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Sample records for prices household income

  1. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  2. Higher food prices may threaten food security status among American low-income households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret

    2013-10-01

    Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.

  3. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME, REMITTANCE AND PRICES IN RURAL NIGERIA AMID POLICY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis affected almost all aspect of human life. This paper explored effects of the global financial crisis on farmers' income, remittance and prices of food staples and highlighted certain government policy responses. The study was conducted in Nigeria. Secondary data were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, equivalent variation and Shannon index analysis. Results showed the global financial crisis affected the agrarian households/sector in Nigeria. The increase in prices meant more nominal income to farmers but grossly reduced their welfare due to decrease in real income as result of high inflation trend. Recommendations include that government should continue to sustain agrarian programs aimed at helping poor farmers to increase their capacity in production to meet the growing demand and changes. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  4. REGRESSIONAL ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER NUTRITION SPENDINGS IN THE HOUSEHOLDS OF THE REGION AS FUNCTION OF PERSONAL INCOME AND PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Siulzhyn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple regression analysis method is widely used to describe and investigate some processes of the regional economy and may be also used to solve an important problem of distinguishing the effects of various independent or partially dependent variables. The regression model considered includes the specification of its constituent relationships, the choice of variables included in each relation, and the definition of mathematical functions corresponding to these relations. Regression model of food expenditure with two independent variables - expenditure as a function of income and price is based upon the official quarterly averaged statistical information (2015 and 2016 years. All the data are presented in the interpolated monthly version. Regression analysis made it possible to specify the dependence of expenditure on food in the country's households on the disposable personal income and the relative price of foodstuffs, which must be taken into account when solving problems of the region's social and economic development.

  5. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  6. House prices and household mobility in the Netherlands : Empirical analyses of financial characteristics of the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation studies the role of financial household characteristics in the determination of house prices and household mobility in the Dutch owner-occupied housing market. We investigate how various financial characteristics -- in particular income, wealth, housing equity, and prospective

  7. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  8. Price and income elasticities of residential energy demand in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Isabella; Heindl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We apply a quadratic expenditure system to estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand (electricity and heating) in Germany. Using official expenditure data from 1993 to 2008, we estimate an expenditure elasticity for electricity of 0.3988 and of 0.4055 for space heating. The own price elasticity for electricity is −0.4310 and −0.5008 in the case of space heating. Disaggregation of households by expenditure and socio-economic composition reveals that the behavioural response to energy price changes is weaker (stronger) for low-income (top-income) households. There are considerable economies of scale in residential energy use but scale effects are not well approximated by the new OECD equivalence scale. Real increases in energy prices show a regressive pattern of incidence, implying that the welfare consequences of direct energy taxation are larger for low income households. The application of zero-elasticities in assessments of welfare consequences of energy taxation strongly underestimates potential welfare effects. The increase in inequality is 22% smaller when compared to the application of disaggregated price and income elasticities as estimated in this paper. - Highlights: • We estimate price, income, and expenditure elasticities for residential energy demand in Germany. • We differentiate elasticities by income groups and household type. • Electricity and space heating are necessary goods since the expenditure elasticities are smaller than unity. • Low-income households show a weaker reaction to changing prices when compared to high-income households. • Direct energy taxation has regressive effects, meaning that larger burdens fall upon low-income households.

  9. Incomes and expenses of the households

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Gorczyca

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the statistical spectrum of the incomes and expenses of the Polish households leads to the conclusion that the disposable incomes only slightly surpass the expenses of the households and, for a significant part of the households, are lower. There is a growing economic polarization of the society whose considerable part lives on incomes below the social minimum and even below the minimum of existence. The society, as a whole, only to a small extent enjoys the fruits of the econo...

  10. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  11. 84 income and crop diversification among farming households in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE AKINNAGBE

    This is often necessary in agriculture based peasant economies because of risks such as variability in soil quality, household and crop diseases, price shock, unpredictable rainfall and other weather related events. Income diversification can be achieved by producing a variety of crops and/or pursuing off-farm employment.

  12. Analysis of price and income elasticities for cereals food crops in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study is to estimate the price and income elasticities of cereals food crops in the study area. The results of the price and income elasticities of demand suggest that urban households in general are responsive to changes in own price and income in adjusting their consumption patterns. It was shown that ...

  13. The effects of the energy price reform on households consumption in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    The substantial subsidizing of energy prices over the years has led to high energy consumption, inefficiencies, fiscal pressures, and environmental problems in Iran. To address the increasing socio-economic problems associated with the energy subsidies, the government embarked on an aggressive energy price reform through which energy subsidies were removed and cash handouts were given to all households in 2010. In this paper, I analyze the effectiveness of the energy price reform in Iran by estimating energy demand elasticities for households in different income groups. I apply a two-stage consumer optimization model and estimate the system of energy expenditures shares using the household budget survey data for the period 2001–2008. The results show that the overall price elasticities of demand are small, but income elasticities are close to one. The results also indicate heterogeneous responses to energy price and income changes in different income groups. Specifically, the urban households show stronger response to price changes, but rural households, particularly mid-income households, to income changes. These findings suggest that the current policy of price increases would not solely be able to reduce energy consumption and, therefore, it should be geared towards increasing energy efficiency through a series of price and non-price measures. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of the recent energy price reform in Iran is analyzed. • Energy demand elasticities for households in different income groups are estimated. • A two-stage optimization model was applied to estimate the system of equations using micro-data for 2001–2008. • The price elasticities are small and income elasticities rather large, but responses are heterogeneous. • A price and non-price reform policy package is needed for different income groups and regions

  14. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  15. Rural household income mobility in transitional China: Evidence from China Household Income Project

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sui

    2015-01-01

    Based on China Household Income Project rural data, this paper aims to study the changes of rural household income mobility in transitional China. The results show that with the economic reform and development, income mobility between 2007 and 2009 was much stronger than before. Regarding the structure of income mobility, the 'exchange mobility' is generally the major source, followed by the 'growth mobility'. The comparison with income inequality indicated that the low degree of mobility is ...

  16. Immigration, Real Estate Prices and the Consumption Decisions of Native Households

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Zeno; Blickle, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Since house prices govern the consumption decisions of renters and owners alike, changing house prices can have far-reaching macroeconomic consequences. We analyze how the disposable income and consumption decisions of households are affected by exogenous house price changes in Switzerland. We look at consumption of both housing and non-durable goods to establish a comprehensive picture. We ensure that our house price variation is exogenous by instrumenting house prices with origin-shift immi...

  17. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan; FC Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  18. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan .; F C Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  19. Distributional impacts of carbon pricing: A general equilibrium approach with micro-data for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Sebastian; Metcalf, Gilbert E.; Reilly, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor prices. A complete analysis requires taking both effects into account. The impact of carbon pricing is determined by heterogeneity in household spending patterns across income groups as well as heterogeneity in factor income patterns across income groups. It is also affected by precise formulation of the policy (how is the revenue from carbon pricing distributed) as well as the treatment of other government policies (e.g. the treatment of transfer payments). What is often neglected in analyses of policy is the heterogeneity of impacts across households even within income or regional groups. In this paper, we incorporate 15,588 households from the U.S. Consumer and Expenditure Survey data as individual agents in a comparative-static general equilibrium framework. These households are represented within the MIT USREP model, a detailed general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. In particular, we categorize households by full household income (factor income as well as transfer income) and apply various measures of lifetime income to distinguish households that are temporarily low-income (e.g., retired households drawing down their financial assets) from permanently low-income households. We also provide detailed within-group distributional measures of burden impacts from various policy scenarios. - Highlights: → We develop a simulation model with 15,588 households to study the distributional impacts of carbon pricing in the US. → Sources side impacts have typically been ignored in the literature biasing studies towards finding carbon pricing to be regressive. → Our general equilibrium framework allows us to capture uses and sources side impacts from carbon pricing. → We find that variation in impacts within broad socioeconomic groups may

  20. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  1. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Wall, Melanie; Mitchell, Nathan R

    2010-10-26

    The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. A community-based sample of 90 households. Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p income households (45% versus 26%, p sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.

  2. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  3. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  4. Contribution of crude oil price to households' budget: The weight of indirect energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparian, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate the burden of oil price on any set of goods and services, and apply it to French households. This method takes into account the contribution of indirect energy consumption, which constitutes typically one half of the energy used by a typical French household. It yields an average burden of 4.4% in 2006, with a higher relative burden for households with lower income, older members and rural dwelling

  5. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  6. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  7. Modern Trends in the Formation of Household Incomes in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Zaika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modern trends in the formation of household incomes in Ukraine, finding the relation between different types of income on the basis of statistical and financial classification. Identifying modern trends in the generation of household income is important for the disclosure of labour market formation. Formation of a diversified system of household incomes, harmoniously combining both primary and secondary incomes, incomes from the payment of wage labour, entrepreneurship and self-employment, as well as other types of income, can protect people during crises in the financial and real sectors of the economy.

  8. Price and Income Elasticities of Russian Exports

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    Bernardina Algieri

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gauges export demand elasticities for Russia using an Error Correction technique within a cointegration framework. An extended version of the Imperfect Substitutes Model has been implemented to estimate the sensitivity of Russian exports without oil components to price and to Russian and world income. Our results suggest a robust and negative long run cointegration relationship between the real effective exchange rate, defined as the weighted average of the rouble’s exchange rates versus a basket of the three currencies with the largest share in the trade turnover adjusted to incorporate inflation rate differences (the ratio of the domestic price indices to the foreign price indices, and Russian exports. An increase in exports by 24% is caused by a real depreciation by 10%. Furthermore, a 10% growth in world income leads to a 33% rise in exports. Finally, exports drop by 14% whenever a 10% increase in domestic income occurs

  9. Accounting for Households' Perceived Income Uncertainty in Consumption Risk Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Stoltenberg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a consumption risk-sharing model that distinguishes households' perceived income uncertainty from income uncertainty as measured by an econometrician. Households receive signals on their future disposable income that can drive a gap between the two uncertainties. Accounting for the

  10. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio S; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Tl; Anjos, Luiz A

    2009-09-22

    Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA) information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA) used in the definition of quintiles. The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population, showed that the CEA's income information can be used when income

  11. Determinants of Income Inequality among Korean Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Arayama, Yuko; Kim, Jong Moo; Kimhi, Ayal

    2006-01-01

    We extend the existing regression-based inequality decomposition methods to account for different income sources and different income regimes, and adequately correct for selectivity into the different income regimes. We apply these extensions to data on Korean farm households, and find that they lead to different and more informative conclusions. We also find that the correction for selectivity is essential. In particular, our results show that much of the inequality in farm household income ...

  12. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  13. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  14. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  15. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.  

  16. Informal household water market and determinants of price: Evidence from an Indian hill city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Manoranjan; De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Pricing of water in the hill cities in India is different from that of plain lands, because water is a scarce resource in most of the hill cities. The supply of water by the municipalities is inadequate. The private vendors come into picture and they put the prices according to the difficulties faced in supplying to the specific locations. Thus prices become variables and are also based on the economic demand-supply mechanism in which the households try to maximise their satisfaction subject to budget and other constraints, while the vendors try to extract as much benefit as possible from the buyers. This paper tries to examine the pricing of household water use in Shillong urban area, India and the impact of various factors including income, house rent, seasonal scarcity of water, capacity of municipal supply, household size on the price-quantity determination. The analysis is made in terms of a simultaneous equation framework and the model is applied to a data collected by stratified random sampling technique across the municipal wards and non-municipal segments of greater Shillong urban Agglomeration. The result of three stage least squares reveals significant positive impacts of income, scarcity of water on the demand price while significantly negative impacts of quantity purchased, extent of municipal supply, house rent paid on the demand price. But the household size does not have any significant impact on the demand price though large household is expected to require more water. The supply of water on the other hand is not significantly affected by price, extent of municipal supply and deficiency though the coefficients are in the expected line.

  17. Role of forest income in rural household livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misbahuzzaman, Khaled; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    as Village Common Forests (VCFs), which provide valuable resources for community use. An investigation was made of the role of forest income in livelihoods of selected VCF communities in Bandarban and Rangamati districts of the CHTs. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed to examine...... the household livelihood system of the respondents selected at random from 7 villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and structured quarterly surveys. The contribution of all forest-related income was found to be much smaller (11.59 %) than that of agricultural income (77.......02 %) in average total household income. However, VCFs provide bamboos, which are the largest source of household forest income. Moreover, they harbour rich native tree diversity which is vital for maintaining perennial water sources upon which most household livelihood activities depend. Therefore, it seems...

  18. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio TL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. Methods A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. Results The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA used in the definition of quintiles. Conclusion The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population

  19. Income Migration and Home Price Trajectories in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel M. Otterstrom

    2015-01-01

    This paper models one facet of the relationship between housing market price shifts and income migration among U.S. regions: how income migration relates to regional housing price clusters. The tremendous negative slide in national housing prices from 2006 to 2012 had an uneven spatial distribution. These differences are explored within the context of net income and net population migration (movement of money with people). Median housing prices for urban areas from 2005 to 2010 and IRS county...

  20. Determinants of Household Savings in Turkey Except for Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞENGÜR

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Household has an extremely important place in the division of income for the economies. It plays a decisive role in personal consumption, investment, and savings. This study aims to identify the determinants of household savings except for income. In this study, "Household Budget Survey" conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute for the years 2002-2013 is used. Survey data has been analyzed by logistic regression models. The results of the study show that house ownership, having an extra house, having annual disposable income of over 10.000 ₺, education level also have a positive effect on household savings. On the other hand, the number of family members, car ownership, temporary or seasonal employment, and living in rural areas affect household savings in a negative way.

  1. Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Growth in Income of Rural Household in Bangladesh: A Quintile-Growth Approach to the Analysis of Distributional Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayal Talukder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study has investigated the growth in income of rural households in Bangladesh with a view to analysing distributional consequences in the post-liberalisation era. Using data from secondary sources, it has applied a quintile-growth approach by dividing each group of households into five income clusters (quintiles to analyse the incidence of growth in real income. It has found that although all groups of rural households experienced a moderate to high increase in real income, non-farm households experienced a larger increase than farm households due to a large reduction in consumer price. Farm households gained from the increase in productivity but experienced losses from producer price reduction. The two opposite forces – increase in productivity and reduction in producer price – offset the effects of each other, thereby affecting the income growth of farm households. Amongst the farm households, large and medium farmers gained the most and small farmers gained the least from the growth in real income, indicating that rich households experienced a much higher increase in real income than poor households – thereby adversely affecting the distribution of income and widening the income gap between rich and poor households. These findings demonstrated that while agricultural trade liberalisation benefited rural households generally, the benefits were not distributed equally and in fact, inequality increased amongst rural households. This study argues that the growth in real income of rural household was not pro-poor during 1985- 86 to 2005. This study suggests that agricultural trade liberalisation contributed to higher growth in the rural economy but it contributed to greater inequality in income distribution amongst the rich and poor income groups (quintiles. Government should reduce inequality through policy interventions with income transfer from the rich to the poor.

  2. Are lower income smokers more price sensitive?: the evidence from Korean cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seng Eun

    2016-03-01

    The cigarette excise taxes and the price of a typical pack of cigarettes in Korea have not increased since 2005, and effective tax rate as a fraction of price and real price of cigarettes have both been falling. As smoking prevalence is higher among lower income people than among higher income people in Korea, the regressivity of cigarette excise taxes is often cited as a barrier to tobacco tax and price policy. While studies in several other high-income countries have shown that higher income individuals are less price sensitive, few studies have examined the differential impact of cigarette tax increases by income group in Korea. Most of the Korean literature has estimated the demand for cigarettes using time-series aggregate sales data or household level survey data, which record household cigarette expenditures rather than individual cigarette consumption. Studies using survey data often lack time-series variation and estimate cigarette demand using household expenditure data, while studies using time-series aggregate sales data lack cross-sectional variation. I examine differences in the effects of cigarette price on the cigarette consumption of various income groups using individual-level cigarette consumption records from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KHNNES). I also analyse the implications of cigarette taxes and price increases on the relative tax burdens of different income groups. I use pooled data from the KNHNES for the 1998-2011 period to estimate the price elasticity of cigarette consumption of four income groups. Treating cigarette consumption as a latent variable, I employ an econometric procedure that corrects for non-random sample selection, or the fact that some non-smokers might have smoked at a low enough price, and estimate the price elasticity of cigarette consumption by income group. The estimated price elasticities include the responsiveness of potential smokers as well as current smokers. Lower income Korean

  3. Money Marries Money - Intergenerational Top Household Income Mobility in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Hussain, M. Azhar; Munk, Martin David

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes intergenerational earnings and income mobility among top-income households in Denmark. Access to administrative registers allowed us to look at very small fractions of the populations, and to distinguish between sons and daughters and to observe their spouses’ incomes. At the....... At the top of the income distribution we find a correlation of 0.763 between father and mother’s pooled income and that of their son and daughter-in-law’s pooled income, which indicates that money marries money....

  4. Trade Policy and the Household Distribution of Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); H. Rojas-Romagosa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe explore the relationship between import protection and the household distribution of income. We first develop a general-equilibrium mapping from tariffs to household inequality measures. This also yields predictions for linkages between tariffs, development level, and observed

  5. Income differentiation of agricultural households in regions of Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Procházková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis. This fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008. The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, and age. The analysis and subsequent problem solving of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type. Household income is one of the decisive factors determining the style of family life, their priorities, meeting their needs, and ensure-time activities. Differences between regions determine preferences and identify opportunities.

  6. [Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador, based on household data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol in Ecuador using cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Urban and Rural Household Income and Expenditures (ENIGHUR is the acronym in Spanish) 2011-2012. ENIGHUR 2011-2012 data were used with Deaton's (1, 2) methodology to estimate price elasticity of demand for cigarettes and alcohol with expenditure and quantity information. Household socioeconomic variables were also included. Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes is -0.87, meaning that a 10% price increase could lead to an 8.7% decrease in consumption. Results for cross-price elasticities of alcohol on cigarette demand are negative, as expected, indicating that they are complementary goods; however, the results are not statistically significant. Furthermore, it was found that price elasticity of demand for alcohol is -0.44, meaning that a 10% increase in the price of alcohol would produce a 4.4% decrease in consumption. A policy of price increases, for example, with a tax increase, applied to both cigarettes and alcohol, could have a positive effect on public health through reductions in consumption of both goods. However, this measure would not be sufficient to bridge gaps in prevalence measures and health outcomes between sex and other population groups, given the observed difference in the sensitivity of consumption to price variations.

  7. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  9. The impact of high energy prices in Central American households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta, Ana; Manzano, Osmel

    2010-09-15

    Central American countries have one the highest energy costs in Latin America. We look at the potential social impact of higher energy prices using household data. Depending on a portfolio of characteristics, higher energy prices could have significant impact on the poor purchasing power. In countries like Guatemala, the poorest could see a higher impact than the richest. In Mexico and Panama, the impact is higher for the 'lower middle class'. We measure indirect effects of lack of energy sources, we conclude that children that live in households that cook with fossil fuels are subject to attend less to school.

  10. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  11. Financial Position and House Price Determination : An Empirical Study of Income and Wealth Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377458708; Hassink, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090437411

    This paper examines the effect of the relative financial position of buyers and sellers on house prices, distinguishing between income and wealth effects. Using administrative data from the Netherlands (2006–2010) that combine transaction data, house characteristics, and household characteristics of

  12. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produce),4 which is the case for the majority of South Africans. In South Africa ... Expressed as a proportion of average monthly income, the increase in the cost of .... innovation in food, nutrition and broader agricultural policies. Mieke Faber ...

  13. Determinants of electricity demand for newly electrified low-income African households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louw, Kate; Conradie, Beatrice; Howells, Mark; Dekenah, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy is an important enabler of development. Energy allows households to meet their most basic subsistence needs; it is a central feature of all the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, while a lack of access to energy may not be a cause of poverty, addressing the energy needs of the impoverished lets them access services which in turn address the causes of poverty. While much is known about the factors affecting the decisions made when choosing between fuel types within a household, few quantitative studies have been carried out in South Africa to determine the extent to which these factors affect energy choice decisions. It is assumed that the factors traditionally included in economic demand such as price and income of the household affect choice; tastes and preferences as well as external factors such as distance to fuel suppliers are expected to influence preferences. This study follows two typical low-income rural sites in South Africa, Antioch and Garagapola, where the Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) was piloted in 2002. The EBSST is set at 50 kWh/month per household for low domestic consumers; this is worth approximately R20 (±US$3). This subsidy is a lifeline tariff, where households receive the set amount of units per month, free of charge irrespective of whether more units are purchased. These data (collected in 2001 and 2002), recently collated with detailed electricity consumption data, allow us to determine the drivers of electricity consumption within these households. The sample analysed is taken from the initial phase of the study, when no FBE had been introduced to the households. This enabled the study presented here to make use of the well-populated datasets to assess what affects the electricity use decision in these households. This paper attempts to assess which factors affected the decision-making process for electricity consumption within these households. A brief history

  14. THE EFFECTS OF PRICE AND INCOMES ON CONSUMER DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Tănase

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of consumption can only be explained by identifying and analysing all the factors acting upon the carrier of demand, and in a given time and space, they have a higher or a lower importance, which makes it impossible to find a hierarchy. However, in societies characterized by a low standard of living, prices and incomes have a strong impact on consumer behaviour. Consequently, this paper approaches one of the most stringent issues, which interest specialists, governing bodies, mass-media and, last but not least, population. In the entire paper we analyse the population’s consumption, i.e. food, non-food products and services, by categories of households, from the economic, statistic and sociologic viewpoints. The paper ends with a brief presentation of conclusions and suggestions regarding the analysis and improvement of population’s consumption.

  15. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Price and income elasticities of transport fuel demand have numerous applications. They help forecast increases in fuel consumption as countries get richer, they help develop appropriate tax policies to curtail consumption, help determine how the transport fuel mix might evolve, and show the price response to a fuel disruption. Given their usefulness, it is understandable why hundreds of studies have focused on measuring such elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel consumption. In this paper, I focus my attention on price and income elasticities in the existing studies to see what can be learned from them. I summarize the elasticities from these historical studies. I use statistical analysis to investigate whether income and price elasticities seem to be constant across countries with different incomes and prices. Although income and price elasticities for gasoline and diesel fuel are not found to be the same at high and low incomes and at high and low prices, patterns emerge that allow me to develop suggested price and income elasticities for gasoline and diesel demand for over one hundred countries. I adjust these elasticities for recent fuel mix policies, and suggest an agenda of future research topics. - Research highlights: ► Surveyed econometric studies of transport fuel demand. ► Developed price elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Developed income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel fuel for 120 countries. ► Suggested a research agenda for future work.

  16. The impact of seasonal rice price changes on rice self-consumption in farm household of rural Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, S. W.; Antriyandarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Seasonal rice price changes are very volatile and not predictable. This price changes have a heterogeneous impact on public consumption. The problem of seasonal rice price changes is not only experienced by consumers, but also in the farmers side as producers. The objective of this study is to provide a detail overview and description of the changing seasonal rice self-consumption of farm households in rural Java in response to seasonal rice price changes and income shocks to anticipate seasonal scarcity. This paper constructs a theoretical model to address such seasonality of food deprivation by using one year of seasonally farm household panel data, empirically tests the extent to which farmers in rural Java can smooth their rice self-consumption from season to season in response to income shocks. The result shows that rice farmers increase their rice self-consumption when prices are high.

  17. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  18. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  19. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  20. Differential pricing of new pharmaceuticals in lower income European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Annemans, Lieven; Garrison, Louis P

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies adjust the pricing strategy of innovative medicines to the imperatives of their major markets. The ability of payers to influence the ex-factory price of new drugs depends on country population size and income per capita, among other factors. Differential pricing based on Ramsey principles is a 'second-best' solution to correct the imperfections of the global market for innovative pharmaceuticals, and it is also consistent with standard norms of equity. This analysis summarizes the boundaries of differential pharmaceutical pricing for policymakers, payers and other stakeholders in lower-income countries, with special focus on Central-Eastern Europe, and describes the feasibility and implications of potential solutions to ensure lower pharmaceutical prices as compared to higher-income countries. European stakeholders, especially in Central-Eastern Europe and at the EU level, should understand the implications of increased transparency of pricing and should develop solutions to prevent the limited accessibility of new medicines in lower-income countries.

  1. INCOME AND PRICE AS A BARRIER TO ORGANIC FOOD CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Zielke, Stephan; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    From the barriers said to potentially hamper the further development of the sector, the consumer demand side and herein the high prices are handled as crucial. We reviewed the literature since 2000 regarding the role of perceived price and income. We find that self-report based studies nearly unequivocally find price is the primary barrier to choice, deviations from this appear to occur when researching organic consumers and developed organic markets. There are mixed findings regarding income...

  2. Income and crop diversification among farming households in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both strategies were analyzed based on empirical data collected from rural households. The analysis was done using the Simpson Index of Diversity (SID) and Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The results revealed that diversification into a number of income sources and crops grown were very high.

  3. Stochastic Production Frontier Models to Explore Constraints on Household Travel Expenditures Considering Household Income Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan M. Saleh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variation of household travel expenditure frontiers (HTEFs prior to CC reform in Jakarta. This study incorporates the variation of household income classes into the modeling of HTEFs and investigates the degree to which various determinants influence levels of HTEF. The HTEF is defined as an unseen maximum (capacity amount of money that a certain income class is willing to dedicate to their travel. A stochastic production frontier is applied to model and explore upper bound household travel expenditure (HTE. Using a comprehensive household travel survey (HTS in Jakarta in 2004, the observed HTE spending in a month is treated as an exogenous variable. The estimation results obtained using three proposed models, for low, medium and high income classes, show that HTEFs are significantly associated with life stage structure attributes, socio-demographics and life environment factors such as professional activity engagements, which is disclosed to be varied across income classes. Finding further reveals that considerable differences in average of HTEFs across models. This finding calls for the formulation of policies that consider the needs to be addressed for low and medium income groups in order to promote more equity policy thereby leading to more acceptable CC reform.

  4. Social accounting matrix and the effects of economic reform on health price index and household expenditures: Evidence from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Khosro; Najafi, Behzad; Andayesh, Yaghob; Rezapour, Aziz; Abolhallaj, Masoud; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Sanati, Ehsan; Mirian, Iman; Nikfar, Shekoofeh; Lotfi, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic indicators are the main factors that affect health outcome. Health price index (HPI) and households living costs (HLC) are affected by economic reform. This study aimed at examining the effect of subsidy targeting plan (STP) on HPI and HLC. Methods: The social accounting matrix was used to study the direct and indirect effects of STP. We chose 11 health related goods and services including insurance, compulsory social security services, hospital services, medical and dental services, other human health services, veterinary services, social services, environmental health services, laundry& cleaning and dyeing services, cosmetic and physical health services, and pharmaceutical products in the social accounting matrix to examine the health price index. Data were analyzed by the I-O&SAM software. Results: Due to the subsidy release on energy, water, and bread prices, we found that (i) health related goods and services groups' price index rose between 33.43% and 77.3%, (ii) the living cost index of urban households increased between 48.75% and 58.21%, and (iii) the living cost index of rural households grew between 53.51% and 68.23%. The results demonstrated that the elimination of subsidy would have negative effects on health subdivision and households' costs such that subsidy elimination increased the health prices index and the household living costs, especially among low-income families. The STP had considerable effects on health subdivision price index. Conclusion: The elimination or reduction of energy carriers and basic commodities subsidies have changed health price and households living cost index. Therefore, the policymakers should consider controlling the price of health sectors, price fluctuations and shocks.

  5. OPTIMAZION STUDY OF FARM HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN KAPUAS SUBDISTRICT, MURUNG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Wardie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aims: (1 analyze resource allocation farm households include land, labor, and capital optimally; (2 assess resources become a limiting factor in obtaining maximum revenue; and (3 analyze effect of changes in land resource constraints, price inputs and outputs as well as rice farming technology to optimal resource allocation and maximum income for farm households. Purposive sampling to select “Palingkau Lama” and “Palingkau Baru” Village, in Kapuas District. Sampling done by simple random sampling method on 50 respondents. Research objectives assessed using linear programming analysis model with software WIN-QSB. Results: (1 farming pattern is optimal on households are (local rice + rambutan with a maximum income IDR 31,590,000 per year; (2 resources become a limiting factor in achieving maximum revenue is due to land and capital used up, while labor resource is not depleted so that not limiting factor; (3 simulation led to an increase land area increased revenue to IDR 36,857,540, and pattern of optimal farming transformed into pattern (local rice + banana + rambutan, while simulating an increase in price inputs and outputs as well as technology of rice farming by 20 percent resulting in increased revenue to IDR 36,041,270 and IDR 33,594,860 but optimal farming pattern remains unchanged.

  6. The Weight of Health Expenditures on Household Income in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Parfait OWOUNDI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available  African leaders pledged at the Abuja conference in 2001, to mobilize more financial resources to allocate at least 15% of their national budgets to the health sector to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, seem to have difficulty meeting this commitment because of weakness and fragmentation of health systems. These commitments were renewed in Gaborone, Botswana in 2005 and in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2006. Indeed, donor funding is still a large part of public health spending on the continent. In some countries, 50% or more of their budgets come from foreign or private assistance. In about half the countries, the private health financing is equal to or exceeds largely public funding, up to 70% in some states like Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Chad, Liberia and Uganda. Only five countries (Rwanda, Malawi, Zambia, Burkina Faso, and Togo have so far respected the promise made to the Abuja conference. In Cameroon, where 51% of the population lives on less than two dollars per day, the average propensity of the total medical consumption is very high. Indeed, 32% of households spend less than half of income on health, while 16% of households spend more than half of the income and 52% spend more than the total income. This corresponds to a weight of 68% in health care spending.  

  7. Female Land Rights and Rural Household Incomes in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Diana Deere; Rosa Luz Durán; Merrilee Mardon; Tom Masterson

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of female land rights and their impact on household income levels among owner-operated farms in Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. Previous studies in Latin America suggest that the gender of the household head is not a significant predictor of household income, not unsurprising given the ambiguities with which self-declared headship is associated. We hypothesize that female land rights, by increasing women's options, are a positive determinant of household income...

  8. The relative importance of community forests, government forests, and private forests for household-level incomes in the Middle Hills of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the household-level economic importance of income from forests under different tenure arrangements, data were collected from 304 stratified randomly sampled households within 10 villages with community forest user groups in Tanahun District, Western Nepal. We observed that forest...... realisation of community forestry's poverty reduction and income equalizing potential requires modifications of rules that govern forest extraction and pricing at community forest user group level....

  9. Income disparities and their impact on the level and development of food expenditures of households in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper evaluates development and changes in the level of households food expenditures in Slovakia, which occurred after the accession of Slovakia to the European Union in 2004 and began to apply the rules of the Common Agricultural Policy and using of means of support. Free movement of goods, labor and capital has contributed to the increase of goods and services supply and living standards as well as to the increase in households income differentiation. Until 2012, households in the lowest income quartile possess on average with only 34.1 % per year of the revenue compared with income in the highest fourth quartile of income category. The results of the analysis show a different behavior in the food market. Most sensitive to the change in income and price levels of food expenditures for food responded in families with the lowest incomes (EI = 0.28. With the increase in prices of cereals (bread by one percentage unit-demand declined by an average by 0.49 % (Epi = −0.49, the demand for cheese by 0.65 % (Epi = −0.654 and the demand for meat by 0.275 % (Epi = −0.275.

  10. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. System Dynamics Modeling of Households' Electricity Consumption and Cost-Income Ratio: a Case Study of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariss, Uldis; Bazbauers, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-11-01

    Increased energy efficiency of the building sector is high on the list of priorities for energy policy since better energy efficiency would help to reduce impact on climate change and increase security of energy supply. One aim of the present study was to find a relative effect of growth of demand for energy services due to changes in income, energy consumption per unit of demand due to technological development, changes in electricity price and household income on household electricity consumption in Latvia. The method applied included system dynamics modeling and data from a household survey regarding the relationship between electricity saving activities and the electricity cost-income ratio. The results revealed that, in direct contrast to the expected, a potential reduction of the electricity consumption is rather insensitive to electricity price and electricity cost-income ratio, and that the efficiency of technologies could be the main drivers for future electricity savings. The results suggest that support to advancement of technologies and faster replacement of inefficient ones rather than influencing the energy price could be effective energy policy measures. The model, developed in the study could be used in similar assessments in other countries.

  12. Seasonal household income dependency on forest and environmental resources in rural Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Nielsen, Øystein Juul

    2013-01-01

    Households in agrarian societies engage in variety of income generating activities. These activities are often seasonal and the associated income generated is volatile. Based on an income survey from 2006 in rural Mozambique, this study assesses the seasonal contribution of different income sources....... The volatility did vary across income sources; crop income seems the most volatile income component. Volatility in crop income is likely to have severe negative implications for rural households as poverty is widespread and other income opportunities are few. Therefore, the government and other developments...

  13. Business incomes in rural Nicaragua: the role of household resources, location, experience and trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haese, D' M.F.C.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the determinants of business income for rural households in Nicaragua. A sample of 1030 households was studied in order to assess the importance of material and behavioural factors that influence income from business activity. The households are involved in manufacturing, trade,

  14. City Size, Housing Price and Resident Income Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-zhong; ZHANG Ting; LI Ming-liang

    2014-01-01

    Taking the urban population size and urban housing price as the proxy variable of city size,this paper conducts an empirical analysis with the data of CHIPS 2002 and 2008.It is found that the rising of city size and housing prices has important promotion effects on income inequality of city residents.The main reason is that the wage of migrant workers is separated from the housing price of the cities in which they reside;while their wage level can balance the wage level of the ordinary workers of city residents,making it separate from the urban housing price.But the wage of high quality worker of city residents is closely connected with the housing price.The combined action of the multy sizes in China's urban labor market leads to such a result that the greater the size of cities,the higher the urban housing prices,and the larger the income gap between urban residents.This means that in the construction of the new urbanization,to limit the over-expansion of such mega-cities as Beijing,Shanghai and so on and to develop the middle and small cities is an effective way to narrow the income gap between urban residents in China.

  15. Impact of infrastructure on rural household income and inequality in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Qaim, Matin; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    contributes to the literature by empirically analysing the effects of rural road construction on household income and income inequality in Nepal. Using a quasi-experimental design, a difference-in-difference approach is developed and employed to analyse household (n = 177) data before and after road...... construction. We find that the new road had a significantly positive impact on mean household income of USD 235 (28%). Contrary to expectations, we do not find an increase in income inequality. Compared to the counterfactual site, it appears that the road has rather contributed to decreasing income inequality....... The poorest households gained most from the road construction, making it a pro-poor development intervention....

  16. How do land rental markets affect household income? Evidence from rural Jiangsu, P.R. China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lan; Feng, Shuyi; Heerink, Nico; Qu, Futian; Kuyvenhoven, Arie

    2018-01-01

    The development of land rental markets in developing countries attracts much attention, but little is known about its impact on household income. This study empirically examines the effects of land rental decisions of farm households on their income and income components, i.e. farm, off-farm and

  17. Who's cooking? Time spent preparing food by gender, income and household composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mancino, Lisa; Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    We use the American Time Use Survey data and multivariate analysis to explore how time allocated to food preparation differs across income groups, household composition (number of adults and presence of children), and employment status of adults in the household.

  18. Urban Farm-Nonfarm Diversification, Household Income and Food Expenditure in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampaw Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of farm-nonfarm diversification (FND on household income and food expenditure in urban Ghana using propensity score matching (PSM technique to account for potential selection bias. We find diversified households to be statistically different from undiversified households in terms of household characteristics. Age, gender, educational attainment of the household head, household size, ownership of livestock and agricultural land, and receipt of miscellaneous and rent incomes are positive and significant determinants of FND in urban Ghana. In addition, we find that participation in both farm and nonfarm activities positively and significantly impacts household income and food expenditure. In the light of growing urbanization, with its implications for unemployment, poverty and food insecurity, we recommend diversification among urban households as a means of smoothing income and consumption.

  19. Buffer zone income dynamics for the sub-district producer community: Implications for rural off-farm income, income inequality and the development of household agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Taruvinga, Amon; Mushunje, Abbyssinia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of buffer zones in household welfare in Zimbabwe by using primary household level data collected between November and December 2010 from communities that share boundaries with Nyatana Game Park. The descriptive statistics suggest that the contribution of buffer zone activities to household income may be significant, with a positive correlation to household agricultural income for communities that reside inside or close to the Park. Using the Gini decomposition app...

  20. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  1. Price and Income Elasticity of Australian Retail Finance: An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Higgs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper models the price and income elasticity of retail finance in Australia using aggregate quarterly data and an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL approach. We particularly focus on the impact of the global financial crisis (GFC from 2007 onwards on retail finance demand and analyse four submarkets (period analysed in brackets: owneroccupied housing loans (Sep 1985–June 2010, term loans (for motor vehicles, household goods and debt consolidation, etc. (Dec 1988–Jun 2010, credit card loans (Mar 1990–Jun 2010, and margin loans (Sep 2000–Jun 2010. Other than the indicator lending rates and annual full-time earnings respectively used as proxies for the price and income effects, we specify a large number of other variables as demand factors, particularly reflecting the value of the asset for which retail finance demand is derived. These variously include the yield on indexed bonds as a proxy for inflation expectations, median housing prices, consumer sentiment indices as measures of consumer confidence, motor vehicle and retail trade sales, housing debt-to-housing assets as a measure of leverage, the proportion of protected margin lending, the available credit limit on credit cards, and the All Ordinaries Index. In the long run, we find significant price elasticities only for term loans and margin loans, and significant income elasticities of demand for housing loans, term loans and margin loans. We also find that the GFC only significantly affected the longrun demand for term loans and margin loans. In the short run, we find that the GFC has had a significant effect on the price elasticity of demand for term loans and margin loans. Expected inflation is also a key factor affecting retail finance demand. Overall, most of the submarkets in the analysis indicate that retail finance demand is certainly price inelastic but more income elastic than conventionally thought.

  2. Purchases of food in youth. Influence of price and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Handley, Elizabeth A; Dearing, Kelly K; Cho, David D; Roemmich, James N; Paluch, Rocco A; Raja, Samina; Pak, Youngju; Spring, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    One way to increase choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is to increase the cost of less healthy alternatives or reduce the cost of healthier alternatives. The influence of price on purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods was evaluated in two laboratory experiments. In Experiment 1, thirty-two 10- to 12-year-old youth were given $5.00 and allowed to purchase multiple portions of a healthy food (fruit or vegetable) and a less healthy food (higher-fat snack). The price of one type of food varied from $0.50 to $2.50, while the price of the other type was held at $1.00. Increasing the price of a type of food reduced purchases of that type of food, but did not lead to substitution with the alternative type of food. In Experiment 2, twenty 10- to 14-year-old youth were given $1.00, $3.00, and $5.00 to purchase healthy and unhealthy foods. The price of each food was raised and lowered by 25% and 50%. Raising the price of healthy or unhealthy foods resulted in decreased purchases of those foods, and income available interacted with price to predict the pattern of substitution of alternative foods. These results show the potential for controlled laboratory studies of price and food purchases, and show that the substitution of healthier for unhealthy food is related to available money.

  3. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, G.K.H.; van Foreest, N.D.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household

  4. A panel study of migration, self-selection and household real income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, R; Westerlund, O

    1998-02-01

    "The impact of migration on income for Swedish multi-adult households is examined using panel data pertaining to a sample of stable household constellations during the period 1980-1990. In contrast to previous studies, data on household disposable income is employed in estimating the income function. The empirical results indicate no significant effect on real disposable income from migration. In addition, the hypothesis of no self-selection, or zero correlation between the errors in the decision function and the income function, cannot be rejected." excerpt

  5. Cost savings of unit-based pricing of household waste; the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractUsing a panel data set for Dutch municipalities we estimate effects for weight-based, bag-based, frequency-based and volume-based pricing of household waste collection. Unit-based pricing shows to be effective in reducing solid and compostable and increasing recyclable waste. Pricing has

  6. Does Household Income Matter for Children's Schooling? Evidence for Rural Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Household income has been shown to matter for children's school enrolment, in particular in settings where households face tight liquidity constraints caused by the lack of insurance and limited possibilities to smooth consumption through credit and savings. However, so far only few studies have made an effort to quantify the income elasticity of…

  7. Current Situation of Household Income as a Factor, Having Impact on Mortgage Lending in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuselchimeg Batbileg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Amount of household income is the most important factor for housing loan. The article studies mortgage lending in Ulaanbaatar in 2007–2009, the factor, having great impact on the current economy of Mongolia, carries out the comparative analysis of capital’s medium and low income households and presents methods, which will help to solve these problems.

  8. Income from Women’s Gainful Employment Compared to Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various statistical analyses reveal that the position of women in the labour market is worse when compared to men. In the majority, or nearly in all countries of the EU, women obtain lower income than men and are in a greater risk of becoming unemployed. The problem of such differentiation in the labour market is still valid despite the various activities at the EU agenda aimed at reducing these disparities. The aim of this paper was to present the income situation of women who remain in a formal or informal relationship with men and to identify the factors which affect such a situation without making any reference to the problem of discrimination. The author used the data from Polish household budget survey of 2011.

  9. Weight-based pricing in the collection of household waste. The Oostzaan case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderhof, Vincent; Kooreman, Peter; Allers, Maarten; Wiersma, Doede

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the effects of weight-based pricing in the collection of household waste. Using a comprehensive panel data set on all households in a Dutch municipality we estimate short-run as well as long-run price effects for the amounts of both compostable and non-recyclable household waste. We find significant and sizeable price effects, with the elasticity for compostable waste being four times as large as the elasticity for non-recyclable waste. Long-run elasticities are about 30% larger than short-run elasticities

  10. Combining household income and asset data to identify livelihood strategies and their dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Pouliot, Mariéve; Larsen, Helle Overgaard

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to identifying and describing rural livelihood strategies, and household movements between strategies over time, in developing countries are imprecise. Here we: (i) present a new statistical quantitative approach combining income and asset data to identify household activity...... of livelihood strategies and household movements between strategies over time than using only income or asset data. Most households changed livelihood strategy at least once over the two three-year periods. A common pathway out of poverty included an intermediate step during which households accumulate assets...

  11. A Diffusion Model Incorporating Product Benefits, Price, Income and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Horsky

    1990-01-01

    We start by assuming that a major benefit of many new durable products such as dishwashers and microwave ovens is time savings. Others, such as VCRs, also enhance the value of our leisure time. Using a household production framework we demonstrate that a utility maximizing individual will have a reservation price for the product which is a function of the product benefits and his wage rate. By assuming that the wage rate has an extreme value distribution across the population, we are able to ...

  12. The effects of unit pricing system upon household solid waste management: The Korean experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.

    1999-09-01

    Initial effects of adoption of a unit pricing system paired with aggressive recycling programs appear to be substantial. This paper explores the impact of price incentives under the unit pricing system on household solid waste generation and recycling in Korea. The author employs a simultaneous equation model considering the feedback effects between total waste generation and recycling. Estimation results using 3017 Korean household survey data indicate that a rise in waste collection fee induces households to recycle more wastes. However, this effect is partially offset by decreases in source-reduction efforts due to the feedback effects, resulting in relatively lower price elasticity of demand for solid waste collection services. This implies that household demand for solid waste collection services will not decrease much with additional increases in the collection fee, unless further recycling incentives such as more frequent recyclable pickup services are accompanied.

  13. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  14. How certain are Dutch households about future income? An emprical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; Donkers, A.C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The precautionary saving literature shows that income uncertainty increases savings and wealth. To estimate the magnitude of this effect, we need a measure of income uncertainty. This paper empirically analyzes subjective income uncertainty in the Netherlands. Data come from a large Dutch household

  15. Models of consumer behavior of households depending on the income level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova A.S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the consumer behavior of households is defined by a complex of internal and external factors: income of the population, motives and incentives of behavior, behavioral norms and personal preferences. As the example of structure analysis of the income and expenses of households of Sverdlovsk region during research models of consumer behavior of households are allocated, characteristics and structure of the population depending on their welfare are allocated. Author's approach allows forecasting of the consumer market, proceeding from the socio-economic factors forming the level of the population income in the region.

  16. Household energy consumption versus income and relative standard of living: A panel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyeux, Roselyne; Ripple, Ronald D.

    2007-01-01

    Our fundamental premise is that energy consumption at the household level is a key indicator of standard of living. We employ state-of-the-art panel cointegration techniques to evaluate the nature of the relationship between income measures and energy consumption measures for seven East Indian Ocean countries. The general finding is that income and household electricity consumption are not cointegrated. Given this finding, we conclude that standard of living measures that rely on income measures and do not include household-level energy consumption information will necessarily miss important indications of both levels and changes of standard of living

  17. Household expenditure for dental care in low and middle income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Masood

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of household catastrophic expenditure in dental health care and its possible determinants in 41 low and middle income countries. Data from 182,007 respondents aged 18 years and over (69,315 in 18 low income countries, 59,645 in 15 lower middle income countries and 53,047 in 8 upper middle income countries who participated in the WHO World Health Survey (WHS were analyzed. Expenditure in dental health care was defined as catastrophic if it was equal to or higher than 40% of the household capacity to pay. A number of individual and country-level factors were assessed as potential determinants of catastrophic dental health expenditure (CDHE in multilevel logistic regression with individuals nested within countries. Up to 7% of households in low and middle income countries faced CDHE in the last 4 weeks. This proportion rose up to 35% among households that incurred some dental health expenditure within the same period. The multilevel model showed that wealthier, urban and larger households and more economically developed countries had higher odds of facing CDHE. The results of this study show that payments for dental health care can be a considerable burden on households, to the extent of preventing expenditure on basic necessities. They also help characterize households more likely to incur catastrophic expenditure on dental health care. Alternative health care financing strategies and policies targeted to improve fairness in financial contribution are urgently required in low and middle income countries.

  18. The income-pollution relationship and the role of income distribution: An analysis of Swedish household data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Ghalwash, Tarek [Department of Economics, Umeaa University, S-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between pollution and income at household level. The study is motivated by the recent literature emphasizing the importance of income distribution for the aggregate relation between pollution and income. The main findings from previous studies are that if the individual pollution-income relationship is non-linear, then aggregate pollution for, say, a whole country, will depend not only on average income, but also on how income is distributed. To achieve our objective we formulate a model for determining the choice of consumption of goods in different types of household. Furthermore we link the demand model to emission functions for various goods. The theoretical analysis shows that without imposing very restrictive assumptions on preferences and the emission functions, it is not possible to determine a priori the slope or the curvature of the pollution-income relation. The empirical analysis shows that, given the model used, the pollution-income relation has a positive slope in Sweden and is strictly concave for all three pollutants under study (CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}), at least in the neighbourhood of the observed income for an average household. We also show that altering the prevailing income distribution, holding average income constant, will affect aggregate emissions in the sense that an equalization of incomes will give rise to an increase in emissions. One implication is then that the development of aggregate pollution due to growth depends not only on the income level, but also on how growth is distributed. (author)

  19. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  20. Role of expendable income and price in food choice by low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Internet Access on Household Income and Financial Performance of Small Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Khanal, Aditya R.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    With increased focus on survival strategies for small farm businesses, we investigate the impact of Internet access on income and farm expenses of small farm business and households. Using a nation-wide farm-level data in the U.S. and non-parametric matching estimators, the study finds a significant positive impact of Internet access on total household and off-farm income.

  2. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  3. Agricultural price and income policy in the EC : alternative policies and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, G.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative forms of income policy without direct supply control. Alternative forms of income policy with direct supply control: quota arrangements. The influence of EC policy on the world market prices of agricultural produce

  4. Analysis of Income Distribution among Goat Farmer Households in Banjarnegara District, Central Java Province Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Sugiarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the structure of household’s income of goat farmer and analyze the distribution of goat farmer household’s income in Banjarnegara. For this analysis, Banjarnegara district was divided into three agro ecological zones on the basis of altitude, i.e. low, medium and high land. 180 goat farmers were selected using multistage sampling and data were measured using descriptive statistic and Gini Coefficient. The study concluded that goat farming as a side job contributed 29% of total household income. The income from non-goat farming remain dominating a structure of household income by 71%. There was a high inequality household income among goat farmers with Gini Coefficient of 0.562. The high level of total income inequality was due to a greater relative inequality in non-goat farming income. Since there was a relationship between farm size and income, increasing the number of goats must be actualized to the goat farmers with no other livelihood. This would be able to reduce inequality of total income of goat farmers.

  5. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  6. Prevalence of Obesity Among Youths by Household Income and Education Level of Head of Household - United States 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Fakhouri, Tala H; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S

    2018-02-16

    Obesity prevalence varies by income and education level, although patterns might differ among adults and youths (1-3). Previous analyses of national data showed that the prevalence of childhood obesity by income and education of household head varied across race/Hispanic origin groups (4). CDC analyzed 2011-2014 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of childhood obesity prevalence by household income (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) and head of household education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014 the prevalence of obesity among U.S. youths (persons aged 2-19 years) was 17.0%, and was lower in the highest income group (10.9%) than in the other groups (19.9% and 18.9%) and also lower in the highest education group (9.6%) than in the other groups (18.3% and 21.6%). Continued progress is needed to reduce disparities, a goal of Healthy People 2020. The overall Healthy People 2020 target for childhood obesity prevalence is <14.5% (5).

  7. Household income and earnings losses among 6,396 persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb; Choi, Hyon K; Williams, Rhys

    2005-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) causes disability and reduced productivity. There are no large quantitative studies of earnings and productivity losses in patients with clinical RA, and no studies of household income losses. We describe methods for obtaining earnings and household income losses that are applicable to working as well as nonworking RA patients, and we perform such studies using these methods. We estimated cross-sectional expected annual earnings and household income losses in 6,649 persons with RA from Current Populations Survey (CPS) and O*NET (Occupational Information Network) data, and we estimated expected household income and earnings losses based on demographic characteristics after adjustment to Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) population norms (internal method). Workplace productivity was measured by the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). 27.9% of patients aged Productivity losses were 6% based on work limitations identified by the WLQ. Household income loss (percentage loss) including transfer payments was USD 6,287 (11.8%) for all patients, USD 4,247 (6.9%) for employed patients, and USD 7,374 (14.8%) for nonworking patients. Among nonworking nondisabled patients aged status, education, age, ethnicity, and marital status. Income loss is predicted by the HAQ, HAQ-II, Modified HAQ, and SF-36.

  8. The role of income in energy consumption behaviour: Evidence from French households data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, Jean-Michel; Maizi, Nadia; Marchand, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to characterise quantitatively the impact of income on household energy consumption in the residential and transport sectors. Starting from the data collected in a paper survey, we analyse the extent of the constraint experienced by households in terms of equipment purchasing behaviour and daily energy consumption. This analysis shows that the least well-off households are particularly constrained since the share of their budget represented by these energy services is very large (15–25%), and this corresponds to a level of energy service well below that of the better-off households. The case of space-heating shows a factor of 2 in terms of level of comfort achieved between the extreme 10-percentiles. These households also face a strong capital constraint for equipment purchases. This leads either to a large increase in the required rate of return or to a reduction in the proportion of households that are prepared to replace their equipment earlier. The least well-off households are thus doubly constrained, since it is more difficult for them to invest. In our opinion, it is crucial to take into account this observation in the context of political measures aimed at reducing households’CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► Realisation of a survey to quantify the impact of income on energy consumption. ► There is a factor of 2 in the level of comfort achieved by extreme income households. ► Analysis of discount rates demanded by households according to income and end-use. ► Influence of income on intensity of use of energy services and energy management.

  9. Demand side management—A simulation of household behavior under variable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwalt, Sebastian; Ketter, Wolfgang; Block, Carsten; Collins, John; Weinhardt, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Within the next years, consumer households will be increasingly equipped with smart metering and intelligent appliances. These technologies are the basis for households to better monitor electricity consumption and to actively control loads in private homes. Demand side management (DSM) can be adopted to private households. We present a simulation model that generates household load profiles under flat tariffs and simulates changes in these profiles when households are equipped with smart appliances and face time-based electricity prices. We investigate the impact of smart appliances and variable prices on electricity bills of a household. We show that for households the savings from equipping them with smart appliances are moderate compared to the required investment. This finding is quite robust with respect to variation of tariff price spreads and to different types of appliance utilization patterns. Finally, our results indicate that electric utilities may face new demand peaks when day-ahead hourly prices are applied. However, a considerable amount of residential load is available for shifting, which is interesting for the utilities to balance demand and supply. - Highlights: ► Our model generates residential load profiles that are based on real world data. ► We simulate changes in load profiles when smart appliances and time-of-use tariffs are applied. ► The economic incentive for households to invest in smart appliances is low. ► Time-of-use tariffs create new, even higher peaks. ► Electric utilities have a large amount of the hourly load available for shifting.

  10. Air-conditioning Australian households: The impact of dynamic peak pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strengers, Yolande

    2010-01-01

    International mandates for smart metering are enabling variable and real-time pricing regimes such as dynamic peak pricing (DPP), which charges 10-40 times the off-peak rate for electricity during short periods. This regime aims to reduce peak electricity demand (predominantly due to increase in residential air-conditioning usage) and curb greenhouse gas emissions. Although trials indicate that DPP can achieve significant demand reductions, particularly in summer, little is known about how or why households change their cooling practices in response to this strategy. This paper discusses the outcomes of a small qualitative study assessing the impact of a DPP trial on household cooling practices in the Australian state of New South Wales. The study challenges common assumptions about the necessity of air-conditioning and impact of price signals. It finds that DPP engages households as co-managers of their cooling practices through a series of notification signals (SMS, phone, in-home display, email, etc.). Further, by linking the price signal to air-conditioning, some householders consider this practice discretionary for short periods of time. The paper concludes by warning that policy makers and utilities may serve to legitimise air-conditioning usage and/or negate demand reductions by failing to acknowledge the non-rational dynamics of DPP and household cooling practices. - Research highlights: →Most householders consider air-conditioning discretionary during DPP events →DPP engages householders as co-managers of their demand →Notification of an upcoming DPP event is significant to the response →Householders feel obligated to respond to DPP for a range of non-financial reasons

  11. Pharmaceutical pricing in emerging markets: effects of income, competition, and procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, Patricia M; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Towse, Adrian K

    2015-02-01

    This paper analyzes determinants of ex-manufacturer prices for originator and generic drugs across countries. We focus on drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, TB, and malaria in middle and low-income countries (MLICs), with robustness checks to other therapeutic categories and the full income range of countries. We examine the effects of per capita income, income dispersion, competition from originator and generic substitutes, and whether the drugs are sold to retail pharmacies versus tendered procurement by non-government organizations. The cross-national income elasticity of prices is 0.27 across the full income range of countries but is 0.0-0.10 between MLICs, implying that drugs are least affordable relative to income in the lowest income countries. Within-country income inequality contributes to relatively high prices in MLICs. Although generics are priced roughly 30% lower than originators on average, the variance is large. Additional generic competitors only weakly affect prices, plausibly because generic quality uncertainty leads to competition on brand rather than price. Tendered procurement that imposes quality standards attracts multinational generic suppliers and significantly reduces prices of originator and generic drugs, compared with their respective prices to retail pharmacies. © 2013 The Authors Health Economics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evolution of electricity prices for households in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2011-11-01

    The author reports a study of the evolution of electricity prices in the housing sector since the 1990's in the 15 countries who were then members of the European Union (Germany, Denmark, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Finland, France and Greece). In a first part, he discusses trends and proposes some comparisons which show that the electricity price has been remaining almost steady for 15 years, and has much less increased that those of gas and oil products. He notices a rather large discrepancy between the 15 countries (a comparison takes taxes into account, and comparison is made with tax included or excluded). The second part proposes an analysis of the evolutions and influences of national energy policies for each country

  13. Income Trends of Residential PV Adopters: An analysis of household-level income estimates [PowerPoint presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naim R.; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2018-04-09

    The residential photovoltaic (PV) market has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but questions exist about how equitably that growth has occurred across income groups. Prior studies have investigated this question but are often limited by narrow geographic study regions, now-dated analysis timeframes, or coarse estimates of PV-adopter incomes. At the same time, a spate of new programs and initiatives, as well as innovations in business models and product design, have emerged in recent years with the aim of making solar more accessible and affordable to broader segments of the population. Yet, many of those efforts are proceeding without robust underlying information about the income characteristics of recent residential PV adopters. This work aims to establish basic factual information about income trends among U.S. residential solar adopters, with some emphasis on low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. The analysis is unique in its relatively extensive coverage of the U.S. solar market, relying on Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun dataset, which contains project-level data for the vast majority of all residential PV systems in the country (a subset of which are ultimately included in the analysis sample). This analysis is also unique in its use of household-level income estimates that provide a more-precise characterization of PV-adopter incomes than in most prior studies.

  14. Should aggregate US Census data be used as a proxy for individual household income in a birth defects registry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Lisa; Ramadhani, Tunu; Farag, Noha H; Canfield, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Birth Defects Registries do not have access to income data and low household income is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes of stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth defects. We compared 1999 income data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with 2000 Census block group income data for the residence location of these same mothers. We geocoded 339 case mothers and 121 control mothers and assessed household income among case and control mothers by using NBDPS and census block group data. Correlation and concordance were assessed between the 2 data sources' household income data. The household income distribution was similar between case and control mothers within each data source. Both case and control mothers in the NBDPS's lowest household income category (income than was documented in their census block group's median household income (p-valueincome data (control mothers, rs=0.53; case mothers, rs=0.32). There was also poor to fair concordance between the 2 data sources (control mothers, kw=0.28; 95% CI=0.19-0.37 and case mothers, kw=0.18; 95% CI=0.13-0.24). These findings demonstrate dissimilar household incomes between NBDPS and census block group data. Caution should be used if block-level data is used as a proxy for individual-level household incomes in population-based birth defects surveillance and research.

  15. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITY AND POVERTY DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Anayochukwu Mbanasor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed income inequality and poverty dynamics among rural farm households in Abia State, Nigeria. Beyond the broad objective, the study sought specifically to estimate the income distribution and determine the poverty line, gap and incidence of the rural farm households. A total of 240 households were selected across the agricultural zones using multistage sampling technique from which data and information were elicited. Data collection was between 2010 and 2011. Analytically, the study employed Gini coefficient in the estimation of income distribution while poverty indicators (Mean household income, headcount ratio and poverty gap index were used to measure poverty line, poverty incidence and gap. Income distribution showed high level of inequality (Gini index = 0.987 with per capita income falling below the operational national minimum wage. The poverty gap and incidence gave a scary picture of worsening poverty situation, judging from the poverty indicators (head count index = 0.567; poverty gap = 0.568. To reverse the trend, it is important that concerted efforts are made by way of policy direction to ensure that the rural economy which is largely agrarian is improved. This can be achieved by adopting input subsidy, private sector driven market access policy, labour intensive techniques in execution of public projects among others.

  16. The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Marcelo; de Souza, Pedro Herculano Guimarães Ferreira; de Castro, Fábio Ávila

    2015-04-01

    the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012. to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups. We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF) and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD) to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF) and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census. We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

  17. The stability of income inequality in Brazil, 2006-2012: an estimate using income tax data and household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Object: the level and evolution of income inequality among adults in Brazil between 2006 and 2012.Objectives: to calculate the level of inequality, its trend over the years and the share of income growth appropriated by different social groups.Methodology: We combined tax data from the Annual Personal Income Tax Returns (Declaração Anual de Ajuste do Imposto de Renda da Pessoa Física - DIRPF and the Brazilian National Household Survey (Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios - PNAD to construct a complete distribution of total income among adults in Brazil. We applied Pareto interpolations to income tax tabulations to arrive at the distribution within income groups. We tested the results, comparing the PNAD to the Brazilian Consumption and Expenditure Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares - POF and to data from the Census Subsample Survey (Census.Results: We found evidence that income inequality in Brazil is higher than previously thought and that it remained stable between 2006 and 2012; in making these findings, we thus diverged from most studies on the dynamics of inequality in Brazil.. There was income growth, but the top incomes have appropriated most of this growth.

  18. Optimal household appliances scheduling under day-ahead pricing and load-shaping demand response strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinç, O.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed home energy management system structure is developed to determine the optimal dayahead appliance scheduling of a smart household under hourly pricing and peak power-limiting (hard and soft power limitation)-based demand response strategies. All types of controllable assets

  19. Understanding Changes in the Distribution of Household Incomes in New Zealand Between 1983-86 and 1995-98

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Hyslop; Dave Maré

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of changes in the distribution of gross household income and income inequality over the period 1983–1998. The analysis applies a semiparametric approach to study the effects of changes in the distribution of household types, and changes in National Superannuation (old age pension), household socio-demographic attributes and employment outcomes, and in the “economic returns” to such attributes and employment outcomes on the distribution of income, and uses kerne...

  20. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Income inequality and price elasticity of market demand: the case of crossing Lorenz curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov, M; Ibragimov, R; Kattuman, Paul Antony; Ma, J

    2017-01-01

    This paper extends Ibragimov and Ibragimov (Econ Theory 32:579–587, 2007) in which the effect of changes income inequality on the price elasticity of market demand is characterized for the class of income distribution changes occurring through non-intersecting Lorenz curve shifts. We derive sufficient conditions for increase/decrease in price elasticity of market demand, under general changes in income distribution, allowing Lorenz curves to intersect as they shift. We conclude by drawing out...

  2. DETERMINANTS OF INCOME DIVERSIFICATION AMONG MAIZE FARM HOUSEHOLDS IN THE GARU-TEMPANE DISTRICT, GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert DAGUNGA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the determinants of income diversification using a sample of 200 farm-level data collected from households in the Garu-Tampane district, Ghana. The Simpson Index of Diversification was used to determine the extent of income diversification while Fractional Response Model, particularly Generalized Linear Model (GLM was employed to identify the determinants of income diversification. Results from the Simpson Index of Diversification showed that the average income diversification index was 0.65 with the minimum and maximum of 0.13 and 0.83, respectively. No farm household was found to depend solely on a single source of income for its survival. The results from the Generalized Linear Model revealed that extension services, attendance to demonstration fields, membership of Farmer-based Organizations (FBOs, farmer accessibility to credit, the number of days spent on on-farm activities per month and the number of years in maize farming significantly influence income diversification. The study, therefore, concludes that farm-level policies geared towards alternative sources of income for the rural farm household should focus on improving extension services, the formation of farmer-based organizations, use of demonstration fields as well as ensuring farmers’ accessibility to credit.

  3. Price sensitive electric power consumption in households. Final report; Prisfoelsomt elforbrug i husholdninger. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Hay, C. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2009-08-15

    To gain experience with electric power consumption in households based on demand response a demonstration project was carried out for households with electric heating. More than 500 households with high power consumption (over 15,000 kWh / yr) participated. Participating households were divided into four groups: 1) a group with automation equipment ('Devi') installed, which automatically controls the electric heating in relation to electricity price signals based on pre-defined standards, 2) a group with electronics equipment ('Electronic House Keeper') installed which can show price signals so that the participant himself can control the electric heating in relation thereto, 3) a group who daily received an e-mail or a text message indicating the fluctuations in electricity prices, so that the participant can control the electric heating in relation to the received information, 4) a control group who did not have knowledge of or participated in the experiment. The main results of the project are that consumption must be controlled through automation. A real impact of the experiment can only be seen for the Devi group, which had automation equipment installed, and not for the email / text message group who had to manually respond to price signals. There must be opportunities for higher degree of differentiation. The automatics should be coupled to multiple thermostats, and the control should be detailed, for example, with control based on the individual thermostat in each room. The thermal comfort is essential. The participants want to manage and move their electricity consumption directly via 'Electronic House Keeper'. They would welcome the opportunity to have all household appliances connected to the solution, making it possible to turn on / off these depending on prices. Good information and communication are crucial to participants' motivation. (ln)

  4. Priority economic sector and household income in Indonesia (an analysis of input output)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Mulyanto; Hakim, A. R.; Mafruhah, I.; Hakim, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    This purpose of study aims to identify the roles of priority economic sectors on household incomes in Indonesia. Analyse in this paper used nine economic sectors, that representing result of classification from input output table. This study found that (1) priority economic sector are manufacturing sector & trade hotel and restaurant; (2) sector that have looking forward orientation included agriculture, mining & quarrying, and financial ownership & business services; and (3) electricity, gas, and water supply sector give the biggest impact to household income in Indonesia. The suggestion that policies aimed at increasing productivity and raising skills while encouraging individual participation in the formal labour market are essential.

  5. The Impact of Input and Output Prices on The Household Economic Behavior of Rice-Livestock Integrated Farming System (Rlifs) and Non Rlifs Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindawati, L.; Kusnadi, N.; Kuntjoro, S. U.; Swastika, D. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated farming system is a system that emphasized linkages and synergism of farming units waste utilization. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of input and output prices on both Rice Livestock Integrated Farming System (RLIFS) and non RLIFS farmers. The study used econometric model in the form of a simultaneous equations system consisted of 36 equations (18 behavior and 18 identity equations). The impact of changes in some variables was obtained through simulation of input and output prices on simultaneous equations. The results showed that the price increasing of the seed, SP-36, urea, medication/vitamins, manure, bran, straw had negative impact on production of the rice, cow, manure, bran, straw and household income. The decrease in the rice and cow production, production input usage, allocation of family labor, rice and cow business income was greater in RLIFS than non RLIFS farmers. The impact of rising rice and cow cattle prices in the two groups of farmers was not too much different because (1) farming waste wasn’t used effectively (2) manure and straw had small proportion of production costs. The increase of input and output price didn’t have impact on production costs and household expenditures on RLIFS.

  6. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Household Poverty Status in a Low-Income Settlement in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Maloma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poverty means different things to different people. There are many differentapproaches to defining poverty but the basic needs approach is commonly applied,particularly in developingcountries where a bigger majority of the people struggleto attain a predetermined minimum level of income to satisfy their basic needs. Inthis study a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 300households in Bophelong township in Gauteng province during the second half of2013. The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact that certain household andindividual characteristics (size of the household, gender of the head of thehousehold, etc. can have in determining the poverty status of a household. Abinary logistic regression was used to analyse the data. The results show that theeducation level of the head of the household, his/her employment status and agewere inversely related to poverty status. Improvements in the education level andincreases in the age of the head of the household were found to decrease theprobability of a household being categorised as poor. Households in which thehead of the household is employed have a lower probability of being categorisedas poor.

  7. Differential Responsiveness to Cigarette Price by Education and Income among Adult Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few studies that examine the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. Objective The goal of this study is to estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China using individual level longitudinal survey data. We also examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted to estimate the conditional cigarette demand price elasticity using data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China. The first three waves of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Findings Our results show that overall conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from −0.12 to −0.14, implying a 10% increase in cigarette price would result in a reduction in cigarette consumption among adult urban Chinese smokers by 1.2% to 1.4%. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high income smokers and medium income smokers. However, cigarette consumption among low income smokers did not seem to decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Conclusion Relative to many other low- and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviors such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. PMID

  8. Optimizing Household Chlorination Marketing Strategies: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Price and Promotion on Adoption in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michael; Camille, Eveline; Velcine, Christophe; Guillaume, Rose-Kerline; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0.10 bottles per household per month ( P sales agents increased purchases at mid-range prices; however, the additional revenue did not offset visit cost. Choosing the lowest price and conducting visits maximizes chlorine purchase, whereas slightly raising the retail price and not conducting visits maximizes cost recovery. For the equivalent cost, price discounts increase purchases 4.2 times as much as adding visits at the current retail price. In this context, price subsidies may be a more cost-effective use of resources than household visits, though all marketing strategies tested offer cost-effective ways to achieve incremental health impact. Decisions about pricing and promotion for health products in developing countries affect health impact, cost recovery, and cost-effectiveness, and tradeoffs between these goals should be made explicit in program design.

  9. The evolving price of household LED lamps: Recent trends and historical comparisons for the US market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F.; Ngo, Allison T.; Alstone, Andrea L.; Fisseha, Kibret S.

    2014-10-14

    In recent years, household LED light bulbs (LED A lamps) have undergone a dramatic price decline. Since late 2011, we have been collecting data, on a weekly basis, for retail offerings of LED A lamps on the Internet. The resulting data set allows us to track the recent price decline in detail. LED A lamp prices declined roughly exponentially with time in 2011-2014, with decline rates of 28percent to 44percent per year depending on lumen output, and with higher-lumen lamps exhibiting more rapid price declines. By combining the Internet price data with publicly available lamp shipments indices for the US market, it is also possible to correlate LED A lamp prices against cumulative production, yielding an experience curve for LED A lamps. In 2012-2013, LED A lamp prices declined by 20-25percent for each doubling in cumulative shipments. Similar analysis of historical data for other lighting technologies reveals that LED prices have fallen significantly more rapidly with cumulative production than did their technological predecessors, which exhibited a historical decline of 14-15percent per doubling of production.

  10. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, M. R.; Moeinzadeh, S. N.; Tifwa, H. Y.

    2014-02-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs.

  11. Income-carbon footprint relationships for urban and rural households of Iskandar Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, M R; Moeinzadeh, S N; Tifwa, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Iskandar Malaysia has a vision to achieve sustainable development and a low carbon society status by decreasing the amount of CO 2 emission as much as 60% by 2025. As the case is in other parts of the world, households are suspected to be a major source of carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia. At the global level, 72% of greenhouse gas emission is a consequence of household activities, which is influenced by lifestyle. Income is the most important indicator of lifestyle and consequently may influence the amount of households' carbon footprint. The main objective of this paper is to illustrate the carbon-income relationships in Iskandar Malaysia's urban and rural areas. Data were gathered through a questionnaire survey of 420 households. The households were classified into six categories based on their residential area status. Both direct and indirect carbon footprints of respondents were calculated using a carbon footprint model. Direct carbon footprint includes domestic energy use, personal travel, flight and public transportation while indirect carbon footprint is the total secondary carbon emission measurement such as housing operations, transportation operations, food, clothes, education, cultural and recreational services. Analysis of the results shows a wide range of carbon footprint values and a significance correlation between income and carbon footprint. The carbon footprints vary in urban and rural areas, and also across different urban areas. These identified carbon footprint values can help the authority target its carbon reduction programs

  12. Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Nuringdati Widianingsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations.

  13. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. A Panel Data Model for Subjective Information on Household Income Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Subjective expectations about future income changes are analyzed, using household panel data.The models used are extensions of existing binary choice panel data models to the case of ordered response.We consider both random and fixed individual effects.The random effects model is estimated by

  15. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  16. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  17. Shopping for fruits and vegetables. Food and retail qualities of importance to low-income households at the grocery store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Caroline B; Sobal, Jeffery; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2010-04-01

    Purchasing fruits and vegetables is an integral part of managing food consumption and dietary quality. This study examined how low-income adults who had primary responsibility for household food purchases considered retail produce decisions. We used a qualitative research approach based on grounded theory and an ecological conceptual framework. Twenty-eight low-income rural, village, and inner city heads of households in upstate New York, USA, were selected by purposive and theoretical sampling and interviewed about fruit and vegetable shopping habits, attitudes toward local food stores, and where and how they would prefer to buy produce. Analyses revealed their concerns were organized around five themes: store venue; internal store environment; product quality; product price; relationships with the stores. An unanticipated finding was the differing social relations that appear to exist between participant consumers, store employees and management, and the store itself as a representation of the larger retail food system. Attitudes toward retail food stores in this study are described as passive or fatalistic indifference, supportive, opportunistic, and confrontational (change agents). These attitudes are related to how shoppers considered retail fruit and vegetable choice, access, and availability. These findings suggest ways to individualize nutrition education and consumer education messages. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Brucellosis in cattle and micro-scale spatial variability of pastoral household income from dairy production in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Pius Mbuya; Mugisha, Samuel; Leirs, Herwig; Basuta, Gilbert Isabirye; Van Damme, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews administered to 366 randomly selected household heads were supplemented with serological data on brucellosis in cattle. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 17. Serological results showed that 44% of cattle blood samples were sero-positive for brucellosis. The results obtained from interviews put the statistical mean of household reported cattle abortions at 5.39 (5.08-5.70 at 95% CI, n=366). Post-hoc analysis of variance revealed that both sero-positive cattle and reported cattle abortions significantly were much lower when moving outwards from the park boundary (pbrucellosis management practices at the nexus of wildlife and livestock in Uganda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa. A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Unisa 0003 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. (author)

  20. Microeconomics of the Productivity, Price Indicators and Farm Incomes. Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Rembisz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops a farm producer behavior type model to analyze the impact of a input productivity and price change on farm incomes. The theoretical analysis shows the consequences of the balance between the increase of production factor prices and their productivity improvement in the condition of stable procurement price for the farm producers income. The cost effect of the production factors price increment and its neutralization by productivity (TFP-type growth is examined as well as some aspects of the inputs shares (returns and costs in the produce value. The article argues that labor input productivity as an endogenous factor, is an essential for farm incomes growth assuming the specified type of the farm producer utility function (its equations and variables as well as no the compensative procurement price change conditions. Some empirical evidence is attached however more work in that respect is foreseen.

  1. Price trends and income inequalities: will Sub-Saharan-Africa reduce the gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Caracciolo, Francesco; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, commodities prices have risen substantially and the trend is likely to persist as attested by recent OECD-FAO projections. The recent debate has not reached a clear consensus on the effects of this trend on poverty and income inequality in LDCs, thus complicating the policy planning process. Our paper aims at analyzing the likely welfare and income inequality impacts of food price trends in three Sub-Saharan countries, namely Tanzania, Ghana and Ethiopia. Moreover, we ...

  2. Rooftop Solar Technical Potential for Low-to-Moderate Income Households in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This report presents a first-of-kind assessment of the technical potential of rooftop solar for low and moderate-income households, as well as providing insight on the distribution of solar potential by tenure, income, and other building characteristics. We find that a substantial fraction of the national rooftop solar potential is located on LMI buildings and, for all incomes, a substantial fraction on multi-family and renter-occupied buildings. We also find that rooftop solar can significantly contribute to long-term penetration targets established by the U.S. DOE, though to do so requires deployment on multi-family and renter-occupied buildings. Traditional deployment models have insufficiently enabled access to solar for these income groups and building types. Without innovation either in regulatory, market, or policy factors, a large fraction of the U.S. potential is unlikely to be addressed, as well as leading to inequalities in solar access. Ironically, potential electric bill savings from rooftop solar would have the greatest material impact on the lives of low-income households as compared to their high-income counterparts.

  3. The Exposure of Mortgage Borrowers to Interest Rate Risk, Income Risk and House Price Risk – Evidence from Swiss Loan Application Data

    OpenAIRE

    Guin, Benjamin; Brown, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We study the exposure of mortgage borrowers in Switzerland to interest rate, income and house price risks and examine how the households’ choice of risky mortgages is related to individual interest rate expectations and risk-aversion. Our analysis is based on a unique data set of household mortgage applications from September 2012 until January 2014. Our assessment of risk exposure among mortgage borrowers in Switzerland is highly sensitive to the underlying assumptions on mortgage costs, hou...

  4. Reflections on Costing, Pricing and Income Measurement at UK Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduoza, Chike F.

    2009-01-01

    In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…

  5. How do urban households in China respond to increasing block pricing in electricity? Evidence from a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Cai, Wenxin; Feng, Xiangzhao

    2017-01-01

    China is the largest electricity consumption country after it has passed the United States in 2011. Residential electricity consumption in China grew by 381.35% (12.85% per annum) between 2000 and 2013. In order to deal with rapid growth in residential electricity consumption, an increasing block pricing policy was introduced for residential electricity consumers in China on July 1st, 2012. Using difference-in-differences models with a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate a causal effect of price on electricity consumption for urban households during the introduction of increasing block pricing policy in Guangdong province of China. We find that consumers do not respond to a smaller (approximately 8%) increase in marginal price. However, consumers do respond to a larger increase in marginal price. An approximately 40% increase in marginal price induces an approximately 35% decrease in electricity use (284 kW h per month). Our results suggest that although the increasing block pricing could affect the behavior of households with higher electricity use, there is only a limit potential to overall energy conservation. - Highlights: • Estimate electricity consumption changes in response to the IBP in China. • Employ quasi-experimental approach and micro household level data in China. • Households do not respond to a smaller increase in marginal price. • 40% increase in marginal price induces a 35% decrease in electricity use.

  6. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  7. How Does Household Income Affect Child Personality Traits and Behaviors?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akee, Randall; Copeland, William; Costello, E. Jane; Simeonova, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    We examine the effects of a quasi-experimental unconditional household income transfer on child emotional and behavioral health and personality traits. Using longitudinal data, we find that there are large beneficial effects on children’s emotional and behavioral health and personality traits during adolescence. We find evidence that these effects are most pronounced for children who start out with the lowest initial endowments. The income intervention also results in improvements in parental relationships which we interpret as a potential mechanism behind our findings. PMID:29568124

  8. Price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand during urbanization: An empirical analysis based on the household-level survey data in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization, one of the most obvious characteristics of economic growth in China, has an apparent “lock-in effect” on residential energy consumption pattern. It is expected that residential sector would become a major force that drives China's energy consumption after urbanization process. We estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand using data from China's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (CRECS) that covers households at different income levels and from different regional and social groups. Empirical results from the Almost Ideal Demand System model are in accordance with the basic expectations: the demands for electricity, natural gas and transport fuels are inelastic in the residential sector due to the unreasonable pricing mechanism. We further investigate the sensitivities of different income groups to prices of the three types of energy. Policy simulations indicate that rationalizing energy pricing mechanism is an important guarantee for energy sustainable development during urbanization. Finally, we put forward suggestions on energy pricing reform in the residential sector based on characteristics of China's undergoing urbanization process and the current energy consumption situations.

  9. Change in household income and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be more prevalent among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in various countries. The effect of poverty on child development appears to depend on how long poverty lasts. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for childhood outcomes. Lifetime socioeconomic status may shape current health. Thus, we investigated the effects of household income changes from birth to 4 years on the occurrence of ADHD. Methods: Data were obtained from 18,029 participants in the Korean National Health Insurance cohort who were born in 2002 and 2003. All individuals were followed until December 2013 or the occurrence of ADHD, whichever came first. Household income trajectories were estimated using the national health insurance premium and the group-based model. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare incidence rates between different income trajectory groups after adjustment for possible confounding risk factors. Results: Of 18,029 participants, 554 subjects (3.1% were identified as having ADHD by age 10 or 11. Seven household income trajectories within three categories were found. Children living in decreasing, consistently low, and consistently mid-low income households had an increased risk of ADHD compared to children who consistently lived in the mid-high household income group. Conclusions: Children who live in decreasing-income or consistently low-income households have a higher risk for ADHD. Promotion of targeted policies and priority support may help reduce ADHD in this vulnerable group.

  10. High prevalence of hyperglycaemia and the impact of high household income in transforming Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chaowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hyperglycaemia and its association with socioeconomic factors have been well studied in developed countries, however, little is known about them in transforming rural China. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 rural communities of Deqing County located in East China in 2006-07, including 4,506 subjects aged 18 to 64 years. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG was measured. Subjects were considered to have impaired fasting glucose (IFG if FPG was in the range from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and to have diabetes mellitus (DM if FG was 7.0 mmol/L or above. Results The crude prevalences of IFG and DM were 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. The average ratio of IFG/DM was 2.5, and tended to be higher for those under the age of 35 years than older subjects. After adjustment for covariates including age (continuous, sex, BMI (continuous, smoking, alcohol drinking, and regular leisure physical activity, subjects in the high household income group had a significantly higher risk of IFG compared with the medium household income group (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11-2.72 and no significant difference in IFG was observed between the low and medium household income groups. Education and farmer occupation were not significantly associated with IFG. Conclusions High household income was significantly associated with an increased risk of IFG. A high ratio of IFG/DM suggests a high risk of diabetes in foreseeable future in the Chinese transforming rural communities.

  11. Household Income and Vegetable Consumption among White, Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh V Tran; Rita Vatcher; Hae Nim Lee; Phu Tai Phan; Thuc-Nhi Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives; This study aims to examine racial/ethnic differences in vegetable consumption between White and three major groups of Asian Americans. We hypothesize that racial/ethnic differences in frequency of vegetable consumption is significantly related to respondents¡¯ household income. Methods; We used the 2009 California Health Survey Interview (CHIS) data set that has a total sample of 47,167 respondents aged 18 and over. The selected sample used in this study consisted of four racial a...

  12. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  13. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians

  14. Relationship between the Uncompensated Price Elasticity and the Income Elasticity of Demand under Conditions of Additive Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Income and price elasticity of demand quantify the responsiveness of markets to changes in income and in prices, respectively. Under the assumptions of utility maximization and preference independence (additive preferences), mathematical relationships between income elasticity values and the uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of demand are here derived using the differential approach to demand analysis. Key parameters are: the elasticity of the marginal utility of income, and the average budget share. The proposed method can be used to forecast the direct and indirect impact of price changes and of financial instruments of policy using available estimates of the income elasticity of demand.

  15. Relationship between the Uncompensated Price Elasticity and the Income Elasticity of Demand under Conditions of Additive Preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Sabatelli

    Full Text Available Income and price elasticity of demand quantify the responsiveness of markets to changes in income and in prices, respectively. Under the assumptions of utility maximization and preference independence (additive preferences, mathematical relationships between income elasticity values and the uncompensated own and cross price elasticity of demand are here derived using the differential approach to demand analysis. Key parameters are: the elasticity of the marginal utility of income, and the average budget share. The proposed method can be used to forecast the direct and indirect impact of price changes and of financial instruments of policy using available estimates of the income elasticity of demand.

  16. Price and income elasticities of demand for alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, S I; Levy, D

    1983-01-01

    Estimating the demand for alcoholic beverages represents a difficult statistical problem. A number of studies have attempted to estimate the demand for beer, wine, distilled spirits, or total alcohol consumption. The results vary widely according to country of study, data used, and model and statistical technique. For the United States, most studies find the demand for beer to be relatively price inelastic, at around -0.3. The demand for distilled spirits appears to be unitary price elasticity or somewhat greater, around -1.5. The evidence on wine is too sketchy to draw any conclusions. There is no strong evidence of substitutability among beer, wine, and distilled spirits based on econometric models, nor evidence that advertising plays a strong role in the aggregate demand for beer, wine, or distilled spirits. The main policy implication is that price increases to control consumption will have a stronger impact on the consumption of distilled spirits than on beer.

  17. Income and price elasticities of electricity demand: Aggregate and sector-wise analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal; Ahmad, Eatzaz

    2011-01-01

    Cointegration and vector error correction modeling approaches are widely used in electricity demand analysis. The study rigorously examines the determinants of electricity demand at aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. In the backdrop of severe electricity shortages, our empirical findings give support to the existence of a stable long-run relationship among the variables and indicate that electricity demand is elastic in the long run to both income and price at aggregate level. At sectoral level, long-run income and price elasticity estimates follow this pattern except in agricultural sector, where electricity demand is found elastic to output but inelastic to electricity price. On the contrary, the coefficients for income and price are rather small and mostly insignificant in the short run. We employed temperature index, price of diesel oil and capital stock at aggregate and sectoral levels as exogenous variables. These variables account for most of the variations in electricity demand in the short run. It shows that mechanization of the economy significantly affect the electricity demand at macro level. Moreover, elastic electricity demand with respect to electricity price in most of the sectors implies that electricity price as a policy tool can be used for efficient use and conservation. - Highlights: → The study conducts analysis for aggregate and four sectors. → Sectoral analyses are for residential, commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. → We obtained higher positive income and negative price elasticity in the long run. → The higher price elasticity implies that price can be used as a policy tool. → Capital stock and temperature variables explain most of the short-run demand fluctuations.

  18. Income and price elasticities of electricity demand: Aggregate and sector-wise analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Faisal, E-mail: fsljml@hotmail.com [School of Economics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Eatzaz, E-mail: eatzaz@qau.edu.pk [School of Economics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Cointegration and vector error correction modeling approaches are widely used in electricity demand analysis. The study rigorously examines the determinants of electricity demand at aggregate and sectoral levels in Pakistan. In the backdrop of severe electricity shortages, our empirical findings give support to the existence of a stable long-run relationship among the variables and indicate that electricity demand is elastic in the long run to both income and price at aggregate level. At sectoral level, long-run income and price elasticity estimates follow this pattern except in agricultural sector, where electricity demand is found elastic to output but inelastic to electricity price. On the contrary, the coefficients for income and price are rather small and mostly insignificant in the short run. We employed temperature index, price of diesel oil and capital stock at aggregate and sectoral levels as exogenous variables. These variables account for most of the variations in electricity demand in the short run. It shows that mechanization of the economy significantly affect the electricity demand at macro level. Moreover, elastic electricity demand with respect to electricity price in most of the sectors implies that electricity price as a policy tool can be used for efficient use and conservation. - Highlights: > The study conducts analysis for aggregate and four sectors. > Sectoral analyses are for residential, commercial, manufacturing and agricultural sectors. > We obtained higher positive income and negative price elasticity in the long run. > The higher price elasticity implies that price can be used as a policy tool. > Capital stock and temperature variables explain most of the short-run demand fluctuations.

  19. Poverty targeting and income impact of subsidised credit on accessed households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Xuan Luan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the data of 1338 rural households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam to examine the extent to which subsidised credit targets the poor and its impacts. Principal Component Analysis and Propensity Score Matching were used to evaluate the depth of outreach and the income impact of credit. To address the problem of model uncertainty, the approach of Bayesian Model Average applied to the probit model was used. Results showed that subsidised credit successfully targeted the poor households with 24.10% and 69.20% of clients falling into the poorest group and the three bottom groups respectively. Moreover, those who received subsidised credit make up 83% of ethnic minority households. These results indicate that governmental subsidies are necessary to reach the poor and low income households, who need capital but are normally bypassed by commercial banks. Analyses also showed that ethnicity and age of household heads, number of helpers, savings, as well as how affected households are by shocks were all factors that further explained the probability at which subsidised credit has been assessed. Furthermore, recipients obtained a 2.61% higher total income and a 5.93% higher farm income compared to non-recipients. However, these small magnitudes of effects are statistically insignificant at a 5% level. Although the subsidised credit is insufficient to significantly improve the income of the poor households, it possibly prevents these households of becoming even poorer.

  20. Equity impacts of price policies to promote healthy behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Franco; Belloni, Annalisa; Mirelman, Andrew J; Suhrcke, Marc; Thomas, Alastair; Salti, Nisreen; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Visaruthvong, Chonlathan; Popkin, Barry M; Nugent, Rachel

    2018-04-04

    Governments can use fiscal policies to regulate the prices and consumption of potentially unhealthy products. However, policies aimed at reducing consumption by increasing prices, for example by taxation, might impose an unfair financial burden on low-income households. We used data from household expenditure surveys to estimate patterns of expenditure on potentially unhealthy products by socioeconomic status, with a primary focus on low-income and middle-income countries. Price policies affect the consumption and expenditure of a larger number of high-income households than low-income households, and any resulting price increases tend to be financed disproportionately by high-income households. As a share of all household consumption, however, price increases are often a larger financial burden for low-income households than for high-income households, most consistently in the case of tobacco, depending on how much consumption decreases in response to increased prices. Large health benefits often accrue to individual low-income consumers because of their strong response to price changes. The potentially larger financial burden on low-income households created by taxation could be mitigated by a pro-poor use of the generated tax revenues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: a secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A; Ewen, M; Ross-Degnan, D; Ball, D; Laing, R

    2009-01-17

    WHO and Health Action International (HAI) have developed a standardised method for surveying medicine prices, availability, affordability, and price components in low-income and middle-income countries. Here, we present a secondary analysis of medicine availability in 45 national and subnational surveys done using the WHO/HAI methodology. Data from 45 WHO/HAI surveys in 36 countries were adjusted for inflation or deflation and purchasing power parity. International reference prices from open international procurements for generic products were used as comparators. Results are presented for 15 medicines included in at least 80% of surveys and four individual medicines. Average public sector availability of generic medicines ranged from 29.4% to 54.4% across WHO regions. Median government procurement prices for 15 generic medicines were 1.11 times corresponding international reference prices, although purchasing efficiency ranged from 0.09 to 5.37 times international reference prices. Low procurement prices did not always translate into low patient prices. Private sector patients paid 9-25 times international reference prices for lowest-priced generic products and over 20 times international reference prices for originator products across WHO regions. Treatments for acute and chronic illness were largely unaffordable in many countries. In the private sector, wholesale mark-ups ranged from 2% to 380%, whereas retail mark-ups ranged from 10% to 552%. In countries where value added tax was applied to medicines, the amount charged varied from 4% to 15%. Overall, public and private sector prices for originator and generic medicines were substantially higher than would be expected if purchasing and distribution were efficient and mark-ups were reasonable. Policy options such as promoting generic medicines and alternative financing mechanisms are needed to increase availability, reduce prices, and improve affordability.

  2. The relationship between household income and dietary intakes of 1-10 year old urban Malaysian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Lee, Huang Soo; Siew, Chin Yit; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mun, Chan Yoke; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2015-06-01

    Diet plays an important role in growth and development of children. However, dietary intakes of children living in either rural or urban areas can be influenced by household income. This cross-sectional study examined energy, nutrient and food group intakes of 749 urban children (1-10 years old) by household income status. Children's dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Diet adequacy was assessed based on recommended intakes of energy and nutrients and food group servings. For toddlers, all nutrients except dietary fiber (5.5 g) exceeded recommended intakes. Among older children (preschoolers and school children), calcium (548 mg, 435 mg) and dietary fiber (7.4 g, 9.4 g) did not meet recommendations while percentage of energy from total fat and saturated fats exceeded 30% and 10%, respectively. The mean sodium intakes of preschoolers (1,684 mg) and school children (2,000 mg) were relatively high. Toddlers in all income groups had similar energy and nutrient intakes and percentages meeting the recommended intakes. However, low income older children had lowest intakes of energy (P diets, particularly for older children. Parents and caregivers may need dietary guidance to ensure adequate quantity and quality of home food supply and foster healthy eating habits in children.

  3. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel, E-mail: zirame@unisa.ac.z [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Unisa 0003 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: {yields}The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. {yields} The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. {yields} There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  4. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: →The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. → The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. → There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  5. N.3142 National Assembly law proposition aiming to help the purchasing of households facing the petroleum products prices increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This text presents the problem of the households purchasing facing the increase of the petroleum products. It recalls the government policy, and criticizes the french government gap in favor of the households. In the second part it proposes to replace the ''floating TIPP'' and to reallocate a part of the exceptional incomes of the petroleum companies. (A.L.B.)

  6. Multiple deprivation, income and poverty in Italy: an analysis based on European Community Household Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine both the diffusion and intensity of poverty in Italy by utilising two kinds of approach. The first is the usual one, which employs a threshold defined in terms of income in order to identify the poor families. The second, referring to the definition of functioning introduced by Sen, identifies the poor families on the basis of living conditions. The use of this specific approach allows us to take into account new aspects of the phenomenon that the income approach overcame. Our analyses refer to the results of the second wave of the European Community Household Panel, which was delivered in 1995. Regarding income poverty, a logistic discriminant analysis has been performed in order to detect the significantly connected variables, as for the living conditions approach. The latter approach is more effective in the detection of the family state of privation than the former.

  7. The Effectiveness of Micro-credit Programmes Focusing on Household Income, Expenditure and Savings: Evidence From Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Haque Ariful

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effectiveness of microfinance on household income, expenditure and savings. The survey examined those borrowers who had successfully completed at least three cycles of a loan. A household level survey (N=3000 was carried out to collect information about individuals receiving microcredit from one of the largest NGOs, ASA. The authors employed a multiple regression and discovered that the microcredit programme of ASA has a significant positive impact on household income, expenditures and savings. Moreover, the paper reveals that the level of education plays an important and statistically significant role in increasing the household income, expenditure and savings. Hence, the ASA microcredit programme has a positive impact on reducing poverty in Bangladesh and enhancing the competitiveness of deprived rural and urban households in improving their standard of living.

  8. When do relative prices matter for measuring income inequality? The case of food prices in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    are accounted for, inequality of real consumption increases substantially. We obtain this result by constructing a price deflator that reflects divergent price dynamics of different product categories. Since the main factors driving this result prevail in other developing countries, it is likely that inequality...

  9. Trends in income and price elasticities of transport demand (1850–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate trends in income and price elasticities and to offer insights for the future growth in transport use, with particular emphasis on the impact of energy and technological transitions. The results indicate that income and price elasticities of passenger transport demand in the United Kingdom were very large (3.1 and −1.5, respectively) in the mid-nineteenth century, and declined since then. In 2010, long run income and price elasticity of aggregate land transport demand were estimated to be 0.8 and −0.6. These trends suggest that future elasticities related to transport demand in developed economies may decline very gradually and, in developing economies, where elasticities are often larger, they will probably decline more rapidly as the economies develop. Because of the declining trends in elasticities, future energy and technological transitions are not likely to generate the growth rates in energy consumption that occurred following transitions in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, energy and technological transitions, such as the car and the airplane, appear to have delayed and probably will delay declining trends in income and price elasticity of aggregate transport demand. - Highlights: ► Estimates trends in income and price elasticities of aggregate UK land transport demand (1850–2010). ► Income and price elasticities were very large in late 1800s and declined since then. ► In 2010, they were estimated to be 0.8 and −0.6. ► Future elasticities are likely to decline gradually in developed economies and faster in developing economies. ► Energy transitions may delay the decline in elasticities.

  10. Households across all income quintiles, especially the poorest, increased animal source food expenditures substantially during recent Peruvian economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Behrman, Jere R; Crookston, Benjamin T; Dearden, Kirk A; Schott, Whitney; Penny, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Relative to plant-based foods, animal source foods (ASFs) are richer in accessible protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12 and other nutrients. Because of their nutritional value, particularly for childhood growth and nutrition, it is important to identify factors influencing ASF consumption, especially for poorer households that generally consume less ASFs. To estimate differential responsiveness of ASF consumption to changes in total household expenditures for households with different expenditures in a middle-income country with substantial recent income increases. The Peruvian Young Lives household panel (n = 1750) from 2002, 2006 and 2009 was used to characterize patterns of ASF expenditures. Multivariate models with controls for unobserved household fixed effects and common secular trends were used to examine nonlinear relationships between changes in household expenditures and in ASF expenditures. Households with lower total expenditures dedicated greater percentages of expenditures to food (58.4% vs.17.9% in 2002 and 24.2% vs. 21.5% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively) and lower percentages of food expenditures to ASF (22.8% vs. 33.9% in 2002 and 30.3% vs. 37.6% in 2009 for lowest and highest quintiles respectively). Average percentages of overall expenditures spent on food dropped from 47% to 23.2% between 2002 and 2009. Households in the lowest quintiles of expenditures showed greater increases in ASF expenditures relative to total consumption than households in the highest quintiles. Among ASF components, meat and poultry expenditures increased more than proportionately for households in the lowest quintiles, and eggs and fish expenditures increased less than proportionately for all households. Increases in household expenditures were associated with substantial increases in consumption of ASFs for households, particularly households with lower total expenditures. Increases in ASF expenditures for all but the top quintile of

  11. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  12. Review of the indoor environmental quality and energy consumption studies for low income households in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotsa, D; Santamouris, M

    2015-12-01

    The term energy poverty is used to describe a situation of a household not able to satisfy socially and materially the required levels of its energy services. Energy and fuel poverty is an increasing problem in the European Union. Although the specific conditions vary from country to country the drivers defining fuel and energy poverty are similar in all Europe. This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the energy demand and indoor environmental quality of low income households in Europe. The characteristics of this specific population group are presented including details on the specific energy consumption, the indoor comfort and finally the impact of the specific living conditions on the occupants' health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.I.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Goldstein, G.; Remme, U.

    2005-01-01

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  14. MECHANISM TRANSFER PRICING AND THE NEED INTRODUCTION COMMON CONSOLIDATED CORPORATE INCOME TAX TRANSNATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Grigorescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing mechanism is a tool commonly used to transfer the tax base in countries with high tax countries with lower taxation. In the European Union the financial operations generate tax revenue losses. In an attempt to limit manipulation by corporate tax systems, many public authorities have introduced transfer pricing rules, but these rules has shown limited efficacy, however, contribute to the increasing complexity of tax laws and the emergence of additional costs for companies. This paper deals with the concrete examples, the solution to solving the problem of transfer pricing in the European Union by the introduction of common consolidated corporate income tax.

  15. Experiencing fuel poverty. Coping strategies of low-income households in Vienna/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Karl-Michael; Spitzer, Markus; Christanell, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Until the present day, research on fuel poverty focussing on the point of view of those concerned is few and far between. The present paper aims at filling this gap, analysing experiences with and behavioural responses to fuel poverty. It examines the day-to-day energy situation of households, which are poor/at-risk-of-poverty and/or suffering from fuel poverty in a case study conducted in the Austrian capital Vienna. Qualitative interviews provide the data for investigating the relevant factors in causing fuel poverty (among those, bad housing conditions, outdated appliances, financial problems), and provide a basis for discussion about the respective behavioural strategies of the people concerned. The results show that the ways of handling this problematic situation vary greatly and that people follow different strategies when it comes to inventing solutions for coping with the restrictions and finding ways of satisfying at least a part of their basic energy needs. Nonetheless, it also clearly surfaces that the scope of action is limited in many cases, which in turn only supports the claim that changes in the overall conditions are essential. - Highlights: ► This paper scrutinises experiences with and behavioural reactions to fuel poverty. ► Analysis of 50 qualitative interviews in Viennese low-income households. ► Low-income and/or fuel poor households face various strains. ► Ways of dealing with fuel poverty vary greatly, scope of action is limited. ► Households are very creative when it comes to coping with restricted conditions.

  16. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  17. Demand for and utilization of dental services according to household income in the adult population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe; Skau, Irene

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effect of income on demand and utilization of dental services according to household income in the adult population. The data were collected using a questionnaire, which was sent to a random sample of Norwegians aged 20 years or older living at home, 1861 persons in total. Demand was measured according to whether the person had been to the dentist during the last year. Utilization was measured as expenditure for dental treatment for those who had been to the dentist during the last year. The independent variables were the respondents' household income, age, gender, education, dental status and the mean fee for a dental consultation in the municipality. In the first stage, we carried out a logistic regression analysis of the log odds of having demanded dental services during the last year. In the second stage, we carried out a multiple regression analysis of expenditure for dental treatment for those who had been to the dentist during the last year. Altogether, 80% of the respondents had been to the dentist during the last year. Demand during the last year varied most according to dental status. There was little difference between men and women. The results of the logistic regression showed that the probability of having been to the dentist was 0.82 for those with a household income of €25 000 and 0.85 for those with a household income of €100 000. Mean expenditure for dental treatment was €355. There was no statistically significant relationship between household income and expenditure for dental treatment. Differences in demand for dental services according to household income are small, and there are no differences in utilization according to income. The findings are interesting, because in a population in which people have to pay almost all the costs for dental treatment themselves, one would expect the income differences in demand and utilization to be greater. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Igusa, Takeru; Jones-Smith, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Simulated Models Suggest That Price per Calorie Is the Dominant Price Metric That Low-Income Individuals Use for Food Decision Making123

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: The price of food has long been considered one of the major factors that affects food choices. However, the price metric (e.g., the price of food per calorie or the price of food per gram) that individuals predominantly use when making food choices is unclear. Understanding which price metric is used is especially important for studying individuals with severe budget constraints because food price then becomes even more important in food choice. Objective: We assessed which price metric is used by low-income individuals in deciding what to eat. Methods: With the use of data from NHANES and the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, we created an agent-based model that simulated an environment representing the US population, wherein individuals were modeled as agents with a specific weight, age, and income. In our model, agents made dietary food choices while meeting their budget limits with the use of 1 of 3 different metrics for decision making: energy cost (price per calorie), unit price (price per gram), and serving price (price per serving). The food consumption patterns generated by our model were compared to 3 independent data sets. Results: The food choice behaviors observed in 2 of the data sets were found to be closest to the simulated dietary patterns generated by the price per calorie metric. The behaviors observed in the third data set were equidistant from the patterns generated by price per calorie and price per serving metrics, whereas results generated by the price per gram metric were further away. Conclusions: Our simulations suggest that dietary food choice based on price per calorie best matches actual consumption patterns and may therefore be the most salient price metric for low-income populations. PMID:27655757

  20. The relation between household income and surgical outcome in the Dutch setting of equal access to and provision of healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultee, Klaas H J; Tjeertes, Elke K M; Bastos Gonçalves, Frederico; Rouwet, Ellen V; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stolker, Robert Jan; Verhagen, Hence J M; Hoeks, Sanne E

    2018-01-01

    The impact of socioeconomic disparities on surgical outcome in the absence of healthcare inequality remains unclear. Therefore, we set out to determine the association between socioeconomic status (SES), reflected by household income, and overall survival after surgery in the Dutch setting of equal access and provision of care. Additionally, we aim to assess whether SES is associated with cause-specific survival and major 30-day complications. Patients undergoing surgery between March 2005 and December 2006 in a general teaching hospital in the Netherlands were prospectively included. Adjusted logistic and cox regression analyses were used to assess the independent association of SES-quantified by gross household income-with major 30-day complications and long-term postoperative survival. A total of 3929 patients were included, with a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Low household income was associated with worse survival in continuous analysis (HR: 1.05 per 10.000 euro decrease in income, 95% CI: 1.01-1.10) and in income quartile analysis (HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.08-2.31, first [i.e. lowest] quartile relative to the fourth quartile). Similarly, low income patients were at higher risk of cardiovascular death (HR: 1.26 per 10.000 decrease in income, 95% CI: 1.07-1.48, first income quartile: HR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.04-9.22). Household income was not independently associated with cancer-related mortality and major 30-day complications. Low SES, quantified by gross household income, is associated with increased overall and cardiovascular mortality risks among surgical patients. Considering the equality of care provided by this study setting, the associated survival hazards can be attributed to patient and provider factors, rather than disparities in healthcare. Increased physician awareness of SES as a risk factor in preoperative decision-making and focus on improving established SES-related risk factors may improve surgical outcome of low SES patients.

  1. Transport fuel demand responses to fuel price and income projections : Comparison of integrated assessment models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Bertram, C.; Carrara, S.; Emmerling, J.; Daly, H.; Kitous, A.; McCollum, D. L.; Saadi Failali, N.

    Income and fuel price pathways are key determinants in projections of the energy system in integrated assessment models. In recent years, more details have been added to the transport sector representation in these models. To better understand the model dynamics, this manuscript analyses transport

  2. Individual Preference Rankings Compatible with Prices, Income Distributions and Total Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    We consider the problem of determining the individual preference rankings that are necessarily implied by a dataset consisting of prices, income distributions and total resources. We show the equivalence between the compatibility with individual preference rankings and the existence of a solution...

  3. Community household income and resource utilization for common inpatient pediatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaniletti, Isabella; Hall, Matthew; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Gottlieb, Laura; Macy, Michelle L; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Morse, Rustin B; Hain, Paul D; Sills, Marion R; Frank, Gary; Shah, Samir S

    2013-12-01

    Child health is influenced by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children. Our objective was to analyze inpatient costs for children hospitalized with common conditions in relation to zip code-based median annual household income (HHI). Retrospective national cohort from 32 freestanding children's hospitals for asthma, diabetes, bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia, and kidney and urinary tract infections. Standardized cost of care for individual hospitalizations and across hospitalizations for the same patient and condition were modeled by using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for severity of illness, age, gender, and race. Main exposure was median annual HHI. Posthoc tests compared adjusted standardized costs for patients from the lowest and highest income groups. From 116,636 hospitalizations, 4 of 5 conditions had differences at the hospitalization and at the patient level, with lowest-income groups having higher costs. The individual hospitalization level cost differences ranged from $187 (4.1%) to $404 (6.4%). Patient-level cost differences ranged from $310 to $1087 or 6.5% to 15% higher for the lowest-income patients. Higher costs were typically not for laboratory, imaging, or pharmacy costs. In total, patients from lowest income zip codes had $8.4 million more in hospitalization-level costs and $13.6 million more in patient-level costs. Lower community-level HHI is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for 4 of 5 common pediatric conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design, delivery, and reimbursement calculations.

  4. CDM pilot project to stimulate market for family-hydro for low-income households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Over 100,000 low-income households living in rural, rice-farming regions of Vietnam and China rely upon family-hydro (between 100 and 200W) as the only affordable means of obtaining electricity. These systems are used for domestic lighting, radio and, in some cases, televisions. The units are small, cheap and are usually installed and owned by a single family. Funding from the CDM could be utilised in order to reduce the cost of good quality equipment to provide low-income households living in isolated off-grid locations with an affordable and sustainable electricity supply which can meet their needs for lighting, educational, productive and recreational uses. Therefore research was needed to determine the level of carbon emission reductions resulting from their use. The successful acceptance by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) of the methodology of establishing the benchmark developed during this project could then be used as a precedent by other project developers in the future, thus being of long-term support to the emerging family-hydro industry. (author)

  5. Is youth smoking responsive to cigarette prices? Evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to obtain data on the smoking behaviour of 315,353 adolescents from 17 LMIC. Two-part model of cigarette demand with country fixed effects. The first part estimates the impact of prices on smoking participation while the second part estimates the impact of prices on the number of cigarettes smoked among current smokers. Besides controlling for individual characteristics such as Age, Gender, Parental Smoking and availability of Pocket Money, the authors control for confounding environmental factors such as anti-smoking sentiment, the prevalence of cigarette advertising and anti-tobacco media messAges, and ease of purchasing cigarettes. All countries in this study are represented with at least two observations over time, which allows us to control for unobserved country characteristics and/or policies that may influence smoking patterns within countries. Cigarette price is an important determinant of smoking. The estimated price elasticity of smoking participation is -0.74, and the estimated price elasticity of conditional cigarette demand is approximately -1.37. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand is -2.11, implying that an increase in price of 10% would reduce youth cigarette consumption by 21.1% at the mean.

  6. Parameters Affecting Household Income Diversity of Farmer’s Tribes in South Sumatra Tidal Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Wildayana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to determine parameters affecting household income diversity of farmer’s tribes in South Sumatra tidal wetland, especially studied from the aspect of land acreage, education level, age of farmers and tribes of farmers. The research was using survey method and carried out from June-August 2016 in the Delta Telang I Banyuasin, South Sumatra. The data were recorded by questionnaire for 145 respondents of farmers. Data was processed, described and correlated to see the relevance of the parameters with other parameters. The research concluded that the character of household economy of farmers explaining the relation between production decisions to increase rice production is land acreage, education, age, experience of farmers, number of household members, and labor allocation. Multi commodities farming (rice and plantation was very favorable compared to monoculture rice fields? But this is a little bit contradictive with government policy that the research area is pointed out as the center of rice production. Therefore, government policy needs to motivate farmers that they can manage their farming from upstream to downstream and they work full in their own farming. The government policy should be site-specific and appropriated with the tribes of farmers

  7. Household versus Community Effects: Who Really Pays More for Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Hayden; Blisard, Noel

    2006-01-01

    One strand of literature shows a household's cost of food to vary with the household's own income and demographic characteristics. For example, low-income households may tend to purchase less costly bundles of food. However, a separate strand of literature also shows food prices to vary spatially with the characteristics of communities, such as real estate prices. In this study, a model is developed that unites these two strands. Simulations further illustrate the effect that a community's ch...

  8. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329

  9. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M. M. Davies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  10. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers' Level of Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eleanor M M; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF PRICES AND INCOME ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF THE POPULATION. THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghelina Andrei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recession influenced the consummers in their biggest concern – their income. In the same time the recession changed some important trends in consume. In this paperwork the authors intend to determine how strong the influence of prices and incomes of the population is on the consumer behavior, especially in Romania. Also the author want to present the case study of Romania concerning the recession of economy and some new aspects of consumer behavior. There is a strong conexion between the income and consume and the time of recession show it in the best way. In this way the author did some research on the market and by some analyses in a statistical editor we conclude that there is a strong determination in the consumer behavior by the income of the population especially in Romania, a country with a developing economy.

  12. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population’s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatar...

  13. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population?s dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first?attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Methods Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari ...

  14. Economic impacts of health shocks on households in low and middle income countries: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Khurshid; Mahal, Ajay

    2014-04-03

    Poor health is a source of impoverishment among households in low -and middle- income countries (LMICs) and a subject of voluminous literature in recent years. This paper reviews recent empirical literature on measuring the economic impacts of health shocks on households. Key inclusion criteria were studies that explored household level economic outcomes (burden of out-of-pocket (OOP) health spending, labour supply responses and non-medical consumption) of health shocks and sought to correct for the likely endogeneity of health shocks, in addition to studies that measured catastrophic and impoverishment effects of ill health. The review only considered literature in the English language and excluded studies published before 2000 since these have been included in previous reviews. We identified 105 relevant articles, reports, and books. Our review confirmed the major conclusion of earlier reviews based on the pre-2000 literature--that households in LMICs bear a high but variable burden of OOP health expenditure. Households use a range of sources such as income, savings, borrowing, using loans or mortgages, and selling assets and livestock to meet OOP health spending. Health shocks also cause significant reductions in labour supply among households in LMICs, and households (particularly low-income ones) are unable to fully smooth income losses from moderate and severe health shocks. Available evidence rejects the hypothesis of full consumption insurance in the face of major health shocks. Our review suggests additional research on measuring and harmonizing indicators of health shocks and economic outcomes, measuring economic implications of non-communicable diseases for households and analyses based on longitudinal data. Policymakers need to include non-health system interventions, including access to credit and disability insurance in addition to support formal insurance programs to ameliorate the economic impacts of health shocks.

  15. Analyzing the Determinants of Non-farm Income Diversification of Farm Households in Peshawar District of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Nazish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector in Pakistan is not well-established to provide full employment opportunities and sufficient income for needed living standard to the rural population. Stagnant agricultural productivity and low returns in farming have led rural residents to look for alternative livelihoods, especially non-farm employment. With this background, the present study is an endeavor to empirically determine the factors of non-farm income diversification of rural farm households in Peshawar district of Pakistan. The study was undertaken in four villages and data was amassed from 196 small farming households by using the multi-stage sampling technique. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, the mean of income shares approach and the ordinary least squares regression analysis. The results indicate that in all the selected villages, the pattern of non-farm employment was more or less the same; however, the income from non-farm employment activities had an important contribution towards incrementing the absolute income of farm households. Non-farm income diversification is hence crucial for sustaining livelihoods and an integral dimension for invigorating rural economies. Therefore, the study recommends the promotion of non-farm employment as a good strategy for supplementing the income of small farmers without shifting attention from agriculture.

  16. Association of household income and education with eating behaviors in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Hata, Kikuko; Matsushita, Munehiro; Takahashi, Masaki; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    Socioeconomic inequalities as social determinants of health are important issues in public health and health promotion. However, the association between socioeconomic status and eating behaviors has been investigated poorly in Japanese adults. To fill this gap, the present study examines the association of eating behaviors with household income and education. The sample comprised 3,137 Japanese adults (1,580 men and 1,557 women) aged 30 to 59 years who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey in 2014. Data on the following eating behaviors were collected via self-report: "taking care of one's diet for health," "eating vegetables," "frequency of eating breakfast," "frequency of family breakfasts," "frequency of family dinners," "using the information on nutrition labels," and "conversations with family or friends during meals." Self-reported data on socioeconomic status (household income and education) and demographic variables (gender, age, district of residence, marital status, residence status, and employment status) were also collected. The associations between eating behaviors and household income or education were tested using binomial logistic regression analysis with eating behaviors as dependent variables and household income and education as independent variables. A trend P -value was calculated for three categories of household income (less than 3,000,000 JPY, 3,000,000-7,000,000 JPY, and over 7,000,000 JPY) and education (junior high/high school, 2-year college, and 4-year college/graduate school). Higher household income and education were significantly associated with higher rates of eating vegetables, using the information on nutrition labels, and conversation with family or friends during meals in Japanese men and women. Higher household incomes were significantly associated with lower rates of frequency of family breakfasts in Japanese men and lower rates of frequency of family dinners in Japanese men and women. Higher socioeconomic

  17. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  18. Predictors of high out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure: an analysis using Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Azaher Ali; Chi, Chunhuei; Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez

    2017-01-31

    Predictors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure are essential for creating effective health system finance policy. In Bangladesh, 63.3% of health expenditure is out-of-pocket and born by households. It is imperative to know what determines household health expenditure. This study aims to investigate the predicting factors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure targeting to put forward policy recommendations on equity in financial burden. Bangladesh household income and expenditure survey 2010 provides data for this study. Predictors of high out-of-pocket household healthcare expenditure were analyzed using multiple linear regressions. We have modeled non-linear relationship using logarithmic form of linear regression. Heteroscedasticity and multicollinearity were checked using Breusch-Pagan/Cook-Weishberg and VIF tests. Normality of the residuals was checked using Kernel density curve. We applied required adjustment for survey data, so that standard errors and parameters estimation are valid. Presence of chronic disease and household income were found to be the most influential and statistically significant (p financing in Bangladesh to minimize the burden of high OOP healthcare expenditure.

  19. Differential responsiveness to cigarette price by education and income among adult urban Chinese smokers: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Jiang, Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of tobacco tax and price policies in China. In addition, very little is known about the differential responses to tax and price increases based on socioeconomic status in China. To estimate the conditional cigarette consumption price elasticity among adult urban smokers in China and to examine the differential responses to cigarette price increases among groups with different income and/or educational levels. Multivariate analyses employing the general estimating equations method were conducted using the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey. Analyses based on subsample by education and income were conducted. Conditional cigarette demand price elasticity ranges from -0.12 to -0.14. No differential responses to cigarette price increase were found across education levels. The price elasticity estimates do not differ between high-income smokers and medium-income smokers. Cigarette consumption among low-income smokers did not decrease after a price increase, at least among those who continued to smoke. Relative to other low-income and middle-income countries, cigarette consumption among Chinese adult smokers is not very sensitive to changes in cigarette prices. The total impact of cigarette price increase would be larger if its impact on smoking initiation and cessation, as well as the price-reducing behaviours such as brand switching and trading down, were taken into account. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Maternal Depressive Symptomatology, Social Support, and Language Development of Bilingual Preschoolers From Low-Income Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cycyk, Lauren M; Bitetti, Dana; Hammer, Carol Scheffner

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the impact of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support on the English and Spanish language growth of young bilingual children from low-income backgrounds. It was hypothesized that maternal depression would slow children's development in both languages but that social support would buffer the negative effect. Longitudinal data were collected from 83 mothers of Puerto Rican descent and their children who were attending Head Start preschool for 2 years. The effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and social support from family and friends on receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension development in both languages were examined. Growth curve modeling revealed that maternal depressive symptomatology negatively affected Spanish receptive vocabulary development only. Maternal depression did not affect children's English receptive vocabulary or their oral comprehension in either language. Social support was not related to maternal depressive symptomatology or child language. These findings suggest that maternal depression is 1 risk factor that contributes to less robust primary language development of bilingual children from low-income households. Speech-language pathologists must (a) increase their awareness of maternal depression in order to provide families with appropriate mental health referrals and (b) consider their roles as supportive adults for children whose mothers may be depressed.

  1. Price elasticities, policy measures and actual developments in household energy consumption - A bottom up analysis for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands it seems likely that the large number of new policy measures in the past decade has influenced the response of households to changing prices. To investigate this issue the energy trends in the period 1990-2000 have been simulated with a bottom-up model, applied earlier for scenario studies, and extensive data from surveys. For a number of alternative price cases the elasticity values found are explained using the bottom-up changes in energy trends. One finding is that the specific set of saving options defines for a great part the price response. The price effect has been analysed too in combination with the policy measures standards, subsidies and energy taxes. The simulation results indicate that the elasticity value could be 30-40% higher without these measures. (author)

  2. PRICE TRANSMISSION AND HOUSEHOLDS DEMAND ELASTICITY FOR FROZEN FISH UNDER FUEL SUBSIDY REFORM IN DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achoja Felix Odemero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel subsidy removal is assumed to translate to general increase in the cost of operating business such as fish marketing.The response of price of fish and corresponding demand elasticity are welfare issues worthy of investigation in Nigeria. The present study evaluates price transmission in fish marketing system by analysing the response of fish market indices to fuel subsidy reform in Nigeria. Primary data collected with structured questionnaire from purposively selected 78 frozen fish marketers, were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression model. A test of hypothesis shows a significant price transmission of about 100% (P < 0.05. Marketing cost increased by 31.8% and profitability dropped by 24.20%, confirming negative effect of new price regime. The result further revealed a 0.05% drop in quantity of frozen fish demanded by households. It was recommended that economic measures should be introduced by the government to cushion the effect of fuel policy removal.

  3. Increasing household debts and its relation to GDP, interest rate and house price: Malaysia’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sharezan; Masih, Mansur

    2014-01-01

    The increase in household debts in Malaysia which has escalated to about 86% of total GDP is deemed to be at worrying stage as it may in turn trigger another financial crisis. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the increase in household debts and its relation to GDP, interest rate and house price via time series techniques. Data collected from Datastream and monthly statistical bulletin span from 1999 to 2014 on quarterly basis. The results show that there is a cointegrating long run r...

  4. Using direct observations on multiple occasions to measure household food availability among low-income Mexicano residents in Texas colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recognized that the availability of foods in the home are important to nutritional health, and may influence the dietary behavior of children, adolescents, and adults. It is therefore important to understand food choices in the context of the household setting. Considering their importance, the measurement of household food resources becomes critical. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods that are present in the home, which can miss the change in availability within a month and when resources are not available, the primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and value of conducting weekly in-home assessments of household food resources over the course of one month among low-income Mexicano families in Texas colonias. Methods We conducted five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; determined the frequency that food items were present in the participating households; and compared a one-time measurement with multiple measurements. After the development and pre-testing of the 252-item culturally and linguistically- appropriate household food inventory instrument that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food and beverage items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere, two trained promotoras recruited a convenience sample of 6 households; administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, and food security; conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval over a 30-day period; and documented grocery shopping and other food-related activities within the previous week of each in-home assessment. All data were collected in Spanish. Descriptive statistics were calculated for mean and frequency of sample characteristics, food-related activities, food security, and the presence of individual food items. Due to the small sample size of the

  5. The Estimation of Water Demand Function of Household Sector According to Non Liner Pricing Through Discrete – continues Choice Model (The Case Study of Tehran City During 2002 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khoshbakht

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of water is the result of the recent successive drought in most country's districts. The increase of demand due to the increase of population and also inappropriate growth of supply according to the high cost of production process and therefore distribution, arise a big concern for the water and wastewater companies. Therefore the provision of water supply for consumers emphasizes on the urge of the management policies more than ever. Knowing the consumer behavior, in this regard, is the first and the most important step. In this study, to reach this objective, the function of household water demand in structure of block pricing in Tehran was estimated by using  household budget data , through discrete – continues choice model and maximum likelihood approach . The results show that price and income parameters have expected sign. The calculated unconditional elasticties show that consumers’ sensitiveness for price fluctuations in the structure of block pricing are against zero. Therefore, the policy of price reform in the structure of block pricing can be used as an effective tool in the management of consumption.

  6. Industrial and residential electricity demand dynamics in Japan: How did price and income elasticities evolve from 1989 to 2014?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Mogi, Gento

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the price and income elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand in Japan with the annual data from 1989 to 2014. A time varying parameter (TVP) model with the Kalman filter is applied to monitor the evolution of consumer behaviors in the “post-bubble” period given the exogenous shock (financial crisis in 2008) and the structural breaks (electricity deregulation and Fukushima Daiichi crisis). The TVP model can provide a robust estimation of elasticities and can detect the outliers and the structural breaks. The results suggest that both industrial and residential consumers become less sensitive to price after the electricity deregulation and the financial crisis, and more sensitive to price after the Fukushima Daiichi crisis. Especially the industrial sector is less sensitive to price after the retail deregulation. By contrast, the income elasticities of industrial and residential sector consumers are stable during the examined period. Results also indicate that a negative relationship exists between the price elasticity of electricity demand and the price level of electricity after the electric sector deregulation. Some insights on the further electric sector reform and the environmental taxation in Japan are also provided. - Highlights: • A time varying parameter model is calculated with the Kalman filter. • Income elasticities are stable while price elasticities are time-varying. • Industrial sector is less sensitive to price change than residential sector. • Negative relationship between price elasticity and price level is found.

  7. [Population migration and its contribution to household income in the region of origin. A case study of the village of Mengwi, Badung regency, Bali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibia, I K

    1986-06-01

    This study examines labor migration from the Balinese village of Mengwi, Indonesia, and its contribution to household income in the village of origin. The data concern some 150 households, including 108 commuters, 33 circular migrants, and 108 permanent migrants, and were collected in 1984. The results indicate a significant contribution from migrants, particularly among low-income families. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Bryony; Hill, Andrew; Ford, Nathan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010-2014) were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic) were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (psub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717) in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74-541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  9. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  10. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio; Del Rio, Pablo; Jorge-Garcia, Marta; Burguillo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  11. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz, 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Jorge-Garcia, Marta [Universidad de Leon (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  12. Input subsidies and demand for improved maize : relative prices and household heterogeneity matter!

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Stein Terje

    2013-01-01

    This study uses simple non-separable farm household models calibrated to household, market, farming and policy context conditions in Central and Southern Malawi. The models are used to simulate how household characteristics, design and access to input subsidies affect the demand for improved maize seeds; how increasing land scarcity affects the cropping system and demand for improved maize; and how access to improved maize seeds affects household welfare with varying access to input subsidies...

  13. Household food security and nutritional status of vulnerable groups in Kenya : a seasonal study among low income smallholder rural households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kigutha, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Climatic seasonality is now recognized as being a constraint to agricultural production and to household food security in many countries within the tropical regions of the world. This study investigated the extent to which a unimodal climatic pattern affects food production and food

  14. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  15. Financial barriers and pricing strategies related to participation in sports activities: the perceptions of people of low income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Nooy, Steffie B C; Moes, Machiel J G; Schuit, Albertine J

    2009-11-01

    Physical activity levels in most affluent countries are low and many people do not meet the current recommendations. Particularly for people with a low income, economic strategies seem promising to stimulate taking part in sports activities. This study investigated the importance of economic restraints for taking part in sports activities as well as perceptions of low-income people toward different pricing interventions. A qualitative study was conducted, using semistructured, individual interviews with 27 low-income men and women. The framework approach was used to analyze the transcripts of the interviews. The respondents considered finances to be an important barrier for participating in sports activities, together with some individual barriers. Promising pricing strategies are a discount on the subscription to the fitness or sports club, a 1 month free trial, and free entrance to the swimming pool once a week. Pricing strategies may be a promising intervention to increase physical activity levels of low-income people. However, this study indicates that this should be coupled with an intervention directed at individual barriers. Some pricing strategies will be used and appreciated more by low-income people than other pricing strategies. In addition, pricing strategies should be tailored to individual needs and preferences.

  16. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Theilade, Ida; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups...

  17. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household...... capitalization from earlier studies. Furthermore, we find no effect of property taxes on house prices. We attribute this to the low levels of Danish municipal property tax rates compared to income tax rates....

  18. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  19. The association between ownership of common household devices and obesity and diabetes in high, middle and low income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon; Gasevic, Danijela; Zhang, Xiaohe; Poirier, Paul P; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Seron, Pamela; Kelishadi, Roya; Tamil, Azmi Mohd; Kruger, Annamarie; Iqbal, Romaina; Swidan, Hani; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kutty, V Raman; Karsıdag, Kubilay; Kumar, Rajesh; Li, Wei; Szuba, Andrzej; Avezum, Alvaro; Diaz, Rafael; Anand, Sonia S; Rosengren, Annika; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-03-04

    Household devices (e.g., television, car, computer) are common in high income countries, and their use has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that device ownership is associated with obesity and diabetes and that these effects are explained through reduced physical activity, increased sitting time and increased energy intake. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study involving 153,996 adults from high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income countries. We used multilevel regression models to account for clustering at the community and country levels. Ownership of a household device increased from low to high income countries (4% to 83% for all 3 devices) and was associated with decreased physical activity and increased sitting, dietary energy intake, body mass index and waist circumference. There was an increased odds of obesity and diabetes with the ownership of any 1 household device compared to no device ownership (obesity: odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-1.55; diabetes: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.28-1.50). Ownership of a second device increased the odds further but ownership of a third device did not. Subsequent adjustment for lifestyle factors modestly attenuated these associations. Of the 3 devices, ownership of a television had the strongest association with obesity (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.29-1.49) and diabetes (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.44). When stratified by country income level, the odds of obesity and diabetes when owning all 3 devices was greatest in low income countries (obesity: OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.33-4.25; diabetes: OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.53-2.53) and decreased through country income levels such that we did not detect an association in high income countries. The ownership of household devices increased the likelihood of obesity and diabetes, and this was mediated in part by effects on physical activity, sitting time and dietary energy intake. With

  20. The Impact of Income and Taxation in a Price-Tiered Cigarette Market - findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Iftekharul; Nargis, Nigar; Lkhagvasuren, Damba; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2018-04-25

    Taxing tobacco is among the most effective measures of tobacco control. However, in a tiered market structure where multiple tiers of taxes coexist, the anticipated impact of tobacco taxes on consumption is complex. This paper investigates changing smoking behaviour in lieu of changing prices and changing income. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of change in prices (through taxes) and change in income in a price-tiered cigarette market. A panel dataset from the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh surveys is used for analysis. For preliminary analysis transition matrices are developed. Next, probit and multinomial logit regression models are used to identify the effects of changes in prices and changes in income along with other control variables. Transition matrices show significant movement of smokers across price tiers from one wave to another. Regression results show that higher income raises the probability to up-trade and decreases the probability to down-trade. Results also show that higher prices raises the probability to up-trade and reduces the probability to down-trade. Although not significant, there exists a negative relationship between the probability to down-trade and the probability to intend to quit. It is evident from the results that a price-tiered market provides smokers more opportunities to accommodate their smoking behaviour when faced with price and income change. Therefore, tiered structure of the tax system should be replaced with uniform taxes. Moreover, overall cigarette taxes need to be raised to an extent so that it off-sets any positive effects of income growth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, G; Kramer, C; Schwartz, LC

    2017-08-09

    Ensuring that low- and moderate-income (LMI) households have access to energy efficiency is equitable, provides energy savings as a resource to meet energy needs, and can support multiple policy goals, such as affordable energy, job creation, and improved public health. Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing. The report’s objective is to offer state and local policymakers, state utility regulators, program administrators, financial institutions, consumer advocates and other LMI stakeholders with an understanding of: -The relationship between LMI communities and financing for energy efficiency, including important considerations for its use such as consumer protections -The larger programmatic context of grant-based assistance and other related resources supporting LMI household energy efficiency -Lessons learned from existing energy efficiency financing programs serving LMI households -Financing products used by these programs and their relative advantages and disadvantages in addressing barriers to financing or to energy efficiency uptake for LMI households

  2. The impact for households of a carbon component in the price of fossil energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Olivier; Thao Khamsing, Willy

    2016-03-01

    A carbon component has been introduced in tax on fossil energies in 2014 in France in order to support energy transition, and resulted in a higher cost of fossil energies for households in their transport and heating expenses. This publication aims at illustrating and commenting these consequences of a carbon component. It shows that expenses increase with the standard of living, that modest households are more affected, notably as far as heating expenses are concerned, that households using domestic fuel for heating and diesel fuel for their vehicles are the most affected, that the additional cost is particularly a burden for single-parent families and singles, and that rural households are more affected. A cross-criterion analysis (household type, location, heating type, fuel type) is proposed to assess the impact of 2016 on the energy bill of typical households. Methodological hypotheses, data origins and calculation method are briefly presented

  3. Distributional incidence of green electricity price subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Distributional incidences are fundamental to environmental and energy policies, a condition that has led to controversies on the equity of environmental and energy policy. Using data from China's Urban Household Income and Expenditure Survey data from 2007, this study quantified the distributional effects of the green electricity price subsidy policy among Chinese urban household and compared its effects by using lifetime income and annual income to classify households, respectively. The results show that total electricity subsidies are mainly driven by indirect electricity subsidies. By using lifetime income to classify households, subsidies to households in the poorest two groups accounted for less than 10.2% of the total subsidies, whereas money distributed to households in the top two deciles reached 35.4%. The comparison using annual income to group households also demonstrated the similar impact of the green electricity price subsidy policy. China’s future market reforms should allow electricity prices to reflect pollution abatement costs. Additionally, a multi-step block electricity price schedule can reduce the regressivity of the policy. - Highlights: • We quantified the distributional effects of the green electricity price subsidy. • The distributional effects of different income groups were compared. • The poorest two groups accounted for less than 10.2% of the total subsidies. • The green electricity price subsidy policy benefited the rich at household level.

  4. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  5. The Impact of Successful Cataract Surgery on Quality of Life, Household Income and Social Status in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Eva; Balasubramaniam, Bharath; Ramani, Ramanathan V.; Holz, Frank G.; Gilbert, Clare E.

    2012-01-01

    Background To explore the hypothesis that sight restoring cataract surgery provided to impoverished rural communities will improve not only visual acuity and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) but also poverty and social status. Methods Participants were recruited at outreach camps in Tamil Nadu, South India, and underwent free routine manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS) with intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation, and were followed up one year later. Poverty was measured as monthly household income, being engaged in income generating activities and number of working household members. Social status was measured as rates of re-marriage amongst widowed participants. VRQoL was measured using the IND-VFQ-33. Associations were explored using logistic regression (SPSS 19). Results Of the 294 participants, mean age ± standard deviation (SD) 60±8 years, 54% men, only 11% remained vision impaired at follow up (67% at baseline; ppoverty in the long run. PMID:22952945

  6. Introducing Family Tax Splitting in Germany: How Would It Affect the Income Distribution, Work Incentives and Household Welfare?

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Steiner; Katharina Wrohlich

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effects of three alternative proposals to reform the taxation of families relative to the current German system of joint taxation of couples and child allowances: a French-type family splitting and two full family splitting proposals. The empirical analysis of the effects of these proposals on the income distribution and on work incentives is based on a behavioral micro-simulation model which integrates an empirical household labor supply model into a detailed tax-benefit model...

  7. Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Carrboro, North Carolina: Achieving Building Efficiencies for Low-Income Households" explains how the Town of Carrboro used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  8. [Differences in factors associated with health checkup participation between persons with differing income levels. A cross-sectional analysis using residential taxation as a measure of household income].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukishima, Eri; Takahashi, Kyoko; Yano, Koichi; Mori, Mitsuru

    2012-11-01

    Health insurers in Japan are required to provide health checkups specifically designed to detect signs of metabolic syndrome. Since National Health Insurance organizations have been increasing their numbers of low-income beneficiaries, this observational study was carried out to investigate the differences between persons with differing household income levels based on the factors associated with their participation in health checkups. The data source for this study was a database of scored answers in collected, unsigned questionnaires provided by the National Health Insurance of Sapporo City. The survey was conducted in 2009, approaching 3000 beneficiaries aged 40-74 years and sampling 4 groups divided by household income and participation in the 2008 health checkup. The survey included questions about demographics, awareness of the details of the health checkup, and knowledge of lifestyle-related diseases. Valid answers from 1656 respondents were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. After analyzing the level of awareness of health checkup details among subjects and its association with checkup participation, knowledge of the locations where the checkups were held showed the highest adjusted odds ratios. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with participation in checkups in both lower- and higher-income groups: previous and regular participation in health checkups, willingness to attend the next checkup, and status of family or friends regarding checkup participation. In addition, that a substantial out-of-pocket cost for the checkup was not levied had a significant relationship with checkup attendance in lower-income beneficiaries, while personal obligation to undergo regular health checkups regardless of the busyness of their schedules was found to have a significant relationship in higher-income beneficiaries. In addition, logistic models that excluded factors of previous and future health

  9. Study and Comparison of Rural and Urban Household Income Distribution in Khorasan Province and Country during 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jamshidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined distrbution of household income in Khorasan Razavi province and the country for urban and rural areas, seprately. Using household income and expenditure statistics compiled by the Statistical Center of Iran during 2007-2012 the Gini index, Tile index, Atkinson index and the tenth docile to the first docile were applied.The study findings indicate that during the studied period income inequality in the country has been decreased. The levels of disparity in the urban areas have been usually higher than its levels in the country. , while the levels of disparity in the rural areas have been always lower than its levels in the country.. Morever, income distributions in the urban areas and the entire province have been always more uneven than what has been seen for the rural areas. Analysing the Tile and Atkinson indicies (ε=1 shows that both ascending and descending trends of the two indicies were consistent with the Gini index and thus, the three indicies are compatible and validate each other. On the other hand, analysing the Gross expenditures per capita for households and the Gini index shows that the levels of welfare in urban and rural areas of Khorasan were almost constant, however the index for the urban areas of the country has been decreased and for the rural areas has been increased. The social welfare often have been lower for the the rural areas than the social welfare for the urban areas. The results indicate significant differences in income distributions among the province, the country's rural areas and the urban areas.The sudy therefore proposes regional plannings to be considered.

  10. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  11. After Mexico Implemented a Tax, Purchases of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Decreased and Water Increased: Difference by Place of Residence, Household Composition, and Income Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Molina, Mariana; Guerrero-López, Carlos M

    2017-08-01

    Background: In January 2014, Mexico implemented a tax on sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) purchases of 1 peso/L. Objective: We examined the heterogeneity of changes in nonalcoholic beverage (SSB and bottled water) purchases after the tax was implemented by household income, urban and rural strata, and household composition. Methods: We used 4 rounds of the National Income and Expenditure Surveys: 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Changes in purchases in per capita liters per week were estimated with the use of 2-part models to adjust for nonpurchases. We compared absolute and relative differences between adjusted changes in observed purchases in 2014 with expected purchases in 2014 based on prior trends (2008-2012). The models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics of the households, place of residence, and lagged gross domestic product per capita. Results: We found a 6.3% reduction in the observed purchases of SSBs in 2014 compared with the expected purchases in that same year based on trends from 2008 to 2012. These reductions were higher among lower-income households, residents living in urban areas, and households with children. We also found a 16.2% increase in water purchases that was higher in low- and middle-income households, in urban areas, and among households with adults only. Conclusions: SSB purchases decreased and water purchases increased after an SSB tax was imposed in Mexico. The magnitude of these changes was greater in lower-income and urban households. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Are low-to-middle-income households experiencing food insecurity in Victoria, Australia? An examination of the Victorian Population Health Survey, 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleve, Sue; Davidson, Zoe E; Gearon, Emma; Booth, Sue; Palermo, Claire

    2017-07-01

    Food insecurity affects health and wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between food insecurity across income levels. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and frequency of food insecurity in low-to-middle-income Victorian households over time and identify factors associated with food insecurity in these households. Prevalence and frequency of food insecurity was analysed across household income levels using data from the cross-sectional 2006-09 Victorian Population Health Surveys (VPHS). Respondents were categorised as food insecure, if in the last 12 months they had run out of food and were unable to afford to buy more. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe factors associated with food insecurity in low-to-middle-income households (A$40000-$80000 in 2008). Between 4.9 and 5.5% for total survey populations and 3.9-4.8% in low-to-middle-income respondents were food insecure. Food insecurity was associated with limited help from friends, home ownership status, inability to raise money in an emergency and cost of some foods. Food insecurity exists in households beyond those on a very low income. Understanding the extent and implications of household food insecurity across all income groups in Australia will inform effective and appropriate public health responses.

  13. Household electricity consumers’ incentive to choose dynamic pricing under different taxation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Kitzing, Lena; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic pricing of retail electricity, as opposed to the widely applied average pricing, has often been proposed to enhance economic efficiency through demand response. The development of variable production from renewable energies and expectations about the installation of heat pumps and electric...

  14. The impact of successful cataract surgery on quality of life, household income and social status in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Finger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the hypothesis that sight restoring cataract surgery provided to impoverished rural communities will improve not only visual acuity and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL but also poverty and social status. METHODS: Participants were recruited at outreach camps in Tamil Nadu, South India, and underwent free routine manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS with intra-ocular lens (IOL implantation, and were followed up one year later. Poverty was measured as monthly household income, being engaged in income generating activities and number of working household members. Social status was measured as rates of re-marriage amongst widowed participants. VRQoL was measured using the IND-VFQ-33. Associations were explored using logistic regression (SPSS 19. RESULTS: Of the 294 participants, mean age ± standard deviation (SD 60 ± 8 years, 54% men, only 11% remained vision impaired at follow up (67% at baseline; p<0.001. At one year, more participants were engaged in income generating activities (44.7% to 77.7%; p<0.001 and the proportion of households with a monthly income <1000 Rps. decreased from 50.5% to 20.5% (p<0.05. Overall VRQoL improved (p<0.001. Participants who had successful cataract surgery were less likely to remain in the lower categories of monthly household income (OR 0.05-0.22; p<0.02 and more likely to be engaged in income earning activities one year after surgery (OR 3.28; p = 0.006. Participants widowed at baseline who had successful cataract surgery were less likely to remain widowed at one year (OR 0.02; p = 0.008. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the broad positive impact of sight restoring cataract surgery on the recipients' as well as their families' lives. Providing free high quality cataract surgery to marginalized rural communities will not only alleviate avoidable blindness but also - to some extent - poverty in the long run.

  15. How Certain are Dutch Households about Future Income? An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; Donkers, A.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The growing literature on precautionary saving clearly indicates the need for measurement of income uncertainty. In this paper we empirically analyze subjective income uncertainty in the Netherlands. Data come from the Dutch VSB panel. We measure income uncertainty directly by asking questions on

  16. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  17. Engel curves, household characteristics and low-user tariff schemes in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navajas, Fernando H.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the relative importance of income and household characteristics (such as family size) in explaining differences in household consumption of natural gas and LPG. In a simple model of vertically (willingness to pay) ordered households we posit that the relative importance of the income elasticity of demand (vs. the family size elasticity) depends positively on the price faced by households. Thus, very low prices tend to depress the across households income elasticity of demand relative to the characteristic-elasticity and the opposite holds for under high prices. We test this hypothesis using, for the first time in Argentina, data from the household expenditure survey on Natural gas and LPG and compare the cross-consumption equations for both fuels, which have quite different price regimes. Finally, we explore welfare implications for low-user tariff scheme reforms in natural gas. (author)

  18. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Household income metrics related to emotional well-being by Census Block Group for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the percentage of population within different household income ranges for each Census Block Group (CBG), a threshold estimated to...

  20. Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    under scenarios with large shares of wind power in a Danish case study. Our results indicate strategies that could be favourable in ensuring high adoption of products and efficient response by households. We find that simple pricing schemes, though economically less efficient, could become important......Applying a partial equilibrium model of the electricity market we analyse effects of exposing household electricity customers to retail products with variable pricing. Both short-term and long-term effects of exposing customers to hourly spot market prices and a simpler rebate scheme are analysed...... in an early phase to initialise the development of household demand response. At a later point, when long-term dynamics take effect, a larger effort should be made to shift consumers onto real-time rates, and an increased focus on overall adoption of variable pricing will be required. Another finding...

  1. Availability, quality and price of produce in low-income neighbourhood food stores in California raise equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi; Brown, Daniel M; Sun, Betty C; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Crawford, Patricia B

    2018-06-01

    To assess produce availability, quality and price in a large sample of food stores in low-income neighbourhoods in California. Cross-sectional statewide survey. Between 2011 and 2015, local health departments assessed store type, WIC (Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children)/SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) participation, produce availability, quality and price of selected items in stores in low-income neighbourhoods. Secondary data provided reference chain supermarket produce prices matched by county and month. t Tests and ANOVA examined differences by store type; regression models examined factors associated with price. Large grocery stores (n 231), small markets (n 621) and convenience stores (n 622) in 225 neighbourhoods. Produce in most large groceries was rated high quality (97 % of fruits, 98 % of vegetables), but not in convenience stores (25 % fruits, 14 % vegetables). Small markets and convenience stores participating in WIC and/or SNAP had better produce availability, variety and quality than non-participating stores. Produce prices across store types were, on average, higher than reference prices from matched chain supermarkets (27 % higher in large groceries, 37 % higher in small markets, 102 % higher in convenience stores). Price was significantly inversely associated with produce variety, adjusting for quality, store type, and SNAP and WIC participation. The study finds that fresh produce is more expensive in low-income neighbourhoods and that convenience stores offer more expensive, poorer-quality produce than other stores. Variety is associated with price and most limited in convenience stores, suggesting more work is needed to determine how convenience stores can provide low-income consumers with access to affordable, high-quality produce. WIC and SNAP can contribute to the solution.

  2. Market versus agriculture in Poland – macroeconomic relations of incomes, prices and productivity in terms of the sustainable development paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    CZYŻEWSKI, Bazyli; MAJCHRZAK, Adam

    2017-01-01

    In the article macroeconomic relations of prices, productivity and incomes in Polish agriculture in the context of changes in the EU Common Agricultural Policy were studied. The authors have developed a macroeconomic model which explains these relations and confirms the occurrence of market failures in agriculture in Poland. The developed model proves the existence of a puzzling exchangeable relation between the real productivity of production factors in agriculture, and agricultural incomes,...

  3. Household expenditures on dietary supplements sold for weight loss, muscle building, and sexual function: Disproportionate burden by gender and income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Liu, Selena Hua; Dong, Fan; Tefft, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    Dietary supplements sold for weight loss (WL), muscle building (MB), and sexual function (SF) are not medically recommended. They have been shown to be ineffective in many cases and pose serious health risks to consumers due to adulteration with banned substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, and other dangerous chemicals. Yet no prior research has investigated how these products may disproportionately burden individuals and families by gender and socioeconomic position across households. We investigated household (HH) cost burden of dietary supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF in a cross-sectional study using data from 60,538 U.S. households (HH) in 2012 Nielsen/IRi National Consumer Panel, calculating annual HH expenditures on WL, MB, and SF supplements and expenditures as proportions of total annual HH income. We examined sociodemographic patterns in HH expenditures using Wald tests of mean differences across subgroups. Among HH with any expenditures on WL, MB, or SF supplements, annual HH first and ninth expenditure deciles were, respectively: WL $5.99, $145.36; MB $6.99, $141.93; and SF $4.98, $88.52. Conditional on any purchases of the products, female-male-headed HH spent more on WL supplements and male-headed HH spend more on MB and SF supplements compared to other HH types ( p -values supplements types ( p -values supplements ( p -values supplements sold for WL, MB, and SF disproportionately burden HH by income and gender.

  4. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model...... is proposed. Finally, a practical Danish 60kV/10.5kV distribution system is employed as the test case to verify the proposed method for mitigating congestion....

  5. Deal or no deal? The prevalence and nutritional quality of price promotions among U.S. food and beverage purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Xue, Ya; Harding, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    This study examines trends in the prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases, differences in prevalence by household race/ethnicity or income, and the association between price promotions and the nutritional profile of purchases. This cross-sectional study utilizes a dataset of 90 million purchases from 38,744 (2008) to 45,042 (2012) US households in 2008-2012. Chi-square tests were used to examine whether the proportion of purchases with price promotions changed over time or differed by household race/ethnicity or income. T-tests were used to compare purchased products' nutritional profiles. Prevalence of price promotions among packaged food and beverage purchases increased by 8% and 6%, respectively, from 2008 to 2012, with both reaching 34% by 2012. Higher-income households had greater proportions of purchases with price promotions than lower-income households. Asian households had the highest proportion of purchases with any price promotion, followed by non-Hispanic whites. While total price-promoted packaged food purchases had higher mean energy, total sugar, and saturated fat densities than purchases with no price promotions, absolute differences were small. Prevalence of price promotions among US household purchases increased from 2008 to 2012 and was greater for higher-income households. No clear associations emerged between presence of price promotions and nutritional quality of purchases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Relationship between Personality Traits of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management and Household Income and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Md. Murad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of the urban poor householders concerning solid waste management systems and monthly household income and education. To attain the objective, the study employed statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way ANOVA, chi-squared „likelihood ratio“ test and simple descriptive statistics. The findings show that the urban poor communities with low income and education have been proven to behave in ways matching with and conducive to environment-friendly solid waste management, for instance, by practicing recycling and waste source reduction. This study also proves that the urban low-income communities generally have a very proactive role from a sound environmental management perspective, as they are the main recyclers and source-reducers of solid waste. The study suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, skills, and empowerment of the urban poor as means of promoting their living conditions.

  7. Work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work–family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011–2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work–family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04–2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92–4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work–family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work–family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women. PMID:28207757

  8. Work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers: How household income modifies associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Honjo, Kaori; Eshak, Ehab Salah; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between work-family conflict and self-rated health among Japanese workers and to determine whether the associations differed by household income. Data was derived from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation in Saku area in 2011-2012 (7,663 men and 7,070 women). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for poor self-rated health by work-family conflict consisting of two dimensions (work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts) were calculated by gender and household income. Multivariate ORs of high work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts for poor self-rated health were 2.46 (95% CI; 2.04-2.97) for men and 3.54 (95% CI; 2.92-4.30) for women, with reference to the low work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts (p-value for gender interaction = 0.02). Subgroup analysis indicated that health effects of work-family conflict were likely to be more evident in the low income group only among women. Work-family conflict was associated with poor self-rated health among middle-aged Japanese men and women; its health impact was relatively stronger among women, and particularly economically disadvantaged women.

  9. Association of Household Food Insecurity with the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Urban Ecuadorian Women with Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Weigel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic physical and mental health conditions account for a rising proportion of morbidity, mortality, and disability in the Americas region. Household food insecurity (HFI has been linked to chronic disease in US and Canadian women but it is uncertain if the same is true for low- and middle-income Latin American countries in epidemiologic transition. We conducted a survey to investigate the association of HFI with the physical and mental health of 794 women with children living in low-income Quito, Ecuador, neighborhoods. Data were collected on HFI and health indicators including self-reported health (SF-1, mental health (MHI-5, blood pressure, and self-reported mental and physical health complaints. Fasting blood glucose and lipids were measured in a subsample. The multivariate analyses revealed that HFI was associated with poorer self-rated health, low MHI-5 scores, and mental health complaints including stress, depression, and ethnospecific illnesses. It was also associated with chest tightness/discomfort/pain, dental disease, and gastrointestinal illness but not other conditions. The findings suggest that improving food security in low-income households may help reduce the burden of mental distress in women with children. The hypothesized link with diabetes and hypertension may become more apparent as Ecuador moves further along in the epidemiologic transition.

  10. Exploring household income as a predictor of psychological well-being among long-term colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, J Jason; Coons, Stephen Joel; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa; Grant, Marcia; Krouse, Robert S

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine the unique contribution of household income to the variance explained in psychological well-being (PWB) among a sample of colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. This study is a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the Health-Related Quality of Life in Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Study, which included CRC survivors with (cases) and without (controls) ostomies. The dataset included socio-demographic, health status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) information. HRQOL was assessed with the modified City of Hope Quality of Life (mCOH-QOL)-Ostomy questionnaire and SF-36v2. To assess the relationship between income and PWB, a hierarchical linear regression model was constructed combining data from both cases and controls. After accounting for the proportion of variance in PWB explained by the other independent variables in the model, the additional variance explained by income was significant (R (2) increased from 0.228 to 0.250; P = 0.006). Although the study design does not allow causal inference, these results demonstrate a significant relationship between income and PWB in CRC survivors. The findings suggest that for non-randomized group comparisons of HRQOL, income should, at the very least, be included as a control variable in the analysis.

  11. Clinical and medication profiles stratified by household income in patients referred for diabetes care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low income individuals with diabetes are at particularly high risk for poor health outcomes. While specialized diabetes care may help reduce this risk, it is not currently known whether there are significant clinical differences across income groups at the time of referral. The objective of this study is to determine if the clinical profiles and medication use of patients referred for diabetes care differ across income quintiles. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted using a Canadian, urban, Diabetes Education Centre (DEC database. Clinical information on the 4687 patients referred to the DEC from May 2000 – January 2002 was examined. These data were merged with 2001 Canadian census data on income. Potential differences in continuous clinical parameters across income quintiles were examined using regression models. Differences in medication use were examined using Chi square analyses. Results Multivariate regression analysis indicated that income was negatively associated with BMI (p Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that low income patients present to diabetes clinic older, heavier and with a more atherogenic lipid profile than do high income patients. Overall medication use was higher among the lower income group suggesting that differences in clinical profiles are not the result of under-treatment, thus invoking lifestyle factors as potential contributors to these findings.

  12. Alcohol taxes' contribution to prices in high and middle-income countries: Data from the International Alcohol Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Martin; Casswell, Sally; Callinan, Sarah; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Viet Cuong, Pham; Gray-Phillip, Gaile; Parry, Charles

    2017-11-22

    Taxation is increasingly being used as an effective means of influencing behaviour in relation to harmful products. In this paper we use data from six participating countries of the International Alcohol Control Study to examine and evaluate their comparative prices and tax regimes. We calculate taxes and prices for three high-income and three middle-income countries. The data are drawn from the International Alcohol Control survey and from the Alcohol Environment Protocol. Tax systems are described and then the rates of tax on key products presented. Comparisons are made using the Purchasing Power Parity rates. The price and purchase data from each country's International Alcohol Control survey is then used to calculate the mean percentage of retail price paid in tax weighted by actual consumption. Both ad valorem and specific per unit of alcohol taxation systems are represented among the six countries. The prices differ widely between countries even though presented in terms of Purchasing Power Parity. The percentage of tax in the final price also varies widely but is much lower than the 75% set by the World Health Organization as a goal for tobacco tax. There is considerable variation in tax systems and prices across countries. There is scope to increase taxation and this analysis provides comparable data, including the percentage of tax in final price, from some middle and high-income countries for consideration in policy discussion. © 2017 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  14. Understanding access to medicines in low- and middle-income countries through the use of price and availability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cameron, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: While it is generally understood that large sections of the population in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack access to medicines, the concept of access is difficult to define and measure.Data on medicine prices and availability obtained through national facility-based surveys

  15. The distribution of well-being and income within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Browning, Martin

    directly using a survey measure of self-perceived economic well-being. First, we do not find any impact of the incomes of other non-related (‘peer-group’) persons on the financial satisfaction of singles. This is in contrast to other recent findings that suggest that agents consider relative incomes when...

  16. Dutch social housing sector reforms : Exploring the effects on low income households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groen, A.; Pruyt, E.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Social rental housing ought to function as safety net for the lower income groups in the housing system. However, the Dutch housing system has a relatively large social housing stock in relation to other housing systems in Europe – larger than would be required for a safety net for lower income

  17. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen B; Bruce, Nigel G; Grigg, Jonathan; Hibberd, Patricia L; Kurmi, Om P; Lam, Kin-bong Hubert; Mortimer, Kevin; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balmes, John; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Bates, Michael N; Breysse, Patrick N; Buist, Sonia; Chen, Zhengming; Havens, Deborah; Jack, Darby; Jindal, Surinder; Kan, Haidong; Mehta, Sumi; Moschovis, Peter; Naeher, Luke; Patel, Archana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Pope, Daniel; Rylance, Jamie; Semple, Sean; Martin, William J

    2014-10-01

    A third of the world's population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal burning and further data are needed about other solid fuels. Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis in women, are associated with solid fuel use for cooking, and the damaging effects of exposure to household air pollution in early life on lung development are yet to be fully described. We also review appropriate ways to measure exposure to household air pollution, as well as study design issues and potential effective interventions to prevent these disease burdens. Measurement of household air pollution needs individual, rather than fixed in place, monitoring because exposure varies by age, gender, location, and household role. Women and children are particularly susceptible to the toxic effects of pollution and are exposed to the highest concentrations. Interventions should target these high-risk groups and be of sufficient quality to make the air clean. To make clean energy

  18. Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday B. Akpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is a sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyses poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross-sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions to analyse information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female-headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for the female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in the social organisation, a level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, the social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. The government of the region should also improve educational

  19. A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkekul, Berna; Unakitan, Goekhan

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has an important role in every country's development. Particularly, the contribution of agriculture to development and competitiveness is increasing with agricultural productivity growth. Productivity, in turn, is closely associated with direct and indirect use of energy as an input. Therefore, the importance of energy in agriculture cannot be denied as one of the basic inputs to the economic growth process. Following the importance of energy in Turkish agriculture, this study aims to estimate the long- and short-run relationship of energy consumption, agricultural GDP, and energy prices via co-integration and error correction (ECM) analysis. Annual data from 1970 to 2008 for diesel and electricity consumptions are utilized to estimate long-run and short-run elasticities. According to ECM analysis, for the diesel demand model, the long-run income and price elasticities were calculated as 1.47 and -0.38, respectively. For the electricity demand model, income and price elasticities were calculated at 0.19 and -0.72, respectively, in the long run. Briefly, in Turkey, support for energy use in agriculture should be continued in order to ensure sustainability in agriculture, increase competitiveness in international markets, and balance farmers' income. - Research highlights: → We estimate the long and short run elasticities for diesel and electricity demands in agriculture. → The long-run income and price elasticities calculated as 1.47 and 0.38, respectively for diesel. → The long run Income and price elasticities calculated as 0.19 and 0.72 for electricity.

  20. A co-integration analysis of the price and income elasticities of energy demand in Turkish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkekul, Berna, E-mail: berna.turkekul@ege.edu.t [Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ege University, 35100 Izmir (Turkey); Unakitan, Goekhan, E-mail: unakitan@nku.edu.t [Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Agriculture has an important role in every country's development. Particularly, the contribution of agriculture to development and competitiveness is increasing with agricultural productivity growth. Productivity, in turn, is closely associated with direct and indirect use of energy as an input. Therefore, the importance of energy in agriculture cannot be denied as one of the basic inputs to the economic growth process. Following the importance of energy in Turkish agriculture, this study aims to estimate the long- and short-run relationship of energy consumption, agricultural GDP, and energy prices via co-integration and error correction (ECM) analysis. Annual data from 1970 to 2008 for diesel and electricity consumptions are utilized to estimate long-run and short-run elasticities. According to ECM analysis, for the diesel demand model, the long-run income and price elasticities were calculated as 1.47 and -0.38, respectively. For the electricity demand model, income and price elasticities were calculated at 0.19 and -0.72, respectively, in the long run. Briefly, in Turkey, support for energy use in agriculture should be continued in order to ensure sustainability in agriculture, increase competitiveness in international markets, and balance farmers' income. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate the long and short run elasticities for diesel and electricity demands in agriculture. {yields} The long-run income and price elasticities calculated as 1.47 and 0.38, respectively for diesel. {yields} The long run Income and price elasticities calculated as 0.19 and 0.72 for electricity.

  1. Household Income Strategies and Natural Disasters: Dynamic Livelihoods in Rural Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of hurricane Mitch on livelihood strategies of rural households in Nicaragua. Through destruction or distress sales of productive assets, a hurricane or another natural hazard could induce people with relatively remunerative livelihoods to choose more defensive

  2. 654 doption of irrig tion nd its consequences on household income

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-07-03

    Jul 3, 2017 ... IN THE NORTHERN ETHIOPI ... farmers decisions to use irrigation and also estimate its role in household ... Ghana and South Africa in the 1980s and ..... as follows: 1 TLU equals 1 camel, 0.7 cows, 0.8 oxen, 0.1 sheep/goat,.

  3. Wives' Relative Income Production and Household Male Dominance: Examining Violence among Asian American Enduring Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates relative resource theory and cultural perspectives on husband-to-wife authority to examine male-to-female physical violence reported by Asian American wives in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Findings indicated that the association between marital violence and male household dominance is complicated by women's…

  4. Market-oriented reforms and changes in urban household income: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... considerably better than those found in the towns of predominantly grain producing regions. It also appears that the economic liberalization has led to a considerably wider gap between the wealthier and the economically less fortunate households of the study towns. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review Vol.

  5. INCOME AND ENERGY SOURCES AMONG AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR LOW CARBON ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mkpado

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon power comes from sources that produce fewer greenhouse gases than do traditional means of power generation. It includes zero carbon power generation sources, such as wind power, solar power, geothermal power and (except for fuel preparation nuclear power, as well as sources with lower-level emissions such as natural and petroleum gas, and also technologies that prevent carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere, such as carbon capture and storage. This article correlated value of income from different sources to energy sources used by agrarian households in Nigeria and drew implications for low carbon development in Africa. It analysis included use of wind power for irrigation purposes, harnessing solar energy for lightening and possible cost implications. Secondary data were collected from Community Based Monitoring System Nigeria Project. Descriptive statistics, correlation and qualitative analysis were employed. The average annual income of agrarian households from different sources such as crop farming, livestock farming, petty trading, forest exploitation, remittance and labour per day was below the poverty line of $1 per day. The source of energy that had the highest number of significant correlation was electrical energy (low carbon electrical energy. It showed the possibility of pooling resources as farmers group to attract grants or equity financing to build wind mills for irrigation. The study recommended use of energy efficient bulbs to reduce CO2 emissions. This requires creating awareness among rural dwellers of the need to make such change.

  6. An analysis of the welfare and distributive implications of factors influencing household electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordán, Desiderio; Río, Pablo del; Peñasco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The deep economic crisis and the sharp rise in electricity prices have reduced electricity demand by Spanish households. This paper aims to analyse the responsiveness of household electricity demand and the welfare effects related to both factors in the 2006–2012 period by applying a demand model estimated with the quantile regression method. The results show that the electricity consumption of medium-high income households is particularly responsive to price increases, whereas that of medium-low income households is more responsive to changes in income. The retail electricity price increases and the economic crisis have led to lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand and higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. The joint impact of those two factors on the welfare of lower-income households is higher in relative terms (i.e., as a share of household income) than for other income groups. These results suggest that the economic crisis and increases in retail electricity prices have had detrimental welfare effects, especially on the lower-income segment of the population. They should be considered when financing climate and energy policies through the electricity bill and provide a rationale to take such support, which pushes the retail electricity price upwards, out of the electricity bill. - Highlights: • Impact of the economic crisis and higher electricity prices on electricity demand. • Analysis of the welfare effects. • Lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand. • Higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. • Welfare of lower-income households more negatively affected.

  7. Factors Influencing Household Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanistreet Debbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Household burning of solid fuels in traditional stoves is detrimental to health, the environment and development. A range of improved solid fuel stoves (IS are available but little is known about successful approaches to dissemination. This qualitative systematic review aimed to identify factors that influence household uptake of IS in low- and middle-income countries. Extensive searches were carried out and studies were screened and extracted using established systematic review methods. Fourteen qualitative studies from Asia, Africa and Latin-America met the inclusion criteria. Thematic synthesis was used to synthesise data and findings are presented under seven framework domains. Findings relate to user and stakeholder perceptions and highlight the importance of cost, good stove design, fuel and time savings, health benefits, being able to cook traditional dishes and cleanliness in relation to uptake. Creating demand, appropriate approaches to business, and community involvement, are also discussed. Achieving and sustaining uptake is complex and requires consideration of a broad range of factors, which operate at household, community, regional and national levels. Initiatives aimed at IS scale up should include quantitative evaluations of effectiveness, supplemented with qualitative studies to assess factors affecting uptake, with an equity focus.

  8. Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES): a primer for food and nutrition analysts in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Bermudez, Odilia I; Smitz, Marc-Francois

    2012-09-01

    The dearth of 24-hour recall and observed-weighed food record data--what most nutritionists regard as the gold standard source of food consumption data-has long been an obstacle to evidence-based food and nutrition policy. There have been a steadily growing number of studies using household food acquisition and consumption data from a variety of multipurpose, nationally representative household surveys as a proxy measure to overcome this fundamental information gap. To describe the key characteristics of these increasingly available Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) in order to help familiarize food and nutrition analysts with the strengths and shortcomings of these data and thus encourage their use in low- and middle-income countries; and to identify common shortcomings that can be readily addressed in the near term in a country-by-country approach, as new HCES are fielded, thereby beginning a process of improving the potential of these surveys as sources of useful data for better understanding food- and nutrition-related issues. Common characteristics of key food and nutrition information that is available in HCES and some basic common steps in processing HCES data for food and nutrition analyses are described. The common characteristics of these surveys are documented, and their usefulness in addressing major food and nutrition issues, as well as their shortcomings, is demonstrated. Despite their limitations, the use of HCES data constitutes a generally unexploited opportunity to address the food consumption information gap by using survey data that most countries are already routinely collecting.

  9. Fairness of Financial Contribution in Iranian Health System: Trend Analysis of National Household Income and Expenditure, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Amir Abbas; Seyedin, Hesam; Vosoogh Moghaddam, Abbas; Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, H; Varmazyar, Hasan; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar

    2015-03-18

    Social systems are dealing with the challenge of achieving fairness in the distribution of financial burden and protecting the risk of financial loss. The purpose of this paper is to present a trend analysis for the indicators related to fairness in healthcare's financial burden in rural and urban population of Iran during the eight years period of 2003 to 2010. We used the information gathered by statistical center of Iran through sampling processes for the household income and expenditures. The indicators of fairness in financial contribution of healthcare were calculated based on the WHO recommended methodology. The indices trend analysis of eight-year period for the rural, urban areas and the country level were computed. This study shows that in Iran the fairness of financial contribution index during the eight-year period has been decreased from 0.841 in 2003 to above 0.827 in 2010 and The percentage of people with catastrophic health expenditures has been increased from 2.3% to above 3.1%. The ratio of total treatment costs to the household overall capacity to pay has been increased from 0.055 to 0.068 and from 0.072 to 0.0818 in urban and rural areas respectively. There is a decline in fairness of financial contribution index during the study period. While, a trend stability of the proportion of households who suffered catastrophic health expenditures was found.

  10. Fairness of Financial Contribution in Iranian Health System: Trend Analysis of National Household Income and Expenditure, 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazaeli, Amir Abbas; Seyedin, Hesam; Moghaddam, Abbas Vosoogh; Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, H.; Varmazyar, Hasan; Fazaeli, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social systems are dealing with the challenge of achieving fairness in the distribution of financial burden and protecting the risk of financial loss. The purpose of this paper is to present a trend analysis for the indicators related to fairness in healthcare’s financial burden in rural and urban population of Iran during the eight years period of 2003 to 2010. Methods: We used the information gathered by statistical center of Iran through sampling processes for the household income and expenditures. The indicators of fairness in financial contribution of healthcare were calculated based on the WHO recommended methodology. The indices trend analysis of eight-year period for the rural, urban areas and the country level were computed. Results: This study shows that in Iran the fairness of financial contribution index during the eight-year period has been decreased from 0.841 in 2003 to above 0.827 in 2010 and The percentage of people with catastrophic health expenditures has been increased from 2.3% to above 3.1%. The ratio of total treatment costs to the household overall capacity to pay has been increased from 0.055 to 0.068 and from 0.072 to 0.0818 in urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: There is a decline in fairness of financial contribution index during the study period. While, a trend stability of the proportion of households who suffered catastrophic health expenditures was found. PMID:26156920

  11. Does modifying the household food budget predict changes in the healthfulness of purchasing choices among low- and high-income women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Victoria; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2009-04-01

    Food cost has a strong influence on food purchases and given that persons of low income often have more limited budgets, healthier foods may be overlooked in favour of more energy-dense lower-cost options. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modifications to the available household food budget led to changes in the healthfulness of food purchasing choices among women of low and high income. A quasi-experimental design was used which included a sample of 74 women (37 low-income women and 37 high-income women) who were selected on the basis of their household income and sent an itemised shopping list in order to calculate their typical weekly household shopping expenditure. The women were also asked to indicate those foods they would add to their list if they were given an additional 25% of their budget to spend on food and those foods they would remove if they were restricted by 25% of their budget. When asked what foods they would add with a larger household food budget, low-income women chose more foods from the 'healthier' categories whereas high-income women chose more foods from the less 'healthier' categories. However, making the budgets of low- and high-income women more 'equivalent' did not eradicate income differences in overall healthfulness of food purchasing choices. This study highlights the importance of cost when making food purchasing choices among low- and high-income groups. Public health strategies aimed at reducing income inequalities in diet might focus on promoting healthy diets that are low cost.

  12. The associations of household wealth and income with self-rated health--a study on economic advantage in middle-aged Finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aittomäki, Akseli; Martikainen, Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2010-09-01

    The economic resources available to an individual or a household have been hypothesised to affect health through the direct material effects of living conditions as well as through social comparison and experiences of deprivation. The focus so far has been mainly on current individual or household income, and there is a lack of studies on wealth, a potentially relevant part of household resources. We studied the associations of household wealth and household income with self-rated health, and addressed some theoretical issues related to economic advantage and health. The data were from questionnaire survey of Finnish men and women aged from 45 to 67 years, who were employed by the City of Helsinki from five to seven years before the collection of the data in 2007. We found household wealth to have a strong and consistent association with self-rated health, poor health decreasing with increasing wealth. The relationship was only partly attributable to the association of wealth with employment status, household income, work conditions and health-related behaviour. In contrast, the association of household income with self-rated health was greatly attenuated by taking into account employment status and wealth, and even further attenuated by work conditions. The results suggested a significant contribution of wealth differentials to differences in health status. The insufficiency of current income as the only measure of material welfare was demonstrated. Conditions associated with long-term accumulation of material welfare may be a significant aspect of the causal processes that lead to socioeconomic inequalities in ill health. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimates of price and income elasticity in Greece. Greek debt crisis transforming cigarettes into a luxury good: an econometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantilis, Filippos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Zavras, Dimitris; Vozikis, Athanassios; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Objective During the past decades, smoking prevalence in Greece was estimated to be near or over 40%. Following a sharp fall in cigarette consumption, as shown in current data, our objective is to assess smokers’ sensitivity to cigarette price and consumer income changes as well as to project health benefits of an additional tax increase. Methods Cigarette consumption was considered as the dependent variable, with Weighted Average Price as a proxy for cigarette price, gross domestic product as a proxy for consumers’ income and dummy variables reflecting smoking restrictions and antismoking campaigns. Values were computed to natural logarithms and regression was performed. Then, four scenarios of tax increase were distinguished in order to calculate potential health benefits. Results Short-run price elasticity is estimated at −0.441 and short-run income elasticity is estimated at 1.040. Antismoking campaigns were found to have a statistically significant impact on consumption. Results indicate that, depending on the level of tax increase, annual per capita consumption could fall by at least 209.83 cigarettes; tax revenue could rise by more than €0.74 billion, while smokers could be reduced by up to 530 568 and at least 465 smoking-related deaths could be averted. Conclusions Price elasticity estimates are similar to previous studies in Greece, while income elasticity estimates are far greater. With cigarettes regarded as a luxury good, a great opportunity is presented for decisionmakers to counter smoking. Increased taxation, along with focused antismoking campaigns, law reinforcement (to ensure compliance with smoking bans) and intensive control for smuggling could invoke a massive blow to the tobacco epidemic in Greece. PMID:25564137

  14. Estimates of price and income elasticity in Greece. Greek debt crisis transforming cigarettes into a luxury good: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantilis, Filippos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Zavras, Dimitris; Vozikis, Athanassios; Kyriopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-05

    During the past decades, smoking prevalence in Greece was estimated to be near or over 40%. Following a sharp fall in cigarette consumption, as shown in current data, our objective is to assess smokers' sensitivity to cigarette price and consumer income changes as well as to project health benefits of an additional tax increase. Cigarette consumption was considered as the dependent variable, with Weighted Average Price as a proxy for cigarette price, gross domestic product as a proxy for consumers' income and dummy variables reflecting smoking restrictions and antismoking campaigns. Values were computed to natural logarithms and regression was performed. Then, four scenarios of tax increase were distinguished in order to calculate potential health benefits. Short-run price elasticity is estimated at -0.441 and short-run income elasticity is estimated at 1.040. Antismoking campaigns were found to have a statistically significant impact on consumption. Results indicate that, depending on the level of tax increase, annual per capita consumption could fall by at least 209.83 cigarettes; tax revenue could rise by more than €0.74 billion, while smokers could be reduced by up to 530 568 and at least 465 smoking-related deaths could be averted. Price elasticity estimates are similar to previous studies in Greece, while income elasticity estimates are far greater. With cigarettes regarded as a luxury good, a great opportunity is presented for decisionmakers to counter smoking. Increased taxation, along with focused antismoking campaigns, law reinforcement (to ensure compliance with smoking bans) and intensive control for smuggling could invoke a massive blow to the tobacco epidemic in Greece. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  16. Household income and expenditure surveys: a tool for accelerating the development of evidence-based fortification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Dupriez, Olivier; Friedman, Jed

    2008-12-01

    One-third of the world's population suffers from micronutrient deficiencies due primarily to inadequate dietary intake. Food fortification is often touted as the most promising short- to medium-term strategy for combating these deficiencies. Despite its appealing characteristics, progress in fortification has been slow. To assess the potential of household food-purchase data to fill the food-consumption information gap, which has been an important factor contributing to the slow growth of fortification programs. Household income and expenditure survey (HIES) data about: (a) a population's distribution of apparent household consumption, which are essential to setting safe fortification levels, (b) the proportion of households purchasing "fortifiable" food, and (c) the quantity of food being purchased were used to proxy food-consumption data and develop suggested fortification levels. The usefulness of the approach in addressing several common fortification program design issues is demonstrated. HIES-based suggested fortification levels are juxtaposed with ones developed using the most common current approach, which relies upon Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food Balance Sheets. Despite its limitations, the use of HIES data constitutes a generally unexploited opportunity to address the food-consumption information gap by using survey data that nearly every country of the world is already routinely collecting. HIES data enable the design of fortification programs to become more based on country-specific data and less on general rules of thumb. The more routine use of HIES data constitutes a first step in improving the precision of fortification feasibility analyses and improving estimates of the coverage, costs, and impact of fortification programs.

  17. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  18. Risk, opportunities and reasons of the household debt changes: The case of an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisimogang Tracy Seane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, household debt in both developed and developing countries have been increasing. With an increase in the standard of living, household debt is also bound to increase. This paper examines the cointergation and causal link among household disposable income, household savings, debt service ratio, lending interest rate, consumer price index and household debt in South Africa. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag and Granger causality techniques was used to analyse data collected from the South African Reserve Bank and Quantec from 1984 to 2014. The results of Autoregressive Distributed Lag test revealed cointegrating relationships between household debt and debt service ratio as well as household debt and lending interest rate. However, there is no long run cointegrating relationship between household disposable income, household savings and consumer price index with household debt. The Granger causality results revealed that household disposable income, household savings, debt service ratio, lending interest rate, consumer price index do Granger cause household debt in South Africa. Policy makers should thus target these variables in order to reduce household debt in South Africa

  19. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Hua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only with a Joint Model (advertising with take-back pricing in a two-echelon reverse supply chain (RSC that is composed of one disposer and one collector. In each model, four games (non-cooperative, collector as the Stackelberg leader, disposer as the Stackelberg leader, and cooperative were established in order to identify the optimal pricing and advertising strategies for both members. The results of the study indicate that there is a Pareto dominant range for Joint Model compared to Single Model, whereas Single Model has no Pareto improvement in any games. Furthermore, in non-cooperative games of Joint Model, it is better to implement the leader-follower structure rather than simultaneous movement structure. Additionally, it is verified that the cooperative game is feasible, which leads to the cooperation between the disposer and the collector, and the extra profit from the cooperation can be shared based on the Nash bargaining game. However, in Single Model, it is better for the disposer to act as a channel leader and the collector figures the follower.

  1. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  2. A Talent for Tinkering: Developing Talents in Children from Low-Income Households through Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ann; Adelson, Jill L.; Kidd, Kristy A.; Cunningham, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Guided by the theoretical framework of curriculum as a platform for talent development, this quasi-experimental field study investigated an intervention focused on engineering curriculum and curriculum based on a biography of a scientist through a comparative design implemented in low-income schools. Student outcome measures included science…

  3. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  4. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  5. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  6. The high price of debt: household financial debt and its impact on mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Nandi, Arijit; Adam, Emma K; McDade, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Household financial debt in America has risen dramatically in recent years. While there is evidence that debt is associated with adverse psychological health, its relationship with other health outcomes is relatively unknown. We investigate the associations of multiple indices of financial debt with psychological and general health outcomes among 8400 young adult respondents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Our findings show that reporting high financial debt relative to available assets is associated with higher perceived stress and depression, worse self-reported general health, and higher diastolic blood pressure. These associations remain significant when controlling for prior socioeconomic status, psychological and physical health, and other demographic factors. The results suggest that debt is an important socioeconomic determinant of health that should be explored further in social epidemiology research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FOOD DEMAND PATTERNS IN GHANAIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard SAKYIAMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed food consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban households by comparing food commodity budget shares and estimating price and expenditure elasticities for eleven food commodity groups across different income groups. The Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS was applied to the data. Demand for most of the food commodity groups was found to be elastic. The study concluded that generally, across income groups, food commodities respond negatively to changes in food prices and that cereals/bread, roots/tubers, vegetables, meat and fish will remain an important component of urban household food expenditure. Generally, household demographic characteristics such as age, gender and household size had significant effects on urban food demand patterns.

  8. Food crop production, nutrient availability, and nutrient intakes in Bangladesh: exploring the agriculture-nutrition nexus with the 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L

    2014-12-01

    Systematic collection of national agricultural data has been neglected in many low- and middle-income countries for the past 20 years. Commonly conducted nationally representative household surveys collect substantial quantities of highly underutilized food crop production data. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of commonly available household survey databases for analyzing the agriculture-nutrition nexus. Using household data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, the role and significance of crop selection, area planted, yield, nutrient production, and the disposition of 34 food crops in affecting the adequacy of farming households' nutrient availability and nutrient intake status are explored. The adequacy of each farming household's available energy, vitamin A, calcium, iron, and zinc and households' apparent intakes and intake adequacies are estimated. Each household's total apparent nutrient intake adequacies are estimated, taking into account the amount of each crop that households consume from their own production, together with food purchased or obtained from other sources. Even though rice contains relatively small amounts of micronutrients, has relatively low nutrient density, and is a relatively poor source of nutrients compared with what other crops can produce on a given tract of land, because so much rice is produced in Bangladesh, it is the source of 90% of the total available energy, 85% of the zinc, 67% of the calcium, and 55% of the iron produced by the agricultural sector. The domination of agriculture and diet by rice is a major constraint to improving nutrition in Bangladesh. Simple examples of how minor changes in the five most common cropping patterns could improve farming households' nutritional status are provided. Household surveys' agricultural modules can provide a useful tool for better understanding national nutrient production realities and possibilities.

  9. Age- and sex-specific relationships between household income, education, and diabetes mellitus in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Ra Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM in Korean adults.Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels.The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34 and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02 for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39 for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment. However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected.We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations.

  10. The relationship between employment status and self-rated health among wage workers in South Korea: the moderating role of household income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyejin; Kimm, Heejin; Song, In Han

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this article was to investigate the relationship between employment status and self-rated health (SRH) and the moderating effect of household income among wage workers in South Korea. This research analyzed the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study, 2005 to 2008. Of the 10,494 respondents participating in the survey during the period, a total of 1,548 people whose employment status had remained either precarious or nonprecarious were selected. A moderated multiple regression model was used to examine the main effect of employment status on SRH and the moderating effect of total household income on the relationship between employment status and SRH. Among 343 precarious workers and 1,205 nonprecarious workers, after controlling for gender, age, education, smoking, and drinking, employment status was associated with SRH of wage workers, and household income was found to have a moderating effect on SRH in that higher income buffers the link between unstable employment status and low SRH. Unstable employment, combined with low income, was significantly related to precarious wage workers' perceived health. To promote public health, efforts may be needed to secure not only people's employment, but also their income.

  11. How Are Property Investment Returns Determined? : Estimating the Micro-Structure of Asset Prices, Property Income, and Discount Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    How exactly should one estimate property investment returns? Investors in property aim to maximize capital gains from price increases and income generated by the property. How are the returns on investment in property determined based on its characteristics, and what kind of market characteristics does it have? Focusing on the Tokyo commercial property market and residential property market, the purpose of this paper was to break down and measure the micro-structure of property investment ret...

  12. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-01-01

    Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1) to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of biochar made from rice husk, (2) to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3) to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approa...

  13. Voluntary Management of Residential Water Demand in Low and Middle-Low Income Households: Case Study of Soacha (colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources availability is a global concern due to increasing demands, decreasing quality and uncertain spatio-temporal variability (United Nations, 2009). In urban contexts research on efficient water use is a priority to cope with the future vulnerability of water supplies as a result of the impacts of climate change (Bates et al, 2008). Following the proposed methodologies of He and Kua (2013) for implementing programs to promote sustainable energy consumption, we focused on the use of educational strategies to promote a voluntary rationalization of residential water demand. We collaborated with three schools in Soacha (Colombia) where students ranging from 12 to 15 years participated in the project as promoters of educational campaigns inside their families, covering 120 low and middle-low income households. Three intervention or treatment strategies (i.e. e-learning, in-person active learning activities and graphical learning tools) were carried out over a period of 5 months. We analyzed the effects of the treatments strategies in reducing water consumption rates and the dependence of this variable on socio-demographic, economic, environmental, and life quality factors by using personal interviews and self reported water saving technics. The results showed that educational campaigns have a positive effect on reducing consumption in the households. Graphical learning tools accounted for the highest reduction in water consumption. Moreover, the results of the study suggests that socio-economic factors such as type of house, social level, income, and life quality variables significantly affect the variability in water consumption, which is an important fact to consider in similar cases where communities face difficult socio-economic conditions, displacement or high rates of urban growth.

  14. Trends in racial/ethnic and income disparities in foods and beverages consumed and purchased from stores among US households with children, 2000–201312

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether racial/ethnic and income differences in foods and beverages obtained from stores contribute to disparities in caloric intake over time. Objective: We sought to determine whether there are disparities in calories obtained from store-bought consumer packaged goods (CPGs), whether brands (name brands compared with private labels) matter, and if disparities have changed over time. Design: We used NHANES individual dietary intake data among households with children along with the Nielsen Homescan data on CPG purchases among households with children. With NHANES, we compared survey-weighted energy intakes for 2003–2006 and 2009–2012 from store and nonstore sources by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), and Hispanic Mexican-Americans) and income [≤185% federal poverty line (FPL), 186–400% FPL, and >400% FPL]. With the Nielsen data, we compared 2000–2013 trends in calories purchased from CPGs (obtained from stores) across brands by race/ethnicity (NHW, NHB, and Hispanic) and income. We conducted random-effect models to derive adjusted trends and differences in calories purchased (708,175 observations from 64,709 unique households) and tested whether trends were heterogeneous by race/ethnicity or income. Results: Store-bought foods and beverages represented the largest component of dietary intake, with greater decreases in energy intakes in nonstore sources for foods and in store sources for beverages. Beverages from stores consistently decreased in all subpopulations. However, in adjusted models, reductions in CPG calories purchased in 2009–2012 were slower for NHB and low-income households than for NHW and high-income households, respectively. The decline in calories from name-brand food purchases was slower among NHB, Hispanic, and lowest-income households. NHW and high-income households had the highest absolute calories purchased in 2000. Conclusions: Across 2 large data sources, we found

  15. Trends in racial/ethnic and income disparities in foods and beverages consumed and purchased from stores among US households with children, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Poti, Jennifer M; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether racial/ethnic and income differences in foods and beverages obtained from stores contribute to disparities in caloric intake over time. We sought to determine whether there are disparities in calories obtained from store-bought consumer packaged goods (CPGs), whether brands (name brands compared with private labels) matter, and if disparities have changed over time. We used NHANES individual dietary intake data among households with children along with the Nielsen Homescan data on CPG purchases among households with children. With NHANES, we compared survey-weighted energy intakes for 2003-2006 and 2009-2012 from store and nonstore sources by race/ethnicity [non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs), and Hispanic Mexican-Americans) and income [≤185% federal poverty line (FPL), 186-400% FPL, and >400% FPL]. With the Nielsen data, we compared 2000-2013 trends in calories purchased from CPGs (obtained from stores) across brands by race/ethnicity (NHW, NHB, and Hispanic) and income. We conducted random-effect models to derive adjusted trends and differences in calories purchased (708,175 observations from 64,709 unique households) and tested whether trends were heterogeneous by race/ethnicity or income. Store-bought foods and beverages represented the largest component of dietary intake, with greater decreases in energy intakes in nonstore sources for foods and in store sources for beverages. Beverages from stores consistently decreased in all subpopulations. However, in adjusted models, reductions in CPG calories purchased in 2009-2012 were slower for NHB and low-income households than for NHW and high-income households, respectively. The decline in calories from name-brand food purchases was slower among NHB, Hispanic, and lowest-income households. NHW and high-income households had the highest absolute calories purchased in 2000. Across 2 large data sources, we found decreases in intake and purchases of beverages from stores

  16. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  17. Self-perceived health in Belarus: Evidence from the income and expenditures of households survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grigoriev

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on data from five cross-sectional household surveys conducted during 1996-2007, this study provides initial results of an analysis of self-perceived health in Belarus. The findings suggest that there has been a compression of morbidity. Self-perceived health has been improving steadily for both sexes and at all ages. Despite this notable improvement, Belarus still remains far behind Western Europe in terms of healthy life expectancy. This disadvantage is mainly due to higher mortality among the working-age population, but health at older ages also plays an important role. Education appears to be the most important factor associated with self-rated health.

  18. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Local Authority Residential Mortgage Credit: A Source of Non-Market Sub-Prime Homeloans for Low-Income households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Coates

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the volume of mortgage credit has risen in tandem with house price inflation, the sub-prime homeloan sector of this market has begun to expand in order to meet demand from those not serviced by the mainstream financial service providers. This article examines the role of local authorities in providing residential mortgages and assesses whether those who have traditionally borrowed from non-market (or public sector lenders would be considered to be sub-prime borrowers by the private sector. It concludes that, in view of the relatively low average incomes of this cohort of borrowers, they represent a higher probability of homeloan default and as a consequence, would be subject to a higher cost of credit in the private sector. However, this paper highlights the favourable terms offered by local authorities and argues that their failure to price according to the risk profile of borrowers exposes the Exchequer to higher – and often unquantified – costs in pursuit of promoting home-ownership.

  20. The household energy transition in India and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Jiang, Leiwen

    2008-01-01

    Both India and China are countries in energy transition. This paper compares the household energy transitions in these nations through the analysis of both aggregate statistics and nationally representative household surveys. The two countries differ sharply in several respects. Residential energy consumption in China is twice that in India, in aggregate terms. In addition, Chinese households have almost universal access to electricity, while in India almost half of rural households and 10% of urban households still lack access. On aggregate, urban households in China also derive a larger share of their total energy from liquid fuels and grids (77%) as compared to urban Indian households (65%). Yet, at every income level, Indians derive a slightly larger fraction of their total household energy needs from liquid and grid sources of energy than Chinese with comparable incomes. Despite these differences, trends in energy use and the factors influencing a transition to modern energy in both nations are similar. Compared with rural households, urban households in both nations consume a disproportionately large share of commercial energy and are much further along in the transition to modern energy. However, total energy consumption in rural households exceeds that in urban households, because of a continued dependence on inefficient solid fuels, which contribute to over 85% of rural household energy needs in both countries. In addition to urbanisation, key drivers of the transition in both nations include income, energy prices, energy access and local fuel availability. (author)

  1. The impacts of petroleum price fluctuations on income distribution across ethnic groups in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Crude oil price hikes have compelled governments of developing countries to let domestic prices of energy increase. Fiscal priorities made it impossible to fully compensate the hikes by raising energy subsidies. This paper examines the potential impacts of a limited deregulation of the petroleum

  2. HOUSEHOLD FOOD DEMAND IN INDONESIA: A TWO-STAGE BUDGETING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Widarjono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage budgeting approach was applied to analyze the food demand in urban areas separated by geographical areas and classified by income groups. The demographically augmented Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS was employed to estimate the demand elasticity. Data from the National Social and Economic Survey of Households (SUSENAS in 2011 were used. The demand system is a censored model because the data contains zero expenditures and is estimated by employing the consistent two-step estimation procedure to solve biased estimation. The results show that price and income elasticities become less elastic from poor households to rich households. Demand by urban households in Java is more responsive to price but less responsive to income than urban households outside of Java. Simulation policies indicate that an increase in food prices would have more adverse impacts than a decrease in income levels. Poor families would suffer more than rich families from rising food prices and/or decreasing incomes. More importantly, urban households on Java are more vulnerable to an economic crisis, and would respond by reducing their food consumption. Economic policies to stabilize food prices are better than income policies, such as the cash transfer, to maintain the well-being of the population in Indonesia

  3. Child feeding practices and household food insecurity among low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Ferarro, Mabel; Franchello, Alejandra; Barrera, Raul de La; Machado, Marcia Maria Tavares; Pfeiffer, Martha Erin; Peterson, Karen Eileen

    2012-03-01

    This qualitative study of low-income mothers in Buenos Aires, Argentina, examines the influence of socio-economic conditions, organizational structures, family relationships, and food insecurity on child feeding practices and weight status. Thirty-eight mothers of preschool children living in urban Buenos Aires participated in four focus group discussions. The results indicated that many mothers were aware that obesity may be detrimental to the child's health, but most of them are unclear about the specific consequences. Maternal employment, family pressures, food insecurity and financial worries seem to influence child feeding practices. These findings have important implications for developing strategies for nutritional assistance that could benefit the health of children and provide opportunities for educational programs that are directed to nutritional awareness in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The right to eat regularly and properly is an obligation of the State and must be implemented taking into account the notion of food sovereignty and respecting the importance of preserving the culture and eating habits of a country and its diverse population groups.

  4. ANALYSIS BENEFIT COST RATIO OF BIOCHAR IN AGRICULTURE LAND TO INCREASE INCOME HOUSEHOLD IN MERAUKE REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Diana Widiastuti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been proven to increase the availability of soil nutrient, yield productivity and farmers income. Biochar can be made from forestry/agricultural waste and do not required high technology. The objective of this study were: (1 to analyze Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR of biochar made from rice husk, (2 to compare yield productivity of paddy with biochar treatment, and (3 to analyze of paddy farming system with biochar treatment. The methodology by using BCR and productivity approach. The result showed that, firstly, the BCR of biochar from rice husks was 1.35 which indicated that biochar productivity as feasible. Secondly, the provision of biochar and fertilizer on agricultural could increase rice productivity of 4.2 ton/ha (control treatment to 5.5 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer and 6 ton/ha (treatment biochar + organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizers. Thirdly, the benefit cost ratio of paddy farming system for control treatment (1.54, higher than biochar+organic fertilizer treatment (1.46 and biochar+organic fertilizer+chemical fertilizer treatment.

  5. Low-Income Demand for Local Telephone Service: Effects of Lifeline and Linkup

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ackerberg; Michael Riordan; Gregory Rosston; Bradley Wimmer

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive data set on local telephone service prices is used to evaluate the effect of Lifeline and Linkup programs on the telephone penetration rates of low-income households in the United States. Lifeline and Linkup programs respectively subsidize the monthly subscription and initial installation charges of eligible low-income households. Telephone penetration rates are explained by an estimated nonlinear function of local service characteristics (including subsidized prices) and the ...

  6. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  7. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D

    2015-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4-6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average household income areas. The assessment battery included the Acute Stress Disorder Scale, the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), along with single item measures of substance use, earthquake damage and impact, and disruptions in daily life and relationship functioning. Controlling for age, gender and social isolation, participants from low income areas were more likely to meet diagnostic cut-offs for depression and anxiety, and have more severe anxiety symptoms. Higher probabilities of acute stress, depression and anxiety diagnoses were evident in affected versus unaffected areas, and those in affected areas had more severe acute stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. An interaction between income and earthquake effect was found for depression, with those from the low and medium income affected suburbs more depressed. Those from low income areas were more likely, post-earthquake, to start psychiatric medication and increase smoking. There was a uniform increase in alcohol use across participants. Those from the low income affected suburb had greater general and relationship disruption post-quake. Average household income and damage exposure made unique contributions to earthquake-related distress and dysfunction. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. An Overview of Food Patterns and Diet Quality in Qatar: Findings from the National Household Income Expenditure Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohammed; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Al-Mahdi, Nasser; Al-Kareem, Hefzi; Barakat, Darine; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Tawfik, Afaf; Akram, Hammad

    2017-05-15

    Availability of accurate data pertaining to a population's dietary patterns and associated health outcomes is critical for proper development and implementation of related policies. This article is a first attempt to share the food patterns, amounts and diet quality among households (HH) in Qatar. Data from the 2012-2013 Qatar National Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was used. This cross-sectional survey included 3723 HH (1826 Qatari HH and 1897 non-Qatari HH). Dietary data on monthly amounts food items available at HH according to the nationality was used. The food items were expressed in terms of grams per capita per day and aggregated into groups to examine the food patterns, energy, and adequacy. The overall average amount of purchased food at HH in Qatar was 1885 g/capita/day. Qatari HH purchased more food (2118 g/capita/day) versus non-Qataris (1373 g/capita/day); however, the percentages of the amounts purchased by food types were similar among both nationalities. Average daily energy (kcal) per capita was almost double among Qatari HH (4275 kcal) vs. non-Qatari HH (2424 kcal). The food items under subsidy program for Qatari citizens provided 1753 kcal/capita/day and accounted for 41% of total daily energy. Proteins (29.2), fats (39.2), sodium (3.3), and vitamin C (32.5) had higher than recommended levels of nutrient density (grams per 1000 kcal). Calcium (227), vitamin A (302.3), fiber (2.0), and carbohydrates (132.6) had lower than recommended levels of nutrient energy density (g/1000 kcal). The study predicts unhealthy dietary habits among HH in Qatar and provides useful information for policy makers and healthcare community.

  9. Poverty and growth impacts of high oil prices: Evidence from Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranpanawa, Athula; Bandara, Jayatilleke S.

    2012-01-01

    The sharp rise in oil and food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused negative impacts on poverty and economic growth in many oil and food importing developing countries. Some analysts believe that these countries are under stress again due to a rise in crude oil prices, to a two-and-a-half year high in March 2011, which has also been partly responsible for higher food prices in recent months. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence available from developing countries on the impact of high oil prices on growth in general and household poverty in particular. In this study, Sri Lanka is used as a case study and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) approach is adopted as an analytical framework to explore the growth and poverty impacts of high oil prices. The results suggest that urban low income households are the group most adversely affected by high global oil prices, followed by low income rural households. In contrast, estate low income households are the least affected out of all low income households. The energy intensive manufacturing sector and services sector are affected most compared to the agricultural sector. - Highlights: ► Using a general equilibrium model we find poverty and oil price link for Sri Lanka. ► Urban low income households are the group most adversely affected. ► Energy intensive manufacturing and services sectors are affected most.

  10. A STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ROOM PRICE PROPOSEDBYHOTELS TO INCOMING TRAVEL AGENCIES: FETHİYE SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ERGUN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study wastoassessto understand the factors affecting theroom priceproposed by hotels to incoming travel agencies.The data wascollected from the managers hired in Fethiye hotelsusing questionnaire techniqueand analyzed using the statistical package programs.The degree of the factorsaffecting the room price such asthe positive relations between hotel managers andtravel agency managers,regularpayments to hotels, the location ofthe hotel andso on were determined.This study aimedtocontributethe travel agency managerson their strategiesneededin order toimprove screwing down onaccomodationcosts.

  11. Equity in Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement: Crossing the Income Divide in Asia Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daems, Rutger; Maes, Edith; Glaetzer, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The article takes a three-dimensional approach (triangulation) in defining international pricing policy for pharmaceuticals using cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), willingness-to-pay (WTP) analysis, and ability-to-pay (ATP) analysis. It attempts to find a balance between the various economic methods of which some focus on effectiveness while others are geared toward incorporating equity in the equation. A critical review of the first two established economic methods and their ability to evaluate not only "efficacy" but also "fairness" in pricing decisions identifies a gap in the latter. Therefore, a third analytic method is presented that measures the ATP based on a country's score in the human development index of the United Nations Development Program for 120 countries. This approach allows practicing differential pricing among and within countries. To refine this equity-driven pricing concept, two additional parameters can be added to the model: the Oxford "Multidimensional Poverty Index" and the "Out-of-Pocket" or "Self Pay" health expenditure as reported by the World Bank. There is no hierarchy between the above three pricing methods. Because one method provides further insight into the other, however, it is recommended to start with CEA followed by WTP analysis. These types of analysis are closely linked in that the first provides the CE ratio for the compound investigated and the other sets the anticipated ceiling threshold of the payer's WTP (in a particular country). The ATP method provides a supplementary "equity" check and facilitates the process of equity-based differential pricing. A third method should be used in conjunction with the standard CEA and WTP analysis that measures the ATP with the human development index as yardstick to provide sustainable and equitable access to medicines. We recommend that ATP analysis becomes an additional practice in policy decision making and in defining international pricing strategies for pharmaceuticals

  12. Pricing of natural gas in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhapargaliev, I.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two state companies are in charge of natural gas supply in Kazakhstan. They buy, transport and sell natural gas and have monopolized the industry and provoked increase of gas prices. Ministry of Oil and gas Industry proposed demonopolization. The restructuring that took place caused new distribution of tasks in the gas industry. A more competitive environment was created leading to normalization of the natural gas prices. All economic subjects were granted the right to acquire gas regardless the type of ownership. Measures implemented for reorganization of gas companies contributed to the reduction of gas transport costs and prices by 50% and to decrease of gas prices in the southern regions by 50%. Despite these measures gas prices for household sector are still unchanged and are below the import prices, the main reason being the low average household income

  13. Transforming South Africa’s low-income housing projects through backyard dwellings: Intersections with households and the state in Alexandra, Johannesburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shapurjee, Y

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available not working. I am not even a pensioner…’ (Mrs L, 21/06/2010) Mrs L’s primary source of income derives from her grandchild’s disability grant, much of which is used to cover medical and household consumption costs. This type of gendered vulnerability... backyard dwellings. We consider how these local perspectives offer potential for the state, arguing that backyard dwellings offer a useful supply of household-managed cheap rental accommodation; that these dwellings gear private investment from state...

  14. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    OpenAIRE

    van Oest, R.D.; Paap, R.

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to learn how many prices observed in the past are used for reference price formation. Furthermore, we learn to what extent households have sufficient price knowledge to form an internal reference price...

  15. Household income, income inequality, and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D in Shaanxi, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhijun; Shi, Fuyan; Zhang, Haiyue; Li, Ning; Xu, Yongyong; Liang, Ying

    2018-03-14

    In advanced economies, economic factors have been found to be associated with many health outcomes, including health-related quality of life (HRQL), and people's health is affected more by income inequality than by absolute income. However, few studies have examined the association of income inequality and absolute income with HRQL in transitional economies using individual data. This paper focuses on the effects of county or district income inequality and absolute income on the HRQL measured by EQ-5D and the differences between rural and urban regions in Shaanxi province, China. Data were collected from the 2008 National Health Service Survey conducted in Shaanxi, China. The EQ-5D index based on Japanese weights was employed as a health indicator. The income inequality was calculated on the basis of self-reported income. The special requirements for complex survey data analysis were considered in the bivariate analysis and linear regression models. The mean of the EQ-5D index was 94.6. The EQ-5D index of people with low income was lower than that in the high-income group (for people in the rural region: 93.2 v 96.1, P gender, education, marital status, employment, medical insurance, and chronic disease, all the coefficients of the low-income group and high income inequality were significantly negative. After stratifying by income group, all the effects of high income inequality remained negative in both income groups. However, the coefficients of the models in the high income group were not statistically significant. Income inequality has damaging effects on HRQL in Shaanxi, China, especially for people with low income. In addition, people living in rural regions were more vulnerable to economic factors.

  16. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Alina; Fischer, Helen; Amelung, Dorothee; Litvine, Dorian; Aall, Carlo; Andersson, Camilla; Baltruszewicz, Marta; Barbier, Carine; Bruyère, Sébastien; Bénévise, Françoise; Dubois, Ghislain; Louis, Valérie R; Nilsson, Maria; Richardsen Moberg, Karen; Sköld, Bore; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-01

    It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to

  17. Similarities and differences between families who have frequent and infrequent family meals: A qualitative investigation of low-income and minority households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Draxten, Michelle; Trofholz, Amanda; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Justesen, Kathryn; Slattengren, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Numerous quantitative studies have examined the association between family meal frequency and child/adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to identify mealtime characteristics (e.g., child behavior during meals, rules/expectations, family dynamics) that occur during family meals that may explain why some families engage in frequent family meals and others do not. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse households, as these demographic groups are at higher risk for weight-related problems. The current study aimed to identify similarities and differences in mealtime characteristics between households that have frequent and infrequent family meals within a low-income and minority population. This qualitative study included 118 parents who participated in Family Meals, LIVE!, a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study. Parents (90% female; mean age = 35) were racially/ethnically diverse (62% African American, 19% White, 4% Native American, 4% Asian, 11% Mixed/Other) and from low-income (73% eating, involving family members in meal preparation) between households having frequent and infrequent family meals. Additionally, several differences in mealtime characteristics were identified between households having frequent (i.e., importance of family meals, flexibility in the definition of family meals, family meal rules, no pressure-to-eat feeding practices) versus infrequent family meals (i.e., pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices, family meals are dinner meals only, and difficult meal time behaviors). Study findings may be useful for developing intervention targets for low-income and racially/ethnically diverse households so more families can benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez; Paul A. Camacho; Daniel D. Cohen; Katherine Rincón-Romero; Laura Alvarado-Jurado; Sandra Pinzón; John Duperly; Patricio López-Jaramillo

    2014-01-01

    Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents fro...

  19. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Mango; Clifton Makate; Lulseged Tamene; Powell Mponela; Gift Ndengu

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of s...

  20. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  1. Impact of average household income and damage exposure on post-earthquake distress and functioning: A community study following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorahy, Martin J.; Rowlands, Amy; Renouf, Charlotte; Hanna, Donncha; Britt, Eileen; Carter, Janet D.

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4–6 months after the fatal February, 2011 earthquake. Participants were from highly affected and relatively unaffected suburbs in low, medium and high average house...

  2. State of inequality in diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunisation coverage in low-income and middle-income countries: a multicountry study of household health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Hansen, Peter M; Senouci, Kamel; Boerma, Ties; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2016-09-01

    Immunisation programmes have made substantial contributions to lowering the burden of disease in children, but there is a growing need to ensure that programmes are equity-oriented. We aimed to provide a detailed update about the state of between-country inequality and within-country economic-related inequality in the delivery of three doses of the combined diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3), with a special focus on inequalities in high-priority countries. We used data from the latest available Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done in 51 low-income and middle-income countries. Data for DTP3 coverage were disaggregated by wealth quintile, and inequality was calculated as difference and ratio measures based on coverage in richest (quintile 5) and poorest (quintile 1) household wealth quintiles. Excess change was calculated for 21 countries with data available at two timepoints spanning a 10 year period. Further analyses were done for six high-priority countries-ie, those with low national immunisation coverage and/or high absolute numbers of unvaccinated children. Significance was determined using 95% CIs. National DTP3 immunisation coverage across the 51 study countries ranged from 32% in Central African Republic to 98% in Jordan. Within countries, the gap in DTP3 immunisation coverage suggested pro-rich inequality, with a difference of 20 percentage points or more between quintiles 1 and 5 for 20 of 51 countries. In Nigeria, Pakistan, Laos, Cameroon, and Central African Republic, the difference between quintiles 1 and 5 exceeded 40 percentage points. In 15 of 21 study countries, an increase over time in national coverage of DTP3 immunisation was realised alongside faster improvements in the poorest quintile than the richest. For example, in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Gabon, Mali, and Nepal, the absolute increase in coverage was at least 2·0 percentage points per year, with faster improvement in the

  3. Behavior of households equipped with fuel oil heating facing the petroleum price sudden increase in 2000; Le comportement des menages equipes de chauffage au fioul face a la brutale augmentation du prix du petrole en 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the public attitudes facing the sudden increase of the fuel oil increase during the year 2000. This increase has got a great impact on the households equipped with fuel oil heating. The households adapted their strategy to obtain the best prices, to defer the deliveries or to reduce energy consumption by a improve of the heating performances. (A.L.B.)

  4. Comparison of the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program on household food security and dietary diversity in the face of rising food prices: ways forward for a more nutrition-sensitive program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baye, Kaleab; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet

    2014-09-01

    In light of the continuing rise in food prices during and after the 2008 world food crisis, whether food and cash transfers are equally effective in improving food security and diet quality is debatable. To compare the effects of conditional food and cash transfers of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on household food security and dietary diversity. Data on household dietary diversity, child anthropometry, food security, and preference of transfer modalities (food, cash, or mixed) were generated from a cross-sectional survey of 195 PSNP beneficiary households (67 receiving food and 128 receiving cash) in Hawella Tulla District, Sidama, southern Ethiopia. Most beneficiaries (96%) reported food shortages, and 47% reported food shortages that exceeded 3 months. Households receiving cash had better household dietary diversity scores (p = .02) and higher consumption of oils and fats (p = .003) and vitamin A-rich foods (p = .002). Compared with households receiving food, households receiving cash were more affected by increases in food prices that forced them to reduce their number of daily meals (p diversity than households receiving food, a result suggesting that cash transfers may be more effective. However, the continuing rise infood prices may offset these benefits unless cash transfers are index-linked to food price fluctuations.

  5. Using rewards-based incentives to increase purchase of fruit and vegetables in lower-income households: design and start-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J; Wallace, Samantha L; Stites, Shana D; Uplinger, Nadine; Brook Singletary, S; Hunt, Lacy; Axelrod, Saul; Glanz, Karen; Braitman, Leonard E

    2013-05-01

    To report the design and baseline results of a rewards-based incentive to promote purchase of fruit and vegetables by lower-income households. A four-phase randomized trial with wait-listed controls. In a pilot study, despite inadequate study coupon use, purchases of fresh fruit (but not vegetables) increased, but with little maintenance. In the present study, credits on the study store gift card replace paper coupons and a tapering phase is added. The primary outcome is the number of servings of fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables purchased per week. A large full-service supermarket located in a predominantly minority community in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Fifty-eight households, with at least one child living in the home. During the baseline period, households purchased an average of 3·7 servings of fresh vegetables and an average of less than 1 serving of frozen vegetables per week. Households purchased an average of 1·9 servings of fresh fruit per week, with little to no frozen fruit purchases. Overall, the range of fresh and frozen produce purchased during this pre-intervention period was limited. At baseline, produce purchases were small and of limited variety. The study will contribute to understanding the impact of financial incentives on increasing the purchases of healthier foods by lower-income populations.

  6. A longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income of mothers and fathers of children with cancer in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; von Essen, Louise; Norberg, Annika Lindahl

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis of childhood cancer often results in an altered life situation for the parents, characterized by difficulties regarding work, family and household demands. Previous research shows that parents' work situation and income are impacted, yet, few studies have explored the issue from a longitudinal perspective. This study sought to increase the knowledge about the socio-economic conditions of parents of children with cancer in Sweden by means of a longitudinal assessment of work situation, sick leave, and household income. The sample consisted of mothers (n = 139) and fathers (n = 138) of children with cancer recruited from 2002 to 2004. Data was collected by telephone interviews at six time points, ranging from the time of diagnosis to one year after the end of treatment. Findings showed that parents' work situation was most evidently impacted during the child's treatment, when the greatest proportions of non-working and sick-listed parents were found. Compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer mothers worked up to three months after the end of treatment, and more mothers were on sick leave one year after the end of treatment. Although the extent of sick leave among fathers did not differ compared with the time of diagnosis, fewer fathers worked one year after the end of treatment. Household income was significantly reduced during the child's treatment and months thereafter, while income was at an equal level as before the diagnosis for most families one year after the end of treatment. The results offer a unique understanding of how mothers' and fathers' work situation and income are impacted in the short- and long-term, and give guidance on how to improve the comprehensive support given to parents of children with cancer. Socio-economical issues should be emphasized as these may provide targets for policy interventions aiming to reduce parental strain related to work and finances.

  7. The distribution of economic impacts among rural households: A general equilibrium evaluation of regional water policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernstedt, K.

    1991-01-01

    This study focuses on the relative distribution among urban and rural household income classes on the economic impacts of two water-related policies in the Columbia River Basin in the northwestern US. The two policies involve: (1) strategies to improve downstream anadromous fish migrations currently hindered by hydropower operations; and (2) proposals to transfer water from irrigation to hydropower generation. A regional input-output model traces the economic effects of the initial demand and price changes through the entire region. The model incorporates price changes in both a short-run (all endogenous prices are fixed) and a longer-run framework based on a Cobb-Douglas representation (all prices can vary). The analysis suggests that the construction of facilities to enhance fish migration and the physical transport of fish have opposite relative effects. The former benefits rural households, while the latter benefits urban households. Electricity price increases resulting from altered hydropower operations harm middle-income rural households, in the short-run. In the longer-run, electricity price increases seem to favor relatively all rural households. Changes associated with the water transfer policy also include electricity price alterations, as well as price and demand changes for agricultural products. Rural households benefit relative to urban households from agricultural product final demand increases, and tend to lose relatively with agricultural price and demand decreases. The inclusion of secondary impacts allows decision makers to asses the income effects of a project across a wider segment of the population, while the incorporation of short-and longer-run economic frameworks allows policy makers to assess both immediate and future income changes

  8. The cost of climate protection. The case of electricity prices of German households; Die Kosten des Klimaschutzes am Beispiel der Strompreise fuer private Haushalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frondel, Manuel; Ritter, Nolan; Moore, Nils aus dem; Schmidt, Christoph [Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftforschung (RWI), Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Power prices in Germany have been surging since the outset of the new millennium. Among the major reasons for this tendency are newly raised taxes and levies on electricity prices, whose introduction is primarily motivated by climate concerns. Without these taxes and levies, net electricity prices would have remained constant for private households. This article discusses these taxes and levies that have been responsible for the cost increases in private households' electricity consumption. Most influential have been the feed-in tariffs for renewable energies, above all photovoltaics. According to our calculations, the levy for renewables will further increase in the up-coming years, thereby pushing consumers' electricity cost once again. Our calculations also show that within the next couple of years, there will be a fierce competition among renewable energy technologies, most notably between photovoltaics and wind power. Politics would be well-advised, therefore, to limit the annual capacity of newly installed solar modules in order to avoid both the explosion of consumers' electricity bills and strong competition among renewables. (orig.)

  9. Quantifying the impact of rising food prices on child mortality in India: a cross-district statistical analysis of the District Level Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Khan, Zaky; Ebrahim, Shah; Stuckler, David

    2016-04-01

    Rates of child malnutrition and mortality in India remain high. We tested the hypothesis that rising food prices are contributing to India's slow progress in improving childhood survival. Using rounds 2 and 3 (2002-08) of the Indian District Level Household Survey, we calculated neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in 364 districts, and merged these with district-level food price data from the National Sample Survey Office. Multivariate models were estimated, stratified into 27 less deprived states and territories and 8 deprived states ('Empowered Action Groups'). Between 2002 and 2008, the real price of food in India rose by 11.7%. A 1% increase in total food prices was associated with a 0.49% increase in neonatal (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13% to 0.85%), but not infant or under-five mortality rates. Disaggregating by type of food and level of deprivation, in the eight deprived states, we found an elevation in neonatal mortality rates of 0.33% for each 1% increase in the price of meat (95% CI: 0.06% to 0.60%) and 0.10% for a 1% increase in dairy (95% CI: 0.01% to 0.20%). We also detected an adverse association of the price of dairy with infant (b = 0.09%; 95% CI: 0.01% to 0.16%) and under-five mortality rates (b = 0.10%; 95% CI: 0.03% to 0.17%). These associations were not detected in less deprived states and territories. Rising food prices, particularly of high-protein meat and dairy products, were associated with worse child mortality outcomes. These adverse associations were concentrated in the most deprived states. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  11. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  12. The search for co-integration between money, prices and income: Low frequency evidence from the Turkish economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatçioğlu Cem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we aim to test the empirical validity of the QTM relationship for the Turkish economy. Using some contemporaneous time series estimation techniques, our estimation results reveal that stationarity characteristics of the velocities of currency in circulation and the broad money aggregate in the economy cannot be rejected through a quantity theoretical co-integrating long-term variable space. We find that there exists an about one-to-one proportionality between money and prices and money and real income, and that exogeneity of money cannot be rejected for the currency in circulation in the economy. But, the exception here comes from the broad monetary aggregate used in the QTM equation such that money seems to be endogenous as for the long-term variable space.

  13. Comparison of two cash transfer strategies to prevent catastrophic costs for poor tuberculosis-affected households in low- and middle-income countries: An economic modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgard, William E; Evans, Carlton A; Sweeney, Sedona; Wingfield, Tom; Lönnroth, Knut; Barreira, Draurio; Boccia, Delia

    2017-11-01

    Illness-related costs for patients with tuberculosis (TB) ≥20% of pre-illness annual household income predict adverse treatment outcomes and have been termed "catastrophic." Social protection initiatives, including cash transfers, are endorsed to help prevent catastrophic costs. With this aim, cash transfers may either be provided to defray TB-related costs of households with a confirmed TB diagnosis (termed a "TB-specific" approach); or to increase income of households with high TB risk to strengthen their economic resilience (termed a "TB-sensitive" approach). The impact of cash transfers provided with each of these approaches might vary. We undertook an economic modelling study from the patient perspective to compare the potential of these 2 cash transfer approaches to prevent catastrophic costs. Model inputs for 7 low- and middle-income countries (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Ghana, Mexico, Tanzania, and Yemen) were retrieved by literature review and included countries' mean patient TB-related costs, mean household income, mean cash transfers, and estimated TB-specific and TB-sensitive target populations. Analyses were completed for drug-susceptible (DS) TB-related costs in all 7 out of 7 countries, and additionally for drug-resistant (DR) TB-related costs in 1 of the 7 countries with available data. All cost data were reported in 2013 international dollars ($). The target population for TB-specific cash transfers was poor households with a confirmed TB diagnosis, and for TB-sensitive cash transfers was poor households already targeted by countries' established poverty-reduction cash transfer programme. Cash transfers offered in countries, unrelated to TB, ranged from $217 to $1,091/year/household. Before cash transfers, DS TB-related costs were catastrophic in 6 out of 7 countries. If cash transfers were provided with a TB-specific approach, alone they would be insufficient to prevent DS TB catastrophic costs in 4 out of 6 countries, and when increased enough

  14. Prices paid for adult and paediatric antiretroviral treatment by low- and middle-income countries in 2012: high, low or just right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriëns, Joseph H; Habiyambere, Vincent; Dongmo-Nguimfack, Boniface; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    A viable market for antiretroviral drugs in low- and middle-income countries is key to the continued scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. We describe the price paid by low- and middle-income countries for 10 first- and 7 second-line adult and paediatric treatment regimens from 2003 to 2012, and compare the price of their finished formulations with the price of their active pharmaceutical ingredients in 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2012. Between 2003 and 2012 the median price of adult first-line treatment regimens per treatment-year decreased from USD499 to USD122, and that of second-line regimens from USD2,934 to USD497. In 2005 adult formulations were sold for a price 170% higher than the cost of their active pharmaceutical ingredients. This margin had decreased to 28% in 2012. Between 2004 and 2013, the price of paediatric treatment per treatment-year decreased from USD585 to USD147 for first-line and from USD763 to USD288 for second-line treatment. In 2005, paediatric treatment regimens were sold at a price 231% higher than the cost of their active pharmaceutical ingredients. This margin remained high and was 195% in 2012. The prices paid for antiretroviral drugs by low- and middle-income countries decreased between 2003 and 2012. Although the margins on their sale decreased, there is likely still space for price reduction, especially for the more recent World Health Organization recommended adult first-line regimens and for paediatric treatment.

  15. Energy Efficiency Financing for Low- and Moderate-Income Households: Current State of the Market, Issues, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-01

    Although the need is great, many LMI households may not be able to afford efficiency improvements or may be inhibited from adopting efficiency for other reasons. Decision-makers across the country are currently exploring the challenges and potential solutions to ramping up adoption of efficiency in LMI households, including the use of financing.

  16. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Contributing factors are the growth of low-priced apparel ... determine which factors influence household and individual ... explicitly deals with this concept. .... The income elasticity for clothing for the two-parent ..... Nelson (1989) found that mothers with less than a .... fashion consciousness and style preferences should.

  17. Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Tobacman, Jeremy; Townsend, Robert; Topalova, Petia; Vickery, James

    2012-01-01

    Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We suggest contract design improvements to mitigate these frictions. PMID:24765234

  18. Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Tobacman, Jeremy; Townsend, Robert; Topalova, Petia; Vickery, James

    2013-01-01

    Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We suggest contract design improvements to mitigate these frictions.

  19. Elasticities of electricity demand in urban Indian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    In the past, several electricity demand studies have been published for India based on aggregate macro data at the country or sub-national/state level. Since the underlying theory of consumer demand is based on the behaviour of individual agents, the use of micro data, which reflects individual and household behaviour, more closely, can shed greater light on the nature of consumer responses. In this paper, seasonal price and income elasticities of electricity demand in the residential sector of all urban areas of India are estimated for the first time using disaggregate level survey data for about 30,000 households. Three electricity demand functions have been econometrically estimated using monthly data for the winter, monsoon and summer season in order to understand the extent to which factors like income, prices, household size and other household specific characteristics, influence variations observed in individual households' electricity demand. The results show electricity demand is income and price inelastic in all three seasons, and that household, demographic and geographical variables are significant in determining electricity demand

  20. Price sensitivity of residential energy consumption in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbakken, R.

    1999-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to test the stability of the results of a model which focus on the relationship between the choice of heating equipment and the residential energy consumption. The results for the income and energy price variables are of special interest. Stability in the time dimension is tested by applying the model on micro data for each of the years 1993-1995. The parameter estimates are stable within a 95% confidence interval. However, the estimated impact of the energy price variable on energy consumption was considerably weaker in 1994 than in 1993 and 1995. The results for two different income groups in the pooled data set are also subject to stability testing. The energy price sensitivity in residential energy consumption is found to be higher for high-income households than for low-income households. 19 refs

  1. Type and extent of trans-disciplinary co-operation to improve food security, health and household environment in low and middle income countries: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Gaihre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although linkages have been found between agricultural interventions and nutritional health, and the development of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves in reducing household air pollution and adverse health effects, the extent of the potential of combined household interventions to improve health, nutrition and the environment has not been investigated. A systematic review was conducted to identify the extent and type of community-based agricultural and household interventions aimed at improving food security, health and the household environment in low and middle income countries. Methods A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases was performed. Key search words were generated reflecting the “participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes and study design” approach and a comprehensive search strategy was developed following “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” recommendations. Any community-based agricultural and/or household interventions were eligible for inclusion if the focus was to improve at least one of the outcome measures of interest. All relevant study designs employing any of these interventions (alone/in combination were included if conducted in Low and middle income countries. Review articles, and clinical and occupational studies were excluded. Results A total of 123 studies were included and grouped into four intervention domains; agricultural (n = 27, air quality (n = 34, water quality (n = 32, and nutritional (n = 30. Most studies were conducted in Asia (39.2 % or Africa (34.6 % with the remaining 26.1 % in Latin America. Very few studies (n = 11 combined interventions across more than one domain. The majority of agricultural and nutritional studies were conducted in Africa and Asia, whereas the majority of interventions to improve household air quality were conducted in Latin America. Conclusions It is

  2. Energy security issues at household level in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-01-01

    Energy security at the household level implies ensuring assured and regular supply of clean energy fuels at an affordable price for various household activities. Threat to physical availability of clean energy fuels for cooking and lighting is determined through various indicators such as dependence on traditional fuels and limited access to clean fuels. Energy insecurity translates into various adverse social impacts. Financial threat to energy security is indicated by expenses incurred on energy fuels and affordability of clean fuels. Households spend a major portion of their income on acquiring energy fuels; however, due to high price of clean fuels, they continue to depend on traditional and inefficient fuels. There is an urgent need to address factors that pose a threat to energy security at the household level. In this regard, measures taken by the government agencies and other institutions are also reviewed. The paper also suggests the regulatory and policy interventions required to address the energy security issues at the household level.

  3. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Usage and Energy Efficiency Behavior in Low- and High-Income Households: The Case of Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been an important topic since the latter part of the last century. This is because adoption of energy efficiency measures has been acknowledged as one of the key methods of addressing the negative impact of climate change. In Zambia, however, the need to adopt energy efficiency measures has not just been driven by the imperative to mitigate the negative effects of climate change but also by a critical shortage of energy. This research looks at households’ energy consumption behavior in low- and high-income areas of Kitwe. Recent studies on the relationship between household energy consumption and behavioral lifestyle have been descriptive, with limited emphasis on the relationships between various variables. In this study, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to investigate relationships between the two income groups and various energy consumption-related variables such as knowledge about energy reduction measures, energy saving strategies, barriers to the use of energy saving strategies, and the motives for using energy reduction strategies. Methodologically, the study was largely quantitative in nature, with questionnaires administered to a combined total of 56 households. However, key interviews were also conducted that helped us to get a clearer understanding of some of the issues covered in the research. Key findings are that whereas the descriptive statistics show that there are behavioral differences between the two income groups, the inferential statistics show that there is no relationship between income level and the energy efficiency variables. This has been found to be consistent with results from studies done elsewhere. The key lesson is that there is low usage of energy efficiency measures in both low- and high-income areas and that the authorities need to change the way information is disseminated to consumers from the current method of advertising to social diffusion.

  5. Impact of a targeted direct marketing price promotion intervention (Buywell) on food-purchasing behaviour by low income consumers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, M; MacKintosh, A M; Findlay, A; Sparks, L; Anderson, A S; Barton, K; Eadie, D

    2017-08-01

    Price promotions are a promising intervention for encouraging healthier food purchasing. We aimed to assess the impact of a targeted direct marketing price promotion combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions on the purchase of selected healthier foods by low income consumers. We conducted a randomised controlled trial (n = 53 367) of a direct marketing price promotion (Buywell) combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions for low income consumers identified as 'less healthy' shoppers. Impact was assessed using electronic point of sale data for UK low income shoppers before, during and after the promotion. The proportion of customers buying promoted products in the intervention month increased by between 1.4% and 2.8% for four of the five products. There was significantly higher uptake in the promotion month (P marketing price promotions combined with healthy eating advice and recipe suggestions targeted at low income consumers are feasible and can have a modest impact on short-term food-purchasing behaviour, although further approaches are needed to help sustain these changes. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Higher household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home are associated with higher waist circumference in Colombian children: the ACFIES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Camacho, Paul A; Cohen, Daniel D; Rincón-Romero, Katherine; Alvarado-Jurado, Laura; Pinzón, Sandra; Duperly, John; López-Jaramillo, Patricio

    2014-02-07

    The current "epidemic" of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC), as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011), and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026) were found. In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family's ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  7. Higher Household Income and the Availability of Electronic Devices and Transport at Home Are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference in Colombian Children: The ACFIES Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gómez-Arbeláez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current “epidemic” of childhood obesity is described as being driven by modern lifestyles with associated socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Objective: To evaluate the association between household income and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home, and the values of waist circumference (WC, as an indicator of abdominal obesity, in children and adolescents from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study of public elementary and high school population, of low-middle socioeconomic status. Results: A total of 668 schoolchildren were recruited. After adjusting for potential confounders, significant positive associations between waist circumference and higher household income (p = 0.011, and waist circumference and the availability of electronic devices and transport at home (p = 0.026 were found. Conclusions: In low-middle socioeconomic status schoolchildren in a developing country, those from relatively more affluent families had greater waist circumference, an association that is opposite to that observed in developed countries. This finding could be related to higher income family’s ability to purchase electronic devices and motorized transport which discourage physical activity and for their children to buy desirable and more costly western fast food.

  8. Use of Electronic Loggers to Measure Changes in the Rates of Hand Washing with Soap in Low-Income Urban Households in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard L; Zillmer, Ruediger; Biran, Adam; Hall, Peter; Sidibe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of electronic loggers to measure the effects of a simple intervention designed to influence the rates of hand washing with soap within enclosed toilets and bathrooms in low-income urban households in Kerala, India. 58 households were given three items with embedded electronic loggers for a period of 2-5 days. Two logged soaps tracked hand and body washing in the bathroom. The third logged item was a water vessel used for flushing the toilet and for post-defecation anal cleansing; this served as a marker of toilet use. In addition, 28 households in a Soap by toilet arm were given an additional logged soap, to be kept by the toilet, and used for hand washing. Compared with the Soap in bathroom arm, the loggers in the Soap by toilet households recorded 73% greater daily use of soaps designated for hand washing (t(36)=2.92, psoap and changes in hand washing with soap after use of the toilet. Further adoption of logger technologies would enable more insightful studies of hand washing within urban environments.

  9. Going beyond the surface: gendered intra-household bargaining as a social determinant of child health and nutrition in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther; Theobald, Sally; George, Asha; Kim, Julia C; Rudert, Christiane; Jehan, Kate; Tolhurst, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    A growing body of research highlights the importance of gendered social determinants of child health, such as maternal education and women's status, for mediating child survival. This narrative review of evidence from diverse low and middle-income contexts (covering the period 1970-May 2012) examines the significance of intra-household bargaining power and process as gendered dimensions of child health and nutrition. The findings focus on two main elements of bargaining: the role of women's decision-making power and access to and control over resources; and the importance of household headship, structure and composition. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the light of lifecycle and intersectional approaches to gender and health. The relative lack of published intervention studies that explicitly consider gendered intra-household bargaining is highlighted. Given the complex mechanisms through which intra-household bargaining shapes child health and nutrition it is critical that efforts to address gender in health and nutrition programming are thoroughly documented and widely shared to promote further learning and action. There is scope to develop links between gender equity initiatives in areas of adult and adolescent health, and child health and nutrition programming. Child health and nutrition interventions will be more effective, equitable and sustainable if they are designed based on gender-sensitive information and continually evaluated from a gender perspective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Income Smoothing Practices Explain the Lower Earnings-Price Ratio of Japanese Firms Compared to Those of the U.S. Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Wijaya Kusuma

    2005-01-01

    Another results show that controlling for income smoothing does not eliminate the differences in the earnings-price ratios of the Japanese and U.S. firms. It is appropriate to conclude that although income smoothing plays a role in explaining the variations of earnings-price ratios across Japanese firms, it is not the only factor that contributes to the differences in the earnings-price ratios of Japanese and U.S. firms.  Other factors may play a role which are either country-specific (such as inflationary expectations, tax regimes or firm-specific (such as quality of earnings, real returns as suggested by Brown (1989. The overall results are consistent across samples.

  11. The economic cost of fuel price subsidies in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, Roland Oduro

    I adapt the Harberger formula for deadweight loss to develop approximations for the deadweight loss created by multiple fuel price subsidies. I also estimate the own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities of demand for gasoline and diesel in Africa. I use data on fuel prices and sales in combination with my formulas and elasticity estimates to calculate the deadweight loss of fuel price subsidies in Ghana from 2009 to 2014. I show that the average efficiency cost of the gasoline and diesel price subsidies in Ghana is 0.8% of fuel price subsidy transfers. This result stresses the futility of basing subsidy reforms on economic efficiency losses, which are relatively small due to very inelastic energy demand, and the need for such reforms to be motivated by the poor-targeting of subsidies to low-income households and the impact of subsidies on government debt-financing.

  12. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  13. Health Behaviors of Cancer Survivors in Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey in Korea: Higher Alcohol Drinking, Lower Smoking, and Physical Inactivity Pattern in Survivors with Higher Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kong, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeol; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eun Sook

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity in cancer survivors and examined the sociodemographic factors affecting these health-related behaviors.We used data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2007 and 2012, which identified 1153 cancer cases and 36,451 people without a history of cancer ≥20 years of age. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain information concerning cancer diagnosis, health-related behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics.The proportion of cancer survivors who were current drinkers, heavy drinkers, current smokers, or engaged in physical activity were 49.1, 9.0, 9.2, or 50.7%, respectively. Compared with people with no history of cancer, cancer survivors were less likely to be current drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.56), heavy drinkers (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.36-0.78), current smokers (OR = 0.37; 95% CI 0.24-0.55), or physically inactive (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.63-0.95). Cancer survivors with higher household incomes had higher odds of current drinking and heavy drinking (P trend = 0.039 and 0.033, respectively) and were less likely to be current smokers or physically inactive (P trend = 0.016 and 0.046, respectively). Age, sex, sites of cancer, and the time since diagnosis affected the health behaviors in cancer survivors. Furthermore, we confirmed that these unhealthy behaviors are interrelated.We found that household income had a bidirectional effect on health behaviors and confirmed an aggregation of unhealthy lifestyles. Identification of survivors vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles, focusing on household income level would allow intervention programs to be more effective.

  14. Has the Financial Protection Been Materialized in Iranian Health System? Analyzing Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Hesam; Olyaeemanesh, Alireza; Majdzadeh, Reza; Abdi, Zhaleh; Mobinizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-03

    The financial protection against catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures is one of the main aspects of the universal health coverage. This study aimed to present a clear picture of the financial protection situation in Iran from 2003-2014. This is an analytical study on secondary data of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI). The study has some policy implications for policy makers; therefore, it is an applied one. Data related to the Iranian rural and urban household payments on health expenditures was obtained from annual surveys of the SCI. WHO researchers' approach was used to calculate the Fairness of Financial Contribution Indicator (FFCI), the headcount and overshoot ratios of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures. A logistic regression was conducted to identify the determinants of probability of occurrence of catastrophic health expenditure among Iranian households in 2014. The mean of FFCI for rural and urban households was 0.854 (0.41) and 0.867 (0.32), respectively. The average headcount ratios of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures were 1.32% (0.24) and 0.33% (P=0.006) for rural households and 1.4% (0.6) and 0.28% (P=0.001) for urban households. Concerning rural households, the overshoot of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures was 14.94% (P=0.001) and 7.22% (0.53); it was 15.59% (1.54) and 7.76% (0.52) for urban households. No significant and considerable change was found in the headcount ratios of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditure and in their overshoot or gap amounts. This suggested a lack of well-designed and effective schemes for materializing the financial protection in Iran.

  15. Optimal daily operation of a smart-household under dynamic pricing considering thermostatically and non-thermostatically controllable appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Medeiros, M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Siaraka, A.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a home energy management system structure is developed in order to determine the optimal commitment of a smart-household. Two types of loads are explicitly modeled: non-thermostatically controllable (electric vehicle, shiftable appliances) and thermostatically controllable loads (air

  16. Design of variable energy and price components of electricity tariffs as an incentive for system-efficient energy management of flexible consumers in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change, both the heating and transport sectors will need to be electrically driven, with the higher electrical demand met by emission-free technologies, in addition to general efficiency improvements. On the generation side, wind and photovoltaic power plants must have a rated power significantly exceeding the current peak demand, in order to cover this increased electrical requirement. On the consumption side, heat pumps and private electric vehicles will increase the percentage of energy withdrawn at the low-voltage level of the new system. Given the right incentives, these customers will shift the energy demand in such a way as to benefit the system. This flexibility can be used as a tool to deal with variable renewable insertion while avoiding simultaneous overloading of the power grid. This thesis analyses and evaluates the effects of different electricity tariff designs on energy consumption. These tariffs should incentivise households to adapt their energy consumption to market prices, without inducing critical peak demands in times of particularly low prices. Therefore, time-varying energy price components and power price components are combined into flexible electricity tariffs and implemented as target functions within an optimization problem. The cost-minimizing effect of household energy management is determined under these flexible tariffs, and the effects of the tariff designs on energy consumption and the induced costs are evaluated. Additionally, the results of the flexible tariff approach are compared with results from a centralized optimization by a virtual power plant. It is possible to develop a design for a suitable flexible tariff that decreases the energy procurement costs of electric vehicles while simultaneously reducing peak demand in comparison to a single real-time pricing incentive. Furthermore, this thesis shows that certain kinds of electricity tariff design do not only fail to support but actually

  17. Disparities in children’s vocabulary and height in relation to household wealth and parental schooling: A longitudinal study in four low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Children from low socio-economic status (SES households often demonstrate worse growth and developmental outcomes than wealthier children, in part because poor children face a broader range of risk factors. It is difficult to characterize the trajectories of SES disparities in low- and middle-income countries because longitudinal data are infrequently available. We analyze measures of children’s linear growth (height at ages 1, 5, 8 and 12y and receptive language (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at ages 5, 8 and 12y in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam in relation to household SES, measured by parental schooling or household assets. We calculate children’s percentile ranks within the distributions of height-for-age z-scores and of age- and language-standardized receptive vocabulary scores. We find that children in the top quartile of household SES are taller and have better language performance than children in the bottom quartile; differences in vocabulary scores between children with high and low SES are larger than differences in the height measure. For height, disparities in SES are present by age 1y and persist as children age. For vocabulary, SES disparities also emerge early in life, but patterns are not consistent across age; for example, SES disparities are constant over time in India, widen between 5 and 12y in Ethiopia, and narrow in this age range in Vietnam and Peru. Household characteristics (such as mother’s height, age, and ethnicity, and community fixed effects explain most of the disparities in height and around half of the disparities in vocabulary. We also find evidence that SES disparities in height and language development may not be fixed over time, suggesting opportunities for policy and programs to address these gaps early in life.

  18. Fuel consumption: short term and long term price impacts per population type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents assessments of the price sensitivity of household fuel consumption. After a literature review on price-elasticity assessments and the use of pseudo-panels, the investigation analyses the deciding factors of the household fuel expense and its evolution between 1985 and 2006. It proposes a short term price-elasticity assessment based on the most recent survey, and also proposes price-elasticity assessments for sub-populations, notably in terms of income level or location (rural or urban areas)

  19. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Herrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat. The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds’ Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households’ decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. Methods HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households’ willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. Discussion This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and

  20. Game Theoretic Analysis of Pricing and Cooperative Advertising in a Reverse Supply Chain for Unwanted Medications in Households

    OpenAIRE

    Meina Hua; Huajun Tang; Ivan Ka Wai Lai

    2017-01-01

    Improper disposal of household unwanted medications (UMs) is an emergency problem around the world that adversely affects the sustainability of the environment and human’s health. However, the current disposal practices, mainly based on advertising and collecting status, are unsatisfactory in most countries and regions. Thus, some scholars proposed an alternative disposal practice that is to provide incentives to customers. This study aims to compare a Single Model (advertising only) with a J...

  1. Adults and Children in Low-Income Households that Participate in Cost-Offset Community Supported Agriculture Have High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Karla L; Kolodinsky, Jane; Wang, Weiwei; Morgan, Emily H; Pitts, Stephanie B Jilcott; Ammerman, Alice S; Sitaker, Marilyn; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-07-08

    This paper examines fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) in low-income households that participated in a cost-offset (CO), or 50% subsidized, community-supported agriculture (CSA) program. CSA customers paid farms upfront for a share of the harvest, and received produce weekly throughout the growing season. A cohort of adults and children 2-12 y in a summer CO-CSA were surveyed online twice: August 2015 ( n = 41) and February 2016 ( n = 23). FVI was measured by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Fruit and Vegetable Screener (FVS) and an inventory of locally grown fruits and vegetables. FVI relative to United States (US) recommendations and averages, and across seasons, were tested with non-parametric tests and paired t -tests ( p < 0.05). Both adults and children in the CO-CSA had higher FVI than the US averages, and more often met recommendations for vegetables. Some summer fruits and vegetables were more often eaten when locally in-season. The CO-CSA model warrants further examination as an avenue for improving vegetable consumption among adults and children in low-income households. However, causality between CO-CSA participation and FVI cannot be inferred, as CO-CSA participants may be positive deviants with respect to FVI. A multi-state randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate impacts of CO-CSAs on FVI and related outcomes.

  2. Household energy demand in Kenya: An application of the linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA-AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngui, Dianah; Mutua, John; Osiolo, Hellen; Aligula, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates price and fuel expenditure elasticities of demand by applying the linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand system (LA-AIDS) to 3665 households sampled across Kenya in 2009. The results indicate that motor spirit premium (MSP), automotive gas oil (AGO) and lubricants are price elastic while fuel wood, kerosene, charcoal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity are price inelastic. Kerosene is income elastic while fuel wood, charcoal, LPG, electricity, MSP and AGO are income inelastic. The results also reveal fuel stack behaviour, that is, multiple fuel use among the households. Main policy implications of the results include increasing the penetration of alternative fuels as well as provision of more fiscal incentives to increase usage of cleaner fuels. This not withstanding however, the household income should be increased beyond a certain point for the household to completely shift and use a new fuel. - Highlights: → Fuel wood, kerosene, charcoal, LPG and electricity are price inelastic. → Kerosene is income elastic. → Fuel wood, charcoal, electricity, LPG, MSP and AGO are income inelastic. → Results reveal fuel stack behaviour among the households. → Income should be increased beyond a certain point to facilitate fuel switch.

  3. Household energy demand in Kenya: An application of the linear approximate almost ideal demand system (LA-AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngui, Dianah, E-mail: ngui.diana@ku.ac.ke [Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi (Kenya); Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis, P.O. Box, 56445-00200, Nairobi (Kenya); Mutua, John [Energy Regulatory Commission, P.O. Box 42681-00100, Nairobi (Kenya); Osiolo, Hellen; Aligula, Eric [Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis, P.O. Box, 56445-00200, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2011-11-15

    This paper estimates price and fuel expenditure elasticities of demand by applying the linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand system (LA-AIDS) to 3665 households sampled across Kenya in 2009. The results indicate that motor spirit premium (MSP), automotive gas oil (AGO) and lubricants are price elastic while fuel wood, kerosene, charcoal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity are price inelastic. Kerosene is income elastic while fuel wood, charcoal, LPG, electricity, MSP and AGO are income inelastic. The results also reveal fuel stack behaviour, that is, multiple fuel use among the households. Main policy implications of the results include increasing the penetration of alternative fuels as well as provision of more fiscal incentives to increase usage of cleaner fuels. This not withstanding however, the household income should be increased beyond a certain point for the household to completely shift and use a new fuel. - Highlights: > Fuel wood, kerosene, charcoal, LPG and electricity are price inelastic. > Kerosene is income elastic. > Fuel wood, charcoal, electricity, LPG, MSP and AGO are income inelastic. > Results reveal fuel stack behaviour among the households. > Income should be increased beyond a certain point to facilitate fuel switch.

  4. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  5. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable

  6. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more

  7. Household willingness to pay for green electricity in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorić, Jelena; Hrovatin, Nevenka

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources in Slovenia. The results confirm that age, household income, education and environmental awareness play the most important role in explaining household attitudes to green electricity programmes. While the willingness to participate in green electricity programmes is influenced by education and environmental awareness, the willingness to pay for green electricity predominantly depends on household income. The results imply that green marketing should be accompanied by awareness-raising campaigns and should target younger, well-educated and high-income households. The expressed median willingness to pay is found to exceed the current level of mandatory charges for green electricity. Nevertheless, recent increases in final electricity prices might have already exhausted the capacity for additional voluntary contributions. - Highlights: ► Paper analyses attitudes to green electricity in one of the new EU member states. ► Willingness to participate is primarily influenced by education and environmental awareness. ► In contrast, willingness to pay for green electricity depends on household income. ► Both decisions are negatively influenced by age. ► Due to the recent price increases there may be no room left for additional voluntary contributions.

  8. Household and community income, economic shocks and risky sexual behavior of young adults: evidence from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Taryn; Lam, David; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2007-11-01

    To describe recent trends in adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa, and to determine whether household and community poverty and negative economic shocks predict risky sexual behavior. Matched survey data on 2993 African and coloured youth from the Cape Area Panel Study 2002 and 2005. Sexual debut, multiple sexual partners in past year, condom use at last sex, measured in 2002 and 2005. We tested for changes over time in reported sexual behavior and estimate multivariate probit models to measure the association between 2002 individual, household and community characteristics and 2005 sexual behavior. There was a statistically significant increase in condom use and a decrease in the incidence of multiple sexual partners between 2002 and 2005 for young women aged 17-22 years. Young women in households with 10% higher income were 0.53% less likely to debut sexually by 2005; young men in communities with a 10% higher poverty rate were 5% less likely to report condom use at last sex. Negative economic shocks are associated with a 0.04% increase in the probability of multiple partnerships for young women. Education is positively correlated with sexual debut for young women and with multiple partnerships for both sexes. Trends in sexual behavior between 2002 and 2005 indicate significant shifts towards safer practices. There is little evidence of a relationship between negative economic shocks, household and community poverty, and risky behavior. We hypothesize that the unexpected positive relationship between education and sexual debut may be driven by peer effects in schools with substantial age mixing.

  9. Do non-monetary prices target the poor? Evidence from a field experiment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses willingness to pay (WTP) data from a field experiment in Hyderabad, India in 2013 to determine whether non-monetary prices better target health products to the poor than monetary prices. Monetary WTP is increasing in income and non-monetary WTP is weakly decreasing in income. Household fixed effects in a pooled sample of monetary WTP and non-monetary WTP are used to compare the correlation of income and WTP across price types. It is found that non-monetary WTP falls relative t...

  10. Cross subsidy removal in electricity pricing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Ranajoy; Ganguly, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    In India electricity price for agriculture is cross subsidized by the industries. The Indian government has started a process through which the extent of cross subsidization is gradually being reduced. The idea is to replace the cross subsidization by 2030 and introduce a rate structure that will increase with the amount of electricity usage. This paper uses the Computable General Equilibrium framework to evaluate the ex-ante impact of these policy changes on the Indian economy. The paper finds that removal of cross subsidies will increase inflation particularly food inflation resulting in a decline in household incomes more so in rural areas. Replacing cross subsidies with a progressive rate structure will compensate for only a small part of the negative effects of the removal of cross subsidies. Four other policy options are also investigated targeting household incomes, food inflation and general inflation. Most of these options do not work as the required increase in budget deficit is unlikely to be bearable to the government. The only feasible option appears to be a direct price subsidy to agricultural sector: in this case food prices are held down, inflation is moderate and effect on household incomes is minimal. - Highlights: • Removal of cross subsidies in electricity sector will increase inflation in India. • Different policy options are investigated targeting household incomes, food inflation and general inflation. • Feasible option appears to be a direct price subsidy to agricultural sector.

  11. The Food Environment Through the Camera Lenses of 9- to 13-Year-Olds Living in Urban, Low-Income, Midwestern Households: A Photovoice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2015-01-01

    To pilot Photovoice methodology with low-income, urban 9- to 13-year-olds to gain insight about their food environment and to determine whether this methodology was engaging and acceptable to them. Photovoice methodology was used to allow children to represent their food environment. Twenty male and 9 female, low-income, 9- to 13-year-old children participated. Quantitative photograph analysis included quantity taken and usable internal/external and social environment and healthfulness categorizations. Qualitative analysis was conducted through open coding of interview transcripts. A total of 345 usable photos were taken by the children (n = 29), depicting both healthy and unhealthy foods. Four themes were identified (1) food characteristics; (2) social environment; (3) kitchen, cooking, and dining environments; and (4) food insecurity. Unhealthy food was most readily available to children. Children reported a lack of functioning kitchen equipment and multiple physical and environmental challenges to consuming a healthy diet. Food insecurity was prevalent. Food stamps and food pantries were used to fill gaps in the home food supply. Photovoice can be effective in engaging children in conversation about their food environment and increases understanding of their experiences with food. Photovoice can provide insight into the household food environments. This information can be used to tailor interventions to better reflect the living environment and eating behaviors in low-income populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. How Are Property Investment Returns Determined? — Estimating the Micro-Structure of Asset Prices, Property Income, and Discount Rates —

    OpenAIRE

    清水, 千弘; Chihiro, Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    How exactly should one estimate property investment returns? Investors in property aim to maximize capital gains from price increases and income generated by the property. How are the returns on investment in property determined based on its characteristics, and what kind of market characteristics does it have? Focusing on the Tokyo commer-cial property market and residential property market, the purpose of this paper was to break down and measure the micro-structure of property investment re...

  13. Healthier food choices for children through menu pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Kellershohn, J.; Walley, K.; Vriesekoop, F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of pricing (incentive and deterrent) to shift the purchase decision intent of parents when they order food for their child in a fast food restaurant.\\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud A financial incentive and a deterrent pricing tactic was tested using an online quantitative approach with a sample of 400 Canadian parents, representative of the Canadian population based on geography, household income and education level.\\ud Findin...

  14. A critical analysis of UK public health policies in relation to diet and nutrition in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attree, Pamela

    2006-04-01

    Diet and nutrition, particularly among low-income groups, is a key public health concern in the UK. Low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption, and obesity, especially among children, have potentially severe consequences for the future health of the nation. From a public health perspective, the UK government's role is to help poorer families make informed choices within healthy frameworks for living. However, the question is - to what extent are such policies in accordance with lay experiences of managing diet and nutrition on a low-income? This paper critically examines contemporary public health policies aimed at improving diet and nutrition, identifying the underlying theories about the influences on healthy eating in poor families, and exploring the extent to which these assumptions are based on experiential accounts. It draws on two qualitative systematic reviews - one prioritizing low-income mothers' accounts of 'managing' in poverty; and the other focusing on children's perspectives. The paper finds some common ground between policies and lay experiences, but also key divergencies. Arguably, the emphasis of public health policy on individual behaviour, coupled with an ethos of empowered consumerism, underplays material limitations on 'healthy eating' for low-income mothers and children. Health policies fail to take into account the full impact of structural influences on food choices, or recognize the social and emotional factors that influence diet and nutrition. In conclusion, it is argued that while health promotion campaigns to improve low-income families' diets do have advantages, these are insufficient to outweigh the negative effects of poverty on nutrition.

  15. Household energy preferences for cooking in urban Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Boukary

    2006-01-01

    An extensive survey on household expenditures in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso, was used to analyze the factors determining urban household energy choices using a multinomial logit model. Wood-energy remains the preferred fuel of most urban households in the country; though rational, the choice is not sustainable as it portends a threat to the savanna woodlands and the economy. Many important policies have been adopted by public authorities to minimize household wood-energy consumption and to substitute it by alternative fuel. Despite the magnitude of all these policies, the depletion rate of the forest resource is increasing. A kind of inertia is thus observed for household preferences for cooking fuel. This model analyzes the sociological and economic variables of household energy preferences for cooking in Ouagadougou. The analyses show that the inertia of household cooking energy preferences are due to poverty factors such as low income, poor household access to electricity for primary and secondary energy, low house standard, household size, high frequency of cooking certain meals using woodfuel as cooking energy. The descriptive analyses show that the domestic demand for wood-energy is strongly related to household income. The firewood utilization rate decreases with increasing household income. In other words, this fuel appears as a 'transition good' for these households which aim for other sources of energy for cooking that are more adapted for urban consumption. This implies that a price subsidy policy for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and its cook stoves could significantly decrease the utilization rate of wood-energy

  16. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  17. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice is very important. Through a binary logistic and ordinary least squares regression, this article determines factors that influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on income among smallholder farmers. The results show that off-farm employment, access to irrigation equipment, access to reliable water sources and awareness of water conservation practices, such as rainwater harvesting, have a significant influence on the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming. On the other hand, the farmer’s age, distance travelled to the nearest market and nature of employment negatively influence the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming decisions. Ordinary least squares regression results showed that the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice has a significant positive influence on agricultural income. We therefore conclude that to empower smallholder farmers to respond quickly to climate variability and change, practices that will enhance the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming in the Chinyanja Triangle are critical, as this will significantly affect agricultural income. In terms of policy, we recommend that the governments of Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, which cover the Chinyanja Triangle, formulate policies that will enhance the adoption of sustainable small scale

  18. Energy price increases and economic development in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong CO

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of higher energy costs (particularly petroleum price increases) on economic development in Malaysia, 1973 to 1983 - outlines trends in gross domestic product, balance of payments, trade and economic growth; considers household income and fuel expenditure of low income rural communitys; deals with choice of technology and employment in certain high power consumption industries; discusses energy policy implications. Graphs, maps, questionnaires, refe...

  19. Consequences of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain symptoms on women's work participation and income: results from a national household sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Megan K; Elliott, Marc N; Clemens, J Quentin; Ewing, Brett; Berry, Sandra H

    2014-01-01

    We describe differences in work participation and income by bladder symptom impact and comorbidities among women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Cross-sectional data from 2,767 respondents younger than 65 years identified with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome symptoms were analyzed. The data were taken from the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology (RICE) survey, and included retrospective self-reports of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome impact, severity, years since onset, related comorbidities (depressive symptomatology, number of conditions), work participation and income, and personal characteristics. Multiple regressions predicted 5 current work outcomes of works now, kept from working by pain, missed work days, days worked when bothered by symptoms and real income change since symptom onset. Controlling for work status at symptom onset and personal characteristics, greater bladder symptom impact predicted a greater likelihood of not now working, kept more days from working by pain, missed more work days and working more days with symptoms. More depressive symptomatology and greater number of comorbidities predicted reduced work participation. Women experienced no growth in real income since symptom onset. Measures of symptom severity were not associated with any of the economic outcomes. Greater interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome symptom impact, depressive symptomatology and count of comorbidities (but not symptom severity) were each associated with less work participation and leveling of women's long-term earnings. Management of bladder symptom impact on nonwork related activities and depressive symptomatology may improve women's work outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analyzing the effects of past prices on reference price formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. van Oest (Rutger); R. Paap (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a new reference price framework for brand choice. In this framework, we employ a Markov-switching process with an absorbing state to model unobserved price recall of households. Reference prices result from the prices households are able to remember. Our model can be used to

  1. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  2. Exploring the relationship between cigarette prices and smoking among adults: a cross-country study of low- and middle-income nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Tesche, Jean; Perucic, Anne-Marie; Yurekli, Ayda; Asma, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on the relationship between cigarette prices and adult smoking in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is relatively limited. This study offers new descriptive evidence on this relationship using data from a set of 13 LMICs. We use Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) cross-country data from approximately 200,000 participants aged 15 and older. Estimates on the relationship between prices and adult smoking were obtained from logit models of smoking participation and ordinary least squares models of conditional cigarette demand. Higher prices were associated with lower demand across countries, in terms of both smoking prevalence and daily number of cigarettes smoked among smokers. Our estimates suggest that the total price elasticity of cigarette demand in LMICs is approximately -0.53. We find that higher socioeconomic status (SES), represented through wealth and education effects is associated with lower chance of smoking overall, but among existing smokers, it may be associated with a larger number of cigarettes smoked. After controlling for a set of individual demographic and country characteristics, cigarette prices retain a significant role in shaping cigarette demand across LMICs. Because higher SES is associated with a reduced chance of smoking overall but also with increased daily consumption among current smokers, optimal tobacco tax policies in LMICs may face an added need to accommodate to shifting SES structures within the populations of these countries.

  3. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  4. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  5. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  6. Tackling alcohol misuse: purchasing patterns affected by minimum pricing for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludbrook, Anne; Petrie, Dennis; McKenzie, Lynda; Farrar, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a range of health and social harms that increase with the level of consumption. Policy makers are interested in effective and cost-effective interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and associated harms. Economic theory and research evidence demonstrate that increasing price is effective at the population level. Price interventions that target heavier consumers of alcohol may be more effective at reducing alcohol-related harms with less impact on moderate consumers. Minimum pricing per unit of alcohol has been proposed on this basis but concerns have been expressed that 'moderate drinkers of modest means' will be unfairly penalized. If those on low incomes are disproportionately affected by a policy that removes very cheap alcohol from the market, the policy could be regressive. The effect on households' budgets will depend on who currently purchases cheaper products and the extent to which the resulting changes in prices will impact on their demand for alcohol. This paper focuses on the first of these points. This paper aims to identify patterns of purchasing of cheap off-trade alcohol products, focusing on income and the level of all alcohol purchased. Three years (2006-08) of UK household survey data were used. The Expenditure and Food Survey provides comprehensive 2-week data on household expenditure. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between the purchase of cheap off-trade alcohol, household income levels and whether the household level of alcohol purchasing is categorized as moderate, hazardous or harmful, while controlling for other household and non-household characteristics. Predicted probabilities and quantities for cheap alcohol purchasing patterns were generated for all households. The descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that low-income households are not the predominant purchasers of any alcohol or even of cheap alcohol. Of those who do purchase off-trade alcohol

  7. An analysis of purchase price of legal and illicit cigarettes in urban retail environments in 14 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Cherukupalli, Rajeev; Washington, Carmen; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Clegg Smith, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    To estimate and compare price differences between legal and illicit cigarettes in 14 low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). A cross-sectional census of all packs available on the market was purchased. Cigarette packs were purchased in formal retail settings in three major cities in each of 14 LMIC: Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. A total of 3240 packs were purchased (range = 58 packs in Egypt to 505 in Russia). Packs were categorized as 'legal' or 'illicit' based on the presence of a health warning label from the country of purchase and existence of a tax stamp; 2468 legal and 772 illicit packs were in the analysis. Descriptive statistics stratified by country, city and neighborhood socio-economic status were used to explore the association between price and legal status of cigarettes. The number of illicit cigarettes in the sample setting was small (n price of legal cigarettes ranged from US$0.32 in Pakistan (n = 72) to US$3.24 in Turkey (n = 242); median purchase price of illicit cigarettes ranged from US$0.80 in Ukraine (n = 14) to US$3.08 in India (n = 41). The difference in median price between legal and illicit packs as a percentage of the price of legal packs ranged from 32% in Philippines to 455% in Bangladesh. Median purchase price of illicit cigarette packs was higher than that of legal cigarette packs in six countries (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam). Median purchase price of illicit packs was lower than that of legal packs in Turkey, Ukraine and China. The median purchase price of illicit cigarettes is higher than that of legal cigarette packs in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia appear to have few or no illicit cigarettes for purchase from formal, urban retailers. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf

  8. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol García-Germán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  9. Do increasing prices affect food deprivation in the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Germán, S.; Bardají, I.; Garrido, A.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of prices of agricultural commodities in global markets during 2007-2012 was followed by increased consumer food prices around the world. More expensive food may have an impact on consumer food access and thus on their welfare, not only in developing countries but also amongst the most vulnerable in developed countries. Using a longitudinal database from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions and population-averaged models, we tested whether increasing food prices had an impact on household food deprivation in 26 European Union (EU) member states. Results revealed a significant relationship between food deprivation and the consumer food price index and disposable income. Households in the lowest income quintile in the member states recently acceded to the EU were the most vulnerable to food deprivation. Results also showed that low-income households in densely populated areas were more vulnerable to food deprivation. This should be taken into account when evaluating food assistance programmes that focus on the segments of the population most at risk of food deprivation.

  10. Soft drink prices, sales, body mass index and diabetes: Evidence from a panel of low-, middle- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Monsivais, Pablo; Suhrcke, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We take advantage of four different cross-country datasets containing data on 78 countries for the period 1999-2014, in order to assess the relationship of carbonated soft drinks' sales, as well as their prices, with body mass index (BMI), overweight, obesity and diabetes. Using an ecological study design and multivariate regression longitudinal estimation approaches, we find that carbonated soft drink sales were significantly positively related to BMI, overweight and obesity - but only in the low and lower-middle income countries. This finding was robust to a number of sensitivity and falsification checks. In this sub-sample, an increase in per capita soft drink sales by 1 litre per year was related to an increase of BMI by about 0.009 kg/m 2 (p < 0.1).. This is a small effect, implying that halving annual consumption per capita in this group of countries would result in a drop of BMI by only about 0.03 kg/m 2 . Although soft drink prices were negatively related to weight-related outcomes in the sample of higher middle income and high income countries, this finding was not robust to falsification checks. The results thus suggest that sales restrictions to steer consumers away from soft drinks could indeed have a beneficial health effects in poorer countries, although the effect magnitude appears to be very small. However, given potential limitations of using ecological research design, results from individual level studies would be required to further ascertain the role of soft drink sales and prices in obesity and diabetes.

  11. Accelerated telomere attrition is associated with relative household income, diet and inflammation in the pSoBid cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Shiels

    Full Text Available It has previously been hypothesized that lower socio-economic status can accelerate biological ageing, and predispose to early onset of disease. This study investigated the association of socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as traditional and novel risk factors, with biological-ageing, as measured by telomere length, in a Glasgow based cohort that included individuals with extreme socio-economic differences.A total of 382 blood samples from the pSoBid study were available for telomere analysis. For each participant, data was available for socio-economic status factors, biochemical parameters and dietary intake. Statistical analyses were undertaken to investigate the association between telomere lengths and these aforementioned parameters.The rate of age-related telomere attrition was significantly associated with low relative income, housing tenure and poor diet. Notably, telomere length was positively associated with LDL and total cholesterol levels, but inversely correlated to circulating IL-6.These data suggest lower socio-economic status and poor diet are relevant to accelerated biological ageing. They also suggest potential associations between elevated circulating IL-6, a measure known to predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes with biological ageing. These observations require further study to tease out potential mechanistic links.

  12. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically.

  13. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sandwiching it in: spillover of work onto food choices and family roles in low- and moderate-income urban households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Connors, Margaret M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2003-02-01

    Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and moderate-income adults living in Upstate New York in 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a dynamic relationship between work and food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies. Participants' narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of work and their resources for food choice, strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of work as demanding and limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found work unproblematic. These findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of work to food choices in which the demands and resources of the work role are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other

  15. Household sanitation is associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not viral infections and diarrhoea, in a cohort study in a low-income urban neighbourhood in Vellore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, David; Leon, Juan; Kirby, Amy; Clennon, Julie; Raj, Suraja; Yakubu, Habib; Robb, Katharine; Kartikeyan, Arun; Hemavathy, Priya; Gunasekaran, Annai; Roy, Sheela; Ghale, Ben Chirag; Kumar, J Senthil; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Moe, Christine

    2017-09-01

    This study examined associations between household sanitation and enteric infection - including diarrhoeal-specific outcomes - in children 0-2 years of age in a low-income, dense urban neighbourhood. As part of the MAL-ED study, 230 children in a low-income, urban, Indian neighbourhood provided stool specimens at 14-17 scheduled time points and during diarrhoeal episodes in the first 2 years of life that were analysed for bacterial, parasitic (protozoa and helminths) and viral pathogens. From interviews with caregivers in 100 households, the relationship between the presence (and discharge) of household sanitation facilities and any, pathogen-specific, and diarrhoea-specific enteric infection was tested through mixed-effects Poisson regression models. Few study households (33%) reported having toilets, most of which (82%) discharged into open drains. Controlling for season and household socio-economic status, the presence of a household toilet was associated with lower risks of enteric infection (RR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.79-1.06), bacterial infection (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.02) and protozoal infection (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.39-1.04), although not statistically significant, but had no association with diarrhoea (RR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.68-1.45) or viral infections (RR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.79-1.60). Models also suggested that the relationship between household toilets discharging to drains and enteric infection risk may vary by season. The presence of a household toilet was associated with lower risk of bacterial and protozoal enteric infections, but not diarrhoea or viral infections, suggesting the health effects of sanitation may be more accurately estimated using outcome measures that account for aetiologic agents. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fuel consumption: short term and long term price impacts per population type; Consommation de carburant: effets des prix a court et a long termes par type de population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents assessments of the price sensitivity of household fuel consumption. After a literature review on price-elasticity assessments and the use of pseudo-panels, the investigation analyses the deciding factors of the household fuel expense and its evolution between 1985 and 2006. It proposes a short term price-elasticity assessment based on the most recent survey, and also proposes price-elasticity assessments for sub-populations, notably in terms of income level or location (rural or urban areas)

  17. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  18. INCOME Household Income in 1999 BGs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  19. INCOME Household Income in 1999 CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. INCOME Household Income in 1999 COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  1. INCOME Household Income in 1999 NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Methods Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named “fruit and vegetables condition”; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named “nutrient profile condition”. The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. Results At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Conclusion Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet

  3. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2014-05-20

    Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio

  4. Free and Reduced-Price Meal Application and Income Verification Practices in School Nutrition Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junehee; Lee, Yee Ming; Park, Eunhye; Wang, Yujia; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study assessed current practices and attitudes of school nutrition program (SNP) management staff regarding free and reduced-price (F-RP) meal application and verification in SNPs. Methods: Stratified, randomly selected 1,500 SNP management staff in 14 states received a link to an online questionnaire and/or a printed…

  5. Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, David Michael

    2000-10-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have

  6. Energy consumption of the households 1960-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, J.; Engsted, T.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1960s energy consumption of Danish households increased relatively fast, but the oil price shocks of the 1970s and subsequent energy policy changes reversed this development towards stagnation in energy consumption in the recent decades. Using time series data covering the period 1960-1996 the final energy consumption of the residential sector is analysed in the framework of co-integration and error-correction modelling. The long run income and price elasticities are found to be 1.17 and -0.85, respectively, but in the short run energy prices seem to influence consumption less as only income and the weather conditions appear significantly in the short run dynamics of the estimated error-correction model. (au)

  7. To consume or not. How oil prices affect the comovement of consumption and aggregate wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odusami, Babatunde Olatunji

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides insight into how oil price movements affect the consumption choices of U.S. households through the wealth channel. Lettau and Ludvigson (2001) show that while consumption, asset wealth, and labor income share a common long-term trend; they substantially deviate from one another in the short run. In this paper, I show that these transitory deviations can be explained by fluctuations in the price of crude oil. Linear and threshold multivariate autoregressive models are used to measure the oil price effect. Oil price effect on the consumption to aggregate wealth ratio is robust to monetary policy effect, sub-period effect, and econometric specifications of oil price effect. Generally speaking, higher (lower) oil price will lead to a decrease (increase) in the proportion of aggregate wealth consumed. In addition, the magnitude of the oil price effect is asymmetric and sub-period dependent. Oil price effect was higher before the 1980's than in succeeding periods. (author)

  8. Linking household and health facility surveys to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage: evidence from 17 low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B; Creanga, Andreea A; Walker, Neff

    2018-06-01

    Improving access and quality of obstetric service has the potential to avert preventable maternal, neonatal and stillborn deaths, yet little is known about the quality of care received. This study sought to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage within and between 17 low- and middle-income countries. We linked health facility data from the Service Provision Assessments and Service Availability and Readiness Assessments, with corresponding household survey data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Based on performance of obstetric signal functions, we defined four levels of facility emergency obstetric care (EmOC) functionality: comprehensive (CEmOC), basic (BEmOC), BEmOC-2, and low/substandard. Facility readiness was evaluated based on the direct observation of 23 essential items; facilities "ready to provide obstetric services" had ≥20 of 23 items available. Across countries, we used medians to characterize service availability and readiness, overall and by urban-rural location; analyses also adjusted for care-seeking patterns to estimate population-level coverage of obstetric services. Of the 111 500 health facilities surveyed, 7545 offered obstetric services and were included in the analysis. The median percentages of facilities offering EmOC and "ready to provide obstetric services" were 19% and 10%, respectively. There were considerable urban-rural differences, with absolute differences of 19% and 29% in the availability of facilities offering EmOC and "ready to provide obstetric services", respectively. Adjusting for care-seeking patterns, results from the linking approach indicated that among women delivering in a facility, a median of 40% delivered in facilities offering EmOC, and 28% delivered in facilities "ready to provide obstetric services". Relatively higher coverage of facility deliveries (≥65%) and coverage of deliveries in facilities "ready to provide obstetric

  9. Distributional effects of subsidy removal and implementation of carbon taxes in Mexican households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Bakhat, Mohcine; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio; Fernández Zayas, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a microsimulation using data from the National Households Income and Expenditure Survey (NHIES) from 1994 to 2010 to determine the distributional effects of the price changes arising from energy and environmental policies and their impact on Mexican households. We reported simulations of several changes in energy prices as a result of partial or total energy subsidy removal, including carbon tax. In order to examine whether the subsidy mechanism and carbon tax tend to be progressive or regressive, we evaluated the households' burden in different income levels. These simulations respond to the need for an assessment of economic and environmental impacts of energy subsidies in Mexico. This is of great importance for Mexico because of effort that has been taken in the development of energy policies, and the rising interest of the Mexican government in mitigating carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions and their concomitant environmental damage. - Highlights: • The results indicate that subsidies in electricity are progressive (indeed less progressive for LPG). • Some regression evidence is shown in gasoline subsidies, that is, low-income households benefit less from the subsidies than do high-income households. • The analysis demonstrates that a hypothetical CO_2 tax is regressive in LPG and progressive in the case of gasoline.

  10. Development of state social support benefits in the Czech Republic from 1995 to 2014 and their impact on low-income households economic status

    OpenAIRE

    Lukeš, Jáchym

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the influence of state social benefits on income and natality of low-income families in Czech Republic. The years in which significant changes in government welfare benefits occured, based on the legislative changes, are examined in the paper. These years are, with use of model families, analyzed in terms of the ratio of potential income from state social security and subsistence minimum of families. The paper shows that this income can be the main income for the families...

  11. Molecular identification of Ancylostoma species from dogs and an assessment of zoonotic risk in low-income households, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Arbex, A P; David, E B; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Katagiri, S; Coradi, S T; Guimarães, S

    2017-01-01

    Hookworm infection stands out for its worldwide distribution and for its veterinary and public health relevance. Based on copromicroscopic examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, we assessed, respectively, the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the identification of canine hookworm species in faeces recovered from 278 dogs living in households of an inland municipality of São Paulo State, Brazil. Intestinal parasites were found in 67.3% of dogs and hookworm infection was found at the highest prevalence rate (56.6%), followed by Toxocara canis (11.9%), Isospora spp. (11.9%), Giardia spp. (5.8%), Sarcocystis spp. (4.0%), 'Hammondia-like' (1.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.1%) and Trichuris vulpis (0.7%). Of 158 samples positive for hookworm eggs, 106 (67.1%) were amplified by PCR and, of those, 88 (55.7%) were successfully sequenced for species identification. Single infections with Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense were recorded in 61.4% and 12.5%, respectively, and mixed infections were found in 26.1%. The nucleotide sequences of both species showed high identity rates (98-100%) when compared with reference sequences. Although A. caninum was the most prevalent hookworm in the dogs assessed, the occurrence of both A. caninum and A. braziliense in single and/or mixed infections poses a potential risk for the local population in a low-income area, especially children, to acquire cutaneous larva migrans (CLM).

  12. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25–64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003–2004; 2008–2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position. - Highlights: • The study included 1757 black, Latino, and white working class adults in Boston, MA. • Census tract poverty was associated with annual average black carbon exposure. • Annual household income was not associated with black carbon exposure. • Individual-level education was not associated with black carbon exposure. • The observed socioeconomic patterns varied by race/ethnicity. - In a US multiethnic urban working adult population, exposure to black carbon was more strongly associated with census tract as compared to household- or individual-level socioeconomic measures

  13. Social Policy Trends- Housing Affordability for Families with Low Incomes Across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita (Gres Wilkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.

  14. Income pooling within families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Uldall-Poulsen, Hans

    This paper analyses the phenomenon of income-pooling by applying the Danish household expenditure survey, merged with authoritative register information. Responses to additional questions on income sharing among 1696 couples also allows us to analyses whether the intra-household distribution...

  15. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy) diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kane, Sarah; Ramsey, Rebecca; Good, Elizabeth; Dick, Mathew

    2016-04-12

    Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy) diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy) diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended) diets, with the majority (53-64 %) of the food budget being spent on 'discretionary' choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20-31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy) diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  16. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended and current (unhealthy diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. Results The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended diets, with the majority (53–64 % of the food budget being spent on ‘discretionary’ choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20–31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Conclusions Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  17. Household biomass energy choice and its policy implications on improving rural livelihoods in Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiu; Yang, Haoran; Liu, Tianbiao; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that a switch from traditional biomass energy to modern clean, safe and efficient energy could improve local rural livelihoods by enhancing the access to ‘high quality’ energy and reducing the negative impacts of traditional biomass energy on health, environment and living standards. Hence, in this paper, we used alternative-specific conditional logit model (ASCLM) to examine the rural household energy choice behaviors in Sichuan Province of China from the perspective of revealed and stated preferences. The results show that the fuel switching in our study region is not a simple unidirectional process from traditional biomass energy to modern fuels as incomes improve. Household energy choice behaviors could be not only affected by energy-specific characteristics such as fuel price, smoky level and safety risk, but also influenced by household-specific factors such as income level, age and educational level of the decision maker, household demographic structure, number of people frequently eating at home, distance to the nearest biomass collecting spot and household location, suggesting that government should attach more importance to simultaneously improve energy quality, control energy price and enhance household socio-economic status. - Highlights: •McFadden's choice model was applied to analyze household energy choice in Sichuan. •We examined household revealed and stated preferences for different fuels. •Household fuel switching is not a simple or unidirectional process. •Households prefer to use fuel with lower cost, higher safety and lower indoor pollution. •Household fuel choice is affected by interactions among multiple factors.

  18. Higher household expenditure on animal-source and nongrain foods lowers the risk of stunting among children 0-59 months old in Indonesia: implications of rising food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mayang; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Akhter, Nasima; Kraemer, Klaus; Semba, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Because the global financial crisis and high food prices affect food consumption, we characterized the relationship between stunting and nongrain food expenditure at the household level among children 0-59 mo old in Indonesia's rural and urban poor population. Expenditure and height-for-age data were obtained from a population-based sample of 446,473 children in rural and 143,807 in urban poor areas in Indonesia. Expenditure on food was grouped into categories: animal, plant, total nongrain, and grain. The prevalence of stunting in rural and urban poor areas was 33.8 and 31.2%, respectively. In rural areas, the odds ratios (OR) (5th vs. first quintile) for stunting were similar for proportion of household expenditure on animal (0.87; 95% CI = 0.85-0.90; P global crises.

  19. Effects of food price shocks on child malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Hussain, M. Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    A propitiously timed household survey carried out in Mozambique over the period 2008/2009 permits us to study the relationship between shifts in food prices and child nutrition status in a low income setting. We focus on weight-for-height and weight-for-age in different survey quarters characteri...... production year, as substantially increasing malnutrition amongst under-five children in Mozambique....

  20. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  1. The evolution of income inequality and relative poverty in Italy: 1987-2010

    OpenAIRE

    BIAGI FEDERICO; CASALONE Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the evolution of poverty and inequality in Italy in the period 1987-2010. Our data are from the Bank of Italy Survey of Household Income and Wealth and the variable of interest is real income (reference year is 2009), defined using price indexes that are allowed to vary by region and that allow us to make comparisons in levels of real incomes. We construct relative poverty and inequality indexes using equivalent income obtained by applying two types of equivalence scale...

  2. Association between Household Air Pollution Exposure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Outcomes in 13 Low- and Middle-Income Country Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharthan, Trishul; Grigsby, Matthew R; Goodman, Dina; Chowdhury, Muhammad; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma; Gutierrez, Laura; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Alam, Dewan; Kirenga, Bruce; Jones, Rupert; van Gemert, Frederick; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2018-03-01

    Forty percent of households worldwide burn biomass fuels for energy, which may be the most important contributor to household air pollution. To examine the association between household air pollution exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) outcomes in 13 resource-poor settings. We analyzed data from 12,396 adult participants living in 13 resource-poor, population-based settings. Household air pollution exposure was defined as using biomass materials as the primary fuel source in the home. We used multivariable regressions to assess the relationship between household air pollution exposure and COPD outcomes, evaluated for interactions, and conducted sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our findings. Average age was 54.9 years (44.2-59.6 yr across settings), 48.5% were women (38.3-54.5%), prevalence of household air pollution exposure was 38% (0.5-99.6%), and 8.8% (1.7-15.5%) had COPD. Participants with household air pollution exposure were 41% more likely to have COPD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.68) than those without the exposure, and 13.5% (6.4-20.6%) of COPD prevalence may be caused by household air pollution exposure, compared with 12.4% caused by cigarette smoking. The association between household air pollution exposure and COPD was stronger in women (1.70; 1.24-2.32) than in men (1.21; 0.92-1.58). Household air pollution exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of COPD, particularly among women, and it is likely a leading population-attributable risk factor for COPD in resource-poor settings.

  3. Urban partnership agreement and congestion reduction demonstration programs : lessons learned on congestion pricing from the Seattle and Atlanta household travel behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from household traveler surveys administered in Seattle and Atlanta as part of the evaluation of the Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration Programs. The surveys use a two-stage panel su...

  4. Is the price effect on fuel consumption symmetric? some evidence from an empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentenac Chemin, E.

    2009-04-01

    We generally consider that the price elasticity of the energy demand is quite small. But it appears that strong increases in gasoline price lead to modifications in consumer behaviours. The high volatility of petroleum prices and thus gasoline prices and the strong increases since the beginning of 2000 justify an analysis of price effects on gasoline consumption. Thus, in this paper, we estimate the effects of price variations on gasoline consumption, in the short and the long-term, in two countries: the United States and India. We use a co-integration modelling to test for long-run relationship between gasoline consumption, income, price and vehicle ownership in the two countries. We use an error correction model to test for short-run prices effects and more precisely for asymmetric effects on demand of increases and decreases in gasoline prices. The main conclusions are the following. - The United States: (1) The long-term price elasticity is relatively high for an industrialised country because gasoline taxes are low (2) Households are more sensitive to a price increase than a price decrease. - India: (1) Price elasticity in the long-run is quite high but is quite small in the short run. It is not surprising for an emergent country (2) It seems that there is no asymmetric effect of price variations on gasoline consumption. (author)

  5. The potential for greenhouse gases mitigation in household sector of Iran: cases of price reform/efficiency improvement and scenario for 2000-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudpour, Hamid; Ahadi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2006-01-01

    Iran's demographic profile is sharply youth oriented and this upcoming generation's needs for employment and housing, coupled with low-energy efficiency vectors and consumption patterns, has created a constant rise in energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions in the residential sector. Improved energy efficiency as a national policy lynchpin for demand reduction and GHGs mitigation, has become commonplace. OPEC countries however, Iran included, suffer an obvious lack of consumer incentive because of low fuel prices. This study evaluates the twin impacts of price reform and efficiency programs on energy carriers' consumption and GHGs mitigation in the Iranian housing sector. For this purpose, the demand functions for energy carriers, has been developed by econometrics process models. The results reveal that price elasticity for electricity demand in the Constant Elasticity Model for the short-run while the long-run is -0.142 and -0.901, respectively. In the Variable Elasticity Model the 250% increase in electricity rates in the short-run resulted in a price elasticity change from -0.02 to -0.475, hence the 250% increase in electricity pricing for the long-run resulted in the price elasticity change from -0.15 to -2.0. Finally, aided by a Scenario-Based Approach the impact of fuel pricing and efficiency improvement in trends of energy demand and GHGs emission were assessed in a Scenarios Base, developed on two different cases of Business-as-Usual (BAU) and Management. The results indicate that in the BAU case between 2000 and 2011, the energy demand and CO 2 emission increases with an annual growth rate of 7.5% and 6.8%, respectively. Comparatively, if the energy carriers' price is increased to border price and energy efficiency programs are implemented, they will stimulate carriers' demand and CO 2 emissions growth rate decreases to 4.94% and 3.1%, respectively

  6. Environmental income and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsen, Arild; Jagger, Pamela; Babigumira, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which ...

  7. Rural-urban household energy use and inter-relation in the Central Region of the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgizouli, I.A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Urban and rural household energy consumption accounts for the major part of total energy consumption in most African countries. It ranges between 50 and 70 percent in African countries with medium per capita incomes and between 58 and 93 percent in those with low per capita incomes. Satisfying household energy needs takes up a substantial portion of the income of the urban household, while in the rural areas much time and effort are spent collecting wood instead of in more productive activities. Woodfuel meets over 85 percent of household energy demand in most African countries. This high level of consumption will remain, irrespective of the country's per capita income: woodfuel will continue to play a major role in the economics of developing countries and especially in the living standards of both rural and urban poor. The two major issues which must be considered are whether the forest resources are going to meet the future demand for woodfuel and whether prices will remain affordable to the low income groups. This paper deals with household energy issues with special reference to the Central Region in the Sudan. It assesses local resources in the region, analyzes consumption patterns of both rural and urban households, and discusses possible solutions to the impact of current energy practices

  8. A pseudo-panel data model of household electricity demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Jean-Thomas; Bolduc, Denis [GREEN, Department of Economics, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Yameogo, Nadege-Desiree [Analysis Group Inc., 1080 Beaver Hill, Suite 1810, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    We study the dynamic behaviour of household electricity consumption on the basis of four large independent surveys conducted in the province of Quebec from 1989 to 2002. The latter region displays some rather unique features such as the very extensive use of electricity for space heating in a cold climate and the wide range of energy sources used to meet space heating requirements. We adopt approach to create 25 cohorts of households that form a pseudo-panel. The cohorts have on average 131 households. The model error terms allow for group heteroskedasticity and serial correlation. Short-run and long-run own and cross-price elasticities are statistically significant. Electricity and natural gas are estimated to be substitutes while electricity and fuel oil are complements, as it may occur in the Quebec context. The estimate of the income elasticity is not significant. Comparisons with related studies are provided. (author)

  9. How do we value our income from which we save?

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Liberda; Marek Pęczkowski; Ewa Gucwa-Leśny

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between the perception of income as satisfying household needs and saving rate of this household. Using the multinomial logit regression function we measure the probability of a household to fall into one of the groups categorized by the subjective perception of income in relation to the current household disposable income. The variable specified for the valuation of income is income perception, defined as a class of observed disposable income located...

  10. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanfranco, B. A.; Rava, C.

    2014-06-01

    This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06). Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (de boned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts), four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish), and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI). The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and dis aggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations. (Author)

  11. Household demand elasticities for meat products in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno A. Lanfranco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzed the demand for meats at household level over the past decade in Uruguay, a country that exhibits a very high per capita consumption of these products. In particular, the consumption of beef is one of the highest in the world and only comparable to Argentina. The analysis involved a two-step estimation of an incomplete system of censored demand equations using household data from the last available national income and expenditure survey (2005/06. Thirteen meat products were included in the analysis: six broad beef products (deboned hindquarter cuts, bone-in hindquarter cuts, ground beef, rib plate, bone-in forequarter cuts, and other beef cuts, four products from other meats (sheep, pork, poultry, and fish, and three generic mixed-meat products. A complete set of short-term income, own-price and cross-price elasticities were computed and reported along with their 90% confidence intervals (CI. The results were consistent with both economic theory and empirical evidence as well as with the expected behavior, considering the relevance of these products, particularly beef, in the diet of Uruguayan consumers. All meat items were necessary goods and evidenced income-inelastic responses, which was expected given their high consumption level. All meats behaved as normal goods although exhibiting different reactions to changes in price. In general, beef cuts were more price elastic than other more broadly defined products. The more specific and disaggregated the meat product the higher its corresponding direct price elasticity. The complement/substitute relationships found in this study were highly depended on the specific product combinations.

  12. Is the price effect on fuel consumption symmetric? Some evidence from an empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentenac-Chemin, Elodie

    2012-01-01

    We generally consider that the price elasticity of the energy demand is quite small. But it appears that strong increases in gasoline price lead to modifications in consumer behaviors. The high volatility of petroleum prices and the strong increases since the beginning of 2000 justify an analysis of price effects on gasoline consumption. We estimate the effects of price variations on gasoline consumption, in the United States and India. We use a co-integration modelling to test for long-run relationship between gasoline consumption, income, price and vehicle ownership in the two countries. We use an error correction model to test for short-run prices effects and more precisely for asymmetric effects on demand of increases and decreases in gasoline prices. The main conclusions are the following. Concerning the United States, the long-term price elasticity is relatively high for an industrialised country because gasoline taxes are low, but we show that households are more sensitive to a price increase than a price decrease. About India, price elasticity in the long-run is quite high but is quite small in the short-run. It is not surprising for an emergent country. It seems that there is no asymmetric effect of price variations on gasoline consumption.

  13. The effect of rising food prices on food consumption: systematic review with meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rosemary; Cornelsen, Laura; Dangour, Alan D; Turner, Rachel; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2013-06-17

    To quantify the relation between food prices and the demand for food with specific reference to national and household income levels. Systematic review with meta-regression. Online databases of peer reviewed and grey literature (ISI Web of Science, EconLit, PubMed, Medline, AgEcon, Agricola, Google, Google Scholar, IdeasREPEC, Eldis, USAID, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, World Bank, International Food Policy Research Institute), hand searched reference lists, and contact with authors. We included cross sectional, cohort, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies with English abstracts. Eligible studies used nationally representative data from 1990 onwards derived from national aggregate data sources, household surveys, or supermarket and home scanners. The primary outcome extracted from relevant papers was the quantification of the demand for foods in response to changes in food price (own price food elasticities). Descriptive and study design variables were extracted for use as covariates in analysis. We conducted meta-regressions to assess the effect of income levels between and within countries on the strength of the relation between food price and demand, and predicted price elasticities adjusted for differences across studies. 136 studies reporting 3495 own price food elasticities from 162 different countries were identified. Our models predict that increases in the price of all foods result in greater reductions in food consumption in poor countries: in low and high income countries, respectively, a 1% increase in the price of cereals results in reductions in consumption of 0.61% (95% confidence interval 0.56% to 0.66%) and 0.43% (0.36% to 0.48%), and a 1% increase in the price of meat results in reductions in consumption of 0.78% (0.73% to 0.83%) and 0.60% (0.54% to 0.66%). Within all countries, our models predict that poorer households will be the most adversely affected by increases in food prices. Changes in global food prices will

  14. Determinants of Household Water Conservation Retrofit Activity: A Discrete Choice Model Using Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, T. A.; Wright, M. B.

    1990-02-01

    Economic analyses of residential water demand have typically concentrated on price and income elasticities. In the short run a substantial change in water prices might induce only small changes in consumption levels. As time passes, however, households will have the opportunity to "retrofit" existing water-using equipment to make it less water-intensive. This produces medium- to long-run demand elasticities that are higher than short-run studies suggest. We examine responses to water conservation questions appearing on the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power's 1983 residential energy survey. We find that households' decisions to install shower retrofit devices are influenced by the potential to save money on water heating bills. We attribute toilet retrofit decisions more to noneconomic factors which might be characterized as "general conservation mindedness." The endogeneity of these retrofit decisions casts some doubt on the results of studies of individual households that treat voluntary retrofits as exogenous.

  15. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  16. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  17. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  18. Energy-saving behavior and marginal abatement cost for household CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Mitsutsugu

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure consumers' perceived net benefits (or net costs) of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durable goods. Using the estimated net costs and the volume of CO 2 reduced by the measures, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. An analysis using the curve suggests that in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions that can lead to CO 2 emission reductions in using energy-consuming durables, a high level of carbon price is needed. In addition, a regression analysis reveals that the net benefits of the measures are larger for households that put a higher priority on energy saving, for those living in detached houses, for those with a smaller number of persons living together, and for those with less income. The result of the analysis using the MAC curve may suggest that promoting energy-saving behavior will require not only a policy to provide economic incentives but also interventions to influence psychological factors of household behavior. - Highlights: • Consumers' perceived net costs of energy-saving measures in using energy-consuming durables are measured. • Using the estimated net costs, a marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for the average household's CO 2 emissions is produced. • A high carbon price is needed in order to provide households with an incentive to take actions for energy-savings. • Households' attributes affecting their energy-saving behavior are revealed by a regression analysis

  19. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  20. Households' willingness to pay for public housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the

  1. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Low Income Preschoolers' Non-Parental Care Experiences and Household Food Insecurity. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2012-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heflin, Colleen; Arteaga, Irma; Gable, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Rates of food insecurity in households with children have significantly increased over the past decade. The majority of children, including those at risk for food insecurity, participate in some form of non-parental child care during the preschool years. To evaluate the relationship between the two phenomenon, this study investigates the effects…

  3. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ijaz Ahmed

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  4. [Food prices in Brazil: prefer cooking to ultra-processed foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Diniz, Danielle Pereira

    2016-08-29

    This study aims to describe the prices of food groups consumed in Brazil considering the nature, extent, and purpose of their processing. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008-2009. The mean prices of the groups (natural, cooking ingredients, processed, and ultra-processed) and their respective food subgroups were estimated for Brazil according to income, region, and area. Natural products and cooking ingredients showed lower prices per calorie when compared to the other groups, suggesting an economic advantage to preparing meals at home when compared to replacing them with ultra-processed foods. Families with the highest income paid the highest prices for their food, while families in the Northeast and North regions and rural areas paid the lowest. While fresh foods (meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables) tend to cost more than ultra-processed foods, dry grains (like rice and beans) are a more economical alternative for adopting healthy eating practices.

  5. 2009 energy prices in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the natural gas price fell down in the European Union (EU). This drop was of about -5% (excluding taxes) as an average for companies, and of about -3% for households (including taxes). On the other hand, the electricity prices raised by 3% for companies and by 5% for households. In France, only the gas price for companies has dropped between 2008 and 2009. The electricity prices remain significantly lower than the EU average: -29% for companies and -30% for households. The gas price in France remains close to the European average but is significantly lower than the average price in the euro area. (J.S.)

  6. Deprivation is associated with worse physical and mental health beyond income poverty: a population-based household survey among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Chung, Gary Ka-Ki; Gordon, David; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Chan, Dicken; Lau, Maggie Ka-Wai; Tang, Vera Mun-Yu; Wong, Hung

    2018-05-14

    In studying health inequality, poverty as measured by income is frequently used; however, this omits the aspects of non-monetary resources and social barriers to achieving improved living standard. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the associations of individual-level deprivation of material and social necessities with general physical and mental health beyond that of income poverty. A territory-wide two-stage stratified random sample of 2282 community-dwelling Hong Kong adults was surveyed between 2014 and 2015. Income poverty and a Deprivation Index were used as the main independent variables. General health was assessed using the validated 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2, from which physical component summary and mental component summary were derived. Our results in multivariable ordinal logistic regressions consistently showed that, after adjusting for income poverty, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, being deprived was significantly associated with worse physical (OR 1.66; CI 1.25-2.20) and mental health (OR 1.83; CI 1.43-2.35). Being income poor was also significantly associated with worse mental health (OR 1.63; CI 1.28-2.09) but only marginally with physical health (OR 1.34; CI 1.00-1.80) after adjustments. Income does not capture all aspects of poverty that are associated with adverse health outcomes. Deprivation of non-monetary resources has an independent effect on general health above and beyond the effect of income poverty. Policies should move beyond endowment and take into account the multidimensionality of poverty, in order to address the problem of health inequality.

  7. The impacts of China’s household consumption expenditure patterns on energy demand and carbon emissions towards 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Hancheng; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru; Fujimori, Shinichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how China’s household consumption patterns over the period 2005–2050 influence the total energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in two baseline scenarios, and how it influences carbon prices as well as the economic cost in the corresponding carbon mitigation scenarios. To this end we first put forward two possible household consumption expenditure patterns up to 2050 using the Working–Leser model, taking into account total expenditure increase and urbanization. For comparison, both expenditure patterns are then incorporated in a hybrid recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The results reveal that as income level increases in the coming decades, the direct and indirect household energy requirements and CO 2 emissions would rise drastically. When household expenditure shifts from material products and transport to service-oriented goods, around 21,000 mtce of primary energy and 45 billion tons of CO 2 emissions would be saved over the 45-year period from 2005 to 2050. Moreover, carbon prices in the dematerialized mitigation scenario would fall by 13% in 2050, thus reducing the economic cost. - Highlights: ► Propose two household expenditure patterns considering income rise and urbanization. ► Much energy and CO 2 emissions would be saved in low-carbon consumption scenario. ► Carbon prices would reduce a lot in low-carbon consumption scenario.

  8. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  9. Household water treatment systems: A solution to the production of safe drinking water by the low-income communities of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, J. K.; Adeyemo, F. E.; Mahlangu, T. O.; Mamba, B. B.; Brouckaert, B. M.; Swartz, C. D.; Offringa, G.; Mpenyana-Monyatsi, L.; Momba, M. N. B.

    One of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to reduce to half by 2015 the number of people, worldwide, who lack access to safe water. Due to the numerous deaths and illnesses caused by waterborne pathogens, various household water treatment devices and safe storage technologies have been developed to treat and manage water at the household level. The new approaches that are continually being examined need to be durable, lower in overall cost and more effective in the removal of the contaminants. In this study, an extensive literature survey was conducted to regroup various household treatment devices that are suitable for the inexpensive treatment of water on a household basis. The survey has resulted in the selection of four household treatment devices: the biosand filter (BSF), bucket filter (BF), ceramic candle filter (CCF) and the silver-impregnated porous pot filter (SIPP). The first three filters were manufactured in a Tshwane University of Technology workshop, using modified designs reported in literature. The SIPP filter is a product of the Tshwane University of Technology. The performance of the four filters was evaluated in terms of flow rate, physicochemical contaminant (turbidity, fluorides, phosphates, chlorophyll a, magnesium, calcium and nitrates) and microbial contaminant ( Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae) removals. The flow rates obtained during the study period were within the recommended limits (171 l/h, 167 l/h, 6.4 l/h and 3.5 l/h for the BSF, BF, CCF and SIPP, respectively). Using standard methods, the results of the preliminary laboratory and field studies with spiked and environmental water samples indicated that all filters decreased the concentrations of contaminants in test water sources. The most efficiently removed chemical contaminant in spiked water was fluoride (99.9%) and the poorest removal efficiency was noted for magnesium (26-56%). A higher performance in chemical

  10. Demand for natural gas from industries in Brazil: an estimate of the price elasticity, income elasticity and forecast for 2008-2012 using VEC (Vector Error Correction) Model; Demanda por gas natural no Brasil: um estudo sobre as elasticidades preco e renda de longo prazo do segmento industrial e estimativa para o periodo de 2008-2012 usando modelo VEC (Vector Error Correction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Renata [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the long-run elasticities - manly price and income - of the demand for gas natural in the industrial category. After determining that the series under study were non-stationary, we chose to use the cointegration approach, estimating a Vector Error Correction Model (VEC Model). The obtained results show that the price elasticity for industrial sector in Brazil is higher than income elasticity. Although both of then is near to one, the price elasticity is higher that one unit while income elasticity is slightly lower. Predictions for the gas natural consumption in Brazil for industrials for 2008-2012 period are also made. (author)

  11. Earnings, employment and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Haas, C.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates the importance of labour earnings for income and income inequality -also among top incomes. With a focus on employees and Europe, the chapter elaborates on the relationship between the household income distribution and the individual earnings distribution. On the one hand,

  12. Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kimhi, Ayal

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyse the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favourable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducat...

  13. Perceptions of Water Pricing during a Drought: A Case Study from South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Martin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of urban and regional water consumers in three areas of South Australia on the fairness of the water pricing system, the impact of increases in water pricing on households and pricing as a driver of water conservation. The study was conducted in 2009 during a time of severe drought and mandatory water restrictions. The results did not show a general aversion to all aspects of price increases but rather different sectors of the population were particularly resistant to different, specific aspects of water pricing. A state-wide water pricing policy in South Australia means that all consumers pay the same rate per volume of water consumed regardless of their location; yet in the regional study area, where it costs more for the service provider to supply the water, the respondents had stronger feelings that the price of water should be higher in places where it costs more to supply it. Generally, low income earners were less in favor of a block pricing system than higher income earners. The latter findings indicate a common lack of awareness around various aspects of water pricing. Some implications of the findings for water managers are outlined.

  14. Reducing rural households' annual income fluctuations due to rainfall variation through diversification of wildlife use: portfolio theory in a case study of south eastern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poshiwa, X.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Annual rural incomes in Southern Africa show large rainfall-induced fluctuations. Variable rainfall has serious implications for agro-pastoral activities (crop cultivation and livestock keeping), whereas wildlife and tourism are less affected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of

  15. Costing 'healthy' food baskets in Australia - a systematic review of food price and affordability monitoring tools, protocols and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Meron; Lee, Amanda

    2016-11-01

    To undertake a systematic review to determine similarities and differences in metrics and results between recently and/or currently used tools, protocols and methods for monitoring Australian healthy food prices and affordability. Electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and online grey literature were systematically searched using the PRISMA approach for articles and reports relating to healthy food and diet price assessment tools, protocols, methods and results that utilised retail pricing. National, state, regional and local areas of Australia from 1995 to 2015. Assessment tools, protocols and methods to measure the price of 'healthy' foods and diets. The search identified fifty-nine discrete surveys of 'healthy' food pricing incorporating six major food pricing tools (those used in multiple areas and time periods) and five minor food pricing tools (those used in a single survey area or time period). Analysis demonstrated methodological differences regarding: included foods; reference households; use of availability and/or quality measures; household income sources; store sampling methods; data collection protocols; analysis methods; and results. 'Healthy' food price assessment methods used in Australia lack comparability across all metrics and most do not fully align with a 'healthy' diet as recommended by the current Australian Dietary Guidelines. None have been applied nationally. Assessment of the price, price differential and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets would provide more robust and meaningful data to inform health and fiscal policy in Australia. The INFORMAS 'optimal' approach provides a potential framework for development of these methods.

  16. A historical analysis of the evolution of the program efficiency 'Low income households consumers of electrical energy' in the interior of Sao Paulo state; Uma analise historica da evolucao da eficiencia do programa 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica' no interior do estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], e-mail: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br; Tavares, Mauricio Lopes [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Economia, Administracao e Sociologia], e-mail: mautavar@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    An analysis of the criteria used to select the beneficiaries of the federally-funded social program 'Consumidor de baixa renda de energia eletrica (Low Income Households Consumers of Electrical Energy)' in the State of Sao Paulo is presented. The study is based on statistical data obtained from the database of Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz - CPFL, one of the most important electrical energy distributor in the mentioned region. The concept of 'low income household' is also discussed, based on studies presented by IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica and by FIPE - Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, comparing the expected number of low income households with the actual number of consumers who receive the subsidy. (author)

  17. Are food and beverage purchases in households with preschoolers changing? A longitudinal analysis from 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background US dietary studies from 2003–2010 show decreases in children’s caloric intake. We examine purchases of consumer-packaged foods/beverages in the US between 2000- and 2011 among households with children ages 2–5y. Objectives Describe changes in consumer-packaged goods purchases between 2000 and 2011 after adjusting for economic indicators, and explore differences by race, education, and household income level. Methods Consumer-packaged goods purchases data were obtained for 42,753 US households with ≥1 child aged 2–5y using the Nielsen Homescan Panel. Top sources of calories purchased were grouped, and random effects regression was used to model the relationship between calories purchased from each food/beverage group and race, female head of household education, and household income. Models adjusted for household composition, market-level unemployment rate, prices, and quarter. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Results Between 2000 and 2011, adjusted total calories purchased from foods (−182 kcal/d) and beverages (−100 kcal/d) declined significantly. Decreases in purchases of milk (−40 kcal), soft drinks (−27 kcal/d), juice and juice drinks (−24 kcal/d), grain-based desserts (−24 kcal/d), savory snacks (−17 kcal/d), and sweet snacks and candy (−13 kcal/d) were among the major changes observed. There were significant differences by race, female head of household education, and household income for changes in consumer-packaged food and beverage purchases between 2000 and 2011. Conclusions Trends in consumer-packaged goods purchases suggest that solid fats and added sugars are decreasing in the food ply of US preschool children. Yet, pronounced differences by race, education, and household income persist. PMID:25049217

  18. Are Alcohol Taxation and Pricing Policies Regressive? Product-Level Effects of a Specific Tax and a Minimum Unit Price for Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-07-01

    To compare estimated effects of two policy alternatives, (i) a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol and (ii) specific (per-unit) taxation, upon current product prices, per capita spending (A$), and per capita consumption by income quintile, consumption quintile and product type. Estimation of baseline spending and consumption, and modelling policy-to-price and price-to-consumption effects of policy changes using scanner data from a panel of demographically representative Australian households that includes product-level details of their off-trade alcohol spending (n = 885; total observations = 12,505). Robustness checks include alternative price elasticities, tax rates, minimum price thresholds and tax pass-through rates. Current alcohol taxes and alternative taxation and pricing policies are not highly regressive. Any regressive effects are small and concentrated among heavy consumers. The lowest-income consumers currently spend a larger proportion of income (2.3%) on alcohol taxes than the highest-income consumers (0.3%), but the mean amount is small in magnitude [A$5.50 per week (95%CI: 5.18-5.88)]. Both a MUP and specific taxation will have some regressive effects, but the effects are limited, as they are greatest for the heaviest consumers, irrespective of income. Among the policy alternatives, a MUP is more effective in reducing consumption than specific taxation, especially for consumers in the lowest-income quintile: an estimated mean per capita reduction of 11.9 standard drinks per week (95%CI: 11.3-12.6). Policies that increase the cost of the cheapest alcohol can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, without having highly regressive effects. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Choice Options to Meet Household Food Security in the Cattle Corridor of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mbolanyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the major options adopted by households in the rangelands of Uganda to meet their food needs, the factors that affect their choices and barriers to making use of various choices. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered among 180 pastoral households in selected rangeland area of Uganda. The options identified include restocking animals, changing planting dates, soil conservation, harnessing new technologies, planting trees and buying food stuffs. Analysis of results from the multinomial logistic model indicated that age, level of education, size of household, years in current location, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership, access to extension services and climate and weather information were key determinants of farmers’ choice of options to realize household food security. The major perceived barriers to choice options were lack of information on alternative options, poor technologies, climate variability, inadequate land, high food prices and low income. The analysis of choice of options to meet household food security suggests a number of different policy options such as strengthening production facilitation options available to pastoral communities including among others access to affordable credit, investing in yield-increasing technologies, introduction of livestock species that are better suited to drier conditions, raising awareness on climate related variations, creating opportunities for off-farm employment, encouraging pastoralists to grow more crops, and investing in irrigation.

  20. Developments in Global Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Rayner; Emily Laing; Jamie Hall

    2011-01-01

    Global food prices have increased significantly since the early 2000s, reversing the long-run trend decline in relative food prices over previous decades. A range of supply disruptions in key food-producing countries have contributed to higher food prices, along with strong demand from developing countries as per capita incomes rise and consumption patterns change. Rising commodity prices are leading to higher headline consumer price inflation in many countries though, at this stage, core mea...

  1. Higher fuel and food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Maximiano, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    of Mozambique indicates that the fuel price shock dominates rising food prices from both macroeconomic and poverty perspectives. Again, negative impacts are larger in urban areas. The importance of agricultural production response in general and export response in particular is highlighted. Policy analysis...... analysis indicates that urban households and households in the southern region are more vulnerable to food price increases. Rural households, particularly in the North and Center, often benefit from being in a net seller position. Longer-term analysis using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model...

  2. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    macro-data, this paper investigates how global price changes appear to have impacted on rural welfare in Vietnam during 2006-12. In this paper we study the case of rice in Vietnam, in the context of the 2008 food price spike. We analyse the responses of domestic producer and consumer prices, and discuss......Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however...... the policy actions taken by the government to help reduce the impact on consumers, as well as to continue to encourage production. We also look at the distributional impact of the resulting domestic price changes, using data from a specialist rural household survey to look at production response. Vietnam...

  3. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  4. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S.; Shapiro, Jesse M.

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat “gas money” as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series. PMID:26937053

  5. FUNGIBILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE: EVIDENCE FROM COMMODITY PRICE SHOCKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Justine S; Shapiro, Jesse M

    2013-11-01

    We formulate a test of the fungibility of money based on parallel shifts in the prices of different quality grades of a commodity. We embed the test in a discrete-choice model of product quality choice and estimate the model using panel microdata on gasoline purchases. We find that when gasoline prices rise consumers substitute to lower octane gasoline, to an extent that cannot be explained by income effects. Across a wide range of specifications, we consistently reject the null hypothesis that households treat "gas money" as fungible with other income. We compare the empirical fit of three psychological models of decision-making. A simple model of category budgeting fits the data well, with models of loss aversion and salience both capturing important features of the time series.

  6. Determinants of Farmers’ Willingness to Pay and Its Level for Ecological Compensation of Poyang Lake Wetland, China: A Household-Level Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanbin Kong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the determinants of farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP and their payment levels for ecological compensation of the Poyang Lake Wetland in China. We developed a farmer household survey and gathered 292 effective responses. The contingent valuation method (CVM and Heckman’s two-step model were employed for the empirical study. Results show that 46.58% of farmers are willing to pay ecological compensation, with an average price of $64.39/household per year. The influencing factors that significantly influence farmers’ WTP include household income, residential location, emphasis on improvement of wetland resources, arable land area, and contracted water area. In addition, household income, residential location, arable land area, and contracted water area are significantly related to their payment levels. The results of this empirical study inform important policy implications and recommendations.

  7. What could family income be if health insurance were more affordable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard A; Devoe, Jennifer E

    2012-10-01

    Adjusted for inflation, household income has been relatively flat since the mid-1990s, but the inflation rate of employer-sponsored health insurance has been greater than both household income growth and general inflation for 50 years. We estimated the effect on average family income if health insurance inflation matched the general inflation rate since 1996, and those savings were given to employees as income. We used data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the Milliman Medical Index, and other federal sources to model the relationship between private health insurance costs and household income over the last 15 years. If the cost of family health care costs had kept pace with the Consumer Price Index (CPI) rate since 1996, the average family income could have been $8,410 higher in 2010 ($68,805 versus $60,395), 13.9% more than actual earnings. If health care costs had not exceeded the CPI rate since 1996 and if all the excess costs were converted into employee wages, median family income could be substantially higher today.

  8. Income and Wealth Distribution in a Neoclassical Two-Sector Heterogeneous-Households Growth Model with Elastic Labor Supply and Consumer Durable Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a two-sector two-group growth model with elastic labor supply and consumer durable goods. We study dynamics of wealth and income distribution in a competitive economy with capital accumulation as the main engine of economic growth. The model is built on the Uzawa two-sector model. It is also influenced by the neoclassical growth theory and the post-Keynesian theory of growth and distribution. We plot the motion of the economic system and determine the economic equilibrium. We carry out comparative dynamic analysis with regard to the propensity to save and improvements in human capital and technology.

  9. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  10. Volunteering, income and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detollenaere, Jens; Willems, Sara; Baert, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Separate literatures have related volunteering to health gains and income gains. We study the association between volunteering, income and health within one statistical framework. A state-of-the-art mediation analysis is conducted on data concerning the health, volunteering and sociodemographic characteristics of 42926 individuals within 29 European countries. We find that volunteering is positively associated to self-rated health. This association is partially mediated by household income.

  11. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce household air pollution and/or improve health in homes using solid fuel in low-and-middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Reginald; Semple, Sean; Ochieng, Caroline A; Juvekar, Sanjar; Armah, Frederick Ato; Luginaah, Isaac; Emina, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Cookstove intervention programs have been increasing over the past two (2) decades in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) across the globe. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions on household air pollution concentrations, personal exposure concentrations and health outcomes. The primary objective was to determine if household air pollution (HAP) interventions were associated with improved indoor air quality (IAQ) in households in LMICs. Given the potential impact of HAP interventions on health, a secondary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of HAP interventions to improve health in populations receiving these interventions. OVID Medline, Ovid Embase, SCOPUS and PubMED were searched from their inception until December 2015 with no restrictions on study design. The WHO Global database of household air pollution measurements and Members' archives were also reviewed together with the reference lists of identified reviews and relevant articles. We considered randomized controlled trials, or non-randomized control trials, or before-and-after studies; original studies; studies conducted in a LMIC (based on the United Nations Human Development Report released in March 2013 (World Bank, 2013); interventions that were explicitly aimed at improving IAQ and/or health from solid fuel use; studies published in a peer-reviewed journal or student theses or reports; studies that reported on outcomes which was indicative of IAQ or/and health. There was no restriction on the type of comparator (e.g. household receiving plancha vs. household using traditional cookstove) used in the intervention study. Five review authors independently used pre-designed data collection forms to extract information from the original studies and assessed risk of bias using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). We computed standardized weighted mean difference (SMD) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was computed using the Q and

  12. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  13. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  14. Retirement adequacy goals for South African households | Butler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Actuarial Journal ... Household wealth–earnings ratio goals were estimated to be between 10,5 and 18,2 times annual salary depending on retirement age, household composition, income, location, age, education, household income distribution, home ownership and salary support. Considering current ...

  15. Dynamic pricing of electricity for residential customers. The evidence from Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqui, A.; Akaba, L. [The Brattle Group, 201 Mission Street, Suite 2800, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Sergici, S. [The Brattle Group, 44 Brattle Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The rollout of smart meters has enabled the provision of dynamic pricing to residential customers. However, doubts remain whether households can respond to time-varying price signals and that is preventing the full-scale rollout of dynamic pricing and the attainment of economic efficiency. Experiments are being conducted to test price responsiveness. We analyze data from a pilot in Michigan which featured two dynamic pricing rates and an enabling technology. Unlike most other pilots, it also included a group of 'information only' customers who were provided information on time-varying prices but billed on standard rates. Similarly, unlike most other pilots, it also included two control groups, one of whom knew they were in the pilot and one of whom did not. This was designed to test for the presence of a Hawthorne effect. Consistent with the large body of experimental literature, we find that customers, including low-income participants, do respond to dynamic pricing. We also find that the response to critical peak pricing rates is similar to the response to peak time rebates, consistent with the finding of one prior experiment but inconsistent with the finding of two prior experiments. We also find that the 'information only' customers respond to the provision of pricing information but at a substantially lower rate than the customers on dynamic pricing. We find that the response to enabling technology is muted. We do not find any evidence to suggest that a Hawthorne effect existed in this experiment.

  16. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  17. Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2001-05-17

    This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and

  18. Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: the sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonathan; Sen, Anindya; Stabile, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A central parameter for evaluating tax policies is the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. But in many countries this parameter is difficult to estimate reliably due to widespread smuggling, which significantly biases estimates using legal sales data. An excellent example is Canada, where widespread smuggling in the early 1990s, in response to large tax increases, biases upwards the response of legal cigarette sales to price. We surmount this problem through two approaches: excluding the provinces and years where smuggling was greatest; and using household level expenditure data on smoking. These two approaches yield a tightly estimated elasticity in the range of -0.45 to -0.47. We also show that the sensitivity of smoking to price is much larger among lower income Canadians. In the context of recent behavioral models of smoking, whereby higher taxes reduce unwanted smoking among price sensitive populations, this finding suggests that cigarette taxes may not be as regressive as previously suggested. Finally, we show that price increases on cigarettes do not increase, and may actually decrease, consumption of alcohol; as a result, smuggling of cigarettes may have raised consumption of alcohol as well.

  19. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  20. Distributional implications of higher energy prices in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Common, M

    1985-06-01

    Results presented are consistent with the claim that higher energy prices are regressive in impact in the UK. However, the size of the impact on the worst affected is not found to be as great as might be expected. It is not at all obvious that the size of impact established is such as to justify the use of terms such as fuel poverty or arguments for the subsidization of fuels purchased by those on low incomes. This is not to say that low income households in the UK have not in the last decade had serious problems with fuel bills. The evidence of, for example, the Supplementary Benefits Commission (1979) makes it obvious that large numbers of households have experienced real problems. However, from the evidence considered here, it is reasonable to suggest that the origin of such problems lies more with the technical characteristics of the consumption act, and with institutional arrangements for payment, in respect of heating and lighting, than with impact of higher fuel prices as such. Gas and electricity consumption is not readily monitored as use occurs, and payment is often by billing well after consumption. Casual observation suggests that the difficulties with fuel bills as reported to welfare agencies are predominantly difficulties with gas and electricity bills. The results also show that of the total impact of higher energy prices on cost of living indices, only 50% arises via the consumption of fuels in the home.

  1. Growth Convergence and Spending Efficiency among Filipino Households

    OpenAIRE

    Erniel B. Barrios

    2007-01-01

    A growth model is used in the context of Sala-i-Martin’s definition of conditional convergence to assess the household income dynamics in segmented groups at the provincial level in the Philippines. There is a direct relationship between spending efficiency and income growth convergence across income groups. The lower income convergence rate among low income households can be attributed to their relatively less efficient access to the factors of production. The study provides tools in identif...

  2. Do rich households live farther away from their workplaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, Eva; Mulalic, Ismir; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2016-01-01

    One of the classic predictions of urban economic theory is that high-income and low-income households choose different residential locations and therefore, conditional on workplace location, have different commuting patterns. The effect of household income on commuting distance may be positive...

  3. The determinants of household energy demand in rural Beijing: Can environmentally friendly technologies be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingchao; Kotani, Koji

    2012-01-01

    With the recent rapid economic growth, total energy demand in rural China has increased dramatically, and the energy structure is in the transition from non-commercial to commercial sources. Simultaneously, it is expected that households in rural areas will face energy shortages and additional environmental problems unless they have more access to renewable energy technologies. However, little is known about (i) the transition of energy use patterns and (ii) whether introduced technologies have been effective. To analyze these issues, we estimated the energy demands of rural households by using survey data taken from Beijing's ten suburban districts. The data contain information on both non-commercial and commercial energy use, key characteristics of the households and several renewable energy technologies. Our empirical analysis yielded three main results. First, the per capita income is a key factor in the per capita energy consumption. More specifically, the marginal increase (or marginal change) in per capita coal consumption strongly diminishes (or declines) as per capita income increases. Second, coal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) prices do not exhibit substitution effects, but an increase in these prices has strong negative effects on the use of these energy resources. Third, renewable energy technologies are identified to reduce coal consumption and to improve energy efficiency. Overall, these findings suggest a positive perspective: if the Chinese government were to design appropriate policies associated with renewable energy technologies and related energy prices, then coal consumption can be reduced in the near future, and the substitution to cleaner energy use will accelerate. Therefore, a smooth energy transition in rural China could be made in a more environmentally sustainable manner. - Highlights: ► Energy demands of non-commercial/commercial sources are examined in rural Beijing. ► Income and energy prices are key determinants of the energy

  4. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Setting Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Participants Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Primary and secondary outcome measures Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Results Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Conclusions Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies—and research—concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. PMID:29700100

  5. Are sweet snacks more sensitive to price increases than sugar-sweetened beverages: analysis of British food purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Cornelsen, Laura; Quirmbach, Diana; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2018-04-26

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is now advocated, and implemented, in many countries as a measure to reduce the purchase and consumption of sugar to tackle obesity. To date, there has been little consideration of the potential impact that such a measure could have if extended to other sweet foods, such as confectionery, cakes and biscuits that contribute more sugar to the diet than SSBs. The objective of this study is to compare changes in the demand for sweet snacks and SSBs arising from potential price increases. Secondary data on household itemised purchases of all foods and beverages from 2012 to 2013. Representative sample of 32 249 households in Great Britain. Change in food and beverage purchases due to changes in their own price and the price of other foods or beverages measured as price elasticity of demand for the full sample and by income groups. Chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits have similar price sensitivity as SSBs, across all income groups. Unlike the case of SSBs, price increases in these categories are also likely to prompt reductions in the purchase of other sweet snacks and SSBs, which magnify the overall impact. The effects of price increases are greatest in the low-income group. Policies that lead to increases in the price of chocolate and confectionery, cakes and biscuits may lead to additional and greater health gains than similar increases in the price of SSBs through direct reductions in the purchases of these foods and possible positive multiplier effects that reduce demand for other products. Although some uncertainty remains, the associations found in this analysis are sufficiently robust to suggest that policies-and research-concerning the use of fiscal measures should consider a broader range of products than is currently the case. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  6. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...