WorldWideScience

Sample records for price system works

  1. CO-2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 4: Cargo transport - road pricing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper other financial control measures than fuel prices are considered for the transportation sector. The main effect discussed is that of the road pricing system. From the point of view of the CO 2 emission there could be introduced a registration tax for trucks over 4 tons as the higher transport expenditure would tend to reduce road transport demand. EU infrastructure tax directive however recommends taxes for trucks exceeding 12 tons. Road pricing will grow within the categories of lighter trucks but it is only a minor fraction of the total truck expenditure, taking into account fuel tax, weight tax and registration tax. Insurance cost is not included in these consideration. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 22 refs

  2. Price performance following stock's IPO in different price limit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yue; Li, Ming-Xia

    2018-01-01

    An IPO burst occurred in China's stock markets in 2015, while price limit trading rules usually help to reduce the short-term trading mania on individual stocks. It is interesting to make clear the function of the price limits after IPOs. We firstly make a statistical analysis based on all the IPO stocks listed from 1990 to 2015. A high dependency exists between the activities in stock's IPO and various market environment. We also focus on the price dynamics in the first 40 trading days after the stock listed. We find that price limit system will delay the price movement, especially for the up-trend movements, which may lead to longer continuous price limit hits. Similar to our previous work, many results such as ;W; shape can be also observed in the future daily return after the price limit open. At last, we find most IPO measures show evident correlations with the following price limit hits. IPO stocks with lower first-day turnover and earning per share will be followed with a longer continuous price limit hits and lower future daily return under the newest trading rules, which give us a good way to estimate the occurrence of price limit hits and the following price dynamics. Our analysis provides a better understanding of the price dynamics after IPO events and offers potential practical values for investors.

  3. Uranium price reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the systems for uranium price reporting currently available to the uranium industry. The report restricts itself to prices for U 3 O 8 natural uranium concentrates. Most purchases of natural uranium by utilities, and sales by producers, are conducted in this form. The bulk of uranium in electricity generation is enriched before use, and is converted to uranium hexafluoride, UF 6 , prior to enrichment. Some uranium is traded as UF 6 or as enriched uranium, particularly in the 'secondary' market. Prices for UF 6 and enriched uranium are not considered directly in this report. However, where transactions in UF 6 influence the reported price of U 3 O 8 this influence is taken into account. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms uranium and natural uranium used here refer exclusively to U 3 O 8 . (author)

  4. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  5. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  6. TRANSFER PRICING AS A SYSTEM-FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Guisin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that transfer pricing plays a system-building role for multi-profile commercial banks of today. Bank transfer pricing system properties are outlined. Examples of practical implementation of the transfer pricing to bank activities are brought about. Impact of transferprices on key aspects of the bank management and control system is discussed.

  7. Electricity pricing and management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawal, D.M.; Bajapai, Ashok

    1997-01-01

    The installed capacity of power generation in India is at present 80,000 MW. Out of the total 5.79 lakh inhabitated villages in the country, 4.79 villages have been electrified so far. Total number of consumers of electricity are about 95 million in the country. For such a large country with population of over 900 million and area of 32.873 lakh sq. kms., the role of electricity pricing and management system of the power sector is of paramount importance

  8. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  9. Nodal price volatility reduction and reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, L.; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    With the development of restructured power systems, the conventional 'same for all customers' electricity price is getting replaced by nodal prices. Electricity prices will fluctuate with time and nodes. In restructured power systems, electricity demands will interact mutually with prices. Customers may shift some of their electricity consumption from time slots of high electricity prices to those of low electricity prices if there is a commensurate price incentive. The demand side load shift will influence nodal prices in return. This interaction between demand and price can be depicted using demand-price elasticity. This paper proposes an evaluation technique incorporating the impact of the demand-price elasticity on nodal prices, system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. In this technique, demand and price correlations are represented using the demand-price elasticity matrix which consists of self/cross-elasticity coefficients. Nodal prices are determined using optimal power flow (OPF). The OPF and customer damage functions (CDFs) are combined in the proposed reliability evaluation technique to assess the reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is simulated to illustrate the developed techniques. The simulation results show that demand-price elasticity reduces the nodal price volatility and improves both the system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. Demand-price elasticity can therefore be utilized as a possible efficient tool to reduce price volatility and to enhance the reliability of restructured power systems. (author)

  10. What Factors Affect the Prices of Low-Priced U.S. Solar PV Systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mercator Research Inst. on Global Commons and Climate Change, Berlin (Germany); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The price of solar PV systems has declined rapidly, yet there are some much lower-priced systems than others. This study explores the factors leading some systems to be so much lower priced than others. Using a data set of 42,611 residential-scale PV systems installed in the U.S. in 2013, we use quantile regressions to estimate the importance of factors affecting the installed prices for low-priced (LP) systems (those at the 10th percentile) in comparison to median-priced systems. We find that the value of solar to consumers–a variable that accounts for subsidies, electric rates, and PV generation levels–is associated with lower prices for LP systems but higher prices for median priced systems. Conversely, systems installed in new home construction are associated with lower prices at the median but higher prices for LP. Other variables have larger cost-reducing effects on LP than on median priced systems: systems installed in Arizona and Florida, as well as commercial and thin film systems. In contrast, the following have a smaller effect on prices for LP systems than median priced systems: tracking systems, self-installations, systems installed in Massachusetts, the system size, and installer experience. These results highlight the complex factors at play that lead to LP systems and shed light into how such LP systems can come about.

  11. Alternative Strategies for Pricing Home Work Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Bryant, W. Keith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses techniques for measuring the value of home work time. Estimates obtained using the reservation wage technique are contrasted with market alternative estimates derived with the same data set. Findings suggest that the market alternative cost method understates the true value of a woman's home time to the household. (JOW)

  12. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  13. Information pricing based on trusted system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zehua; Zhang, Nan; Han, Hongfeng

    2018-05-01

    Personal information has become a valuable commodity in today's society. So our goal aims to develop a price point and a pricing system to be realistic. First of all, we improve the existing BLP system to prevent cascading incidents, design a 7-layer model. Through the cost of encryption in each layer, we develop PI price points. Besides, we use association rules mining algorithms in data mining algorithms to calculate the importance of information in order to optimize informational hierarchies of different attribute types when located within a multi-level trusted system. Finally, we use normal distribution model to predict encryption level distribution for users in different classes and then calculate information prices through a linear programming model with the help of encryption level distribution above.

  14. Management control as basis for a transfer pricing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.; Van Dam, Harmen; Casna, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The chapter documents the contribution to a international seminar on transfer pricing. The chapter describes how key management concepts can contribute to shaping transfer pricing systems and defining transfer pricing methods.

  15. Development of Low Price Turbine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, C.K.; Kim, J.A.; Jeong, W.J.; Choi, I.K.; Woo, J.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report is final research results of ''Development of Low Price Turbine Control System''. It describes test such as turbine startup, generator synchronization, rated load operation, simulation after manufacturing turbine control system. (author). 45 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  17. Report of the work-group on oil price volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed analysis of the past and possible evolution of oil markets in terms of price volatility, financial strategies and pricing. It discusses current reflections and actions aiming at improving oil market operation: the Joint Oil Data Initiative or JODI for oil data transparency, the works of the International Energy Forum (IEF), and the conceivable reforms of the oil financial markets. Then, it proposes and discusses four main strategic orientations for a better knowledge of oil markets by France and the improvement of their operation and transparency: to support IEF initiatives, to apply to oil financial markets the global orientations defined by the G20, to set additional specific rules, and to propose a true oil strategy for the European Union. These orientations are then broken up in 22 propositions

  18. Pricing strategies for capitated delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Leonard; Wallack, Stanley S.; Tompkins, Christopher P.

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses alternative methods for establishing a fairer pricing mechanism for Medicare recipients who enroll in health maintenance organizations and other competitive medical plans. The current method, based upon the adjusted average per capita cost, is inadequate because it fails to adjust premium levels for differences in health status; it establishes undesirable incentives that may lead to underservice, and it is tied to costs in the fee-for-service system. Alternative methods would incorporate health status, have Medicare share the risk with HMO's, and base payment on HMO experience. PMID:10311925

  19. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 2. Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wals, A.F.; Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured transmission price response model presented in the first of this two-paper series considers the expectations of oligopolistic generators regarding how demands for transmission services affect the prices of those services. Here, the model is applied to northwest Europe, simulating a mixed transmission pricing system including export fees, a path-based auction system for between-country interfaces, and implicit congestion-based pricing of internal country constraints. The path-based system does not give credit for counterflows when calculating export capability. The application shows that this no-netting policy can exacerbate the economic inefficiencies caused by oligopolistic pricing by generators. The application also illustrates the effects of different generator conjectures regarding rival supply responses and transmission prices. If generators anticipate that their increased demand for transmission services will increase transmission prices, then competitive intensity diminishes and energy prices rise. In the example here, the effect of this anticipation is to double the price increase that results from oligopolistic (Cournot) competition among generators

  20. THE CONCEPT OF TRANSFER PRICING SYSTEM IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey S. Besfamilnyy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the author's denition of transfer prices and transfer pricing based on the analysis of the current legislation in Russia as well as on current economic practice. Considered state regulation of transfer pricing for the purpose of harmonization of relationship between government and business. Given the denition of the transfer pricing system in Russian Federation and the description of its main parts and connections between them, necessary for effective functioning.

  1. Strategic Generation with Conjectured Transmission Price Responses in a Mixed Transmission Pricing System. Part 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2004-05-01

    The conjectured supply function (CSF) model calculates an oligopolistic equilibrium among competing generating companies (GenCos), presuming that GenCos anticipate that rival firms will react to price increases by expanding their sales at an assumed rate. The CSF model is generalized here to include each generator's conjectures concerning how the price of transmission services (point-to-point service and constrained interfaces) will be affected by the amount of those services that the generator demands. This generalization reflects the market reality that large producers will anticipate that they can favorably affect transmission prices by their actions. The model simulates oligopolistic competition among generators while simultaneously representing a mixed transmission pricing system. This mixed system includes fixed transmission tariffs, congestion-based pricing of physical transmission constraints (represented as a linearized dc load flow), and auctions of interface capacity in a path-based pricing system. Pricing inefficiencies, such as export fees and no credit for counterflows, can be simulated. The model is formulated as a linear mixed complementarity problem, which enables very large market models to be solved. In the second paper of this two-paper series, the capabilities of the model are illustrated with an application to northwest Europe, where transmission pricing is based on such a mixture of approaches

  2. A Study on Rational Pricing System for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Reasonable pricing of water can induce optimal water use by the public by relaying the considerable costs of water provision and plays an important role of providing a basic scheme for the reasonable management of water. This study provides a reasonable pricing scheme of water that reflects the economic and social values of water as a resource by investigating reasonable bulk-water pricing and retail-water pricing. For bulk pricing, the study discuss the range of costs to be covered, design of efficient pricing structures(differentiated by source quality, loss ratios and time year), and sharing efficient costs between beneficiaries (customer groups and regions). The study also addresses the adjustment of present charging schemes for bulk water such as charges for bulk water from dam, abstraction charges, and river charges etc. Factoring in demand and available resource characteristics, the differentiated pricing mechanism is also investigated. The study proposes a differentiated pricing mechanism based on season, where the pricing structure reflects the cost structure related to fluctuated demand. In addition, implementation methods and effects of introducing seasonal pricing scheme are discussed. Another seasonal pricing mechanism, the seasonally differentiated pricing scheme in bulk pricing reflects a cost structure related to resource availability, is also investigated. Increasing block rate as a reasonable pricing scheme for water conservation, and priority pricing as a tool socially desirable water allocation in the case water shortage are designed. for practical implementation of pricing scheme, several issues are discussed: identification and calculation of costs that should be covered and the structure of costs as a basis of differentiated pricing scheme, issue of forecasting, and practical that could be happen in the implementation of increasing block rate and seasonal pricing schemes, etc. Institutional systems that implement the proposed pricing schemes

  3. Design and implementation of ticket price forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuling; Li, Zhichao

    2018-05-01

    With the advent of the aviation travel industry, a large number of data mining technologies have been developed to increase profits for airlines in the past two decades. The implementation of the digital optimization strategy leads to price discrimination, for example, similar seats on the same flight are purchased at different prices, depending on the time of purchase, the supplier, and so on. Price fluctuations make the prediction of ticket prices have application value. In this paper, a combination of ARMA algorithm and random forest algorithm is proposed to predict the price of air ticket. The experimental results show that the model is more reliable by comparing the forecasting results with the actual results of each price model. The model is helpful for passengers to buy tickets and to save money. Based on the proposed model, using Python language and SQL Server database, we design and implement the ticket price forecasting system.

  4. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  5. PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE COMPONENT PRICING SYSTEMS FOR PORK

    OpenAIRE

    Brorsen, B. Wade; Akridge, Jay T.; Boland, Michael A.; Mauney, Sean; Forrest, John C.

    1998-01-01

    One method of implementing value-based marketing is a component pricing system. This research develops and evaluates alternative component pricing systems for pork. Two electronic technologies for estimating carcass components (optical probe and electromagnetic scanner) were evaluated on two sets of data representing different populations. Model accuracy increased as additional components were added.

  6. IMO and stakeholders looking for improvements: Pricing system under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    Changing the way of how Ontario's electric market clearing price is established has been announced by the Independent Market Operator, in response to excessive price fluctuations following deregulation, and in spite of the considerable concern about how any change to the pricing system might affect investor confidence. To tackle the issue, an internal team was formed, with input to this team through the IMO's Marker Operations Standing Committee. The following pricing issues are considered to be in need of attention: (1) the discrepancy between real-time prices and published pre-dispatch prices; (2) the difference between prices paid for imported power and domestic power during times of shortage; (3) the inclusion of various factors, such as the additional cost of imported power in non-competitive parts of energy bills known as 'uplift charges'; (4) the failure of the market clearing price to reflect the value of power; (5) the use of non-market procedures that have an effect on price; and (6) adjustments to the offer stack designed to reduce volatility during ramp-up periods. The IMO emphasized its keen awareness of how much investor confidence is predicated on the assumption that market conditions alone will determine prices. Accordingly, its actions are guided strictly by the desire to support reliability and are not intended to be seen as intervening in the competitive market

  7. Simulation of hybrid renewable microgeneration systems for variable electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandoni, C.; Renzi, M.; Caresana, F.; Polonara, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP) unit and a solar energy conversion device. In addition to a traditional PV system, a High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) device, the design of which is suitable for building integration application, was also modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. The work identifies the optimal management strategies for the hybrid renewable system in an effort to minimise the primary energy usage, the carbon dioxide emissions and the operational costs for variable electricity prices that result from the day-ahead electricity market. An “ad hoc” model describes the performance of the HCPV module, PV and Internal Combustion Engine, whilst the other units were simulated based on their main characteristic parameters. The developed algorithm was applied to three different building typologies. The results indicate that the best configuration is the hybrid renewable system with PV, which can provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. The hybrid renewable system with HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology when the level of solar radiation is high. - Highlights: • The paper addresses a hybrid renewable system that consists of a micro-CCHP unit and a solar energy conversion device. • Both PV and High Concentrator Photovoltaic (HCPV) systems have been modelled and embedded in the hybrid system. • The work identifies the optimal management strategies for variable electricity prices. • Hybrid renewable systems provide a yearly primary energy reduction of between 20% and 30% compared to separate production. • When the level of solar radiation is high, HCPV becomes competitive with the PV technology

  8. Pricing Strategy and Quick Response Adoption System with Strategic Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the competitive advantage of a quick response (QR system when a firm faces forward-looking customers with heterogeneous and uncertain valuations for a product, uncertain demand, and two selling periods. We identify two classes of pricing strategies, namely, no-price commitment strategy and price commitment strategy. Interestingly, the unique equilibrium is proven to exist if and only if most customers have high tastes on a product’s value. We also prove that when customers possess beliefs about the markdown in the second period being smaller enough, a firm obtains a high profit with price commitment; otherwise he obtains a high profit without price commitment. Moreover, we distinguish the competitive advantage of a QR system from two strategies. When a firm uses no-price commitment strategy, the value of QR system in the first period decreases and in the second period increases with customer’s strategic behavior. When a firm provides price commitment, the value of QR system in the first period may increase, decrease, or decrease first and then increase with customer’s strategic behavior. And the value of QR in the second period under price commitment strategy decreases or rises first and then decreases with customer’s strategic behavior.

  9. Optimal Energy Management for the Integrated Power and Gas Systems via Real-time Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, KangAn; Ai, Xiaomeng; Wen, Jinyu

    2018-01-01

    This work proposed a bi-level formulation for energy management in the integrated power and natural gas system via real-time price signals. The upper-level problem minimizes the operational cost, in which dynamic electricity price and dynamic gas tariff are proposed. The lower level problem...... and P2Gs plants follow the system operator’s preferences such as wind power accommodation, mitigation of unsupplied load and relieving the network congestion....

  10. Modeling transport pricing with multiple stakeholders. Working paper : Methodology and a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pricing measures (e.g., a kilometre charge or cordon toll) are used to improve the external effects of transportation (e.g., congestion or emissions). This working paper presents a planning model for pricing while taking the preferences and interactions of multiple stakeholders (e.g., governments or

  11. Overview of external reference pricing systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Mzoughi, Olfa; El Hammi, Emna; Belgaied, Wael; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    External reference pricing (ERP) is a price regulation tool widely used by policy makers in the European Union (EU) Member States (MS) to contain drug cost, although in theory, it may contribute to modulate prices up and down. The objective of this article was to summarise and discuss the main findings of part of a large project conducted for the European Commission ('External reference pricing of medicinal products: simulation-based considerations for cross-country coordination'; see www.ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/docs/erp_reimbursement_medicinal_products_en.pdf) that aimed to provide an overview of ERP systems, both on processes and potential issues in 31 European countries (28 EU MS, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland). A systematic structured literature review was conducted to identify and characterise the use of ERP in the selected countries, to describe its impact on the prices of pharmaceuticals, and to discuss the possible cross-country coordination issues in EU MS. This research was complemented with a consultation of competent authorities' and international organisations' representatives to address the main issues or uncertainties identified through the literature review. All selected countries applied ERP, except the United Kingdom and Sweden. Twenty-three countries used ERP as the main systematic criterion for pricing. In the majority of European countries, ERP was based on legislated pricing rules with different levels of accuracy. ERP was applied either for all marketed drugs or for specific categories of medicines; it was mainly used for publicly reimbursed medicines. The number of reference countries included in the basket varied from 1 to 31. There was a great variation in the calculation methods used to compute the price; 15 countries used the average price, 7 countries used the lowest price, and 7 countries used other calculation methods. Reported limitations of ERP application included the lack of reliable sources of price information, price

  12. Innovations in pricing of transportation systems : theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This report summarizes results from the conference titled Innovations in Pricing of : Transportation Systems on May 12 14, 2010 at the Royal Plaza Hotel in Orlando, Florida. : The primary objective of the conference is to bring together pra...

  13. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  14. Challenges in Defense Working Capital Fund Pricing: Analysis of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Edward

    2003-01-01

    ... $2 billion in expenditures per year, DFAS itself is a sizable portion of the DoD infrastructure Second, we believe the pricing issues that DFAS confronts are similar to those faced by other Defense Working Capital Fund (DWCF...

  15. Analysis for Embedded Systems: Experiments with Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovatman, Tolga; Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    costs of those models. In order to achieve this, a basic model is built using priced timed automata and some resource consumption scenarios are verified. Even though the experiments are performed on small and basic models, we believe we have taken a basis step in showing that it is promising to use...... priced timed automata and Uppaal Cora as a model checking tool in reasoning about resource consumption of embedded systems....

  16. Maintenance work management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Nishino, M.; Takeshige, R.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance work management system supports the efficient drawing up of various documents for the maintenance work at nuclear power stations and the speeding up of the permission procedure. In addition, it improves the quality assurance of the safety and reliability of the maintenance work. Key merits of the system are: 1. Efficiently drawing up various documents for the maintenance work by using the stored data for the previous maintenance work and the pipe and instrument diagram (P and ID) data. 2. Supporting the management work for the completion of maintenance work safety by using the isolation information stored on the computer system. 3. Speeding up the permission procedure by electronic mail and electronic permission. 4. Displaying additional information such as the specifications of equipment, maintenance result, and maintenance plan by linking up with the database of another system. 5. Reducing the cost of hardware devices by using client/server network configurations of personal computers and a personal computer server. (author)

  17. Application of Impulse Control in Smart Grid Price System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the development of smart grid, flexible and interactive electricity market will finally emerge. Making full use of price can encourage consumers to use electricity during a low load period and reduce peak load, thus to guarantee electricity market stability. Impulse control is applied to price system in this paper. It is found that giving impulse control to price system can make the system reach stable state well, which is based on the theory of impulsive differential system. The sufficient condition for stable system and the max upper bound of impulse interval are also provided. The proposed method is proved to be feasible and effective by theoretically analysis and numerical simulation.

  18. Energy Prices and Internal Costs in Croatian Energy System Restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V. , Magdic, M.

    1995-01-01

    After social and political changes in 1990, energy prices in Croatia have been getting closer to the West European averages, faster than in the most European countries in transition. The energy prices for industry are almost at the West European level, while the energy prices of electricity and natural gas for households and those of the gasoline are well behind. If the population purchasing power parity (PPP) is taken into account, these relations change. While the internalization of external energy costs is under way in the developed world, it has not practically started yet in Croatia. The Croatian energy system restructuring shall require gradual adjustment of energy prices, together with multistage internalization of external energy costs. (author). 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  19. The impact of alternative pricing methods for drugs in California Workers’ Compensation System: Fee-schedule pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leslie; Turkistani, Fatema A.; Huang, Wei; Tran, Dang M.; Lin, Tracy Kuo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction California’s Workers’ Compensation System (CAWCS) Department of Industrial Relations questioned the adequacy of the current Medi-Cal fee-schedule pricing and requested analysis of alternatives that maximize price availability and maintain budget neutrality. Objectives To compare CAWCS pharmacy-dispensed (PD) drug prices under alternative fee schedules, and identify combinations of alternative benchmarks that have prices available for the largest percentage of PD drugs and that best reach budget neutrality. Methods Claims transaction-level data (2011–2013) from CAWCS were used to estimate total annual PD pharmaceutical payments. Medi-Cal pricing data was from the Workman’s Compensation Insurance System (WCIS). Average Wholesale Prices (AWP), Wholesale Acquisition Costs (WAC), Direct Prices (DP), Federal Upper Limit (FUL) prices, and National Average Drug Acquisition Costs (NADAC) were from Medi-Span. We matched National Drug Codes (NDCs), pricing dates, and drug quantity for comparisons. We report pharmacy-dispensed (PD) claims frequency, reimbursement matching rate, and paid costs by CAWCS as the reference price against all alternative price benchmarks. Results Of 12,529,977 CAWCS claims for pharmaceutical products 11.6% (1,462,814) were for PD drugs. Prescription drug cost for CAWCS was over $152M; $63.9M, $47.9M, and $40.6M in 2011–2013. Ninety seven percent of these CAWCS PD claims had a Medi-Cal price. Alternative mechanisms provided a price for fewer claims; NADAC 94.23%, AWP 90.94%, FUL 73.11%, WAC 66.98%, and DP 14.33%. Among CAWCS drugs with no Medi-Cal price in PD claims, AWP, WAC, NADAC, DP, and FUL provided prices for 96.7%, 63.14%, 24.82%, 20.83%, and 15.08% of claims. Overall CAWCS paid 100.52% of Medi-Cal, 60% of AWP, 97% of WAC, 309.53% of FUL, 103.83% of DP, and 136.27% of NADAC. Conclusions CAWCS current Medi-Cal fee-schedule price list for PD drugs is more complete than all alternative fee-schedules. However, all

  20. The impact of alternative pricing methods for drugs in California Workers' Compensation System: Fee-schedule pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leslie; Turkistani, Fatema A; Huang, Wei; Tran, Dang M; Lin, Tracy Kuo

    2018-01-01

    California's Workers' Compensation System (CAWCS) Department of Industrial Relations questioned the adequacy of the current Medi-Cal fee-schedule pricing and requested analysis of alternatives that maximize price availability and maintain budget neutrality. To compare CAWCS pharmacy-dispensed (PD) drug prices under alternative fee schedules, and identify combinations of alternative benchmarks that have prices available for the largest percentage of PD drugs and that best reach budget neutrality. Claims transaction-level data (2011-2013) from CAWCS were used to estimate total annual PD pharmaceutical payments. Medi-Cal pricing data was from the Workman's Compensation Insurance System (WCIS). Average Wholesale Prices (AWP), Wholesale Acquisition Costs (WAC), Direct Prices (DP), Federal Upper Limit (FUL) prices, and National Average Drug Acquisition Costs (NADAC) were from Medi-Span. We matched National Drug Codes (NDCs), pricing dates, and drug quantity for comparisons. We report pharmacy-dispensed (PD) claims frequency, reimbursement matching rate, and paid costs by CAWCS as the reference price against all alternative price benchmarks. Of 12,529,977 CAWCS claims for pharmaceutical products 11.6% (1,462,814) were for PD drugs. Prescription drug cost for CAWCS was over $152M; $63.9M, $47.9M, and $40.6M in 2011-2013. Ninety seven percent of these CAWCS PD claims had a Medi-Cal price. Alternative mechanisms provided a price for fewer claims; NADAC 94.23%, AWP 90.94%, FUL 73.11%, WAC 66.98%, and DP 14.33%. Among CAWCS drugs with no Medi-Cal price in PD claims, AWP, WAC, NADAC, DP, and FUL provided prices for 96.7%, 63.14%, 24.82%, 20.83%, and 15.08% of claims. Overall CAWCS paid 100.52% of Medi-Cal, 60% of AWP, 97% of WAC, 309.53% of FUL, 103.83% of DP, and 136.27% of NADAC. CAWCS current Medi-Cal fee-schedule price list for PD drugs is more complete than all alternative fee-schedules. However, all reimbursement approaches would require combinations of pricing benchmarks

  1. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  2. Pricing Analysis in Geo/Geo/1 Queueing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the equilibrium behavior of customers and optimal pricing strategies of servers in a Geo/Geo/1 queueing system. Two common pricing mechanisms are considered. The first one is called ex-post payment (EPP scheme where the server collects tolls proportional to queue times, and the second one is called ex-ante payment (EAP scheme where the server charges a flat fee for the total service. The server sets the toll price to maximize its own profit. It is found that, under a customer’s choice equilibrium, the two toll mechanisms are equivalent from the economic point of view. Finally, we present several numerical experiments to investigate the effects of system parameters on the equilibrium customer joining rate and servers’ profits.

  3. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  4. Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Domain Knowledge on Recall for Grocery Prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Douglas; Gardner, Michael K; Woltz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Hambrick and Engle (2002) proposed 3 models of how domain knowledge and working memory capacity may work together to influence episodic memory: a "rich-get-richer" model, a "building blocks" model, and a "compensatory" model. Their results supported the rich-get-richer model, although later work by Hambrick and Oswald (2005) found support for a building blocks model. We investigated the effects of domain knowledge and working memory on recall of studied grocery prices. Working memory was measured with 3 simple span tasks. A contrast of realistic versus fictitious foods in the episodic memory task served as our manipulation of domain knowledge, because participants could not have domain knowledge of fictitious food prices. There was a strong effect for domain knowledge (realistic food-price pairs were easier to remember) and a moderate effect for working memory capacity (higher working memory capacity produced better recall). Furthermore, the interaction between domain knowledge and working memory produced a small but significant interaction in 1 measure of price recall. This supported the compensatory model and stands in contrast to previous research.

  5. Do Price Incentives Work in Incomplete Food Agricultural Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... in rural agricultural marketing systems by examining issues in ... tool requires both medium – and long-term state-led investments ... food needs, food productivity is still considered low due to low returns on farmer-output.

  6. Consistent Price Systems in Multiasset Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Maris

    2012-01-01

    markets with proportional transaction costs as discussed in the recent paper by Guasoni et al. (2008, where the CFS property is introduced and shown sufficient for CPSs for processes with certain state space. The current paper extends the results in the work of Guasoni et al. (2008, to processes with more general state space.

  7. Imports, exports, and Alberta's transmission system impact on price fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.

    2002-01-01

    The roles, responsibilities and objectives of ESBI, a private for-profit company, appointed by the Alberta Government to be the Independent Transmission Administrator in the province, is sketched, prior to a discussion of price volatility in electricity, Alberta interconnections, intertie issues, the economic theory and the reality impact on prices. Given that imports and exports constitute a relatively small proportion of total generation or load in Alberta, price volatility is considered to have been only minimally affected by imports/exports. In contrast, transmission constraints, i.e. the limits on physical capacity of the existing transmission system to accommodate all desired transactions, have significant impact on imports/exports. Factors underlying constraints and price volatility such as uncertainty of generation dispatch, leading to reduced interest to invest, which in turn leads to scarce capacity for imports/exports, and the actions required to reduce uncertainty and address other issues such as congestion management, tariff design and the creation of regional transmission organizations, are also discussed to provide further clarification of the issues. It is suggested that these and other related issues need to be resolved to provide the clarity around transmission access and the tools required to manage price fluctuations

  8. Photovoltaic system and components price development in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Schoen, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Market inventories have been made since fall 2011 for modules, inverters, and systems that are available for purchase in the Netherlands to provide the fast growing Dutch market with proper market information. The most recent inventory was made in December 2016. After the drop in module price in

  9. Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion management in electrical power systems via nodal prices. We develop a dynamic controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow constraints in

  10. Activity-based costing for pathology examinations and comparison with the current pricing system in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Ferda A K; Ağirbaş, Ismail; Kuzu, Işınsu

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the real cost data of the pathology examinations by using the activity-based costing method and to contribute to the financial planning of the departments, health managers and also the social security institution. Forty-four examinations selected from the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list and performed at the Ankara University Faculty of Medicine Pathology Department during September 2010 were studied. The analysis and the real cost calculations were done according to the duration of the procedures. Calculated costs were compared with the Healthcare Implementation Notification system and Medicare price lists. The costs of the pathology tests listed within the same pricing levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system list showed great differences. The minimum and maximum costs in level 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 15,98-80,15 TL, 15,95-258,59 TL, 42,38- 236,87 TL, and 124,42-406,76 TL, respectively. Medicare price levels were more consistent with the real costs of the examinations compared to the Healthcare Implementation Notification system price list. The prices of the pathology examination listed at different levels in the Healthcare Implementation Notification system lists do not cover the real costs of the work done. The principal parameters of Activity-Based Costing system are more suitable for making the most realistic cost categorization. Although the prices could differ between countries, the Medicare system categories are more realistic than the Healthcare Implementation Notification system. The Healthcare Implementation Notification system list needs to be revised in order to reflect the real costs of the pathology examinations.

  11. Considering system non-linearity in transmission pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Salehizadeh, M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The contribution of a contract on power flow of a transmission line is used as extent-of-use criterion for transmission pricing. In order to determine the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line, first the contribution of each contract on each voltage angle is determined, which is called voltage angle decomposition. To this end, DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for voltage angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on voltage angle decomposition, a method is presented to determine the share of different terms of sine argument in sine value. Then the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow using the presented sharing method. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system and the results are analyzed. (author)

  12. Carbon price signal. Impact Analysis on the European Electricity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement signed by 195 countries late in December 2015, after COP 21, created a new basis for efficient cooperation between countries in the fight against climate change. The technologies being rolled out by the electricity sector will have very different impacts on climate change and, for the time being, investments other than public aid for renewable energies are being guided primarily by prices. To shed more slight on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions, which is closely related to the challenges addressed at COP21, RTE initiated a study in 2015 based on the models used in its Generation Adequacy Report. ADEME wanted to contribute to this effort and offer its support. The present document outlines the approach taken to assessing the impact of the carbon price signal on emissions from the European electric power system, its production costs and its structural evolution over the medium term. This approach was discussed with members of the 'Network Outlook Committee' of the Transmission System Users' Committee which includes environmental NGOs as well as the main economic actors from the power sector. Key findings resulting from the analysis developed in this report include: Simulations conducted with the current generation fleet show that the carbon price would have to be close to euro 30/tonne at the European level to drive a significant reduction in emissions (about 100 million tonnes a year, or 15 %) from the European power sector. A higher price of about euro 100/tonne would help drive an emissions reduction of close to 30%. Over the medium and long terms, beyond an impact on the number of hours fossil fuel power plants would be run, having a high carbon price would send a signal encouraging investment in renewable energies and could incentivise the development of flexible and storage capacity. It would notably guarantee the profitability of gas-fired plants and renewable power development. The following assumptions are factored into the study

  13. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV el ) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV el of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV el (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV el of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV el of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  14. Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.

  15. 78 FR 10579 - TRICARE Revision to CHAMPUS DRG-Based Payment System, Pricing of Hospital Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... 0720-AB58 TRICARE Revision to CHAMPUS DRG-Based Payment System, Pricing of Hospital Claims AGENCY... change TRICARE's current regulatory provision for hospital claims priced under the DRG-based payment... under the DRG- based payment system from the beneficiary's date of admission, to pricing such claims...

  16. Power systems locational marginal pricing in deregulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Fung Francis

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, the electricity business is transforming from a vertical integrating business to a competitive market operations. The generation, transmission, distribution subsystem of an electricity utility are operated independently as Genco (generation subsystem), Transco (transmission subsystem), and Distco (distribution subsystem). This trend promotes more economical inter- and intra regional transactions to be made by the participating companies and the users of electricity to achieve the intended objectives of deregulation. There are various types of electricity markets that are implemented in the North America in the past few years. However, transmission congestion management becomes a key issue in the electricity market design as more bilateral transactions are traded across long distances competing for scarce transmission resources. It directly alters the traditional concept of energy pricing and impacts the bottom line, revenue and cost of electricity, of both suppliers and buyers. In this research, transmission congestion problem in a deregulated market environment is elucidated by implementing by the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) method. With a comprehensive understanding of the LMP method, new mathematical tools will aid electric utilities in exploring new business opportunities are developed and presented in this dissertation. The dissertation focuses on the development of concept of (LMP) forecasting and its implication to the market participants in deregulated market. Specifically, we explore methods of developing fast LMP calculation techniques that are differ from existing LMPs. We also explore and document the usefulness of the proposed LMP in determining electricity pricing of a large scale power system. The developed mathematical tools use of well-known optimization techniques such as linear programming that are support by several flow charts. The fast and practical security constrained unit commitment methods are the

  17. Deregulation and pricing in a hydro electric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoea, P.; Livik, K.; Wangensteen, I.

    1992-01-01

    In line with the current development in some European countries, notably the UK and the Netherlands, deregulation and market competition has been introduced in Norwegian electricity supply in order to improve the economic efficiency of the system. The legal basis for the introduction is the new Norwegian Energy Act that was approved in the Storting (parliament) in June 1990 and came legally into effect on January 1, 1991. This paper deals with the organizational structure, the price formation in the wholesale market, and the tariffs and metering equipment that are being developed to meet the needs of the customers and the utilities in this new situation. (author)

  18. Determinants of the energy price system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, P.

    1983-01-01

    The seven theses presented in this article are to illustrate some basic determinants of the West German energy price system systematically and - at present mainly - empirically. The theses are related to the following sub-aspects: - relation between the consumption structure of primary energy and the heat-price relations, - influence of energy imports on the domestic energy price level, - existence and dimensions of differential revenues, - reproaches of bulling made to the petroleum industry, - extent and development of the differentiation of energy prices, - influence of governmental interventions on the energy price level, - theoretical price fixing principles and actual tariff policy.

  19. TECHNOLOGY FORMING PRICE DISTRIBUTION OF FINISHED GOODS OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics has developed a number of areas of the system for controlling the distribution of finished products. However, in domestic and foreign economic literature the mechanisms of logistics approach are not sufficient to provide higher sales of enterprise-producers, that have sales in remote areas. In this study, first, the importance of company-producers and end-users the methods of rational delivery of finished products is considered, and secondly, the approaches to defining the essence and content of the concept of «distribution» are given, in the third, the logistics processes of the distribution system ready products of a particular company-producer are described, fourthly, the technology of one price product delivery was developed and it was shown the economic efficiency (the possible results of the solution of the problem of distribution logistics of its application in the target company. The study showed that there is an opportunity, based on the development and implementation of technologies to reduce the final price of the goods, to develop the company and increase its competitiveness by minimizing costs and increasing return on investment. The results of research extend the knowledge of methodology of system logistics management in the enterprise.

  20. Price-based Optimal Control of Electrical Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokic, A.

    2007-09-10

    The research presented in this thesis is motivated by the following issue of concern for the operation of future power systems: Future power systems will be characterized by significantly increased uncertainties at all time scales and, consequently, their behavior in time will be difficult to predict. In Chapter 2 we will present a novel explicit, dynamic, distributed feedback control scheme that utilizes nodal-prices for real-time optimal power balance and network congestion control. The term explicit means that the controller is not based on solving an optimization problem on-line. Instead, the nodal prices updates are based on simple, explicitly defined and easily comprehensible rules. We prove that the developed control scheme, which acts on the measurements from the current state of the system, always provide the correct nodal prices. In Chapter 3 we will develop a novel, robust, hybrid MPC control (model predictive controller) scheme for power balance control with hard constraints on line power flows and network frequency deviations. The developed MPC controller acts in parallel with the explicit controller from Chapter 2, and its task is to enforce the constraints during the transient periods following suddenly occurring power imbalances in the system. In Chapter 4 the concept of autonomous power networks will be presented as a concise formulation to deal with economic, technical and reliability issues in power systems with a large penetration of distributed generating units. With autonomous power networks as new market entities, we propose a novel operational structure of ancillary service markets. In Chapter 5 we will consider the problem of controlling a general linear time-invariant dynamical system to an economically optimal operating point, which is defined by a multiparametric constrained convex optimization problem related with the steady-state operation of the system. The parameters in the optimization problem are values of the exogenous inputs to

  1. Controlling Price-Responsive Heat Pumps for Overload Elimination in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csetvei, Zsuzsa; Østergaard, Jacob; Nyeng, Preben

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of applying electric heat pumps with the control-by-price-concept in order to avoid overload in a local distribution system. The proposed control algorithm is based upon a centrally dispatched real-time market price, reflecting the state of a larger power...... system, and is extended with a local price control for overload elimination on the corresponding feeder. The paper presents the mathematical models of a two-node system with price-responsive heat pumps, the chosen methodology of the central price calculation, and the proposed local feedback control...

  2. Pricing of reserves. Valuing system reserve capacity against spot prices in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, Sebastian; Weber, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    This paper models the interdependencies between markets for secondary reserve capacity and spot electricity to derive the pricing of reserves under equilibrium conditions. Starting with the indifference condition between offering in both markets, the reservation price is derived from the opportunity cost consideration and the unit commitment conditions in a fundamental interrelated market framework. The reserve market examined compares widely to the German market for secondary reserves, but the general approach may also be used to investigate other reserve markets. The approach explores and formalizes the influence of reserve capacity on the spot market supply function. A numerical solution procedure is provided to this non-trivial case of market interaction. The model is used to estimate the expected reservation price development over the last years in Germany. (author)

  3. Higher energy prices are associated with diminished resources, performance and safety in Australian ambulance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence H; Chaiechi, Taha; Buettner, Petra G; Canyon, Deon V; Crawford, J Mac; Judd, Jenni

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of changing energy prices on Australian ambulance systems. Generalised estimating equations were used to analyse contemporaneous and lagged relationships between changes in energy prices and ambulance system performance measures in all Australian State/Territory ambulance systems for the years 2000-2010. Measures included: expenditures per response; labour-to-total expenditure ratio; full-time equivalent employees (FTE) per 10,000 responses; average salary; median and 90th percentile response time; and injury compensation claims. Energy price data included State average diesel price, State average electricity price, and world crude oil price. Changes in diesel prices were inversely associated with changes in salaries, and positively associated with changes in ambulance response times; changes in oil prices were also inversely associated with changes in salaries, as well with staffing levels and expenditures per ambulance response. Changes in electricity prices were positively associated with changes in expenditures per response and changes in salaries; they were also positively associated with changes in injury compensation claims per 100 FTE. Changes in energy prices are associated with changes in Australian ambulance systems' resource, performance and safety characteristics in ways that could affect both patients and personnel. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of, and strategies for mitigating, these impacts. The impacts of energy prices on other aspects of the health system should also be investigated. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jung-Hua, E-mail: hwaa@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Lung [Exploration and Development Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan, No. 1, Dayuan, Wenfa Road, Miaoli City, Miaoli County 36042, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chang-Chen [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: > System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. > Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. > Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. > Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. > FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  5. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yi-Lung; Liu, Chang-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: → System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. → Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. → Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. → Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. → FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  6. Transfer Prices Implication Upon Tax System. The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are a top field in financial and legal scientific research and practical activity. Although this research field is still in the beginning, due to its complexity, as well as it’s inter-, multi- and transdisciplinarity, it can be noted that empirical studies, as well as practical researches in economic and legal matters, have intensified. Moreover, this field of transfer prices is in close connection with the area of international double taxation, which shows its international character. In this article we sought a holistic approach to the transfer price phenomenon, dealing with economic and legal technical aspects that we believed are important to emphasise. Without addressing the issue of transfer prices in an exhaustive manner, in this article we presented both the legal and the economic framework of transfer prices in Romania. The added value of this article lies in the approach to transfer prices, both legally and economically.

  7. An illustrative note on the system price effect of wind and solar power. The German case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegemann, Cosima

    2014-07-15

    Exposing wind and solar power to the market price signal allows for cost-efficient investment decisions, as it incentivizes investors to account for the marginal value (MV{sup el}) of renewable energy technologies. As shown by Lamont (2008), the MV{sup el} of wind and solar power units depends on their penetration level. More specifically, the MV el of wind and solar power units is a function of the respective unit's capacity factor and the covariance between its generation profile and the system marginal costs. The latter component of the MV{sup el} (i.e., the covariance) is found to decline as the wind and solar power penetration increases, displacing dispatchable power plants with higher short-run marginal costs of power production and thus reducing the system marginal costs in all generation hours. This so called 'system price effect' is analyzed in more detail in this paper. The analysis complements the work Lamont (2008) in two regards. First of all, an alternative expression for the MV{sup el} of wind and solar power units is derived, which shows that the MV{sup el} of fluctuating renewable energy technologies depends not only on their own penetration level but also on a variety of other parameters that are specific to the electricity system. Second, based on historical wholesale prices and wind and solar power generation data for Germany, a numerical 'ceteris paribus' example for Germany is presented which illustrates that the system price effect is already highly relevant for both wind and solar power generation in Germany.

  8. High Performance Work Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this

  9. Modeling the return and volatility of the Greek electricity marginal system price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorou, Petros; Karyampas, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Traditional cost based optimization models (WASP) for expansion planning do not allow for mark-to-market valuation and cannot satisfy arbitrage free requirements. This work will fill this gap by developing and estimating models for mark-to-market valuation. Furthermore the present paper examines the return and volatility of the newly born Greek's electricity market's marginal system price. A detailed description of the market mechanism and regulation is used to describe how prices are determined in order to proceed with return and volatility modeling. Continuous time mean reverting and time varying mean reverting stochastic processes have been solved in discrete time processes and estimated econometrically along with ARMAX and GARCH models. It was found that GARCH model gave much better estimation and forecasting ability. Strong persistence in mean has been found giving suspicions of market inefficiency and strong incentives for arbitrage opportunities. Finally, the change in the regulatory framework has been controlled and found to have significant impact. (author)

  10. Real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China based on system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Zhang, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The system dynamics is used to research the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Four kinds of the real-time electricity pricing models are carried out and simulated. • It analysed the electricity price, the user satisfaction and the social benefits under the different models. • Market pricing is the trend of the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Initial development path of the real-time price mechanism for China is designed between 2015 and 2030. - Abstract: As an important means of demand-side response, the reasonable formulation of the electricity price mechanism will have an important impact on the balance between the supply and demand of electric power. With the introduction of Chinese intelligence apparatus and the rapid development of smart grids, real-time electricity pricing, as the frontier electricity pricing mechanism in the smart grid, will have great significance on the promotion of energy conservation and the improvement of the total social surplus. From the perspective of system dynamics, this paper studies different real-time electricity pricing mechanisms based on load structure, cost structure and bidding and analyses the situation of user satisfaction and the total social surplus under different pricing mechanisms. Finally, through the comparative analysis of examples under different real-time pricing scenarios, this paper aims to explore and design the future dynamic real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China, predicts the dynamic real-time pricing level and provides a reference for real-time electricity price promotion in the future

  11. Does Pharmaceutical Pricing Transparency Matter? Examining Brazil's Public Procurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jillian Clare; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Saadat, Faridah; Byng, Danalyn; Martinez, Martha Gabriela

    2015-08-04

    We review procurement and pricing transparency practices for pharmaceutical products. We specifically focus on Brazil and examine its approach to increasing pricing transparency, with the aim of determining the level of effectiveness in lower prices using a tool (Banco de Preços em Saúde, BPS) that only reveals purchase prices as compared to other tools (in other countries) that establish a greater degree of price transparency. A general report of Preços em Saúde (BPS) and Sistema Integrado de Administração de Serviços Gerais (SIASG) pricing data was created for 25 drugs that met specific criteria. To explore the linear time trend of each of the drugs, separate regression models were fitted for each drug, resulting in a total of 19 models. Each model controlled for the state variable and the interaction between state and time, in order to accommodate expected heterogeneity in the data. Additionally, the models controlled for procurement quantities and the effect they have on the unit price. Secondary analysis using mixed effects models was also carried out to account for the impact that institutions and suppliers may have upon the unit price. Adjusting for these predictor variables (procurement quantities, supplier, purchasing institution) was important to determine the sole effect that time has had on unit prices. A total of 2 x 19 = 38 models were estimated to explore the overall effect of time on changes in unit price. All statistical analyses were performed using the R statistical software, while the linear mixed effects models were fitted using the lme4 R package. The findings from our analysis suggest that there is no pattern of consistent price decreases within the two Brazilian states during the five-year period for which the prices were analyzed. While the BPS does allow for an increase in transparency and information on drug purchase prices in Brazil, it has not shown to lead to consistent reductions in drug purchase prices for some of the most

  12. Research on the pricing system of online nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dan

    2010-01-01

    National Development and Reform Commission Issues 'Long-term Nuclear Power Development Plan (2005-2020)' in October, 2007. It is the milestone for great development of the nuclear power plant. By the end of the first half of 2009, the nuclear power companies, mainly leading by CNNC and CGNPC, are busy in expanding the new project investment scale of the nuclear power. They gradually initialize the enormous nuclear investment in Zhejiang, Liaoning, Shandong, Guangxi Province and some other place. Along with the development of the nuclear plant and the reformation of the electricity price, the online electricity price of the nuclear power plant will likely be revised. How long will the price policy of 'One to one price' for each type of plant be hold? How will the online electricity price be set in the future? What kind of theories will be followed in the new pricing policy? And what kind of influence will it have on the operating and constructing nuclear power plants? All these will be the problem to the nuclear power plant. There are a lot of uncertainties in front of the nuclear power enterprise in the future. The article analyzes the cost structure of the nuclear power enterprise. Based on the price theory of the market economy, and after benchmarking with the coal power and some other industries, the article studies the future pricing policy of the nuclear power enterprise. And the article analyzes the future management risk of the nuclear power enterprise after the pricing policy reformation. And through the management improvement, the nuclear power company could response effectively to the price regulation, and minimize the uncertainty caused by the pricing policy reformation to the enterprise operation and management. (author)

  13. Tomorrow's Energy Prices: An Analysis of System, Actors and Shaping Factors. Crude price drop and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Chauvin, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    If one sector in recent decades has been a byword for how difficult it is to anticipate future developments at the global level, it has been the energy sector. We have seen fears over the dangers of a hydrocarbon shortage, the announcement of 'peak oil' and a boom in shale gas and oil. Forecasts based on major trends within the field have been revised as non-conventional sources with a substantial impact on price levels have emerged. Added to this is the need to confront climate change and hence to revamp our modes of energy production to give an enhanced role to renewables. In such a context, as Jean-Marie Chevalier stresses here, it is quite tricky to say how energy prices will develop or how energy production systems will change. This is why, in addition to the overview of possible developments in the prices of oil, natural gas and coal which this article provides, it particularly stresses the many elements of uncertainty that still prevail. Chevalier demonstrates the multiplicity of factors - and actor - involved in the way energy systems and prices develop and highlights the key elements that will play a role in enhancing or curbing those developments in the medium-to-long term. (author)

  14. Effect of Ramping Requirement and Price Cap on Energy Price in a System with High Wind Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Sebastián; Smeers, Yves; Aguado-Sanchez, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The European power market is currently retiring or mothballing large capacities of conventional plants, and at the same time incorporating a significant amount of non-dispatchable renewable generation, in particular wind. We analyse the mothballing process (and the resulting system) and study how they are affected by a price cap implemented in the energy only market, and by a possible implementation of ramping products in the system. Sebastian Martin, Yves Smeers, and Jose Aguado. Effect o...

  15. Design of underwater work systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    In the near future, underwater vehicles will replace divers as the principal means for inspection and maintenance work. These vehicles will provide a maneuverable work platform for an underwater viewing system and manipulator/tool package. Some of the problems faced by the underwater designer, and some areas to consider in the design of an integrated underwater work system, are considered

  16. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  17. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends. Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections, 2015 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the fourth edition from this series.

  18. Natural gas pricing reform in China: Getting closer to a market system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey; Zhang, Danwei

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy in China targets an increase in the contribution of natural gas to the nation's energy supply. Historically, China's natural gas prices have been highly regulated with a goal to protect consumers. The old pricing regime failed to provide enough incentives for natural gas suppliers, which often resulted in natural gas shortage. A new gas pricing reform was tested in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces in 2011, and introduced nationwide in 2013. The reform is aimed at creating a more market-based pricing mechanism. We show that a substantial progress toward a better predictability and transparency of prices has been made. The prices are now more connected with the international fuel oil and liquid petroleum gas prices. The government's approach for a temporary two-tier pricing when some volumes are still traded at old prices reduced a potential opposition during the new regime implementation. Some limitations of the natural gas pricing remain as it created biased incentives for producers and favors large natural gas suppliers. The pricing reform at its current stage falls short of establishing a complete market mechanism driven by an interaction of supply and demand of natural gas in China. - Highlights: • China's reform of natural gas pricing is in effect nationwide from 2013. • Prices are now connected to international fuel oil and liquid petroleum gas prices. • The reform benefits domestic producers and importers of natural gas. • There are still price distortions between industrial and residential sector. • The reform needs to create a system where both supply and demand are considered.

  19. A note on the optimal pricing strategy in the discrete-time Geo/Geo/1 queuing system with sojourn time-dependent reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    Full Text Available This work studies the optimal pricing strategy in a discrete-time Geo/Geo/1 queuing system under the sojourn time-dependent reward. We consider two types of pricing schemes. The first one is called the ex-post payment scheme where the server charges a price that is proportional to the time a customer spends in the system, and the second one is called ex-ante payment scheme where the server charges a flat price for all services. In each pricing scheme, a departing customer receives the reward that is inversely proportional to his/her sojourn time. The server should make the optimal pricing decisions in order to maximize its expected profits per time unit in each pricing scheme. This work also investigates customer's equilibrium joining or balking behavior under server's optimal pricing strategy. Numerical experiments are also conducted to validate our analysis. Keywords: Optimal pricing, Equilibrium behavior, Geo/Geo/1 queue, Sojourn time-dependent reward

  20. Sensitivities and Tipping Points of Power System Operations to Fluctuations Caused by Water Availability and Fuel Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Macknick, J.; Voisin, N.; Fu, T.

    2017-12-01

    The western US electric grid is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operation. Hydropower and water-cooled thermoelectric technologies represent 67% of generating capacity in the western region of the US. While water resources provide a significant amount of generation and reliability for the grid, these same resources can represent vulnerabilities during times of drought or low flow conditions. A lack of water affects water-dependent technologies and can result in more expensive generators needing to run in order to meet electric grid demand, resulting in higher electricity prices and a higher cost to operate the grid. A companion study assesses the impact of changes in water availability and air temperatures on power operations by directly derating hydro and thermo-electric generators. In this study we assess the sensitivities and tipping points of water availability compared with higher fuel prices in electricity sector operations. We evaluate the impacts of varying electricity prices by modifying fuel prices for coal and natural gas. We then analyze the difference in simulation results between changes in fuel prices in combination with water availability and air temperature variability. We simulate three fuel price scenarios for a 2010 baseline scenario along with 100 historical and future hydro-climate conditions. We use the PLEXOS electricity production cost model to optimize power system dispatch and cost decisions under each combination of fuel price and water constraint. Some of the metrics evaluated are total production cost, generation type mix, emissions, transmission congestion, and reserve procurement. These metrics give insight to how strained the system is, how much flexibility it still has, and to what extent water resource availability or fuel prices drive changes in the electricity sector operations. This work will provide insights into current electricity operations as well as future cases of increased penetration of variable

  1. Computation of spot prices and congestion costs in large interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukerji, R.; Jordan, G.A.; Clayton, R.; Haringa, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Foremost among the new paradigms for the US utility industry is the ''poolco'' concept proposed by Prof. William W. Hogan of Harvard University. This concept uses a central pool or power exchange in which physical power is traded based on spot prices or market clearing prices. The rapid and accurate calculation of these ''spot'' prices and associated congestion costs for large interconnected power systems is the central tenet upon which the poolco concept is based. The market clearing price would be the same throughout the system if there were no system losses and transmission limitations did not exist. System losses cause small differences in market clearing prices as the cost of supplying a MW at various load buses includes the cost of losses. Transmission limits may cause large differences in market clearing prices between regions as low cost generation is blocked by the transmission constraints from serving certain loads. In models currently in use in the electric power industry spot price calculations range from ''bubble diagram'' type contract path models to full electrical representation such as GE-MAPS. The modeling aspects of the full electrical representation are included in the Appendix. The problem with the bubble diagram representation is that these models are liable to produce unacceptably large errors in the calculation of spot prices and congestion costs. The subtleties of the calculation of spot prices and congestion costs are illustrated in this paper

  2. Information and Communications Systems for Control-by-Price of Distributed Energy Resources and Flexible Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The control-by-price concept fits well with controlling small-scale generation, storage and demand. In this paper, we investigate the required information and communications systems that are needed to realize the control-by-price concept for such units. We first present a proposal for overall infrastructure and subsystem design and secondly focus on the design and implementation of the end-user price-responsive controller, interfaces, and communications. The design and its applicability on ex...

  3. TRICARE revision to CHAMPUS DRG-based payment system, pricing of hospital claims. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-21

    This Final rule changes TRICARE's current regulatory provision for inpatient hospital claims priced under the DRG-based payment system. Claims are currently priced by using the rates and weights that are in effect on a beneficiary's date of admission. This Final rule changes that provision to price such claims by using the rates and weights that are in effect on a beneficiary's date of discharge.

  4. Reference pricing system and competition: case study from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Conceiçăo

    2009-10-01

    To characterize the patterns of competition for a sample of drugs in the Portuguese pharmaceutical market before (January 2002-March 2003) and after (April 2003-June 2003) the introduction of the reference pricing system (RPS). We performed a descriptive, retrospective, longitudinal analysis, with monthly observations from January 2002 until June 2003 of 15 homogeneous groups. The groups represented the upper limit of public pharmaceutical expenditure in the RPS segment in 2003 (n=270). Measures of competition were: 1) number of presentations; 2) prescriptions' concentration in the generic and originator (brand) segments, using Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI); and 3) dominant positions of market leader in the homogeneous group. A correlation analysis between the number of presentations, the HHI, and the dominant position of the market leader was performed using Pearson coefficient of correlation. The structure of the market changed with the introduction of RPS. We found an increasing number of generic presentations (from 4+/-3 to 7+/-4; mean+/-standard deviation) and a decrease in the HHI for the generics market segment (from 0.7+/-0.2 to 0.6+/-0.3). There was a negative correlation between those variables that increased after the introduction of RPS (from -0.6 to -0.8). The HHI for brands and the dominant positions remained unchanged. After the implementation of RPS, the increased competition was mainly driven by economic and social agents in the generics market segment but not in the brands market segment.

  5. Dynamic Pricing in Cloud Manufacturing Systems under Combined Effects of Consumer Structure, Negotiation, and Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a game-theory based framework to model the dynamic pricing process in the cloud manufacturing (CMfg system. We considered a service provider (SP, a broker agent (BA, and a dynamic service demander (SD population that is composed of price takers and bargainers in this study. The pricing processes under linear demand and constant elasticity demand were modeled, respectively. The combined effects of SD population structure, negotiation, and demand forms on the SP’s and the BA’s equilibrium prices and expected revenues were examined. We found that the SP’s optimal wholesale price, the BA’s optimal reservation price, and posted price all increase with the proportion of price takers under linear demand but decrease with it under constant elasticity demand. We also found that the BA’s optimal reservation price increases with bargainers’ power no matter under what kind of demand. Through analyzing the participants’ revenues, we showed that a dynamic SD population with a high ratio of price takers would benefit the SP and the BA.

  6. Estimating railway infrastructure project cost from transferring nominal price to real price by considering the working time possessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Salling, Kim Bang

    are varying depending on the working time possessions presented through the closure of the railway line. The effective working hours, type of construction work and construction speed are used as constraints to ensure the track closure plan remains feasible. To demonstrate the approach a Danish railway...... and 2) railway construction work costs are not transparent in the market. This paper suggests separating the costs into 3 sub-categories: materials, labour and machinery. Evidently, the materials are further broke-down into subcomponents which then remains fixed whereas the cost of labour and machinery...... construction project, the new line to the fixed link across Fehmarn Belt, is introduced where it is shown that the non-material cost is about 19% of the total expenditure. By assuming three sets of track blocking scenarios with the same amount of construction works it is proven that given an optimal track...

  7. Hospital Prices Increase in California, Especially Among Hospitals in the Largest Multi-hospital Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn A. Melnick PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A surge in hospital consolidation is fueling formation of ever larger multi-hospital systems throughout the United States. This article examines hospital prices in California over time with a focus on hospitals in the largest multi-hospital systems. Our data show that hospital prices in California grew substantially (+76% per hospital admission across all hospitals and all services between 2004 and 2013 and that prices at hospitals that are members of the largest, multi-hospital systems grew substantially more (113% than prices paid to all other California hospitals (70%. Prices were similar in both groups at the start of the period (approximately $9200 per admission. By the end of the period, prices at hospitals in the largest systems exceeded prices at other California hospitals by almost $4000 per patient admission. Our study findings are potentially useful to policy makers across the country for several reasons. Our data measure actual prices for a large sample of hospitals over a long period of time in California. California experienced its wave of consolidation much earlier than the rest of the country and as such our findings may provide some insights into what may happen across the United States from hospital consolidation including growth of large, multi-hospital systems now forming in the rest of the rest of the country.

  8. Price elasticity matrix of demand in power system considering demand response programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xinyao; Hui, Hongxun; Yang, Shengchun; Li, Yaping; Ding, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The increasing renewable energy power generations have brought more intermittency and volatility to the electric power system. Demand-side resources can improve the consumption of renewable energy by demand response (DR), which becomes one of the important means to improve the reliability of power system. In price-based DR, the sensitivity analysis of customer’s power demand to the changing electricity prices is pivotal for setting reasonable prices and forecasting loads of power system. This paper studies the price elasticity matrix of demand (PEMD). An improved PEMD model is proposed based on elasticity effect weight, which can unify the rigid loads and flexible loads. Moreover, the structure of PEMD, which is decided by price policies and load types, and the calculation method of PEMD are also proposed. Several cases are studied to prove the effectiveness of this method.

  9. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing : Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific

  10. Dynamic room pricing model for hotel revenue management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdel Aziz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of room pricing in hotels. We propose a hotel revenue management model based on dynamic pricing to provide hotel managers with a flexible and efficient decision support tool for room revenue maximization. The two pillars of the proposed framework are a novel optimization model, and a multi-class scheme similar to the one implemented in airlines. Our hypothesis is that this framework can overcome the limitations associated with the research gaps in pricing literature; and can also contribute significantly in increasing the revenue of hotels. We test this hypothesis on three different approaches, and the results show an increase in revenue compared to the classical model used in literature.

  11. Basic Assumptions of the New Price System and Supplements to the Tariff System for Electricity Sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepo, M.

    1995-01-01

    The article outlines some basic assumptions of the new price system and major elements of the latest proposition for the changes and supplements to the Tariff system for Electricity Sale in the Republic of Croatia, including the analysis of those elements which brought about the present unfavourable and non-productive relations within the electric power system. The paper proposes measures and actions which should by means of a price system and tariff policy improve the present unfavourable relations and their consequences and achieve a desirable consumption structure and characteristics, resulting in rational management and effective power supply-economy relationships within the electric power system as a subsystem of the power supply sector. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Options for pricing ancillary services in a deregulated power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Hatim Yahya

    2001-07-01

    GENCOs in restructured systems are compensated for selling energy in the market. In a restructured market, a mechanism is required to entice participants in the market to provide ancillary services and to ensure adequate compensation that would guarantee its economic viability. The ISO controls the dispatch of generation, manages the reliability of the transmission grid, provides open access to the transmission, buys and provides ancillary services as required, coordinates day-ahead, hour-ahead schedules and performs real time balancing of load and generation, settles real time imbalances and ancillary services sales and purchases. The ISO, also, administers congestion management protocols for the transmission grid. Since the ISO does not own any generating units it must ensure that there is enough reserves for maintaining reliability according to FERC regulations, and sufficient unloaded generating capacity for balancing services in a real-time market. The ISO could meet these requirements by creating a competitive market for ancillary services, which are metered and remain unbundled to provide an accurate compensation for each supplier and cost to each consumer, In this study, we give an overview for restructuring and ancillary services in a restructured power marketplace. Also, we discuss the effect of GENCOs' actions in the competitive energy and ancillary service markets. In addition, we propose an auction market design for hedging ancillary service costs in California market. Furthermore, we show how to include the n-1 and voltage contingencies in security constrained unit commitment. Finally, we present two approaches for GENCOs' unit commitment in a restructured power market; one is based on game theory and the other is based on market price forecasting. In each of the two GENCOs' unit commitment approaches, we discuss the GENCOs' optimal bidding strategies in energy and ancillary service markets to maximize the GENCOs' profit.

  13. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  14. Price-based control of electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Negenborn, R.R.; Lukszo, Z.; Hellendorn, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we present the price-based control as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power sys tems. On the example of economically optimal power balance and transmission network congestion control, we present how global objectives and

  15. Characteristics of Low-Priced Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite impressive recent cost reductions, there is wide dispersion in the prices of installed solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. We identify the most important factors that make a system likely to be low priced (LP). Our sample consists of detailed characteristics for 42,611 small-scale (< 15 kW) PV systems installed in 15 U.S. states during 2013. Using four definitions of LP systems, we compare LP and non-LP systems and find statistically significant differences in nearly all factors explored, including competition, installer scale, markets, demographics, ownership, policy, and system components. Logit and probit model results robustly indicate that LP systems are associated with markets with few active installers; experienced installers; customer ownership; large systems; retrofits; and thin-film, low-efficiency, and Chinese modules. We also find significant differences across states, with LP systems much more likely to occur in some than in others. Our focus on the left tail of the price distribution provides implications for policy that are distinct from recent studies of mean prices. While those studies find that PV subsidies increase mean prices, we find that subsidies also generate LP systems. PV subsidies appear to simultaneously shift and broaden the price distribution. Much of this broadening occurs in a particular location, northern California, which is worthy of further investigation with new data.

  16. Day-Ahead Congestion Management in Distribution Systems through Household Demand Response and Distribution Congestion Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weijia; Wu, Qiuwei; Wen, Fushuan

    2014-01-01

    into balancing power might challenge the operation of electric distribution systems and cause congestions. This paper presents a distribution congestion price (DCP) based market mechanism to alleviate possible distribution system congestions. By employing the loca- tional marginal pricing (LMP) model...... is proposed. Finally, a practical Danish 60kV/10.5kV distribution system is employed as the test case to verify the proposed method for mitigating congestion....

  17. The integration of Price Responsive Demand into Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) wholesale power markets and system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centolella, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A number of states and utilities are pursuing demand response based on dynamic and time-differentiated retail prices and utility investments in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), often as part of Smart Grid initiatives. These developments could produce large amounts of Price Responsive Demand, demand that predictably responds to changes in wholesale prices. Price Responsive Demand could provide significant reliability and economic benefits. However, existing RTO tariffs present potential barriers to the development of Price Responsive Demand. Effectively integrating Price Responsive Demand into RTO markets and operations will require changes in demand forecasting, scarcity pricing reform, synchronization of scarcity pricing with capacity markets, tracking voluntary hedging by price responsive loads, and a non-discriminatory approach in curtailments in capacity emergencies. The article describes changes in RTO policies and systems needed incorporate Price Responsive Demand. (author)

  18. Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands: Effects of interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Standalone diesel systems have been widely used on Malaysian islands due to the isolated locations of the islands. Nevertheless, the high diesel prices and the high cost of transporting diesel to islands cause the use of standalone diesel systems to be uneconomical. This study analyzes the feasibility of implementing PV (photovoltaic) systems as alternatives to standalone diesel systems by considering the effects of annual real interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes, using the HOMER (hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources) software. The results indicate that, at the ordinary diesel price of $ 0.61/L, low interest rates (0–3%) are desirable for the implementation of hybrid PV/diesel with battery systems over standalone diesel systems, regardless of the load sizes. Although different load sizes may affect the decisions on the implementation of PV systems at higher interest rates (6–9%), these effects become less pronounced as the price of diesel increases to $ 1.22/L or higher. Also, under high diesel prices, the choice of optimal system configurations obtained for small load sizes should be applicable for larger load sizes, albeit with different component ratings. Although the current study is intended for Malaysian islands, the findings can be generalized for other places with similar solar radiation levels. - Highlights: • Photovoltaic systems for Malaysian islands have been analyzed using HOMER. • Interest rates, diesel prices and load sizes affect optimal system configurations. • Effects of interest rates and load sizes reduce with increasing diesel prices. • Photovoltaic systems' implementation is feasible at high diesel prices. • The findings can be generalized for places with similar solar radiation levels

  19. Preliminary Study on Bidding Price Ratio Pattern of Public Works in Taiwan - a Case Study of Bridges, Elevated Highways, Tunnels and Subways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Paoshan; Wang, Hanhsiang; Chen, Pingfu; Yeh, Lihsu

    2018-01-01

    Commonly seen tender bid price information of the public works in Taiwan are the budget amount, floor price, awarding price and so on. The ratio of the awarding price to the floor price or budget price is the so-called bidding price ratio. This ratio is influenced by multifaceted factor interactions and is significant to decision making management in engineering projects. Low bidding price ratio may imply that the budget allocation by the tendering agency is inconsiderate or due to the improper market competition of low price bid rigging. High bidding price ratio in turn may indicate that the allocated budget is relatively low, bidder risks in increased contract execution uncertainty or even exclusive bidding scenario. Therefore, the correlation between the bidding price ratio and the aforementioned tender award information is the key issue of this study. This study gathered the tender information of the civil engineering projects in Taiwan within the past seven years. By performing statistical analysis and clustering the gathered data by bidding price ratio, this study investigated the influencing factors and regulations of bidding price ratio using data mining approach.

  20. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  1. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 U.S. markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around -1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately -1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Methods Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 US markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Results Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around −1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately −1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. Conclusions E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935898

  3. Influence of different technologies on dynamic pricing in district heating systems: Comparative case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Wahlroos, Mikko; Syri, Sanna

    2018-01-01

    District heating markets are often dominated by monopolies in both Denmark and Finland. The same companies, often owned by local municipalities, are usually operating both supplying plants and district heating networks, while the pricing mechanisms are rigid, often agreed upon for one year...... in advance. The mentioned ownership scheme may cause problems, when one tries to gain a third party access in order to deliver excess heat or heat from cheaper heating plants. In this paper, two case studies were carried out to simulate the district heating systems based on dynamic pricing. Case studies were...... carried out for Sønderborg, Denmark and Espoo, Finland. The results showed that dynamic pricing fosters feeding the waste heat into the grid, as dynamic pricing reduced the total primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions in both case studies. In the best scenarios, the weighted average heat price...

  4. Middle distillate price monitoring system. Interim validation report. [No. 2 heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopelain, D.G.; Freedman, D.; Rice, T.H.; Veitch, J.G.; Finlay, A.

    1978-12-01

    The Middle Distillate Price Monitoring System collects data on prices and gross margins for No. 2 heating oil from a sample of refiners, resellers, and retailers. The data is used to evaluate the level of competition and the reasonableness of prices in the heating oil market. It is concluded that the data does not provide a basis for determining whether a market is competitive, and that there is serious doubt as to the accuracy of the information collected by the system. Some recommendations are given for improving the quality of the information. (DLC)

  5. Studies on classifying Indian coals. Part II. A new system for grading and pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluri, S.G.; Shrikhande, S.K.; Rao, S.K.; Haque, R.

    1985-07-01

    The new system is self-complete through grading to pricing. It grades non-coking coal by moisture and ash contents. Coking coal is graded by GKLT coke type and ash content. Volatile matter content is used as a supporting indexer, where necessary. Through the grade data, a coal is evaluated into a single numeral which depicts the coaly matter content and its nature or effectiveness. This value, called effective coaly matter, is converted to a relative rupee value or price index/price. Pragmatics and versatility of the system are discussed.

  6. Does subsidy work? Price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccination among the elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-ling; Okubo, Ichiro

    2009-08-01

    Subsidy for influenza vaccination is often provided to the elderly in order to encourage them to receive a flu shot in developed countries. However, its effect on uptake rate, i.e., price elasticity of demand, has not been well studied. Japan's decentralised vaccination programme allows observation of various pairs in price and uptake rate of flu shots among the elderly by the municipality from 2001/2002 to 2004/2005 season. We combine our sample survey data (n=281), which monitor price, subsidy and uptake rate, with published data on local characteristics in order to estimate price elasticity of demand with panel model. We find price elasticity of demand for influenza vaccine: nearly zero in nationwide, nearly zero in urban area, and -1.07 in rural area. The results question the rationale for subsidy, especially in urban area. There are cases where maintaining or increasing the level of subsidy is not an efficient allocation of finite health care resources. When organising a vaccination programme, health manager should be careful about the balance between subsidy and other efforts in order to encourage the elderly to receive shots with price elasticity in mind.

  7. Effects of the uncertainty of energy price and water availability forecasts on the operation of Alpine hydropower reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2016-12-01

    European energy markets have experienced dramatic changes in the last years because of the massive introduction of Variable Renewable Sources (VRSs), such as wind and solar power sources, in the generation portfolios in many countries. VRSs i) are intermittent, i.e., their production is highly variable and only partially predictable, ii) are characterized by no correlation between production and demand, iii) have negligible costs of production, and iv) have been largely subsidized. These features result in lower energy prices, but, at the same time, in increased price volatility, and in network stability issues, which pose a threat to traditional power sources because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. Storage hydropower systems play an important role in compensating production peaks, both in term of excess and shortage of energy. Traditionally, most of the research effort in hydropower reservoir operation has focused on modeling and forecasting reservoir inflow as well as designing reservoir operation accordingly. Nowadays, price variability may be the largest source of uncertainty in the context of hydropower systems, especially when considering medium-to-large reservoirs, whose storage can easily buffer small inflow fluctuations. In this work, we compare the effects of uncertain inflow and energy price forecasts on hydropower production and profitability. By adding noise to historic inflow and price trajectories, we build a set of synthetic forecasts corresponding to different levels of predictability and assess their impact on reservoir operating policies and performances. The study is conducted on different hydropower systems, including storage systems and pumped-storage systems, with different characteristics, e.g., different inflow-capacity ratios. The analysis focuses on Alpine hydropower systems where the hydrological regime ranges from purely ice and snow-melt dominated to mixed snow

  8. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multistage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases. (author)

  9. A theoretical analysis of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is an analytical exploration of the problem of price elasticity of energy demand in multi-stage energy conversion systems. The paper describes in some detail an analytical model of energy demand in such systems. Under a clearly stated set of assumptions, the model makes it possible to explore both the impacts of the number of sub-systems, and of varying sub-system elasticities on overall system elasticity. The analysis suggests that overall price elasticity of energy demand for such systems will tend asymptotically to unity as the number of sub-systems increases

  10. Effect of heat storage and fuel price on energy management and economics of micro CCHP cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, I. Baniasad [University of Zabol, Zabol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh, M. Oukati [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ameri, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work, a typical combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system comprised of boiler, flat solar collectors, absorption chiller and heat storage tank was investigated. The described system was considered to supply the given electricity, cooling and heating demand of a residential building; with heating and cooling needs of 100 and 50 kW, respectively. To find the optimum hybrid configurations with high reliability, low costs, low fuel consumption and emissions, a computer program was provided by authors in FORTRAN language. Different fuel prices were considered in the present work. The results indicated that the optimal operation strategy changes with Boiler and NGG fuel prices while it also changes with increasing the number of solar collectors, heat storage capacity and consequently decreasing total annual emission.

  11. Pricing strategy in a dual-channel and remanufacturing supply chain system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chengzhi; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Zhaohan

    2010-07-01

    This article addresses the pricing strategy problems in a supply chain system where the manufacturer sells original products and remanufactured products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. Due to the complexity of that system, agent technologies that provide a new way for analysing complex systems are used for modelling. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the computational load of searching procedure for optimal prices and profits, a learning search algorithm is designed and implemented within the multi-agent supply chain model. The simulation results show that the proposed model can find out optimal prices of original products and remanufactured products in both channels, which lead to optimal profits of the manufacturer and the retailer. It is also found that the optimal profits are increased by introducing direct channel and remanufacturing. Furthermore, the effect of customer preference, direct channel cost and remanufactured unit cost on optimal prices and profits are examined.

  12. The impact of oil prices on the banking system in the Gulf Cooperation Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padamja Khandelwal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the links between global oil price movements and macroeconomic and financial developments in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC. The GCC economies can be adversely affected by low oil prices due to their high dependence on oil and gas exports and macro-financial linkages which can amplify the effects of oil price movements over the financial cycle. Historically, systemic financial sector risks rose in the GCC countries with the oil price upswing in the years before the global financial crisis. Against this background, a range of multivariate panel approaches, including a panel vector autoregression approach, were applied to macroeconomic and bank-level data covering the six GCC economies and span 1999–2014. The paper finds strong empirical evidence of feedback loops between oil price movements, bank balance sheets, and asset prices. Empirical evidence also suggests that bank capital and provisioning have behaved countercyclically through the cycle. That is, these ratios increase during good times. This has helped strengthen the resilience of the financial system to the oil price decline since mid-2014.

  13. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  14. Age-differentiated work systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frieling, Ekkehart; Wegge, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The disproportionate aging of the population of working age in many nations around the world is a unique occurrence in the history of humankind. In the light of demographic change, it is becoming increasingly important to develop and use the potential of older employees. This edited volume Age-differentiated Work Systems provides a final report on a six-year priority program funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and presents selected research findings of 17 interdisciplinary project teams. The idea is that it will serve both as a reference book and overview of the current state of research in ergonomics, occupational psychology and related disciplines. It provides new models, methods, and procedures for analyzing and designing age-differentiated work systems with the aim of supporting subject matter experts from different areas in their decisions on labor and employment policies. Therefore over 40 laboratory experiments involving 2,000 participants and 50 field studies involving over 25,000 employees...

  15. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  16. Information and Communications Systems for Control-by-Price of Distributed Energy Resources and Flexible Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    infrastructure and subsystem design and secondly focus on the design and implementation of the end-user price-responsive controller, interfaces, and communications. The design and its applicability on existing devices is verified through laboratory tests with two cases: electric space heating thermostat control...... and a small combined heat and power unit. The results show that the price-responsive controller reduces the end user’s electricity cost, or increases his income respectively, by about 7%. At the same time, the price-responsive controller provides an interface for the transmission system operator to utilize...

  17. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  18. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system: An agent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, Jörn C.; Chappin, Emile J.L.; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO 2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO 2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based on Great Britain, which already has introduced a price floor, and on Central Western Europe). Using an agent-based electricity market simulation with endogenous investment and a CO 2 market (including banking), we analyse the cross-border effects of national policies as well as system-wide policy options. A common, moderate CO 2 auction reserve price results in a more continuous decarbonisation pathway. This reduces CO 2 price volatility and the occurrence of carbon shortage price periods, as well as the average cost to consumers. A price ceiling can shield consumers from extreme price shocks. These price restrictions do not cause a large risk of an overall emissions overshoot in the long run. A national price floor lowers the cost to consumers in the other zone; the larger the zone with the price floor, the stronger the effect. Price floors that are too high lead to inefficiencies in investment choices and to higher consumer costs. - Highlights: • Cross-border effects of CO 2 policies were investigated with an agent-based model. • The current EU ETS might cause CO 2 price shocks and CO 2 price volatility. • A CO 2 auction reserve price does not lower welfare, but lowers CO 2 price volatility. • A national CO 2 price floor lowers consumer cost in the other countries. • A CO 2 price ceiling does not lead to an overshoot of emissions

  19. Multiarea Transmission Cost Allocation in Large Power Systems Using the Nodal Pricing Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghayeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for transmission cost allocation (TCA in a large power system based on nodal pricing approach using the multi-area scheme. The nodal pricing approach is introduced to allocate the transmission costs by the control of nodal prices in a single area network. As the number of equations is dependent on the number of buses and generators, this method will be very time consuming for large power systems. To solve this problem, the present paper proposes a new algorithm based on multi-area approach for regulating the nodal prices, so that the simulation time is greatly reduced and therefore the TCA problem with nodal pricing approach will be applicable for large power systems. In addition, in this method the transmission costs are allocated to users more equitable. Since the higher transmission costs in an area having a higher reliability are paid only by users of that area in contrast with the single area method, in which these costs are allocated to all users regardless of their locations. The proposed method is implemented on the IEEE 118 bus test system which comprises three areas. Results show that with application of multi-area approach, the simulation time is greatly reduced and the transmission costs are also allocated to users with less variation in new nodal prices with respect to the single area approach.

  20. Oil Prices, Credit Risks in Banking Systems, and Macro-Financial Linkages across GCC Oil Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Alodayni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effect of the recent 2014–2015 oil price slump on the financial stability in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC region. The first objective of this paper is to assess how oil price shock propagates within the macroeconomy and how the macro shocks transmit to GCC banks’ balance sheets. This part of the paper implements a System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM and a Panel Fixed Effect Model to estimate the response of nonperforming loans (NPLs to its macroeconomic determinants. The second objective of this paper is to assess any negative feedback effects between the GCC banking systems and the economy. The paper, therefore, implements a Panel VAR model to explore the macro-financial linkages between GCC banking systems and the real economy. The results indicate that oil price, non-oil GDP, interest rate, stock prices, and housing prices are major determinants of NPLs across GCC banks and the overall financial stability in the region. Credit risk shock tends to propagate disturbances to non-oil GDP, credit growth, and stock prices across GCC economies. A higher level of NPLs restricts banks’ credit growth and can dampen economic growth in these economies. The results support the notion that disturbances in banking systems lead to unwanted economic consequences for the real sector.

  1. The effects of unit pricing system upon household solid waste management: The Korean experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.

    1999-09-01

    Initial effects of adoption of a unit pricing system paired with aggressive recycling programs appear to be substantial. This paper explores the impact of price incentives under the unit pricing system on household solid waste generation and recycling in Korea. The author employs a simultaneous equation model considering the feedback effects between total waste generation and recycling. Estimation results using 3017 Korean household survey data indicate that a rise in waste collection fee induces households to recycle more wastes. However, this effect is partially offset by decreases in source-reduction efforts due to the feedback effects, resulting in relatively lower price elasticity of demand for solid waste collection services. This implies that household demand for solid waste collection services will not decrease much with additional increases in the collection fee, unless further recycling incentives such as more frequent recyclable pickup services are accompanied.

  2. TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations

  3. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  4. Simulating the Effects of Various Pricing Scenarios on Water Tariff System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid Yazdani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water demand management policies and water pricing tools have important effects on optimal water allocation. An important water pricing policy is determining suitable water tariffs for urban water uses. In this regard, the emphasis laid by the targeted subsidy law on water pricing based on supply cost will have a great impact on the price of water and on water resources management. Based on these considerations, the present study was designed and conducted in 2010-2011 to identify proper water prices for Golestan Province under the targeted subsidy law. For this purpose, the economic value of water as veiwed by urban users was estimated using the contingent valuation method. In a second stage, the average cost approach was employed to determine the cost of water production from surface and ground water resources from the viewpoint of suppliers. Finally, the present water tariffs, the economic value of water, and the average cost of water production obtained in the previous sategs were compared to evaluate various scenarios of water pricing under the targeted subsidy law. Based on our findings, a stepwise water pricing system that strikes a balance between the economic value of water and water production cost is recommended for implementation in order achieve simultaneous improvements in both water demand and supply management.

  5. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Gu Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.

  6. Price and Service Discrimination in Queuing Systems: Incentive Compatibility of Gc\\mu Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jan A. Van Mieghem

    2000-01-01

    This article studies the optimal prices and service quality grades that a queuing system---the "firm"---provides to heterogeneous, utility-maximizing customers who measure quality by their experienced delay distributions. Results are threefold: First, delay cost curves are introduced that allow for a flexible description of a customer's quality sensitivity. Second, a comprehensive executable approach is proposed that analytically specifies scheduling, delay distributions and prices for arbitr...

  7. Advances in electric power and energy systems load and price forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art approaches to power systems forecasting from the most respected names in the field, internationally. Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is the first book devoted exclusively to a subject of increasing urgency to power systems planning and operations. Written for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-grads concerned with power systems planning and forecasting, this book brings together contributions from many of the world’s foremost names in the field who address a range of critical issues, from forecasting power system load to power system pricing to post-storm service restoration times, river flow forecasting, and more. In a time of ever-increasing energy demands, mounting concerns over the environmental impacts of power generation, and the emergence of new, smart-grid technologies, electricity price forecasting has assumed a prominent role within both the academic and industrial ar nas. Short-run forecasting of electricity prices has become nece...

  8. A Distribution-class Locational Marginal Price (DLMP) Index for Enhanced Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbode, Oluwaseyi Wemimo

    The smart grid initiative is the impetus behind changes that are expected to culminate into an enhanced distribution system with the communication and control infrastructure to support advanced distribution system applications and resources such as distributed generation, energy storage systems, and price responsive loads. This research proposes a distribution-class analog of the transmission LMP (DLMP) as an enabler of the advanced applications of the enhanced distribution system. The DLMP is envisioned as a control signal that can incentivize distribution system resources to behave optimally in a manner that benefits economic efficiency and system reliability and that can optimally couple the transmission and the distribution systems. The DLMP is calculated from a two-stage optimization problem; a transmission system OPF and a distribution system OPF. An iterative framework that ensures accurate representation of the distribution system's price sensitive resources for the transmission system problem and vice versa is developed and its convergence problem is discussed. As part of the DLMP calculation framework, a DCOPF formulation that endogenously captures the effect of real power losses is discussed. The formulation uses piecewise linear functions to approximate losses. This thesis explores, with theoretical proofs, the breakdown of the loss approximation technique when non-positive DLMPs/LMPs occur and discusses a mixed integer linear programming formulation that corrects the breakdown. The DLMP is numerically illustrated in traditional and enhanced distribution systems and its superiority to contemporary pricing mechanisms is demonstrated using price responsive loads. Results show that the impact of the inaccuracy of contemporary pricing schemes becomes significant as flexible resources increase. At high elasticity, aggregate load consumption deviated from the optimal consumption by up to about 45 percent when using a flat or time-of-use rate. Individual load

  9. A Probabilistic Approach to Control of Complex Systems and Its Application to Real-Time Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Kobayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of complex systems is one of the fundamental problems in control theory. In this paper, a control method for complex systems modeled by a probabilistic Boolean network (PBN is studied. A PBN is widely used as a model of complex systems such as gene regulatory networks. For a PBN, the structural control problem is newly formulated. In this problem, a discrete probability distribution appeared in a PBN is controlled by the continuous-valued input. For this problem, an approximate solution method using a matrix-based representation for a PBN is proposed. Then, the problem is approximated by a linear programming problem. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to design of real-time pricing systems of electricity. Electricity conservation is achieved by appropriately determining the electricity price over time. The effectiveness of the proposed method is presented by a numerical example on real-time pricing systems.

  10. Systemic Risk-Taking at Banks: Evidence from the Pricing of Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Gong (Di); W.B. Wagner (Wolf)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic guarantees extended during systemic crises can affect the relative pricing of risks in the financial system. Studying the market for syndicated loans, we find that banks require lower compensation for aggregate risk than for idiosyncratic risk, consistent with systemic risk-taking

  11. Impact of optimal load response to real-time electricity price on power system constraints in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to a real-time electricity price...... and may represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. A distribution system where wind power capacity is 126% of maximum loads is chosen as the study case. This paper presents a nonlinear load optimization method to real-time power price...... for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to a real-time electricity price has some good impacts on power system constraints in a distribution system with high wind power penetrations....

  12. Day-ahead price forecasting in restructured power systems using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahidinasab, V.; Jadid, S.; Kazemi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 15 years most electricity supply companies around the world have been restructured from monopoly utilities to deregulated competitive electricity markets. Market participants in the restructured electricity markets find short-term electricity price forecasting (STPF) crucial in formulating their risk management strategies. They need to know future electricity prices as their profitability depends on them. This research project classifies and compares different techniques of electricity price forecasting in the literature and selects artificial neural networks (ANN) as a suitable method for price forecasting. To perform this task, market knowledge should be used to optimize the selection of input data for an electricity price forecasting tool. Then sensitivity analysis is used in this research to aid in the selection of the optimum inputs of the ANN and fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm is used for daily load pattern clustering. Finally, ANN with a modified Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithm are implemented for forecasting prices in Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) market. The forecasting results were compared with the previous works and showed that the results are reasonable and accurate. (author)

  13. Meeting competition through negotiated pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith, D.M.; Raper, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fundamental premise of negotiated pricing as a demand-side management (DSM) tool is that price determines cost. As the ultimate objective of energy efficiency is to increase electromotive work while conserving resources, negotiated prices can have a significant impact as a DSM tool to force costs down. Three examples are offered of the effect of negotiated pricing as a DSM tool. The examples are a small hydroelectric company and an electric utility authority owned, a utility-to-customer example of negotiated pricing with the Public Service Company of Oklahoma's (PSO) system, and a large paper mill on PSO's system. Some of the major problems associated with negotiated pricing, outside of the human effort of finding and training knowledgeable and skilled negotiators, are: obtaining enough information about the customer or potential customer to be able to determine that in negotiating prices the utility is not giving away more benefits than the utility will gain; developing a pricing plan that fits both the customer's and utility's existing and potential future mode of operation; assuring that other customers who cannot negotiate on their own behalf are not adversely affected by utility revenue shortfalls; making such negotiated prices available to all similarly situated customers, so as not to inadvertently create unfair competitive advantages among them; and defining the shared benefits before and after the fact as a result of having negotiated prices in the first place

  14. The Impact of Energy Price Decline on China's Energy-Economy-Environment System Variables Using a CGE Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zhengquan; Wang, Daojuan; Chen, Chong

    In recent years, prices of coal and crude oil have fallen significantly. These declines have had a large impact on China’s energy-economy-environment system variables. This paper establishes a computable general equilibrium model to systematically analyse the impact of coal price changes alone...... or the decline of both coal and oil prices on the variables of China's energy-economy-environment system. The results of the analysis show that the decline of the coal price alone or of coal and crude oil prices together will lead to a significant increase in demand for either coal and total energy or coal...

  15. Transmission prices in the electric system. Technical constraints and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidori, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article analyses the two main models at the core of today's theoretical discussion on transmission pricing in electricity sectors under competition. The first aim of the paper is showing how technical constraints that characterise transmission systems may affect energy production and transmission and therefore the definition of the price system for using the electric grid. The second aim of the paper is showing how it is possible to suggest solutions, although not free from limitations, that can be used for an efficient management of electric systems characterised by generation and consumption sectors under competition [it

  16. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Cappers, Peter

    2012-04-15

    Relatively little research exists estimating the marginal impacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sale prices. Using a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009, we find strong evidence, despite a variety of robustness checks, that existing homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems, implying a near full return on investment. Premiums for new homes are found to be considerably lower than those for existing homes, implying, potentially, a tradeoff between price and sales velocity. The results have significant implications for homeowners, builders, appraisers, lenders, and policymakers.

  17. Optimal Offering and Operating Strategy for a Large Wind-Storage System as a Price Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2017-01-01

    Wind farms and energy storage systems are playing increasingly more important roles in power systems, which makes their offering non-negligible in some markets. From the perspective of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS), this paper proposes an integrated strategy of day-ahead offering...... and real-time operation policies to maximize their overall profit. As participants with large capacity in electricity markets can influence cleared prices by strategic offering, a large scaled WFESS is assumed to be a price maker in day-ahead markets. Correspondingly, the strategy considers influence...

  18. Machine Learning for Identifying Demand Patterns of Home Energy Management Systems with Dynamic Electricity Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derck Koolen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy management plays a crucial role in providing necessary system flexibility to deal with the ongoing integration of volatile and intermittent energy sources. Demand Response (DR programs enhance demand flexibility by communicating energy market price volatility to the end-consumer. In such environments, home energy management systems assist the use of flexible end-appliances, based upon the individual consumer’s personal preferences and beliefs. However, with the latter heterogeneously distributed, not all dynamic pricing schemes are equally adequate for the individual needs of households. We conduct one of the first large scale natural experiments, with multiple dynamic pricing schemes for end consumers, allowing us to analyze different demand behavior in relation with household attributes. We apply a spectral relaxation clustering approach to show distinct groups of households within the two most used dynamic pricing schemes: Time-Of-Use and Real-Time Pricing. The results indicate that a more effective design of smart home energy management systems can lead to a better fit between customer and electricity tariff in order to reduce costs, enhance predictability and stability of load and allow for more optimal use of demand flexibility by such systems.

  19. A Dynamic Pricing Reverse Auction-Based Resource Allocation Mechanism in Cloud Workflow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market-oriented reverse auction is an efficient and cost-effective method for resource allocation in cloud workflow systems since it can dynamically allocate resources depending on the supply-demand relationship of the cloud market. However, during the auction the price of cloud resource is usually fixed, and the current resource allocation mechanisms cannot adapt to the changeable market properly which results in the low efficiency of resource utilization. To address such a problem, a dynamic pricing reverse auction-based resource allocation mechanism is proposed. During the auction, resource providers can change prices according to the trading situation so that our novel mechanism can increase the chances of making a deal and improve efficiency of resource utilization. In addition, resource providers can improve their competitiveness in the market by lowering prices, and thus users can obtain cheaper resources in shorter time which would decrease monetary cost and completion time for workflow execution. Experiments with different situations and problem sizes are conducted for dynamic pricing-based allocation mechanism (DPAM on resource utilization and the measurement of Time⁎Cost (TC. The results show that our DPAM can outperform its representative in resource utilization, monetary cost, and completion time and also obtain the optimal price reduction rates.

  20. Optimal price/performance for energy storage systems. Doing more with less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhuizen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of improving the price-performance ratio for thermal energy storage systems. It recommends restricting the source flow rate by a variety of measures, and trying to achieve equal maximum flow rates in summer and winter. Also recommended are the maximum deployment of sustainable system components and their use for various functions [nl

  1. Peak reduction in decentralised electricity systems : Markets and prices for flexible planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary societies, industrial processes as well as domestic activities rely to a large degree on a well-functioning electricity system. This reliance exists both structurally (the system should always be available) and economically (the prices for electricity affect the costs of operating a

  2. Optimal operation strategy of battery energy storage system to real-time electricity price in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studies in the paper. Simulation results show, that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may have some motivations to install an energy storage system in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal operation strategy for a battery energy storage...

  3. Residential on site solar heating systems: a project evaluation using the capital asset pricing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutz, S.R.

    1978-12-01

    An energy source ready for immediate use on a commercial scale is solar energy in the form of On Site Solar Heating (OSSH) systems. These systems collect solar energy with rooftop panels, store excess energy in water storage tanks and can, in certain circumstances, provide 100% of the space heating and hot water required by the occupants of the residential or commercial structure on which the system is located. Such systems would take advantage of a free and inexhaustible energy source--sunlight. The principal drawback of such systems is the high initial capital cost. The solution would normally be a carefully worked out corporate financing plan. However, at the moment it is individual homeowners and not corporations who are attempting to finance these systems. As a result, the terms of finance are excessively stringent and constitute the main obstacle to the large scale market penetration of OSSH. This study analyzes the feasibility of OSSH as a private utility investment. Such systems would be installed and owned by private utilities and would displace other investment projects, principally electric generating plants. The return on OSSH is calculated on the basis of the cost to the consumer of the equivalent amount of electrical energy that is displaced by the OSSH system. The hurdle rate for investment in OSSH is calculated using the Sharpe--Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model. The results of this study indicate that OSSH is a low risk investment having an appropriate hurdle rate of 7.9%. At this rate, OSSH investment appears marginally acceptable in northern California and unambiguously acceptable in southern California. The results also suggest that utility investment in OSSH should lead to a higher degree of financial leverage for utility companies without a concurrent deterioration in the risk class of utility equity.

  4. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Roy; Zwinkels, Remco C J

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news.

  5. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Kouwenberg

    Full Text Available Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news.

  6. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news. PMID:26107740

  7. Price-based optimal control of electrical power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jokic, A.

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, electrical power systems have been going through some major restructuring processes. From monopolistic, highly regulated and one utility controlled operation, a system is being restructured to include many parties competing for energy production and consumption, and for provision of many of the ancillary services necessary for system operation. With the emergence of competitive markets as central operational mechanisms, the prime operational objective has shifted from ...

  8. Tariff System and Electricity Price in the Republic if Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topic, J.; Jurisic, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and development of Electricity Tariff System in Croatia with special emphasis on the tariff system established in 1991. The analyzed period of the application of the tariff system in force and all other tariff rates from 1991 to 1995 are the basis for the assessment of required and possible alternations of tariff rates till the year 2000. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 plan

  9. Price-based optimal control of electrical power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, electrical power systems have been going through some major restructuring processes. From monopolistic, highly regulated and one utility controlled operation, a system is being restructured to include many parties competing for energy production and consumption, and for

  10. How to succeed with value-based pricing : A case study of how a Swedish OEM is working with price strategy in the context of globalization

    OpenAIRE

    HANNAH BJÖRK, HANNAH; FORSBERG, LINA

    2015-01-01

    In today’s world, change is faster than ever with rapid technological development and increasing global competition. The effects of globalization have led to more intense international competition when competitors originate from different parts of the world. Thanks to the use of new information technology, transparency has increased and made it possible for customers to compare products and prices between suppliers and prices in different markets and also buy cross-border. This puts pressure ...

  11. Making the Public Distribution System Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarshi Das

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical observations of operation of public distribution system in different states of India, the paper constructs a preliminary game theoretic model. It argues that an effective public distribution must be as universal as possible, delivery mechanism of fair price shops should be re- formed, they should be make them commercially viable and that special attention should be paid to PDS at times of high food inflation.

  12. Linear triangular optimization technique and pricing scheme in residential energy management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Amir; Hussain, Iqtadar; AlKhaldi, Ali Hussain; Aslam, Muhammad

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a new linear optimization algorithm for power scheduling of electric appliances. The proposed system is applied in a smart home community, in which community controller acts as a virtual distribution company for the end consumers. We also present a pricing scheme between community controller and its residential users based on real-time pricing and likely block rates. The results of the proposed optimization algorithm demonstrate that by applying the anticipated technique, not only end users can minimise the consumption cost, but it can also reduce the power peak to an average ratio which will be beneficial for the utilities as well.

  13. Joint inventory control and pricing in a service-inventory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marand, Ata Jalili; Li, Hongyan Jenny; Thorstenson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses joint inventory control and pricing decisions for a service-inventory system. In such a system both an on-hand inventory item and a positive service time are required to fulfill customer demands. The service-inventory system also captures main features of the classical...... inventory systems with a positive processing time, e.g., make-to-order systems. In this study, the service-inventory system is modeled as an M/M/1 queue in which the customer arrival rate is price dependent. The inventory of an individual item is continuously reviewed under an (r,Q) policy....... The replenishment lead times of the inventory are exponentially distributed. Furthermore, customers arriving during stock-out periods are lost. The stochastic customer inter-arrival times, service times, and inventory replenishment lead times cause the high complexity of the problem and the difficulty in solving it...

  14. Money Price Relationship under the Currency Board System: The Case of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Togay; Nezir Kose

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the endogenous money hypothesis is examined for the Argentinean economy employing exogeneity tests by using monthly data for the time period 1991-2001 within the frame of money and price relationship in a Currency Board-like system. Empirical results support the hypothesis which suggests that money supply is endogenous.

  15. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable

  16. Distributed, price-based control approach to market-based operation of future power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Hermans, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present, discuss and illustrate on examples the price-based control paradigm as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power systems. It is illustrated how global objectives and constraints are optimally translated into time-varying

  17. Reimbursement, system prices, profits. To stand or to fall; Einspeiseverguetung, Systempreise und Renditen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhs, Michael

    2012-07-01

    It is difficult to forecast the perspectives of photovoltaic conversion in Germany for 2012 as the energy-political boundary conditions are quite uncertain. Two different scenarios are possible, but both of them are difficult. The contribution presents reimbursement rates, system prices, and profits.

  18. Efficiency Effects of Unit-based Pricing Systems and Institutional Choices of Waste Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Municipal residential waste costs are rising. Therefore, it is important to introduce measures that lower waste collection and disposal costs. Based on a large panel data set for the Netherlands we show that unit-based pricing systems are more important from a cost-minimizing point of view than the

  19. Machine learning for identifying demand patterns of home energy management systems with dynamic electricity pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, D. (Derck); Sadat-Razavi, N. (Navid); W. Ketter (Wolfgang)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEnergy management plays a crucial role in providing necessary system flexibility to deal with the ongoing integration of volatile and intermittent energy sources. Demand Response (DR) programs enhance demand flexibility by communicating energy market price volatility to the end-consumer.

  20. Dual-Priced Modal Transition Systems with Time Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems are a well-established specification formalism for a high-level modelling of component-based software systems. We present a novel extension of the formalism called modal transition systems with durations where time durations are modelled as controllable or uncontrollable...... intervals. We further equip the model with two kinds of quantitative aspects: each action has its own running cost per time unit, and actions may require several hardware components of different costs. We ask the question, given a fixed budget for the hardware components, what is the implementation...... with the cheapest long-run average reward. We give an algorithm for computing such optimal implementations via a reduction to a new extension of mean payoff games with time durations and analyse the complexity of the algorithm....

  1. Army Contracting Officials Could Have Purchased Husky Mounted Detection System Spare Parts at Lower Prices (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    system mounted on an armored vehicle . It detects and marks landmines and other buried explosive hazards, and serves an important role in keeping...countries. Figure 1. HMDS Shown on a Husky Vehicle Source: Project Manager Close Combat Systems FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Introduction...Reasonable Prices From Meggitt Aircraft Braking Systems for Sole-Source Commercial Spare Parts,” May 8, 2015 Report No. DODIG-2015-103, “Summary of

  2. System 6: A pricing strategy for long blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Bruce G. Hansen; Bruce G. Hansen

    1986-01-01

    In System 6, small-diameter, low-grade hardwood timber is used to make blanks in standard sizes. Blanks are made in one thickness and one quality class but in all the standard lengths during each production run. The quantity of blanks per length can be varied, while keeping total yield high, by using proper production control techniques. However, when the percentage of...

  3. The implementation of unit price of work standard SNI 7394: 2008 for the construction of reinforced concrete beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli; Mubarak; Nurisra; Mahmuddin

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 7394: 2008 on procedures for calculating the unit price of concrete work for the construction of building and housing. The standard provides some reinforced concrete constructions unit price (UP) analysis by specified the total number of reinforcing uses. Related to reinforced concrete beam work (Analysis No. 6.31), the reinforcement requirement is stated at 200 kg/m3 of concrete. Once the implementation considers various earthquake zoning, the question will arise about the extent to which the standard is feasible to apply. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze the possibility of UP standard implementation by certain earthquake zonation. This research is focused on the construction of reinforced concrete beam for buildings with function as educational, residential and office buildings. The data used are sourced from 21 buildings in two zones in Aceh Province, covering Zone 10 and Zone 15 based on earthquake map of SNI 1726: 2012. The analysis results indicate that the UP standard for reinforced concrete beam cannot be applied to all zoning. The UP standard is only possible on buildings constructed in Zone 10 or zonation with seismic spectral response 0.6g to 0.7g or lower.

  4. Is there dependence and systemic risk between oil and renewable energy stock prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboredo, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    We study systemic risk and dependence between oil and renewable energy markets using copulas to characterize the dependence structure and to compute the conditional value-at-risk as a measure of systemic risk. We found significant time-varying average and symmetric tail dependence between oil returns and several global and sectoral renewable energy indices. Our evidence on systemic risk indicates that oil price dynamics significantly contributes around 30% to downside and upside risk of renewable energy companies. These results have important implications for risk management and renewable energy policies. - Highlights: • We study systemic risk and dependence between oil and renewable energy markets. • Dependence and conditional value-at-risk is obtained through copulas. • Oil and renewable energy displayed time-varying average and symmetric tail dependence. • Oil price contribution to the downside and upside risks of renewable energy companies was around 30%

  5. An Auto Telematics System For Insurance Premium Rating amp Pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irode Philip Luvuga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance telematics is a new technology that has been poised to transform and change the way we buy and underwrite insurance by 2030. Insurance Premium Rate is a major variable that determines if a client will buy or take up a policy cover or not. With the current stiff competition being felt in the Industry the local insurance industry continues to suffer big losses due to unhealthy business practice of competitor undercutting among the insurers to attract more clients but exposing the underwriting companies to potential high risks. This in most cases means that the product is totally underpriced to the extent that it would be uneconomical and unsustainable in the long run for the insurance firms. This research outlines a technology defined model that should be used to determine the ideal premium rate payable in the Motor Insurance industry taking into account all the variables and the risk exposure of the policy holder. The system model is able to determine the insurable risk based on the drivers attributes and profile location of the vehicle in relation to risk geo-locations map monitoring the driving parameters of the vehicle by the driver and the driving style. This enable the insurance company determines costs associated with the risk cover based on factual facts which are scientifically determined by the real risks.

  6. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  7. Working Paper - WP/12/08- Exchange Rate Pass-through to Import Prices, and Monetary Policy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Aron; Greg Farrell; John Muellbauer; Peter Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how import prices adjust to exchange rates helps anticipate inflation effects and monetary policy responses. This paper examines exchange rate pass-through to the monthly import price index in South Africa during 1980–2009. Various short-run pass-through estimates are calculated simply without recourse to a full structural model, yet without neglecting the long-run relationships between prices or the effects of previous import price changes, and controlling for domestic and fore...

  8. House Price Growth When Children Are Teenagers: A Path to Higher Earnings? Working Paper No. 14-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Luengo-Prado, María José

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a rise in house prices that occurs immediately prior to children entering college has an impact on their earnings as adults. Higher house prices provide homeowners with additional funds to invest in their children's human capital. The results show that a 1 percentage point increase in house prices, when children are 17…

  9. Work extraction from quantum systems with bounded fluctuations in work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Jonathan G.; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-11-01

    In the standard framework of thermodynamics, work is a random variable whose average is bounded by the change in free energy of the system. This average work is calculated without regard for the size of its fluctuations. Here we show that for some processes, such as reversible cooling, the fluctuations in work diverge. Realistic thermal machines may be unable to cope with arbitrarily large fluctuations. Hence, it is important to understand how thermodynamic efficiency rates are modified by bounding fluctuations. We quantify the work content and work of formation of arbitrary finite dimensional quantum states when the fluctuations in work are bounded by a given amount c. By varying c we interpolate between the standard and minimum free energies. We derive fundamental trade-offs between the magnitude of work and its fluctuations. As one application of these results, we derive the corrected Carnot efficiency of a qubit heat engine with bounded fluctuations.

  10. Complex Nonlinear Dynamic System of Oligopolies Price Game with Heterogeneous Players Under Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Li, Yaguang

    A nonlinear four oligopolies price game with heterogeneous players, that are boundedly rational and adaptive, is built using two different special demand costs. Based on the theory of complex discrete dynamical system, the stability and the existing equilibrium point are investigated. The complex dynamic behavior is presented via bifurcation diagrams, the Lyapunov exponents to show equilibrium state, bifurcation and chaos with the variation in parameters. As disturbance is ubiquitous in economic systems, this paper focuses on the analysis of delay feedback control method under noise circumstances. Stable dynamics is confirmed to depend mainly on the low price adjustment speed, and if all four players have limited opportunities to stabilize the market, the new adaptive player facing profits of scale are found to be higher than the incumbents of bounded rational.

  11. Do state minimum markup/price laws work? Evidence from retail scanner data and TUS-CPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chriqui, Jamie F; DeLong, Hillary; Mirza, Maryam; Diaz, Megan C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-10-01

    Minimum markup/price laws (MPLs) have been proposed as an alternative non-tax pricing strategy to reduce tobacco use and access. However, the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of MPLs in increasing cigarette prices is very limited. This study aims to fill this critical gap by examining the association between MPLs and cigarette prices. State MPLs were compiled from primary legal research databases and were linked to cigarette prices constructed from the Nielsen retail scanner data and the self-reported cigarette prices from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between MPLs and the major components of MPLs and cigarette prices. The presence of MPLs was associated with higher cigarette prices. In addition, cigarette prices were higher, above and beyond the higher prices resulting from MPLs, in states that prohibit below-cost combination sales; do not allow any distributing party to use trade discounts to reduce the base cost of cigarettes; prohibit distributing parties from meeting the price of a competitor, and prohibit distributing below-cost coupons to the consumer. Moreover, states that had total markup rates >24% were associated with significantly higher cigarette prices. MPLs are an effective way to increase cigarette prices. The impact of MPLs can be further strengthened by imposing greater markup rates and by prohibiting coupon distribution, competitor price matching, and use of below-cost combination sales and trade discounts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Your Digestive System & How it Works What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ... you eat or drink each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important because your body needs ...

  13. Impacts of carbon pricing, brown coal availability and gas cost on Czech energy system up to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rečka, L.; Ščasný, M.

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic partial equilibrium model, TIMES (​The Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System), is built to optimize the energy system in a post-transition European country, the Czech Republic. The impacts of overall nine scenarios on installed capacity, capital and fuel costs, air quality pollutant emission, emission of CO_2 and environmental and health damage are quantified for a period up to 2050. These scenarios are built around three different price sets of the EUA (EU allowance) to emit greenhouse gasses alongside a policy that retains the ban on brown coal mining in two Czech mines, a policy that will allow the re-opening of mining areas under this ban (i.e. within the territorial ecological limits), and a low natural gas price assumption. We found that the use of up until now dominant brown coal will be significantly reduced in each scenario, although reopening the coal mines will result in its smaller decline. With low EUA price, hard coal will become the dominant fuel in electricity generation, while nuclear will overtake this position with a 51% or even 65% share assuming the central price of EUA, or high EUA price, respectively. The low price of natural gas will result in an increasing gas share from an almost zero share recently up to about 42%. This stimulus does not however appear at all with low EUA price. Neither of these scenarios will achieve the renewable energy sources 2030 targets and only a high EUA price will lead to almost full de-carbonization of the Czech power system, with fossil fuels representing only 16% of the energy mix. The low EUA price will result in an increase in CO_2 emissions, whereas the high EUA price will reduce CO_2 emission by at least 81% compared to the 2015 reference level. Those scenarios that will result in CO_2 emission reduction will also generate ancillary benefits due to reduction in air quality emissions, on average over the entire period, at least at 38€ per t of avoided CO_2, whereas scenarios that will lead to CO_2

  14. An analysis of residential PV system price differences between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, Joachim; Barbose, Galen L.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or “soft” costs between the two countries, which can only in part be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in Germany, especially for customer acquisition, installation labor, and profit/overhead costs, but also for expenses related to permitting, interconnection, and inspection procedures. Additional costs occur in the United States due to state and local sales taxes, smaller average system sizes, and longer project-development times. To reduce the identified additional costs of residential PV systems, the United States could introduce policies that enable a robust and lasting market while minimizing market fragmentation. Regularly declining incentives offering a transparent and certain value proposition—combined with simple interconnection, permitting, and inspection requirements—might help accelerate PV cost reductions in the United States. - Highlights: • Residential PV system prices are twice as high in the USA than in Germany in 2012. • Different cumulative national PV market sizes explain only 35% of price gap. • Installer surveys show that price differences stem from non-module and soft costs. • Largest cost differences stem from customer acquisition and installation labor. • Incentives in the US are less effective in driving and following cost reductions

  15. ANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PRICING SYSTEM IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyapin Anton Valer'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the pricing system and underlying investment and construction activities were analyzed by the authors in their research. It is noteworthy that the pricing system has a common basis with other human systems, as it incorporates such constituents as process, people, software, etc. Correct interaction between these elements ensures conformity between the anticipated and the practical performance of the system. The basis for the effective operation of the existing system and reduction of potential risks consists in early identification and analysis of requirements set by the user. Absent of implementation of an effective requirement management process, the pattern of the system development will look chaotic and unpredictable. In the process of the data analysis, the data set is converted into a set of the user requirements describing the anticipated behavior of the system in the course of its interaction with the operating environment. The requirements of users comprise an important constituent of the system design. They affect the entire development process from the beginning to the very end. In accordance with the principles of the system engineering, the authors have identified the key pricing system parameters; their implementation assures the appropriate functionality with a view to the formation of the contract price at various stages of the life-cycle of the investment project. Analysis of the above requirements makes it possible to convert them into a technical vision of the desired product that can demonstrate the required functionality. The methodology proposed by the authors contemplates decomposition of the levels of requirements; therefore, the authors employ a three-level model that describes the expected functionality of the system. The model includes an organizational level (basic processes, participants, information flows, a methodological level (method of calculating the cost of design, construction and operation

  16. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from management accounting aspects to show out the role of the accounting system in the short term and long term pricing and transfer pricing decisions.

  17. Working methodologically on system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang, J.V.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch agriculture is facing the challenge to develop into a sustainable sector. To achieve this goal, innovations are needed which force breaks with past trends and speed up the tempo of sustainable development. The System Innovation Programmes developed by Wageningen UR contribute with new,

  18. Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

    2006-01-01

    The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options…

  19. Participatory simulation in hospital work system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation...... (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system designs. However, only a few studies have investigated PS and the elements of the method. Yet...... understanding the elements is essential when analyzing and planning PS in research and practice. This PhD study investigates PS and the method elements in the context of the Danish hospital sector, where PS is applied in the renewal and design of public hospitals and the work systems within the hospitals...

  20. Work resumption at the price of distrust: a qualitative study on return to work legislation in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Return to work (RTW) after sick leave is considered necessary to support the employees’ health. Cooperation between employees and employers may encourage employees’ RTW, but is hampered by bottlenecks that we do not completely understand. Dutch legislation means to support this cooperation and allows trying RTW during two years. The Resource Dependence Institutional Cooperation (RDIC) model has been developed for studying cooperation in public health. Study aims were to get insight into the degree of cooperation between Dutch sick-listed employees and employers, how this (lack of) cooperation can be understood, and how valid the RDIC model is for understanding this (lack of) cooperation. Methods This qualitative study was based on in-depth interviews with 8 employees and 8 employers. Employees reported sick for 1.5-20 months for various reasons. Interviews were analysed using an interpretative approach and pattern matching. Results Cooperation was lacking early during sick leave. Later on there were regular meetings, but employers decided about RTW without consulting the employees. Particularly employers were motivated to cooperate during the first year, while employees were especially motivated during the second. This could be understood by experienced dependence; employees (first year) and employers (second year) did not consider cooperation to be important for achieving medical recovery (employees) or RTW (employers). These divergent goals may be understood by personal norms about the timing of medical recovery and RTW. Legislation was particularly effective regarding employer behaviour in year 1 and employee behaviour in year 2. Employees distrusted their employers during the first year, while employers reported to distrust the employees during the second year. Besides, employees and employers experienced a moderate ability to cooperate. This could be understood particularly by having moderate knowledge about legislation. The RDIC model

  1. Mapping of selected markets with Nodal pricing or similar systems. Australia, New Zealand and North American power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Vivi (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    This report shows that the principals of nodal pricing can be implemented in different ways. A common denominator for markets with nodal pricing is a central market based nodal dispatch, where prices and flows are determined simultaneously close to real time. This stands apart from the European market design, which is based on a highly simplified version of the grid, and a physical point auction day ahead. Congestion management is handled by the TSO during the operational hour and not through the market as is the case in nodal pricing systems. Nodal pricing yields optimal dispatch and congestion management through the market, and as such an optimal utilisation of energy generation and network. However, whether this short term optimisation delivers the highest overall efficiency for the market in terms of competition in the wholesale and retail market, price discovery, possibilities for hedging, long term price signals etc. is difficult to determine. The markets investigated handle issues such as market power, risk management, investment signals and retail markets in very different ways. New Zealand and PJM are examples of markets with full nodal pricing, i.e. both generators and the demand side are exposed to nodal prices. The PJM market has more 'additional features' than the New Zealand market. Examples of these are separate capacity market to trigger investments in generation and generator price caps to deal with situations of market power. In addition PJM offers liquid and mature markets for risk management, such as aggregates of nodes where market participant can chose to be settled (rather than to be settled directly at the node). A general finding though, seems to be that risk management at peripheral nodes is challenging in nodal markets, particularly for independent retailers. In New Zealand generators and retailers were permitted to 'reintegrate' in order to cope with the nodal prices. The Australian market has central market based

  2. El capital humano en el sistema de precios Human capital in the price system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas Homero

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo explora algunas implicaciones fundamentales de la introducción del capital humano en un sistema de equilibrio general de precios de producción. En particular, las implicaciones sobre las determinación de los salarios, los agregados, la homogeneidad del modelo de trabajo, las proporciones capital trabajo, la tasa natural del beneficio y las fluctuaciones de los precios de equilibrio.This essay explores some fundamental implications of the introduction of human capital in a system of general equilibrium of prices of production. In particular, the implications concerning the determination of wages, the aggregates, the homogenei ty of labor, the capital-labor ratio, the natural rate of profit and the fluctuations of equilibrium prices.

  3. Dynamic Pricing and Production Control of an Inventory System with Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider optimal pricing and manufacturing control of a continuous-review inventory system with remanufacturing. Customer demand and product return follow independent Poisson processes. Customer demand is filled by serviceable product, which can be either manufactured or remanufactured from the returned product. The lead times for both manufacturing and remanufacturing are exponentially distributed. The objective is to maximize the expected total discounted profit over an infinite planning horizon. We characterize the structural properties of the optimal policy through the optimality equation. Specifically, the optimal manufacturing policy is a base-stock policy with the base-stock level nonincreasing in the return inventory level. The optimal pricing policy is also a threshold policy, where the threshold level is nonincreasing in the return inventory level.

  4. Price-Efficiency Relationship for Photovoltaic Systems on a Global Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sait Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is the most abundant, useful, efficient, and environmentally friendly source of renewable energy. In addition, in recent years, the capacity of photovoltaic electricity generation systems has increased exponentially throughout the world given an increase in the economic viability and reliability of photovoltaic systems. Moreover, many studies state that photovoltaic power systems will play a key role in electricity generation in the future. When first produced, photovoltaic systems had short lifetimes. Currently, through development, the technology lifecycle of photovoltaic systems has increased to 20–25 years. Studies showed that photovoltaic systems would be broadly used in the future, a conclusion reached by considering the rapidly decreasing cost of photovoltaic systems. Because price analysis is very important for energy marketing, in this study, a review of the cost potential factors on photovoltaic panels is realized and the expected cost potential of photovoltaic systems is examined considering numerous studies.

  5. Development of an evolutionary fuzzy expert system for estimating future behavior of stock price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmanpazir, Farhad; Asadi, Shahrokh

    2017-03-01

    The stock market has always been an attractive area for researchers since no method has been found yet to predict the stock price behavior precisely. Due to its high rate of uncertainty and volatility, it carries a higher risk than any other investment area, thus the stock price behavior is difficult to simulation. This paper presents a "data mining-based evolutionary fuzzy expert system" (DEFES) approach to estimate the behavior of stock price. This tool is developed in seven-stage architecture. Data mining is used in three stages to reduce the complexity of the whole data space. The first stage, noise filtering, is used to make our raw data clean and smooth. Variable selection is second stage; we use stepwise regression analysis to choose the key variables been considered in the model. In the third stage, K-means is used to divide the data into sub-populations to decrease the effects of noise and rebate complexity of the patterns. At next stage, extraction of Mamdani type fuzzy rule-based system will be carried out for each cluster by means of genetic algorithm and evolutionary strategy. In the fifth stage, we use binary genetic algorithm to rule filtering to remove the redundant rules in order to solve over learning phenomenon. In the sixth stage, we utilize the genetic tuning process to slightly adjust the shape of the membership functions. Last stage is the testing performance of tool and adjusts parameters. This is the first study on using an approximate fuzzy rule base system and evolutionary strategy with the ability of extracting the whole knowledge base of fuzzy expert system for stock price forecasting problems. The superiority and applicability of DEFES are shown for International Business Machines Corporation and compared the outcome with the results of the other methods. Results with MAPE metric and Wilcoxon signed ranks test indicate that DEFES provides more accuracy and outperforms all previous methods, so it can be considered as a superior tool for

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2011-04-12

    An increasing number of homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems have sold in the U.S., yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on the sales price. A clearer understanding of these effects might influence the decisions of homeowners, home buyers and PV home builders. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. Across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests, the analysis finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without. The effects range, on average, from approximately $3.9 to $6.4 per installed watt (DC), with most models coalescing near $5.5/watt, which corresponds to a premium of approximately $17,000 for a 3,100 watt system. The research also shows that, as PV systems age, the premium enjoyed at the time of home sale decreases. Additionally, existing homes with PV systems are found to have commanded a larger sales price premium than new homes with similarly sized PV systems. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted in this area as well as a number of other areas that are highlighted.

  7. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  8. An Analysis of the Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark

    2011-04-19

    An increasing number of homes in the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems installed at the time of sale, yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on home sale prices. A clearer understanding of these possible impacts might influence the decisions of homeowners considering the installation of a PV system, homebuyers considering the purchase of a home with PV already installed, and new home builders considering including PV as an optional or standard product on their homes. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. It finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems during this time frame. Estimates for this premium expressed in dollars per watt of installed PV range, on average, from roughly $4 to $5.5/watt across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests. When expressed as a ratio of the sales price premium of PV to estimated annual energy cost savings associated with PV, an average ratio of 14:1 to 19:1 can be calculated; these results are consistent with those of the more-extensive existing literature on the impact of energy efficiency on sales prices. When the data are split among new and existing homes, however, PV system premiums are markedly affected. New homes with PV show premiums of $2.3-2.6/watt, while existing homes with PV show premiums of more than $6/watt. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted. A number of other areas where future research would be useful are also highlighted.

  9. Systems analysis approach to the design of efficient water pricing policies under the EU water framework directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riegels, Niels; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Doulgeris, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    management objectives. However, the design and implementation of economic instruments for water management, including water pricing, has emerged as a challenging aspect of WFD implementation. This study demonstrates the use of a systems analysis approach to designing and comparing two economic approaches......Economic theory suggests that water pricing can contribute to efficient management of water scarcity. The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a major legislative effort to introduce the use of economic instruments to encourage efficient water use and achieve environmental...... to efficient management of groundwater and surface water given EU WFD ecological flow requirements. Under the first approach, all wholesale water users in a river basin face the same volumetric price for water. This water price does not vary in space or in time, and surface water and groundwater are priced...

  10. Optimal Control of a Make-to-Stock System with Outsourced Production and Price-Sensitive Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuxin Chen

    2014-01-01

    and a choice of either high or low price, the system decides at any point in time whether to produce or even outsource for additional capacity as well as which price to sell the product at. We show in the paper that the optimal control policy is of dynamic threshold type: all decisions are based on the product inventory position which represents the state of the system; there is a state dependent base stock level to decide on production and a higher level on outsourcing; and there is a state dependent threshold which divides the choice of high and low prices.

  11. Impacts of Contingency Reserve on Nodal Price and Nodal Reliability Risk in Deregulated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    The deregulation of power systems allows customers to participate in power market operation. In deregulated power systems, nodal price and nodal reliability are adopted to represent locational operation cost and reliability performance. Since contingency reserve (CR) plays an important role...... in reliable operation, the CR commitment should be considered in operational reliability analysis. In this paper, a CR model based on customer reliability requirements has been formulated and integrated into power market settlement. A two-step market clearing process has been proposed to determine generation...

  12. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  13. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  14. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng; Li, Chun; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value

  15. Effects of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in financial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiang-Cheng [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China); Li, Chun [Department of Computer Science, Puer Teachers' College, Puer 665000 (China); Mei, Dong-Cheng, E-mail: meidch@ynu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2014-06-13

    The effect of time delay on stochastic resonance of the stock prices in finance system was investigated. The time delay is introduced into the Heston model driven by the extrinsic and intrinsic periodic information for stock price. The signal power amplification (SPA) was calculated by numerical simulation. The results indicate that an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance in the behaviors of SPA as a function of long-run variance of volatility or cross correlation coefficient between noises for both cases of intrinsic and extrinsic periodic information. Moreover, in both cases, being a critical value in the delay time, when the delay time takes value below the critical value, reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing, however, when the delay time takes value above the critical value, the reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing. - Highlights: • The effects of delay time on stochastic resonance of the stock prices was investigated. • There is an optimal critical value of delay time maximally enhances the reverse-resonance • The reverse-resonance increases with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value below the critical value • The reverse-resonance decrease with the delay time increasing as the delay time takes value above the critical value.

  16. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  17. Prediction of Change in Prescription Ingredient Costs and Co-payment Rates under a Reference Pricing System in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ji Haeng; Rascati, Karen L; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2017-05-01

    The reference pricing system (RPS) establishes reference prices within interchangeable reference groupings. For drugs priced higher than the reference point, patients pay the difference between the reference price and the total price. To predict potential changes in prescription ingredient costs and co-payment rates after implementation of an RPS in South Korea. Korean National Health Insurance claims data were used as a baseline to develop possible RPS models. Five components of a potential RPS policy were varied: reference groupings, reference pricing methods, co-pay reduction programs, manufacturer price reductions, and increased drug substitutions. The potential changes for prescription ingredient costs and co-payment rates were predicted for the various scenarios. It was predicted that transferring the difference (total price minus reference price) from the insurer to patients would reduce ingredient costs from 1.4% to 22.8% for the third-party payer (government), but patient co-payment rates would increase from a baseline of 20.4% to 22.0% using chemical groupings and to 25.0% using therapeutic groupings. Savings rates in prescription ingredient costs (government and patient combined) were predicted to range from 1.6% to 13.7% depending on various scenarios. Although the co-payment rate would increase, a 15% price reduction by manufacturers coupled with a substitution rate of 30% would result in a decrease in the co-payment amount (change in absolute dollars vs. change in rates). Our models predicted that the implementation of RPS in South Korea would lead to savings in ingredient costs for the third-party payer and co-payments for patients with potential scenarios. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Permit to Work System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Azwafarina Zarmira Aznan; Md Derus Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Permit-To-Work System is an essential part of the job risk assessment process. An effective Permit-To-Work System would help to prevent accident that usually involves maintenance and construction activities. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Radiation Safety and Health Division (BKS) has been given the responsibility to implement the system in order to fulfill the requirement of providing a safe and healthy workplace and environment for its employees as pledged in the Occupational Safety, Health and Environmental Policy. This paper presents the roles and functions of Permit-To-Work System, together with the process flow and challenges ahead. (author)

  19. Oil prices and the stock prices of alternative energy companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Irene; Sadorsky, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Energy security issues coupled with increased concern over the natural environment are driving factors behind oil price movements. While it is widely accepted that rising oil prices are good for the financial performance of alternative energy companies, there has been relatively little statistical work done to measure just how sensitive the financial performance of alternative energy companies are to changes in oil prices. In this paper, a four variable vector autoregression model is developed and estimated in order to investigate the empirical relationship between alternative energy stock prices, technology stock prices, oil prices, and interest rates. Our results show technology stock prices and oil prices each individually Granger cause the stock prices of alternative energy companies. Simulation results show that a shock to technology stock prices has a larger impact on alternative energy stock prices than does a shock to oil prices. These results should be of use to investors, managers and policy makers. (author)

  20. BUDGET NORMALIZATION AND PRICING FEATURES IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gadzhieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the pricing of the construction is different from the pricing system in the industry and other branches of economy, because it has different methodological and organizational approaches. It has been determined that the cost of construction is set on the stage of its design, in the process of concluding investment contracts (construction contracts, as well as directly during construction, major repairs of objects of capital construction, reconstruction and the implementation of certain types of construction and installation works. It has been found that the pricing mechanism in construction is based on the detailed legal and reference documents regulating material consumption rates and prices, taking into account sectoral, territorial and seasonal features of building production. It has been found that under inflation conditions the price index calculation of construction products for investment purposes is of great importance. Mandatory approval of all stakeholders of the construction production method for determining the price of the construction site is proposed.

  1. Drug Pricing Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Reference price systems for prescription drugs have found widespread use as cost containment tools. Under such regulatory regimes, patients co-pay a fraction of the difference between pharmacy retail price of the drug and a reference price. Reference prices are either externally (based on drug...... prices in other countries) or internally (based on domestic drug prices) determined. In a recent study, we analysed the effects of a change from external to internal reference pricing in Denmark in 2005, finding that the reform led to substantial reductions in prices, producer revenues, and expenditures...... for patients and the health insurance system. We also estimated an increase in consumer welfare but the size effect depends on whether or not perceived quality differences between branded and other drugs are taken into account....

  2. NASA work unit system file maintenance manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The NASA Work Unit System is a management information system for research tasks (i.e., work units) performed under NASA grants and contracts. It supplies profiles on research efforts and statistics on fund distribution. The file maintenance operator can add, delete and change records at a remote terminal or can submit punched cards to the computer room for batch update. The system is designed for file maintenance by a person with little or no knowledge of data processing techniques.

  3. The Questionable Economic Case for Value-Based Drug Pricing in Market Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the economic theory and interpretation of the concept of "value-based pricing" for new breakthrough drugs with no close substitutes in a context (such as the United States) in which a drug firm with market power sells its product to various buyers. The interpretation is different from that in a country that evaluates medicines for a single public health insurance plan or a set of heavily regulated plans. It is shown that there will not ordinarily be a single value-based price but rather a schedule of prices with different volumes of buyers at each price. Hence, it is incorrect to term a particular price the value-based price, or to argue that the profit-maximizing monopoly price is too high relative to some hypothesized value-based price. When effectiveness of treatment or value of health is heterogeneous, the profit-maximizing price can be higher than that associated with assumed values of quality-adjusted life-years. If the firm sets a price higher than the value-based price for a set of potential buyers, the optimal strategy of the buyers is to decline to purchase that drug. The profit-maximizing price will come closer to a unique value-based price if demand is less heterogeneous. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  5. Impacts of Variable Renewable Energy on Bulk Power System Assets, Pricing, and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-29

    We synthesize available literature, data, and analysis on the degree to which growth in variable renewable energy (VRE) has impacted to date or might in the future impact bulk power system assets, pricing, and costs. We do not analyze impacts on specific power plants, instead focusing on national and regional system-level trends. The issues addressed are highly context dependent—affected by the underlying generation mix of the system, the amount of wind and solar penetration, and the design and structure of the bulk power system in each region. Moreover, analyzing the impacts of VRE on the bulk power system is a complex area of research and there is much more to be done to increase understanding of how VRE impacts the dynamics of current and future electricity markets. While more analysis is warranted, including additional location-specific assessments, several high-level findings emerge from this synthesis: -VRE Is Already Impacting the Bulk Power Market -VRE Impacts on Average Wholesale Prices Have Been Modest -VRE Impacts on Power Plant Retirements Have So Far Been Limited -VRE Impacts on the Bulk Power Market will Grow with Penetration -The ’System Value’ of VRE will Decline with Penetration -Power System Flexibility Can Reduce the Rate of VRE Value Decline All generation types are unique in some respect—bringing benefits and challenges to the power system—and wholesale markets, industry investments, and operational procedures have evolved over time to manage the characteristics of a changing generation fleet. With increased VRE penetrations, power system planners, operators, regulators, and policymakers will continue to be challenged to develop methods to smoothly and cost-effectively manage the reliable integration of these new and growing sources of electricity supply.

  6. Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozina, J.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it

  7. Short-term differences in drug prices after implementation of the national essential medicines system: A case study in rural Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junyong; Liu, Xia; Wang, Suzhen; Chen, Heli; Wang, Xun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhu, Yanchen; Zheng, Xianping; Hao, Mo

    2015-01-01

    China's 2009 national essential medicine system (NEMS) was designed to reduce prices through a zero-markup policy and a centralized bidding system. To analyze NEMS's short-term impact on drug prices, we estimated the retail and wholesale prices before and after the reform at health institutions in rural Jiangxi Province. We undertook two cross-sectional surveys of prices of 39 medicines in November 2008 and May 2010, calculated inflation adjusted prices, and used the Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests to examine price changes at different health institutions. Retail prices at pilot (P health centers decreased significantly, whereas the declines at retail pharmacies (P = 0.57) and village clinics (P = 0.29) were insignificant. The decline at pilot township health centers was the largest, compared with other kinds of health institutions (P health institutions, the centralized bidding system was insufficient to lower wholesale prices. A drug price management system should be constructed to control medicine prices and a long-term price information system is needed to monitor price changes.

  8. Designing an agricultural vegetative waste-management system under uncertain prices of treatment-technology output products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, D; Raviv, O; Ayalon, O; Kan, I

    2018-05-01

    Setting up a sustainable agricultural vegetative waste-management system is a challenging investment task, particularly when markets for output products of waste-treatment technologies are not well established. We conduct an economic analysis of possible investments in treatment technologies of agricultural vegetative waste, while accounting for fluctuating output prices. Under a risk-neutral approach, we find the range of output-product prices within which each considered technology becomes most profitable, using average final prices as the exclusive factor. Under a risk-averse perspective, we rank the treatment technologies based on their computed certainty-equivalent profits as functions of the coefficient of variation of the technologies' output prices. We find the ranking of treatment technologies based on average prices to be robust to output-price fluctuations provided that the coefficient of variation of the output prices is below about 0.4, that is, approximately twice as high as that of well-established recycled-material markets such as glass, paper and plastic. We discuss some policy implications that arise from our analysis regarding vegetative waste management and its associated risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  10. Sensitivity of district heating system operation to heat demand reductions and electricity price variations: A Swedish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Widén, J.; Henning, D.

    2012-01-01

    In the future, district heating companies in Sweden must adapt to energy efficiency measures in buildings and variable fuel and electricity prices. Swedish district heating demands are expected to decrease by 1–2% per year and electricity price variations seem to be more unpredictable in the future. A cost-optimisation model of a Swedish local district heating system is constructed using the optimisation modelling tool MODEST. A scenario for heat demand changes due to increased energy efficiency in buildings, combined with the addition of new buildings, is studied along with a sensitivity analysis for electricity price variations. Despite fears that heat demand reductions will decrease co-generation of clean electricity and cause increased global emissions, the results show that anticipated heat demand changes do not increase the studied system's primary energy use or global CO 2 emissions. The results further indicate that the heat production plants and the fuels used within the system have crucial importance for the environmental impact of district heat use. Results also show that low seasonal variations in electricity price levels with relatively low winter prices promote the use of electric heat pumps. High winter prices on the other hand promote co-generation of heat and electricity in CHP plants. -- Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Uppsala district heating system is built. ► The impact of heat demand change on heat and electricity production is examined. ► An electricity price level sensitivity analysis for district heating is performed. ► Heat demand changes do not increase the primary energy use or global CO 2 emissions. ► Low winter prices promote use of electric heat pumps for district heating production.

  11. Hospital non-price competition under the Global Budget Payment and Prospective Payment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yi; Lin, Yu-Hui

    2008-06-01

    This paper provides theoretical analyses of two alternative hospital payment systems for controlling medical cost: the Global Budget Payment System (GBPS) and the Prospective Payment System (PPS). The former method assigns a fixed total budget for all healthcare services over a given period with hospitals being paid on a fee-for-service basis. The latter method is usually connected with a fixed payment to hospitals within a Diagnosis-Related Group. Our results demonstrate that, given the same expenditure, the GBPS would approach optimal levels of quality and efficiency as well as the level of social welfare provided by the PPS, as long as market competition is sufficiently high; our results also demonstrate that the treadmill effect, modeling an inverse relationship between price and quantity under the GBPS, would be a quality-enhancing and efficiency-improving outcome due to market competition.

  12. ACCOUNTING ASPECTS OF PRICING AND TRANSFER PRICING

    OpenAIRE

    TÜNDE VERES

    2011-01-01

    The pricing methods in practice need really complex view of the business situation and depend on the strategy and market position of a company. The structure of a price seems simple: cost plus margin. Both categories are special area in the management accounting. Information about the product costs, the allocation methodologies in cost accounting, the analyzing of revenue and different level of the margin needs information from accounting system. This paper analyzes the pricing methods from m...

  13. Forecasting short-term power prices in the Ontario Electricity Market (OEM) with a fuzzy logic based inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciniegas, Alvaro I.; Arciniegas Rueda, Ismael E.

    2008-01-01

    The Ontario Electricity Market (OEM), which opened in May 2002, is relatively new and is still under change. In addition, the bidding strategies of the participants are such that the relationships between price and fundamentals are non-linear and dynamic. The lack of market maturity and high complexity hinders the use of traditional statistical methodologies (e.g., regression analysis) for price forecasting. Therefore, a flexible model is needed to achieve good forecasting in OEM. This paper uses a Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy inference system in forecasting the one-day-ahead real-time peak price of the OEM. The forecasting results of TSK are compared with those obtained by traditional statistical and neural network based forecasting. The comparison suggests that TSK has considerable value in forecasting one-day-ahead peak price in OEM. (author)

  14. Working while incapable to work? Changing concepts of permitted work in the UK disability benefit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Gulland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on the borderland between "work" and "not work" in UK disability benefit systems. People who claim disability benefits often have to prove that they are "incapable of work" in order to qualify. The idea of incapacity for work requires an understanding of the meaning of the term "work," a concept which has a common sense simplicity but which is much more difficult to define in practice. UK disability benefit systems have developed the notion of "permitted work" to allow people to do small amounts of paid work while retaining entitlement to benefit. This concept of "permitted work" has its roots in the early twentieth century when claimants were sometimes entitled to disability benefits if any work that they did was considered to be sufficiently trivial to not count as "work." Policy on this changed over time, with particular developments after the Second World War, as rehabilitation and therapy became the key focus of permitted work rules. Current developments in UK social security policy treat almost everyone as a potential worker, changing the way in which permitted work operates. This article uses archive material on appeals against refusals of benefit, policy documents and case law to consider the social meanings of these moving boundaries of permitted work. Disability benefits are not value neutral: they are measures of social control which divide benefit claimants into those who are required to participate in the labour market and those who are exempted from this requirement.

  15. On the use of hourly pricing in techno-economic analyses for solar photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeldt, Nelson; Madani, Hatef

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The typical price year (TPY) method is described. • The impact of pricing simplification models on revenues and NPV are tested. • The TPY is shown to be a good long-term price curve for techno-economic studies. • A static mean annual price can replace hourly in the Swedish market with minimal error. - Abstract: The use of hourly prices in distributed photovoltaic (PV) techno-economic analysis is rare, but may become necessary as time-of-day retail pricing becomes more common. A methodology is presented for selecting an hourly price curve suitable for long-term analysis, called the typical price year (TPY), which is based on the methodology for TMY weather data. Using a techno-economic analysis with annual revenues and net present value as indicators, a TPY curve for the Swedish market is validated and then compared to 18 price simplification methods to determine the error introduced by the use of non-hourly prices. Results show that the TPY method produces a curve which accurately represents long term pricing trends, but using a static annual mean introduces minor revenue errors of 1.3%. This suggests the TPY may not be necessary in the Swedish market, but further analysis of the method is suggested for other markets

  16. ADVANTAGES OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM MONITORING AND STOCKS AGRICULTURAL PRICES. CASE STUDY – ROSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract agricultural policy in our country is based on information dispersed, especially because there is no centralized monitoring system, who to provide reliable information, while the agricultural and food market is experiencing a general feeling of instability - basically, it consists of channels and a dysfunctional organizational structure, based on communication systems do not operate in real time.. An integrated on-line monitoring of prices of agricultural products is of great interest due to the integration of computer technology (communications and agricultural sciences, based on specific concepts: client / server architecture, the integrated platform software, decision support, database distributed relational distance communication through the web, object oriented programming, mathematical modeling, interactivity etc..

  17. Managing the Newsvendor Modeled Product System with Random Capacity and Capacity-Dependent Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a newsvendor modeled product system, where the firm provides products to the market. The supply capacity of the product is random, so the firm receives either the amount of order quantity or the realized capacity, whichever is smaller. The market price is capacity dependent. We consider two types of production cost structures: the procurement case and the in-house production case. The firm pays for the received quantity in the former case and for the ordered quantity in the latter case. We obtain the optimal order quantities for both cases. Comparing with the traditional newsvendor model, we find that the optimal order quantity in both the procurement case and the in-house production case are no greater than that in the traditional newsvendor model with a fixed selling price. We also find that the optimal order quantity for the procurement case is greater than that for the in-house production case. Numerical study is conducted to investigate the sensitivity of the optimal solution versus the distribution of the random capacity/demand.

  18. How Volatilities Nonlocal in Time Affect the Price Dynamics in Complex Financial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2015-01-01

    What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time. PMID:25723154

  19. How volatilities nonlocal in time affect the price dynamics in complex financial systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tan

    Full Text Available What is the dominating mechanism of the price dynamics in financial systems is of great interest to scientists. The problem whether and how volatilities affect the price movement draws much attention. Although many efforts have been made, it remains challenging. Physicists usually apply the concepts and methods in statistical physics, such as temporal correlation functions, to study financial dynamics. However, the usual volatility-return correlation function, which is local in time, typically fluctuates around zero. Here we construct dynamic observables nonlocal in time to explore the volatility-return correlation, based on the empirical data of hundreds of individual stocks and 25 stock market indices in different countries. Strikingly, the correlation is discovered to be non-zero, with an amplitude of a few percent and a duration of over two weeks. This result provides compelling evidence that past volatilities nonlocal in time affect future returns. Further, we introduce an agent-based model with a novel mechanism, that is, the asymmetric trading preference in volatile and stable markets, to understand the microscopic origin of the volatility-return correlation nonlocal in time.

  20. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  1. Optimality of cycle time and inventory decisions in a two echelon inventory system with exponential price dependent demand under credit period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugon, Seelam; Nagaraju, Dega

    2017-05-01

    This work describes and proposes an two echelon inventory system under supply chain, where the manufacturer offers credit period to the retailer with exponential price dependent demand. The model is framed as demand is expressed as exponential function of retailer’s unit selling price. Mathematical model is framed to demonstrate the optimality of cycle time, retailer replenishment quantity, number of shipments, and total relevant cost of the supply chain. The major objective of the paper is to provide trade credit concept from the manufacturer to the retailer with exponential price dependent demand. The retailer would like to delay the payments of the manufacturer. At the first stage retailer and manufacturer expressions are expressed with the functions of ordering cost, carrying cost, transportation cost. In second stage combining of the manufacturer and retailer expressions are expressed. A MATLAB program is written to derive the optimality of cycle time, retailer replenishment quantity, number of shipments, and total relevant cost of the supply chain. From the optimality criteria derived managerial insights can be made. From the research findings, it is evident that the total cost of the supply chain is decreased with the increase in credit period under exponential price dependent demand. To analyse the influence of the model parameters, parametric analysis is also done by taking with help of numerical example.

  2. Bidirectional Frontoparietal Oscillatory Systems Support Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Dewar, Callum D; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Meling, Torstein R; Knight, Robert T

    2017-06-19

    The ability to represent and select information in working memory provides the neurobiological infrastructure for human cognition. For 80 years, dominant views of working memory have focused on the key role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1-8]. However, more recent work has implicated posterior cortical regions [9-12], suggesting that PFC engagement during working memory is dependent on the degree of executive demand. We provide evidence from neurological patients with discrete PFC damage that challenges the dominant models attributing working memory to PFC-dependent systems. We show that neural oscillations, which provide a mechanism for PFC to communicate with posterior cortical regions [13], independently subserve communications both to and from PFC-uncovering parallel oscillatory mechanisms for working memory. Fourteen PFC patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls performed a working memory task where they encoded, maintained, and actively processed information about pairs of common shapes. In controls, the electroencephalogram (EEG) exhibited oscillatory activity in the low-theta range over PFC and directional connectivity from PFC to parieto-occipital regions commensurate with executive processing demands. Concurrent alpha-beta oscillations were observed over parieto-occipital regions, with directional connectivity from parieto-occipital regions to PFC, regardless of processing demands. Accuracy, PFC low-theta activity, and PFC → parieto-occipital connectivity were attenuated in patients, revealing a PFC-independent, alpha-beta system. The PFC patients still demonstrated task proficiency, which indicates that the posterior alpha-beta system provides sufficient resources for working memory. Taken together, our findings reveal neurologically dissociable PFC and parieto-occipital systems and suggest that parallel, bidirectional oscillatory systems form the basis of working memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Work Values System Development during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2007-01-01

    Work values stability, change, and development can be appreciably reduced to a living system model [Ford, D. H. (1994). "Humans as self-constructing living systems: A developmental perspective on behavior and personality" (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates]. This theoretical model includes discrepancy-reducing and…

  4. Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert

    1996-01-01

    Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the

  5. A conveyor system for feeding work stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheader, J.; Davies, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    A conveyor system comprises carriages drive, e.g. by a linear motor, a pre-arranged sequence of steps to move workpieces in forward and reverse directions between work stations. Each work station has a part position and a work position and each carriage has a number of compartments for workpieces spaced apart at a pitch equal to the spacing between the part and work positions at each station. Transfer means at the work stations move workpieces between the carriage compartments and the part and work positions. The workpieces can be nuclear fuel pins mounted in carriers and the carriages shuttle to and fro between adjacent stations to move fuel pins and carriers in a forward direction and the return empty carriers in a reverse direction. (author)

  6. Pricing policies for a two-part exhaustible resource cartel: the case of OPEC (world oil project). Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnyilicza, E.; Pindyck, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    This paper examines pricing policies for OPEC under the assumption that the cartel is composed of a block of spender countries with large cash needs and a block of saver countries with little immediate need for cash and a lower rate of discount. The decision problem for the two-part cartel is embodied in a game-theoretic framework and the optimal bargaining solution is computed using results from the theory of cooperative games developed by Nash. The set of feasible bargaining points--and the corresponding Nash solution--is computed under two assumptions on the behavior of output shares: that they are subject to choice and that they are fixed at historical values. The results suggest that for fixed output shares, there is little room for bargaining and the price path approximates the optimal monopoly price path. If the shares are subject to control, optimal paths depend significantly on the relative bargaining power of each block.

  7. Willingness to pay and price elasticities of demand for energy-efficient appliances: Combining the hedonic approach and demand systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarraga, Ibon, E-mail: ibon.galarraga@bc3research.org; Gonzalez-Eguino, Mikel, E-mail: mikel.gonzalez@bc3research.org; Markandya, Anil, E-mail: anil.markandya@bc3research.org

    2011-12-15

    This article proposes a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for the attributes represented by energy efficiency labels and providing reliable price elasticities of demand (own and cross) for close substitutes (e.g. those with low energy efficiency and those with higher energy efficiency). This is done by using the results of the hedonic approach together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. The elasticity results obtained with the latter are then compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain: it is found that 15.6% of the final price is actually paid for the energy efficiency attribute. This accounts for about Euro 80 of the average market price. The elasticity results confirm that energy efficient appliances are more price elastic than regular ones. - Highlights: > The article shows a combined approach for estimating willingness to pay for energy efficiency labels and price elasticities. > The results of the hedonic approach is used together with the Quantity Based Demand System (QBDS) model. > The elasticity results are compared with those simulated using the Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS). > The methodology is applied to the dishwasher market in Spain.

  8. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  9. Delivered Pricing, FOB Pricing, and Collusion in Spatial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paz Espinosa

    1992-01-01

    This article examines price discrimination and collusion in spatial markets. The problem is analyzed in the context of a repeated duopoly game. I conclude that the prevailing pricing systems depend on the structural elements of the market. Delivered pricing systems emerge in equilibrium in highly monopolistic and highly competitive industries, while FOB is used in intermediate market structures. The fact driving this result is that delivered pricing policies allow spatial price discrimination...

  10. Lowering Saudi Arabia's fuel consumption and energy system costs without increasing end consumer prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, Walid; Murphy, Frederic; Pierru, Axel; Rioux, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Using a multi-sector equilibrium model of the Saudi energy system that handles administered prices in a mixed-complementarity formulation, we present results from a set of policy scenarios that lower oil consumption in the country. Some of these scenarios are the solutions to Mathematical Programs subject to Equilibrium Constraints (MPECs) that maximize the net economic gain for the Saudi economy. The policies examined have the potential to generate economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011, or about 4% of Saudi Arabia's GDP. This economic gain comes mainly from inter-sectoral fuel pricing policies that incent shifting the mix in technologies that generate electricity and produce water from energy intensive technologies to more efficient ones. We show that when complemented by credits for investments in solar and nuclear power generation capacities, a modest increase in the transfer prices of fuels among sectors is sufficient to produce economic gains close to those achieved by deregulating transfer prices. The approach we develop here is an alternative to the classic recommendation of deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices in situations where the conditions for successful liberalized markets do not exist. It is a template for introducing the notions of incentivizing behavior using prices into countries that rely more on administrative procedures than markets, leading to a deeper understanding of how markets can lead to economic gain. - Highlights: • The policies examined would have potentially generated economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011. • We design policies that produce economic benefits close to those achieved by deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices. • This paper provides a template for building multi-sector models when transfer prices between sectors are administered

  11. Internet resource pricing models

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Ke; He, Huan

    2013-01-01

    This brief guides the reader through three basic Internet resource pricing models using an Internet cost analysis. Addressing the evolution of service types, it presents several corresponding mechanisms which can ensure pricing implementation and resource allocation. The authors discuss utility optimization of network pricing methods in economics and underline two classes of pricing methods including system optimization and entities' strategic optimization. The brief closes with two examples of the newly proposed pricing strategy helping to solve the profit distribution problem brought by P2P

  12. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  13. A study of the improvement of the district heat price cap system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.J. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    This study proposes revision of the price cap mechanism applied to the district heating company, which was introduced in 1999. The revision aims at the provision of the incentives to lower the production cost to the heat producers and preventing the monopoly price from being charged to the consumer. It is proposed to extend the application period of the price cap to 3 or 5 years. 3 year application period is recommended because of lack of the experiences of the price cap mechanism and information of its performance in the public utility industries in Korea. The calculation of the price cap is better to be set based upon the minimum of the full cost of heat production in the last year of the previous application periods or the prices actually charged to the consumer during the previous application period. As the opportunity cost of the equity capital, the interest rate of the 5 year government bond or the actual interest cost of the debt financed capital is recommended to increase the share of the equity capital and to reflect the investment risk of the district heating industry. Production efficiency index applicable to the district heating company is estimated with 3 different methods. Among three different results, 3% is the first choice from a conservative perspective. It is also recommended to adjust production efficiency index as the data are accumulated and to be implemented with a profit sharing mechanism between the consumer and the monopoly supplier. In application of the price index, producer price index is applicable if the price cap is calculated from the full production cost. consumer price index is applicable if the price cap is set from the previous year's actual district heat prices (tariffs). Transfer of the ownership either by transferring stocks or by asset selling could affect the price cap determined by the full cost of the district heat production. In order to keep the consumer's welfare from being decreased, it is necessary to set

  14. Health effects of the shift work system

    OpenAIRE

    Yüzügüllü, Didem Ata; Aytaç, Necdet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Technological advances and the changes to methods ofproduction in many industrialized countries led to the introduction of shiftwork systems to ensure the continuity in operation of industries. Shift workhas long been known to disrupt circadian rhythm,sleep, and work-life balance.Alfredsson et al. carried out a study of 334 cases with myocardial infarctionand 882 controls, who were selected randomly from the general population in thesame region. The shift-work exposure was assessed from the o...

  15. Working Memory Systems in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratch, Alexander; Kann, Spencer; Cain, Joshua A; Wu, Jie-En; Rivera-Reyes, Nilda; Dalecki, Stefan; Arman, Diana; Dunn, Austin; Cooper, Shiloh; Corbin, Hannah E; Doyle, Amanda R; Pizzo, Matthew J; Smith, Alexandra E; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2016-02-08

    A fundamental feature of memory in humans is the ability to simultaneously work with multiple types of information using independent memory systems. Working memory is conceptualized as two independent memory systems under executive control [1, 2]. Although there is a long history of using the term "working memory" to describe short-term memory in animals, it is not known whether multiple, independent memory systems exist in nonhumans. Here, we used two established short-term memory approaches to test the hypothesis that spatial and olfactory memory operate as independent working memory resources in the rat. In the olfactory memory task, rats chose a novel odor from a gradually incrementing set of old odors [3]. In the spatial memory task, rats searched for a depleting food source at multiple locations [4]. We presented rats with information to hold in memory in one domain (e.g., olfactory) while adding a memory load in the other domain (e.g., spatial). Control conditions equated the retention interval delay without adding a second memory load. In a further experiment, we used proactive interference [5-7] in the spatial domain to compromise spatial memory and evaluated the impact of adding an olfactory memory load. Olfactory and spatial memory are resistant to interference from the addition of a memory load in the other domain. Our data suggest that olfactory and spatial memory draw on independent working memory systems in the rat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-04-20

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Kumar et al.

  17. Price fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Diller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to integrate the various strands of fair price research into a concise conceptual model. Design/methodology/approach – The proposed price fairness model is based on a review of the fair pricing literature, incorporating research reported in not only English but also German. Findings – The proposed fair price model depicts seven components of a fair price: distributive fairness, consistent behaviour, personal respect and regard for the partner, fair dea...

  18. Asymptotic work distributions in driven bistable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelsen, D; Engel, A

    2012-01-01

    The asymptotic tails of the probability distributions of thermodynamic quantities convey important information about the physics of nanoscopic systems driven out of equilibrium. We apply a recently proposed method to analytically determine the asymptotics of work distributions in Langevin systems to an one-dimensional model of single-molecule force spectroscopy. The results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations, even in the centre of the distributions. We compare our findings with a recent proposal for an universal form of the asymptotics of work distributions in single-molecule experiments.

  19. Do emerging markets matter in the world oil pricing system? Evidence of imported crude by China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Li; Lin Xiaowen, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the changing structure of world oil price system by identifying an additional driver-emerging market factor. We choose China and India as a representative of emerging markets to examine if the quantity of crude oil imported by China and India is significant in the existing oil pricing system (. Our data starts from January 2002 and ends in March 2010, which includes the oil shock of 2007-2008. We utilize cointegration and error correction model framework developed by and in the analysis. Our results indicate that demand from emerging markets has become a significant factor in the world oil pricing system since 2003. This result is significant as it lends empirical support to the widely held conjecture that the oil shock of 2007-2008 is a demand-led shock (). Our result also has significant policy implications that go beyond the oil shock. The emerging market factor is there to stay and reflects the changing power between emerging and developed economies in the world economic system as a result of decades of fast economic development in the former. It will certainly influence policy issues related to oil and beyond. - Highlights: → We test the existing oil price modelling with data from 2002-2010. → We find evidence of structural breaks in the world oil pricing model. → We find that emerging market factor is a new driver in the world oil pricing system since 2003. → The emerging market factor lends empirical support to 'consumption-led' conjecture of oil shock. → New factor reflects significant changes of oil demand landscape following shifting economic power.

  20. Regional Analysis of Aids and Prices for Small-scale Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.; Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.

    2002-01-01

    Electricity production from small solar photovoltaic systems in Spain obtains a premium pnce of 0,36 ε/kWh over the electricity market price or a fix price of 0,40 ε/kWh. The development of these small systems in Spain clearly demonstrates that the established prime is not sufficient in the majority of locations. On the other hand, the prime revision set up by the RD 2818/98, considering the profitability of the renewable installations, demand a regional analysis of small PV systems profitability necessary in Spain. The accomplished results permit to conclude that the amount of the current prime is by itself insufficient to make profitable the small grid-connected PV systems in anywhere of the national geography. To guarantee the profitability of these systems it should be necessary to place the fix price at around 0,93 ε/kWh. However, if the duplication of the current price obtained by these installations was considered, this could ensure the profitability of these small systems in at least the 77% of the land. (Author) 12 refs

  1. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  2. Dynamic Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes h...... of dynamic pricing can lead to increased willingness of consumers to participate in DR programs which in turn improve the operation of liberalized electricity markets.......Dynamic pricing scheme, also known as real-time pricing (RTP), can be more efficient and technically beneficial than the other price-based schemes (such as flat-rate or time-of-use (TOU) pricing) for enabling demand response (DR) actions. Over the past few years, advantages of RTP-based schemes...

  3. Interdependencies in the energy-bioenergy-food price systems: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, d'Artis

    2011-01-01

    The present paper studies the interdependencies between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. We develop a vertically integrated multi-input, multi-output market model with two channels of price transmission: a direct biofuel channel and an indirect input channel. We test the theoretical hypothesis by applying time-series analytical mechanisms to nine major traded agricultural commodity prices, including corn, wheat, rice, sugar, soybeans, cotton, banana, sorghum and tea, along with one weighted average world crude oil price. The data consists of 783 weekly observations extending from January 1994 to December 2008. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that the prices for crude oil and agricultural commodities are interdependent including also commodities not directly used in bioenergy production: an increase in oil price by 1 $/barrel increases the agricultural commodity prices between 0.10 $/tonne and 1.80 $/tonne. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, the indirect input channel of price transmission is found to be small and statistically insignificant. (author)

  4. Optimal core acquisition and pricing strategies for hybrid manufacturing and remanufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caner Bulmus, Serra; Zhu, Stuart X.; Teunter, Ruud H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we combine two aspects of remanufacturing, namely product acquisition management and marketing (pricing) of the remanufactured products. We consider an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) who decides on the acquisition prices offered for returns from different quality types and on

  5. A Meta-analysis of the Price Elasticity of Gasoline Demand. A System of Equations Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, Martijn; Nijkamp, Peter; Pels, Eric; Rietveld, Piet

    2006-01-01

    Automobile gasoline demand can be expressed as a multiplicative function of fuel efficiency, mileage per car and car ownership. This implies a linear relationship between the price elasticity of total fuel demand and the price elasticities of fuel efficiency, mileage per car and car ownership. In

  6. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  7. Charter for Systems Engineer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffredini, Michael T.; Grissom, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This charter establishes the International Space Station Program (ISSP) Mobile Servicing System (MSS) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG). The MSS SEWG is established to provide a mechanism for Systems Engineering for the end-to-end MSS function. The MSS end-to-end function includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Remote Servicer (MRS) Base System (MBS), Robotic Work Station (RWS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Video Signal Converters (VSC), and Operations Control Software (OCS), the Mobile Transporter (MT), and by interfaces between and among these elements, and United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) distributed systems, and other International Space Station Elements and Payloads, (including the Power Data Grapple Fixtures (PDGFs), MSS Capture Attach System (MCAS) and the Mobile Transporter Capture Latch (MTCL)). This end-to-end function will be supported by the ISS and MSS ground segment facilities. This charter defines the scope and limits of the program authority and document control that is delegated to the SEWG and it also identifies the panel core membership and specific operating policies.

  8. Defense Travel System (DTS) Airline Ticket Price Analysis: Do DTS Ticket Prices Differ From Other Online Tickets Available for Naval Postgraduate School Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    price dispersion at least as large as dispersion for traditional retailers for books, music CDs, and software offered through 52 Internet and...dispersion differences. For instance, for 22 old-hit albums , average price percentage differences are 31% on-line, compared to 11% off-line. But for 21...current-hit albums , differences are smaller at 18% on-line and 19% off-line. This suggests price dispersion levels are related to product

  9. Research of factors of marketing pricing at domestic industrial enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Bozhkova; I.M. Ryabchenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. The purpose of the article is research and systematization of factors of marketing pricing, which affect on realization of products of industrial enterprises.Works of domestic and foreign scientists on this issue were analysed. Traditionally pricing factors are classified into two groups: internal (controlled) and external (uncontrolled). Such division of factors is the first stage of pricing system analysis. On the second stage of analysis each of these groups is divi...

  10. Cognitive System Engineering Approach to Design of Work Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The problem of designing work support systems for flexible, dynamic work environments is discussed and a framework for analysis of work in terms of behavior shaping constraints is described. The application of 'ecological interfaces' presenting to the user a map of the relational structure...... of the work space is advocated from the thesis that a map is a better guidance of discretionary tasks than is a route instruction. For the same reason, support of system design is proposed in terms of maps of the design territory, rather than in terms of guidelines....

  11. A comprehensive method for exotic option pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Rossella Agliardi

    2010-01-01

    This work illustrates how several new pricing formulas for exotic options can be derived within a Levy framework by employing a unique pricing expression. Many existing pricing formulas of the traditional Gaussian model are obtained as a by-product.

  12. FPL-PELPS : a price endogenous linear programming system for economic modeling, supplement to PELPS III, version 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Henry Spelter; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    This report provides documentation and user information for FPL-PELPS, a personal computer price endogenous linear programming system for economic modeling. Originally developed to model the North American pulp and paper industry, FPL-PELPS follows its predecessors in allowing the modeling of any appropriate sector to predict consumption, production and capacity by...

  13. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-12-01

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  15. 48 CFR 36.207 - Pricing fixed-price construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing fixed-price... Contracting for Construction 36.207 Pricing fixed-price construction contracts. (a) Generally, firm-fixed... methods. (b) Lump-sum pricing shall be used in preference to unit pricing except when— (1) Large...

  16. Working with boundaries in systems psychodynamic consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Struwig

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to produce a set of theoretical assumptions about organisational boundaries and boundary management in organisations and, from these, to develop a set of hypotheses as a thinking framework for practising consulting psychologists when they work with boundaries from a systems psychodynamic stance. Motivation for the study: The researcher used the belief that organisational boundaries reflect the essence of organisations. Consulting to boundary managers could facilitate a deep understanding of organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The researcher followed a case study design. He used systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. It led to six working hypotheses. Main findings: The primary task of boundary management is to hold the polarities of integration and differentiation and not allow the system to become fragmented or overly integrated. Boundary management is a primary task and an ongoing activity of entire organisations. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should work actively at effective boundary management and at balancing integration and differentiation. Leaders should become aware of how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: The researcher provided a boundary-consulting framework in order to assist consultants to balance the conceptual with the practical when they consult.

  17. MedCast: a discussion support system for cooperative work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Lima, Vinícius; Lopes, Isidro; Gutierrez, Marco A.

    2012-02-01

    The availability of low cost Internet connections and specialized hardware, like webcams and headsets, makes possible the development of solutions for remote collaborative work. These solutions can provide advantages compared to presential meetings, such as: availability of experts on remote locations; lower price compared to presential meetings; creation of online didactic material (e.g. video-classes); richer forms of interaction between participants. These technologies are particularly interesting for continent-sized countries where typically there is a short number of skilled people in remote areas. However, the application of these technologies in medical field represents a special challenge due to the more complex requirements of this area, such as: Provide confidentiality (patient de-identification) and integrity of patient data; Guarantee availability of the system; Guarantee authenticity of data and users; Provide simple and effective user interface; Be compliant with medical standards such as DICOM and HL7. In order to satisfy those requirements a prototype called MedCast is under development whose architecture allows the integration of the Hospital Information System (HIS) with a collaborative tool in compliance with the HIPAA rules. Some of the MedCast features are: videoconferencing, chat, recording of the sessions, sharing of documents and reports and still and dynamic images presentation. Its current version allows the remote discussion of clinical cases and the remote ECG evaluation.

  18. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  19. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  20. Remotely controlled working equipment and mobile systems for damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1975-01-01

    All functions of the MF3 vehicle with its variable geometry chassis were verified in accordance with specifications. Fixed price bids have now been submitted by industries on the action control system and the EMSM II manipulators. Tests of the EMSM I manipulator with supplements especially the remotely controlled application of tools, have been started. (orig.) [de

  1. Paying for Express Checkout: Competition and Price Discrimination in Multi-Server Queuing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.; Mongrain, Steeve

    2014-01-01

    We model competition between two firms selling identical goods to customers who arrive in the market stochastically. Shoppers choose where to purchase based upon both price and the time cost associated with waiting for service. One seller provides two separate queues, each with its own server, while the other seller has a single queue and server. We explore the market impact of the multi-server seller engaging in waiting cost-based-price discrimination by charging a premium for express checkout. Specifically, we analyze this situation computationally and through the use of controlled laboratory experiments. We find that this form of price discrimination is harmful to sellers and beneficial to consumers. When the two-queue seller offers express checkout for impatient customers, the single queue seller focuses on the patient shoppers thereby driving down prices and profits while increasing consumer surplus. PMID:24667809

  2. Paying for express checkout: competition and price discrimination in multi-server queuing systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary Deck

    Full Text Available We model competition between two firms selling identical goods to customers who arrive in the market stochastically. Shoppers choose where to purchase based upon both price and the time cost associated with waiting for service. One seller provides two separate queues, each with its own server, while the other seller has a single queue and server. We explore the market impact of the multi-server seller engaging in waiting cost-based-price discrimination by charging a premium for express checkout. Specifically, we analyze this situation computationally and through the use of controlled laboratory experiments. We find that this form of price discrimination is harmful to sellers and beneficial to consumers. When the two-queue seller offers express checkout for impatient customers, the single queue seller focuses on the patient shoppers thereby driving down prices and profits while increasing consumer surplus.

  3. Optimal pricing of default customers in electrical distribution systems: Effect behavior performance of demand response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, J.M.; Khodr, H.M.; Urdaneta, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The response of a non-linear mathematical model is analyzed for the calculation of the optimal prices for electricity assuming default customers under different scenarios and using five different mathematical functions for the consumer response: linear, hyperbolic, potential, logarithmic and exponential. The mathematical functions are defined to simulate the hourly changes in the consumer response according to the load level, the price of electricity, and also depending on the elasticity at every hour. The behavior of the optimization model is evaluated separately under two different objective functions: the profit of the electric utility and the social welfare. The optimal prices as well as the served load are calculated for two different operation schemes: in an hourly basis and also assuming a single constant price for the 24 h of the day. Results obtained by the optimization model are presented and compared for the five different consumer load functions. (author)

  4. An expert system technology for work authorization information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munchausen, J.H.; Glazer, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to develop an expert systems work station designed to support the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS). The expert systems work station utilizes IntelliCorp KEE (Knowledge Engineering Environment) and EPRI-IntelliCorp PLEXSYS (PLant EXpert SYStem) technology, and SCE Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P and ID's) and host-based computer applications to assist plant operations and maintenance personnel in the development of safety tagout boundaries. Of significance in this venture is the merging of conventional computer applications technology with expert systems technology. The EPRI PLEXSYS work station will act as a front-end for the SONGS Tagout Administration and Generation System (TAGS), a conventional CICS/COBOL mainframe computer application

  5. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  6. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  7. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Méndez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    Reference prices constitute a main determinant of patient health care reimbursement in many countries. We study the effects of a change from an "external" (based on a basket of prices in other countries) to an "internal" (based on comparable domestic products) reference price system. We find...... that while our estimated consumer compensating variation is small, the reform led to substantial reductions in list and reference prices as well as co-payments, and to sizeable decreases in overall producer revenues, health care expenditures, and co-payments. These effects differ markedly between branded...

  8. Logical design of a decision support system to forecast technology, prices and costs for the national communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. A.; Partridge, E. C., III

    1984-09-01

    Originally envisioned as a means to integrate the many systems found throughout the government, the general mission of the NCS continues to be to ensure the survivability of communications during and subsequent to any national emergency. In order to accomplish this mission the NCS is an arrangement of heterogeneous telecommunications systems which are provided by their sponsor Federal agencies. The physical components of Federal telecommunications systems and networks include telephone and digital data switching facilities and primary common user communications centers; Special purpose local delivery message switching and exchange facilities; Government owned or leased radio systems; Technical control facilities which are under exclusive control of a government agency. This thesis describes the logical design of a proposed decision support system for use by the National Communications System in forecasting technology, prices, and costs. It is general in nature and only includes those forecasting models which are suitable for computer implementation. Because it is a logical design it can be coded and applied in many different hardware and/or software configurations.

  9. Price changes in the gasoline market: Are Midwestern gasoline prices downward sticky?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This report examines a recurring question about gasoline markets: why, especially in times of high price volatility, do retail gasoline prices seem to rise quickly but fall back more slowly? Do gasoline prices actually rise faster than they fall, or does this just appear to be the case because people tend to pay more attention to prices when they're rising? This question is more complex than it might appear to be initially, and it has been addressed by numerous analysts in government, academia and industry. The question is very important, because perceived problems with retail gasoline pricing have been used in arguments for government regulation of prices. The phenomenon of prices at different market levels tending to move differently relative to each other depending on direction is known as price asymmetry. This report summarizes the previous work on gasoline price asymmetry and provides a method for testing for asymmetry in a wide variety of situations. The major finding of this paper is that there is some amount of asymmetry and pattern asymmetry, especially at the retail level, in the Midwestern states that are the focus of the analysis. Nevertheless, both the amount asymmetry and pattern asymmetry are relatively small. In addition, much of the pattern asymmetry detected in this and previous studies could be a statistical artifact caused by the time lags between price changes at different points in the gasoline distribution system. In other words, retail gasoline prices do sometimes rise faster than they fall, but this is largely a lagged market response to an upward shock in the underlying wholesale gasoline or crude oil prices, followed by a return toward the previous baseline. After consistent time lags are factored out, most apparent asymmetry disappears

  10. Evaluating a novel tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure using a holistic systems modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Oz; Bertone, Edoardo; Beal, Cara; Stewart, Rodney A

    2018-06-01

    Population growth, coupled with declining water availability and changes in climatic conditions underline the need for sustainable and responsive water management instruments. Supply augmentation and demand management are the two main strategies used by water utilities. Water demand management has long been acknowledged as a least-cost strategy to maintain water security. This can be achieved in a variety of ways, including: i) educating consumers to limit their water use; ii) imposing restrictions/penalties; iii) using smart and/or efficient technologies; and iv) pricing mechanisms. Changing water consumption behaviours through pricing or restrictions is challenging as it introduces more social and political issues into the already complex water resources management process. This paper employs a participatory systems modelling approach for: (1) evaluating various forms of a proposed tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure, and (2) comparing scenario outcomes against the traditional restriction policy regime. System dynamics modelling was applied since it can explicitly account for the feedbacks, interdependencies, and non-linear relations that inherently characterise the water tariff (price)-demand-revenue system. A combination of empirical water use data, billing data and customer feedback on future projected water bills facilitated the assessment of the suitability and likelihood of the adoption of scarcity-driven tariff options for a medium-sized city within Queensland, Australia. Results showed that the tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure presented was preferable to restrictions since it could maintain water security more equitably with the lowest overall long-run marginal cost. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of control systems for the optimisation of ice storage in a dynamic real time electricity pricing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.D.; O’Mahony, M.J.; Upton, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cold thermal energy storage system model was created and validated. • Pseudo real time electricity pricing was derived to represent the smart grid. • A demand side management optimisation algorithm was developed. • Demand side management algorithm performance was compared to a standard controller. • Overall the demand side management algorithm produced modest cost savings. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of introducing a demand side management optimisation controller to a cold thermal storage ice bank. This controller consisted of an ice bank model, an air temperature forecast model and an optimisation algorithm. The financial and grid utilisation benefits produced by implementation of this controller over the current state of the art in ice bank load shifting control was tested in a day ahead real time electricity pricing forecast environment. This hypothetical real time electricity price was based on the cost of electricity in the Irish wholesale market. Multiple ice bank charge levels were simulated in order to quantify the performance of two control methods for varying operating conditions. First, the “standard controller” was based on the current modus operandi for ice bank systems where ice was generated for food cooling at night when the off-peak electricity tariff is available (00:00–08:00 h). Second, the “upgraded controller” was developed as a bespoke Demand Side Management control system for food refrigeration in a future electricity pricing environment. It consisted of a dual function load shifting optimisation algorithm, an ice bank model, and a predictive air temperature model. A preliminary study was also carried out to test the robustness of the controller’s performance in an uncertain real time electricity pricing forecast scenario. Both economic and grid management benefits were found by simulating the operation of the cold thermal storage load shifting controller in a

  12. Price of military uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical results about optimum strategy of use of military uranium confirmed by systems approach accounts are received. The numerical value of the system approach price of the highly enriched military uranium also is given

  13. Pricing and tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyrelund, A.

    1993-01-01

    Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

  14. Blending of electricity pricing with time flavour - an analysis of net system benefit to an electric utility in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Demand-side Management is a powerful strategy for modifying electric energy consumption patterns for the mutual benefit of consumers, the supplier and the economy as a whole Time-of-use pricing of electricity suggest a policy where the price is time-differentiated so as to reduce contribution to the system-peak which determines the capacity and investments of a power-system. This paper describes a case-study of net system benefit to an electric utility in India by offering time-of-use tariff to high voltage (HV) industrial consumers. The study shows that there is a potential of shifting about 19% H.V. Industrial loads from peak to off-peak hours thereby benefitting both, the consumers and the utility. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Study on Comparison of Bidding and Pricing Behavior Distinction between Estimate Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Emi; Namerikawa, Susumu

    The most characteristic trend on bidding and pricing behavior distinction in recent years is the increasing number of bidders just above the criteria for low-price bidding investigations. The contractor's markup is the difference between the bidding price and the execution price. Therefore, the contractor's markup is the difference between criteria for low-price bidding investigations price and the execution price in the public works bid in Japan. Virtually, bidder's strategies and behavior have been controlled by public engineer's budgets. Estimation and bid are inseparably linked in the Japanese public works procurement system. The trial of the unit price-type estimation method begins in 2004. On another front, accumulated estimation method is one of the general methods in public works. So, there are two types of standard estimation methods in Japan. In this study, we did a statistical analysis on the bid information of civil engineering works for the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transportation in 2008. It presents several issues that bidding and pricing behavior is related to an estimation method (several estimation methods) for public works bid in Japan. The two types of standard estimation methods produce different results that number of bidders (decide on bid-no bid strategy) and distribution of bid price (decide on mark-up strategy).The comparison on the distribution of bid prices showed that the percentage of the bid concentrated on the criteria for low-price bidding investigations have had a tendency to get higher in the large-sized public works by the unit price-type estimation method, comparing with the accumulated estimation method. On one hand, the number of bidders who bids for public works estimated unit-price tends to increase significantly Public works estimated unit-price is likely to have been one of the factors for the construction companies to decide if they participate in the biddings.

  16. Patients' knowledge and attitude towards therapeutic reference pricing system in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marđetko, Nika; Kos, Mitja

    2016-10-01

    Background The therapeutic reference pricing (TRP) in Slovenia was implemented for proton pump inhibitors in 2013 and for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and lipid-lowering medicines in 2014. Objective The study aimed to assess patients' knowledge and attitude towards the TRP system. Moreover, the patients' willingness to pay was evaluated for patients who rejected the substitution of a current medicine within a therapeutic class by the reference medicine for which no co-payment is needed. Setting Invitation of patients to participate in a survey and filling in the first part of the questionnaire was run in the community pharmacies in Slovenia. The second part of the questionnaire was filled in at patients' home. Method A representative sample of 676 patients that had been prescribed at least one medicine from the three therapeutic classes was surveyed. The survey was carried out from 15th May to 15th June 2014 in 40 community pharmacies with the help of the pharmacists, who filled in the first part of the questionnaire in the presence of the patients. The second part of the questionnaire was filled in by 475 patients at home and returned by prepaid mail. Main outcome measure Patients' knowledge of and attitude to the TRP system implemented into Slovenian health care practice. Results Most of the statements describing patient' rights and duties within the TRP system were known by approximately 50 % of the patients. Patients were inhomogeneous in their view about the necessity and benefits of the TRP system, most of them regarded it as an unnecessary burden. Among 50.4 % of the patients who were required to copay for their medicine, 46.7 % accepted and 3.7 % rejected co-payment. The average co-payment was € 6.92, while the expressed average willingness to co-pay was € 10.4 per 3 months of therapy. Conclusion Our results indicate that the implementation of the TRP system and potential upgrades represent a significant challenge for the patients.

  17. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the desirability of fair pricing of government guarantees for bank liabilities. Fair pricing is desirable only if the banking sector is sufficiently transparent. In opaque banking systems, fair pricing may exacerbate banks' incentive to take excessive risks.

  18. The price elasticity of electricity demand in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shu; Hyndman, Rob J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the price elasticity of electricity demand, representing the sensitivity of customer demand to the price of electricity, has been estimated for South Australia. We first undertake a review of the scholarly literature regarding electricity price elasticity for different regions and systems. Then we perform an empirical evaluation of the historic South Australian price elasticity, focussing on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. This work attempts to determine whether there is any variation in price sensitivity with the time of day or quantile, and to estimate the form of any relationships that might exist in South Australia. - Highlights: → We review the scholarly literature on electricity own-price elasticity for different regions and systems. → We use annual log-linear econometric models of the electricity demand to estimate the historic South Australian price elasticity. → We focus on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. → The overall price elasticity in South Australia ranges from -0.363 to -0.428.

  19. Scenario-based stochastic optimal operation of wind, photovoltaic, pump-storage hybrid system in frequency- based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare Oskouei, Morteza; Sadeghi Yazdankhah, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage objective function is proposed for optimization problem. • Hourly-based optimal contractual agreement is calculated. • Scenario-based stochastic optimization problem is solved. • Improvement of system frequency by utilizing PSH unit. - Abstract: This paper proposes the operating strategy of a micro grid connected wind farm, photovoltaic and pump-storage hybrid system. The strategy consists of two stages. In the first stage, the optimal hourly contractual agreement is determined. The second stage corresponds to maximizing its profit by adapting energy management strategy of wind and photovoltaic in coordination with optimum operating schedule of storage device under frequency based pricing for a day ahead electricity market. The pump-storage hydro plant is utilized to minimize unscheduled interchange flow and maximize the system benefit by participating in frequency control based on energy price. Because of uncertainties in power generation of renewable sources and market prices, generation scheduling is modeled by a stochastic optimization problem. Uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario generation and scenario reduction method. A powerful optimization algorithm is proposed using by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS)/CPLEX. In order to verify the efficiency of the method, the algorithm is applied to various scenarios with different wind and photovoltaic power productions in a day ahead electricity market. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Joint pricing and resource allocation for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi; Goldsmith, André a J.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive users can share spectrum with primary users under constraints on the interference that results. We present a new pricing strategy for sharing the primary users' available subchannels with cognitive users by optimizing the secondary and primary users' utilities while meeting the primary users' interference constraints. The primary users aim to maximize their revenues by sharing their subchannels with secondary users while ensuring that they achieve a minimum target capacity. On the other hand, the secondary users aim to maximize their capacity under three different constraints: consumed power, a given budget for sharing subchannels, and tolerable interference caused to the primary users. We introduce a sequential procedure based on a distributed algorithm to determine the resource allocation, interference thresholds and prices that satisfy the requirements of both parties in the network. Simulations show that the users face a tradeoff between capacity, power, and price. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Joint pricing and resource allocation for OFDMA-based cognitive radio systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2011-04-01

    Cognitive users can share spectrum with primary users under constraints on the interference that results. We present a new pricing strategy for sharing the primary users\\' available subchannels with cognitive users by optimizing the secondary and primary users\\' utilities while meeting the primary users\\' interference constraints. The primary users aim to maximize their revenues by sharing their subchannels with secondary users while ensuring that they achieve a minimum target capacity. On the other hand, the secondary users aim to maximize their capacity under three different constraints: consumed power, a given budget for sharing subchannels, and tolerable interference caused to the primary users. We introduce a sequential procedure based on a distributed algorithm to determine the resource allocation, interference thresholds and prices that satisfy the requirements of both parties in the network. Simulations show that the users face a tradeoff between capacity, power, and price. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. A Study of Demand Response Effect of Thermal Storage Air-Conditioning Systems in Consideration of Electricity Market Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omagari, Yuko; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    This paper evaluates the economic impact of the introduction of customer-owned Thermal Storage Air-conditioning (TSA) systems, in an electricity market, from the viewpoint of the load service entity. We perform simulations on the condition that several thousand customers install TSA systems and shift peak demand in an electricity market by one percent. Our numerical results indicate that the purchase cost of the LSE was reduced through load management of customers with TSA systems. The introduction of TSA systems also reduced the volatility of market clearing price and reduced the whole-trade cost in an electricity market.

  3. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Handel, Ian G.; Rydevik, Gustaf; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent N.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017) recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p livestock market and the price of the traded live cattle (p < 0.01). Although our analysis did not account for factors informing on specific phenotypic traits nor breed characteristics of cattle traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households. PMID:29387687

  4. 48 CFR 216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 216.203 Section 216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 216.203 Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. ...

  5. 48 CFR 3016.203 - Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. 3016.203 Section 3016.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 3016.203 Fixed price contracts with economic price adjustments. ...

  6. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...... the determination of transfer price will affect the size of the profit or loss in the organizational units and thus have an impact on the evaluation of managers‟ performance. In some instances the determination of transfer prices may lead to a disagreement between coordination of the organizational units...

  7. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  8. Work Disability in Early Systemic Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandqvist, Gunnel; Hesselstrand, Roger; Petersson, Ingemar F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study work disability (WD) with reference to levels of sick leave and disability pension in early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Patients with SSc living in the southern part of Sweden with onset of their first non-Raynaud symptom between 2003 and 2009 and with a followup of 36...... months were included in a longitudinal study. Thirty-two patients (26 women, 24 with limited SSc) with a median age of 47.5 years (interquartile range 43-53) were identified. WD was calculated in 30-day intervals from 12 months prior to disease onset until 36 months after, presented as the prevalence...... of WD per year (0-3) and as the period prevalence of mean net days per month (± SD). Comparisons were made between patients with different disease severity and sociodemographic characteristics, and between patients and a reference group (RG) from the general population. RESULTS: Seventy-eight percent...

  9. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, R.; Zwinkels, R.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative

  10. Financial analysis of potential retrospective premium assessments under the Price-Anderson system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1985-04-01

    Ten representative nuclear utilities have been analyzed over the period 1981 to 1983 to evaluate the effects of three levels of retrospective premiums on various financial indicators. This analysis continues and expands on earlier analyses prepared as background for deliberations by the US Congress for possible extension or modification of the Price-Anderson Act

  11. The influence of prices formation system for natural gas over the sector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis of the existing methodologies concerning natural gas valorization in developing countries is presented. The characteristics of natural gas production, transport and distribution in Brazil, with the purpose of suggesting a pricing policy which could effectively permit its development on a national basis is also described. (author)

  12. Leader-follower Game in VMI System with Limited Production Capacity Considering Wholesale and Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yu (Yugang); L. Liang (Liming); G.Q. Huang (George)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractVMI (Vendor Managed Inventory) is a widely used cooperative inventory policy in supply chains in which each enterprise has its autonomy in pricing. This paper discusses a leader-follower Stackelberg game in a VMI supply chain where the manufacturer, as a leader, produces a single product

  13. Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  15. Variable Pricing Feasibility Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ...) and Willard Bishop Consulting (Barrington, IL) to evaluate the practicality of using a variable pricing system within DeCA to maintain an average of 30 percent customer savings and lower appropriated fund costs...

  16. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  17. Price schedules coordination for electricity pool markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legbedji, Alexis Motto

    2002-04-01

    We consider the optimal coordination of a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints, which is formally interpreted as a resource-allocation problem. Many decomposition techniques were proposed to circumvent the difficulty of solving large systems with limited computer resources. The considerable improvement in computer architecture has allowed the solution of large-scale problems with increasing speed. Consequently, interest in decomposition techniques has waned. Nonetheless, there is an important class of applications for which decomposition techniques will still be relevant, among others, distributed systems---the Internet, perhaps, being the most conspicuous example---and competitive economic systems. Conceptually, a competitive economic system is a collection of agents that have similar or different objectives while sharing the same system resources. In theory, constructing a large-scale mathematical program and solving it centrally, using currently available computing power can optimize such systems of agents. In practice, however, because agents are self-interested and not willing to reveal some sensitive corporate data, one cannot solve these kinds of coordination problems by simply maximizing the sum of agent's objective functions with respect to their constraints. An iterative price decomposition or Lagrangian dual method is considered best suited because it can operate with limited information. A price-directed strategy, however, can only work successfully when coordinating or equilibrium prices exist, which is not generally the case when a weak duality is unavoidable. Showing when such prices exist and how to compute them is the main subject of this thesis. Among our results, we show that, if the Lagrangian function of a primal program is additively separable, price schedules coordination may be attained. The prices are Lagrange multipliers, and are also the decision variables of a dual program. In addition, we propose a new form of

  18. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  19. Plane Ticket Price Dispersion in the Online Selling System in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stanisław Szopiński

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have studied the influence exerted by tourism on the economy. Today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are an important factor influencing competitiveness in the tourism sector and consumers’ decision-making concerning tourism purchases. Along with the expansion of the European Union, the revolution in passenger air transportation has spread over new member states in Central and Eastern Europe, including Poland. The authors of this study analyzed ticket prices on Internet websites that aggregate offers from different carriers and on the websites managed by the carriers themselves, specifically studying offers for the most popular flight connections from F. Chopin airport in Warsaw to London, Frankfurt, Munich, and Paris. For each connection, the study examined flights operated by the Polish carrier, i.e., LOT Polish Airlines, and by a carrier originating from a destination country. The analysis of the particular coefficients illustrating the price dispersion for each flight operated by a foreign carrier in comparison to the offer from LOT Polish Airlines points to the conclusion that the tickets offered by the latter were marked by a much narrower price dispersion in contrast to the connections offered by foreign carriers on the same route.

  20. Acquisition Pricing and Inventory Decisions on Dual-Source Spare-Part System with Final Production and Remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The life spans of durable goods are longer than their warranty periods. To satisfy the service demand of spare parts and keep the market competition advantage, enterprises have to maintain the longer inventory planning of spare parts. However, how to obtain a valid number of spare parts is difficult for those enterprises. In this paper, we consider a spare-part inventory problem, where the inventory can be replenished by two ways including the final production order and the remanufacturing way. Especially for the remanufacturing way, we consider the acquisition management problem of used products concerning an acquisition pricing decision. In a multiperiod setting, we formulate the problem into a dynamic optimization problem, where the system decisions include the final production order and acquisition price of used products at each period. By stochastic dynamic programming, we obtain the optimal policy of the acquisition pricing at each period and give the optimal policy structure of the optimization problem at the first period. Then, a recursion algorithm is designed to calculate the optimal decisions and the critical points in the policy. Finally, the numerical analyses show the effects of demand information and customer’s sensitive degree on the related decisions and the optimal cost.

  1. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection with...

  2. Impact of European pharmaceutical price regulation on generic price competition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Although economic theory indicates that it should not be necessary to intervene in the generic drug market through price regulation, most EU countries intervene in this market, both by regulating the maximum sale price of generics (price cap) and by setting the maximum reimbursement rate, especially by means of reference pricing systems. We analyse current knowledge of the impact of direct price-cap regulation of generic drugs and the implementation of systems regulating the reimbursement rate, particularly through reference pricing and similar tools, on dynamic price competition between generic competitors in Europe. A literature search was carried out in the EconLit and PubMed databases, and on Google Scholar. The search included papers published in English or Spanish between January 2000 and July 2009. Inclusion criteria included that studies had to present empirical results of a quantitative nature for EU countries of the impact of price capping and/or regulation of the reimbursement rate (reference pricing or similar systems) on price dynamics, corresponding to pharmacy sales, in the generic drug market. The available evidence indicates that price-cap regulation leads to a levelling off of generic prices at a higher level than would occur in the absence of this regulation. Reference pricing systems cause an obvious and almost compulsory reduction in the consumer price of all pharmaceuticals subject to this system, to a varying degree in different countries and periods, the reduction being greater for originator-branded drugs than for generics. In several countries with a reference pricing system, it was observed that generics with a consumer price lower than the reference price do not undergo price reductions until the reference price is reduced, even when there are other lower-priced generics on the market (absence of price competition below the reference price). Beyond the price reduction forced by the price-cap and/or reference pricing regulation itself

  3. Managing work life with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Gunnel; Hesselstrand, Roger; Scheja, Agneta; Håkansson, Carita

    2012-02-01

    To explore how individuals with SSc manage their work life. We conducted four focus group interviews, which included 17 patients currently working at least 20 h per week. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcribed texts were analysed according to thematic content analysis. Relevant statements that generated preliminary categories were identified, after which themes and underlying subthemes were generated. The participants perceived their work role as being important, giving them a structure in everyday life and a sense of being useful members of society. Work and private life were interacting, and different adjustments had been developed to create a satisfactory balance of activities in daily life. Three themes emerged: adjustment of work situation, adapting to own resources and disclosing limitations. Reduced working hours, flexibility in the workplace concerning time schedule, room and tasks were all valuable adjustments, and were dependent on the employer, fellow workers as well as the individual's attitude towards informing employer and colleagues about his/her limitations. The participants had simplified and rationalized a lot of household chores and pointed to the importance of prioritizing meaningful activities, as well as the necessity of having time for rest and recovery. Reduced working hours, work flexibility and prioritizing meaningful activities and recovery were important factors in order to manage work life. Intervention, including problem-solving techniques and re-designing of activities in daily life, could be useful to coach individuals towards finding a balance in their work life.

  4. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  5. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  6. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  7. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  8. Socially sustainable work organizations and systems thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kira, M.; Eijnatten, van F.M.

    2010-01-01

    This Research Note seeks to add to the body of knowledge concerning social sustainability in work organizations, especially within the context of new challenges and threats in contemporary, post-industrial working life. Moreover, the intention is to explore the added value of the complexity lens in

  9. HIDE working groups: synchrotron based system: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the work resulting from a one-week workshop on the use of synchrotrons in heavy ion fusion, i.e., a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE). Topics discussed concerned the number of beams on target, space charge limitations, choice of ion charge state, and areas identified as needing further work

  10. Freemium Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing...... into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...

  11. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, J.

    2001-01-01

    The oil market is the most volatile of all markets, with the exception of the Nasdaq. It is also the biggest commodity market in the world. Therefore one cannot avoid forecasting oil prices, nor can one expect to avoid the forecasting errors that have been made in the past. In his report, Joel Maurice draws a distinction between the short term and the medium-long term in analysing the outlook for oil prices. (author)

  12. Food Price Volatility and Decadal Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The agriculture system is under pressure to increase production every year as global population expands and more people move from a diet mostly made up of grains, to one with more meat, dairy and processed foods. Weather shocks and large changes in international commodity prices in the last decade have increased pressure on local food prices. This paper will review several studies that link climate variability as measured with satellite remote sensing to food price dynamics in 36 developing countries where local monthly food price data is available. The focus of the research is to understand how weather and climate, as measured by variations in the growing season using satellite remote sensing, has affected agricultural production, food prices and access to food in agricultural societies. Economies are vulnerable to extreme weather at multiple levels. Subsistence small holders who hold livestock and consume much of the food they produce are vulnerable to food production variability. The broader society, however, is also vulnerable to extreme weather because of the secondary effects on market functioning, resource availability, and large-scale impacts on employment in trading, trucking and wage labor that are caused by weather-related shocks. Food price variability captures many of these broad impacts and can be used to diagnose weather-related vulnerability across multiple sectors. The paper will trace these connections using market-level data and analysis. The context of the analysis is the humanitarian aid community, using the guidance of the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network and the United Nation's World Food Program in their response to food security crises. These organizations have worked over the past three decades to provide baseline information on food production through satellite remote sensing data and agricultural yield models, as well as assessments of food access through a food price database. Econometric models and spatial analysis are used

  13. Payers' experiences with confidential pharmaceutical price discounts: A survey of public and statutory health systems in North America, Europe, and Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G; Vogler, Sabine; Wagner, Anita K

    2017-04-01

    Institutional payers for pharmaceuticals worldwide appear to be increasingly negotiating confidential discounts off of the official list price of pharmaceuticals purchased in the community setting. We conducted an anonymous survey about experiences with and attitudes toward confidential discounts on patented pharmaceuticals in a sample of high-income countries. Confidential price discounts are now common among the ten health systems that participated in our study, though some had only recently begun to use these pricing arrangements on a routine basis. Several health systems had used a wide variety of discounting schemes in the past two years. The most frequent discount received by participating health systems was between 20% and 29% of official list prices; however, six participants reported their health system received one or more discount over the past two years that was valued at 60% or more of the list prices. On average, participants reported that confidential discounts were more common, complex, and significant for specialty pharmaceuticals than for primary care pharmaceuticals. Participants had a more favorable view of the impact of confidential discount schemes on their health systems than on the global marketplace. Overall, the frequency, complexity, and scale of confidential discounts being routinely negotiated suggest that the list prices for medicines bear limited resemblance to what many institutional payers actually pay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Measure and Early-Warning System of China's Stock Market Based on Price-Earnings Ratio and Price-to-Book Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongda Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the actual situation of China's stock market, this paper proposes a method for measuring the stock market's risk and early-warning methods which are based on price-to-earnings ratio and price-to-book ratio. The study found that the method of VaR can capture the bigger daily drops in a period, and if the drop is at the periodical top of the index, the probability of a sharp index decline will be very high. It also confirmed that the method is feasible and practical for people to use. In the long run, this method really can send early-warning signals of sharp decline; the warning levels increase as the index rises. The study also found that index will not fall after every warning but will continue going forward because of inertia, particularly during a big trend.

  15. Price-Based Acquisition. Issues and Challenges for Defense Department Procurement of Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    requirement for cost or pricing data on proposals—even including the requirement for full TINA certifica- tion—were tepid at best.10 Yet another area of...sition University’s Acquisition Community Connection Web site (http://acc.dau.mil/ simplify/ev.php?ID=5944_201&ID2=DO_TOPIC): “Alpha Acquisition is a...as DoD’s increas- ingly broad and lax application of its statutory authority to grant TINA waivers. Critics argued that DoD was granting too many

  16. Chaotic structure of oil prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike; Sonustun, Fulya Ozaksoy

    2018-01-01

    The fluctuations in oil prices are very complicated and therefore, it is unable to predict its effects on economies. For modelling complex system of oil prices, linear economic models are not sufficient and efficient tools. Thus, in recent years, economists attached great attention to non-linear structure of oil prices. For analyzing this relationship, GARCH types of models were used in some papers. Distinctively from the other papers, in this study, we aimed to analyze chaotic pattern of oil prices. Thus, it was used the Lyapunov Exponents and Hennon Map to determine chaotic behavior of oil prices for the selected time period.

  17. Evaluation of mobile work zone alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Maintenance of highways often involves mobile work zones for various types of low speed moving operations such as : striping and sweeping. The speed differential between the moving operation and traffic, and the increasing problem of : distracted dri...

  18. Application of Pricing Strategy in the Management of Recreational Fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chen; Han, Xingyong

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the feasibility of carrying out various pricing strategies in recreational fishery management. It also introduces the four common pricing means, which are time (season) differential pricing, customer differential pricing, quantity discount and two-part tariff system. The effects of pricing strategy of recreational fishery on social welfare are studied taking time (season) differential pricing as an example.

  19. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  20. Electricity market auction settings in a future Danish electricity system with a high penetration of renewable energy sources - A comparison of marginal pricing and pay-as-bid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steffen; Sorknaes, Peter; Ostergaard, Poul Alberg

    2011-01-01

    The long-term goal for Danish energy policy is to be free of fossil fuels through the increasing use of renewable energy sources (RES) including fluctuating renewable electricity (FRE). The Danish electricity market is part of the Nordic power exchange, which uses a Marginal Price auction system (MPS) for the day-ahead auctions. The market price is thus equal to the bidding price of the most expensive auction winning unit. In the MPS, the FRE bid at prices of or close to zero resulting in reduced market prices during hours of FRE production. In turn, this reduces the FRE sources' income from market sales. As more FRE is implemented, this effect will only become greater, thereby reducing the income for FRE producers. Other auction settings could potentially help to reduce this problem. One candidate is the pay-as-bid auction setting (PAB), where winning units are paid their own bidding price. This article investigates the two auction settings, to find whether a change of auction setting would provide a more suitable frame for large shares of FRE. This has been done with two energy system scenarios with different shares of FRE. From the analysis, it is found that MPS is generally better for the FRE sources. The result is, however, very sensitive to the base assumptions used for the calculations. -- Highlights: → In this study two different auction settings for the Danish electricity market are compared. → Two scenarios are used in the analyses, one representing the present system and one representing a future 100% renewable energy system. → We find that marginal price auction system is most suitable for supporting fluctuating renewable energy in both scenarios. → The results are very sensitive to the assumptions about bidding prices for each technology.

  1. Information system for personnel work distribution in Kaunas Maironis gymnasium

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanauskaitė, Eglė

    2005-01-01

    This information technology master degree work. In this work it is made research of the task of teacher's work distribution acording to schoolchildren's individual studying plans. In this work it it analyzed the process of teacher's work distribution and their information needs. This information system was created in MS Visio surroundings and realized with MS SQL Server and VBA implements.

  2. Pricing strategies of the supermarket sector

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Joana Lobato da Fonseca Sáragga

    2014-01-01

    The food retail industry is a very competitive market. Supermarkets use a combination of price, quality of products and service to lure consumers and increase their profit. This work project draws upon both empirical and theoretical literatures to understand the different pricing strategies that the supermarket sector uses. Everyday Low Price, Promotional, Zone Pricing and Loyalty Programs are the most common pricing strategies in this industry. By using data from the Portuguese supermarket l...

  3. A Reconsideration of Full-Cost Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nubbemeyer, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    The wide use of full-cost pricing techniques remains an explanandum in both economics and management accounting theory. This work surveys and develops possible theoretical explanations of this industrial pricing behaviour and analyses some of its implications. By recognition of the widespread use of imperfect cost-plus pricing heuristics, observable pricing behaviour, as well as empirical market-level phenomena, can be explained. Furthermore, methodological aspects of marginalist price the...

  4. Research paper no. 18. Trading rules for CO2 emission permits systems. A proposal for ceilings on quantities and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.

    2000-01-01

    Tradable emission permit (TEP) systems for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as they could develop following the Kyoto Protocol - that is if they are limited to Annex B countries and are not bound by exchange regulations) - do not appear to be greatly acceptable today, either to the United States or to the European Union. The problem of the uncertainty related to the cost of reducing emissions is strongly highlighted in the United States: in fact, the approach adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that of quantitative emissions targets, leaves the question of the reduction programme costs wide open. For the European Union, the unregulated TEP system is hardly acceptable because it would not guarantee that the principle of 'supplementarity' adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that is, the fact that the purchase of permits should be in addition to action taken within each of the Annex B countries. The section two of this paper is an in-depth economic analysis of the european proposal for ''concrete ceilings''. The alternative proposals, formulated in the United States and relating more to permit price ceilings or''trigger price'', are examined in Section 3. After showing that each of the foregoing proposals could have consequences unacceptable to some or others of the parties to the Protocol, Section 4 offers the proposal of a hybrid formula for regulating the rights market. In fact, the main aim of this paper is to show that the implementation of a 'hybrid solution', consisting of limiting the volume of exchanges while at the same time introducing a TEP price ceiling, could provide a market regulation framework effect allowing the benefits of most of the economic advantages to be enjoyed and also having characteristics acceptable to the various parties from an environmental as well as from an international fairness point of view. (A.L.B.)

  5. Electrical System Technology Working Group (WG) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, S.; Ford, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology needs for space power systems (military, public, commercial) were assessed for the period 1995 to 2005 in the area of power management and distribution, components, circuits, subsystems, controls and autonomy, modeling and simulation. There was general agreement that the military requirements for pulse power would be the dominant factor in the growth of power systems. However, the growth of conventional power to the 100 to 250kw range would be in the public sector, with low Earth orbit needs being the driver toward large 100kw systems. An overall philosophy for large power system development is also described.

  6. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  7. The impact of city-level permitting processes on residential photovoltaic installation prices and development times: An empirical analysis of solar systems in California cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Changgui; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    With “soft” costs accounting for well over 50% of the installed price of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States, this study evaluates the effect of city-level permitting processes on the installed price of residential PV systems and on the time required to develop those systems. The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. Department of Energy's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program, which includes city-level permitting process “scores,” plus data from the California Solar Initiative and the U.S. Census. Econometric methods are used to quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes on more than 3000 PV installations across 44 California cities in 2011. Results suggest that cities with the most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W (4–12% of median PV prices in California) compared with cities with the most onerous permitting practices, depending on the regression model used. Though the empirical models for development times are less robust, results suggest that the most streamlined permitting practices may shorten development times by around 24 days on average (25% of the median development time). These findings illustrate the potential price and development-time benefits of streamlining local permitting procedures for PV systems. - Highlights: • The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. DOE's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program. • We quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes. • Most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W

  8. 48 CFR 15.405 - Price negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price negotiation. 15.405... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.405 Price negotiation. (a) The purpose of performing cost or price analysis is to develop a negotiation position that permits the...

  9. 48 CFR 15.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 15.402... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.402 Pricing policy. Contracting... certified cost or pricing data when required by 15.403-4, along with data other than certified cost or...

  10. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis, particularly...

  11. Nodal pricing in a coupled electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette; Cai, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a pricing model for an electricity market with a hybrid congestion management method, i.e. part of the system applies a nodal pricing scheme and the rest applies a zonal pricing scheme. The model clears the zonal and nodal pricing areas simultaneously. The nodal pricing area is affected by the changes in the zonal pricing area since it is directly connected to the zonal pricing area by commercial trading. The model is tested on a 13-node power system. Within the area t...

  12. HIDE working groups. A. Synchrotron based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of a week's discussions on an ion source to target scenario for a synchrotron for heavy ion fusion. Topics considered include: the number of beams on the target; beam dynamics; and a number of areas explicitly identified as needing further work

  13. INNOVATIVE DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF DESIGN WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Ahmetova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the definition of a professional thinking in design, on which the formation, the embodiment of the project and implementation of the ideas of the customer is based. The article is proposed to teach students the proper approach to the appearance and presentation of the professional and educational works.

  14. Marketplace pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    As discussed in this chapter, interest in marketplace pricing has been increasing in recent years, reflecting the societal trend toward substituting competition for regulation where appropriate. Competition is valuable because it encourages utilities to make efficient decisions with a minimum of regulatory intervention. It enhances efficiency through the incentive for innovation by the regulated companies and by increasing the likelihood they will come forward with proposals for better services, lower prices or both. Ultimately, consumers are beneficiaries. Marketplace pricing is emblematic of the view that the degree of regulation should reflect the degree of market power, that workably competitive markets should be allowed to operate with as little regulatory interference as possible. The Edison Electric Institute has made perhaps the most detailed proposal on marketplace pricing. It and others perceive numerous benefits from this method of pricing transmission services. Given the undeniable market power resulting from line ownership, FERC has emphasized the need to find a workably competitive market before approving such proposals. The ability to make this distinction without a full-blown antitrust review for every transaction is questionable, and FERC has yet to provide generic guidance. Finally, FERC's legal ability to depart from cost-based standards is questionable

  15. Hospital Quality Systems - working mechanisms unraveled.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoten, S. van; Groenewegen, P.; Wagner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Quality systems were implemented in healthcare institutions to assure and improve the quality of care. Despite the fact that all Dutch hospitals have implemented a quality system, incidents persist to surface. How could this be explained? The current research was set out to gain thorough

  16. Production Functions for Water Delivery Systems: Analysis and Estimation Using Dual Cost Function and Implicit Price Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeples, Ronald; Glyer, David

    1987-05-01

    Both policy and technical analysis of water delivery systems have been based on cost functions that are inconsistent with or are incomplete representations of the neoclassical production functions of economics. We present a full-featured production function model of water delivery which can be estimated from a multiproduct, dual cost function. The model features implicit prices for own-water inputs and is implemented as a jointly estimated system of input share equations and a translog cost function. Likelihood ratio tests are performed showing that a minimally constrained, full-featured production function is a necessary specification of the water delivery operations in our sample. This, plus the model's highly efficient and economically correct parameter estimates, confirms the usefulness of a production function approach to modeling the economic activities of water delivery systems.

  17. Examination of energy price policies in Iran for optimal configuration of CHP and CCHP systems based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichi, S.G.; Ardehali, M.M.; Nazari, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The current subsidized energy prices in Iran are proposed to be gradually eliminated over the next few years. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of current and future energy price policies on optimal configuration of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems in Iran, under the conditions of selling and not-selling electricity to utility. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for minimizing the cost function for owning and operating various CHP and CCHP systems in an industrial dairy unit. The results show that with the estimated future unsubsidized utility prices, CHP and CCHP systems operating with reciprocating engine prime mover have total costs of 5.6 and $2.9x10 6 over useful life of 20 years, respectively, while both systems have the same capital recovery periods of 1.3 years. However, for the same prime mover and with current subsidized prices, CHP and CCHP systems require 4.9 and 5.2 years for capital recovery, respectively. It is concluded that the current energy price policies hinder the promotion of installing CHP and CCHP systems and, the policy of selling electricity to utility as well as eliminating subsidies are prerequisites to successful widespread utilization of such systems.

  18. Energy pricing under uncertain supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper introduces a new pricing system - based on the Chilean tariff regulations - to deal with an uncertain energy supply. It consists of a basic rate for each unit actually consumed and a compensation that the utilities pay their customers for each unit of energy that they voluntarily reduce below their normal consumption during an energy shortage. Within the framework of a model that portrays the stylized facts of the Chilean electric system, and assumes risk-neutral agents, this paper shows the equivalency of the new pricing system with both contingent pricing and priority pricing. (Author)

  19. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system : An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based

  20. Systems security management in forestry work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone F

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work is a relevant ethical good. National Government and other international and national institutions have adopted measures to against this social evil, in the forestry sector too. In Italy, for the period 2003-2005 the domestic forest sector registered just less than 1 fatal accident for millions of cubic meter, nevertheless a more consistent data should be need for comparing this data at international level. After explaining the wide range of works in the forest, the contribution analyzes the discipline introduced by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. This has introduced new professionalism, new procedures, new tools and new type of cost in the budgets of forestry activities. In the conclusion the Author suggests that the inclusion of these type of expenditures on forest management accounting are very significant from many points of view. Safety and health costs must be included sistematically and not occasionally on volontary basis of the forester consultant.

  1. Public Works Department Maintenance Management Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Associates, Inc., 1974. 2. Ansoff , Igor H. , Corporate Strategy , McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965. 3. Anthony, Robert N. , Planning and Control Systems, A...hierarchy of information systems. Ansoff describes management decision-making in three categories as strategic, administrative and operating decisions [Re...involve the firm’s goals, objectives, diversification, product-mix, markets, and growth. Ansoff also notes these other differences: 76 (1) operating

  2. Cheaper by the Dozen: Using Sibling Discounts at Catholic Schools to Estimate the Price Elasticity of Private School Attendance. NBER Working Paper No. 15461

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Gruber, Jonathan; Li, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The effect of vouchers on sorting between private and public schools depends upon the price elasticity of demand for private schooling. Estimating this elasticity is empirically challenging because prices and quantities are jointly determined in the market for private schooling. We exploit a unique and previously undocumented source of variation…

  3. Market prices for solar electricity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ontario electricity supply is facing considerable challenges while demand is increasing due to a growing population and increased economic growth needs. In response to these challenges, the government of Ontario established the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) in 2004 to ensure adequate, reliable and secure electricity supply and resources in Ontario. The OPA has also engaged in activities to facilitate the diversification of sources of electricity supply by promoting the use of cleaner energy sources and technologies, including alternative energy sources and renewable energy. The purpose of this paper was to advance discussions regarding the contribution that solar PV can make to Ontario's supply mix. In particular, it determined the value of the electricity that would have been produced by a PV system located in Waterloo, Ontario under the following 4 pricing regimes: (1) the conventional small user tariff system currently in place in Ontario, (2) the time-of-use pricing system that is voluntarily available to those who have smart meters installed in their facilities, (3) the spot market, hourly prices, to which some of Ontario's largest electricity users are exposed, and (4) the recently-proposed rate for standard offer contracts for PV systems. The study showed that a solar PV system that produces 3,000 kWh of electricity over the course of a year would generate different revenue amounts, ranging from the smallest amount of approximately $174.00 to $1,260.00, depending on the pricing regime. The pricing regime that reflects real, time-of-day electricity prices appears to be most advantageous to solar PV systems. It was recommended that additional work is needed regarding the other benefits of solar PV, such as avoided capacity/generation needs, avoided transmission and distribution cost and losses, environmental benefits, and job creation. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  4. 48 CFR 16.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 16.203 Section 16.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.203 Fixed-price...

  5. 48 CFR 5416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 5416.203 Section 5416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203 Fixed-price...

  6. Optimal redundant systems for works with random processing time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal redundant policies for a manufacturing system processing jobs with random working times. The redundant units of the parallel systems and standby systems are subject to stochastic failures during the continuous production process. First, a job consisting of only one work is considered for both redundant systems and the expected cost functions are obtained. Next, each redundant system with a random number of units is assumed for a single work. The expected cost functions and the optimal expected numbers of units are derived for redundant systems. Subsequently, the production processes of N tandem works are introduced for parallel and standby systems, and the expected cost functions are also summarized. Finally, the number of works is estimated by a Poisson distribution for the parallel and standby systems. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the optimization problems of redundant systems

  7. Understanding gasoline pricing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This brochure is designed to help consumers understand how gasoline is priced and explained why prices increase, fluctuate and vary by location, city or region. The price of a litre of gasoline reflects the costs of crude oil, refining, retailing and taxes. Taxes are usually the largest single component of gasoline prices, averaging 40 to 50 per cent of the pump price. The cost of crude oil makes up another 35 to 45 per cent of the price. Refining costs make up 10 to 15 per cent while the remaining 5 to 10 per cent represents retail costs. Gasoline retailers make a profit of about 1 cent per litre. The latest network technology allows national and regional retail chains to constantly monitor price fluctuations to change their prices at gasoline stations at a moments notice to keep up with the competition and to protect their market shares. Several government studies, plus the Conference Board of Canada, have reported that competition is working in favour of Canadian motorists. This brochure also explained the drawbacks of regulating crude and pump prices with the reminder that crude prices were regulated in the 1970s with many negative consequences. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. The determinants of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, J-P.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, swings in oil prices have been of unprecendented severity and frequency. Three factors work together to determine the price of oil: in the short term, the balance between supply and demand; in the medium term, the structure of the oil industry; and in the long term, the marginal production cost consistent with world oil demand. An oil price forecast is presented based on these considerations, and it is predicted that in the year 2000, oil prices will not be significantly different from those of today. 28 refs

  9. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal for...

  10. Understanding international commodity price fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, Rabah; Loungani, Prakash; van der Ploeg, Rick; Venables, Anthony J.

    An overview is provided of recent work on commodity prices, focusing on three themes: (i) "financialization" of commodity markets--commodities being considered by financial investors as a distinct asset class, (ii) trends and forecasts of commodity prices, and (iii) fracking-a shorthand for the

  11. Return-to-Work Within a Complex and Dynamic Organizational Work Disability System

    OpenAIRE

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Hettinger, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Return-to-work (RTW) within a complex organizational system can be associated with suboptimal outcomes. Purpose To apply a sociotechnical systems perspective to investigate complexity in RTW; to utilize system dynamics modeling (SDM) to examine how feedback relationships between individual, psychosocial, and organizational factors make up the work disability system and influence RTW. Methods SDMs were developed within two companies. Thirty stakeholders including senior managers, an...

  12. Incentive, sustainable and fair pricing, a trilogy out of reach?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Salvetti

    2005-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive requires Member-States to implement by 2010 an incentive tariffication policy in order to ensure efficient use of water resources and compliance with environmental goals (good ecological status). But working out an incentive pricing system, that is both sustainable and fair, is not an easy task. 1) Can an incentive pricing be a sustainable pricing? a) Water & wastewater services are very capitalistic: fixed costs can represent up to 2/3 or 3/4 of the service cost...

  13. Pricing and Inventory Control Strategy for a Periodic-Review Energy Buy-Back System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jihong; CHEN Hongqiao; DING Xiaosong; LI Xian

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of economics and enhancement of industrialization,the power demand keeps rising and frequently creates mismatch between demand and supply in electricity.This provides miscellaneous energy buy-back programs with great opportunities.Such programs,when activated,offer certain amount of financial compensations to participants for reducing their energy consumption during peak time.They aim at encouraging participants to shift their electricity usage from peak to non-peak time,and thereby release the demand pressure during peak time.This paper considers a periodic-review joint pricing and inventory decision model under an energy buy-back program over finite planning horizons,in which the compensation levels,setup cost and additive random demand function are incorporated.The objective is to maximize a manufacturer's expected total profit.By using Veinott's conditions,it is shown that the manufacturer's optimal decision is a state dependent (s,S,P) policy under a peak market condition,or partly an (s,S,A,P) policy under the normal market condition.

  14. The Impact of Input and Output Prices on The Household Economic Behavior of Rice-Livestock Integrated Farming System (Rlifs) and Non Rlifs Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindawati, L.; Kusnadi, N.; Kuntjoro, S. U.; Swastika, D. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated farming system is a system that emphasized linkages and synergism of farming units waste utilization. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of input and output prices on both Rice Livestock Integrated Farming System (RLIFS) and non RLIFS farmers. The study used econometric model in the form of a simultaneous equations system consisted of 36 equations (18 behavior and 18 identity equations). The impact of changes in some variables was obtained through simulation of input and output prices on simultaneous equations. The results showed that the price increasing of the seed, SP-36, urea, medication/vitamins, manure, bran, straw had negative impact on production of the rice, cow, manure, bran, straw and household income. The decrease in the rice and cow production, production input usage, allocation of family labor, rice and cow business income was greater in RLIFS than non RLIFS farmers. The impact of rising rice and cow cattle prices in the two groups of farmers was not too much different because (1) farming waste wasn’t used effectively (2) manure and straw had small proportion of production costs. The increase of input and output price didn’t have impact on production costs and household expenditures on RLIFS.

  15. Modelling prices in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, D.W.

    2004-04-01

    Electricity markets are structurally different to other commodities, and the real-time dynamic balancing of the electricity network involves many external factors. Because of this, it is not a simple matter to transfer conventional models of financial time series analysis to wholesale electricity prices. The rationale for this compilation of chapters from international authors is, therefore, to provide econometric analysis of wholesale power markets around the world, to give greater understanding of their particular characteristics, and to assess the applicability of various methods of price modelling. Researchers and professionals in this sector will find the book an invaluable guide to the most important state-of-the-art modelling techniques which are converging to define the special approaches necessary for unravelling and forecasting the behaviour of electricity prices. It is a high-quality synthesis of the work of financial engineering, industrial economics and power systems analysis, as they relate to the behaviour of competitive electricity markets. (author)

  16. Working with Systems and Thinking Systemically--Disentangling the Crossed Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article explores two separate traditions that educational psychologists (EPs) in the UK have for working with systems. One of these is "systems work" with organisations such as schools. The other is "systemic thinking" for working with families. Over the years these two traditions, systems work and systemic thinking, have…

  17. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Michael; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-05-08

    Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms.The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased medicine price transparency and have the

  18. Justification of directions of technological and price audit systems changes for the purpose of high-rise construction innovating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacheva, Yana; Panenkov, Andrey; Petrikova, Zinaida; Nezhnikova, Ekaterina

    2018-03-01

    Improving the quality of high-rise buildings under modern conditions should be based not only on compliance with the norms of technical regulations, but also on ensuring energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and intellectuality, which can be achieved only through the introduction of innovations at all stages of the life cycle of the investment project. Authors of this article justified the need for a mechanism of technological and price audit of projects. They also suggested the model of life cycle of organizational and economic changes, connected with implantation of the mechanism of projects audit. They showed innovation character of ecological high-rise construction for the whole life cycle. Authors also made proposals to change the audit system for high-rise construction projects in the focus of its environmental friendliness.

  19. Justification of directions of technological and price audit systems changes for the purpose of high-rise construction innovating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogacheva Yana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of high-rise buildings under modern conditions should be based not only on compliance with the norms of technical regulations, but also on ensuring energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and intellectuality, which can be achieved only through the introduction of innovations at all stages of the life cycle of the investment project. Authors of this article justified the need for a mechanism of technological and price audit of projects. They also suggested the model of life cycle of organizational and economic changes, connected with implantation of the mechanism of projects audit. They showed innovation character of ecological high-rise construction for the whole life cycle. Authors also made proposals to change the audit system for high-rise construction projects in the focus of its environmental friendliness.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITY BASED ANALYSIS METHOD COSTING SYSTEM IN PRICING COST OF ROOMS IN HOTEL DYNASTY MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh Nur Hatta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to fulfill one of the final project now where Thesis research was held in April to June, 2016. This study aims to know the differences in the calculation of the cost of the room by using a conventional system using activity-based costing (ABC system. method analysis is using descriptive method of analysis of the cost of the hotel this time, set the conventional method and then comparing the cost of a hotel room based activity based result costing. study showed that of calculating the cost of a hotel room by using activity based costing, when compared with the cost of hotel rooms used by the activity based costing Dynasty then give the results in standard rooms, deluxe, suites and family give results the calculation of which is smaller than the cost of the rooms which have been determined by the hotel management. That is, with the difference in price for a Standard room IDR. 58024.84. For a Deluxe room IDR. 175,411.58. For room Suite IDR. 99. 034,88. Family rooms and for IDR. 100,045.60. While in the room Executive Suite / Pent House Activity Based Costing calculation result is greater than the cost of the rooms which have been determined by the hotel management. That is, with the difference amounting to IDR. 368,096.17. The difference in price is due to the method of Activity Based Costing,The overhead on each product is charged to a lot of cost driver. Thus, in the Activity Based Costing method is able to allocate activity costs to each room is right by the consumption of each activity.

  1. Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Hidalgo-Vega

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond cost-effectiveness, analysis. Value-based pricing and result-oriented financing as a pathway to sustainability for the national health system in SpainThe editorial addresses the current use of economic evaluation in the assessment and potential funding and reimbursement of health technologies. Cost-effectiveness ratio and the acceptability thresholds are analyzed, pointing out the limitations that the current approach has for capturing the value of new technologies. A potential shift from National Health Systems to value-based prices is discussed, with a focus on health economics outcomes where multi-criteria analyses can be a complementary tool to traditional cost-effectiveness approaches.

  2. System of wireless base stations employing shadow prices for power load balancing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    In one aspect, a system is provided. In one embodiment, the system includes a plurality of wireless base stations that are located in a contiguous spatial coverage region of a cellular communication system. Each wireless base station that is configured to generate a coverage pilot beam to enable

  3. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    of the muCHP unit, which influence the export capability of muCHP system, is firstly carried out in the intraday case study, followed by the annual case study which explores the annual system performance. The results show that the electricity export capability of a muCHP system is closely related to its...

  4. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  5. The impact of prospective pricing on the information system in the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, K F

    1988-02-01

    The move from a retrospective payment system (value added) to a prospective payment system (diagnostic related) has not only influenced the health care business but also changed their information systems' requirements. The change in requirements can be attributed both to an increase in data processing tasks and also to an increase in the need for information to more effectively manage the organization. A survey was administered to capture the response of health care institutions, in the area of information systems, to the prospective payment system. The survey results indicate that the majority of health care institutions have responded by increasing their information resources, both in terms of hardware and software, and have moved to integrate the medical and financial data. In addition, the role of the information system has changed from a cost accounting system to one intended to provide a competitive edge in a highly competitive marketing environment.

  6. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  7. Work Ethics and Productivity in Local Government System in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is motivated by the desire to examine the implications of the negative work attitudes that is prevalent among the employees of the local government system in Nigeria. The paper argued that the Nigeria local government system is engulfed in Negative work tendencies characterized by such ...

  8. Development of an Information System for Diploma Works Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva-Trifonova, Tsvetanka

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a client/server information system for the management of data and its extraction from a database containing information for diploma works of students is proposed. The developed system provides users the possibility of accessing information about different characteristics of the diploma works, according to their specific interests.…

  9. New Local, National and Regional Cereal Price Indices for Improved Identification of Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Tondel, Fabien; Thorne, Jennifer A.; Essam, Timothy; Mann, Bristol F.; Stabler, Blake; Eilerts, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Large price increases over a short time period can be indicative of a deteriorating food security situation. Food price indices developed by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are used to monitor food price trends at a global level, but largely reflect supply and demand conditions in export markets. However, reporting by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)'s Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicates that staple cereal prices in many markets of the developing world, especially in surplus-producing areas, often have a delayed and variable response to international export market price trends. Here we present new price indices compiled for improved food security monitoring and assessment, and specifically for monitoring conditions of food access across diverse food insecure regions. We found that cereal price indices constructed using market prices within a food insecure region showed significant differences from the international cereals price, and had a variable price dispersion across markets within each marketshed. Using satellite-derived remote sensing information that estimates local production and the FAO Cereals Index as predictors, we were able to forecast movements of the local or national price indices in the remote, arid and semi-arid countries of the 38 countries examined. This work supports the need for improved decision-making about targeted aid and humanitarian relief, by providing earlier early warning of food security crises.

  10. Work-family fit: the impact of emergency medical services work on the family system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Sheila Gillespie; Moore, Crystal Dea

    2009-01-01

    The stress associated with a career in emergency medical services (EMS) can impact the work-family fit and function of the family system for EMS personnel. Little research has been conducted on how the demands associated with a career in EMS influences family life. Objective. To describe salient EMS work factors that can impact the family system. Twelve family members (11 spouses and one parent) of EMS workers were interviewed using a semistructured qualitative interview guide that explored issues related to their family members' work that could impact the quality of family life. Using a phenomenological approach, transcribed interview data were examined for themes that illuminated factors that influence work-family fit. Data analysis revealed that shift work impacts numerous aspects of family life, including marital and parental roles, leisure and social opportunities, and home schedules and rhythms. Furthermore, families coped with challenges associated with their loved one's EMS work through negotiating role responsibilities, developing their own interests, giving their family member "space," and providing support by listening and helping the EMS worker process his or her reactions to difficult work. In addition, family members reported concern over their EMS worker's physical safety. Implications from the data are discussed vis-a-vis the work-family fit and family systems models. Education, communication, support systems, and individual interests are key ways to promote a healthy work-family fit.

  11. Sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Brian M; Hettinger, Lawrence J; DeJoy, David M; Huang, Yuang-Hsiang; Love, Peter E D

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and practical approaches to safety based on sociotechnical systems principles place heavy emphasis on the intersections between social-organisational and technical-work process factors. Within this perspective, work system design emphasises factors such as the joint optimisation of social and technical processes, a focus on reliable human-system performance and safety metrics as design and analysis criteria, the maintenance of a realistic and consistent set of safety objectives and policies, and regular access to the expertise and input of workers. We discuss three current approaches to the analysis and design of complex sociotechnical systems: human-systems integration, macroergonomics and safety climate. Each approach emphasises key sociotechnical systems themes, and each prescribes a more holistic perspective on work systems than do traditional theories and methods. We contrast these perspectives with historical precedents such as system safety and traditional human factors and ergonomics, and describe potential future directions for their application in research and practice. The identification of factors that can reliably distinguish between safe and unsafe work systems is an important concern for ergonomists and other safety professionals. This paper presents a variety of sociotechnical systems perspectives on intersections between social--organisational and technology--work process factors as they impact work system analysis, design and operation.

  12. Sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe work systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Brian M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; DeJoy, David M.; Huang, Yuang-Hsiang; Love, Peter E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and practical approaches to safety based on sociotechnical systems principles place heavy emphasis on the intersections between social–organisational and technical–work process factors. Within this perspective, work system design emphasises factors such as the joint optimisation of social and technical processes, a focus on reliable human–system performance and safety metrics as design and analysis criteria, the maintenance of a realistic and consistent set of safety objectives and policies, and regular access to the expertise and input of workers. We discuss three current approaches to the analysis and design of complex sociotechnical systems: human–systems integration, macroergonomics and safety climate. Each approach emphasises key sociotechnical systems themes, and each prescribes a more holistic perspective on work systems than do traditional theories and methods. We contrast these perspectives with historical precedents such as system safety and traditional human factors and ergonomics, and describe potential future directions for their application in research and practice. Practitioner Summary: The identification of factors that can reliably distinguish between safe and unsafe work systems is an important concern for ergonomists and other safety professionals. This paper presents a variety of sociotechnical systems perspectives on intersections between social–organisational and technology–work process factors as they impact work system analysis, design and operation. PMID:25909756

  13. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  14. A study on the future of unconventional oil development under different oil price scenarios: A system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Shakouri, Hamed G.

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in the oil global market has been a critical topic for the world economy so that analyzing and forecasting the conventional oil production rate has been examined by many researchers thoroughly. However, the dynamics of the market has not been studied systematically with regard to the new emerging competitors, namely unconventional oil. In this paper, the future trend of conventional and unconventional oil production and capacity expansion rates are analyzed using system dynamics approach. To do so, a supply-side modeling approach is utilized while main effective loops are modeled mathematically as follows: technological learning and progress, long and short-term profitability of oil capacity expansion and production, and oil proved reserve limitations. The proposed model is used to analyze conventional and unconventional oil production shares, up to 2025, under different oil price scenarios. The results show that conventional oil production rate ranges from 79.995 to 87.044 MB/day, which is 75–80 percent of total oil production rate, while unconventional oil production rate ranges from 19.615 to 28.584 MB/day. Simulation results reveal that unconventional oil can gain a considerable market share in the short run, although conventional oil will remain as the major source for the market in the long run. - Highlights: • Variables and loops affecting oil production are formulated mathematically. • Shares of conventional and unconventional oil in the global oil market is analyzed. • Oil production rate under different oil price scenarios up to 2025 is simulated. • Unconventional oil would obtain a considerable share in market in the short-term. • A late peak for the conventional oil resources would occur.

  15. Lessons from game theory about healthcare system price inflation: evidence from a community-level case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Mark D; Gates, Zane

    2013-02-01

    Game theory is useful for identifying conditions under which individual stakeholders in a collective action problem interact in ways that are more cooperative and in the best interest of the collective. The literature applying game theory to healthcare markets predicts that when providers set prices for services autonomously and in a noncooperative fashion, the market will be susceptible to ongoing price inflation. We compare the traditional fee-for-service pricing framework with an alternative framework involving modified doctor, hospital and insurer pricing and incentive strategies. While the fee-for-service framework generally allows providers to set prices autonomously, the alternative framework constrains providers to interact more cooperatively. We use community-level provider and insurer data to compare provider and insurer costs and patient wellness under the traditional and modified pricing frameworks. The alternative pricing framework assumes (i) providers agree to manage all outpatient claims; (ii) the insurer agrees to manage all inpatient clams; and (iii) insurance premiums are tied to patients' healthy behaviours. Consistent with game theory predictions, the more cooperative alternative pricing framework benefits all parties by producing substantially lower administrative costs along with higher profit margins for the providers and the insurer. With insurance premiums tied to consumers' risk-reducing behaviours, the cost of insurance likewise decreases for both the consumer and the insurer.

  16. Pricing according to the comprehensive system of information management factors (for example, the ETH “The University Book”)

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Gaydabrus; T.O. Bashuk

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with the establishment of reasonable pricing, taking into account external factors affecting it. Taking for example Trade & Publishing House University Book this approach developed by the price of a new children's English-Russian dictionary, which they plan to release.

  17. Making alliances work -- Using a computer-based management system to integrate the supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.B.; Randolph, S.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, price has been king in the selection of suppliers and service companies in the upstream oil and gas market. Three years ago, Amoco began to question this selection practice and embarked on an extensive benchmarking effort that has led the company to a proven strategy for goods and services procurement called supply-chain management (SCM). However, the company found that managing compact, integrated supply chains is not always easy. Several implementation issues need to be reconciled for alliances to achieve their full bottom-line potential benefits consistently. Issues that must be resolved, whether they are called alliances, supply chains, or integrated services, are (1) whether these new working relationships are profitable for all the entities involved, from suppliers through to end users; (2) how to assess and improve risk management; (3) how to reduce total system costs; and (4) how to improve performance for each of the alliance members and for the alliance as a whole. This brief describes one possible solution to the complex issues involved in making alliances work: a computer-facilitated management system designed to integrate the work processes of different organizations. In the case described, the Drilling Management System (DMS) was developed and used by the Amoco (U.K.) Well Dept. The system uses off-the-shelf commercial software to improve the performance of the company's drilling operations by integrating the activities of the company and its suppliers

  18. Impact of Fluctuating Energy Prices on the Operation Strategy of a Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Balić

    2015-09-01

    The optimization method is based on two criteria – energy and economic criterion, which were applied hierarchically. Therefore, two optimal operation strategies are introduced. A mixed integer non-linear programming model provides energy and cost savings up to 32% and 28% respectively in comparison with conventional system. In addition, optimal capacity of trigeneration system is explored.

  19. The State of Play US Space Systems Competitiveness: Prices, Productivity, and Other Measures of Launchers & Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    Collects space systems cost and related data (flight rate, payload, etc.) over time. Gathers only public data. Non-recurring and recurring. Minimal data processing. Graph, visualize, add context. Focus on US space systems competitiveness. Keep fresh update as data arises, launches occur, etc. Keep fresh focus on recent data, indicative of the future.

  20. Distribution system operation enhancement through household consumption coordination in a dynamic pricing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Medeiros, M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental concerns have motivated efforts for the modernization of the power system recently. As a result, the distribution system (DS) has been given specific importance. Especially, residential end-users have been rendered active trough the introduction of several assets such as

  1. The welfare effects of different pricing schemes for electricity distribution in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The main components of electricity prices can be divided into the wholesale price, the price of network operations and taxes. Even if the wholesale price is determined efficiently, total welfare can be significantly disturbed if network operations are priced inefficiently. In this study, we calculate network prices based on four alternative methods. These are marginal cost pricing, Ramsey pricing, FDC-pricing and optimal two-part tariffs. The welfare effects on the prevailing pricing system are compared. We show that potentially significant improvements in welfare can be achieved by using marginal cost prices or optimal two-part tariffs. Also Ramsey pricing indicates that prevailing prices are inefficient

  2. The welfare effects of different pricing schemes for electricity distribution in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The main components of electricity prices can be divided into the wholesale price, the price of network operations and taxes. Even if the wholesale price is determined efficiently, total welfare can be significantly disturbed if network operations are priced inefficiently. In this study, we calculate network prices based on four alternative methods. These are marginal cost pricing, Ramsey pricing, FDC-pricing and optimal two-part tariffs. The welfare effects on the prevailing pricing system are compared. We show that potentially significant improvements in welfare can be achieved by using marginal cost prices or optimal two-part tariffs. Also Ramsey pricing indicates that prevailing prices are inefficient. (Author)

  3. 48 CFR 15.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.407 Special cost or pricing areas. ...

  4. 48 CFR 1815.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Special cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.407 Special cost or pricing areas. ...

  5. 48 CFR 1315.407 - Special cost or pricing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special cost or pricing... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1315.407 Special cost or pricing areas. ...

  6. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data. ...

  7. The Quality of Work in the Belgian Service Voucher System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousaid, Sarah; Huegaerts, Kelly; Bosmans, Kim; Julià, Mireia; Benach, Joan; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Several European countries implemented initiatives to boost the growth of the domestic cleaning sector. Few studies investigated the quality of work in these initiatives, although effects on workers' health and on social health inequalities can be expected. This study contributes to the scant research on this subject, by investigating the quality of work in the Belgian service voucher system - a subsidized system for domestic work. The applied research methodology includes a qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debates, legislation and previous research about the service voucher system and of 40 in-depth interviews with service voucher workers. The study shows that the legal framework that regulates the system must be further enhanced in order to improve the quality of work in the service voucher system. In addition, the actors involved must be better controlled, and sanctioned in case of non-compliance with legislation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, Willem

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers to know how transparent pricing is in reality. Commercial practices involving price intransparency can be detrimental to consumer decision making and may be associated with marke...

  9. Price development of photovoltaic modules, inverters, and systems in the Netherlands in 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Muizebelt, Peter; Cace, Jadranka; de Vries, Arthur; de Rijk, Peer

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010 the Dutch photovoltaic (PV) market has been growing fast, with around doubling of installed capacity in 2011 and 2012. Four quarterly inventories have been made in 2012 for modules, inverters, and systems that are presently available for purchase in the Netherlands. We have found that the

  10. Price Development of Photovoltaic Modules, Inverters and Systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Muizebelt, P.; Cace, J.; Vries, A. de; Rijk, P. de

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010 the Dutch photovoltaic (PV) market has been growing fast, with around doubling of installed capacity in 2011 and 2012. Four quarterly inventories have been made in 2012 for modules, inverters, and systems that are presently available for purchase in the Netherlands. We have found that

  11. Dynamic pricing by scalable energy management systems Field experiences and simulation results using PowerMatcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.K.; Roossien, B.; MacDougall, P.; Pruissen, O. van; Venekamp, G.; Kamphuis, R.; Laarakkers, J.; Warmer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Response of demand, distributed generation and electricity storage (e.g. vehicle to grid) will be crucial for power systems management in the future smart electricity grid. In this paper, we describe a smart grid technology that integrates demand and supply flexibility in the operation of the

  12. Dynamic pricing by scalable energy management systems : field experiences and simulation results using PowerMatcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, J.K.; Roossien, B.; MacDougall, P.; Pruissen, van O.P.; Venekamp, G.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Laarakkers, J.; Warmer, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Response of demand, distributed generation and electricity storage (e.g. vehicle to grid) will be crucial for power systems management in the future smart electricity grid. In this paper, we describe a smart grid technology that integrates demand and supply flexibility in the operation of the

  13. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED POWER FLOW TRACING METHOD FOR REACTIVE POWER PRICING IN PRACTICAL UTILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SUSITHRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive trend towards restructuring and unbundling of transmission services has resulted in the need to discover the impact of a particular generator to load. This paper initially presents the analysis of three different reactive power valuation methods namely, Modified Ybus , Virtual flow approach and modified power flow tracing to compute the reactive power output from a particular generator to particular load. Among these methods, the modified power flow electricity tracing method is identified as the best method to trace the reactive power contribution from various reactive power sources to loads, transmission line, etc. Also this proposed method breakdown the total reactive power loss in a transmission line into components to be allocated to individual loads. Secondly, based on this Method a novel allocation method for reactive power service for practical system is proposed. Hence, this method can be useful in providing additional insight into power system operation and can be used to modify existing tariffs of charging for reactive power transmission loss and reactive power transmission services. Simulation and comparison results are shown by taking WSCC 9 and IEEE 30 bus system as test system.

  14. Transition in the waiting-time distribution of price-change events in a global socioeconomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guannan; McDonald, Mark; Fenn, Dan; Williams, Stacy; Johnson, Nicholas; Johnson, Neil F.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of developing a firmer theoretical understanding of inhomogeneous temporal processes-in particular, the waiting times in some collective dynamical system-is attracting significant interest among physicists. Quantifying the deviations between the waiting-time distribution and the distribution generated by a random process may help unravel the feedback mechanisms that drive the underlying dynamics. We analyze the waiting-time distributions of high-frequency foreign exchange data for the best executable bid-ask prices across all major currencies. We find that the lognormal distribution yields a good overall fit for the waiting-time distribution between currency rate changes if both short and long waiting times are included. If we restrict our study to long waiting times, each currency pair’s distribution is consistent with a power-law tail with exponent near to 3.5. However, for short waiting times, the overall distribution resembles one generated by an archetypal complex systems model in which boundedly rational agents compete for limited resources. Our findings suggest that a gradual transition arises in trading behavior between a fast regime in which traders act in a boundedly rational way and a slower one in which traders’ decisions are driven by generic feedback mechanisms across multiple timescales and hence produce similar power-law tails irrespective of currency type.

  15. Aligning Work Processes and the Adviser Portal Bank System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Bæk; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard

    2006-01-01

    The Adviser Portal (AP) is a new IT system for 15 Danish banks. The main goal of AP is to increase the efficiency and quality of bank advisers’ work. Re- quirements engineering for AP includes describing new work processes that must be supported by AP using a combination of: (1) prose and informal...... drawings; (2) The Adviser Portal (AP) is a new IT system for 15 Danish banks. The main goal of AP is to increase the efficiency and quality of bank advisers' work. Requirements engineering for AP includes describing new work processes that musty be supported by AP using a combination of: (1) prose...... and informal drawings; (2) formal models; (3) graphical animation. This representation helps users and system analysts to align new work processes and AP via early experiments in a prototyping fashion. The contribution of this paper is to present and reflect upon the analysis and descrition of one specific...

  16. Energy prices and taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Energy Prices and Taxes contains a major international compilation of energy prices at all market levels: import prices, industry prices and consumer prices. The statistics cover main petroleum products, gas, coal and electricity, giving for imported products an average price both for importing country and country of origin. Every issue includes full notes on sources and methods and a description of price mechanisms in each country

  17. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  18. Automatic Voltage Control System with Market Price Employing Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2018-01-01

    of the voltage control service provided by the power plant owners. The benefit of employing the large offshore wind farms in this AVC system is investigated. The simulation based on the measurement data from the Danish electricity control center demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach in terms...... of the cost minimization. The gained profit by employing the wind farms can be an argument to purchase the voltage control service provided by these wind farms....

  19. Low-priced, time-saving, reliable and stable LR-115 counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear alpha particles leave etches (tracks) when they hit the surface of a LR-115 detector. The density of these tracks is used to measure radon concentration. Counting these tracks by human sense is tedious and time-consuming procedure and may introduce counting error, whereas most available automatic and semiautomatic counting systems are expensive or complex. An uncomplicated, robust, reliable and stable counting system using freely available on the Internet software as Digimizer™ and PhotoScape was developed and proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed procedure was evaluated by comparing the amount of tracks counted by software with the amount of tracks counted manually for 223 detectors. The percentage error for each analysed detector was obtained as a difference between automatic and manual counts divided by manual count. For more than 97% of detectors, the percentage errors oscillated between −3% and 3%. - Highlights: • Semiautomatic, uncomplicated procedure was proposed to count the amount of alpha tracks. • Freely available software on the Internet used as alpha tracks counting system for LR-115. • LR-115 detectors used to measure radon concentration and radon exhalation rate

  20. Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Seah, Chin; Trimble, Jay P.; Sims, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Work System analysis and design is complex and non-deterministic. In this paper we describe Brahms, a multiagent modeling and simulation environment for designing complex interactions in human-machine systems. Brahms was originally conceived as a business process design tool that simulates work practices, including social systems of work. We describe our modeling and simulation method for mission operations work systems design, based on a research case study in which we used Brahms to design mission operations for a proposed discovery mission to the Moon. We then describe the results of an actual method application project-the Brahms Mars Exploration Rover. Space mission operations are similar to operations of traditional organizations; we show that the application of Brahms for space mission operations design is relevant and transferable to other types of business processes in organizations.

  1. An Economic Rationale for the African Scramble. The Commercial Transition and the Commodity Price Boom of 1845-1885. NBER Working Paper 21213

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Williamson, J.G.; Woltjer, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to present a unified quantitative account of African commodity trade in the long 19th century from the zenith of the Atlantic slave trade (1790s) to the eve of World War II (1939). Drawing evidence from a new dataset on export and import prices, volumes, composition and net

  2. Surface moisture measurement system acceptance testing work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This work plan addresses testing of the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The purpose of this plan is to define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, describe test control requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule associated with acceptance testing

  3. Improving work control systems: The core team concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, M.D.; Simpson, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    The improved work control system at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant minimizes review and approval time, maximizes field work time, and maintains full compliance with applicable requirements. The core team method gives ownership and accountability to knowledgeable individuals, and the teams use sophisticated scheduling techniques to improve information sharing and cost control and to establish accurate roll-up master schedules

  4. Photovoltaic System with Smart Tracking of the Optimal Working Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATARAU, T.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic (PV system, based on a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller that extracts the maximum possible output power from the solar panel is described. Output efficiency of a PV energy system can be achieved only if the system working point is brought near the maximum power point (MPP. The proposed system, making use of several MPPT control algorithms (Perturb and Observe, Incremental conductance, Fuzzy Logic, demonstrates in simulations as well as in real experiments good tracking of the optimal working point.

  5. Half-liter supernatant sampler system engineering work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) pretreatment facility project W-236B, known as the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM), requires samples of supernatants and sludges from 200 Area tank farms for planned hot testing work in support of IPM design. The IPM project has proposed the development of several new sampler systems. These systems include a 0.5-l supernatant sampler, 3-l and 25-l supernatant and sludge samplers, and a 4,000-l sampler system. The 0.5-l sampler will support IPM sampling needs in the 1 to 3 l range starting in late fiscal year 1995. This sampler is intended to be used in conjunction with the existing 100 ml bottle-on-a-string. The 3-l and 25-l systems will be based on the Savannah River Site's sampler system and will support IPM sampling needs in the 3 to 100 liter range. Most of the hot testing required for design of the IPM must be accomplished in the next 3 years. This work plan defines the tasks associated with the development of a 0.5-l sampler system. This system will be referred to as the Half-Liter Supernatant Sampler System (HLSSS). Specifically, this work plan will define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, identify major technical requirements, describe configuration control and verification requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule. The sampler system will be fully operational, including trained staff and operating procedures, upon completion of this task

  6. Information system quality in work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmini Gopinathan; Murali Raman

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to look for the role information systems quality may play in work-life balance among Malaysian ICT employees. The results of this study will be useful in the development of new tools and technologies that are focused on ISQ dimensions primarily information system quality which can be helpful to devise suggestions to the ICT sector on matters pertaining to sustainable development/policy formulation with reference to achieving a good work-life balance. A total of 79 respondents’...

  7. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems

  8. Selecting personnel to work on the interactive graphics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1979-11-30

    The paper established criteria for the selection of personnel to work on the interactive graphics system and mentions some of human behavioral patterns that are created by the implementation of graphic systems. Some of the social and educational problems associated with the interactive graphics system will be discussed. The project also provided for collecting objective data which would be useful in assessing the benefits of interactive graphics systems.

  9. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  10. Dynamic cyclical comovements of oil prices with industrial production, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the empirical relationship between oil prices and several key macroeconomic variables. In particular, we investigate the cyclical comovements of crude oil prices with output, consumer prices, unemployment, and stock prices. The methodology involves the use of the Hodrick-Prescott [Hodrick, R.J., Prescott, E.C., 1980. Post-War US Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation. Working Paper, Carnegie Mellon University] and Baxter-King [Baxter, M., King, R.G., 1999. Measuring business cycles: approximate band-pass filters for economic time series. Review of Economics and Statistics 81, 575-593] filters, as well as the recently developed full-sample asymmetric Christiano-Fitzgerald [Christiano, L.J., Fitzgerald, T.J., 2003. The band pass filter. International Economic Review 44, 435-465] band-pass filter. Contemporaneous and cross-correlation estimates are made using the stationary cyclical components of the time series to make inference about the degree to which oil prices move with the cycle. Besides documenting a number of important cyclical relationships using three different time series filtering methods, the results suggest that crude oil prices are procyclical and lag industrial production. Additionally, we find that oil prices lead consumer prices. (author)

  11. Game theory application to operation control and pricing in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid move to a market-based electric power industry will significantly change electric utility operations. In this paper, we consider economic load dispatching rules in power systems under competitive environment when independent power producers (IPPs) are introduced and analyze their economic consequences by using game theory. An electric utility and IPPs are included in the model as players of the game where IPPs enter into the game firstly as a group, and secondly as individually. The utility and IPPs intend to maximize their own profit. We mainly use the Stackelberg strategy game theory and Nash equilibrium solution to analyze the negotiation process between the electric utility and IPPS, since it is widely recognized as rational decisions for competitive markets in terms of axiom. (author)

  12. Price regions and socio-economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In a market without market power, a system in which each node (small price regions) has its own price most effective. The loss when two nodes are combined into one price region is greater the more elastic the demand and supply curve is in the two regions and the more unequal the impact on the flow across the bottleneck is

  13. Transfer pricing: van basismethoden tot systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, H.B.A.

    The paper describes basic transfer pricing methods (e.g., cost plus, sales minus) and a framework for developing a consistent transfer pricing system as a consistent set of transfer prices for transactions using the basic methods and meeting managerial and fiscal requirements.

  14. Oil price prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toalster, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, four different, popular approaches to the analysis of oil price movements will be considered and an alternative method will be proposed. Whilst we await the development of a rigorous theoretical framework within which to evaluate the phenomenon of oil price movements some progress may be effected by an amalgam of approaches, with the traditional supply and demand model being supplemented by observations regarding political and social developments in particular countries or regions, together with an assessment of emerging and prospective technological achievements. In this way it should be possible to identify the critical influences at work, from which it should also be possible to select either the single most important variable or combination of variables, affecting the oil price. Moreover, it is my belief that the crucial variables influencing the oil price almost certainly, are more likely to be political and social, rather than economic. In this context and notwithstanding the fact that there is only a minimal level of surplus productive capacity in the world oil industry at present (perhaps 1-2 million b/d albeit rising rapidly), it is reasonable to conclude that oil prices will average around $18-19 a barrel for North Sea Brent in 1992 and 1993, with oscillations of $2-4 a barrel either side, rising slightly in 1994 to $19-20 a barrel and to $20-21 a barrel in 1995. Thereafter, the most likely outcome is for a rise in line with inflation (say $ a barrel/annum) with no prospect of an upward spike, because demand will be weaker than most commentators expect up to the year 2000, whilst OPEC oil supplies will be substantially higher than the consensus forecast. (author)

  15. Information system quality in work-life balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmini Gopinathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look for the role information systems quality may play in work-life balance among Malaysian ICT employees. The results of this study will be useful in the development of new tools and technologies that are focused on ISQ dimensions primarily information system quality which can be helpful to devise suggestions to the ICT sector on matters pertaining to sustainable development/policy formulation with reference to achieving a good work-life balance. A total of 79 respondents’ views were analyzed using Partial Least Square (PLS to obtain the final results. The results showed that information quality and system quality has strong effect on work-life balance as compared to service quality which showed no relation to work-life balance.

  16. Screening the working environment in outdoor pig systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Q; Torén, A; Salomon, E

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated how well organic growing-fattening pig systems provided a safe and healthy working environment and identified areas where improvements are needed. The study formed part of a larger project aimed at identifying strategies for creating a good animal and working environment and resource-efficient nutrient management in outdoor pig systems. Field studies were carried out at six Swedish farms in two types of outdoor pig systems (mobile and stationary). A method known as WEST (Work Environment Screening Tool) and a modified version of WEST, called WEST-agriculture (WEST-AG), were utilized for screening. Together, the two methods covered six factors of the working environment. The results were expressed in WEST-AG points and WEST points, an economic measure of the risk of impacts on health and productivity expressed as Swedish Krona (SEK) per thousand working hours. The results demonstrated that the risk of injury and ergonomic load during manual feeding and watering was much higher than during semi-automatic feeding and watering at farms with the mobile system. The study also identified other health-risk areas and provided valuable information for further improvement of the working environment in different outdoor pig systems.

  17. Return-to-Work Within a Complex and Dynamic Organizational Work Disability System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Hettinger, Lawrence J

    2016-09-01

    Background Return-to-work (RTW) within a complex organizational system can be associated with suboptimal outcomes. Purpose To apply a sociotechnical systems perspective to investigate complexity in RTW; to utilize system dynamics modeling (SDM) to examine how feedback relationships between individual, psychosocial, and organizational factors make up the work disability system and influence RTW. Methods SDMs were developed within two companies. Thirty stakeholders including senior managers, and frontline supervisors and workers participated in model building sessions. Participants were asked questions that elicited information about the structure of the work disability system and were translated into feedback loops. To parameterize the model, participants were asked to estimate the shape and magnitude of the relationship between key model components. Data from published literature were also accessed to supplement participant estimates. Data were entered into a model created in the software program Vensim. Simulations were conducted to examine how financial incentives and light duty work disability-related policies, utilized by the participating companies, influenced RTW likelihood and preparedness. Results The SDMs were multidimensional, including individual attitudinal characteristics, health factors, and organizational components. Among the causal pathways uncovered, psychosocial components including workplace social support, supervisor and co-worker pressure, and supervisor-frontline worker communication impacted RTW likelihood and preparedness. Interestingly, SDM simulations showed that work disability-related policies in both companies resulted in a diminishing or opposing impact on RTW preparedness and likelihood. Conclusion SDM provides a novel systems view of RTW. Policy and psychosocial component relationships within the system have important implications for RTW, and may contribute to unanticipated outcomes.

  18. The Work Compatibility Improvement Framework: an integrated perspective of the human-at-work system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash; Salem, Sam; Karwowski, Waldemar; Paez, Omar; Tuncel, Setenay

    2007-01-15

    The industrial revolution demonstrated the limitations of a pure mechanistic approach towards work design. Human work is now seen as a complex entity that involves different scientific branches and blurs the line between mental and physical activities. Job design has been a traditional concern of applied psychology, which has provided insight into the interaction between the individual and the work environment. The goal of this paper is to introduce the human-at-work system as a holistic approach to organizational design. It postulates that the well-being of workers and work outcomes are issues that need to be addressed jointly, moving beyond traditional concepts of job satisfaction and work stress. The work compatibility model (WCM) is introduced as an engineering approach that seeks to integrate previous constructs of job and organizational design. The WCM seeks a balance between energy expenditure and replenishment. The implementation of the WCM in industrial settings is described within the context of the Work Compatibility Improvement Framework. A sample review of six models (motivation-hygiene theory; job characteristics theory; person-environment fit; demand-control model; and balance theory) provides the foundation for the interaction between the individual and the work environment. A review of three workload assessment methods (position analysis questionnaire, job task analysis and NASA task load index) gives an example of the foundation for the taxonomy of work environment domains. Previous models have sought to identify a balance state for the human-at-work system. They differentiated between the objective and subjective effects of the environment and the worker. An imbalance between the person and the environment has been proven to increase health risks. The WCM works with a taxonomy of 12 work domains classified in terms of the direct (acting) or indirect (experienced) effect on the worker. In terms of measurement, two quantitative methods are proposed

  19. Cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Liu; Lirong Cui; Yanqing Wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption. The repairman’s multiple vacations policy, the working vacations policy and the vacation interruption are considered simultaneously. The lifetime of components fol ows a phase-type (PH) distribution. The repair time in the regular repair period and the working vacation period fol ow other two PH distributions at different rates. For this sys-tem, the vector-valued Markov process governing the system is constructed. We obtain several important performance measures for the system in transient and stationary regimes applying matrix-analytic methods. Final y, a numerical example is given to il ustrate the results obtained.

  20. Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now

  1. Analysis on PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive by 2030 in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, E.; Ichinohe, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze PV system sales price and subsidy through buy-back which make photovoltaics cost-competitive against other energy technologies and make the target for PV capacity achievable by 2030 in Japan under expected carbon tax. For the analysis energy system of Japan is modeled by using MARKAL. According to the results of analysis, under 6000 JPY/t-C carbon tax, photovoltaics needs subsidy for a while even if we taking both fuel savings and Green Credit into account. For attaining the national target for PV capacity in 2010, photovoltaics needs more expensive buy-back than that in present, but after 2010 necessary buy-back decreases gradually. If 120 JPY/W PV system sales price is attained by 2030, photovoltaics becomes cost-competitive without any supports. Subsidy through buy-back becomes almost need not in 2030, if we can reduce it less than 170 JPY/W. The total subsidy meets peak in 2025. It is much more than ongoing subsidy to capital cost of PV systems, but annual revenue of the assumed carbon tax can afford enough the annual total subsidy. This means if photovoltaics can attain the PV system sales price, we should support it for a while by spending carbon tax revenue effectively and efficiently. (authors)

  2. 48 CFR 1416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1416.203 Section 1416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1416.203...

  3. 48 CFR 916.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustments. 916.203 Section 916.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 916.203 Fixed...

  4. 48 CFR 1216.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1216.203 Section 1216.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1216.203 Fixed...

  5. 48 CFR 416.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 416.203 Section 416.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 416.203 Fixed...

  6. 48 CFR 616.203 - Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-Price contracts with economic price adjustment. 616.203 Section 616.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 616.203 Fixed...

  7. 48 CFR 16.205 - Fixed-price contracts with prospective price redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with prospective price redetermination. 16.205 Section 16.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 16.205...

  8. 48 CFR 1316.203 - Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment. 1316.203 Section 1316.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1316.203 Fixed...

  9. 48 CFR 46.707 - Pricing aspects of fixed-price incentive contract warranties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing aspects of fixed-price incentive contract warranties. 46.707 Section 46.707 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.707 Pricing aspects of...

  10. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is

  11. Working the Boundaries between Education and Work: Transformations of the German Educational System Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Beatrix

    2014-01-01

    The Lisbon commitment for a European knowledge society together with the subsequently implemented policy of lifelong learning and social inclusion has significantly affected the German educational system and its teaching practices. This article examines the impact of these policy reforms on educational work in Germany through an analysis of the…

  12. CMOL/CMOS hardware architectures and performance/price for Bayesian memory - The building block of intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad Shaheriar

    The semiconductor/computer industry has been following Moore's law for several decades and has reaped the benefits in speed and density of the resultant scaling. Transistor density has reached almost one billion per chip, and transistor delays are in picoseconds. However, scaling has slowed down, and the semiconductor industry is now facing several challenges. Hybrid CMOS/nano technologies, such as CMOL, are considered as an interim solution to some of the challenges. Another potential architectural solution includes specialized architectures for applications/models in the intelligent computing domain, one aspect of which includes abstract computational models inspired from the neuro/cognitive sciences. Consequently in this dissertation, we focus on the hardware implementations of Bayesian Memory (BM), which is a (Bayesian) Biologically Inspired Computational Model (BICM). This model is a simplified version of George and Hawkins' model of the visual cortex, which includes an inference framework based on Judea Pearl's belief propagation. We then present a "hardware design space exploration" methodology for implementing and analyzing the (digital and mixed-signal) hardware for the BM. This particular methodology involves: analyzing the computational/operational cost and the related micro-architecture, exploring candidate hardware components, proposing various custom hardware architectures using both traditional CMOS and hybrid nanotechnology - CMOL, and investigating the baseline performance/price of these architectures. The results suggest that CMOL is a promising candidate for implementing a BM. Such implementations can utilize the very high density storage/computation benefits of these new nano-scale technologies much more efficiently; for example, the throughput per 858 mm2 (TPM) obtained for CMOL based architectures is 32 to 40 times better than the TPM for a CMOS based multiprocessor/multi-FPGA system, and almost 2000 times better than the TPM for a PC

  13. Development of management system for plant repairing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    In the fast breeder reactor, ''Monju'', in order to conduct nuclear plant repairing works securely and effectively, development of a computer system to assist management business on plant repairing work was begun on 1993. The system has been applied to about 5,000 times of operational management through past four times of plant inspection and to daily inspections and maintenance, and is daily used at working places of ''Monju'' such as issue/management of about 110,000 times of operational prohibition tag in isolated management. And, by automation of issue/management on working sheets and operational prohibition tag and others conducted hitherto by hand, the management business has been largely rationalized. (G.K.)

  14. Is an inefficient transmission market better than none at all? On zonal and nodal pricing in electricity systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the trade-off between inefficient transmission forward markets (in nodal pricing regimes) and the inefficiency induced by hiding transmission constraints from the market (in zonal pricing regimes) is analyzed. First, a simple two node model formalizing the general trade-off is developed. Then, comparative statics are performed with a stochastic equilibrium model including more nodes, loop flows and an energy and transmission forward market. Inefficiency in the transmission forward market is introduced via a bid-ask-spread and risk aversion of market participants. The welfare impacts for a broad range of supply, demand, grid and inefficiency parameters are analyzed numerically. For efficient spot and forward markets, the results of the literature of nodal pricing being the efficient benchmark are confirmed. With inefficient transmission forward markets, however, zonal pricing proves advantageous in situations with little congestion and low costs. The results imply that the trade-off between the pricing regimes should be considered carefully when defining the geographical scope of bidding zones.

  15. Examining the work-home interface: an ecological systems perspective

    OpenAIRE

    MacKinnon, Richard A,

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation outlines a mixed-methods investigation of work-life balance, examining the construct from an ecological systems theory perspective. This necessitated research at the individual, group, organisational and wider societal levels and included three studies: two using quantitative methodology and one using qualitative.\\ud The quantitative phase included two studies that examined the experience of the home-work interface from the perspective of the employee, examining the impact o...

  16. EU copyright protection of works created by artificial intelligence systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhler, Helene Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with copyright regulation of works created by artificial intelligence systems. The rapid advances in artificial intelligence are calling into question some of the fundamental assumptions upon which intellectual property law rests. Currently, the European framework of copyright law does not take non-human innovation into account. Meanwhile, advances in artificial intelligence are quickly making machine-generation of creative works a reality. Institutions of the Europea...

  17. Participatory ergonomics for psychological factors evaluation in work system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Lau, Henry Y K

    2012-01-01

    It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.

  18. Pricing and Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    -competitive (monopolistic) markets. We then introduce a regulated intermediate price above the oligopoly price and below the monopoly price. The effect in monopolies is more or less in line with standard intuition. As price falls volume increases and so does quality, such that overall efficiency is raised by 50%. However......We experimentally examine the effects of flexible and fixed prices in markets for experience goods in which demand is driven by trust. With flexible prices, we observe low prices and high quality in competitive (oligopolistic) markets, and high prices coupled with low quality in non...

  19. Design of variable energy and price components of electricity tariffs as an incentive for system-efficient energy management of flexible consumers in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Michael

    2017-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change, both the heating and transport sectors will need to be electrically driven, with the higher electrical demand met by emission-free technologies, in addition to general efficiency improvements. On the generation side, wind and photovoltaic power plants must have a rated power significantly exceeding the current peak demand, in order to cover this increased electrical requirement. On the consumption side, heat pumps and private electric vehicles will increase the percentage of energy withdrawn at the low-voltage level of the new system. Given the right incentives, these customers will shift the energy demand in such a way as to benefit the system. This flexibility can be used as a tool to deal with variable renewable insertion while avoiding simultaneous overloading of the power grid. This thesis analyses and evaluates the effects of different electricity tariff designs on energy consumption. These tariffs should incentivise households to adapt their energy consumption to market prices, without inducing critical peak demands in times of particularly low prices. Therefore, time-varying energy price components and power price components are combined into flexible electricity tariffs and implemented as target functions within an optimization problem. The cost-minimizing effect of household energy management is determined under these flexible tariffs, and the effects of the tariff designs on energy consumption and the induced costs are evaluated. Additionally, the results of the flexible tariff approach are compared with results from a centralized optimization by a virtual power plant. It is possible to develop a design for a suitable flexible tariff that decreases the energy procurement costs of electric vehicles while simultaneously reducing peak demand in comparison to a single real-time pricing incentive. Furthermore, this thesis shows that certain kinds of electricity tariff design do not only fail to support but actually

  20. 7 CFR 1000.50 - Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Class prices, component prices, and advanced pricing... advanced pricing factors. Class prices per hundredweight of milk containing 3.5 percent butterfat, component prices, and advanced pricing factors shall be as follows. The prices and pricing factors described...

  1. The impact of a total reward system of work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Hoole

    2016-11-01

    Research purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between total rewards and work engagement in a South African context and to determine which reward categories predict work engagement. The study further endeavoured to determine whether gender and age had a moderating effect on the relationship between total rewards and engagement. Motivation for the study: Statistics report that less than 30% of all working people are optimally engaged in their work. Considering that individuals spend more than a third of their lives at work committing themselves emotionally, physically and psychologically – research indicates that employees are no longer satisfied with traditional reward systems and want to feel valued and appreciated. Research approach, design and method: In this quantitative, cross-sectional research design using a non-probability convenience and purposive sampling strategy, 318 questionnaires were collected and analysed from financial institutions in Gauteng in which opinions were sought on the importance of different types of rewards structures and preferences, and how engaged they are in their workplace. The 17-item UWES and Nienaber total reward preference model were the chosen measuring instruments. Main findings: A small statistically significant correlation (r = 0.25; p < 0.05; small effect was found between total rewards and work engagement, and 12% of the variance of work engagement was explained. Only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement. Practical/Managerial implications: Although small, the significant correlation between total rewards and work engagement implies that total rewards are important motivators for employees in the workplace. Of the total rewards scales tested, only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement, suggesting that more research is needed. Organisations seeking to implement total reward strategies should pay specific

  2. The Development of Attention Systems and Working Memory in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D; Romano, Alexandra C

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review research and theory on the development of attention and working memory in infancy using a developmental cognitive neuroscience framework. We begin with a review of studies examining the influence of attention on neural and behavioral correlates of an earlier developing and closely related form of memory (i.e., recognition memory). Findings from studies measuring attention utilizing looking measures, heart rate, and event-related potentials (ERPs) indicate significant developmental change in sustained and selective attention across the infancy period. For example, infants show gains in the magnitude of the attention related response and spend a greater proportion of time engaged in attention with increasing age (Richards and Turner, 2001). Throughout infancy, attention has a significant impact on infant performance on a variety of tasks tapping into recognition memory; however, this approach to examining the influence of infant attention on memory performance has yet to be utilized in research on working memory. In the second half of the article, we review research on working memory in infancy focusing on studies that provide insight into the developmental timing of significant gains in working memory as well as research and theory related to neural systems potentially involved in working memory in early development. We also examine issues related to measuring and distinguishing between working memory and recognition memory in infancy. To conclude, we discuss relations between the development of attention systems and working memory.

  3. Mathematical modelling and optimization of a large-scale combined cooling, heat, and power system that incorporates unit changeover and time-of-use electricity price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Qiannan; Luo, Xianglong; Zhang, Bingjian; Chen, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel superstructure for the design and optimization of LSCCHP. • A multi-objective multi-period MINLP model is formulated. • The unit start-up cost and time-of-use electricity prices are involved. • Unit size discretization strategy is proposed to linearize the original MINLP model. • A case study is elaborated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Abstract: Building energy systems, particularly large public ones, are major energy consumers and pollutant emission contributors. In this study, a superstructure of large-scale combined cooling, heat, and power system is constructed. The off-design unit, economic cost, and CO_2 emission models are also formulated. Moreover, a multi-objective mixed integer nonlinear programming model is formulated for the simultaneous system synthesis, technology selection, unit sizing, and operation optimization of large-scale combined cooling, heat, and power system. Time-of-use electricity price and unit changeover cost are incorporated into the problem model. The economic objective is to minimize the total annual cost, which comprises the operation and investment costs of large-scale combined cooling, heat, and power system. The environmental objective is to minimize the annual global CO_2 emission of large-scale combined cooling, heat, and power system. The augmented ε–constraint method is applied to achieve the Pareto frontier of the design configuration, thereby reflecting the set of solutions that represent optimal trade-offs between the economic and environmental objectives. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to reflect the impact of natural gas price on the combined cooling, heat, and power system. The synthesis and design of combined cooling, heat, and power system for an airport in China is studied to test the proposed synthesis and design methodology. The Pareto curve of multi-objective optimization shows that the total annual cost varies from 102.53 to 94.59 M

  4. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  5. 48 CFR 570.110 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. 570.110 Section 570.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... PROPERTY General 570.110 Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data. (a) The...

  6. Comparing three methods for participatory simulation of hospital work systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    Summative Statement: This study compared three participatory simulation methods using different simulation objects: Low resolution table-top setup using Lego figures, full scale mock-ups, and blueprints using Lego figures. It was concluded the three objects by differences in fidelity and affordance...... scenarios using the objects. Results: Full scale mock-ups significantly addressed the local space and technology/tool elements of a work system. In contrast, the table-top simulation object addressed the organizational issues of the future work system. The blueprint based simulation addressed...

  7. How Does Pricing of Day-ahead Electricity Market Affect Put Option Pricing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raouf Sheybani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, impacts of day-ahead market pricing on behavior of producers and consumers in option and day-ahead markets and on option pricing are studied. To this end, two comprehensive equilibrium models for joint put option and day-ahead markets under pay-as-bid and uniform pricing in day-ahead market are presented, respectively. Interaction between put option and day-ahead markets, uncertainty in fuel price, day-ahead market pricing, and elasticity of consumers to strike price, premium price, and day-ahead price are taken into account in these models. By applying the presented models to a test system impact of day-ahead market pricing on equilibrium of joint put option and day-ahead markets are studied.

  8. Competitive Pricing by a Price Leader

    OpenAIRE

    Abhik Roy; Dominique M. Hanssens; Jagmohan S. Raju

    1994-01-01

    We examine the problem of pricing in a market where one brand acts as a price leader. We develop a procedure to estimate a leader's price rule, which is optimal given a sales target objective, and allows for the inclusion of demand forecasts. We illustrate our estimation procedure by calibrating this optimal price rule for both the leader and the follower using data on past sales and prices from the mid-size sedan segment of the U.S. automobile market. Our results suggest that a leader-follow...

  9. Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS) are two modules of a single data management system that share common tables and...

  10. Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Short, Anthony J.; Popescu, Sandu

    2014-06-01

    Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a ‘weight’ that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and gives a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

  11. Dynamic systems for everyone understanding how our world works

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asish

    2017-01-01

    Systems are everywhere and we are surrounded by them. We are a complex amalgam of systems that enable us to interact with an endless array of external systems in our daily lives. They are electrical, mechanical, social, biological, and many other types that control our environment and our well-being. By appreciating how these systems function, will broaden our understanding of how our world works. Readers from a variety of disciplines will benefit from the knowledge of system behavior they will gain from this book and will be able to apply those principles in various contexts. The treatment of the subject is non-mathematical, and the book considers some of the latest concepts in the systems discipline, such as agent based systems, optimization, and discrete events and procedures. The diverse range of examples provided in this book, will allow readers to: Apply system knowledge at work and in daily life without deep mathematical knowledge; Build models and simulate system behaviors on a personal computer; Opti...

  12. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently

  13. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently.

  14. Exploring the relationships between high involvement work system practices, work demands and emotional exhaustion : A multi-level study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenauer, V.; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the impact of enacted high involvement work systems (HIWS) practices on employee emotional exhaustion. This study hypothesized that work overload and job responsibility mediate the relationship between HIWS practices (ability, motivation, opportunity and work design HIWS

  15. On Nonlinear Prices in Timed Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Bhave

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Priced timed automata provide a natural model for quantitative analysis of real-time systems and have been successfully applied in various scheduling and planning problems. The optimal reachability problem for linearly-priced timed automata is known to be PSPACE-complete. In this paper we investigate priced timed automata with more general prices and show that in the most general setting the optimal reachability problem is undecidable. We adapt and implement the construction of Audemard, Cimatti, Kornilowicz, and Sebastiani for non-linear priced timed automata using state-of-the-art theorem prover Z3 and present some preliminary results.

  16. Multichannel sound reinforcement systems at work in a learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, John; Campbell, Colin

    2003-04-01

    Many people have experienced the entertaining benefits of a surround sound system, either in their own home or in a movie theater, but another application exists for multichannel sound that has for the most part gone unused. This is the application of multichannel sound systems to the learning environment. By incorporating a 7.1 surround processor and a touch panel interface programmable control system, the main lecture hall at the University of Michigan Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning has been converted from an ordinary lecture hall to a working audiovisual laboratory. The multichannel sound system is used in a wide variety of experiments, including exposure to sounds to test listeners' aural perception of the tonal characteristics of varying pitch, reverberation, speech transmission index, and sound-pressure level. The touch panel's custom interface allows a variety of user groups to control different parts of the AV system and provides preset capability that allows for numerous system configurations.

  17. Fossil fuel subsidy reform in the WTO : Options for constraining dual pricing in the multilateral trading system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Fossil fuel subsidies harm the environment, add to health hazards caused by air pollution, and delay the energy transition. Scholars and practitioners have therefore been exploring ways to reform and eliminate them. This paper discusses the practice of energy dual pricing in the broader context of

  18. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  19. A RULE-BASED SYSTEM APPROACH FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN HAZARDOUS WORK SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercüment N. DİZDAR

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in technology increased the importance of safety management in work life. These improvements also resulted in a requirement of more investment and assignment on human in work systems. Here we face this problem: Can we make it possible to forecast the possible accidents that workers can face, and prevent these accidents by taking necessary precautions? In this study made, we aimed at developing an rule-based system to forecast the occupational accidents in coming periods at the departments of the facilities in hazardous work systems. The validity of the developed system was proved by implementing it into practice in hazardous work systems in manufacturing industry.

  20. A dispatch based pricing model for the New Zealand electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, B.J.; Read, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Work undertaken for the New Zealand transmission grid is described. Prices derived from an observed system dispatch can be used in the short-run coordination of a competitive wholesale electricity market. These prices vary across space and time, reflecting differences in marginal costs and changing demand. Markets for emergency reserve generating capacity can be integrated with a market for power. Used in conjunction with longer term contracts, such short-run prices have the potential to allow competitive power system operation without significant loss of coordination efficiencies. 2 figs., 26 refs

  1. What works and what doesn't work well in the US healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Harold S

    2006-12-01

    Most observers agree that the US healthcare system is expensive, provides variable quality and leaves many without coverage. The policy challenge is that there is little consensus on how to approach reform. Many proposals assume that systems appearing to work in one nation can be transferred in toto to another or, alternatively, that only minor tweaking of an existing system is possible. The former approach ignores fundamental social, political and legal realities, and the latter ignores the potential for increased benefits. Additionally, many proposals are ideologically driven, focusing on how to finance expanded coverage. Broadening the discussion to examine other components of the system that do not work well may identify sufficient benefits for various stakeholders to engage them in finding more comprehensive solutions that address a range of problems. This paper examines areas in which the US healthcare system performs worse than one would like and areas in which it appears to work well. In the first category is the high proportion of people without coverage, the inefficient and inequitable incentives for the purchase and provision of insurance, the problems in deciding what should be covered, the ineffective payment incentives, administrative costs and complexities, the variable quality and lack of responsiveness to patient preferences, the less than optimal safety, under-valued primary care, provider de-professionalisation, and the costs that appear to be on auto-pilot. In the second category is the rapid and wide-reaching technological innovation, the ready access to care for the insured, and clinical and patient autonomy. Among the things taken as given is our constitutional (rather than parliamentary) political system and underlying public values about the roles of individuals and government. Current players will be active in any debate about reform, so their interests must be addressed. Likewise, certain underlying economic and social drivers of

  2. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  3. Nuclear plant engineering work and integrated management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Y.; Obata, T.; Tanaka, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Application of computers to the design, engineering, manufacturing and construction works of nuclear power plants has greatly contributed to improvement of productivity and reliability in the nuclear power plants constructed by Mitsubishi Nuclear Group for more than ten years. However, in most cases, those systems have been developed separately and utilized independently in different computer software and hardware environments and have not been fully utilized to achieve high efficiency and reliability. In order to drastically increase the productivity and efficiency, development of NUclear power plant engineering Work and INtegrated manaGement System (NUWINGS) started in 1987 to unify and integrate various conventional and developing systems using the state-of-the-art computer technology. The NUWINGS is almost completed and is now applied to actual plant construction. (author)

  4. The effects of the vegetable prices insurance on the fluctuation of price: Based on Shanghai evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunhong; Li, Huishang; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Xuebiao; Yang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Taking Shanghai as an example, the influence of the vegetable price insurance on the fluctuation of prices was analyzed in the article. It was found that the sequence of seasonal fluctuations characteristics of leafy vegetable prices was changed by the vegetable cost-price insurance, the period of price fluctuation was elongated from 12-to-18 months to 37 months, and the influence of random factors on the price fluctuations was reduced in some degree. There was still great space for innovation of the vegetable prices insurance system in Shanghai. Some countermeasures would be suggested to develop the insurance system to better to play the role of insurance and promote the market running more smoothly in Shanghai such as prolonging the insurance cycle, improving the price information monitoring mechanism and innovating income insurance products and so on.

  5. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Mendez, Susan J.; Rønde, Thomas

    On April 1, 2005, Denmark changed the way references prices, a main determinant of reimbursements for pharmaceutical purchases, are calculated. The previous reference prices, which were based on average EU prices, were substituted to minimum domestic prices. Novel to the literature, we estimate...... the joint eects of this reform on prices and quantities. Prices decreased more than 26 percent due to the reform, which reduced patient and government expenditures by 3.0 percent and 5.6 percent, respectively, and producer revenues by 5.0 percent. The prices of expensive products decreased more than...

  6. [Knowledge management system for laboratory work and clinical decision support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Masanori; Sato, Mayumi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support.

  7. Frequency Based Real-time Pricing for Residential Prosumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambridge, Sarah Mabel

    This work is the first to explore frequency based pricing for secondary frequency control as a price-reactive control mechanism for residential prosumers. A frequency based real-time electricity rate is designed as an autonomous market control mechanism for residential prosumers to provide frequency support as an ancillary service. In addition, prosumers are empowered to participate in dynamic energy transactions, therefore integrating Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), and increasing distributed energy storage onto the distributed grid. As the grid transitions towards DERs, a new market based control system will take the place of the legacy distributed system and possibly the legacy bulk power system. DERs provide many benefits such as energy independence, clean generation, efficiency, and reliability to prosumers during blackouts. However, the variable nature of renewable energy and current lack of installed energy storage on the grid will create imbalances in supply and demand as uptake increases, affecting the grid frequency and system operation. Through a frequency-based electricity rate, prosumers will be encouraged to purchase energy storage systems (ESS) to offset their neighbor's distributed generation (DG) such as solar. Chapter 1 explains the deregulation of the power system and move towards Distributed System Operators (DSOs), as prosumers become owners of microgrids and energy cells connected to the distributed system. Dynamic pricing has been proposed as a benefit to prosumers, giving them the ability to make decisions in the energy market, while also providing a way to influence and control their behavior. Frequency based real-time pricing is a type of dynamic pricing which falls between price-reactive control and transactive control. Prosumer-to-prosumer transactions may take the place of prosumer-to-utility transactions, building The Energy Internet. Frequency based pricing could be a mechanism for determining prosumer prices and supporting

  8. JOYO MK-III modification work on heat transport system. Working plan and plant control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, K.; Ichige, S.; Ohshima, J.

    2002-07-01

    The MK-III project to improve the irradiation capability of the experimental fast reactor JOYO have been in underway since 1987. The increase of fast neutron flux and the enlargement of that field increase the reactor thermal rate from 100 MWt to 140 MWt. To increase cooling capacity of heat transport system, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), dump heat exchangers (DHXs), piping connecting to IHXs and DHXs, main motors on primary and secondary main circulation pumps were replaced. The replacement of these large components was carried out under following hard conditions. 1) Limitation of work space, 2) Fuel subassembly and molten sodium in the reactor vessel, 3) high radiation circumstances for primary cooling system, 4) treatment of radioactive sodium (radioactive sodium and corrosion product such as 60 Co, 54 Mn). There are little experiences of this kind of work in the world. Therefore the organization, working plan and safety management points were carefully examined and established, based on the previous experience of JOYO operation and maintenance, research and development results of safety treatment of sodium, experience of previous work on sodium facilities. Followings results were obtained and effectiveness was confirmed in the work. (1) Development of most suitable working plan derived from elements and full size mock up experiments, reduction of exposure time by workers training, reduction of radiation dose by installation of temporal radiation shielding were useful to reduce radiation dose. The usage of seal bag was useful to prevent the contamination spreading over. (2) The usage of seal bag, oxygen concentration monitoring in the seal bag, nitrogen concentration monitoring in the cooling system cover gas, low pressure control of cover gas were useful to reduce the inflow of oxygen to cooling system. (3) The bite cutting method for piping in air and press down cutting by roller cutter in the seal bag to prevent inflow of cutting piece, stopper

  9. Improving and optimising road pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen

    2008-01-01

    though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... of the pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.216-78 - Firm fixed price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Firm fixed price. 1852.216... 1852.216-78 Firm fixed price. As prescribed in 1816.202-70, insert the following clause: Firm Fixed Price (DEC 1988) The total firm fixed price of this contract is $[Insert the appropriate amount]. (End...

  11. 48 CFR 452.216-74 - Ceiling Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling Price. 452.216-74... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.216-74 Ceiling Price. As prescribed in 416.670, insert the following clause: Ceiling Price (FEB 1988) The ceiling price of this...

  12. 48 CFR 1602.170-5 - Cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Cost or pricing data. 1602... Terms 1602.170-5 Cost or pricing data. (a) Experience-rated carriers. Cost or pricing data for... pricing data for community rated carriers is the specialized rating data used by carriers in computing a...

  13. 48 CFR 19.806 - Pricing the 8(a) contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing the 8(a) contract...) Program) 19.806 Pricing the 8(a) contract. (a) The contracting officer shall price the 8(a) contract in accordance with subpart 15.4. If required by subpart 15.4, the SBA shall obtain certified cost or pricing...

  14. System influences on work disability due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartys, Serena; Frederiksen, Pernille; Bendix, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Work disability due to low back pain is a significant global health concern. Current policy and practice aimed at tackling this problem is largely informed by the biopsychosocial model. Resultant interventions have demonstrated some small-scale success, but they have not created a widespread...... and disability benefits), healthcare and family systems (spouse/partner/close others) can act as obstacles to work participation for those with low back pain. Systematic searches of several scientific and grey literature sources were conducted, resulting in 1762 records. Following a systematic exclusion process...

  15. One TV, One Price?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Imbs; Haroon Mumtaz; Morten O. Ravn; Hélène Rey

    2009-01-01

    We use a unique dataset on television prices across European countries and regions to investigate the sources of differences in price levels. Our findings are as follows: (i) Quality is a crucial determinant of price differences. Even in an integrated economic zone as Europe, rich economies tend to consume higher quality goods. This effect accounts for the lion’s share of international price dispersion. (ii) Sizable international price differentials subsist even for the same television sets. ...

  16. Value-based pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  17. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  18. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  19. Transmission pricing and expansion methodology: lessons from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.P.; McCarthy, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the pricing of electric transmission service in Argentina and on the mechanisms for expanding the transmission system as of late 1998. We also discuss the pricing of energy and generating capacity, since locational differences in their prices constitute charges for transmission service. We find that the methods in place for pricing transmission service are, in the main, consistent with the principles of efficient pricing but that the incentives and mechanisms established for expanding transmission are deficient in some respects. Most notable is the failure to provide for transmission rights, given the system's heavy reliance on user-driven expansion. We find that Argentina can improve upon its pioneering effort to implement user-driven expansion and indeed is exploring ways to do so. The most important tasks are to investigate (a) whether a system of financial transmission rights can be made to work as part of the process of user-driven expansion and (b) whether a backstop role for centrally planned expansion can be preserved without inhibiting or preempting the user-driven process. (author)

  20. Development of decommissioning engineering support system for fugen. Development of support system during actual dismantlement works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masanori Izumi; Yukihiro Iguchi; Yoshiki Kannehira

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Reactor, Fugen Nuclear Power Station was permanently shut down in March 2003, and is now preparing for decommissioning. We have been developing Decommissioning Engineering Support System (DEXUS) aimed at planning optimal dismantlement process and carrying out dismantlement work safely and precisely. DEXUS consists of 'decommissioning planning support system' and 'dismantling support system'. The dismantling support system is developed aiming at using during actual dismantling work. It consists of three subsystems such as 'Worksite Visualization System', 'Dismantling Data Collection System' and 'Generated Waste Management System'. 'Worksite Visualization System' is a support system designed to provide the necessary information to workers during actual dismantlement works. And this system adopts AR (Augmented Reality) technology, overlapping calculation information into real world. 'Dismantling Data Collection System' is to collect necessary data for improving accuracy of decommissioning planning by evaluating work content and worker equipage, work time for dismantlement works. 'Generated Waste Management system' is a system recording necessary information by attaching the barcode to dismantled wastes or the containers. We can get the information of generated waste by recording generation place, generated time, treatment method and the contents. These subsystems enable to carry out reasonable and safe decommissioning of Fugen. In addition, we expect that those systems will be used for decommissioning of other nuclear facilities in the future. (authors)

  1. Work flow management systems. Selection of Platforms and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Garcia, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses a formal procedure for selecting the Platform and tools necessary to implement a Work Flow system in a company's organisation. The proposed method is based on a preliminary study to ascertain the company's requirements; in other words, the tool is selected on the basis of the environment in which it is to be used, thus making it essential to know the frequency of use, the types of tasks to be executed, the complexity of work flow, etc. Once the preliminary study has been performed, the formal selection method does no differ greatly from that for selecting any other tool. The objective is to establish a series of weighted parameters so that each candidate configuration can be assessed and one finally selected. Lastly, the paper discusses some practical considerations which became evident during the selection of a work flow management tool for our own company. (Author)

  2. Systems and methods for producing low work function electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Kahn, Antoine; Meyer, Jens; Shim, Jae Won; Marder, Seth R.

    2015-07-07

    According to an exemplary embodiment of the invention, systems and methods are provided for producing low work function electrodes. According to an exemplary embodiment, a method is provided for reducing a work function of an electrode. The method includes applying, to at least a portion of the electrode, a solution comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer; and based at least in part on applying the solution, forming an ultra-thin layer on a surface of the electrode, wherein the ultra-thin layer reduces the work function associated with the electrode by greater than 0.5 eV. According to another exemplary embodiment of the invention, a device is provided. The device includes a semiconductor; at least one electrode disposed adjacent to the semiconductor and configured to transport electrons in or out of the semiconductor.

  3. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 2: Derivation of system energy price equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Mcmaster, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The methodology presented is a derivation of the utility owned solar electric systems model. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs including a specified return on investment. Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break-even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero.

  4. Work at Aldermaston on plutonium binding with biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popplewell, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    Over a number of years, the Chemistry Division of AWRE, Aldermaston, studied the nature of plutonium in various biological systems. The object of the work was to identify those natural products of the body which play a part in the transport and deposition of accidental intakes of plutonium. These results should be of value in formulating more effective therapeutic measures for plutonium removal from the body. The paper reviews the work at AWRE on the interaction of plutonium with serum and rat liver. Experiments on the uptake of plutonium into cell cultures are described. The aim of these experiments was to see whether a model system could be set up for testing the efficacy by which chelating agents could remove plutonium from within cells. A simple hypothesis is presented for the mode of transport of plutonium within animals. (author)

  5. Design of Mobile Gateway for Implementation of Smart Work System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of new technologies based on mobile system, there is a growing interest as a fundamental technology. In particular, in order to realize a mobile office and mobile phones, conferencing remote document is a technique that can realize smart network services solutions with enhanced real-time communication, real-time information sharing, and collaboration. Therefore, in this paper, the design meets the diverse needs of customers and the smart work platform mobile-based fast and conveniently it is trying to develop. For this reason, I have developed a mobile gateway that is based on the communication server construction OPEN API development, management of mobile ID, protocol design, and design of SSL/TLS security tunnel. Also, we developed a smart work platform that you apply this, you are trying to provide information systems environment of mobile company.

  6. Pricing hospital care: Global budgets and marginal pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Jason M

    2015-08-01

    The Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) is adding financial incentives to increase the volume of surgeries provided by hospitals using a marginal pricing approach. The objective of this study is to calculate marginal costs of surgeries based on assumptions regarding hospitals' availability of labor and equipment. This study is based on observational clinical, administrative and financial data generated by hospitals. Hospital inpatient and outpatient discharge summaries from the province are linked with detailed activity-based costing information, stratified by assigned case mix categorizations. To reflect a range of operating constraints governing hospitals' ability to increase their volume of surgeries, a number of scenarios are proposed. Under these scenarios, estimated marginal costs are calculated and compared to prices being offered as incentives to hospitals. Existing data can be used to support alternative strategies for pricing hospital care. Prices for inpatient surgeries do not generate positive margins under a range of operating scenarios. Hip and knee surgeries generate surpluses for hospitals even under the most costly labor conditions and are expected to generate additional volume. In health systems that wish to fine-tune financial incentives, setting prices that create incentives for additional volume should reflect knowledge of hospitals' underlying cost structures. Possible implications of mis-pricing include no response to the incentives or uneven increases in supply. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional Requirements for an Electronic Work Package System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document provides a set of high level functional requirements for a generic electronic work package (eWP) system. The requirements have been identified by the U.S. nuclear industry as a part of the Nuclear Electronic Work Packages - Enterprise Requirements (NEWPER) initiative. The functional requirements are mainly applied to eWP system supporting Basic and Moderate types of smart documents, i.e., documents that have fields for recording input such as text, dates, numbers, and equipment status, and documents which incorporate additional functionalities such as form field data “type“ validation (e.g. date, text, number, and signature) of data entered and/or self-populate basic document information (usually from existing host application meta data) on the form when the user first opens it. All the requirements are categorized by the roles; Planner, Supervisor, Craft, Work Package Approval Reviewer, Operations, Scheduling/Work Control, and Supporting Functions. The categories Statistics, Records, Information Technology are also included used to group the requirements. All requirements are presented in Section 2 through Section 11. Examples of more detailed requirements are provided for the majority of high level requirements. These examples are meant as an inspiration to be used as each utility goes through the process of identifying their specific requirements. The report’s table of contents provides a summary of the high level requirements.

  8. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  9. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  10. A closed-loop supply chain inventory model for manufacturer - Collector system with inspection, waste disposal and price-quality dependent return rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Anissa Rianda; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad; Rosyidi, Cucuk Nur

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies a closed-loop supply chain inventory model, where the primary market demand is fulfilled by newly produced products and remanufactured products. We intend to integrate a manufacturer and a collector as a supply chain system. Used items are collected and will be inspected and sorted by the collector, and the return rate of used items is depended upon price and quality factor. Used items that aren't pass this process, will be considered as waste and undergone waste disposal process. Recoverable used items will be sent to the manufacturer for recovery process. This paper applies two types of the recovery process for used products, i.e. remanufacture and refurbish. The refurbished items are sold to a secondary market with lower price than primary market price. Further, the amount of recoverable items depend upon the acceptance level of the returned items. This proposed model gives an optimal solution by maximizing the joint total profit. Moreover, a numerical example is presented to describe the application of the model.

  11. Exporter Price Premia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Sørensen, Allan

    This paper provides new evidence on manufacturing firms' output prices: in Denmark, on average, exported varieties are sold at a lower price (i.e. a negative exporter price premium) relative to only domestically sold varieties. This finding stands in sharp contrast to previous studies, which have...... found positive exporter price premia. We also document that the exporter price premium varies substantially across products (both in terms of sign and magnitude). We show that in a standard heterogeneous firms model with heterogeneity in quality as well as production efficiency there is indeed no clear......-cut prediction on the sign of the exporter price premium. However, the model unambiguously predicts a negative exporter price premium in terms of quality-adjusted prices, i.e. prices per unit of quality. This prediction is broadly borne out in the Danish data: while the magnitude of the premium varies across...

  12. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  13. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  14. TOURISM MARKET: PRICING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article retractedThe article is devoted to the actual topic of our time - the development of tourism services. The development of tourism is the leading technology trend dynamics maroon economic caused social restructuring of modern society. Macroeconomic Financial Statistics conrms the minimum amplitude of cyclical uctuations in the service sector, which turns it into countercyclical tool. In the Russian Federation the economic problem of a state policy in the sphere of tourist services is defined - to having turned tourism in competitive, innovative, countercyclical, and highly protable sector of national business. In article pricing factors are dened and are dened key of them, responsible for the cost of a tourist product. This work answers such questions of travel company as: denition of optimum group, formation of a transport tariff, structure of a tourist product on the main and accompanying services and their range, ways of sale. A practical advice by calculation of expenses is given. Correlation and regression and cluster analyses acted as research tools when performing work. In article the conclusion is drawn that the main methods of marketing management of pricing in the market of tourist services are: transition to the unified technology of granting a service on the basis of ISO; intensication and integration of the sphere of production and services

  15. Gas pricing in Europe. Pt. 1. Wholesale markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, R.

    1996-01-01

    The article investigates gas pricing in the European procurement market and the wholesale markets of the most important EU consumer markets. It demonstrates that value-oriented pricing principles override cost-oriented pricing principles. For one thing, and independently of pricing principles, two- or three-part demand price systems or basic price systems are common. For another, the frequently encountered opportunities for the differentiation of prices show that as long as there is merely substitution competition instead of direct competition, gas suppliers have a certain degree of freedom in fixing their prices. By contrast, the introduction of direct competition in Great Britain has reduced suppliers' individual price fixing margins, because short-term supply and demand variations in the now created spot market are decisive for gas pricing. (orig.) [de

  16. Modifying nodal pricing method considering market participants optimality and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Soofiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a method for nodal pricing and market clearing mechanism considering reliability of the system. The effects of components reliability on electricity price, market participants’ profit and system social welfare is considered. This paper considers reliability both for evaluation of market participant’s optimality as well as for fair pricing and market clearing mechanism. To achieve fair pricing, nodal price has been obtained through a two stage optimization problem and to achieve fair market clearing mechanism, comprehensive criteria has been introduced for optimality evaluation of market participant. Social welfare of the system and system efficiency are increased under proposed modified nodal pricing method.

  17. Computer system of radiation control at PNC Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Masashi; Ebana, Minoru; Seki, Akio

    1984-01-01

    In the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the operation of the fuel reprocessing plant started in January, 1981, the high level radioactive substance research facility (CPF) was completed in 1982, and the plutonium conversion technique development facility started the actual operation in September, 1983. In this situation, PNC introduced computer systems for radiation control to increase efficiency and to save labor: concretely computer systems were introduced for the continuous monitoring system in CPF in September, 1982, and for the plutonium conversion technique development facility in April, 1983. In this review, radiation control items in CPF are shown. The stationary monitors for continuous monitoring are employed for area monitors and exhaust monitors, while off-line input processing is adopted for batch measurement every week, such as iodine with an off-gas monitor. Batch data processing includes routine smear survey for working environment and shield wall survey. Other area monitors are criticality alarm systems which are designed with 2 out of 3 redundancy. In the second half of the review, the data processing system is described on each item of hardware and software, system configuration, data acquisition and demand input, processing, alarm functions, data recording and CRT display. In the review, also the system evaluation and future problems are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Revenue Improvement Through Demand-Dependent Pricing of Network Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, David

    2000-01-01

    ... of the expectation of rewards based upon variable demands. This work shows that revenue improvement can occur in this network environment when a dynamic pricing policy is applied as opposed to optimal static pricing...

  19. Valuation Struggles over Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    2016-01-01

    of creating political markets, and political prices, here understood as market distortion. This paper studies the ‘politics’ of pricing by following the adoption of the first feed-in tariff in France. Pricing as a way of achieving non-economic ends, such as climate mitigation, brings the values of several...... public goods into play, all the while prompting a translation of these values into a single price. Following the struggles over the pricing of wind power in the early 2000s, the study illustrates that rather than a pollution of the market sphere by that of politics, a politics of pricing can be observed...

  20. Does energy-price regulation benefit China's economy and environment? Evidence from energy-price distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Keyi; Su, Bin; Zhou, Dequn; Wu, Junmin

    2017-01-01

    China's energy prices have long been regulated due to the critical role energy plays in economic growth and social development, which leads to energy-price distortion to some extent. To figure out whether energy-price regulations will benefit China's economy (measured by GDP growth) and environment (measured by carbon emissions), we conducted an in-depth simulation using path analysis, where five energy products (natural gas, gasoline, fuel oil, steam coal, and coking coal) are selected and three measurements (absolute, relative, and moving) of energy-price distortions are calculated. The results indicate that, with a series of energy pricing policies, the price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed, while the energy pricing system in China is not fully market-oriented yet. Furthermore, China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions, while the absolute distortions of energy prices have negative impacts on economic growth. Finally, with regard to the environment, carbon emissions call for fewer distortions. - Highlights: • Price distortion for a single type of energy has gradually transformed. • Energy pricing system in China is not yet fully market-oriented. • China's economy benefits from relative and moving distortions. • Absolute distortions of energy prices have negative effects on economic growth. • Carbon emissions call for less pricing distortions.