleagues who have had experience with the IRB will help junior investigators better understand the IRB submission and review process.

  6. 76 FR 24802 - Eliminating the Decision Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... 0960-AG80 Eliminating the Decision Review Board AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: We are eliminating the Decision Review Board (DRB) portions of part 405 of our rules...-level process. DSI also eliminated review by the Appeals Council, the final step in our administrative...

  7. The measurement of house prices : A review of the sale price appraisal ratio method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J.; Van der Wal, E.B.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    The sale price appraisal ratio (SPAR) method has been applied in a number of countries to construct house price indexes. This paper reviews the statistical and index number properties of the SPAR approach. Three types of SPAR indexes are distinguished: a weighted index, which aims at tracking the

  8. 5 CFR 430.310 - Performance Review Boards (PRBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance Review Boards (PRBs). 430.310... PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.310 Performance Review Boards (PRBs). Each... appraisal. (3) When appraising a career appointee's performance or recommending a career appointee for a...

  9. 75 FR 55816 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency Senior..., each agency is required to establish one or more Senior Executive Service (SES) performance review boards. The purpose of these boards is to review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive...

  10. 78 FR 52995 - Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: U. S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Members for the FY 2014 Performance Review Board. SUMMARY: Title 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4) requires each agency to publish notification of the appointment of...

  11. 78 FR 63275 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-OST-2013-0184] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Performance Review Board (PRB) appointments. SUMMARY: DOT publishes the...

  12. 78 FR 75447 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board AGENCY: Treasury Department. ACTION: Notice of members of the Departmental Performance Review Board (PRB). SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4), this notice announces the appointment of members of the Departmental PRB...

  13. 77 FR 43900 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-OST-2012-0111] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Performance Review Board (PRB) appointments. SUMMARY: DOT publishes the...

  14. 77 FR 51523 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY Senior Executive Service Performance... required to establish one or more Senior Executive Service (SES) performance review boards. The purpose of these boards is to review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the...

  15. 76 FR 64421 - Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Members for the FY 2011 Performance Review Board. SUMMARY: Title 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4) requires each agency to publish notification of the appointment of...

  16. 77 FR 70204 - Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Members for the FY 2012 Performance Review Board. SUMMARY: Title 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4) requires each agency to publish notification of the appointment of...

  17. 75 FR 71785 - Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service: Performance Review Board Members AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice of Members for the FY 2010 Performance Review Board. SUMMARY: Title 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4) requires each agency to publish notification of the appointment of...

  18. 78 FR 52513 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... COUNCIL OF THE INSPECTORS GENERAL ON INTEGRITY AND EFFICIENCY Senior Executive Service Performance... Management, each agency is required to establish one or more Senior Executive Service (SES) performance review boards. The purpose of these boards is to review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior...

  19. 75 FR 68668 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board AGENCY: Treasury Department. ACTION: Notice of members of the Departmental Offices Performances Review Board. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4), this notice announces the appointment of members of the...

  20. 76 FR 69798 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board AGENCY: Treasury Department. ACTION: Notice of members of the Departmental Performance Review Board (PRB). SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4), this notice announces the appointment of members of the Departmental PRB...

  1. 76 FR 63986 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket No. DOT-OST-2011-0188] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards Membership AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Performance Review Board (PRB) appointments. SUMMARY: DOT publishes the...

  2. 78 FR 73586 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board (PRB) and Executive Resources Board (ERB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...: Performance Review Board Leland L. Gardner, Chairman Rachel D. Campbell, Member Craig M. Keats, Member Lucille Marvin, Alternate Member Executive Resources Board Rachel D. Campbell, Chairman Lucille Marvin, Member Joseph H. Dettmar, Alternate Member These changes to the PRB and ERB membership are due to the departure...

  3. Institutional review boards: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra B Ghooi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Institutional Review Boards (IRBs are an important link in subject protection program, and their function defines ethical credentials of research. Of late there has been a furore in the country over the number of deaths in clinical research, and allegations of unethical research. Clinical trials have been discussed in medical and lay press and even in the parliament, these discussions called for strengthening the subject protection program. The Central Drug Standards and Control Organization (CDSCO, amended the Schedule Y, by issuing three amendments to introduce new compensation rules and registration of IRBs functioning in the country. IRBs in India face a variety of challenges, and need support from the regulators or independent experts. This is also an opportunity to revamp the subject protection program and strengthen the IRB functioning. An independent advisory body comprising of experts who have hands on experience in administering IRBs, is essential to provide support to IRBs in the country. This body should be independent of regulatory influence and work with IRBs to strengthen them.

  4. Victor Frankenstein's Institutional Review Board Proposal, 1790.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gary; Gannon, William L

    2015-10-01

    To show how the case of Mary Shelley's Victor Frankenstein brings light to the ethical and moral issues raised in Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols, we nest an imaginary IRB proposal dated August 1790 by Victor Frankenstein within a discussion of the importance and function of the IRB. Considering the world of science as would have appeared in 1790 when Victor was a student at Ingolstadt, we offer a schematic overview of a fecund moment when advances in comparative anatomy, medical experimentation and theories of life involving animalcules and animal electricity sparked intensive debates about the basic principles of life and the relationship between body and soul. Constructing an IRB application based upon myriad speculations circulating up to 1790, we imagine how Victor would have drawn upon his contemporaries' scientific work to justify the feasibility of his project, as well as how he might have outlined the ethical implications of his plan to animate life from "dead" tissues. In Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Victor failed to consider his creature's autonomy, vulnerability, and welfare. In this IRB proposal, we show Victor facing those issues of justice and emphasize how the novel can be an important component in courses or workshops on research ethics. Had Victor Frankenstein had to submit an IRB proposal tragedy may have been averted, for he would have been compelled to consider the consequences of his experiment and acknowledge, if not fulfill, his concomitant responsibilities to the creature that he abandoned and left to fend for itself.

  5. Members of the LHC Resources Review Boards

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Members of the LHCRRB visiting Point 2, hosting the ALICE experiment From l. to r. : W. Korda, Head of the VIP Office; P. Rimmer, CERN public relations, J. Seed, Member of the LHCRRB, J.-P. Revol, ALICE CERN Team Leader; J. Bartke, Member of the LHCRRB; F. Suransky, Member of the LHCRRB; J. Schukraft, Spokesperson, ALICE experiment and S. Molinari, VIP Office. Photo 02: Members of the LHC Resources Review Boards visiting the ALICE magnet at Point 2. L. to. r.: O. Dines-Hansen, H. Boggild, S. Irgens-Jensens, H.A. Gustafsson Photo 03: Members of the LHCRRB visiting Point 2, hosting the ALICE experiment From l. t to r.: J.Richter, Member of the LHCRRB; H. Gutbrod, Deputy Spokesperson, ALICE experiment; G. Paic, ALICE experiment; D. Muller, Member of the LHCRRB; P. Brau-Munzinger, ALICE experiment; R. Santo, Member of the LHCRRB, A. Van Rijn, Member of the LHCRRB; J. Engelen, Member of the LHCRRB.

  6. 78 FR 5516 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  7. 75 FR 14214 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  8. 76 FR 39926 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  9. 76 FR 81998 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. ACTION: Annual notice. SUMMARY: Notice... established a Senior Executive Service PRB. The PRB reviews and evaluates the initial appraisal of a senior...

  10. 12 CFR 265.3 - Board review of delegated actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Board review of delegated actions. 265.3 Section 265.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... for determination if the delegee considers it appropriate because of the importance or complexity of...

  11. 77 FR 49440 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ..., Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and Pentagon... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), DoD. ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY: This notice...

  12. 78 FR 52517 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ..., Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and Pentagon... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), DoD. ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY: This notice...

  13. 76 FR 60473 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Services Agency, Defense Logistics Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Missile Defense Agency, and... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OSD), Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice of board membership. SUMMARY...

  14. Book Review: CFP Board Financial Planning Competency Handbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz-Menjivar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The CFP Board Financial Planning Competency Handbook (2013 is reviewed as a resource that extends beyond financial planning to other helping professionals who work with money related issues.

  15. 76 FR 69770 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of... of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, and considers recommendations to the appointing authority regarding the performance of the senior executive. Office of Personnel Management. John...

  16. Institutional review board and regulatory solutions in the dental PBRN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Qvist, Vibeke; Moore, Sheila D

    2010-01-01

    Effectively addressing regulatory and human participant protection issues with Institutional Review Boards (IRBs, or ethics committees) and grants administration entities is an important component of conducting research in large collaborative networks. A dental practice-based research network...

  17. 78 FR 28243 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: National Capital Planning Commission. ACTION: Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service... Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the National Capital Planning Commission also makes...

  18. 76 FR 29013 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: National Capital Planning Commission. ACTION: Notice of Members of Senior Executive Service... Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the National Capital Planning Commission also makes...

  19. Institutional Review Boards: Perspectives from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D., FNP-BC, FAANP

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., all research must be approved by an Institutional Review Board (IRB that evaluates research protocols for the purpose of protecting human subjects. This paper includes a brief history of the development of public policy that guides institutional review boards in the U.S. and commentary on the responsibilities of a grounded theory researcher interested in applying for approval for a research study.An institutional review board (IRB is a formally constituted committee that approves and monitors biomedical and behavioural research with the purpose of protecting the rights and welfare of research participants. An IRB performs scientific, ethical, and regulatory oversight functions. In the U.S., it is common for grounded theorists to experience frustration with the IRB protocol submission process. Facets of the application process may seem rigid, redundant, and non-applicable. Review board members may not seem to understand or appreciate qualitative methods and delays are common. In addition, a conglomeration of disparate policies and procedures coupled with a variety of types of review boards creates a system that defies description. Nevertheless, a researcher who understands public policy and the responsibilities of institutional review boards can learn to develop research applications that are quickly approved.

  20. 77 FR 62490 - Performance Review Board Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Board Appointments AGENCY: Office of Human Resource Management, Departmental Management. ACTION: Notice..., Director, Office of Human Resources Management, telephone: (202) 690-2994, email: [email protected] has a total of seven PRBs: The Secretary's PRB; Career Agency Head's PRB; Departmental Management and...

  1. 20 CFR 405.410 - Selecting claims for Decision Review Board review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will not review claims based on the identity of the administrative law judge who decided the claim. (b... Decision Review Board review. (a)(1) The Board may review your claim if the administrative law judge made a decision under §§ 405.340 or 405.370 of this part, regardless of whether the administrative law judge's...

  2. Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2011-01-01

    By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

  3. 75 FR 59704 - Office of Management; Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mary Beth Pultz, Director, Executive Resources Team, Human Resources Services... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Management; Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY... Department of Education for 2010 is composed of career and non-career senior executives. The PRB reviews and...

  4. 75 FR 70002 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9227-3] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, along with any recommendations to the appointment authority relative to the performance of the senior...

  5. 76 FR 70131 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board; Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9489-5] Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board... review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, along with any recommendations to the appointment authority relative to the performance of the senior...

  6. 78 FR 44563 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board AGENCY... Management, one or more PRBs. The PRB shall review and evaluate the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, along with any response by the senior executive, and make recommendations to...

  7. 75 FR 68669 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board AGENCY: Treasury Department. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4), this notice announces the appointment of members of the Departmental PRB. The purpose of this PRB is to review and make recommendations...

  8. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials

  9. NASA Standing Review Board Handbook: Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Ortiz, James N.; Calloway, Michelle A.; Greathouse, Richard M.; Polen, Charles A.; Baker, Ronald L.; Borchardt, Heidemarie E.; Chromik, Christopher C.; Moran, Erin; Paraska, Michael W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This SRB Handbook provides review guidance for the program and project communities and for the SRBs regarding the expectations, processes, products, timelines, and working interfaces with review organizations, Centers, Mission Directorates, Mission Support Organizations, and Management Councils. It provides guidelines for membership selection, review implementation, review products, and reporting of results. The SRB Handbook guidance may be tailored, with the Convening Authorities' approval, to meet the needs of the Agency, Mission Directorates, Centers, and the programs and projects being reviewed. The final review agreement of the SRB, program and project, and Convening Authorities for program and project Life-Cycle Reviews (LCRs) is documented in the terms of reference, as described in Section 4.1 and Appendix H.

  10. 75 FR 70268 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... each time the person contacts the helpdesk. Frequency of Response: Once, except for the SAE Reviewer... Statistical Reviewer Form 20 1 2 hours 40 (Attachment 6J). Board Members CIRB SAE Reviewer Worksheet 10 15 30... 4140-01-P ...

  11. Functions of the Materials Review Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The DOE has established a centralized organization for the assembly and critical review of materials data that are important to the process of licensing a nuclear waste repository. The MRB serves as an independent reviewing body, somewhat similar to standards organizations, that examines test methods and materials data. To a large extent, the criteria used in these reviews are codified, and the review process is highly visible and extensively documented. Approval of test methods or materials data for publication in the Nuclear Waste Materials handbook requires successful completion of three separate reviews that are sufficiently rigorous, yet in accord with the provisions of the NRC licensing approach, so that the resulting documents can be used by DOE with assurance that scientific scrutiny by others will affirm the conclusions of the MRB. The credibility of the review process is reflected in the credibility of the conclusions drawn from the data, thereby allowing the licensing of the repository to proceed expeditiously. 10 references

  12. 77 FR 26790 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Bureau of Justice... meeting (via conference call-in) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board (``Board'') to... INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions...

  13. Celebrating 25 years of Syncrude`s Geotechnical Review Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, G.

    1998-09-01

    An historical review of Syncrude`s Geotechnical Review Board (GRB) was presented, relating some of the successes of the Board over the past 25 years since its establishment. A list of the type of challenges faced by Syncrude where the GRB`s guidance and counselling proved to be critical, is also included. The GRB was established in the 1970s to help Syncrude manage its geotechnical-based risks and to enhance its long-range chances to be successful in oil sands mining. Mining oil sands was breaking new ground back then, consequently, the geotechnical risks were largely unknown and the potential of heavy financial losses were great. Under such circumstances making the right decisions in dealing with geotechnical risks was vital to success. The fact that 25 years later Syncrude is still operating on the basis of those earlier decisions and still relies heavily on the expertise of the Board for recommendations and guidance is a testimony to the value of the GRB to Syncrude`s operations. The GRB`s success is credited to the Board`s world-wide expertise, objectivity, focus on the big issues, risk-based approach and its excellent working partnership with Syncrude employees. Dragline mining and tailings management are the areas that benefited the most from the Board`s involvement, but the Board has been involved in every facet of geotechnical-based risk management. Some of the geotechnical challenges that the GRB has helped Syncrude to overcome include dam construction of muskeg foundation, heavy foundations on gassy and temperature-sensitive soils, coring and testing of gassy/expansive oil sands and haul roads, highwall design utilizing locked sands, winter construction of large fluid retaining embankments and characterization and management of fluid fine tailings. 3 refs., 1 graph, 3 figs.

  14. Effects of reference pricing in pharmaceutical markets: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Ghislandi, Simone; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to provide a systematic and updated survey of original scientific studies on the effect of the introduction of reference pricing (RP) policies in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We searched PubMed, EconLit and Web of Knowledge for articles on RP. We reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria established in the search strategy. From a total of 468 references, we selected the 35 that met all of the inclusion criteria. Some common themes emerged in the literature. The first was that RP was generally associated with a decrease in the prices of the drugs subject to the policy. In particular, price drops seem to have been experienced in virtually every country that implemented a generic RP (GRP) policy. A GRP policy applies only to products with expired patents and generic competition, and clusters drugs according to chemical equivalence (same form and active compound). More significant price decreases were observed in the sub-markets in which drugs were already facing generic competition prior to RP. Price drops varied widely according to the amount of generic competition and industrial strategies: brand-named drugs originally priced above RP values decreased their prices to a greater extent. A second common theme was that both therapeutic RP (TRP) and GRP have been associated with significant and consistent savings in the first years of application. A third general result is that generic market shares significantly increased whenever the firms producing brand-named drugs did not adopt one of the following strategies: lowering prices to RP values; launching new dosages and/or formulations; or marketing substitute drugs still under patent protection. Finally, concerning TRP, although more evidence is needed, studies based on a large number of patient-level observations showed no association between the RP policy and health outcomes.

  15. The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Long, Michael W; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-02-01

    In light of proposals to improve diets by shifting food prices, it is important to understand how price changes affect demand for various foods. We reviewed 160 studies on the price elasticity of demand for major food categories to assess mean elasticities by food category and variations in estimates by study design. Price elasticities for foods and nonalcoholic beverages ranged from 0.27 to 0.81 (absolute values), with food away from home, soft drinks, juice, and meats being most responsive to price changes (0.7-0.8). As an example, a 10% increase in soft drink prices should reduce consumption by 8% to 10%. Studies estimating price effects on substitutions from unhealthy to healthy food and price responsiveness among at-risk populations are particularly needed.

  16. 76 FR 61346 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Department of Defense Office of Inspector General, Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service (SES...

  17. A Case for Limiting the Reach of Institutional Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Richard M.; Donnell-Watson, D. J.; Galliher, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) governing social and behavioral research seem to systematically exceed the guidelines established by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. We examine a clandestine study of prostitution and another of employment discrimination and conclude that IRBs,…

  18. Spotlight on Ethics: Institutional Review Boards as Systemic Bullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Caleb T.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying, often considered an interpersonal or intergroup behaviour, has not been explored as an unintended artefact of organisational structure. Institutional review boards (IRBs), the 'human research ethics committees' at US universities, help oversee the protection of human research subjects, particularly in the social sciences within…

  19. Institutional review boards' attitudes towards remuneration in paediatric research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flege, Marius M; Thomsen, Simon F

    2017-01-01

    Remuneration in paediatric research poses an ethical dilemma. Too large a sum might cause parents to enrol their children in research projects with no benefit for the child, whereas too modest a sum might hamper recruitment. The institutional review boards have the responsibility to only approve ...

  20. 75 FR 67696 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...: Defense Finance and Accounting Service, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Performance Review Board (PRB) of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise Thornburg, DFAS SES Program Manager, Defense Finance and...

  1. 76 FR 7623 - Department of State Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ...: February 2, 2011. Nancy J. Powell, Director General of the Foreign Service and Director of Human Resources... following individuals to the Department of State Performance Review Board for Non-Career Senior Executive Service members: Jeanne-Marie Smith, Chairperson, Senior Advisor, Deputy Secretary for Management and...

  2. 75 FR 68385 - Senior Executive Service-Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... OPM Performance Review Board. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Tammy Van Keuren, OPM Human Resources, Recruitment and Staffing, Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20415, (202) 606... Associate Director for Human Resources--Executive Secretariat. [FR Doc. 2010-28171 Filed 11-4-10; 8:45 am...

  3. 76 FR 80902 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board; Members AGENCY: Court Services and Offender Supervision Agency for the... agency's Senior Executive Service. The PRB established for the Court Services and Offender Supervision...

  4. 76 FR 55677 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Notice-CPO-2011-01; Docket 2011-0006; Sequence 15] Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board AGENCY: General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the appointment of new members to the General Services Administration...

  5. 77 FR 60450 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance... announces the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards for the... appropriate personnel actions for incumbents of Senior Executive Service, Senior Level and Senior Professional...

  6. 78 FR 44577 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service Performance... notice announces the appointment of the members of the Senior Executive Service Performance Review Boards... other appropriate personnel actions for incumbents of Senior Executive Service, Senior Level and Senior...

  7. 76 FR 57947 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... AND EFFICIENCY Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Council of the... of Personnel Management, each agency is required to establish one or more Senior Executive Service... appraisal of a senior executive's performance by the supervisor, along with any recommendations to the...

  8. 78 FR 22490 - Administrative Practice and Procedure; Postal Service; Review of Price Cap Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ...] Administrative Practice and Procedure; Postal Service; Review of Price Cap Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review of its Price Cap Rules. The... implemented without a price cap calculation. Docket No. R2011-5, Order Approving Market Dominant Price...

  9. Electricity price forecasting in deregulated markets: A review and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Saini, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Ashwani [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana (India)

    2009-01-15

    The main methodologies used in electricity price forecasting have been reviewed in this paper. The following price-forecasting techniques have been covered: (i) stochastic time series, (ii) causal models, and (iii) artificial intelligence based models. The quantitative analysis of the work done by various authors has been presented based on (a) time horizon for prediction, (b) input variables, (c) output variables, (d) results, (e) data points used for analysis, (f) preprocessing technique employed, and (g) architecture of the model. The results have been presented in the form of tables for ease of comparison. Classification of various price-influencing factors used by different researchers has been done and put for reference. Application of various models as applied to different electricity markets is also presented for consideration. (author)

  10. Electricity price forecasting in deregulated markets: A review and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar; Saini, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Ashwani

    2009-01-01

    The main methodologies used in electricity price forecasting have been reviewed in this paper. The following price-forecasting techniques have been covered: (i) stochastic time series, (ii) causal models, and (iii) artificial intelligence based models. The quantitative analysis of the work done by various authors has been presented based on (a) time horizon for prediction, (b) input variables, (c) output variables, (d) results, (e) data points used for analysis, (f) preprocessing technique employed, and (g) architecture of the model. The results have been presented in the form of tables for ease of comparison. Classification of various price-influencing factors used by different researchers has been done and put for reference. Application of various models as applied to different electricity markets is also presented for consideration. (author)

  11. 75 FR 6729 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review... Performance Review Boards. The Board shall review the initial appraisal of a senior executive's performance by... senior executive performance. The members of the Performance Review Board for the National Archives and...

  12. Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Although economic theory indicates that it should not be necessary to intervene in the generic drug market through price regulation, most EU countries intervene in this market, both by regulating the maximum sale price of generics (price cap) and by setting the maximum reimbursement rate, especially by means of reference pricing systems. We analyse current knowledge of the impact of direct price-cap regulation of generic drugs and the implementation of systems regulating the reimbursement rate, particularly through reference pricing and similar tools, on dynamic price competition between generic competitors in Europe. A literature search was carried out in the EconLit and PubMed databases, and on Google Scholar. The search included papers published in English or Spanish between January 2000 and July 2009. Inclusion criteria included that studies had to present empirical results of a quantitative nature for EU countries of the impact of price capping and/or regulation of the reimbursement rate (reference pricing or similar systems) on price dynamics, corresponding to pharmacy sales, in the generic drug market. The available evidence indicates that price-cap regulation leads to a levelling off of generic prices at a higher level than would occur in the absence of this regulation. Reference pricing systems cause an obvious and almost compulsory reduction in the consumer price of all pharmaceuticals subject to this system, to a varying degree in different countries and periods, the reduction being greater for originator-branded drugs than for generics. In several countries with a reference pricing system, it was observed that generics with a consumer price lower than the reference price do not undergo price reductions until the reference price is reduced, even when there are other lower-priced generics on the market (absence of price competition below the reference price). Beyond the price reduction forced by the price-cap and/or reference pricing regulation itself

  13. 76 FR 63351 - Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of members to the Financial Management Service (FMS) Performance Review Board (PRB...

  14. 77 FR 60177 - Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of members to the Financial Management Service (FMS) Performance Review Board (PRB...

  15. 75 FR 34959 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...] Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index June 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory... comments on its five-year review of the oil pipeline pricing index established in Revisions to Oil Pipeline...-year review of the oil pricing index, the Commission adopted an index of PPI+1.3 for the five-year...

  16. 75 FR 80300 - Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...] Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index Issued December 16, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy... five-year review of the oil pricing index, established in Order No. 561. After consideration of the... period commencing July 1, 2011. \\1\\ Five-Year Review of Oil Pipeline Pricing Index, 75 FR 34959 (June 21...

  17. 78 FR 25476 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Department of...) of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to consider a range of issues of [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out...

  18. 75 FR 54915 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs (OJP), Justice. ACTION... Officer Medal of Valor Review Board to vote on recommendations for the 2009-2010 Medal of Valor... Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions specified in 42 U...

  19. 76 FR 17970 - Board Meeting: April 27, 2011-Amherst, New York; the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... the 2008-9 study on Quantitative Risk Assessment of the State Licensed Radioactive Waste Disposal Area... of vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW); determination of waste classification of the melter... NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: April 27, 2011--Amherst, New York; the U.S...

  20. A review on water pricing problem for sustainable water resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hek, Tan Kim; Ramli, Mohammad Fadzli; Iryanto

    2017-05-01

    A report that presented at the World Forum II at The Hague in March 2000, said that it would be water crisis around the world and some countries will be lack of water in 2025, as a result of global studies. Inefficient using of water and considering water as free goods which means it can be used as much as we want without any lost. Thus, it causes wasteful consumption and low public awareness in using water without effort to preserve and conserve the water resources. In addition, the excessive exploitation of ground water for industrial facilities also leads to declining of available freshwater. Therefore, this paper reviews some problems arise all over the world regarding to improper and improving management, policies and methods to determine the optimum model of freshwater price in order to avoid its wasteful thus ensuring its sustainability. In this paper, we also proposed a preliminary model of water pricing represents a case of Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia.

  1. 20 CFR 405.420 - Effect of Decision Review Board action on the right to seek judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 405.420 Effect of Decision Review Board action on the right to seek judicial review. (a)(1) Subject to... must wait for the Board to take action. The appeal rights, if any, that will be available at that time... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of Decision Review Board action on the...

  2. Stock Prices and Resignation of Members of the Board: The Case of the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Gurgul; Pawel Majdosz

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide an empirical analysis of announcements of resignation of board members using data which comes from the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The market reaction to this information is tested at different time horizons by means of event study methodology. The results show that market reaction is rather positive immediately before the announcement release and negative over the following six-day-period starting on the event day. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is suggested. ...

  3. Submission to the Ontario Energy Board regarding the review of further efficiencies in the electricity distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silano, B.E.; Boodhoo, D.; Shelton, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the views of the Ontario Division of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) on the Ontario Energy Board's consideration to promote further efficiencies in the power distribution sector. CUPE claims that efficiencies aimed at lowering costs through amalgamations often lead to increased costs, degradation in services and decreased reliability of power distribution. CUPE also argues that the main concerns of Ontario ratepayers is reliability and the threat of increased prices. CUPE recommends that the Ontario Energy Board hold open consultations with ratepayers, who are in fact shareholders in their local utilities. This report reviewed the current regulatory regime known as Performance Based Regulation and its effect on local distribution utilities. It also reviewed the impacts of mergers, amalgamations, acquisitions and divestitures (MAAD), with particular reference to rates, privatization of utility services, service degradation and job losses

  4. 78 FR 12318 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Price Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Price Adjustment AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... economic price adjustment. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 69442, on November 19...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0068, Economic Price Adjustment by any of the...

  5. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of Defense... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method), by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http...

  6. 77 FR 58380 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...] General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Price Reductions Clause... requirement regarding the GSAR Price Reductions Clause. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 76... identified by Information Collection 3090- 0235, Price Reduction Clause, by any of the following methods...

  7. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  8. 78 FR 63310 - Senior Executive Service; Fiscal Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Performance Review Board AGENCY: Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Fiscal Service Performance Review Board (PRB) for the Bureau of the Fiscal Service (Fiscal Service). The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior...

  9. 77 FR 65248 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... Performance Review Board AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) for the Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD). The PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior executives who are...

  10. 78 FR 41191 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Senior Executive Service Performance... Transportation Board (STB) publishes the names of the Persons selected to serve on its Senior Executive Service... performance appraisal system making senior executives accountable for organizational and individual goal...

  11. Time required for institutional review board review at one Veterans Affairs medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Daniel E; Hanusa, Barbara H; Stone, Roslyn A; Ling, Bruce S; Arnold, Robert M

    2015-02-01

    Despite growing concern that institutional review boards (IRBs) impose burdensome delays on research, little is known about the time required for IRB review across different types of research. To measure the overall and incremental process times for IRB review as a process of quality improvement. After developing a detailed process flowchart of the IRB review process, 2 analysts abstracted temporal data from the records pertaining to all 103 protocols newly submitted to the IRB at a large urban Veterans Affairs medical center from June 1, 2009, through May 31, 2011. Disagreements were reviewed with the principal investigator to reach consensus. We then compared the review times across review types using analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffé tests after achieving normally distributed data through logarithmic transformation. Calendar days from initial submission to final approval of research protocols. Initial IRB review took 2 to 4 months, with expedited and exempt reviews requiring less time (median [range], 85 [23-631] and 82 [16-437] days, respectively) than full board reviews (median [range], 131 [64-296] days; P = .008). The median time required for credentialing of investigators was 1 day (range, 0-74 days), and review by the research and development committee took a median of 15 days (range, 0-184 days). There were no significant differences in credentialing or research and development times across review types (exempt, expedited, or full board). Of the extreme delays in IRB review, 80.0% were due to investigators' slow responses to requested changes. There were no systematic delays attributable to the information security officer, privacy officer, or IRB chair. Measuring and analyzing review times is a critical first step in establishing a culture and process of continuous quality improvement among IRBs that govern research programs. The review times observed at this IRB are substantially longer than the 60-day target recommended by expert panels

  12. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  13. A systematic review of reference pricing: implications for US prescription drug spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joy Li-Yueh; Fischer, Micahel A; Shrank, William H; Polinski, Jennifer M; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2012-11-01

    Given rising pharmaceutical expenditures and the widespread use of reference pricing as a costcontainment instrument abroad, we systematically reviewed the evidence evaluating reference pricing policies. We performed a structured electronic search of peer-reviewed journals for studies published before that reported on the effects of reference pricing policies on medication use, payer and patient spending, and resource consumption. Our search yielded 16 studies describing 9 reference-pricing policies from 6 countries. Reference-pricing policies led to decreases in drug prices and increases in utilization of targeted medications, while also reducing payer and patient expenditures. In addition, these policies did not lead to increased use of medical services, such as physician office visits and hospitalization. These results suggest that reference pricing may be an attractive policy strategy for the US healthcare system.

  14. Stocks’ pricing dynamics and behavioral finance: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritosh Chandra Sinha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a brief review of the literature on stocks’ pricing, the study shows that information vis-à-vis noise serves critical roles in the equilibrium process. It is dynamic in nature and there are different infiltrating aspects from the standard finance to behavioral finance points of views. The aspects of market efficiency, fundamental risk, noise traders’ risk, and implementation costs make the stock markets noisy and thereby, limit the arbitrage opportunity of informed traders. Investors’ psychological bases viz., belief and preferences contribute more in the equilibrium process. Beliefs include representativeness, conservativeness, and anchoring, availability biases, optimism and wishful thinking, overconfidence, and herd behavior tendency on the part of the investors. On the preferences, investors are influenced by disposition effect, prospects based on reference points, mental accounting, ambiguity aversion, and self control.The study explores the empirical literature also and reviews the six puzzles in the standard finance. Finally, the work identifies a few research gaps to be addressed in the literature.

  15. Board monitoring of the chief financial officer: A review and research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Uhde, David Alexander; Klarner, Patricia; Tuschke, Anja

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Research Question/Issue:__ Research on how boards govern individual top management team (TMT) members, i.e., senior executives aside from the CEO, is still scarce and fragmented. In this study, we review extant research on board monitoring of the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) - an increasingly influential actor at the top of the firm - synthesize it, and propose an integrative future research agenda on board governing of the CFO. __Research Findings/Insights:__ Our review of...

  16. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Diversity in Board of Directors: Review of Diversity as a Factor to Enhance Board Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechersky Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In light of growing corporate influence in the business world and thus increasing further need to improve framework of corporate governance for shareholders’ protection, diversity is examined as a necessary factor to enhance monitoring and leadership functions of board of directors. This article analyses empirical studies with samples on various countries in order to examine effect of board composition and diversity on primary responsibilities of Board of Directors. Author is providing theoretical overview of diversity benefits and practical perspective of gender, qualifications, and background diversity in board performance. Our results show an added value of gender diversity to company performance in social and healthcare industries. Furthermore, author shows a rather negative effect of gender quotas. This study sheds a light on empirical researches and a need to include additional cultural factors called country readiness factors.

  18. What Happens to Patterns of Food Consumption when Food Prices Change? Evidence from A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Food Price Elasticities Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Green, Rosemary; Turner, Rachel; Dangour, Alan D; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen considerable interest in examining the impact of food prices on food consumption and subsequent health consequences. Fiscal policies targeting the relative price of unhealthy foods are frequently put forward as ways to address the obesity epidemic. Conversely, various food subsidy interventions are used in attempts to reduce levels of under-nutrition. Information on price elasticities is essential for understanding how such changes in food prices affect food consumption. It is crucial to know not only own-price elasticities but also cross-price elasticities, as food substitution patterns may have significant implications for policy recommendations. While own-price elasticities are common in analyses of the impact of food price changes on health, cross-price effects, even though generally acknowledged, are much less frequently included in analyses, especially in the public health literature. This article systematically reviews the global evidence on cross-price elasticities and provides combined estimates for seven food groups in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries alongside previously estimated own-price elasticities. Changes in food prices had the largest own-price effects in low-income countries. Cross-price effects were more varied and depending on country income level were found to be reinforcing, undermining or alleviating own-price effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 78 FR 50144 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Review Board; Notice of Meetings The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) gives notice under the Federal... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. on the dates indicated below: Subcommittee Date(s) Location Career Development Award Program.... August 6, 2013........ VHA National...

  20. 14 CFR 21.125 - Production inspection system: Materials Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 21.125 Production inspection system: Materials Review Board. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR... Materials Review Board action for at least two years. (b) The production inspection system required in § 21... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production inspection system: Materials...

  1. 77 FR 66909 - Notification of Contact Information Change for the Benghazi Accountability Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8080] Notification of Contact Information Change for the Benghazi Accountability Review Board SUMMARY: On October 1, 2012, the Department of State announced the formation of the Benghazi Accountability Review Board (ARB) in the Federal Register (FR Doc. 2012-24504...

  2. 77 FR 60116 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2012-0718; FRL-9736-4] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board to...

  3. 78 FR 57383 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2013-0626; FRL-9900-98-ORD] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board to...

  4. 77 FR 74004 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2012-0892; FRL-9761-4] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board to...

  5. 76 FR 59697 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board (HSRB) to advise the Agency on EPA's scientific and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0693; FRL-9472-4] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...

  6. 76 FR 80938 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0954; FRL-9611-6] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public meeting of the Human Studies Review Board to advise the...

  7. 76 FR 69797 - Senior Executive Service Departmental Offices Performance Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Senior Executive Service Departmental Offices Performance Review Board. AGENCY: Treasury Department. ACTION: Notice of members of the Departmental Offices Performances Review Board. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4), this notice announces the appointment of members of the...

  8. 77 FR 21109 - Senior Executive Service; Appointment of Members to the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Senior Executive Service; Appointment of Members to the Performance Review Board Title 5 U.S.C. 4314(c)(4) provides that Notice of the Appointment of an individual to serve as a member of the Performance Review Board of the Senior Executive Service shall be...

  9. 77 FR 66793 - Senior Executive Service: Membership of Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Senior Executive Service: Membership of Performance Review Board ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists approved candidates who will comprise a standing roster for service on the Agency's 2012 and 2013 SES Performance Review Boards. The Agency will use this...

  10. 78 FR 12422 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission relevance, and the... Program Manager, Scientific Merit Review Board, Department of Veterans Affairs, Health Services Research...

  11. Commercial Crew Program and the Safety Technical Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Macy

    2016-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is unique to any other program office at NASA. After the agency suffered devastating budget cuts and the Shuttle Program retired, the U.S. gave up its human spaceflight capabilities. Since 2011 the U.S. has been dependent on Russia to transport American astronauts and cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and back. NASA adapted and formed CCP, which gives private, domestic, aerospace companies unprecedented reign over America's next ride to space. The program began back in 2010 with 5 companies and is now in the final phase of certification with 2 commercial partners. The Commercial Crew Program is made up of 7 divisions, each working rigorously with the commercial providers to complete the certification phase. One of these 7 divisions is Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) which is partly comprised of the Safety Technical Review Board (STRB). The STRB is primarily concerned with mitigating improbable, but catastrophic hazards. It does this by identifying, managing, and tracking these hazards in reports. With the STRB being in SE&I, it significantly contributes to the overall certification of the partners' vehicles. After the partners receive agency certification approval, they will have the capability to provide the U.S. with a reliable, safe, and cost-effective means of human spaceflight and cargo transport to the ISS and back.

  12. 75 FR 81287 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... to address discrepancies prior to approval of the insurance endorsement. 15. WR Starkey Mortgage, LLP..., the Board accepted a settlement offer from Countrywide Home Loans, Inc. (Countrywide) to pay a civil..., the Board accepted a settlement offer from Action Mortgage Corporation (AMC) to pay a civil money...

  13. Petroleum products price regulation in Nov Scotia : a six-month review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Gasoline pricing regulation was introduced in July 2006 in order to achieve the following 3 main objectives: (1) stabilize prices by reducing the frequency of price changes and creating more uniform pricing across the province, (2) maintain industry infrastructure by slowing or halting the decline in the dealer network, particularly in rural areas, by improving viability through regulated margins, and (3) minimize the cost to consumers since higher prices are expected to result from the actions needed to maintain price stability and the higher margins needed to maintain industry infrastructure. This report examined the extent to which these objectives were achieved and contained the findings and recommendations of a review of the first six months of gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The report discussed the rationale for regulation, study objectives, approach, and warning signs. It also discussed gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia including how regulation works and implementing regulation. The Nova Scotia gasoline market was presented with reference to industry structure; pre-regulation competition and pricing; and how regulation may affect structure and competition. Last, the report discussed whether regulation was meeting the objectives and perspectives on regulation. Several recommendations were presented, such as reducing the benchmark price adjustment period from two weeks to one week; removing the price cap on full-serve gasoline; adopting a fixed and transparent formula for forward averaging and applying it at each adjustment; and considering a framework for regulatory review. 12 refs., 15 figs

  14. Effect of ventilation rate and board loading on formaldehyde concentration : a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    George E. Myers

    1984-01-01

    A critical literature review has been carried out on the influence of ventilation rate (N, hr.-1) and board loading (L, m2/m3) on steady state formaldehyde concentrations (Cs, ppm) resulting from particleboard and plywood emissions. Large differences exist among boards in the extent to which their formaldehyde concentrations change with N or L in laboratory chambers....

  15. 43 CFR 4.478 - Appeals to the Board of Land Appeals; judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appeal to the Board from an order of an administrative law judge granting or denying a petition for a... judicial review under 5 U.S.C. 704 of a final BLM grazing decision if the administrative law judge denies a... decide the appeal promptly. (d) Unless the Board or a court orders otherwise, an appeal under paragraph...

  16. Board monitoring of the chief financial officer: A review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Uhde (David Alexander); P. Klarner (Patricia); A. Tuschke (Anja)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Research Question/Issue:__ Research on how boards govern individual top management team (TMT) members, i.e., senior executives aside from the CEO, is still scarce and fragmented. In this study, we review extant research on board monitoring of the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) - an

  17. 39 CFR 3.7 - Information furnished to Board-program review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) To enable the Board to review the effectiveness of the Postal Service's equal employment opportunity... service or reducing the cost of postal operations. (d) Management shall furnish to the Board: information... directly to the core business function of the Postal Service. This information shall be provided to the...

  18. 76 FR 42167 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... subcommittees of the Board will meet to evaluate merit review applications: August 9--Rehabilitation Engineering... Rehabilitation. August 16--Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics/Orthotics. August 16-17--Psychological... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...

  19. 75 FR 54445 - Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ..., Management (Chief Financial Officer). Alfred J. Kopec, Assistant Commissioner, Business Architecture. Sheryl... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Senior Executive Service; Financial Management Service Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 75 FR 3542 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Board is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical...

  1. Relationship between the Board Size and Financial Performance: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut DOĞAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cadbury Report (1992, a pioneer in outlining the financial aspects of corporate governance, was the first to put the spotlight on corporate boards of directors. Around the same time, academic work started to gain impetus with the Hermalin and Weisbach (1991 study. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the number of members of the board of directors with accounting and market-based performance indicators empirical research in the national and international literature. For this purpose, all studies conducted in the early 1990s up to the present day are classified examined in a systematic way. A significant part of the board of directors of the studies indicated a negative relationship between financial performance.

  2. Theoretical and Empirical Review of Asset Pricing Models: A Structural Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive theoretical review devoted to asset pricing models by emphasizing static and dynamic versions in the line with their empirical investigations. A considerable amount of financial economics literature devoted to the concept of asset pricing and their implications. The main task of asset pricing model can be seen as the way to evaluate the present value of the pay offs or cash flows discounted for risk and time lags. The difficulty coming from discounting process is that the relevant factors that affect the pay offs vary through the time whereas the theoretical framework is still useful to incorporate the changing factors into an asset pricing models. This paper fills the gap in literature by giving a comprehensive review of the models and evaluating the historical stream of empirical investigations in the form of structural empirical review.

  3. 76 FR 45594 - Mortgagee Review Board: Administrative Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... or liability, agreed to pay a civil money penalty in the amount of $237,500. Cause: The Board took... over-insured mortgages; failed to ensure that there were no discrepancies between disbursements and/or..., without admitting fault or liability, to pay a civil money penalty in the amount of $46,000; to curtail...

  4. Price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  5. Do ultra-orphan medicinal products warrant ultra-high prices? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picavet E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Eline Picavet,1 David Cassiman,2 Steven Simoens1 1Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Department of Hepatology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Ultra-orphan medicinal products (ultra-OMPs are intended for the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of ultra-rare diseases, ie, life-threatening or chronically debilitating diseases that affect less than one per 50,000 individuals. Recently, high prices for ultra-OMPs have given rise to debate on the sustainability and justification of these prices. The aim of this article is to review the international scientific literature on the pricing of ultra-OMPs and to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the drivers of ultra-OMP pricing. The pricing process of ultra-OMPs is a complex and nontransparent issue. Evidence in the literature seems to indicate that ultra-OMPs are priced according to rarity and what the manufacturer believes the market will bear. Additionally, there appears to be a trend between the price of an ultra-OMP and the number of available alternatives. Patients, third-party payers, and pharmaceutical companies could benefit from more transparent pricing strategies. With a view to containing health care costs, it is likely that cost-sharing strategies, such as performance-based risk sharing arrangements, will become increasingly more important. However, it is vital that any measures for price control are consistent with the intended goals of the incentives to promote the development of new OMPs. Ideally, a balance must be struck between attaining affordable prices for ultra-OMPs and securing a realistic return on investment for the pharmaceutical industry. Keywords: ultra-orphan medicinal product, ultra-rare disease, pricing

  6. Renewable electricity generation: supporting documentation for the Renewables Advisory Board submission to the 2006 UK energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Advisory Board (RAB) is an independent, non-departmental public body, sponsored by the DTI, which brings together representatives of the renewable sector and the unions. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources offers a range of advantages to the UK electricity-generating sector. This document, prepared as supporting documentation for the RAB submission to the 2006 Energy Review, examines the role of renewable energy in improving security of supply, lowering financial risk for energy portfolios, and reducing electricity cost volatility and fuel costs for the UK. Key topics addressed in this report include: resource security; security of supply; price security; and operational security. Also covered are variability patterns, financial costs and benefits of renewable generation. Maintaining the option and flexibility of future renewables development has a real option value, with overseas evidence showing that this can be significant

  7. Review and Implementation Status of Prior Defense Business Board Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    key recommendation to appoint a single Fund Manager – Improved training programs, including eLearning , underway – Capabilities-Based Budgeting allowed...framework focused on et. al. enterprise enhancements, support for the Global War on Terror, progress on implementation of the Quadrennial Defense...Improve Global Mail Operations – MPSA in receipt of all industry responses by Aug 2006 – On December 12th MPSA will brief the Postal Oversight Board on

  8. Ontario gas prices review task force report : fairness at the pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Sudden gas price increases hit Ontario consumers in July 1999, and as a result, the Gas Busters Hotline operated by the provincial government received over 4,000 complaints concerning the price of gas. World crude oil prices increased to above 34 American dollars per barrel by March 2000, and there were discrepancies by as much as 10 cents a litre in the price of gas in Ontario, depending on the community where the purchase was made. The Gas Prices Review Task Force was established in November 1999 to assist in the identification of an adequate solution to the rising price of gas. Public participation was sought, as well as input from representatives of consumer groups and industry. The Task Force was also mandated to conduct policy options research to ensure fair prices at the pump, to examine the regulatory or legislative initiatives that would work best for the protection of the consumer, in accordance with the federal Competition Act. A report was submitted to the Minister of Consumer and Commercial Relations. A total of fourteen recommendations were made to the Minister. The recommendations touched topics as varied as tax collection legislation, price monitoring, segmented earnings reports, removal of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). refs., figs

  9. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-11-02

    Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the pricing studies we reviewed

  10. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. Methods We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Results Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the

  11. Economic Impact of Tobacco Price Increases Through Taxation: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreary, Kara A; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Hopkins, David P; Chaloupka, Frank J; Forster, Jean L; Grimshaw, Victoria; Holmes, Carissa B; Goetzel, Ron Z; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and around the world. Increasing tobacco price through higher taxes is an effective intervention both to reduce tobacco use in the population and generate government revenues. The goal of this paper is to review evidence on the economic impact of tobacco price increases through taxation with a focus on the likely healthcare cost savings and improvements in employee productivity. The search covered studies published in English from January 2000 to July 2012 and included evaluations of national, state, and local policies to increase the price of any type of tobacco product by raising taxes in high-income countries. Economic review methods developed for The Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to screen and abstract included studies. Economic impact estimates were standardized to summarize the available evidence. Analyses were conducted in 2012. The review included eight modeling studies, with seven providing estimates of the impact on healthcare costs and three providing estimates of the value of productivity gains. Only one study provided an estimate of intervention costs. The economic merit of tobacco product price increases through taxation was determined from the overall body of evidence on per capita annual cost savings from a conservative 20% price increase. The evidence indicates that interventions that raise the unit price of tobacco products through taxes generate substantial healthcare cost savings and can generate additional gains from improved productivity in the workplace. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nuclear medicine board review. Questions and answers for self-assessment. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.; Zuckier, L.S.; Karam, M.; Cooper, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides thorough preparation for certification examinations by the American Board of Radiology (Nuclear Medicine section and Special Competency), the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, and the America Board of Nuclear Cardiology. More than 1,780 questions test the reader's knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radionuclides, single-photon applications, and positron emission tomography (PET). Features: - A convenient question and answer format, in which questions appear on the left and answers on the right, allowing the reader to rapidly quiz and review. - New chapters addressing the emergence of PET/CT. - Measurements provided in both American standard and SI metric units. Ideal for board exam preparation, this concise text is an up-to-date question and answer review for the most important topics in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  13. 78 FR 6854 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on February 13-14, 2013, at the... research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit. Recommendations regarding funding...

  14. 75 FR 49938 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    .... Frequency of Response: Once, except for the SAE Reviewer Worksheet. Affected Public: Includes the Federal...). Board Members CIRB SAE Reviewer Worksheet 10 15 30/60 (.5 hour) 75 (Attachment 6K). Total 2221 Request..., National Institutes of Health. [FR Doc. 2010-20167 Filed 8-13-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4140-01-P ...

  15. 76 FR 17121 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0124; FRL-9287-1] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... public meeting of the HSRB to advise the Agency on EPA's scientific and ethical reviews of research with...

  16. 76 FR 64429 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Bureau of the Public Debt Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Members of... reviews the performance appraisals of career senior executives who are below the level of Assistant...

  17. 78 FR 58383 - Senior Executive Service; Combined Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Senior Executive Service; Combined Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: United States Mint (USM), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of members of Combined... Trade Bureau (TTB). The Combined PRB reviews the performance appraisals of career senior executives...

  18. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Systematic review. Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the effects of personal characteristics on price sensitivity are not supported by the

  19. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rosemary; Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2013-06-17

    To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Systematic review with meta-regression. Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched reference lists, and contact with authors. We included cross sectional, cohort, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies with English abstracts. Eligible studies used nationally representative data from 1990 onwards derived from national aggregate data sources, household surveys, or supermarket and home scanners. The primary outcome extracted from relevant papers was the quantification of the demand for foods in response to changes in food price (own price food elasticities). Descriptive and study design variables were extracted for use as covariates in analysis. We conducted meta-regressions to assess the effect of income levels between and within countries on the strength of the relation between food price and demand, and predicted price elasticities adjusted for differences across studies. 136 studies reporting 3495 own price food elasticities from 162 different countries were identified. Our models predict that increases in the price of all foods result in greater reductions in food consumption in poor countries: in low and high income countries, respectively, a 1% increase in the price of cereals results in reductions in consumption of 0.61% (95% confidence interval 0.56% to 0.66%) and 0.43% (0.36% to 0.48%), and a 1% increase in the price of meat results in reductions in consumption of 0.78% (0.73% to 0.83%) and 0.60% (0.54% to 0.66%). Within all countries, our models predict that poorer households will be the most adversely affected by increases in food prices. Changes in global food prices will

  20. Ethical review boards are poor advocates for patient perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masterton, Malin; Renberg, Tobias; Hansson, Mats G

    2014-01-01

    is to evaluate the risk−benefits of research, which are ultimately grounded in attitudes and values. From focus-group interviews with patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, a postal questionnaire was developed and sent to patient members of the Swedish Rheumatism Association (n = 1195) and to all...... ERB board members in Sweden (N = 583). Response rates were 65 percent and the surveys were conducted in Jan−May 2011. Agreement across the groups included priority for medical research on diagnostic and early detection of disease. A key difference was expert and lay ERB members giving higher priority...... to basic research/research on lifestyle and prevention (primarily benefiting future patients), whereas patients prioritized research on daily function. On this significant point, lay members did not share the opinion of this patient group, indicating that they may be poor representatives for patients...

  1. 78 FR 69426 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: NIH NCI Central Institutional Review Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Institutes of Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request for review... response time, should be directed to the: Office of Management and Budget, Office of Regulatory Affairs... 1 15/60 4 Reviewer Advertisement Checklist Board Members 10 1 20/60 3 Dated: November 7, 2013...

  2. 75 FR 48683 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0617; FRL-9188-3] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Final Report From the June 23, 2010 HSRB Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Human Studies...

  3. 75 FR 73078 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0919; FRL-9232-5] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference To Review Draft Report From the October 27-28, 2010 HSRB Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Human Studies...

  4. 76 FR 51364 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Action Plan AGENCY... Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Panel to... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB Web site at http://www.epa...

  5. Time to institutional review board approval with local versus central review in a multicenter pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark D; Gaskins, Lakisha J; Ziolek, Tracy

    2018-02-01

    Central institutional review board (IRB) review will be required for National Institutes of Health-funded multisite human subjects research as of January 2018, with similar requirements extending to most US multisite human research in 2020. Nonetheless, little is known regarding the relative efficiency of central versus local IRB review for multicenter studies. We compared the amount of time required for central versus local IRB review and approval for sites in one ongoing multicenter randomized trial. The REGAIN Trial (Regional versus General Anesthesia for Promoting Independence after Hip Fracture; clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT02507505) is an ongoing randomized trial comparing standard-care spinal anesthesia to standard-care general anesthesia for patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. After approval of the protocol by the sponsor IRB, each participating US site opted either to submit the protocol for local IRB review or to designate the sponsor IRB as the IRB of record (i.e. central IRB) via an authorization agreement after a limited local review. For each US REGAIN site approved through 18 April 2017, we assessed (1) the time in calendar days from protocol receipt to IRB submission, (2) the time in calendar days from IRB submission to IRB approval, and (3) the total time in calendar days from protocol receipt to IRB approval (i.e. time from protocol receipt to IRB submission plus time from IRB submission to IRB approval). The main study protocol was submitted to the sponsor IRB on 25 May 2015 and approved on 8 July 2015 (44 days). Out of 34 sites, 9 received initial approval from the central (sponsor) IRB; 25 sought initial approval via local review. The median time from protocol receipt to IRB submission was 39 days for sites approved by the central IRB (interquartile range: 35-134) versus 58 days for sites approved via local review (interquartile range: 41-105; p = 0.711). The median time from IRB submission to IRB approval for sites approved by

  6. Differences in price elasticities of demand for health insurance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Many health insurance systems apply managed competition principles to control costs and quality of health care. Besides other factors, managed competition relies on a sufficient price-elastic demand. This paper presents a systematic review of empirical studies on price elasticity of demand for health insurance. The objective was to identify the differing international ranges of price elasticity and to find socio-economic as well as setting-oriented factors that influence price elasticity. Relevant literature for the topic was identified through a two-step identification process including a systematic search in appropriate databases and further searches within the references of the results. A total of 45 studies from countries such as the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland were found. Clear differences in price elasticity by countries were identified. While empirical studies showed a range between -0.2 and -1.0 for optional primary health insurance in the US, higher price elasticities between -0.6 and -4.2 for Germany and around -2 for Switzerland were calculated for mandatory primary health insurance. Dutch studies found price elasticities below -0.5. In consideration of all relevant studies, age and poorer health status were identified to decrease price elasticity. Other socio-economic factors had an unclear impact or too limited evidence. Premium level, range of premiums, homogeneity of benefits/coverage and degree of forced decision were found to have a major influence on price elasticity in their settings. Further influence was found from supplementary insurance and premium-dependent employer contribution.

  7. Effect of grade point average and enrollment in a dental hygiene National Board review course on student performance on the National Board Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWald, Janice P; Gutmann, Marylou E; Solomon, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Passing the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination is a requirement for licensure in all but one state. There are a number of preparation courses for the examination sponsored by corporations and dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to determine if taking a board review course significantly affected student performance on the board examination. Students from the last six dental hygiene classes at Baylor College of Dentistry (n = 168) were divided into two groups depending on whether they took a particular review course. Mean entering college grade point averages (GPA), exiting dental hygiene program GPAs, and National Board scores were compared for the two groups using a t-test for independent samples (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the two groups for entering GPA and National Board scores. Exiting GPAs, however, were slightly higher for those not taking the course compared to those taking the course. In addition, a strong correlation (0.71, Pearson Correlation) was found between exiting GPA and National Board score. Exiting GPA was found to be a strong predictor of National Board performance. These results do not appear to support this program's participation in an external preparation course as a means of increasing students' performance on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

  8. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  9. Hedging Price Risks of Farmers by Commodity Boards: A Simulation Applied to the Indian Natural Rubber Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates a hypothetical hedging scheme in a domestic commodity market under which a commodity board offers a forward contract to domestic producers and local traders and covers its commitments on an international futures exchange. It is aimed to quantify welfare gains to agents in the

  10. Pay-What-You-Want pricing: An integrative review of the empirical research literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Pay What You Want (PWYW setting companies empower their customers to fix the prices buyers voluntarily pay for a delivered product or service. The seller agrees to any price (includ-ing zero customers are paying. For about ten years researchers empirically investigate customer reactions to and economic outcomes of this pricing method. The present paper distinguishes PWYW from other voluntary payment mechanisms and reviews 72 English- or German-speaking PWYW publications, which appeared between January 2006 and September 2016 and contain 97 independent empirical data sets. Prior PWYW research is structured with the help of a conceptual framework which incorporates payment procedure design, buyer, seller, focal sales object and market context characteristics as factors potentially influencing customer perceptions of the PWYW scheme and their behavioral reactions to PWYW offers. The review discusses both consistent key findings as well as contradictory results and derives recommendations for future empirical PWYW research efforts.

  11. A review of the empirical literature on Pay-What-You-Want price setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerpott Torsten J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a Pay What You Want (PWYW setting companies empower their customers to fix the prices buyers voluntarily pay for a delivered product or service. The seller agrees to any price (including zero customers are paying. For about ten years researchers empirically investigate customer reactions to and economic outcomes of this pricing method. The present paper distinguishes PWYW from other voluntary payment mechanisms and reviews 72 English- or German-speaking PWYW publications, which appeared between January 2006 and September 2016 and contain 97 independent empirical data sets. Prior PWYW research is structured with the help of a conceptual framework which incorporates payment procedure design, buyer, seller, focal sales object and market context characteristics as factors potentially influencing customer perceptions of the PWYW scheme and their behavioral reactions to PWYW offers. The review discusses both consistent key findings as well as contradictory results and derives recommendations for future empirical PWYW research efforts.

  12. Queensland Coal Board. 38th annual review 1988-89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a review of the coal industry in Queensland which includes coal production by districts; production trends; employment; fatal accidents; coal exports and consumption. It also includes coal export facilities - ports and railways; Queensland coal resources; coal research; mine and company information and statistics of the Queensland industry.

  13. The world coal market: supplies, prices, transport (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdnik, I.D.; Kaftan, Yu.S.; Dolzhanskaya, Yu.B.

    1998-01-01

    The state of the world coal market in the period of 1994-1997 is reviewed, its long-term outlooks are presented. The major world coal exporters-Australia, Canada, China, Poland, Russia, the USA, SAR, and Ukraine are briefly characterized. It is pointed out that in the foreseeable future coal will retain its importance of a primary energy carrier along with petroleum and natural gas

  14. 75 FR 30859 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions... participate must register at least seven (7) days in advance of the meeting/conference call by contacting Mr.... Anyone requiring special accommodations should contact Mr. Joy at least seven (7) days in advance of the...

  15. 76 FR 37375 - Meeting of the Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... INFORMATION: The Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor Review Board carries out those advisory functions... who wish to participate must register at least seven (7) days in advance of the meeting/conference... registration. Anyone requiring special accommodations should contact Mr. Joy at least seven (7) days in advance...

  16. 76 FR 70151 - Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, Institutional Review Boards, and Food and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0790] Draft Guidance for Industry, Clinical Investigators, Institutional Review Boards, and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Food and Drug Administration Decisions for Investigational Device Exemption Clinical...

  17. 77 FR 64521 - Updated OGE Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Ethics, Environmental Protection Agency; Melinda Loftin, Director of Interior Ethics Office, Department... OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS Updated OGE Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of Government Ethics (OGE). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the appointment of...

  18. 77 FR 71793 - Notice of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ..., Resources, and Technology, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 540 Gaither Road, Suite 4010... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Notice of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership The Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  19. 76 FR 64948 - Notice of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ..., Accountability, Resources, and Technology, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 540 Gaither Road, Suite... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Notice of Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership The Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  20. The Effect of Computer Automation on Institutional Review Board (IRB) Office Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Karl; Pittman, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Companies purchase computer systems to make their processes more efficient through automation. Some academic medical centers (AMC) have purchased computer systems for their institutional review boards (IRB) to increase efficiency and compliance with regulations. IRB computer systems are expensive to purchase, deploy, and maintain. An AMC should…

  1. 76 FR 6197 - Health Services Research and Development Service Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Board will be held March 2-3, 2011, at the Hilton San Francisco Financial District, 750 Kearny Street... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit... subcommittee on Nursing Research Initiatives will convene from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m.; the subcommittee for pilot...

  2. The National Advertising Review Board, 1971-1976. Journalism Monographs No. 59, February 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanot, Eric J.

    The creation in 1971 of the National Advertising Review Board (NARB) and its investigative arm, the National Advertising Division, was a response by the advertising industry to the pressures and criticisms of consumerism that had mounted during the previous decade and peaked as the 1970s began. In contrast to previous periods, the 1960s and 1970s…

  3. College Board Response to "Harvard Educational Review" Article by Santelices and Wilson

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is the College Board's response to a research article by Drs. Maria Veronica Santelices and Mark Wilson in the Harvard Educational Review, entitled "Unfair Treatment? The Case of Freedle, the SAT, and the Standardization Approach to Differential Item Functioning" (see EJ930622).

  4. 77 FR 21622 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on April 20, 2012, 131 M Street NE., Washington, DC...

  5. 77 FR 42365 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that various subcommittees of the Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on August 28-30, 2012, at the Boston Omni Parker...

  6. 75 FR 72872 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit...-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will be held on December 13-14, 2010, at the Hilton Alexandria Old...

  7. 77 FR 8330 - Health Services Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Disorders; HCR 2--Substance Use Disorders; HCR 3--Rehabilitation/Rural; HCR 4--Women's Health; HCR 5--Pain... Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on March 6-8, 2012, at the Hilton New Orleans... to the Chief Research and Development Officer. On March 6, the subcommittee on Nursing Research...

  8. 75 FR 10261 - Request for Nominations to the EPA Human Studies Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... scientific and ethical aspects of human subjects research. The major objectives of the HSRB are to provide... of the following areas: Bioethics: expertise in the ethics of research with human subjects... EPA Human Studies Review Board AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  9. 76 FR 38183 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  10. 76 FR 11483 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  11. 78 FR 19268 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  12. 75 FR 78998 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  13. 78 FR 78965 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  14. 77 FR 40890 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  15. 78 FR 38346 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...

  16. 77 FR 15761 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  17. 78 FR 732 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  18. 78 FR 78963 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  19. 78 FR 62635 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  20. 75 FR 39029 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  1. 76 FR 77235 - Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Subcommittee on Procedures Review, Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health (ABRWH), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub...

  2. 75 FR 21338 - Subcommittee for Dose Reconstruction Reviews (SDRR), Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... period. Background: The Advisory Board was established under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... employees at any Department of Energy facility who were exposed to radiation but for whom it is not feasible...: selection of individual radiation dose reconstruction cases to be considered for review by the Advisory...

  3. Institutional Review Boards at Very High Research Activity Universities: An Opportunity for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Clare; Buttell, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated to what degree social work was represented in the position of chair of social-behavioral institutional review boards (IRBs) at very high research activity (VHRA) universities in the United States. Method: We collected data on IRB rosters for all 108 schools designated by the Carnegie Foundation as VHRAs in the…

  4. 78 FR 18978 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Webinar/Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2013-0115; FRL 9794-8] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Webinar/ Teleconference AGENCY: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public Webinar/teleconference of the...

  5. 76 FR 2107 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0970; FRL-9252-3] Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Office of the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting...

  6. 75 FR 32461 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0381; FRL-9159-9] Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA or Agency) Office of the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting...

  7. 76 FR 25686 - Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0418; FRL-9302-4] Human Studies Review Board (HSRB); Notification of a Public Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...) announces a public teleconference of the HSRB to discuss its draft report from the April 13-14, 2011 HSRB...

  8. 77 FR 15099 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Webinar/Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2012-0175; FRL-9647-2] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Webinar/ Teleconference AGENCY: U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public Webinar/teleconference of the HSRB to...

  9. 76 FR 77825 - Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2011-0953; FRL-9506-6] Human Studies Review Board; Notification of a Public Teleconference AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Office of the Science Advisor announces a public teleconference of the HSRB to discuss its draft...

  10. 75 FR 61748 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-ORD-2010-0797' FRL-9211-1] Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Office of the Science Advisor (OSA) announces a public meeting...

  11. 75 FR 60864 - Senior Executive Service Combined Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Senior Executive Service Combined Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to... career senior executives below the level of bureau head and principal deputy in the bureaus, except for...

  12. Evaluation of petroleum products pricing regulation in Nova Scotia : a 2 year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Gasoline price regulation was introduced in Nova Scotia on July 1st, 2006. This report presented the findings and recommendations of a review of the first two years of the gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The regulations had three main objectives. This review examined whether, and to what extent, they were achieved. The objectives were to stabilize price, maintain industry infrastructure, and minimize cost to consumers. The report described the rationale for the regulation, study objectives, and approach taken to gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia, including the objectives and technical aspects of how regulation works. The gasoline market in Nova Scotia was examined, including the market structure and competitive behaviour in an unregulated market. The report also provided some theoretical perspectives on how regulation was likely to affect industry structure and competitive behaviour. The extent to which the regulation was meeting its objectives was then assessed and perspectives on the regulation from consumers, retailers and wholesalers were offered. Last, the report provided a review of the findings in terms of the key elements of regulatory design and set out recommendations for improving the system. It was recommended that in order to improve certainty, particularly given the regulated price differences amongst grades, the regulations should be amended to include grade specifications referencing octane ratings. tabs., figs

  13. A caution to Native American institutional review boards about scientism and censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Native American Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) promote the health and welfare of tribes by reviewing protocols for research studies that focus on their tribes. The benefits of approved protocols should not be overstated lest good studies disappoint because they do not satisfy unachievable expectations. IRBs also should avoid the temptation to censor the outcomes of those studies. Science relies on candor and clarity about results and methods to move forward.

  14. Beyond excise taxes: a systematic review of literature on non-tax policy approaches to raising tobacco product prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Smith, Margaret Holt; Feighery, Ellen C; Roeseler, April; Rogers, Todd; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Raising the price of tobacco products is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers. We conducted a systematic review to determine how these policies are described, recommended and evaluated in the literature. We systematically searched six databases and the California Tobacco Control library for English language studies or reports, indexed on or before 18 December 2013, that included a tobacco keyword (eg, cigarette), policy keyword (eg, legislation) and a price keyword (eg, promotion). We identified 3067 abstracts. Two coders independently reviewed all abstracts and identified 56 studies or reports that explicitly described a public policy likely to impact the retail price of tobacco products through non-tax means. Two coders independently identified tobacco products targeted by policies described, recommendations for implementing policies and empirical assessments of policy impacts. The most prevalent non-tax price policies were price promotion restrictions and minimum price laws. Few studies measured the impact of non-tax policies on average prices, price dispersion or disparities in tobacco consumption, but the literature includes suggestions for crafting policies and preparing for legal challenges or tobacco industry opposition. Price-focused evaluations of well-implemented non-tax price policies are needed to determine whether they can deliver on their promise to raise prices, reduce price dispersion and serve as an important complement to excise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Eyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food pricing strategies have been proposed to encourage healthy eating habits, which may in turn help stem global increases in non-communicable diseases. This systematic review of simulation studies investigates the estimated association between food pricing strategies and changes in food purchases or intakes (consumption (objective 1; Health and disease outcomes (objective 2, and whether there are any differences in these outcomes by socio-economic group (objective 3. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic databases, Internet search engines, and bibliographies of included studies were searched for articles published in English between 1 January 1990 and 24 October 2011 for countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Where ≥ 3 studies examined the same pricing strategy and consumption (purchases or intake or health outcome, results were pooled, and a mean own-price elasticity (own-PE estimated (the own-PE represents the change in demand with a 1% change in price of that good. Objective 1: pooled estimates were possible for the following: (1 taxes on carbonated soft drinks: own-PE (n  =  4 studies, -0.93 (range, -0.06, -2.43, and a modelled -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy (calorie intake for each 1% price increase (n  =  3 studies; (2 taxes on saturated fat: -0.02% (-0.01%, -0.04% reduction in energy intake from saturated fat per 1% price increase (n  =  5 studies; and (3 subsidies on fruits and vegetables: own-PE (n = 3 studies, -0.35 (-0.21, -0.77. Objectives 2 and 3: variability of food pricing strategies and outcomes prevented pooled analyses, although higher quality studies suggested unintended compensatory purchasing that could result in overall effects being counter to health. Eleven of 14 studies evaluating lower socio-economic groups estimated that food pricing strategies would be associated with pro-health outcomes. Food pricing strategies also have the potential to reduce

  16. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication by the National Energy Board is part of a continuing program of assessing applications for long-term natural gas export licences. The market-based procedure used by the Board is based on the premise that the marketplace will generally operate in a way that will ensure that Canadian requirements for natural gas will be met at fair market prices. The market--based procedure consists of a public hearing and a monitoring component. The monitoring component involves the on-going assessment of Canadian energy markets to provide analyses of major energy commodities on either an individual or integrated commodity basis. This report is the result of the most recent assessment . It identifies factors that affect natural gas prices and describes the functioning of regional markets in Canada. It provides an overview of the energy demand, including recent trends, reviews the North American gas supply and markets, the natural gas pricing dynamics in Canada, and a regional analysis of markets, prices and dynamics in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic provinces. In general, demand growth outstripped growth in supply, but natural gas producers throughout North America have been responding to the current high price environment with aggressive drilling programs. The Board anticipates that in time, there will be a supply and demand response and accompanying relief in natural gas prices. A review of the annual weighted average border price paid for Alberta gas indicates that domestic gas users paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices converged, suggesting that Canadians have had access to natural gas at prices no less favourable than export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems such as NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had significant impact on the pricing of natural gas. These systems, by providing timely information to market participants. enables them to manage price

  17. Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steve; Hanley, Gillian; Greyson, Devon

    2009-01-01

    To synthesize methodologically comparable evidence from the published literature regarding the outcomes of tiered formularies and therapeutic reference pricing of prescription drugs. We searched the following electronic databases: ABI/Inform, CINAHL, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations & Theses, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (which incorporates ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Health Technology Assessments and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, PAIS International and PAIS Archive, and the Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and several grey literature sources. We sought English-language studies published from 1986 to 2007 that examined the effects of either therapeutic reference pricing or tiered formularies, reported on outcomes relevant to patient care and cost-effectiveness, and employed quantitative study designs that included concurrent or historical comparison groups. We abstracted and assessed potentially appropriate articles using a modified version of the data abstraction form developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. From an initial list of 2964 citations, 12 citations (representing 11 studies) were deemed eligible for inclusion in our review: 3 studies (reported in 4 articles) of reference pricing and 8 studies of tiered formularies. The introduction of reference pricing was associated with reduced plan spending, switching to preferred medicines, reduced overall drug utilization and short-term increases in the use of physician services. Reference pricing was not associated with adverse health impacts. The introduction of tiered formularies was associated with reduced plan expenditures, greater patient costs and increased rates of non-compliance with

  18. Can nutrition be promoted through agriculture-led food price policies? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangour, Alan D; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Shankar, Bhavani; Watson, Louise; Srinivasan, C S; Morgan, Emily H; Haddad, Lawrence; Waage, Jeff

    2013-06-25

    To systematically review the available evidence on whether national or international agricultural policies that directly affect the price of food influence the prevalence rates of undernutrition or nutrition-related chronic disease in children and adults. Systematic review. Global. We systematically searched five databases for published literature (MEDLINE, EconLit, Agricola, AgEcon Search, Scopus) and systematically browsed other databases and relevant organisational websites for unpublished literature. Reference lists of included publications were hand-searched for additional relevant studies. We included studies that evaluated or simulated the effects of national or international food-price-related agricultural policies on nutrition outcomes reporting data collected after 1990 and published in English. Prevalence rates of undernutrition (measured with anthropometry or clinical deficiencies) and overnutrition (obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes). We identified a total of four relevant reports; two ex post evaluations and two ex ante simulations. A study from India reported on the undernutrition rates in children, and the other three studies from Egypt, the Netherlands and the USA reported on the nutrition-related chronic disease outcomes in adults. Two of the studies assessed the impact of policies that subsidised the price of agricultural outputs and two focused on public food distribution policies. The limited evidence base provided some support for the notion that agricultural policies that change the prices of foods at a national level can have an effect on population-level nutrition and health outcomes. A systematic review of the available literature suggests that there is a paucity of robust direct evidence on the impact of agricultural price policies on nutrition and health.

  19. Costing 'healthy' food baskets in Australia - a systematic review of food price and affordability monitoring tools, protocols and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Meron; Lee, Amanda

    2016-11-01

    To undertake a systematic review to determine similarities and differences in metrics and results between recently and/or currently used tools, protocols and methods for monitoring Australian healthy food prices and affordability. Electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and online grey literature were systematically searched using the PRISMA approach for articles and reports relating to healthy food and diet price assessment tools, protocols, methods and results that utilised retail pricing. National, state, regional and local areas of Australia from 1995 to 2015. Assessment tools, protocols and methods to measure the price of 'healthy' foods and diets. The search identified fifty-nine discrete surveys of 'healthy' food pricing incorporating six major food pricing tools (those used in multiple areas and time periods) and five minor food pricing tools (those used in a single survey area or time period). Analysis demonstrated methodological differences regarding: included foods; reference households; use of availability and/or quality measures; household income sources; store sampling methods; data collection protocols; analysis methods; and results. 'Healthy' food price assessment methods used in Australia lack comparability across all metrics and most do not fully align with a 'healthy' diet as recommended by the current Australian Dietary Guidelines. None have been applied nationally. Assessment of the price, price differential and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets would provide more robust and meaningful data to inform health and fiscal policy in Australia. The INFORMAS 'optimal' approach provides a potential framework for development of these methods.

  20. Productivity Commission Submission to the Review of Pricing Arrangements in Residential Aged Care

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2003-01-01

    The Commission’s submission to the Review of Pricing Arrangements for Residential Aged Care draws on earlier work, including its inquiry into Nursing Home Subsidies and a major conference on Policy Implications of the Ageing of Australia’s Population. The submission provides an assessment of the current funding and service delivery arrangements for aged care services; an analysis of the implications of ageing, trends in disability rates and other key influences on the future demand for and co...

  1. How to Find the Price That's Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, John L.

    1981-01-01

    Five primary methods used by recreation and park agencies to establish a price are reviewed: (1) going-rate pricing; (2) demand oriented pricing; (3) variable cost pricing; (4) partial overhead pricing; and (5) average cost pricing. (CJ)

  2. Report of Apollo 204 Review Board to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Appendix F ; Schedule of Physical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Immediately following the Apollo 204 accident of January 27, 1961. all associated equipment and material were impounded. Release of this equipment and material for normal use was under the close control of the Apollo 204 Review Board. Apollo Review Board Administrative Procedure No. 11, February 11, 1961, established the Apollo 204 Review Board Material Release Record (MRR). This MRR was the official form used to release material from full impoundment and was valid only after being approved by the Board and signed by a Member. The form was used as the authority to place any impounded item into one of the three Categories defined in Administrative Procedure No. 11. This appendix contains all of the authorized MRR's. Each item submitted on an MRR was given a control number; a description, including the part number and serial number; the relevance and location to the accident; any constraints before release; and the control category. The categories placed on the equipment were as follows: Category A - Items which may have a significant influence or bearing on the results or findings of the Apollo 204 Review Board; Category B - All material other than Category A which is considered relevant to the Apollo 204 Review Board investigation; Category C - Material released from Board jurisdiction. Several classes of equipment were released by special Board action prior to the establishment of the MRR system. The operating procedure for release of these classes is Enclosure F-l to this appendix.

  3. Nurses on health care governing boards: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundean, Lisa J; Polifroni, E Carol; Libal, Kathryn; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    Nurses are key change agents in health care; yet, nurses have not been sufficiently engaged on boards to shape decision making. Without an equal voice in the boardroom, nurses cannot fulfill their professional obligation to society. The purpose of this study was to understand the progression in research focus and recommendations over time about nurses on boards (NOB), identify research gaps, and make research/practice recommendations. An integrative review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (2009) for data evaluation and analysis. Eleven studies (six quantitative, three qualitative, and two quasi-mixed methods) were included in the review. The focus/recommendations of research about NOB have changed from passive observation to action-oriented inquiry that considers nurse expertise and value but lacks a coordinated approach to advance board appointments for nurses. A systematic approach to the research is needed to advance NOB as key agents in health care transformation and social justice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 78 FR 58536 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the EPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL--9901-26-OA] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Panel for the Review of the EPA Water Body Connectivity Report AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces...

  5. Improving airplane boarding time : A review, a field study and an experiment with a new way of hand luggage stowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, J.; Dangal, Sagar; Vendel, M.E.; Anjani, S.; Akkerman, Stefan; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, S.; Vink, P.

    2018-01-01

    The airplane (de)boarding process is not organized optimally. The goal of this paper is to search for improvement possibilities. In this paper literature is reviewed, boarding characteristics are studied in a field study and a pilot study with a new way of hand luggage stowing is performed. Computer

  6. Decision 13-2009 in the matter of a review by the NWT Public Utilities Board regarding customer complaints of high consumption on power bills from Northland Utilities Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acorn, J.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2009, in response to customer complaints, the Northwest Territories Public Utilities Board requested that Northland Utilities conduct a review of at least the last 3 billing cycles to detect and explain unusually high power bills. Northland responded that the complaints were based primarily on price, not usage, and that the findings can be attributed to rate adjustments as well as colder weather. However, the Board decided to examine certain aspects of Northland's response in detail and initiated an inquiry under section 52 of the Public Utilities Act. The Board determined that Northland Utilities' process for investigating customer complaints was too informal and without any clear structure, resulting in confusion for some customers. The Board directed the utility to develop a document for dealing with customer concerns that clearly outlines the rights and responsibilities of both the utility and the customers. The Board also directed Northland Utilities to reduce the $500 threshold for a company-initiated review of an account to $400. This document addressed issues regarding estimated versus actual meter readings; the number of days in a billing cycle; the prominence of consumption and overall cost on a bill; bill calculators; customer consumption monitoring; pre-paid meters; and meter accuracy. Specific customer complaints were included along with a summary of Board directives.

  7. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  8. Academic and Institutional Review Board Collaboration to Ensure Ethical Conduct of Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Jan M; Conley, Virginia; Williams, Janet K; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Countryman, Michele

    2015-07-01

    Navigating the regulations to protect human subjects and private health information for Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) projects can be a formidable task for students, faculty, and the institutional review board (IRB). Key stakeholders from the University of Iowa College of Nursing and the Human Subjects Office developed a standardized process for DNP students to follow, using a decision algorithm, a student orientation to the human subjects review process conducted by faculty and IRB chairs and staff, and a brief Human Subjects Research Determination form. Over 2 years, 109 students completed the process, and 96.3% of their projects were deemed not to be human subjects research. Every student submitted documentation of adherence to the standardized process. Less time was spent by students, faculty, and the IRB in preparing and processing review requests. The interprofessional collaboration resulted in a streamlined process for the timely review of DNP projects. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Setting Offer Prices by Housing Developers - Selected Issues in the Light of Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Iwona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with selected theoretical issues pertaining to the setting of asking prices by housing developers. Determinants of the buyer’s and seller’s reservation prices have been identified. The advantages and disadvantages, in terms of behavioral economics, of the pricing strategies practiced by housing developers have been indicated. The strategy based on fixing an asking price roughly equal to the estimated market value of the property was compared with the strategy based on offering an inflated asking price (with the assumption of price negotiations. A second comparison concerned the strategy of price disclosure compared with the strategy of price non-disclosure.

  10. The role of efficiency estimates in regulatory price reviews: Ofgem's approach to benchmarking electricity networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Electricity regulators around the world make use of efficiency analysis (or benchmarking) to produce estimates of the likely amount of cost reduction which regulated electric utilities can achieve. This short paper examines the use of such efficiency estimates by the UK electricity regulator (Ofgem) within electricity distribution and transmission price reviews. It highlights the place of efficiency analysis within the calculation of X factors. We suggest a number of problems with the current approach and make suggestions for the future development of X factor setting. (author)

  11. Price in the Eye of the Beholder Book Review: Mears A. (2011) Pricing Beauty: The Making of a Fashion Model. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Kusimova

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of Ashley Mears' book “Pricing Beauty: The Making of a Fashion Model”. The book is devoted to sociological inquiry into the fashion model business. Modeling is a specific kind of market, where careers depend on judgments about individual appearance. Making aesthetic decisions usually seems intuitive: in distinguishing the “beautiful” from the “unattractive”, people commonly rely on subjective opinions. How is it possible to define the value of how a human looks ...

  12. Meeting the Challenge: The National Cancer Institute's Central Institutional Review Board for Multi-Site Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massett, Holly A; Hampp, Sharon L; Goldberg, Jacquelyn L; Mooney, Margaret; Parreco, Linda K; Minasian, Lori; Montello, Mike; Mishkin, Grace E; Davis, Catasha; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2018-03-10

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) issued a new policy that requires a single institutional review board (IRB) of record be used for all protocols funded by the NIH that are carried out at more than one site in the United States, effective January 2018. This policy affects several hundred clinical trials opened annually across the NIH. Limited data exist to compare the use of a single IRB to that of multiple local IRBs, so some institutions are resistant to or distrustful of single IRBs. Since 2001, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has funded a central IRB (CIRB) that provides human patient reviews for its extensive national cancer clinical trials program. This paper presents data to show the adoption, efficiencies gained, and satisfaction of the CIRB among NCI trial networks and reviews key lessons gleaned from 16 years of experience that may be informative for others charged with implementation of the new NIH single-IRB policy.

  13. Research ethics and Institutional Review Boards. The influence of moral constraints on emotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the twenty-first century face a set of challenges unknown to researchers a half century ago--the need to justify the moral acceptability of their research methods through formal review processes. However, the role that moral constraints play in the development and demise of scientific theories has largely gone unappreciated. The rise of Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the 1960s compounded the impact of moral constraints on scientific research and on the theories that develop out of such highly monitored research. To demonstrate the effects of moral constraints on scientific theory and research, this paper offers a history and analysis of the interaction between evolving moral standards and twentieth century emotion theory. Recommendations regarding IRB reform are also reviewed. The paper concludes by arguing that, while appropriate IRB reform is important, it cannot eliminate the need for careful reflection on the broader forces that shape scientific practice and understanding.

  14. Ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research: recommendations for institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-07-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of "knowledge production" is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework more

  15. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; McDonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethical dilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n = 30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of “knowledge production” is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework

  16. Boards of directors, audit committees and financial reporting quality. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Skorulska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of financial reporting quality is a problematic task because financial reporting is difficult to observe and measure. The aim of the article is to present the methods of financial reporting quality meas-urement and a systematic review of literature on the effects of corporate governance reforms on the qualityof financial reporting. The main research questions are: (1 what are the possibilities of measuring financial reporting for research purposes, (2 which of the methods of measuring the quality of financial reporting are used in research on corporate governance, and (3 which variables used in measuring corporate gov-ernance factors affect financial reporting quality? To answer these questions, a critical analysis of literature and a systematic review of research results using meta-analysis was made. For selecting the best articles a three-step collection strategy was used, which resulted in a database of 38 publications. The review has shown that for measuring the quality of financial reporting researchers most frequently use models based on measurement of risk management, and the most common independent variables describing corporate governance are: the size of the audit committee, presence of independent directors on the supervisory board, dual role of CEO, proportion of independent directors in the audit committee, size of the supervisory board, proportion of accounting experts in the audit committee, and frequency of audit committee meetings

  17. Understanding bureaucracy in health science ethics: toward a better institutional review board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Slade, Catherine; Hirsch, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Research involving human participants continues to grow dramatically, fueled by advances in medical technology, globalization of research, and financial and professional incentives. This creates increasing opportunities for ethical errors with devastating effects. The typical professional and policy response to calamities involving human participants in research is to layer on more ethical guidelines or strictures. We used a recent case-the Johns Hopkins University/Kennedy Kreiger Institute Lead Paint Study-to examine lessons learned since the Tuskegee Syphilis Study about the role of institutionalized science ethics in the protection of human participants in research. We address the role of the institutional review board as the focal point for policy attention.

  18. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  19. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-01-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity. PMID:22378726

  20. Experimental research on the relation between food price changes and food-purchasing patterns: a targeted review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Jankowiak, Noelle; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie A; French, Simone A; Finkelstein, Eric

    2012-04-01

    One way in which to modify food purchases is to change prices through tax policy, subsidy policy, or both. We reviewed the growing body of experimental research conducted in the laboratory and in the field that investigates the following: the extent to which price changes influence purchases of targeted and nontargeted foods, total energy, or macronutrients purchased; the interaction of price changes with adjunctive interventions; and moderators of sensitivity to price changes. After a brief overview of economic principles and observational research that addresses these issues, we present a targeted review of experimental research. Experimental research suggests that price changes modify purchases of targeted foods, but research on the overall nutritional quality of purchases is mixed because of substitution effects. There is mixed support for combining price changes with adjunctive interventions, and there are no replicated findings on moderators to price sensitivity in experiments. Additional focused research is needed to better inform food policy development with the aim of improving eating behavior and preventing obesity.

  1. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  2. How to do human-subjects research if you do not have an institutional review board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Todd W

    2008-10-01

    Biomedical research with human subjects has expanded outside of traditional medical centers and hospitals into other health care entities, such as rehabilitation facilities, free-standing out-patient treatment centers, and even home-health agencies. Regardless of the location, federal regulations mandate that all human-subjects research must be overseen by an institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee to ensure the research abide by the Code of Federal Regulations. Consequently, all human-subjects research must be reviewed and approved by an IRB prior to initiation of any research procedures. Unfortunately, many of these nontraditional research facilities do not have easy access to an IRB. This does not render such research exempt from federal oversight. Clinicians at these facilities have viable options for obtaining IRB approval and legally conducting such research. This paper outlines the available options and their pros and cons.

  3. AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    wft*:¥A:ft:i:ft& OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL AV-8B REMANUFACTURE PROGRAM AS PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE DEFENSE ACQUISITION BOARD...Part of the Audit of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process - FY 1994 B. DATE Report Downloaded From the Internet: 03/23/99 C. Report’s Point...NAVY FOR RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION SUBJECT: Audit Report on the AV-8B Remanufacture Program as Part of the Audit of the Defense

  4. A Comparative Anatomy of Oil Price Routs: A Review of Four Price Routs between 1985 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Skinner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With layoffs and cutbacks in the oilpatch and the ripple effects spreading out through Canada’s economy, it may seem as though the latest drop in oil prices could stall the economic engine in Alberta for a long time. This paper argues, however, that the current rout is unlike the other three major ones (when the price of oil dropped 60 per cent or more experienced in the last 30 years. The factors affecting the oil price drop and its potential for rebound differ significantly. The routs of 2008 and 1997 were mostly demand-driven, triggered by credit crises in key markets. Both 2014 and 1985 started as demand-driven, too, but significantly, they changed to supply-driven crashes. There, however, the similarities end between today and 30 years ago. Fears that we may be in for a long-term rout, similar to that of 1985, which lasted more than a decade, may be allayed by examining the very different circumstances surrounding the contemporary situation. Given an uninspiring macroeconomic outlook, a supply-side solution will be imperative. A critical difference lies in the security of spare productive capacity. In 1985, OPEC’s spare capacity approached twenty per cent of world demand. Today, it is closer to two per cent. Moreover, today’s producer of the disruptive non-OPEC barrels in the shale oil industry in particular is far more reliant on external financing than were companies developing, for example, the North Sea 30 years ago. Then, with much higher prime rates, firms largely self-generated their financing. In addition, there was considerable room for cost-cutting, enabling increased production and therefore prolongation of the crash. If any silver lining can be found in the roiling storm clouds of the current rout, it is that the pendulum could swing sharply back by decade’s end. Natural production declines in old fields and investment cutbacks and cancellations around the world will eventually register in market balances once record

  5. Natural gas market review 2008 - optimising investments and ensuring security in a high-priced environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-18

    Over the last 18 months, natural gas prices have continued to rise steadily in all IEA markets. What are the causes of this steady upward trend? Unprecedented oil and coal prices which have encouraged power generators to switch to gas, together with tight supplies, demand for gas in new markets and delayed investments all played a role. Investment uncertainties, cost increases and delays remain major concerns in most gas markets and are continuing to constitute a threat to long-term security of supply. A massive expansion in LNG production is expected in the short term to 2012, but the lag in LNG investment beyond 2012 is a concern for all gas users in both IEA and non-IEA markets. Despite this tight market context, regional markets continue on their way to globalisation. This tendency seems irreversible, and it impacts even the most independent markets. Price linkages and other interactions between markets are becoming more pronounced. This publication addresses these major developments, assessing investment in natural gas projects (LNG, pipelines, upstream), escalating costs, the activities of international oil and gas companies, and gas demand in the power sector. In addition, the publication includes data and forecasts on OECD and non-OECD regions to 2015 and in-depth reviews of five OECD countries and regions including the European Union. It also provides analysis of 34 non-OECD countries in South America, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, including a detailed assessment of the outlook for gas in Russia, as well as insights on new technologies to deliver gas to markets.

  6. A review of international coverage and pricing strategies for personalized medicine and orphan drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiar, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Personalized medicine and orphan drugs share many characteristics-both target small patient populations, have uncertainties regarding efficacy and safety at payer submission, and frequently have high prices. Given personalized medicine's rising importance, this review summarizes international coverage and pricing strategies for personalized medicine and orphan drugs as well as their impact on therapy development incentives, payer budgets, and therapy access and utilization. PubMed, Health Policy Reference Center, EconLit, Google Scholar, and references were searched through February 2017 for articles presenting primary data. Sixty-nine articles summarizing 42 countries' strategies were included. Therapy evaluation criteria varied between countries, as did patient cost-share. Payers primarily valued clinical effectiveness; cost was only considered by some. These differences result in inequities in orphan drug access, particularly in smaller and lower-income countries. The uncertain reimbursement process hinders diagnostic testing. Payer surveys identified lack of comparative effectiveness evidence as a chief complaint, while manufacturers sought more clarity on payer evidence requirements. Despite lack of strong evidence, orphan drugs largely receive positive coverage decisions, while personalized medicine diagnostics do not. As more personalized medicine and orphan drugs enter the market, registries can provide better quality evidence on their efficacy and safety. Payers need systematic assessment strategies that are communicated with more transparency. Further studies are necessary to compare the implications of different payer approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effectiveness of Corporate Boards: Evidence from Bank Loan Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and non-price loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants and performance pricing) are more favorable and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, board diversity, audit committee structure and other director characteristics also influence bank loan price. However they do not consistently affect all non-price loa...

  8. Price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton; Millett, Christopher

    2018-01-23

    To systematically review the price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products. Medline, Embase, EconLit and the Web of Science without language or time restrictions. Two reviewers screened title and abstracts, then full texts, independently and in duplicate. We based eligibility criteria on study design (interventional or observational), population (individuals or communities without geographic restrictions), intervention (price change) and outcome (change in demand). We abstracted data on study features, outcome measures, statistical approach, and single best own- and cross-price elasticity estimates with respect to cigarettes. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis for estimates of similar product, outcome and country income level. For other studies we reported median elasticities by product and country income level. We analysed 36 studies from 15 countries yielding 125 elasticity estimates. A 10% price increase would reduce demand by: 8.3% for cigars (95% CI 2.9 to 13.8), 6.4% for roll your owns (95% CI 4.3 to 8.4), 5.7% for bidis (95% CI 4.3 to 7.1) and 2.1% for smokeless tobacco (95% CI -0.6 to 4.8). Median price elasticities for all ten products were also negative. Results from few studies that examined cross-price elasticity suggested a positive substitution effect between cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products. There is sufficient evidence in support of the effectiveness of price increases to reduce consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products as it is for cigarettes. Positive substitutability between cigarette and non-cigarette tobacco products suggest that tax and price increases need to be simultaneous and comparable across all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Oregon's Gun Relief Program for Adjudicated Mentally Ill Persons: The Psychiatric Security Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Juliet; Bloom, Joseph D

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the State of Oregon's implementation of two programs designed to comply with federal gun laws regarding reporting individuals who have received mental health adjudications in criminal and civil courts. One mandate requires that states submit names of adjudicated individuals to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) while the second requires that the state establish a qualifying gun restoration program for those disqualified from gun ownership. In 2009, Oregon's Legislature developed an administrative approach to gun restoration and assigned the responsibility for conducting these hearing to the Oregon Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB). The PSRB is a state administrative board that has existed since 1977 and has been primarily focused on the supervision and treatment of adult and juvenile insanity acquittees. The gun restoration program began in 2010, but to date has only received three completed petitions requesting restoration of firearm rights. The article concludes with a discussion that surmises why very few of the Oregonians who are listed in NICS have submitted petitions for relief. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Corporate boards and bank loan contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and nonprice loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants, and performance-pricing provisions) are more favorable, and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, audit committee structure, and other board characteristics influence bank loan prices. However, they do not consistently affect all nonprice loan terms except for a...

  11. Setting Offer Prices by Housing Developers - Selected Issues in the Light of Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmann Iwona

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with selected theoretical issues pertaining to the setting of asking prices by housing developers. Determinants of the buyer’s and seller’s reservation prices have been identified. The advantages and disadvantages, in terms of behavioral economics, of the pricing strategies practiced by housing developers have been indicated. The strategy based on fixing an asking price roughly equal to the estimated market value of the property was compared with the strategy based on offerin...

  12. Assessing the quality of VA Human Research Protection Programs: VA vs. affiliated University Institutional Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen; Brooks, Robert

    2013-04-01

    We compared the Human Research Protection Program (HRPP) quality indicator data of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities using their own VA institutional review boards (IRBs) with those using affiliated university IRBs. From a total of 25 performance metrics, 13 did not demonstrate statistically significant differences, while 12 reached statistically significance differences. Among the 12 with statistically significant differences, facilities using their own VA IRBs performed better on four of the metrics, while facilities using affiliate IRBs performed better on eight. However, the absolute difference was small (0.2-2.7%) in all instances, suggesting that they were of no practical significance. We conclude that it is acceptable for facilities to use their own VA IRBs or affiliated university IRBs as their IRBs of record.

  13. An institutional review board-based clinical research quality assurance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Pramod M; Dahl, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Despite the acknowledged importance of quality assurance in the clinical research process, the problem of how such a program should be implemented at the level of an academic teaching hospital or a similar institution has not been addressed in the literature. Despite the fact that quality assurance is expected in programs which certify and accredit Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), very little is known about the role of the IRB in programs of clinical research quality assurance. In this article we consider the definition of clinical research quality assurance, and describe a program designed to achieve it. The key elements of such a program are education at the site level, which has both mandatory and voluntary components, and an auditing and monitoring program, which reinforces the education on quality assurance. The role of the IRB in achieving the program goals and the organizational placement of the quality assurance program within the IRB structure and function are important items of discussion.

  14. A qualitative study of institutional review board members' experience reviewing research proposals using emergency exception from informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Katie B; Delorio, Nicole M; Schmidt, Terri A; Chiodo, Gary; Gorman, Paul

    2007-05-01

    Emergency exception to informed consent regulation was introduced to provide a venue to perform research on subjects in emergency situations before obtaining informed consent. For a study to proceed, institutional review boards (IRBs) need to determine if the regulations have been met. To determine IRB members' experience reviewing research protocols using emergency exception to informed consent. This qualitative research used semistructured telephone interviews of 10 selected IRB members from around the US in the fall of 2003. IRB members were chosen as little is known about their views of exception to consent, and part of their mandate is the protection of human subjects in research. Interview questions focused on the length of review process, ethical and legal considerations, training provided to IRB members on the regulations, and experience using community consultation and notification. Content analysis was performed on the transcripts of interviews. To ensure validity, data analysis was performed by individuals with varying backgrounds: three emergency physicians, an IRB member and a layperson. Respondents noted that: (1) emergency exception to informed consent studies require lengthy review; (2) community consultation and notification regulations are vague and hard to implement; (3) current regulations, if applied correctly, protect human subjects; (4) legal counsel is an important aspect of reviewing exception to informed-consent protocols; and (5) IRB members have had little or no formal training in these regulations, but are able to access materials needed to review such protocols. This preliminary study suggests that IRB members find emergency exception to informed consent studies take longer to review than other protocols, and that community consultation and community notification are the most difficult aspect of the regulations with which to comply but that they adequately protect human subjects.

  15. Reliability and validity of the Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Pua, Yong-Hao; Bower, Kelly J

    2018-03-01

    The use of force platform technologies to assess standing balance is common across a range of clinical areas. Numerous researchers have evaluated the low-cost Wii Balance Board (WBB) for its utility in assessing balance, with variable findings. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of the WBB for assessment of static standing balance. Articles were retrieved from six databases (Medline, SCOPUS, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Inspec) from 2007 to 2017. After independent screening by two reviewers, 25 articles were included. Two reviewers performed the data extraction and quality assessment. Test-retest reliability was investigated in 12 studies, with intraclass correlation coefficients or Pearson's correlation values showing a range from poor to excellent reliability (range: 0.27 to 0.99). Concurrent validity (i.e. comparison with another force platform) was examined in 21 studies, and was generally found to be excellent in studies examining the association between the same outcome measures collected on both devices. For studies reporting predominantly poor to moderate validity, potentially influential factors included the choice of 1) criterion reference (e.g. not a common force platform), 2) test duration (e.g. balance. Protocol registration number: PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017058122. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Approaches to facilitate institutional review board approval of multicenter research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolo, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Gaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for a multicenter research study can be a lengthy and time-consuming process. It can increase the complexity of consent forms, decreasing patient understanding and lowering recruitment numbers. It also leads to increased costs through the duplication of effort. This paper examines some of the strategies used to streamline the IRB review process for multicenter studies and provides examples used by 2 existing multicenter comparative effectiveness research networks. A literature search was conducted to identify sources that described the challenges and potential strategies to facilitate multicenter IRB approval. The most promising avenues were identified and included in this review. Phone interviews were conducted with the Principal Investigators and Project Managers of 2 successful multicenter research networks to learn their "keys to success" and their lessons learned. Three strategies were identified that held the most promise: working with IRBs before submission, the use of central and/or federated IRBs, and the establishment of an umbrella protocol. Each of these strategies was used to some degree by the case study projects. Although the approaches documented here can help streamline the IRB approval process, they are not a "silver bullet." Because some of these approaches are still relatively new, empirical data are sparse. However, it is believed that they will significantly reduce the administrative burden of the project as a whole and lead to a decrease in the overall time to protocol approval.

  17. Critical Review on Hotel Tax over Boarding House from the Perspective of Islamic Equality Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoirul Hidayah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perception of community are the regulation about tax of hotel in boarding house over 10 (ten rooms in The Law No. 28 of 2009 about The Region Tax and Retribution is unclear and unfair. The problems are what are the nature meaning of hotel and boarding house services, second, analize tax of hotel in boarding house by fairness perspective. The research method is normative research with modern interpretation and fairness theory. The result are the nature meaning of hotel and boarding house services are differences. The regulation about tax of hotel in boarding house over 10 (ten rooms is unfair.

  18. 75 FR 66766 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the NTP Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Toxicology Program (NTP); Office of Liaison, Policy and Review; Meeting of the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors: Amended Notice AGENCY: National....gov ). Dated: October 21, 2010. John R. Bucher, Associate Director, National Toxicology Program. [FR...

  19. 75 FR 65395 - Notice Convening an Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances of the Death of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7213] Notice Convening an Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances of the Death of Three DoD Personnel Assigned to the U.S. Embassy's Office of Defense Representative Pakistan (ODRP) on February 3, 2010 Pursuant to Section 301 of the Omnibus...

  20. The Likely Effects of Price Increases on Commissary Patronage: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    beverages across all poten- tial retail outlets. Food away from home, soft drinks, juice, meats, and fruit are found to be most responsive to price ...commissary products is likely responsive to price changes, though the overall demand for food and nonalcoholic beverages is relatively unresponsive... pricing , and to suggest a strategy to gather the information needed to estimate the relevant effects more precisely. This research was conducted within

  1. The price-perceived quality relationship: A meta-analytic review and assessment of its determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within-subjects...

  2. State heating oil and propane price survey: A review of Winter 1995/96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Thirty heating oil dealers and fifteen propane dealers serving Massachusetts customers were surveyed on a bi-weekly basis to monitor heating oil and propane prices. Tables present high, low, and average price for heating oil and propane every two weeks from October 2nd to March 18th. The paper briefly discusses fuel shortages and weather

  3. 78 FR 5446 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Price Redetermination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... the fundamental purposes of the Paperwork Reduction Act because of the burden it puts on the entity... onerous, and will require a contractor to implement accounting systems that are equipped to account for...-price contract with prospective price redetermination would have accounting systems that allow for...

  4. Pricing and Inventory Control Strategy for a Periodic-Review Energy Buy-Back System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jihong; CHEN Hongqiao; DING Xiaosong; LI Xian

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of economics and enhancement of industrialization,the power demand keeps rising and frequently creates mismatch between demand and supply in electricity.This provides miscellaneous energy buy-back programs with great opportunities.Such programs,when activated,offer certain amount of financial compensations to participants for reducing their energy consumption during peak time.They aim at encouraging participants to shift their electricity usage from peak to non-peak time,and thereby release the demand pressure during peak time.This paper considers a periodic-review joint pricing and inventory decision model under an energy buy-back program over finite planning horizons,in which the compensation levels,setup cost and additive random demand function are incorporated.The objective is to maximize a manufacturer's expected total profit.By using Veinott's conditions,it is shown that the manufacturer's optimal decision is a state dependent (s,S,P) policy under a peak market condition,or partly an (s,S,A,P) policy under the normal market condition.

  5. How US institutional review boards decide when researchers need to translate studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Informed consent is crucial in research, but potential participants may not all speak the same language, posing questions that have not been examined concerning decisions by institutional review boards (IRBs) and research ethics committees' (RECs) about the need for researchers to translate consent forms and other study materials. Sixty US IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by The National Institutes of Health funding) were contacted, and leaders (eg, chairs) from 34 (response rate=57%) and an additional 12 members and administrators were interviewed. IRBs face a range of problems about translation of informed consent documents, questionnaires and manuals-what, when and how to translate (eg, for how many or what proportion of potential subjects), why to do so and how to decide. Difficulties can arise about translation of specific words and of broader cultural concepts regarding processes of informed consent and research, especially in the developing world. In these decisions, IRBs weigh the need for autonomy (through informed consent) and justice (to ensure fair distribution of benefits and burdens of research) against practical concerns about costs to researchers. At times IRBs may have to compromise between these competing goals. These data, the first to examine when and how IRBs/RECs require researchers to translate materials, thus highlight a range of problems with which these committees struggle, suggesting a need for further normative and empirical investigation of these domains, and consideration of guidelines to help IRBs deal with these tensions.

  6. Institutional review board perspectives on obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings to research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliwa, Catherine; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jones, Nathan; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    Researchers' obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings (GIFs) have been widely debated, but there has been little empirical study of the engagement of institutional review boards (IRBs) with this issue. This article presents data from the first extensive (n = 796) national survey of IRB professionals' understanding of, experience with, and beliefs surrounding GIFs. Most respondents had dealt with questions about GIFs (74%), but only a minority (47%) felt prepared to address them. Although a majority believed that there is an obligation to disclose GIFs (78%), there is still not consensus about the supporting ethical principles. Respondents generally did not endorse the idea that researchers' additional time and effort (7%), and lack of resources (29%), were valid reasons for diminishing a putative obligation. Most (96%) supported a right not to know, but this view became less pronounced (63%) when framed in terms of specific case studies. IRBs are actively engaged with GIFs but have not yet reached consensus. Respondents were uncomfortable with arguments that could be used to limit an obligation to return GIFs. This could indicate that IRBs are providing some of the impetus for the trend toward returning GIFs, although questions remain about the relative contribution of other stakeholders.Genet Med 18 7, 705-711.

  7. International positioning of South African electricity prices and commodity differentiated pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Thopila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The South African electricity industry has seen a dramatic increase in prices over the past 3 years. This increase has been blanketed across all sectors and is based on a number of factors such as sector, usage and, in the case of domestic pricing, suburb. The cost of electricity in South Africa, particularly to the industrial sector, has been among the lowest in the world. In this paper, we analyse the recent price increases in the South African electricity sector and discuss the price determination mechanism employed by Eskom, South Africa's electricity provider. We also analyse the revenue and sales of Eskom and review the electricity price from an international perspective. The concept of differential pricing and international benchmarking is analysed as a possibility for the South African industrial electricity industry, so that all sectors are not adversely affected by across-the-board increases. Our aim is to raise the question of whether South Africa's electricity prices are in line with international increases and to suggest the possibility of differentiated prices in the local electricity sector.

  8. 78 FR 75447 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Offices Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Offices PRB: The Board shall consist of at least three members. In the case of an appraisal of a career appointee, more than half the members shall consist of career appointees. The names and titles of the Board... P., Deputy Assistant Secretary for Mid-East and Africa Banks, Carol, Director, Office of Accounting...

  9. Research on College Board Programs and Services: Annotated Bibliography 2012. Research in Review 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Carol; Bausmith, Jennifer; Cooney, Siobhan; Laitusis, Vytas; Matos-Elefonte, Haifa; McKillip, Mary; Niu, Sunny; Rawls, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This annotated bibliography contains summaries of research studies examining a number of College Board assessments and programs. To be included in the bibliography, each study needed to meet a number of criteria. First, articles must have been published (as a College Board research report, in an external journal, or as an ETS research report).…

  10. A Survey Study of Institutional Review Board Thought Processes in the United States and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Jung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last several decades, South Korea has rapidly adopted Western customs and practices. Yet, cultural differences between South Korea and the United States exist. The purpose ofthis study was to identify and characterize potential cultural differences in the Korean and US institutional review board (IRB approach to certain topics.Methods: A qualitative analysis of a 9-item survey, describing 4 research study case scenarios, sent to IRB members from the United States and South Korea. The case scenarios involved the followingissues: (1 the need for consent for retrospective chart review when research subjects receive their care after the study is conceived; (2 child assent; (3 individual versus population benefit; and (4 exception from informed consent in emergency resuscitation research. The free-text responses were analyzed and abstracted for recurrent themes.Results: Twenty-three of the 45 survey recipients completed the survey, for an overall response rate of 51%. The themes that emerged were as follows: (1 the importance of parental authority among Korean participants versus the importance of child autonomy and child assent among US participants; (2 the recognition of the rights of a proxy or surrogate who can represent an individual’s values by all participants; and (3 the importance of the community, expressed by the Korean respondents, versus individualism, expressed by US respondents.Conclusion: Whereas US participants appear to emphasize the importance of the individual and the autonomy of a child, the Korean respondents stressed the importance of parental authority andbenefiting the community, above and beyond that of the individual person. However, there was substantial overlap in the themes expressed by respondents from both countries.

  11. Marketplace pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As discussed in this chapter, interest in marketplace pricing has been increasing in recent years, reflecting the societal trend toward substituting competition for regulation where appropriate. Competition is valuable because it encourages utilities to make efficient decisions with a minimum of regulatory intervention. It enhances efficiency through the incentive for innovation by the regulated companies and by increasing the likelihood they will come forward with proposals for better services, lower prices or both. Ultimately, consumers are beneficiaries. Marketplace pricing is emblematic of the view that the degree of regulation should reflect the degree of market power, that workably competitive markets should be allowed to operate with as little regulatory interference as possible. The Edison Electric Institute has made perhaps the most detailed proposal on marketplace pricing. It and others perceive numerous benefits from this method of pricing transmission services. Given the undeniable market power resulting from line ownership, FERC has emphasized the need to find a workably competitive market before approving such proposals. The ability to make this distinction without a full-blown antitrust review for every transaction is questionable, and FERC has yet to provide generic guidance. Finally, FERC's legal ability to depart from cost-based standards is questionable

  12. Meeting Food Aid and Price Stabilization Objectives through Local Grain Purchase: A Review of the 1996 Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Amha, Wolday; Stepanek, Julie; Jayne, Thomas S.; Negassa, Asfaw

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify factors that can improve the ability of future local purchase activities to achieve a range of national food policy objectives. This analysis reviews the design and implementation of 1996 local purchase activities in Ethiopia in relation to three key policy objectives: price stabilization for farmers; promoting the development of a competitive and low-cost food marketing system; and procuring food aid resources in a cost effective manner.

  13. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  14. Review of the all Source Analysis System as a Part of the Audit of the Effectiveness of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process-FY 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-20

    OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL REVIEW OF THE ALL SOURCE ANALYSIS SYSTEM AS A PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DEFENSE...System as a Part of the Audit of the Effectiveness of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process--FY 1993 (Report No. 93-087) We are providing...appreciate the courtesies extended to the audit staff. If you have questions on this report, please contact Program Director Russell A. Rau at (703) 693

  15. Is congestion pricing a first-best strategy in transport policy? A critical review of arguments

    OpenAIRE

    R H M Emmerink; P Nijkamp; P Rietveld

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the arguments used in the literature pro and contra congestion pricing are analysed. Although it is a first-best instrument in theory, it is argued that the assumptions needed to arrive at this conclusion oversimplify reality. In practice, congestion pricing is a second-best instrument with some advantages over other second-best instruments, but it will also give rise to numerous problems, as discussed in the paper. These problems will be illustrated with the Dutch attempts to ...

  16. Factors Associated with Review Board Dispositions following Re-hospitalization among Discharged Persons found Not Criminally Responsible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine M; Nicholls, Tonia L; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Crocker, Anne G

    2016-03-01

    In the Canadian forensic mental health system, a person found Not Criminally Responsible on account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) and given a conditional discharge returns to the community while remaining under the jurisdiction of a provincial/territorial Review Board. However, the individual can be re-hospitalized while on conditional discharge, for reasons such as substance use, violation of conditions, or violence. We investigated whether being re-hospitalized has an impact on the factors associated with the subsequent Review Board disposition. Persons found NCRMD from the three largest Canadian provinces who were conditionally discharged at least once during the observation period were included in the sample (N = 1,367). These individuals were involved in 2,920 disposition hearings; nearly one-third of patients (30%) were re-hospitalized after having been conditionally discharged by the Review Board. The factors examined included the scales of the Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 and salient behavior that occurred since the previous hearing, such as substance use or violence. The greater presence of clinical items resulted in a greater likelihood of a hospital detention decision at the next hearing. The effect was larger for the re-hospitalized group than for the group who successfully remained in the community since the last hearing. The results suggest that dynamic factors, specifically indicators of mental health, are heavily weighted by the Review Boards, consistent with the literature on imminent risk and in line with the NCRMD legislation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fostering Residential Demand Response through Dynamic Pricing Schemes: A Behavioural Review of Smart Grid Pilots in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Kessels

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many smart grid projects make use of dynamic pricing schemes aimed to motivate consumers to shift and/or decrease energy use. Based upon existing literature and analyses of current smart grid projects, this survey paper presents key lessons on how to encourage households to adjust energy end use by means of dynamic tariffs. The paper identifies four key hypotheses related to fostering demand response through dynamic tariff schemes and examines whether these hypotheses can be accepted or rejected based on a review of published findings from a range of European pilot projects. We conclude that dynamic pricing schemes have the power to adjust energy consumption behavior within households. In order to work effectively, the dynamic tariff should be simple to understand for the end users, with timely notifications of price changes, a considerable effect on their energy bill and, if the tariff is more complex, the burden for the consumer could be eased by introducing automated control. Although sometimes the mere introduction of a dynamic tariff has proven to be effective, often the success of the pricing scheme depends also on other factors influencing the behavior of end users. An important condition to make dynamic tariffs work is that the end users should be engaged with them.

  18. 78 FR 64503 - Subcommittee for Dose Reconstruction Reviews (SDRR), Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... in the official record of the meeting. The public is also welcome to listen to the meeting by joining... implement and effectively manage the new compensation program. Key functions of the Advisory Board include...

  19. Development of an institutional review board preapproval process for Doctor of Nursing Practice students: process and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanton, Sarah L; Taylor, Holly A; Terhaar, Mary

    2013-01-01

    As Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs proliferate, effective collaboration with institutional review boards (IRBs) is important to protect human subjects. It is particularly important that faculty and students recognize which DNP students' projects should be considered as "human subjects research" or "quality improvement." The former require IRB review, whereas the latter may be eligible for expedited review or may be considered exempt. We report outcomes following implementation of a combination of didactic training, one-to-one consultation, and a decision support protocol to improve preparation for and collaboration with the IRB at a large university. In the first year of using this protocol, 53% of projects were deemed human subjects research and received IRB review. The other 47% were deemed quality improvement projects and did not require IRB review. We offer our experience as an approach for teaching students how to protect the subjects included in their quality improvement activities. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-10-01

    It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  1. Contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic disparities in diet quality and health: a systematic review and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Context: It is well established in the literature that healthier diets cost more than unhealthy diets. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the contribution of food prices and diet cost to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality. Data Sources: A systematic literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases was performed. Study Selection: Publications linking food prices, dietary quality, and socioeconomic status were selected. Data Extraction: Where possible, review conclusions were illustrated using a French national database of commonly consumed foods and their mean retail prices. Data Synthesis: Foods of lower nutritional value and lower-quality diets generally cost less per calorie and tended to be selected by groups of lower socioeconomic status. A number of nutrient-dense foods were available at low cost but were not always palatable or culturally acceptable to the low-income consumer. Acceptable healthier diets were uniformly associated with higher costs. Food budgets in poverty were insufficient to ensure optimum diets. Conclusions: Socioeconomic disparities in diet quality may be explained by the higher cost of healthy diets. Identifying food patterns that are nutrient rich, affordable, and appealing should be a priority to fight social inequalities in nutrition and health. PMID:26307238

  2. Cost accounting models used for price-setting of health services: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulinajtys-Grzybek, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article was to present and compare cost accounting models which are used in the area of healthcare for pricing purposes in different countries. Cost information generated by hospitals is further used by regulatory bodies for setting or updating prices of public health services. The article presents a set of examples from different countries of the European Union, Australia and the United States and concentrates on DRG-based payment systems as they primarily use cost information for pricing. Differences between countries concern the methodology used, as well as the data collection process and the scope of the regulations on cost accounting. The article indicates that the accuracy of the calculation is only one of the factors that determine the choice of the cost accounting methodology. Important aspects are also the selection of the reference hospitals, precise and detailed regulations and the existence of complex healthcare information systems in hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investor Perceptions of Board Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul E.; Gramlich, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Brian P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides evidence that uncontested director elections provide informative polls of investor perceptions regarding board performance. We find that higher (lower) vote approval is associated with lower (higher) stock price reactions to subsequent announcements of management turnovers. In...

  4. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2000 COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT TRAINING BOARD (JTB) - 2000/2001

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows:Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC)D. Treille / EP (Convener)C. Benvenuti / ESTD. O. Williams /ITTechnical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) C. Hauviller / EPL. Leistam / ESTS. Jarp / IT [Chairman]F. Pedersen / PSR. Lauckner / SLC. Roche / ETTLong-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 &5a)Tiziano Camporesi / EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard / EP\t[Alternate]Jacques Gruber / PSPeter Sievers / LHCThomas Pettersson / ESTMichel Mayoud / ESTSue Foffano / ASThierry Lagrange / SPLWerner Zapf / HR (Secretary) LTCB 2(Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c)Véronique Paris / SL [Convener]Fabien Pérriolat / PS\t [Alternate]Mats Wilhelmsson / STVéronique Fassnacht / TISLucie Linssen / EPMichel Mayoud / ESTPatrick Geeraert / FIJohn Cuthbert / HRSeamus Hegarty / HR (Secretary) Composition of the Joint Training Board (JT...

  5. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-09-15

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  6. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste printed circuit boards: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiuyong; Guo Jie; Xu Zhenming

    2009-01-01

    The major economic driving force for recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs) of PCBs. The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up almost 70 wt% of waste PCBs, were treated by combustion or land filling in the past. However, combustion of the NMFs will cause the formation of highly toxic polybrominated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) while land filling of the NMFs will lead to secondary pollution caused by heavy metals and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) leaching to the groundwater. Therefore, recycling of the NMFs from waste PCBs is drawing more and more attention from the public and the governments. Currently, how to recycle the NMFs environmental soundly has become a significant topic in recycling of waste PCBs. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the NMFs, the compositions and characteristics of the NMFs, methods and outcomes of recycling the NMFs from waste PCBs and analysis and treatment for the hazardous substances contained in the NMFs were reviewed in this paper. Thermosetting resin matrix composites, thermoplastic matrix composites, concrete and viscoelastic materials are main applications for physical recycling of the NMFs. Chemical recycling methods consisting of pyrolysis, gasification, supercritical fluids depolymerization and hydrogenolytic degradation can be used to convert the NMFs to chemical feedstocks and fuels. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) can be used to determine the toxicity characteristic (TC) of the NMFs and to evaluate the environmental safety of products made from the recycled NMFs. It is believed that physical recycling of the NMFs has been a promising recycling method. Much more work should be done to develop comprehensive and industrialized usage of the NMFs recycled by physical methods. Chemical recycling methods have the advantages in eliminating hazardous substances

  7. 76 FR 18516 - Senior Executive Service; Combined Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... performance appraisals of career and non-career senior executives. The Board recommendations regarding..., more than half of the members shall consist of career appointees. The names and titles of the PRB... Center, Bureau of Public Debt Debra L. Hines, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Public Debt Accounting...

  8. 75 FR 71694 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Quality Review Teleconferences of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... teleconference, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your request. Dated: November 16, 2010. Anthony... Board can be found on the SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov/sab . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant... advisory activity can be found on the SAB Web site at: http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/fedrgstr...

  9. 77 FR 60741 - Convening of an Accountability Review Board To Examine the Circumstances Surrounding the Deaths...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Hillary Rodham Clinton has determined that the recent deaths of Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens..., Libya involved loss of life at or related to a U.S. mission abroad. Therefore, Secretary Clinton has... cooperation. The Board will submit its conclusions and recommendations to Secretary Clinton within 60 days of...

  10. 75 FR 81268 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Quality Review Teleconferences of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... ``Reactive Nitrogen in the United States; an Analysis of Inputs, Flows, Consequences, and Management Options... information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found on the SAB Web site at http://www.epa.gov... information about this advisory activity can be found on the SAB Web site at http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab...

  11. 76 FR 38182 - Subcommittee for Dose Reconstruction Reviews (SDRR), Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Pass Code 9933701. Background: The Advisory Board was established under the Energy Employees... whether there is a class of employees at any Department of Energy facility who were exposed to radiation... Subcommittee meeting includes: Selection of individual radiation dose reconstruction cases to be considered for...

  12. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  13. The Price Is Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    There's something about textbook prices that generates outrage in ways that other college expenses, such as housing and technology fees, don't. Maybe it's the shock felt by new students when faced with a $900 bill after getting their textbooks for free in K-12. Maybe it's the awful realization that $40,000 in tuition and board doesn't even cover…

  14. Monogenetic trematodes. XLVI. A redescription of Tetraonchus alaskensis Price, 1937 and a review of the family Tetraonchidae Bychowsky, 1937

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizelle, J D; Crane, J W

    1975-07-01

    Tetraonchus alaskensis Price, 1937 is redescribed with several differences from, and additions to, the original description. A review of the genus Tetraonchus is given from its original description to the present status of the family Tetraonchidae Bychowsky, 1937. The genus Salmonchus Spassky and Roytman, 1948 and the subgenera Tetraonchus and Salmonchus Strelkov, 1963 are rejected on a comprehensive basis. A host-parasite list, and a parasite-host list are presented. Presently there are 17 species belonging to the single genus Tetraonchus in the family Tetraonchidae. (auth)

  15. A review on Black-Scholes model in pricing warrants in Bursa Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Nur Izzaty Ilmiah Indra; Ibrahim, Siti Nur Iqmal; Rahim, Norhuda Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the accuracy of the Black-Scholes (BS) model and the dilution-adjusted Black-Scholes (DABS) model to pricing some warrants traded in the Malaysian market. Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) are used to compare the two models. Results show that the DABS model is more accurate than the BS model for the selected data.

  16. Utilization of a Technical Peer Review to Support the Mission of the Nevada Test Site Community Advisory Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Earle C.; Peterson, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Environmental Management (EM) Underground Test Area (UGTA) project addresses the characterization and needs for long-term monitoring of the subsurface contamination resulting from 828 underground nuclear weapon tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). EM promotes, and is required, to include stakeholders in its program. However, UGTA is a very complex program not easily understood by members of the public. The NTS Community Advisory Board (CAB), a federally chartered Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB), has studied the UGTA project since 1996, and has found it a challenge to completely comprehend and provide NNSA/NV meaningful citizen input. The CAB realized the benefit of a technical peer review and in 2000 recommended to NNSA/NV that a peer review of the UGTA strategy would provide valuable feedback to the program to address underground contamination at the NTS. N NSA agreed to the CAB's recommendation, and moved forward with a scope of work to have the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) perform the peer review of the UGTA strategy. The ASME began the peer review in June 2001, and their final report was published in November 2001. In January 2002, the CAB devoted their monthly meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada to reporting the results of the peer review of the UGTA strategy to the public. Two public workshops were later held in the community of Amargosa, Nevada during the month of January to help educate and build interest in the CAB February 2002 monthly meeting which was also held in Amargosa. The CAB recommendation to NNSA to utilize a technical peer review has provided valuable information to NNSA, the State of Nevada, and the CAB. At other DOE sites SSABs are challenged by a number of complex, technical programs requiring considerable time and resources for the board to comprehend. It is worth considering the utilization of an independent

  17. INTEGRATED ON-BOARD COMPUTING SYSTEMS: PRESENT SITUATION REVIEW AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ANALYSIS IN THE AVIATION INSTRUMENT-MAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paramonov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with present situation review and analysis of development prospects for integrated on-board computing systems, used in the aviation instrument-making industry. The main attention is paid to the projects carried out in the framework of an integrated modular avionics. Hierarchical levels of module design, crates (onboard systems and aviation complexes are considered in detail. Examples of the existing products of our country and from abroad and their brief technical characteristics are given and voluminous bibliography on the subject matter as well.

  18. Assessing the potential effectiveness of food and beverage taxes and subsidies for improving public health: a systematic review of prices, demand and body weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L M; Chriqui, J F; Khan, T; Wada, R; Chaloupka, F J

    2013-02-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, and fruits and vegetables, as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be -1.21, -0.52, -0.49 and -0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents, suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults, suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Patients come from populations and populations contain patients. A two-stage scientific and ethics review: The next adaptation for single institutional review boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, David; Alford, Eli; Tate, Kaitlin; Long, Mark; Khachaturian, Ara S

    2017-08-01

    For nearly 50 years, institutional review boards (IRB) and independent ethics committees have featured local oversight as a core function of research ethics reviews. However growing complexity in Alzheimer's clinical research suggests current approaches to research volunteer safety is hampering development of new therapeutics. As a partial response to this challenge, the NIH has mandated that all NIH-funded multi-site studies will use a single Institutional Review Board. The perspective describes a joint program to provide a single IRB of record (sIRB) for phases of multi-site studies. The approach follows two steps. One, an expert Scientific Review Committee (SRC) of senior researchers in the field will conduct the review principally of scientific merit, significance, feasibility, and the likelihood of meaningful results. The second step will be the IRB's regulatory and ethics review. The IRB will apply appropriate regulatory criteria for approval including minimization of risks to subjects and risks reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits, equitable subject selection, informed consent, protections for vulnerable populations, and application of local context considerations, among others. There is a steady demand for scientific, ethical and regulatory review of planned Alzheimer's studies. As of January 15, 2017, there are nearly 400 open studies, Phase II and III, industry and NIH sponsored trials on disease indications affecting memory, movement and mood in the US. The effort will initially accept protocols for studies of Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and related disorders effecting memory, movement and mood. Future aims will be to provide scientific review and, where applicable, regulatory and ethical review in an international context outside North America with sites possibly in Asia, Europe and Australia. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Value-informed pricing in its organizational context: literature review, conceptual framework, and directions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ In the face of increased pricing pressure, managerial attention for value-informed pricing (in which a price is based on the customer¿s value perception) is on the rise. Although value-informed pricing in its organizational context received a great deal of attention, the body of literature

  1. The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, José L.; Del Gobbo, Liana; Silva, Jose; Michaelson, Melody; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Spiegelman, Donna; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Background: While food pricing is a promising strategy to improve diet, the prospective impact of food pricing on diet has not been systematically quantified. Objective: To quantify the prospective effect of changes in food prices on dietary consumption. Design: We systematically searched online databases for interventional or prospective observational studies of price change and diet; we also searched for studies evaluating adiposity as a secondary outcome. Studies were excluded if price dat...

  2. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Bogart, Laura M.; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z.; Winkler, Sabune J.; Kaberry, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (e.g., self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. OBJECTIVES This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based Institutional Review Board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. METHODS A two hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. CONCLUSIONS Local Institutional Review Boards have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners. PMID:28230554

  3. Assessing the Potential Effectiveness of Food and Beverage Taxes and Subsidies for Improving Public Health: A Systematic Review of Prices, Demand and Body Weight Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Khan, Tamkeen; Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxes and subsidies are increasingly being considered as potential policy instruments to incentivize consumers to improve their food and beverage consumption patterns and related health outcomes. This study provided a systematic review of recent U.S. studies on the price elasticity of demand for sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food and fruits and vegetables as well as the direct associations of prices/taxes with body weight outcomes. Based on the recent literature, the price elasticity of demand for SSBs, fast food, fruits and vegetables was estimated to be −1.21, −0.52, −0.49 and −0.48, respectively. The studies that linked soda taxes to weight outcomes showed minimal impacts on weight; however, they were based on existing state-level sales taxes that were relatively low. Higher fast-food prices were associated with lower weight outcomes particularly among adolescents suggesting that raising prices would potentially impact weight outcomes. Lower fruit and vegetable prices were generally found to be associated with lower body weight outcomes among both low-income children and adults suggesting that subsidies that would reduce the cost of fruits and vegetables for lower-socioeconomic populations may be effective in reducing obesity. Pricing instruments should continue to be considered and evaluated as potential policy instruments to address public health risks. PMID:23174017

  4. Deriving the Pricing Power of Product Features by Mining Consumer Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Archak; Anindya Ghose; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pervasiveness of the Internet has dramatically changed the way that consumers shop for goods. Consumer-generated product reviews have become a valuable source of information for customers, who read the reviews and decide whether to buy the product based on the information provided. In this paper, we use techniques that decompose the reviews into segments that evaluate the individual characteristics of a product (e.g., image quality and battery life for a digital camera). Then, ...

  5. The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Bowker, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Peak demand for electricity in North America is expected to grow, challenging electrical utilities to supply this demand in a cost-effective, reliable manner. Therefore, there is growing interest in strategies to reduce peak demand by eliminating electricity use, or shifting it to non-peak times. This strategy is commonly called 'demand response'. In households, common strategies are time-varying pricing, which charge more for energy use on peak, or direct load control, which allows utilities to curtail certain loads during high demand periods. We reviewed recent North American studies of these strategies. The data suggest that the most effective strategy is a critical peak price (CPP) program with enabling technology to automatically curtail loads on event days. There is little evidence that this causes substantial hardship for occupants, particularly if they have input into which loads are controlled and how, and have an override option. In such cases, a peak load reduction of at least 30% is a reasonable expectation. It might be possible to attain such load reductions without enabling technology by focusing on household types more likely to respond, and providing them with excellent support. A simple time-of-use (TOU) program can only expect to realise on-peak reductions of 5%. (author)

  6. Nuclear medicine technology. Review questions for the board examinations. 4. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramer, Karen [Ochotnicky Partners s.r.o., Marianka (Slovakia); Mantel, Eleanor [Pennsylvania Univ., Hammonton, NJ (United States). Nuclear Medicine/Molecular Imaging; Reddin, Janet S.; Alavi, Abass [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Radiology/Nuclear Medicine; Cheng, Gang [Philadelphia VA Medical Center, PA (United States). Radiology

    2013-07-01

    The only comprehensive exam preparation guide on the market. Includes a mock registry exam. Provides expanded coverage of positron emission tomography and other new procedures and practices. This book prepares students and technologists for registry examinations in nuclear medicine technology by providing practice questions and answers with detailed explanations, as well as a mock registry exam. The questions are designed to test the basic knowledge required of nuclear medicine technologists, as well as the practical application of that knowledge. The topics covered closely follow the content specifications and the components of preparedness as published by the certification boards. This 4th edition includes expanded coverage of positron emission tomography and other new procedures and practices in the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.

  7. Why Changes in Price Matter When Thinking About Marijuana Policy: A Review of the Literature on the Elasticity of Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Lundberg, Russell

    Recent debates regarding liberalization of marijuana policies often rest on assumptions regarding the extent to which such policy changes would lead to a change in marijuana consumption and by whom. This paper reviews the economics literature assessing the responsiveness of consumption to changes in price and enforcement risk and explicitly considers how this responsiveness varies by different user groups. In doing so, it demonstrates how most of the research has examined responsiveness to prevalence of use, which is a composite of different user groups, rather than level of consumption among regular or heavy users, which represent the largest share of total quantities consumed. Thus, it is not possible to generate reliable estimates of the impact of liberalizing policies on either tax revenues or harms, as these outcomes are most directly influenced by the amounts consumed by regular or heavy users, not prevalence rates.

  8. 77 FR 47067 - Notification of Two Public Quality Review Teleconferences of the Chartered Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Assessment in Environmental Decision- Making'' (EPA-SAB-08-002). Background information about this advisory... ecological assessment action plan and (2) an SAB draft review report on EPA's accounting framework for... ``SAB Review (7-26-12 Draft) of EPA's Accounting Framework for Biogenic CO 2 Emissions from Stationary...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1603 - Operation of the Human Studies Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appropriate for the scientific and ethical review of human research, including research ethics, biostatistics... scientific and ethical aspects of research proposals and reports of completed research with human subjects... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of the Human Studies Review...

  10. 77 FR 11555 - Guidance for Institutional Review Boards, Clinical Investigators, and Sponsors: Institutional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ..., Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) and FDA have been actively working to harmonize the Agencies... criteria, process, and frequency of continuing review to assure the protection of the rights and welfare of... review to assure the protection of the rights and welfare of subjects in clinical investigations. The...

  11. SMART Boards Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  12. Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2001 Final and 2002 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2002: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports:2002; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Grabois, Andrew; Greco, Albert N.

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports related to book trade statistics, including prices of U.S. and foreign materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and numbers of books and other media reviewed by major reviewing publications. (LRW)

  13. Systematic review of available evidence on 11 high-priced inpatient orphan drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Kanters (Tim A.); C. de Sonneville (Caroline); W.K. Redekop (Ken); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Background__: Attention for Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is growing, but evidence for orphan drugs is argued to be limited and inferior. This study systematically reviews the available evidence on clinical effectiveness, costeffectiveness and budget impact for

  14. Board of Directors or Supervisory Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the legal consequences of the choice now available to Danish public limited companies, which can now opt for a two-tier management structure, in which the management board undertakes both the day-to-day and the overall management, while a supervisory board exercises control...... over the management board, including its appointment and dismissal. The article considers which companies a two-tier structure may be relevant for, and reviews the consequences for the composition, election and functioning of the company organs....

  15. Integrated bioleaching of copper metal from waste printed circuit board-a comprehensive review of approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste) is the most rapidly growing waste stream in the world, and the majority of the residues are openly disposed of in developing countries. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) make up the major portion of e-waste, and their informal recycling can cause environmental pollution and health risks. Furthermore, the conventional disposal and recycling techniques-mechanical treatments used to recover valuable metals, including copper-are not sustainable in the long term. Chemical leaching is rapid and efficient but causes secondary pollution. Bioleaching is a promising approach, eco-friendly and economically feasible, but it is slower process. This review considers the recycling potential of microbes and suggests an integrated bioleaching approach for Cu extraction and recovery from WPCBs. The proposed recycling system should be more effective, efficient and both technically and economically feasible.

  16. Dynamic Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes h...... of dynamic pricing can lead to increased willingness of consumers to participate in DR programs which in turn improve the operation of liberalized electricity markets.......Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes...

  17. What happens to drinking when alcohol policy changes? A review of five natural experiments for alcohol taxes, prices, and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P; McNall, Amy D

    2017-05-01

    Natural experiments are an important alternative to observational and econometric studies. This paper provides a review of results from empirical studies of alcohol policy interventions in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Sweden, and Switzerland. Major policy changes were removal of quotas on travelers' tax-free imports and reductions in alcohol taxes. A total of 29 primary articles are reviewed, which contain 35 sets of results for alcohol consumption by various subpopulations and time periods. For each country, the review summarizes and examines: (1) history of tax/quota policy interventions and price changes; (2) graphical trends for alcohol consumption and liver disease mortality; and (3) empirical results for policy effects on alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. We also compare cross-country results for three select outcomes-binge drinking, alcohol consumption by youth and young adults, and heavy consumption by older adults. Overall, we find a lack of consistent results for consumption both within- and across-countries, with a general finding that alcohol tax interventions had selective, rather than broad, impacts on subpopulations and drinking patterns. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Canadian natural gas market: dynamics and pricing -- an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This publication is part of the Energy Market Assessment Program of the National Energy Board. It focuses on identifying factors that affect natural gas prices and describe the current functioning of domestic regional markets in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and in the Atlantic provinces.The report emphasizes the growth in demand for natural gas throughout North America, and the aggressive response by producers to the current high price environment with increased drilling programs. The report also predicts a supply and demand adjustment over time, and an accompanying relief in natural gas prices, although the Board is not able to predict with certainty any movements in commodity markets. The Board's findings indicate that domestic users of natural gas paid less than export customers until 1998, at which point the two prices have converged. The end result of the convergence was that Canadians have had access to natural gas under terms and conditions which were no less favourable than those in effect for export customers. The influence of electronic trading systems is reviewed, noting that spot markets and futures markets such as the NYMEX and AECO-C/NIT have had a significant impact on the pricing of natural gas, mostly by allowing market participants to manage price volatility by forward contracting. 1 tab., 42 figs., 1 glossary

  19. Sex-Divergent Clinical Outcomes and Precision Medicine: An Important New Role for Institutional Review Boards and Research Ethics Committees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Segarra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The efforts toward individualized medicine have constantly increased in an attempt to improve treatment options. These efforts have led to the development of small molecules which target specific molecular pathways involved in cancer progression. We have reviewed preclinical studies of sunitinib that incorporate sex as a covariate to explore possible sex-based differences in pharmacokinetics and drug–drug interactions (DDI to attempt a relationship with published clinical outputs. We observed that covariate sex is lacking in most clinical outcome reports and suggest a series of ethic-based proposals to improve research activities and identify relevant different sex outcomes. We propose a deeper integration of preclinical, clinical, and translational research addressing statistical and clinical significance jointly; to embed specific sex-divergent endpoints to evaluate possible gender differences objectively during all stages of research; to pay greater attention to sex-divergent outcomes in polypharmacy scenarios, DDI and bioequivalence studies; the clear reporting of preclinical and clinical findings regarding sex-divergent outcomes; as well as to encourage the active role of scientists and the pharmaceutical industry to foster a new scientific culture through their research programs, practice, and participation in editorial boards and Institutional Ethics Review Boards (IRBs and Research Ethics Committees (RECs. We establish the IRB/REC as the centerpiece for the implementation of these proposals. We suggest the expansion of its competence to follow up clinical trials to ensure that sex differences are addressed and recognized; to engage in data monitoring committees to improve clinical research cooperation and ethically address those potential clinical outcome differences between male and female patients to analyze their social and clinical implications in research and healthcare policies.

  20. Trends in the number and the quality of trial protocols involving children submitted to a French Institutional Review Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Gautier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great need for high quality clinical research for children. The European Pediatric Regulation aimed to improve the quality of clinical trials in order to increase the availability of treatments for children. The main purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of both the number and the quality of pediatric trial protocols that were submitted to a French Institutional Review Board (IRB00009118 before and after the initiation of the EU Pediatric Regulation. Methods All protocols submitted to the IRB00009118 between 2003 and 2014 and conducting research on subjects under eighteen years of age were eligible. The quality of randomized clinical trials was assessed according to the guidelines developed by the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR Network and ranked using the Jadad score. Results Out of 622 protocols submitted to the Institutional Review Board (IRB, 21% (133/622 included children. Among these 133 pediatric protocols, the number of submitted pediatric protocols doubled between the two studied periods. From 2003 to 2008, 47 protocols including 21 institutionally sponsored were submitted to the IRB and from 2009 until 2014, 86 protocols including 48 institutionally sponsored were submitted. No significant trend was observed on the quality of RCTs. The overall median score of RCTs on the Jadad scale was high (3.5, 70.0% of protocols had a Jadad score ≥ 3, and 30.0% had a score < 3. Conclusion Following the EU Pediatric Regulation, the number of pediatric protocols submitted to the IRB00009118 tends to increase, but no change was noticed regarding their quality.

  1. 75 FR 40036 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service Scientific Merit... is to review rehabilitation research and development applications for scientific and technical merit...

  2. Institutional review board community members: who are they, what do they do, and whom do they represent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzman, Robert

    2012-07-01

    The roles of nonaffiliated and nonscientific institutional review board (IRB) members at academic medical centers have received some attention, but questions remain-Who are they, what do they do, and whom, if anyone, do they represent? The author interviewed 46 IRB chairs, directors, administrators, and members in 2007-2009. He contacted the leadership of 60 IRBs (every fourth one in the list of the top 240 institutions by National Institutes of Health funding), interviewed IRB leaders from 34 of these institutions, then recruited 7 additional members from these IRBs to interview. Regular IRB members often called these individuals community members and were confused as to who these members were, or should be, and whether they did, or should, represent anyone and, if so, whom. IRBs encountered challenges in finding, training, and retaining these community members. Tensions emerged because nonscientific members, by definition, have no scientific training, so they have difficulty understanding key aspects of protocols, making them feel unempowered to contribute to reviews. IRBs varied in how much they encouraged these members to participate, in what ways, and with what success. At academic medical centers, IRBs struggled with how to view, choose, employ, and retain nonaffiliated and nonscientific members, and they varied widely in these regards. Some IRBs had these members review entire protocols, others only limited parts (particularly reading consent forms for comprehension), pro forma. Yet, at times, these members' input proved very important. These findings have critical implications for policy, practice, and research.

  3. Applying the institutional review board data repository approach to manage ethical considerations in evaluating and studying medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Erin K; Rathkey, Daniel; Miller, Marissa Fuqua; Palmer, Ryan; Mejicano, George C; Pusic, Martin; Kalet, Adina; Gillespie, Colleen; Carney, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Medical educators and educational researchers continue to improve their processes for managing medical student and program evaluation data using sound ethical principles. This is becoming even more important as curricular innovations are occurring across undergraduate and graduate medical education. Dissemination of findings from this work is critical, and peer-reviewed journals often require an institutional review board (IRB) determination. IRB data repositories, originally designed for the longitudinal study of biological specimens, can be applied to medical education research. The benefits of such an approach include obtaining expedited review for multiple related studies within a single IRB application and allowing for more flexibility when conducting complex longitudinal studies involving large datasets from multiple data sources and/or institutions. In this paper, we inform educators and educational researchers on our analysis of the use of the IRB data repository approach to manage ethical considerations as part of best practices for amassing, pooling, and sharing data for educational research, evaluation, and improvement purposes. Fostering multi-institutional studies while following sound ethical principles in the study of medical education is needed, and the IRB data repository approach has many benefits, especially for longitudinal assessment of complex multi-site data.

  4. Evidence for the effectiveness of minimum pricing of alcohol: a systematic review and assessment using the Bradford Hill criteria for causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, Jack W; Marlow, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the evidence for price-based alcohol policy interventions to determine whether minimum unit pricing (MUP) is likely to be effective. Design Systematic review and assessment of studies according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, against the Bradford Hill criteria for causality. Three electronic databases were searched from inception to February 2017. Additional articles were found through hand searching and grey literature searches. Criteria for selecting studies We included any study design that reported on the effect of price-based interventions on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related morbidity, mortality and wider harms. Studies reporting on the effects of taxation or affordability and studies that only investigated price elasticity of demand were beyond the scope of this review. Studies with any conflict of interest were excluded. All studies were appraised for methodological quality. Results Of 517 studies assessed, 33 studies were included: 26 peer-reviewed research studies and seven from the grey literature. All nine of the Bradford Hill criteria were met, although different types of study satisfied different criteria. For example, modelling studies complied with the consistency and specificity criteria, time series analyses demonstrated the temporality and experiment criteria, and the analogy criterion was fulfilled by comparing the findings with the wider literature on taxation and affordability. Conclusions Overall, the Bradford Hill criteria for causality were satisfied. There was very little evidence that minimum alcohol prices are not associated with consumption or subsequent harms. However the overall quality of the evidence was variable, a large proportion of the evidence base has been produced by a small number of research teams, and the quantitative uncertainty in many estimates or forecasts is often poorly communicated outside the academic literature. Nonetheless, price

  5. Binge drinking and alcohol prices: a systematic review of age-related results from econometric studies, natural experiments and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2015-01-01

    Heavy episodic ("binge") drinking of alcohol has serious public health implications, especially for youth and young adults. Previous summaries and surveys have failed to address in a comprehensive manner the effects of alcohol prices on binge drinking by gender or age group. A qualitative systematic review is performed for effects of alcohol prices (or tax surrogates) on binge drinking for three age groups: youth, young adults, and adults. Outcomes examined include binge participation, intensity and frequency. Criteria for data collection and potential sources of bias are discussed, including adequacy of price data. Price-binge relationships are judged using a 95% confidence interval (p ≤ 0.05) for statistical significance. Fifty-six relevant econometric studies were found, with studies and results distributed equally among three age groups. Also found were five natural experiments for tax reductions and six field studies. Null results or mixed results are found in more than half of the studies. The body of evidence indicates that binge drinkers are not highly-responsive to increased prices. Non-responsiveness holds generally for younger and older drinkers and for male and female binge drinkers alike. A limitation of the current literature is that results are only available for higher-income countries. Increased alcohol taxes or prices are unlikely to be effective as a means to reduce binge drinking, regardless of gender or age group.

  6. Decision U99113 - Proceeding No. 990277: Board review of the Independent Assessment Team's report of power purchase arrangements and other determinations. Phase two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    On July 9, 1999, pursuant to section 45.9(1)(b) of the Electric Utilities Act, the Independent Assessment Team (IAT) filed for approval with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUA/the Board) a report setting out its determinations on deregulation of electricity generation in Alberta. Included in the report were copies of the Power Purchase Arrangements (PPAs) for Regulated Generating Units listed in part 1 of the Schedule in the EUA. In filing its report, the IAT also advised the Board that, because of time pressures, the report might contain errors that would have to be corrected. The report did not include the Hydro PPA, which was subsequently filed on August 10,1999. Upon receipt of the IAT's filing, the Board reviewed its legislative authority under section 45.91 of the EUA and concluded that the section lends itself to the consideration of two questions, and, as a result, the Board developed a two phase approach to dealing with a request for variance. In phase 1, the Board would address the question of whether it should have had a variance hearing for the power purchase arrangements or other determinations made by the IAT. The Board considered that at this stage an applicant would need to satisfy the Board that there was a concern about the PPAs of sufficient importance that to require a formal process of review. If the first question was answered affirmatively, then in phase 2 the Board would address the second question of whether it should vary the power purchase arrangements and other determinations made by the ITA. Having regard to the evidence and argument presented and considered and having regard to its own knowledge and findings therein, the Board was not satisfied by those parties making the requests that the ITA did not carry out its duties in accordance with the EUA or that the PPAs and relevant determinations of the ITA are obviously unreasonable, and are not supported adequately by economic analysis, or are not in the public interest. The

  7. The American Board of Radiology Holman Research Pathway: 10-Year Retrospective Review of the Program and Participant Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Paul E.; Ang, K. Kian; Zietman, Anthony L.; Harris, Jay R.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Mahoney, Mary C.; Mezwa, Duane G.; Wilson, Lynn D.; Becker, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In 1999, the American Board of Radiology (ABR) implemented an innovative training program track in diagnostic radiology (DR) and radiation oncology (RO) designed to stimulate development of a cadre of future academic researchers and educators in the 2 disciplines. The program was designated the Holman Research Pathway (HRP). An in-depth retrospective review of initial certification examination performance, post-training career choices, and academic productivity has not been written. This report represents a 10-year retrospective review of post-training performance of a cohort of trainees who have had sufficient time to complete their training and initial certification process and to enter practice. Methods and Materials: All pertinent proceedings of the ABR and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Residency Review Committees for DR and RO between 1997 and May 2011 were reviewed. Thirty-four HRP candidates who fulfilled the established evaluation criteria were identified, and their ABR data files were analyzed regarding performance on the qualifying and certifying examinations. All candidates were contacted directly to obtain a current curriculum vitae. Results: Twenty candidates in RO and 14 candidates in DR were identifiable for review. All candidates attained initial certification. At the time of analysis, 23 of 33 (66.6%) candidates were employed in full-time academic practice (1 DR candidate remained in a fellowship and was not evaluated regarding employment status). Fifteen of 20 (75%) RO candidates were in faculty positions compared with 7 of 13 (53.8%) DR trainees. Additional academic productivity metrics are reported. Conclusions: A high percentage of HRP trainees remained in academic practice and demonstrated significant academic productivity as measured by manuscript authorship and research support. Additional time and observation will be needed to determine whether these findings will be sustained by past, current

  8. 75 FR 1790 - Draft Guidance for Institutional Review Boards, Clinical Investigators, and Sponsors: IRB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0605... clinical investigators and sponsors better understand their responsibilities related to continuing review...-463-6332 or 301-796-3400); or the Office of Communication, Outreach and Development (HFM-40), Center...

  9. 78 FR 50144 - Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Health Services Research and Development Service, Scientific Merit... management, and nursing research. Applications are reviewed for scientific and technical merit, mission... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Health Services Research and Development Service (HSR&D...

  10. 78 FR 18680 - Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Rehabilitation Research and Development Scientific Merit Review... Service, and the Chief Research and Development Officer on the scientific and technical merit, the mission... Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that a meeting of the Rehabilitation Research and Development Service...

  11. 75 FR 59800 - Senior Executive Service; Public Debt Performance Review Board (PRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Notice is effective on September 28, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Angela Jones, Director, Human Resources Division, Office of Management Services, BPD, (304) 480-8949. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant... reviews the performance appraisals of career senior executives who are below the level of Assistant...

  12. 76 FR 17649 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations; SAB Mercury Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... nominations of women and men of all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA SAB Staff Office will acknowledge... factors); (b) availability and willingness to serve; (c) absence of financial conflicts of interest; (d... Staff Office's evaluation of an absence of financial conflicts of interest will include a review of the...

  13. Why Public Comments Matter: The Case of the National Institutes of Health Policy on Single Institutional Review Board Review of Multicenter Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Ann-Margret; Taylor, Holly A; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Meinert, Curtis L

    2018-03-06

    In 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) requested public comments on a draft policy requiring NIH-funded, U.S.-based investigators to use a single institutional review board (sIRB) for ethical review of multicenter studies. The authors conducted a directed content analysis and qualitative summary of the comments and discuss how they shaped the final policy. Two reviewers independently assessed support for the policy from a review of comments responding to the draft policy in 2016. A reviewer conducted an open text review to identify prespecified and additional comment themes. A second researcher reviewed 20% of the comments; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. The NIH received 167 comments: 65% (108/167) supportive of the policy, 23% (38/167) not supportive, and 12% (21/167) not indicating support. Clarifications or changes to the policy were suggested in 102/167 comments (61%). Criteria for selecting sIRBs were addressed in 32/102 comments (31%). Also addressed were IRB responsibilities (39/102; 38%), cost (27/102; 26%), the role of local IRBs (14/102; 14%), and allowable policy exceptions (19/102; 19%). The NIH further clarified or provided additional guidance for selection criteria, IRB responsibilities, and cost in the final policy (June 2016). Local IRB reviews and exemptions guidance were unchanged. In this case study, public comments were effective in shaping policy as the NIH modified provisions or planned supplemental guidance in response to comments. Yet critical knowledge gaps remain and empirical data are necessary. The NIH is considering mechanisms to support the establishment of best practices for sIRB implementation.

  14. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  15. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  16. The price of change [The Stern Review looks at the economics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, N.

    2007-01-01

    The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, commissioned by the UK Treasury, has assessed a wide range of evidence on the impacts of climate change and on the economic costs. And, in its review, has used a number of different techniques to assess costs and risks. From all of these perspectives, the evidence gathered by the Review leads to a simple conclusion: the benefits of strong and early action far outweigh the economic costs of not acting. Climate change will affect the basic elements of life for people around the world - access to water, food production, health, and the environment. Hundreds of millions of people could suffer hunger, water shortages and coastal flooding as the world warms. So prompt and strong action is clearly warranted. Because climate change is a global problem, the response to it must be international. It must be based on a shared vision of long term goals and agreement on frameworks that will accelerate action over the next decade, and it must build on mutually reinforcing approaches at national, regional and international level. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol provide a basis for international co-operation, along with a range of partnerships and other approaches. But more ambitious action is now required around the world

  17. Deceased Donor Intervention Research: A Survey of Transplant Surgeons, Organ Procurement Professionals, and Institutional Review Board Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Feng, S; Johansson, A C; Glazier, A K; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Innovative deceased donor intervention strategies have the potential to increase the number and quality of transplantable organs. Yet there is confusion over regulatory and legal requirements, as well as ethical considerations. We surveyed transplant surgeons (n = 294), organ procurement organization (OPO) professionals (n = 83), and institutional review board (IRB) members (n = 317) and found wide variations in their perceptions about research classification, risk assessment for donors and organ transplant recipients, regulatory oversight requirements, and informed consent in the context of deceased donor intervention research. For instance, when presented with different research scenarios, IRB members were more likely than transplant surgeons and OPO professionals to feel that study review and oversight were necessary by the IRBs at the investigator, donor, and transplant center hospitals. Survey findings underscore the need to clarify ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements and their application to deceased donor intervention research to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery and facilitate more transplants. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Animal board invited review: Dairy cow lameness expenditures, losses and total cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolecheck, K; Bewley, J

    2018-03-20

    Lameness is one of the most costly dairy cow diseases, yet adoption of lameness prevention strategies remains low. Low lameness prevention adoption might be attributable to a lack of understanding regarding total lameness costs. In this review, we evaluated the contribution of different expenditures and losses to total lameness costs. Evaluated expenditures included labor for treatment, therapeutic supplies, lameness detection and lameness control and prevention. Evaluated losses included non-saleable milk, reduced milk production, reduced reproductive performance, increased animal death, increased animal culling, disease interrelationships, lameness recurrence and reduced animal welfare. The previous literature on total lameness cost estimates was also summarized. The reviewed studies indicated that previous estimates of total lameness costs are variable and inconsistent in the expenditures and losses they include. Many of the identified expenditure and loss categories require further research to accurately include in total lameness cost estimates. Future research should focus on identifying costs associated with specific lameness conditions, differing lameness severity levels, and differing stages of lactation at onset of lameness to provide better total lameness cost estimates that can be useful for decision making at both the herd and individual cow level.

  1. Review of operational experience with the gas-cooled Magnox reactors of the United Kingdom Central Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, L.; Clarke, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The paper provides a review, which is mainly of a statistical nature, of 260 reactor years of operating experience which the (United Kingdom) Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has obtained with its gas-cooled, graphite moderated Magnox reactors. The main emphasis in the review is on safety rather than on availability. Data are provided on the overall incidence and frequencies of faults and it is shown that the plant items which are predominantly responsible for recorded faults are the gas circulators and the turbo-alternators. Analysis of the reactor trip experience shows that the incidence of events which necessitate an automatic shutdown of the reactor has been about one per reactor year and that of other events leading to a reactor trip has not been much higher (1.4 per reactor year). As would be expected from the length of the operating experience, some relatively rare events have occurred (expected frequency 10 -2 per reactor year, or less) but on each occasion the reactor shutdown system and decay heat removal systems functioned satisfactorily. No overheating of, or damage to, the fuel occurred as a result of these rare events or of other, more frequent, faults. Analysis of the trend of failure rates has shown an improvement with time in nearly all safety-related items and external inspection of the primary coolant circuits has shown no significant deterioration with time. However, some derating of the reactors has been necessary to reduce the effects of oxidation of mild steel in CO 2 , in order to obtain optimum service lives. In spite of major differences between the systems, a comparison of the failure rates of analogous systems and plant items in PWRs and the Magnox reactors show a considerable similarity. Overall, the review of CEGB's operational experience with its Magnos reactors has shown that the frequencies of faults in systems and plant items has been satisfyingly low. (author)

  2. The Effectiveness of Public Simulated Oral Examinations in Preparation for the American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Christopher; McCulloch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether American Board of Surgery Certifying Examination (CE) performance is improved among residents who prepare using simulated oral examinations (SOEs). EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched using predefined search terms. No language restrictions were imposed and the latest search date was in November 2014. Included studies must have reported on residents training in a general surgery residency in the United States who used SOEs to prepare for the CE and have measured their performance against those without exposure to SOEs. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and a fixed effects meta-analysis was performed to determine the net effect of SOEs on CE performance. Overall, 4 of 25 abstracts reviewed met inclusion criteria and are included in this review. The most common simulation format included public examinations in front of resident peers during scheduled education sessions. All 4 included studies trended toward improved performance with SOEs and in 2 of these studies the improvement was statistically significant. Overall, 3 studies were of adequate quality to perform a meta-analysis and demonstrated a relative risk for first-attempt CE success of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07-1.39, p = 0.003) for residents preparing with SOEs compared to those without SOEs. The published literature evaluating SOEs is limited and generally of fair quality. A modest improvement in CE performance was identified when public SOEs were used as an educational tool aimed to improve professionalism and communication skills, encourage reading at home, and provide a regular review of clinically relevant topics. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal Board Invited Review: Comparing conventional and organic livestock production systems on different aspects of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagenberg, C P A; de Haas, Y; Hogeveen, H; van Krimpen, M M; Meuwissen, M P M; van Middelaar, C E; Rodenburg, T B

    2017-10-01

    To sustainably contribute to food security of a growing and richer world population, livestock production systems are challenged to increase production levels while reducing environmental impact, being economically viable, and socially responsible. Knowledge about the sustainability performance of current livestock production systems may help to formulate strategies for future systems. Our study provides a systematic overview of differences between conventional and organic livestock production systems on a broad range of sustainability aspects and animal species available in peer-reviewed literature. Systems were compared on economy, productivity, environmental impact, animal welfare and public health. The review was limited to dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broilers and laying hens, and to Europe, North America and New Zealand. Results per indicators are presented as in the articles without performing additional calculations. Out of 4171 initial search hits, 179 articles were analysed. Studies varied widely in indicators, research design, sample size and location and context. Quite some studies used small samples. No study analysed all aspects of sustainability simultaneously. Conventional systems had lower labour requirements per unit product, lower income risk per animal, higher production per animal per time unit, higher reproduction numbers, lower feed conversion ratio, lower land use, generally lower acidification and eutrophication potential per unit product, equal or better udder health for cows and equal or lower microbiological contamination. Organic systems had higher income per animal or full time employee, lower impact on biodiversity, lower eutrophication and acidification potential per unit land, equal or lower likelihood of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and higher beneficial fatty acid levels in cow milk. For most sustainability aspects, sometimes conventional and sometimes organic systems performed better, except for productivity, which was

  4. Book Trade Research and Statistics. Prices of U.S. and Foreign Published Materials; Book Title Output and Average Prices: 2000 Final and 2001 Preliminary Figures; Book Sales Statistics, 2001: AAP Preliminary Estimates; U.S. Book Exports and Imports: 2001; Number of Book Outlets in the United States and Canada; Review Media Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sharon G.; Barr, Catherine; Grabois, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Includes six articles that report on prices of U.S. and foreign published materials; book title output and average prices; book sales statistics; book exports and imports; book outlets in the U.S. and Canada; and review media statistics. (LRW)

  5. World market of crude oil - review of possible scenarios of forecasting for the crude oil price movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, Risto

    2003-01-01

    Throughout most of 2002, crude oil prices were solidly within the range preferred by producers in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), $22 to $28 per barrel for the OPEC 'basket price' (Fig. 1). OPEC producers have been demonstrating disciplined adherence to announced cutbacks in production. Early in 2003, a dramatic upward turn in crude oil prices was brought about by a combination of two factors. First, a general strike against the Chavez regime resulted in a sudden drop in Venezuela's oil exports. Although other OPEC producers agreed to increase production to make up for the lost Venezuelan output, the obvious strain on worldwide spare capacity kept prices high. Second, price volatility was exacerbated by fears of war in Iraq. (Original)

  6. A New Ethical Challenge for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs/Ethics Committees (ECs in the Assessment of Pediatric Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Rose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the US and EU have introduced pediatric pharmaceutical legislation to facilitate clinical trials in children and development of better medicines for children. The first concerns were published in 2014 that the European Medicines Agency (EMA’s Pediatric Committee (PDCO may be over-enthusiastic and has compelled questionable pediatric clinical trials from pharmaceutical companies. Numerous clinical trials are mandated in rare conditions for which not enough patients exist for even one trial. Furthermore, where these trials are mandated in adolescent patients, the legal age limit of the 18th birthday is confused with a medical age limit and can result in separate clinical trials in adolescent patients that neither make medical nor scientific sense nor will ever recruit enough patients for a meaningful outcome. To confirm our concerns we searched the registry clinicaltrials.gov and found examples for PDCO-triggered unethical trials. We conclude that such trials should not be accepted by institutional review boards (IRBs/ethics committees (ECs and that clinical trials resulting from negotiations with EMA’s PDCO need extra careful scrutiny by IRBs/ECs in order to prevent unethical studies and damage to pediatric research and unnecessary risks to pediatric patients.

  7. Engaging Institutional Review Boards in Developing a Brief, Community-Responsive Human Subjects Training for Community Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Bogart, Laura M; Francis, Evelyn; Kornetsky, Susan Z; Winkler, Sabune J; Kaberry, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Engaging community partners as co-investigators in community-based participatory research (CBPR) requires certification in the rules, ethics, and principles governing research. Despite developments in making human research protection trainings more convenient and standardized (eg, self-paced Internet modules), time constraints and the structure of the content (which may favor academic audiences) may hinder the training of community partners. This paper is motivated by a case example in which academic and community partners, and stakeholders of a community-based organization actively engaged the leadership of a pediatric hospital-based institutional review board (IRB) in implementing a brief, community-responsive human subjects training session. A 2-hour, discussion-based human subjects training was developed via collaborations between the IRB and the community and academic partners. Interviews with trainees and facilitators after the training were used to evaluate its acceptability and possible future applications. Local IRBs have the potential to assist community partners in building sufficient knowledge of human subjects research protections to engage in specific projects, thereby expediting the progress of vital research to address community needs. We propose the need for developing truncated human subjects education materials to train and certify community partners, and creating formally organized entities within academic and medical institutions that specialize in community-based research to guide the development and implementation of alternative human subjects training certification opportunities for community partners.

  8. A review on on-board challenges of magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Wasikur

    2017-06-01

    The attempt of the review is to realize on-board hydrogen storage technologies concerning magnesium based solid-state matrix to allow fuel cell devices to facilitate sufficient storage capacity, cost, safety and performance requirements to be competitive with current vehicles. Hydrogen, a potential and clean fuel, can be applied in the state-of-the-art technology of `zero emission' vehicles. Hydrogen economy infrastructure both for stationary and mobile purposes is complicated due to its critical physico-chemical properties and materials play crucial roles in every stage of hydrogen production to utilization in fuel cells in achieving high conversion efficiency, safety and robustness of the technologies involved. Moreover, traditional hydrogen storage facilities are rather complicated due to its anomalous properties such as highly porous solids and polymers have intrinsic microporosity, which is the foremost favorable characteristics of fast kinetics and reversibility, but the major drawback is the low storage capacity. In contrast, metal hydrides and complex hydrides have high hydrogen storage capacity but thermodynamically unfavorable. Therefore, hydrogen storage is a real challenge to realize `hydrogen economy' that will solve the critical issues of humanity such as energy depletion, greenhouse emission, air pollution and ultimately climate change. Magnesium based materials, particularly magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material due to its high gravimetric and volumetric capacity as well as environmentally benign properties to work the grand challenge out.

  9. 76 FR 80368 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Libby Amphibole Asbestos Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9610-8] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science...: Notice. SUMMARY: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) [email protected] . General information concerning the EPA Science Advisory Board can be found at the EPA SAB...

  10. Board-invited review: Using behavior to predict and identify ill health in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D M; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-02-01

    We review recent research in one of the oldest and most important applications of ethology: evaluating animal health. Traditionally, such evaluations have been based on subjective assessments of debilitative signs; animals are judged ill when they appear depressed or off feed. Such assessments are prone to error but can be dramatically improved with training using well-defined clinical criteria. The availability of new technology to automatically record behaviors allows for increased use of objective measures; automated measures of feeding behavior and intake are increasingly available in commercial agriculture, and recent work has shown these to be valuable indicators of illness. Research has also identified behaviors indicative of risk of disease or injury. For example, the time spent standing on wet, concrete surfaces can be used to predict susceptibility to hoof injuries in dairy cattle, and time spent nuzzling the udder of the sow can predict the risk of crushing in piglets. One conceptual advance has been to view decreased exploration, feeding, social, sexual, and other behaviors as a coordinated response that helps afflicted individuals recover from illness. We argue that the sickness behaviors most likely to decline are those that provide longer-term fitness benefits (such as play), as animals divert resources to those functions of critical short-term value such as maintaining body temperature. We urge future research assessing the strength of motivation to express sickness behaviors, allowing for quantitative estimates of how sick an animal feels. Finally, we call for new theoretical and empirical work on behaviors that may act to signal health status, including behaviors that have evolved as honest (i.e., reliable) signals of condition for offspring-parent, inter- and intra-sexual, and predator-prey communication.

  11. Board-invited review: Rumen microbiology: leading the way in microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, D O; Nagaraja, T G; Wright, A D G; Callaway, T R

    2013-01-01

    Robert Hungate, considered the father of rumen microbiology, was the first to initiate a systematic exploration of the microbial ecosystem of the rumen, but he was not alone. The techniques he developed to isolate and identify cellulose-digesting bacteria from the rumen have had a major impact not only in delineating the complex ecosystem of the rumen but also in clinical microbiology and in the exploration of a number of other anaerobic ecosystems, including the human hindgut. Rumen microbiology has pioneered our understanding of much of microbial ecology and has broadened our knowledge of ecology in general, as well as improved the ability to feed ruminants more efficiently. The discovery of anaerobic fungi as a component of the ruminal flora disproved the central dogma in microbiology that all fungi are aerobic organisms. Further novel interactions between bacterial species such as nutrient cross feeding and interspecies H2 transfer were first described in ruminal microorganisms. The complexity and diversity present in the rumen make it an ideal testing ground for microbial theories (e.g., the effects of nutrient limitation and excess) and techniques (such as 16S rRNA), which have rewarded the investigators that have used this easily accessed ecosystem to understand larger truths. Our understanding of characteristics of the ruminal microbial population has opened new avenues of microbial ecology, such as the existence of hyperammonia-producing bacteria and how they can be used to improve N efficiency in ruminants. In this review, we examine some of the contributions to science that were first made in the rumen, which have not been recognized in a broader sense.

  12. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  13. Animal board invited review: genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to

  14. Migration of Price Discovery With Constrained Futures Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Paul Kofman; Steve Manaster

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the information content of futures option prices when the futures price is regulated while the futures option price itself is not. The New York Board of Trade provides the empirical setting for this type of dichotomy in regulation. Most commodity derivatives markets regulate prices of all derivatives on a particular commodity simultaneously. NYBOT has taken an almost unique position by imposing daily price limits on their futures contracts while leaving the options pri...

  15. 14 CFR 399.84 - Price advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price advertising. 399.84 Section 399.84... STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Enforcement § 399.84 Price advertising. The Board considers any advertising or solicitation by a direct air carrier, indirect air carrier, or an...

  16. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  17. The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, José L; Del Gobbo, Liana; Silva, Jose; Michaelson, Melody; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Spiegelman, Donna; Danaei, Goodarz; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    While food pricing is a promising strategy to improve diet, the prospective impact of food pricing on diet has not been systematically quantified. To quantify the prospective effect of changes in food prices on dietary consumption. We systematically searched online databases for interventional or prospective observational studies of price change and diet; we also searched for studies evaluating adiposity as a secondary outcome. Studies were excluded if price data were collected before 1990. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. Findings were pooled using DerSimonian-Laird's random effects model. Pre-specified sources of heterogeneity were analyzed using meta-regression; and potential for publication bias, by funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests. From 3,163 identified abstracts, 23 interventional studies and 7 prospective cohorts with 37 intervention arms met inclusion criteria. In pooled analyses, a 10% decrease in price (i.e., subsidy) increased consumption of healthful foods by 12% (95%CI = 10-15%; N = 22 studies/intervention arms) whereas a 10% increase price (i.e. tax) decreased consumption of unhealthful foods by 6% (95%CI = 4-8%; N = 15). By food group, subsidies increased intake of fruits and vegetables by 14% (95%CI = 11-17%; N = 9); and other healthful foods, by 16% (95%CI = 10-23%; N = 10); without significant effects on more healthful beverages (-3%; 95%CI = -16-11%; N = 3). Each 10% price increase reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 7% (95%CI = 3-10%; N = 5); fast foods, by 3% (95%CI = 1-5%; N = 3); and other unhealthful foods, by 9% (95%CI = 6-12%; N = 3). Changes in price of fruits and vegetables reduced body mass index (-0.04 kg/m2 per 10% price decrease, 95%CI = -0.08-0 kg/m2; N = 4); price changes for sugar-sweetened beverages or fast foods did not significantly alter body mass index, based on 4 studies. Meta-regression identified direction of price change (tax vs. subsidy), number of intervention components, intervention

  18. The prospective impact of food pricing on improving dietary consumption: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Afshin

    Full Text Available While food pricing is a promising strategy to improve diet, the prospective impact of food pricing on diet has not been systematically quantified.To quantify the prospective effect of changes in food prices on dietary consumption.We systematically searched online databases for interventional or prospective observational studies of price change and diet; we also searched for studies evaluating adiposity as a secondary outcome. Studies were excluded if price data were collected before 1990. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate. Findings were pooled using DerSimonian-Laird's random effects model. Pre-specified sources of heterogeneity were analyzed using meta-regression; and potential for publication bias, by funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests.From 3,163 identified abstracts, 23 interventional studies and 7 prospective cohorts with 37 intervention arms met inclusion criteria. In pooled analyses, a 10% decrease in price (i.e., subsidy increased consumption of healthful foods by 12% (95%CI = 10-15%; N = 22 studies/intervention arms whereas a 10% increase price (i.e. tax decreased consumption of unhealthful foods by 6% (95%CI = 4-8%; N = 15. By food group, subsidies increased intake of fruits and vegetables by 14% (95%CI = 11-17%; N = 9; and other healthful foods, by 16% (95%CI = 10-23%; N = 10; without significant effects on more healthful beverages (-3%; 95%CI = -16-11%; N = 3. Each 10% price increase reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 7% (95%CI = 3-10%; N = 5; fast foods, by 3% (95%CI = 1-5%; N = 3; and other unhealthful foods, by 9% (95%CI = 6-12%; N = 3. Changes in price of fruits and vegetables reduced body mass index (-0.04 kg/m2 per 10% price decrease, 95%CI = -0.08-0 kg/m2; N = 4; price changes for sugar-sweetened beverages or fast foods did not significantly alter body mass index, based on 4 studies. Meta-regression identified direction of price change (tax vs. subsidy, number of intervention components

  19. Board game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A board game comprises a board, a number of counters and two dice. The board is marked to provide a central area, representing the nucleus of an atom, and six or more annular rings extending concentrically around the central area, the rings being divided into 2,8,18,32,48 and 72 squares. Each ring represents an electron shell, and some of the squares are numbered, the number representing the atomic number of different elements. (author)

  20. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  1. Evidence for the effectiveness of minimum pricing of alcohol: a systematic review and assessment using the Bradford Hill criteria for causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Sadie; Scannell, Jack W; Marlow, Sally

    2017-06-06

    To assess the evidence for price-based alcohol policy interventions to determine whether minimum unit pricing (MUP) is likely to be effective. Systematic review and assessment of studies according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, against the Bradford Hill criteria for causality. Three electronic databases were searched from inception to February 2017. Additional articles were found through hand searching and grey literature searches. We included any study design that reported on the effect of price-based interventions on alcohol consumption or alcohol-related morbidity, mortality and wider harms. Studies reporting on the effects of taxation or affordability and studies that only investigated price elasticity of demand were beyond the scope of this review. Studies with any conflict of interest were excluded. All studies were appraised for methodological quality. Of 517 studies assessed, 33 studies were included: 26 peer-reviewed research studies and seven from the grey literature. All nine of the Bradford Hill criteria were met, although different types of study satisfied different criteria. For example, modelling studies complied with the consistency and specificity criteria, time series analyses demonstrated the temporality and experiment criteria, and the analogy criterion was fulfilled by comparing the findings with the wider literature on taxation and affordability. Overall, the Bradford Hill criteria for causality were satisfied. There was very little evidence that minimum alcohol prices are not associated with consumption or subsequent harms. However the overall quality of the evidence was variable, a large proportion of the evidence base has been produced by a small number of research teams, and the quantitative uncertainty in many estimates or forecasts is often poorly communicated outside the academic literature. Nonetheless, price-based alcohol policy interventions such as MUP are likely to reduce

  2. 20 CFR 220.186 - When and how often the Board will conduct a continuing disability review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... returned to work; (7) A State Vocational Rehabilitation Agency tells the Board that— (i) The services have.... Examples of cases likely to be scheduled for a medical improvement excepted diary are fractures and cases...

  3. 77 FR 48611 - Rules of Practice for Trials Before the Patent Trial and Appeal Board and Judicial Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... by motion reasonably could have been, raised and decided (Sec. 42.73(a)). As to the estoppel... subject matter estoppel triggered by a prior Board, district court, or U.S. International Trade Commission...

  4. Price setting in turbulent times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursdóttir, Ásgerdur; Vignisdóttir, Karen Á.

    This price setting survey among Icelandic firms aims to make two contributions to the literature. First, it studies price setting in an advanced economy within a more turbulent macroeconomic environment than has previously been done. The results indicate that price adjustments are to a larger...... extent driven by exchange rate fluctuations than in most other advanced countries. The median Icelandic firm reviews its prices every four months and changes them every six months. The main sources of price rigidity and the most commonly used price setting methods are the same as in most other countries....... A second contribution to the literature is our analysis of the nexus between price setting and exchange rate movements, a topic that has attracted surprisingly limited attention in this survey-based literature. A novel aspect of our approach is to base our analysis on a categorisation of firms...

  5. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  6. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  7. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  8. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Michael; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-05-08

    Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms.The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased medicine price transparency and have the

  9. Freemium Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing...... into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...

  10. The Challenges of First-in-Human Stem Cell Clinical Trials: What Does This Mean for Ethics and Institutional Review Boards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Barker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based clinical interventions are increasingly advancing through preclinical testing and approaching clinical trials. The complexity and diversity of these approaches, and the confusion created by unproven and untested stem cell-based “therapies,” create a growing need for a more comprehensive review of these early-stage human trials to ensure they place the patients at minimal risk of adverse events but are also based on solid evidence of preclinical efficacy with a clear scientific rationale for that effect. To address this issue and supplement the independent review process, especially that of the ethics and institutional review boards who may not be experts in stem cell biology, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR has developed a set of practical questions to cover the major issues for which clear evidence-based answers need to be obtained before approving a stem cell-based trial. Keywords: human stem cell-derived interventions, early phase clinical trials, institutional review and ethics boards, review process, guidelines

  11. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, J.

    2001-01-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  12. Revisiting port pricing : a proposal for seven port pricing principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, R.; De Langen, P.W.; Van Zuijlen, P.C.J.

    2017-01-01

    A review of seven large landlord port authorities around the world reveals a notable diversity of pricing structures. While port authorities increasingly act as commercial undertakings, port pricing often seems to be not driven by commercial considerations. In this paper, we argue that ports can be

  13. The Impact of Wind Farms on the Prices of Nearby Houses in Poland: A Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torzewski Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009/10 Poland has experienced a dynamic growth of wind energy production. Currently, wind energy is the most popular resource of renewable energy in Poland. Despite the importance of wind energy for the Polish economy, there is no reliable and comprehensive research on the causal effects of wind farm facilities on property prices.

  14. Review of energy efficiency CO2 and price policies and measures in EU countries and Norway in 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    For each countries of the European Union and the Norway, this document provides statistical data and analysis of the situation concerning the energy efficiency context, the measures and programs on the energy policy, the energy taxes and prices, the budget. (A.L.B.)

  15. 76 FR 52997 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Board Funding Final Rules for Allocation of the Board's... August 18, 2011. I. Introduction On June 21, 2011, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (the... public accounting firm, in amounts that are sufficient to cover the costs of processing and reviewing...

  16. Governing Board of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Governing Board held its 146th and 147th meetings on 19 September and 1 November 2006 respectively. At the first of these two meetings, a technical amendment to the Rules of the Fund was discussed regarding the annual adjustment of pensions. The Governing Board made a proposal, which was approved by the CERN Council at its meeting on 19 October 2006, to make an amendment to Article II 1.15 of the Pension Fund's Rules (see below). As a result, in future years, as long as the funding ratio of the Pension Fund is below 100 %, only a fraction of the observed inflation will be granted, so that the funding ratio reaches 100 % by the end of 2033. The cumulated loss in purchasing power incurred by any beneficiary shall be limited to 8 % maximum (including, for those concerned, the 1.7 % loss as at 1 January 2005). The parameters of this mechanism shall be reviewed after each actuarial review, to take into account the updated financial position of the Fund. The factor to be applied to the consumer price index f...

  17. Boards and governance in African national cricket organisations: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review ... the boards of African national cricket organisations to enhance the understanding of board involvement in ... The research reports on the composition of the boards of African cricket organisations as well as ...

  18. Uranium price forecasting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews a number of forecasting methods that have been applied to uranium prices and compares their relative strengths and weaknesses. The methods reviewed are: (1) judgemental methods, (2) technical analysis, (3) time-series methods, (4) fundamental analysis, and (5) econometric methods. Historically, none of these methods has performed very well, but a well-thought-out model is still useful as a basis from which to adjust to new circumstances and try again

  19. Bank Lending and Property Prices in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Gerlach, Stefan; Peng, Wensheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between residential property prices and lending in Hong Kong. This is an interesting topic for three reasons. First, swings in property prices have been extremely large and frequent in Hong Kong. Second, under the currency board regime, monetary policy can not be used to guard against asset price swings. Third, despite the collapse in property prices since 1998, the banking sector remains sound. While the contemporaneous correlation between lending and prop...

  20. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  1. The Challenges of First-in-Human Stem Cell Clinical Trials: What Does This Mean for Ethics and Institutional Review Boards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Roger A; Carpenter, Melissa K; Forbes, Stuart; Goldman, Steven A; Jamieson, Catriona; Murry, Charles E; Takahashi, Jun; Weir, Gordon

    2018-05-08

    Stem cell-based clinical interventions are increasingly advancing through preclinical testing and approaching clinical trials. The complexity and diversity of these approaches, and the confusion created by unproven and untested stem cell-based "therapies," create a growing need for a more comprehensive review of these early-stage human trials to ensure they place the patients at minimal risk of adverse events but are also based on solid evidence of preclinical efficacy with a clear scientific rationale for that effect. To address this issue and supplement the independent review process, especially that of the ethics and institutional review boards who may not be experts in stem cell biology, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) has developed a set of practical questions to cover the major issues for which clear evidence-based answers need to be obtained before approving a stem cell-based trial. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pricing, renegotiation and gross inequities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, J.S. (Van Cott, Bagley, Cornwall McCarthy, Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Reviews pricing, renegotiation and gross inequity provisions of coal supply agreements in order to provide practical assistance to an attorney called upon to draft in written form the intent of buyer and seller. 26 refs.

  3. Truly costly sequential search and oligopolistic pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten C W; Moraga-González, José Luis; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    We modify the paper of Stahl (1989) [Stahl, D.O., 1989. Oligopolistic pricing with sequential consumer search. American Economic Review 79, 700-12] by relaxing the assumption that consumers obtain the first price quotation for free. When all price quotations are costly to obtain, the unique

  4. 75 FR 57779 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel to continue its review of EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments, External Review Draft...

  5. Stock Price Synchronicity and Material Sustainability Information

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Jody; Hauptmann, Clarissa; Serafeim, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    We examine if, and under what conditions, disclosure of sustainability information identified as investor relevant by market-driven innovations in accounting standard-setting, is associated with stock prices reflecting more firm-specific information and thereby lower synchronicity with market and industry returns. We find that firms voluntarily disclosing more sustainability information, identified as material by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), have lower stock price syn...

  6. Dynamic cyclical comovements of oil prices with industrial production, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical relationship between oil prices and several key macroeconomic variables. In particular, we investigate the cyclical comovements of crude oil prices with output, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices. The methodology involves the use of the Hodrick-Prescott [Hodrick, R.J., Prescott, E.C., 1980. Post-War US Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation. Working Paper, Carnegie Mellon University] and Baxter-King [Baxter, M., King, R.G., 1999. Measuring business cycles: approximate band-pass filters for economic time series. Review of Economics and Statistics 81, 575-593] filters, as well as the recently developed full-sample asymmetric Christiano-Fitzgerald [Christiano, L.J., Fitzgerald, T.J., 2003. The band pass filter. International Economic Review 44, 435-465] band-pass filter. Contemporaneous and cross-correlation estimates are made using the stationary cyclical components of the time series to make inference about the degree to which oil prices move with the cycle. Besides documenting a number of important cyclical relationships using three different time series filtering methods, the results suggest that crude oil prices are procyclical and lag industrial production. Additionally, we find that oil prices lead consumer prices. (author)

  7. 76 FR 29746 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Mercury Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Public Meeting of the SAB Mercury Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Mercury Review Panel. DATES: The meeting will be held on... FACA and EPA policy, notice is hereby given that the SAB Mercury Review Panel will hold a public...

  8. Compatibility improvement method of empty fruit bunch fibre as a replacement material in cement bonded boards: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullah, Hayana; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Zaini Nik Soh, Nik Mohd; Mangi, Sajjad Ali

    2017-11-01

    The utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibre on bio-composite product has been introduced to replace current material mainly wood fibre. OPEFB is widely available as palm oil is one of the major agricultural crops in Malaysia. EFB fibre are lignocellulosic materials that could replace other natural fibre product especially cement bonded board. However, the contains of residual oil and sugar in EFB fibre has been detected to be the reason for incompatibility issue between EFB fibre and cement mixtures. Regarding on the issue, a study has been conducted widely on finding the suitable pre-treatment method for EFB fibre to remove carbohydrate contained in the said fibre that are known to inhibit cement hydration. Aside from that, cement accelerator was introduced to enhance the hydration of cement when it was mixed with natural fibre. Hence, this paper will summaries the previous findings and in-depth study on the use of EFB fibre as a replacement material in cement bonded fibre boards.

  9. Critical review of on-board capacity estimation techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Waag, Wladislaw; Marongiu, Andrea; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-05-01

    This work provides an overview of available methods and algorithms for on-board capacity estimation of lithium-ion batteries. An accurate state estimation for battery management systems in electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is becoming more essential due to the increasing attention paid to safety and lifetime issues. Different approaches for the estimation of State-of-Charge, State-of-Health and State-of-Function are discussed and analyzed by many authors and researchers in the past. On-board estimation of capacity in large lithium-ion battery packs is definitely one of the most crucial challenges of battery monitoring in the aforementioned vehicles. This is mostly due to high dynamic operation and conditions far from those used in laboratory environments as well as the large variation in aging behavior of each cell in the battery pack. Accurate capacity estimation allows an accurate driving range prediction and accurate calculation of a battery's maximum energy storage capability in a vehicle. At the same time it acts as an indicator for battery State-of-Health and Remaining Useful Lifetime estimation.

  10. Western Canada : changing pricing dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, B.

    1998-01-01

    Natural gas supply and demand trends in Western Canada are reviewed in a series of overhead viewgraphs. Production versus pipeline capacity, required gas well completions in the WCSB to meet local demand and fill export pipeline capacity to year 2005, NYMEX and AECO price trends during 1995-2000, and the question of what will happen to prices with additional pipeline capacity to the U.S. Midwest were summarized. The best guess is that Midwest prices will need to be high enough to attract marginal supplies from the Gulf, i.e. prices have be around the Henry Hub + five cents/ mmbtu. The new Canadian pipelines, (Northern Border and Alliance) will lower Midwest prices somewhat, but the impact will be modest. Assuming that additional planned pipeline expansion come on-stream, the pressure to expand east of Chicago will be considerable. tabs., figs

  11. Buddy Board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle; Moselund, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Projekt ’BuddyBoard’ er kommet i stand via et samarbejde mellem Frederikshavn kommune, Bunker43 og Lab. X. Afdeling en ’Havly’ på Sæby Ældrecenter fungerer som living lab, hvilket betyder, at det udgør et levende laboratorium for udvikling og afprøvning af teknologi (Schultz, 2013). Projektet er....... Bunker43 har udviklet en teknologi (BuddyBoard) til hurtig formidling af billeder fra pårørende og personale til beboere på institutioner. Pårørende og personale uploader billeder via en APP eller en hjemmeside og har mulighed for at tilføje en kort forklarende tekst til hvert billede. Beboeren ser...... billederne via en tablet. Systemet bygger på et simpelt og brugervenligt design, så ældre med kognitive og/eller fysiske funktionsnedsættelser kan anvende teknologien. BuddyBoard fungerer via internettet, og billederne gemmes på en sikret server hos udbyderen, som er Bunker43. Intentionerne med BuddyBoard er...

  12. 7 CFR 981.49 - Board estimates and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recommendations. To aid the Secretary in fixing the salable and reserve percentages, the Board shall furnish to... consideration anticipated imports, economic conditions and the anticipated market price (within the limitations...

  13. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, Andrew C.; Kempton, Willett; Smith, Aaron P.; Musial, Walt; Firestone, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  14. A comprehensive review of on-board State-of-Available-Power prediction techniques for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmann, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-10-01

    This study provides an overview of available techniques for on-board State-of-Available-Power (SoAP) prediction of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles. Different approaches dealing with the on-board estimation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC) or State-of-Health (SoH) have been extensively discussed in various researches in the past. However, the topic of SoAP prediction has not been explored comprehensively yet. The prediction of the maximum power that can be applied to the battery by discharging or charging it during acceleration, regenerative braking and gradient climbing is definitely one of the most challenging tasks of battery management systems. In large lithium-ion battery packs because of many factors, such as temperature distribution, cell-to-cell deviations regarding the actual battery impedance or capacity either in initial or aged state, the use of efficient and reliable methods for battery state estimation is required. The available battery power is limited by the safe operating area (SOA), where SOA is defined by battery temperature, current, voltage and SoC. Accurate SoAP prediction allows the energy management system to regulate the power flow of the vehicle more precisely and optimize battery performance and improve its lifetime accordingly. To this end, scientific and technical literature sources are studied and available approaches are reviewed.

  15. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  16. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  17. 75 FR 69069 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Lead Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... Time) and December 7, 2010 from 8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. (Eastern Time). ADDRESSES: The face-to-face... SAB Lead Review Panel will hold a public face-to-face meeting to peer review two draft EPA documents... an oral presentation at a public face-to-face meeting will be limited to five minutes, with no more...

  18. Trends in College Pricing, 2011. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The published prices on which the analysis in "Trends in College Pricing" is based come from data reported by institutions on the College Board's Annual Survey of Colleges. This survey, which is distributed to nearly 4,000 postsecondary institutions across the country, collects a wealth of data on enrollment, admission, degrees and majors,…

  19. 75 FR 55618 - Board of Governors; Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Board of Governors; Sunshine Act Meeting DATES AND TIMES: Tuesday, September 21... 21, at 10 a.m. (Closed) 1. Strategic Issues. 2. Pricing. 3. Financial Matters. 4. Personnel Matters and Compensation Issues. 5. Governors' Executive Session--Discussion of prior agenda items and Board...

  20. 12 CFR 907.12 - Finance Board procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board procedures. 907.12 Section 907.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS PROCEDURES Case-by-Case Determinations; Review of Disputed Supervisory Determinations § 907.12 Finance Board procedures. (a) Notice of Receipt...

  1. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  2. Tracking and Counting Motion for Monitoring Food Intake Based-On Depth Sensor and UDOO Board: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Muhammad Fuad bin; Norzali Haji Mohd, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Technology is all about helping people, which created a new opportunity to take serious action in managing their health care. Moreover, Obesity continues to be a serious public health concern in the Malaysia and continuing to rise. Obesity has been a serious health concern among people. Nearly half of Malaysian people overweight. Most of dietary approach is not tracking and detecting the right calorie intake for weight loss, but currently used tools such as food diaries require users to manually record and track the food calories, making them difficult for daily use. We will be developing a new tool that counts the food intake bite by monitoring hand gesture and face jaw motion movement of caloric intake. The Bite count method showed a good significant that can lead to a successful weight loss by simply monitoring the bite taken during eating. The device used was Kinect Xbox One which used a depth camera to detect the motion on person hand and face during food intake. Previous studies showed that most of the method used to count bite device is worn type. The recent trend is now going towards non-wearable devices due to the difficulty when wearing devices and it has high false alarm ratio. The proposed system gets data from the Kinect that will be monitoring the hand and face gesture of the user while eating. Then, the gesture of hand and face data is sent to the microcontroller board to recognize and start counting bite taken by the user. The system recognizes the patterns of bite taken from user by following the algorithm of basic eating type either using hand or chopstick. This system can help people who are trying to follow a proper way to reduce overweight or eating disorders by monitoring their meal intake and controlling eating rate.

  3. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  4. 75 FR 71702 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts for Review of EPA's Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... men of all racial and ethnic groups. The EPA SAB Staff Office will acknowledge receipt of nominations...) absence of financial conflicts of interest; (d) absence of an appearance of a lack of impartiality; and (e... conflicts of interest will include a review of the ``Confidential Financial Disclosure Form for Special...

  5. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  6. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  7. Board Task Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minichilli, Alessandro; Zattoni, Alessandro; Nielsen, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    identify three board processes as micro-level determinants of board effectiveness. Specifically, we focus on effort norms, cognitive conflicts and the use of knowledge and skills as determinants of board control and advisory task performance. Further, we consider how two different institutional settings....... The findings show that: (i) Board processes have a larger potential than demographic variables to explain board task performance; (ii) board task performance differs significantly between boards operating in different contexts; and (iii) national context moderates the relationships between board processes...... and board task performance....

  8. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  9. Pricing electricity for sustainability : climate change and Canada's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The electricity sector is Canada's largest single source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed electricity and carbon pricing approaches to reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector. An overview of the links between electricity pricing and climate change was presented, and current and emerging trends in electricity pricing related to encouraging energy conservation were reviewed. Market prices and failures were discussed. Approaches to pricing electricity included an increase in block prices; time-of-use prices; demand-side management and energy efficiency; and carbon pricing in Canada and electricity pricing signals. The study showed that several provincial utilities in Canada are experimenting with market-based pricing approaches for electricity and carbon that may help to reduce GHG emissions over time. Concerns over electricity supply and the negative environmental impacts of electricity production may lead to the full social pricing of electricity in some regions of Canada. 46 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  11. 75 FR 31433 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Lead Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... held on July 6, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. (Eastern Time) and July 7, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. (Eastern Time). ADDRESSES: The face-to-face meeting on July 6-7, 2010 will be held at the St. Regis... (FACA), 5 U.S.C., App. 2, notice is hereby given that the SAB Lead Review Panel will hold a public face...

  12. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  13. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffie, D.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  14. An agenda for board research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Guerra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly investigations on the board of directors, although intense from the mid-1990s onward, did not lead to entirely convincing results. This study proposes discussion on building a multidisciplinary and integrated theoretical framework able to capture the complexity and distinctive dimensions of the board as a group decision-making process. This is achieved through an essay developed from analytical and descriptive review of the literature. A synthesis on board research is presented, aiming to understand theoretical models lenses used to study corporate governance issues. The strengths and weaknesses of these models are pointed out, and their influence on board investigation is observed. This essay concludes by proposing a research agenda that considers the addition of psychological and sociological approaches to economic models of the analysis of group decision-making

  15. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors described...

  16. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  17. Is Marketing Board a Barrier or a Stimulant of Agricultural Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on examining the marketing policies of cocoa in West Africa with specific interest in comparing the prices of cocoa during marketing board eras of Nigeria and Ghana. The objectives of this study include examining the prevailing economic situations; comparing producer prices during the different pricing ...

  18. Periodic Pricing of Seasonal Products in Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel R. Bitran; Susana V. Mondschein

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies intertemporal pricing policies when selling seasonal products in retail stores. We first present a continuous time model where a seller faces a stochastic arrival of customers with different valuations of the product. For this model, we characterize the optimal pricing policies as functions of time and inventory. We use this model as a benchmark against which we compare more realistic models that consider periodic pricing reviews. We show that the structure of the optimal p...

  19. Harem: Hardwood lumber remanufacturing program for maxmizing value based on size, grade and current market prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Schwehm; P. Klinkhachorn; Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an expert system computer program which will determine the optimum way to edge and trim a hardwood board so as to yield the highest dollar value based on the grade, size of each board, and current market prices. The program uses the Automated Hardwood Lumber Grading Program written by Klinkhachorn, et al. for determining the grade of each board...

  20. Competitive Pricing by a Price Leader

    OpenAIRE

    Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...

  1. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  2. The Kostyuk report: Corporate board practices in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Kostyuk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reports on the corporate board practices in Ukraine. The roles of board of directors are mainly about control. The strategic and advisory roles are not developed. The mode of strategic involvement of the members of supervisory boards in Ukraine is mainly about reviewing and approving. Thus, the board of directors in Ukraine is "a rubber stamp". The degree of independence of directors is very low. Major board practices in Ukraine are: small number of independent directors on the board; low frequency of meeting of the board; small number of committees on the board; the management board influences the supervisory board. Board practices in Ukraine need a sort of recommendations, similar to those, made in UK at the end of 1990s, and at the start of the third millennium.

  3. Why and How to Write a High-Impact Review Paper: Lessons From Eight Years of Editorial Board Service to Reviews of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, Mark B.; Florindo, Fabio; Okin, Gregory; Robock, Alan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Cardenas, Bayani; Carlton, Annmarie; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Crucifix, Michel; Gettelman, Andrew; Hubbard, Alun; Katsura, Tomoo; Painter, Thomas H.

    2017-12-01

    High-impact review papers describe and synthesize the current state of the art, the open questions and controversies, and provide ideas for future investigations. They are written not only for a specific scientific discipline but also for the broader Earth and space science community. They not only summarize the literature, but they also create a framework from which to understand the progress, problems, and connections between different communities, observations, models, and approaches. Here we describe how to write a high-impact review paper, and why you should consider writing one for Reviews of Geophysics.

  4. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  5. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate...... the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  6. Frequent price changes under menu costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Svejstrup

    1999-01-01

    , the price may be changed more frequent in the short run, and in the long run it definitely will. Hence, observing frequent price changes is not necessarily inconsistent with a firm operating under menu costs. This paper relies on an article by Dixit (1991), (Review of Economic studies, 58, 141......This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on a single firm's pricing behaviour in a dynamic menu cost model that results in (S,s)-rules where the price is fixed inside a band. It will be demonstrated that even though the band of inaction widens in response to increased uncertainty...

  7. One TV, One Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Imbs; Haroon Mumtaz; Morten O. Ravn; Hélène Rey

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique dataset on television prices across European countries and regions to investigate the sources of differences in price levels. Our findings are as follows: (i) Quality is a crucial determinant of price differences. Even in an integrated economic zone as Europe, rich economies tend to consume higher quality goods. This effect accounts for the lion’s share of international price dispersion. (ii) Sizable international price differentials subsist even for the same television sets. ...

  8. Value-based pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  9. Joint Coal Board. Thirty-eighth annual report 1984/1985. [New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The thirty-eighth annual report of the Joint Coal Board is presented. Included are the major activities of the Board, general statistics of the New South Wales coal industry, an industry review and the Board's financial statements.

  10. 49 CFR 1018.95 - Board determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board determination. 1018.95 Section 1018.95... determination. (a) Following review of the evidence, the Board will issue a written decision which will include... determination, it shall notify the debtor of its intent to refer the debt to the IRS for offset against the...

  11. 42 CFR 456.716 - DUR Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... most effectively lead to improvement in the quality of drug therapy. The DUR board recommendations must... review, evaluation, and intervention. (4) Medical quality assurance. (b) Board composition. At least one... predetermined standards that pharmacies not using approved software must use in conducting prospective DUR. (2...

  12. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  13. The Ontario Energy Board's proposed new mandate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughren, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board's proposed new mandate was reviewed. The role of the Board will be to regulate the monopoly delivery components of the electricity and natural gas industry and to smooth the transition to competition. The Board will monitor market performance and will encourage electricity and natural gas monopoly services to be compatible where possible. The Board will also assist local restructuring efforts when called upon do so and ensure that the marketplace operates efficiently and effectively. Gas marketers' licensing is scheduled to begin in early 1999. Licenses will also apply to the electric industry. The objectives of the proposed licensing, the regulatory requirements and the proposed regulatory approach are described

  14. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  15. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  16. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of creating political markets, and political prices, here understood as market distortion. This paper studies the ‘politics’ of pricing by following the adoption of the first feed-in tariff in France. Pricing as a way of achieving non-economic ends, such as climate mitigation, brings the values of several...... public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 47 - The DoD Civilian/Military Service Review Board and the Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... break a tie. The board's decision is determined by majority vote. The president and two voting members... only needs to state the reasons why the group is ineligible for consideration under this part. 3. If...

  18. 76 FR 67715 - Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Administration (NOAA) science programs are of the highest quality and provide optimal support to resource... Advisory Board in Reviewing NOAA's Research and Development Portfolio-Presentation and Discussion; (6) NOAA...

  19. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  20. Retail Price Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Retail Price Model is a tool to estimate the average retail electricity prices - under both competitive and regulated market structures - using power sector projections and assumptions from the Energy Information Administration.

  1. Natural gas pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedenthal, C.

    1993-01-01

    Natural gas pricing is the heart and soul of the gas business. Price specifically affects every phase of the industry. Too low a price will result in short supplies as seen in the mid-1970s when natural gas was scarce and in tight supply. To fully understand the pricing of this energy commodity, it is important to understand the total energy picture. In addition, the effect and impact of world and US economies, and economics in general are crucial to understanding natural gas pricing. The purpose of this presentation will be to show the parameters going into US natural gas pricing including the influence of the many outside industry factors like crude oil and coal pricing, market drivers pushing the gas industry, supply/demand parameters, risk management for buyers and sellers, and other elements involved in pricing analysis

  2. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  3. Why fuel prices differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietveld, P.; Woudenberg, S. van

    2005-01-01

    Fuel taxes differ largely between countries. This paper reviews a number of considerations from the theory of public finance that may explain these differences. Based on a multiple regression model, we find for tax competition in Europe that small countries tend to be more aggressive than large countries by charging lower fuel taxes to attract customers from neighbouring countries. There is strong evidence that fuel is just considered as one of the many sources for government expenditure: as the share of government expenditure in GDP is higher, the fuel tax tends to be higher. No support is found for the hypothesis that fuel taxes are higher in countries where externality problems are more severe (proxied by car density of the country). In this respect, the normative literature on pricing externalities has found little support in the realities of transport policy. (author)

  4. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  5. Delegating Pricing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Bhardwaj

    2001-01-01

    An outstanding problem in marketing is why some firms in a competitive market delegate pricing decisions to agents and other firms do not. This paper analyzes the impact of competition on the delegation decision and, in turn, the impact of delegation on prices and incentives. The theory builds on the simplest framework of competition in two dimensions: prices and (sales agents') effort. Specifically, we are interested in answering the following questions: (1) Does competition affect the price...

  6. Price competition on graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

  7. Press point on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilansky, J.L.

    2005-06-01

    This document presents information and statistical data on the prices of the crude oils, refining and petroleum products, at the date of the 28 June 2005: evolution of the barrel price, supply and demand, geo-policy, consumption, diesel and gasoline, prices at the service station. (A.L.B.)

  8. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  9. Simulating Price-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Lucas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a price-takers' market simulation geared toward principles-level students. This simulation demonstrates that price-taking behavior is a natural result of the conditions that create perfect competition. In trials, there is a significant degree of price convergence in just three or four rounds. Students find this…

  10. 28 CFR 0.116 - Board of Immigration Appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board of Immigration Appeals. 0.116 Section 0.116 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Executive Office for Immigration Review § 0.116 Board of Immigration Appeals. The Board of Immigration...

  11. Effective Board Leadership: Factors Associated with Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the content, construct, and predictive validity of the Effective Board Leadership Practices Survey (EBLPS). The EBLPS was designed to measure the leadership practices of boards of education that support student achievement. A literature review identified 12 board leadership practices supportive of student…

  12. 20 CFR 901.51 - Decision of the Joint Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of the Joint Board. 901.51 Section 901.51 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE... final decision. In making its decision the Joint Board will review the record of such portions thereof...

  13. Animal Board Invited Review: Sheep birth distribution in past herds: a review for prehistoric Europe (6th to 3rd millennia BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasse, M; Tresset, A; Bălăşescu, A; Blaise, E; Tornero, C; Gandois, H; Fiorillo, D; Nyerges, É Á; Frémondeau, D; Banffy, E; Ivanova, M

    2017-12-01

    In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written. This perspective echoes archaeologists' current attempts at reconstructing ancient pastoral societies' socio-economical organization. Information related to birth seasonality may be retrieved directly from archaeological sheep teeth. The methodology consists of reconstructing the seasonal cycle record in sheep molars, through sequential analysis of the stable oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O) of enamel. Because the timing of tooth development is fixed within a species, inter-individual variability in this parameter reflects birth seasonality. A review of the data obtained from 10 European archaeological sites dated from the 6th to the 3rd millennia BC is provided. The results demonstrate a restricted breeding season for sheep: births occurred over a period of 3 to 4 months, from late winter to early summer at latitudes 43°N to 48°N, while a later onset was observed at a higher latitude (59°N). All conclusions concurred with currently held expectations based on present day sheep physiology, which, aside from the historical significance, contributes to the reinforcing of the methodological basis of the approach. Further study in this area will permit regional variability attributable to technical choices, within global schemes, to be fully reported.

  14. Departmental Appeals Board Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Chair and Board Members of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning determinations in discretionary, project grant programs, including...

  15. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  16. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    OpenAIRE

    van Oest, R.D.; Paap, R.

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to learn how many prices observed in the past are used for reference price formation. Furthermore, we learn to what extent households have sufficient price knowledge to form an internal reference price...

  17. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Establishing a pricing structure for software products : Case study: Viope Solutions Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tram

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a case study that explores how to establish a pricing structure for software products. The objective is to provide a guideline to establish a pricing structure for Viope Solutions Oy. A new pricing structure is crucial for the company due to recent changes in its business such as internationalisation and new product launches. The literature review introduces five attributes of a pricing structure. They are the unit definition, price determination, price segmentation, versio...

  19. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  20. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  1. In Defense of Boards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke); S. Dominguez Martinez (Silvia); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIt is often assumed that bad corporate performance means a bad CEO. The task of a board of directors is then simple: dismiss the executive. If it fails to do so, the board is said to be indolent. We take a kinder approach to observed board behaviour and point to the problems even

  2. The quest for sound money: currency boards to the rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Norman S. Fieleke

    1992-01-01

    Some countries with high inflation have adopted another nation’s more stable currency: Panama uses the U.S. dollar, gaining price stability and easier trade with its primary partner. But this arrangement grants an interest-free loan to the government whose currency is used. And the nation using the currency forgoes any income on the foreign currency holdings. ; One alternative, a currency board, achieves the other country’s monetary stability without these costs. Currency boards issue a domes...

  3. Will India set the price for teleradiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Thomas R

    2009-06-01

    With a lower cost for labour, Indian teleradiologists have an absolute price advantage in the global market. However, because trade is determined by comparative advantage rather than absolute price advantage, India's ability to export teleradiology services may be limited. The issue is, can the 'India price' for teleradiology set the price for these services in the USA? Review of the economic literature concerning the global teleradiology market. Currently, minimal information exists concerning the economic of global teleradiology market. However, a Ricardian analysis of this market suggests that India's ability to export teleradiology may be limited by rising opportunity costs (i.e. social unrest). Similarly, Heckscher-Ohlin analysis suggests that a lack of English-speaking physicians will limit India's ability to export teleradiology services to the USA. It appears unlikely that India will gain sufficient market share in the USA to determine the price of teleradiology services.

  4. Short run pricing in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, B. J.; Read, E. G.

    1996-01-01

    In response to the need for more responsive, competitive and decentralized pricing strategies forced upon the industry by deregulation, this study reviewed the type of electricity pricing required to coordinate a competitive wholesale electricity market over time periods typically of the order of one hour. It was found that nodal spot pricing can provide a straight-forward mechanism for providing the correct signals to market participants, while reflecting the costs and complexities of transmission network operation. Provided that all binding constraints are represented in the pricing model, and assuming that they are used in conjunction with long term contracts and capacity rights, such pricing can potentially deliver most of the benefits promised by perfect coordination, while allowing competition to flourish. 4 refs

  5. CO2 price dynamics. The implications of EU emissions trading for electricity prices and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Bakker, S.J.A.; Harmsen, H.W.; Lise, W.; Chen, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The experience with CO 2 trading and allowances prices in the last year is reviewed, with a focus on the factors influencing the price of electricity in EU countries. A statistical analysis investigates the relationship between the large increases in electricity prices experienced in 2005 and their relationship to CO 2 prices. In addition, a market simulation analysis using the COMPETES model is performed to assess the extent to which profit-maximizing generators, some of which possess market power, might pass on the opportunity cost of allowances to consumers. The paper concludes by reviewing possible options for policy makers to address the possible adverse implications of price increases caused by CO/sub 2/ trading.

  6. 7 CFR 1131.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1131.53 Section 1131.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1005.53 Section 1005.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1124.53 Section 1124.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1126.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1126.53 Section 1126.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1032.53 Section 1032.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1030.53 Section 1030.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1033.53 Section 1033.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1001.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1001.53 Section 1001.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  14. 7 CFR 1007.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1007.53 Section 1007.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1006.53 - Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Announcement of class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. 1006.53 Section 1006.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors. See § 1000.53. ...

  16. A long-term view of worldwide fossil fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a long-term trend of worldwide fossil fuel prices in the future by introducing a new method to forecast oil, natural gas and coal prices. The first section of this study analyses the global fossil fuel market and the historical trend of real and nominal fossil fuel prices from 1950 to 2008. Historical fossil fuel price analysis shows that coal prices are decreasing, while natural gas prices are increasing. The second section reviews previously available price modelling techniques and proposes a new comprehensive version of the long-term trend reverting jump and dip diffusion model. The third section uses the new model to forecast fossil fuel prices in nominal and real terms from 2009 to 2018. The new model follows the extrapolation of the historical sinusoidal trend of nominal and real fossil fuel prices. The historical trends show an increase in nominal/real oil and natural gas prices plus nominal coal prices, as well as a decrease in real coal prices. Furthermore, the new model forecasts that oil, natural gas and coal will stay in jump for the next couple of years and after that they will revert back to the long-term trend until 2018. (author)

  17. Arbitrage Pricing, Capital Asset Pricing, and Agricultural Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Louise M. Arthur; Colin A. Carter; Fay Abizadeh

    1988-01-01

    A new asset pricing model, the arbitrage pricing theory, has been developed as an alternative to the capital asset pricing model. The arbitrage pricing theory model is used to analyze the relationship between risk and return for agricultural assets. The major conclusion is that the arbitrage pricing theory results support previous capital asset pricing model findings that the estimated risk associated with agricultural assets is low. This conclusion is more robust for the arbitrage pricing th...

  18. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  19. STS pricing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  20. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.