WorldWideScience

Sample records for price reduction policies

  1. Pricing of alcohol in Canada: A comparison of provincial policies and harm-reduction opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Thomas, Gerald; Stockwell, Tim; Thompson, Kara; April, Nicole; Asbridge, Mark; Cukier, Samantha; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet; Murie, Andrew; Pauley, Chris; Plamondon, Laurie; Vallance, Kate

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol pricing is an effective prevention policy. This paper compares the 10 Canadian provinces on three research-based alcohol pricing policies-minimum pricing, pricing by alcohol content and maintaining prices relative to inflation. The selection of these three policies was based on systematic reviews and seminal research papers. Provincial data for 2012 were obtained from Statistics Canada and relevant provincial ministries, subsequently sent to provincial authorities for verification, and then scored by team members. All provinces, except for Alberta, have minimum prices for at least one beverage type sold in off-premise outlets. All provinces, except for British Columbia and Quebec, have separate (and higher) minimum pricing for on-premise establishments. Regarding pricing on alcohol content, western and central provinces typically scored higher than provinces in Eastern Canada. Generally, minimum prices were lower than the recommended $1.50 per standard drink for off-premise outlets and $3.00 per standard drink in on-premise venues. Seven of 10 provinces scored 60% or higher compared to the ideal on indexing prices to inflation. Prices for a representative basket of alcohol products in Ontario and Quebec have lagged significantly behind inflation since 2006. While examples of evidence-based alcohol pricing policies can be found in every jurisdiction in Canada, significant inter-provincial variation leaves substantial unrealised potential for further reducing alcohol-related harm and costs. This comparative assessment of alcohol price policies provides clear indications of how individual provinces could adjust their pricing policies and practices to improve public health and safety. [Giesbrecht N, Wettlaufer A, Thomas G, Stockwell T, Thompson K, April N, Asbridge M, Cukier S, Mann R, McAllister J, Murie A, Pauley C, Plamondon L, Vallance K. Pricing of alcohol in Canada: A comparison of provincial policies and harm-reduction opportunities. Drug Alcohol Rev

  2. STS pricing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  3. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  4. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  5. Policy on energy pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, M. G.

    1977-10-15

    Some economic principles of energy pricing in a market type economy in which there is consumer sovereignty are discussed. Thus resources will be allocated via the production processes in line with the preferences of consumers as revealed by their purchases of goods and services. Prices play the crucial role of coordinating instruments in this allocative process. It is assumed that all the energy industries are in the public sector. The following topics are discussed: the specification of objectives for the energy sector; marginal cost pricing; problems associated with the measurement of marginal costs; some aspects of the environmental costs associated with energy production and use, and some issues related to time differentiated tariffs; the modification of prices to achieve financial targets; and the use of energy prices to achieve income distribution objectives.

  6. Asset Pricing and Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bingbing Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of money in understanding the behavior of asset prices and whether and how monetary policy should react to asset prices such as stock prices and equity premiums. To do so, I introduce money via the form of transaction cost into a production economy with limited stock market participation where agents with lower inter-temporal elasticity of substitution (IES), called non-stockholders, have no access to stock market. In addition to facilitating transactions of consu...

  7. Pricing Policies in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donald W.

    1979-01-01

    Economic considerations of user charges are presented along with economic principles and implications of charging for specific library materials and services. Alternative pricing policies and their implications are described, and, to illustrate the complexity and subtle effects of charging, a numerical example for interlibrary loans is also given.…

  8. 48 CFR 15.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 15.402... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.402 Pricing policy. Contracting... certified cost or pricing data when required by 15.403-4, along with data other than certified cost or...

  9. 48 CFR 215.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing policy. 215.402... OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.402 Pricing policy. Follow the procedures at PGI 215.402 when conducting cost or price analysis, particularly...

  10. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van Marrewijk, Charles

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  11. 48 CFR 1615.402 - Pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pricing policy. 1615.402... Contract Pricing 1615.402 Pricing policy. Pricing of FEHB contracts is governed by 5 U.S.C. 8902(i), 5 U.S....403-4(a)(1), OPM will not require the carrier to provide cost or pricing data in the rate proposal for...

  12. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Ciaian, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  13. Endogenous price flexibility and optimal monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge Senay; Alan Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    Much of the literature on optimal monetary policy uses models in which the degree of nominal price flexibility is exogenous. There are, however, good reasons to suppose that the degree of price flexibility adjusts endogenously to changes in monetary conditions. This article extends the standard new Keynesian model to incorporate an endogenous degree of price flexibility. The model shows that endogenizing the degree of price flexibility tends to shift optimal monetary policy towards complete i...

  14. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooney, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Steel prices remain at historically elevated levels. The rapid growth of steel production and demand in China is widely considered as a major cause of the increases in both steel prices and the prices of steelmaking inputs...

  15. Policy packages to achieve demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    In many sectors and many countries, energy demand is still increasing, despite decades of policies to reduce demand. Controlling climate change is becoming more urgent, so there is a need to devise policies that will, virtually, guarantee demand reduction. This has to come from policy, at least in the UK, as the conditions do not exist, yet, when the consumers will 'pull' the market for energy efficiency or the manufacturers will use technological development to 'push' it. That virtuous circle has to be created by a mixture of consumer education and restrictions on manufacturers (for instance, permission to manufacture). The wider policy options include higher prices for energy and stronger product policies. An assessment of the effectiveness of different policy packages indicates some guiding principles, for instance that improved product policy must precede higher prices, otherwise consumers are unable to react effectively to price rises. The evidence will be assessed about the ways in which national and EU policies can either reinforce, duplicate or undermine each other. Another area of examination will be timescales: what is the time lag between the implementation of a policy (whether prices or product based) and the level of maximum reductions. In addition, the emphasis given to factors such as equity, raising investment funds and speed of delivery also influence policy design and the extent to which absolute carbon reductions can be expected

  16. NASA policy on pricing shuttle launch services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explains the rationale behind key elements of the pricing policy for STS, the major features of the non-government user policy, and some of the stimulating features of the policy which will open space to a wide range of new users. Attention is given to such major policy features as payment schedule, cost and standard services, the two phase pricing structure, optional services, shared flights, cancellation and postponement, and earnest money.

  17. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  18. Energy efficieny policy and carbon pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Lisa; Moarif, Sara; Levina, Ellina; Baron, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  19. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  20. Ex-vessel Fish Price Database: Disaggregating Prices for Low-Priced Species from Reduction Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis C. Tai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ex-vessel fish prices are essential for comprehensive fisheries management and socioeconomic analyses for fisheries science. In this paper, we reconstructed a global ex-vessel price database with the following areas of improvement: (1 compiling reported prices explicitly listed as “for reduction to fishmeal and fish oil” to estimate prices separately for catches destined for fishmeal and fish oil production, and other non-direct human consumption purposes; (2 including 95% confidence limit estimates for each price estimation; and (3 increasing the number of input data and the number of price estimates to match the reconstructed Sea Around Us catch database. Our primary focus was to address this first area of improvement as ex-vessel prices for catches destined for non-direct human consumption purposes were substantially overestimated, notably in countries with large reduction fisheries. For example in Peru, 2010 landed values were estimated as 3.8 billion real 2010 USD when using separate prices for reduction fisheries, compared with 5.8 billion using previous methods with only one price for all end-products. This update of the price database has significant global and country-specific impacts on fisheries price and landed value trends over time.

  1. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    1979-01-01

    A marketing management paradigm for academe is discussed along with aspects of the pricing policy process. The two most important factors affecting the college choice process are shown to be college quality and price-related considerations. Implications for marketing are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  2. Are prices enough? The economics of material demand reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke; Jia, Lili; Low, Hamish

    2017-05-01

    Recent policy proposals to achieve carbon targets have emphasized material demand reduction strategies aimed at achieving material efficiency. We provide a bridge between the way economists and engineers think about efficiency. We use the tools of economics to think about policies directed at material efficiency and to evaluate the role and rationale for such policies. The analysis highlights when prices (or taxes) can be used to induce changes in material use and when taxes may not work. We argue that the role of taxes is limited by concerns about their distributional consequences, by international trade and the lack of international agreement on carbon prices, and by investment failures. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  3. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...

  4. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  5. Rent distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market. A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S.; Van Marrewijk, C.

    2005-09-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2). Third, it is unavoidable

  6. 48 CFR 52.215-10 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-10 Section 52.215-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-10 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data... or Pricing Data (OCT 2010) (a) If any price, including profit or fee, negotiated in connection with...

  7. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get to tax those profits. This situation may affect the global budget of the multinational enterprises and the tax reve­nues of the jurisdictions. This paper is focused on the transfer pricing rules used in the Czech Republic and makes recommendations for the Czech tax policy in this area based on the analysis of the transfer pricing rules in the EU Member States.

  8. Monetary Policy and Price Stability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoko Ahmed Itodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Irregular price changes, with its economic consequences of market risks and uncertainties, have been one of the most challenging problems facing the Nigerian economy. Successive financial sector reforms, which seek to enhance the role of monetary policy instruments in macroeconomic management, in view of the theoretical and empirical link between monetary policy and general price level, have been implemented with less than satisfactory results. This paper examines the monetary policy in stabilizing price level in Nigeria. We employ the Vector Autoregressive (VAR model, with in-built differencing to take care of unit root in these time series data, to capture this relationship. From our findings, we discover that, money supply has no significant relationship with price level in Nigeria. This, we believe, may be due to the influence of the large informal financial sector which controls a very significant fraction of money in circulation. Thus, policy reforms that would curb the influence of the informal financial sector should be implemented in order to allow the central monetary authority to work better, and enhance the role of monetary management in Nigeria.

  9. Cigarette price minimization strategies in the United States: price reductions and responsiveness to excise taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Licht, Andrea S; Kruger, Judy M

    2013-11-01

    Because cigarette price minimization strategies can provide substantial price reductions for individuals continuing their usual smoking behaviors following federal and state cigarette excise tax increases, we examined independent price reductions compensating for overlapping strategies. The possible availability of larger independent price reduction opportunities in states with higher cigarette excise taxes is explored. Regression analysis used the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (N = 26,826) to explore national and state-level independent price reductions that smokers obtained from purchasing cigarettes (a) by the carton, (b) in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price than in the state of residence, and (c) in "some other way," including online or in another country. Price reductions from these strategies are estimated jointly to compensate for known overlapping strategies. Each strategy reduced the price of cigarettes by 64-94 cents per pack. These price reductions are 9%-22% lower than conventionally estimated results not compensating for overlapping strategies. Price reductions vary substantially by state. Following cigarette excise tax increases, the price reduction available from purchasing cigarettes by cartons increased. Additionally, the price reduction from purchasing cigarettes in a state with a lower average after-tax cigarette price is positively associated with state cigarette excise tax rates and border state cigarette excise tax rate differentials. Findings from this large, nationally representative study of cigarette smokers suggest that price reductions are larger in states with higher cigarette excise taxes, and increase as cigarette excise taxes rise.

  10. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  11. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  12. Oil price reduction impacts on the Iranian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Mahmoodi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available economy. In order to simulate this shock, the global trade analysis project (GTAP model with its data done by using. In the new created data aggregation, oil exporting in Iran and the rest of the world countries as economic new regions, ten new economic sectors have been created, among which the oil is introduced as one sector as well as five endowments. The standard economic closure was changed, and decline in world oil price was simulated in model as a policy shock. The results show that oil export revenue and the mineral commodity export earnings will decrease, but other production sectors’ exports will increase. The trade balance of Iran will be affected negatively and strongly. Also, oil and other services production decreased. In the production sectors’ market, the demand for labor, natural resources, and investment decreased dramatically, and the demand for land increased. Using equivalent variation (EV, changes in Iran’s welfare is high negative. Finally, deflation, reduction in value and quantity of GDP and changes in consumption combination from public to private sector are the other economic impacts of reduction in oil price on Iran’s economic. It is suggested that future studies are done using dynamic models and up-to-date data. In addition, policy makers need to rebound internationally and within OPEC to raise oil prices.

  13. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Witteloostuijn, van (Arjen); S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAs part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority—DTe—has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise—Gas Transport Services, or GTS—to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the

  14. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteloostuijn , van Arjen; Brakman, S.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority-DTe-has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise-Gas Transport Services, or GTS-to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed,

  15. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of reference pricing, other pricing, and purchasing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Angela; Ciapponi, Agustín; Aaserud, Morten; Vietto, Valeria; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Kösters, Jan Peter; Vacca, Claudia; Machado, Manuel; Diaz Ayala, Diana Hazbeydy; Oxman, Andrew D

    2014-10-16

    Pharmaceuticals are important interventions that could improve people's health. Pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies are used as cost-containment measures to determine or affect the prices that are paid for drugs. Internal reference pricing establishes a benchmark or reference price within a country which is the maximum level of reimbursement for a group of drugs. Other policies include price controls, maximum prices, index pricing, price negotiations and volume-based pricing. To determine the effects of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies on health outcomes, healthcare utilisation, drug expenditures and drug use. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library (including the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Register) (searched 22/10/2012); MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and MEDLINE, Ovid (searched 22/10/2012); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); PAIS International, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); World Wide Political Science Abstracts, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); INRUD Bibliography (searched 22/10/2012); Embase, Ovid (searched 14/12/2010); NHSEED, part of The Cochrane Library (searched 08/12/2010); LILACS, VHL (searched 14/12/2010); International Political Science Abstracts (IPSA), Ebsco (searched (17/12/2010); OpenSIGLE (searched 21/12/10); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 17/12/2010); World Bank (Documents and Reports) (searched 21/12/2010); Jolis (searched 09/10/2011); Global Jolis (searched 09/10/2011) ; OECD (searched 30/08/2005); OECD iLibrary (searched 30/08/2005); World Bank eLibrary (searched 21/12/2010); WHO - The Essential Drugs and Medicines web site (browsed 21/12/2010). Policies in this review were defined as laws; rules; financial and administrative orders made by governments, non-government organisations or private insurers. To be included a study had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: drug use

  16. Pricing and Policy Problems in the Northeast Fluid Milk Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This article documents the need for reform of milk pricing in the Northeast. The New York price gouging law can be recast as a fair share law. This new milk policy "kills two birds with one stone." It corrects regional inequities in raw milk pricing by reforming the pricing of milk at retail by limiting and redistributing excessive retail margins to farmers and consumers. The fair share policy relieves allocative price inefficiency, improves the performance of the federal milk market order po...

  17. Robust policy choice under Calvo and Rotemberg pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Sienknecht, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the robustness of welfare-based policy choices across the nonlinear Calvo and Rotemberg pricing assumptions. Comparisons between simple interest rate rules turn out to be robust and independent of the price dispersion inherent in the Calvo setting. This robustness is violated if there is a policy alternative that controls for price dispersion.

  18. When Are Transport Pricing Policies Fair and Acceptable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Steg, Linda; van Kruining, Monique

    This study examines the relative importance of six policy outcomes related to different fairness principles for the perceived fairness and acceptability of pricing policies aimed at changing transport behaviour. The fairness and acceptability of six different types of transport pricing policies were

  19. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  20. Frameworks for pricing greenhouse gas emissions and the policy objectives they promote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Paul A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Four cost-effective frameworks for pricing greenhouse gas emissions currently receive widespread attention: cap-and-trade, emission fees, and hybrid cap-and-trade approaches that include upper or lower limits on permit prices (price ceilings or floors). This paper develops a fifth framework that uses an emission fee with an upper limit on the quantity of emissions—a quantity ceiling—and compares the impact of each framework on emission prices and quantities. Cap-and-trade with a price ceiling minimizes price increases for emitting activities in all cases whereas an emission fee with a quantity ceiling maximizes emissions reductions. Thus, the choice of framework influences policy outcomes because each framework is more or less suited to particular policy goals. Whether pursuing one potential policy goal serves society's interests best depends on the eventual consequences of climate damage and emissions pricing, which are uncertain when policy choices are made. Policy updating over time may reduce but likely cannot entirely eliminate the differences in outcome that arise due to framework choice. Therefore, the “best” framework for emissions pricing depends on subjective preferences regarding the relative importance of different policy objectives, most notably whether one is more risk averse to climate damages or emissions price increases. - Highlights: • This article develops and examines a carbon tax that includes a quantity constraint on emissions. • This approach maximizes climate protection in all cases, unlike existing policy alternatives. • This promotes rapid reductions in emissions if mitigation is easy without risk to long term targets. • This analysis reveals that different policy frameworks promote different policy goals. • The analysis helps round out ongoing policy discussions over how to deal with climate change

  1. Effects of Dutch mineral policies on land prices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boots, M.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Land prices were analyzed by shadow prices of individual
    farms and an exogenous supply of land,
    taking account of mineral surplus taxes and farm
    characteristics. Mineral policies have a substantial
    effect on land prices in the Netherlands and result
    in more extensive dairy

  2. Adjusting the CO2 cap to subsidised RES generation: Can CO2 prices be decoupled from renewable policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richstein, Jörn C.; Chappin, Émile J.L.; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Strong renewable policy can cause price drops in an emission trading system (ETS). • Cap reduction based on exceedance of original policy goals could prevent price drops. • Dynamic cap reduction makes renewable policy climate effective in an ETS. • Dynamic cap reduction is not useful for reaching carbon price or volatility goals. • Dynamic cap reduction could undo the “green promotes the dirtiest” effect. - Abstract: The low prices in the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) have triggered discussions of various possible reforms. One option is to decouple the CO 2 prices from renewable energy policy by adjusting the emission cap to renewable energy investment overshoots. We introduce two ways of reducing the CO 2 cap in response to overshoots of renewable policy investment over previously announced targets. We investigate these options with the agent-based model EMLab-generation. We find that both policy implementations are successful in restoring prices. They also ensure that making public investments that exceed policy targets contribute to carbon emission reduction, and that renewable policy does not benefit the most emission-intensive power plants. However, neither policy is suitable for achieving specifc levels of prices or price volatility

  3. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  4. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  5. Dividend policy and share price volatility: UK evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Hussainey, Khaled; Mgbame, Chijoke Oscar; Chijoke Mgbame, Aruoriwo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relation between dividend policy and share price changes in the UK stock market. Design/methodology/approach – Multiple regression analyses are used to explore the association between share price changes and both dividend yield and dividend payout ratio. Findings – A positive relation is found between dividend yield and stock price changes, and a negative relation between dividend payout ratio and stock price changes. In a...

  6. Agricultural pricing policy in Kenya : scope and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the findings of available studies and reports thought to be of relevance to policy makers. A discussion of the institutional framework, of criteria used in price-setting procedures, and of scope and objectives of the agricultural pricing policies is folowed by an examination of what these

  7. ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje SCHUITEMA

    2007-01-01

    Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.

  8. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a customer...

  10. Does the Credible Fiscal Policy Support the Prices Stabilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the co-movement between fiscal policy and monetary policy rules in the context of price stabilization. More specifically, we observe the potential impact of fiscal policy credibility on the price stabilization in the inflation targeting framework. Motivated by the fact that empirical studies concerning this aspect are still limited, we take the case of Indonesia over the period 2001-2013. Based on the quarterly data analysis, we found that the impact of credibility typically depends on characteristics of fiscal rules commitment. On one hand, the credibility of debt rule reduces the inflation rate. In contrast, the incredible deficit rule policy does not have any impact on the inflation rate and therefore does not support to inflation targeting. Given those results, we conclude that credibility matters in stabilizing price levels. Accordingly, those findings suggest tightening coordination between monetary and fiscal policy to maintain fiscal sustainability in accordance with price stabilization policy

  11. 48 CFR 52.215-11 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordingly and the contract shall be modified to reflect the reduction. This right to a price reduction is... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Reduction for... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.215-11 Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or...

  12. 48 CFR 52.214-27 - Price Reduction for Defective Certified Cost or Pricing Data-Modifications-Sealed Bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction. This right to a price reduction is limited to that resulting from defects in data relating to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Reduction for... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.214-27 Price Reduction for Defective...

  13. 48 CFR 1615.407-1 - Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. 1615.407-1 Section 1615.407-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.407-1 Rate reduction for defective pricing or defective cost or pricing data. The clause set forth in section 1652.215-70...

  14. Relationship Between Energy Prices, Monetary Policy and Inflation; A Case Study of South Asian Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiq-ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monetary policy tools, including money supply and interest rate, are the most popular instruments to control inflation around the globe. It is assumed that a tight monetary policy, either in form of reduction in money supply or an increase in interest rate, will reduce inflation by reducing aggregate demand in an economy. However, monetary policy could be counterproductive if cost side effects of monetary tightening prevail. High energy prices may increase the cost of production by reducing aggregate supply in the economy. If tight monetary policy is used to reduce this cost push inflation, the cost side effect of energy prices will add to cost side effects of monetary tightening and will become dominant. In this case, the monetary policy could be counterproductive. Furthermore, simultaneous reduction in aggregate supply and aggregate demand will bring twofold reduction in output. Therefore greater care is needed in the use of monetary policy in the situation of cost push inflation. This article investigates the presence of cost side effect of monetary transmission mechanism, the role of international oil prices in domestic inflation, and implications for monetary policy. The findings suggest that both monetary policy and oil prices have cost side effects on inflation and monetary tightening could be counterproductive if used to reduce energy pushed inflationary trend.

  15. Agricultural price and income policy in the EC : alternative policies and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, G.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative forms of income policy without direct supply control. Alternative forms of income policy with direct supply control: quota arrangements. The influence of EC policy on the world market prices of agricultural produce

  16. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  17. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 U.S. markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around -1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately -1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The impact of price and tobacco control policies on the demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Tauras, John; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Background While much is known about the demand for conventional cigarettes, little is known about the determinants of demand for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS or e-cigarettes). The goal of this study is to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and to examine the impact of cigarette prices and smoke-free policies on e-cigarette sales. Methods Quarterly e-cigarette prices and sales and conventional cigarette prices from 2009 to 2012 were constructed from commercial retail store scanner data from 52 US markets, for food, drug and mass stores, and from 25 markets, for convenience stores. Fixed-effects models were used to estimate the own and cross-price elasticity of demand for e-cigarettes and associations between e-cigarette sales and cigarette prices and smoke-free policies. Results Estimated own price elasticities for disposable e-cigarettes centred around −1.2, while those for reusable e-cigarettes were approximately −1.9. Disposable e-cigarette sales were higher in markets where reusable e-cigarette prices were higher and where less of the population was covered by a comprehensive smoke-free policy. There were no consistent and statistically significant relationships between cigarette prices and e-cigarette sales. Conclusions E-cigarette sales are very responsive to own price changes. Disposable e-cigarettes appear to be substitutes for reusable e-cigarettes. Policies increasing e-cigarette retail prices, such as limiting rebates, discounts and coupons and imposing a tax on e-cigarettes, could potentially lead to significant reductions in e-cigarette sales. Differential tax policies based on product type could lead to substitution between different types of e-cigarettes. PMID:24935898

  19. Minimum alcohol pricing policies in practice: A critical examination of implementation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Giesbrecht, Norman; Thomas, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    There is an interest globally in using Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) of alcohol to promote public health. Canada is the only country to have both implemented and evaluated some forms of minimum alcohol prices, albeit in ways that fall short of MUP. To inform these international debates, we describe the degree to which minimum alcohol prices in Canada meet recommended criteria for being an effective public health policy. We collected data on the implementation of minimum pricing with respect to (1) breadth of application, (2) indexation to inflation and (3) adjustments for alcohol content. Some jurisdictions have implemented recommended practices with respect to minimum prices; however, the full harm reduction potential of minimum pricing is not fully realised due to incomplete implementation. Key concerns include the following: (1) the exclusion of minimum prices for several beverage categories, (2) minimum prices below the recommended minima and (3) prices are not regularly adjusted for inflation or alcohol content. We provide recommendations for best practices when implementing minimum pricing policy.

  20. Price, public policy, and smoking in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, E M; Hyland, A; Kerrebrock, N; Cummings, K M

    1997-01-01

    To examine the effect of cigarette taxes, limits on public smoking, laws regulating access to tobacco by young people, and exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco messages on smoking participation and the intention to smoke among ninth-grade students (aged 13-16). Two cross-sectional, school-based surveys (total of 15432 responses) of ninth-grade students conducted in 21 North American communities in 1990 and 1992 in conjunction with the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation. A ninth-grader was classified as a smoker if he or she reported smoking a whole cigarette on at least one of the 30 days preceding the survey. Among non-smokers, a positive intention to smoke was attributed to those who claimed they probably or definitely would be smoking within a year. Both smoking participation and the intent to smoke were related to differences in cigarette prices, with estimated price elasticities of -0.87 and -0.95, respectively. Boys were far more sensitive to price than girls with respect to smoking participation (elasticities of -1.51 and -0.32, respectively); however, the effect of price on the intent to smoke was similar for boys and girls. Policies limiting minors' access to tobacco (a minimum purchase age of 18 years, a ban on cigarette vending machines, and a ban on giving away free samples of tobacco products) were associated with reductions in participation and intention to smoke. Exposure to tobacco education in school was associated with decreased participation and intention to smoke. Policies that prohibited smoking in public places and in schools were not significantly related to the smoking patterns of ninth-graders. Frequency of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements was marginally associated with increased participation and intention to smoke; paradoxically, frequency of exposure to anti-tobacco advertisements was correlated with an increased likelihood of smoking. Policies limiting access to tobacco by young people, increasing education

  1. Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team will study trends in alcohol taxation and pricing policies across 10 ... Sample Survey Office of India and the 10 state excise tax departments. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  2. Electricity pricing policy and rational energy use and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Mallen, A.

    1995-01-01

    With a threefold combination of rate system /R and D industrial policy/ communication and information for customers, the French electrical system appears as a major actor in Demand Side Management. Especially, the electricity tariffs are a cost reflective rate system which had been implemented and adapted over several decades with an efficient impact on national electricity load curve. As a part of IRP (integrated resources planning), within the global regulation of the energy supply and demand system, tariffs based on marginal costs have a double function: 1) tariffs reflect costs of different kind of supplies; 2) tariffs are an economic signal for customers. These pricing principles alone provide incentive for energy savings through peak-day-demand-reduction of transfer to less costly off-peak period, when they are economically sound

  3. 77 FR 15370 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Price Reductions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Price Reductions Clause; Extension... notice of request for comments regarding OMB Control No. 3090-0235, Price Reductions Clause, published in... 16, 2012. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0235, Price...

  4. Transfer pricing and the Czech tax policy

    OpenAIRE

    Veronika Solilová; Veronika Sobotková

    2010-01-01

    The Czech Republic as a small open economy with an extensive network of the international tax treaties for the avoidance of the double taxation prevents from shifting the tax base of the associated enterprises to countries with preferential tax regime through transfer pricing rules. Transfer pricing as one of the important areas of international taxes determines how the profits of the multinational enterprises are split between the jurisdictions in which they operate and which countries get t...

  5. The impact of a federal cigarette minimum pack price policy on cigarette use in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doogan, Nathan J; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Berman, Micah

    2018-03-01

    Increasing cigarette prices reduce cigarette use. The US Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate the sale and promotion-and therefore the price-of tobacco products. To examine the potential effect of federal minimum price regulation on the sales of cigarettes in the USA. We used yearly state-level data from the Tax Burden on Tobacco and other sources to model per capita cigarette sales as a function of price. We used the fitted model to compare the status quo sales with counterfactual scenarios in which a federal minimum price was set. The minimum price scenarios ranged from $0 to $12. The estimated price effect in our model was comparable with that found in the literature. Our counterfactual analyses suggested that the impact of a minimum price requirement could range from a minimal effect at the $4 level to a reduction of 5.7 billion packs sold per year and 10 million smokers at the $10 level. A federal minimum price policy has the potential to greatly benefit tobacco control and public health by uniformly increasing the price of cigarettes and by eliminating many price-reducing strategies currently available to both sellers and consumers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    on the agenda of various international policy fora, including the annual meetings of G20 countries in recent years. For that reason, recent studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which such policy actions contributed to the rise in food prices. A study by Jensen & Anderson (2014) uses the global AGE...... model GTAP and the corresponding database to quantify the global policy actions contributions to the raise in food prices by modeling the changes in distortions to agricultural incentives in the period 2006 to 2008. We link the results from this global model into a national AGE model, highlighting how...... global "Beggar-thy-Neighbor Policy Responses" impacted on poor households in Uganda. More specifically we examine the following research questions: What were the Ugandan economy-wide and poverty impacts of the price spikes? What was the impact of other countries "Beggar-thy-Neighbor Policy Responses...

  7. The impact of luxury brand identity on product pricing policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioleta Dryl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basing the luxury product pricing policy, only on the assumption that the price has to be the highest amount a client is willing to pay, poses a number of challenges in front of enterprise. The consumer of the luxury product is very aware of his needs and expectations. He is ready to pay a higher price for the product, but is expecting to return, very specific values. Relying luxury brand strategy, only on high-priced, without enrichment offer to a sufficiently high level leads to market failure. The justification for the high price of the product may, however, be defined brand image, which is a consequence of appropriate policies shaping its identity. In the case of luxury goods, especially essential tool proves to be the emotional component of the brand identity.

  8. The price level and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Kindleberger

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Most central banks are required to or choose to stabilize a price index, largely by manipulating short term interest rates. A serious problem is which index to choose among the national income deflator, wholesale prices, the cost of living, with or eliminating highly volatile commodities such as food and energy, to produce a core index, plus others such as housing, including or without imputed rent of owner-occupied houses, or assets, whether equities or houses. No obvious and widely agreed index exists. Even if there were a clear choice, there remains a question whether a central bank should carefully consider action in order to achieve other goals: full employment, adjustment of the balance of payments, of the exchange rate, prevention of bubbles in asset prices, or recovery from financial crises. If so, the question of central bank weapons remains: monetary expansion or contraction, credit controls, for overall or for particular purposes, and moral suasion.

  9. Policy interactions, risk and price formation in carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; Bunn, Derek; Kettunen, Janne; Wilson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Carbon pricing is an important mechanism for providing companies with incentives to invest in carbon abatement. Price formation in carbon markets involves a complex interplay between policy targets, dynamic technology costs, and market rules. Carbon pricing may under-deliver investment due to R and D externalities, requiring additional policies which themselves affect market prices. Also, abatement costs depend on the extent of technology deployment due to learning-by-doing. This paper introduces an analytical framework based on marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves with the aim of providing an intuitive understanding of the key dynamics and risk factors in carbon markets. The framework extends the usual static MAC representation of the market to incorporate policy interactions and some technology cost dynamics. The analysis indicates that supporting large-scale deployment of mature abatement technologies suppresses the marginal cost of abatement, sometimes to zero, whilst increasing total abatement costs. However, support for early stage R and D may reduce both total abatement cost and carbon price risk. An important aspect of the analysis is in elevating risk management considerations into energy policy formation, as the results of the stochastic modelling indicate wide distributions for the emergence of carbon prices and public costs around the policy expectations. (author)

  10. 48 CFR 1652.215-70 - Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 1652.215-70 Section 1652.215-70 Federal Acquisition... CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.215-70 Rate Reduction for Defective Pricing or Defective Cost or Pricing Data. As prescribed in 1615.407-1, the following clause shall be...

  11. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  12. Equity impacts of price policies to promote healthy behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Franco; Belloni, Annalisa; Mirelman, Andrew J; Suhrcke, Marc; Thomas, Alastair; Salti, Nisreen; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Visaruthvong, Chonlathan; Popkin, Barry M; Nugent, Rachel

    2018-04-04

    Governments can use fiscal policies to regulate the prices and consumption of potentially unhealthy products. However, policies aimed at reducing consumption by increasing prices, for example by taxation, might impose an unfair financial burden on low-income households. We used data from household expenditure surveys to estimate patterns of expenditure on potentially unhealthy products by socioeconomic status, with a primary focus on low-income and middle-income countries. Price policies affect the consumption and expenditure of a larger number of high-income households than low-income households, and any resulting price increases tend to be financed disproportionately by high-income households. As a share of all household consumption, however, price increases are often a larger financial burden for low-income households than for high-income households, most consistently in the case of tobacco, depending on how much consumption decreases in response to increased prices. Large health benefits often accrue to individual low-income consumers because of their strong response to price changes. The potentially larger financial burden on low-income households created by taxation could be mitigated by a pro-poor use of the generated tax revenues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Road pricing policy process : The interplay between policy actors, the media and public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiç, O.

    2015-01-01

    Although road pricing policies are generally seen as an effective measure to deal with transport related problems (e.g. congestion), the number of implemented road pricing schemes is relatively limited. The thesis aims to gain insights into complex interplay between policy actors, media and public

  14. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...... have assessed the extent to which those policies contributed to the 2006-08 international price rise, but only by focusing on one commodity or using a back-of-the envelope (BOTE) method. This paper provides a more-comprehensive analysis using a global economy-wide model that is able to take account...... of the interactions between markets for farm products that are closely related in production and/or consumption, and able to estimate the impacts of those insulating policies on grain prices and on the grain trade and economic welfare of the world’s various countries. Our results support the conclusion from earlier...

  15. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policies for deteriorating items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Marketing strategies and proper inventory replenishment policies are often incorporated by enterprises to stimulate demand and maximize profit. The aim of this paper is to represent an integrated model for dynamic pricing and inventory control of deteriorating items. To reflect the dynamic characteristic of the problem, the selling price is defined as a time-dependent function of the initial selling price and the discount rate. In this regard, the price is exponentially discounted to compensate negative impact of the deterioration. The planning horizon is assumed to be infinite and the deterioration rate is time-dependent. In addition to price, the demand rate is dependent on advertisement as a powerful marketing tool. Several theoretical results and an iterative solution algorithm are developed to provide the optimal solution. Finally, to show validity of the model and illustrate the solution procedure, numerical results are presented.

  16. Optimal Pricing and Advertising Policies for New Product Oligopoly Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald L. Thompson; Jinn-Tsair Teng

    1984-01-01

    In this paper our previous work on monopoly and oligopoly new product models is extended by the addition of pricing as well as advertising control variables. These models contain Bass's demand growth model, and the Vidale-Wolfe and Ozga advertising models, as well as the production learning curve model and an exponential demand function. The problem of characterizing an optimal pricing and advertising policy over time is an important question in the field of marketing as well as in the areas ...

  17. An Analysis of Reconstituted Fluid Milk Pricing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Glen D. Whipple

    1983-01-01

    This analysis suggests that alteration of the reconstituted fluid milk pricing provisions of federal and state milk market orders would have a substantial impact on market equilibrium. A reactive programming model of the U.S. milk market was used to simulate the effects of altered reconstituted fluid milk pricing policy. The solutions indicate that reconstituted fluid milk, as a lower cost alternative to fresh fluid milk, would make up a substantial portion of the fluid milk consumption in so...

  18. Impact of Dividend Policy on Share Price Volatility: UK Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YIDING

    2012-01-01

    This research attempts to shed light on the linkage between dividend policy and share price volatility in the context of UK. As a rework and extension of pervious research, the study is expected to reveal the potential impact of dividend change on the fluctuation of stock price, taking existing theoretical and empirical framework as basis. A snapshot of UK economy is provided after the preceding introductory section. The third chapter consists of a review of theories and empirical studies. Wi...

  19. Wholesale pricing policies for energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lucia, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter focuses on wholesale pricing policies with particular emphasis on domestic fuels. There are several characteristics of the supply system that affect wholesale pricing: Source of the fuel (imported or domestic); Characteristics of the fuel (tradable or non-tradable); Nature of the supply companies (public or private and, if private, local or multinational); and stage of development of the resource. Each of these characteristics has implications for how the components of the efficient wholesale price of fuels are determined. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non

  1. Price caps and price floors in climate policy: a quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Cedric

    2008-12-15

    This study assesses the long-term economic and environmental effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical climate change mitigation architecture, which aims to reduce global energy-related CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050. Based on abatement costs in IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms what qualitative analyses have already suggested: introducing price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. With price caps, the expected costs could be reduced by about 50% and the uncertainty on economic costs could be one order of magnitude lower. Reducing economic uncertainties may spur the adoption of more ambitious policies by helping to alleviate policy makers' concerns of economic risks. Meanwhile, price floors would reduce the level of emissions beyond the objective if the abatement costs ended up lower than forecasted. If caps and floors are commensurate with the ambition of the policy pursued and combined with slightly tightened emission objectives, climatic results could be on average similar to those achieved with 'straight' objectives (i.e. with no cost-containment mechanism). (auth)

  2. 18 CFR 2.22 - Pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing policy for... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Federal Power Act § 2.22 Pricing policy... Policy Statement on its pricing policy for transmission services provided under the Federal Power Act...

  3. Assessment of OPEC's oil pricing policy from 1970 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazim, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization, composed of eleven developing countries that rely on oil revenues as their main source of income. The member countries include: Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. These member countries collectively supply approximately 40 per cent of the world's oil output, and possess more than three-quarters of the world's total proven crude oil reserves. Currently, OPEC's approximate rate of oil production and export is 25 million barrels per day with Saudi Arabia alone contributing about one third of this rate. However, in the recent years the economy of major OPEC countries mainly Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Algeria, Indonesia and Iran has been significantly hindered by the instability of oil price as a result of fluctuations in the American dollar. This paper presented a simple economical assessment of OPEC's oil pricing policy from 1970 to 2000. Fluctuations of the oil price in American dollars were analysed against other major currencies. Their influences on the generated revenues were determined. In order to explore the most advantageous scenario, the oil pricing policy during that period was compared with two baskets of currencies. It was concluded that results indicated that OPEC members could have achieved a total current savings of at least 170 billion dollars if the price of oil was linked to a basket of currencies from 1970 to 2000. These savings were approximately equivalent to the revenues generated in at least 1 year of OPEC's average rate of oil production and export. It was recommended that OPEC members should consider restructuring their oil pricing policy by taking effective measures such as linking the price of oil to a basket of currencies in order to stabilize the price of oil and secure stable revenue generated from their oil production and export. 17 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  5. Nicotine reduction as an increase in the unit price of cigarettes: a behavioral economics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracy T; Sved, Alan F; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Urgent action is needed to reduce the harm caused by smoking. Product standards that reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes are now possible both in the U.S. and in countries party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specifically, standards that required substantially reduced nicotine content in cigarettes could enable cessation in smokers and prevent future smoking among current non-smokers. Behavioral economics uses principles from the field of microeconomics to characterize how consumption of a reinforcer changes as a function of the unit price of that reinforcer (unit price=cost/reinforcer magnitude). A nicotine reduction policy might be considered an increase in the unit price of nicotine because smokers are paying more per unit of nicotine. This perspective allows principles from behavioral economics to be applied to nicotine reduction research questions, including how nicotine consumption, smoking behavior, use of other tobacco products, and use of other drugs of abuse are likely to be affected. This paper reviews the utility of this approach and evaluates the notion that a reduction in nicotine content is equivalent to a reduction in the reinforcement value of smoking-an assumption made by the unit price approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Empirical assessment of energy-price policies: the case for cross-price elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, M.

    2004-01-01

    Evaluations of energy-price policies are necessarily based on measures of the substitution of energy and non-energy inputs. Facing a variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises which measure would be appropriate. Apparently, for a long time, this question has not been at issue: Allen's elasticities of substitution (AES) have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. This paper's main contribution is an instructive survey of the origin of substitution measures and of the trinity of empirical substitution elasticities-AES, cross-price elasticities, and the Morishima elasticities of substitution (MES)-with particular emphasis on their interpretations and the perspectives that will be captured by these measures. This survey clarifies why classical cross-price elasticities are to be preferred for many practical purposes. Berndt and Wood's (Rev. Econom. Stat. 57(1975) 259) frequently applied data set of US manufacturing is used to illustrate why assessments of energy-price policies would be better based on cross-price elasticities like the energy-price elasticity of capital, rather than on AES or MES. (author)

  7. Empirical assessment of energy-price policies: the case for cross-price elasticities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frondel, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Evaluations of energy-price policies are necessarily based on measures of the substitution of energy and non-energy inputs. Facing a variety of substitution elasticities, the central question arises which measure would be appropriate. Apparently, for a long time, this question has not been at issue: Allen's elasticities of substitution (AES) have been the most-used measures in applied production analysis. This paper's main contribution is an instructive survey of the origin of substitution measures and of the trinity of empirical substitution elasticities - AES, cross-price elasticities, and the Morishima elasticities of substitution (MES) - with particular emphasis on their interpretations and the perspectives that will be captured by these measures. This survey clarifies why classical cross-price elasticities are to be preferred for many practical purposes. Berndt and Wood's (Rev. Econom. Stat. 57 (1975) 259) frequently applied data set of US manufacturing is used to illustrate why assessments of energy-price policies would be better based on cross-price elasticities like the energy-price elasticity of capital, rather than on AES or MES

  8. House Prices and the stance of Monetary Policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarociński, Marek; Smets, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates a Bayesian VAR for the US economy which includes a housing sector and addresses the following questions. Can developments in the housing sector be explained on the basis of developments in real and nominal GDP and interest rates? What are the effects of housing demand shocks on the economy? How does monetary policy affect the housing market? What are the implications of house price developments for the stance of monetary policy? Regarding the latter question, we implement...

  9. Comprehensive optimisation of China’s energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y.X.; Liu, Y.Y.; Du, M.; Zhang, J.X.; Pang, Y.X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy policy is defined as a complication of energy price, tax and subsidy policies. • The maximisation of total social benefit is the optimised objective. • A more rational carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton under the current situation. • The optimal coefficient pricing is more conducive to maximise total social benefit. - Abstract: Under the condition of increasingly serious environmental pollution, rational energy policy plays an important role in the practical significance of energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper defines energy policies as the compilation of energy prices, taxes and subsidy policies. Moreover, it establishes the optimisation model of China’s energy policy based on the dynamic computable general equilibrium model, which maximises the total social benefit, in order to explore the comprehensive influences of a carbon tax, the sales pricing mechanism and the renewable energy fund policy. The results show that when the change rates of gross domestic product and consumer price index are ±2%, ±5% and the renewable energy supply structure ratio is 7%, the more reasonable carbon tax ranges from 10 to 20 Yuan/ton, and the optimal coefficient pricing mechanism is more conducive to the objective of maximising the total social benefit. From the perspective of optimising the overall energy policies, if the upper limit of change rate in consumer price index is 2.2%, the existing renewable energy fund should be improved

  10. Natural gas prices force businesses to strategic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisse, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors which force businesses to think about a strategic energy policy: energy prices, supply security, regulations in the Netherlands and the European Union, technological developments with regard to fuels, etc. By using a decision making model several criteria can be assessed for different scenarios [nl

  11. The Effects of Inflation and Pricing Policies on College Enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostar, Allan W.

    Some of the effects of inflation and pricing policies on college costs are discussed, and it is shown that rising college costs have a negative effect upon student opportunity and access. Continual escalation of tuition and fees can lead to a shrinking of the higher education enterprise. Federal efforts (and state efforts to the extent that they…

  12. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of passthrough of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  13. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices and Monetary Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.; Santoro, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the conditions that ensure rational expectations equilibrium (REE) determinacy and expectational stability (E-stability) in a standard sticky-price model augmented with the cost channel. We allow for varying degrees of pass-through of the policy rate to bank-lending rates. Strong

  14. Modeling a clean energy standard for electricity: Policy design implications for emissions, supply, prices, and regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Anthony; Palmer, Karen; Woerman, Matt

    2013-01-01

    The electricity sector is responsible for roughly 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and a reduction in CO 2 emissions from electricity generation is an important component of the U.S. strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Toward that goal, several proposals for a clean energy standard (CES) have been put forth, including one espoused by the Obama administration that calls for 80% clean electricity by 2035 phased in from current levels of roughly 40%. This paper looks at the effects of such a policy on CO 2 emissions from the electricity sector, the mix of technologies used to supply electricity, electricity prices, and regional flows of clean energy credits. The CES leads to a 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions between 2013 and 2035 and results in dramatic reductions in generation from conventional coal. The policy also results in fairly modest increases on national electricity prices, but this masks a wide variety of effects across regions. - Highlights: ► We model a clean energy standard (CES) for electricity at 80% by 2035. ► We analyze effects on CO 2 emissions, investment, prices, and credit trading. ► 80% CES leads to 30% reduction in cumulative CO 2 emissions by 2035. ► Modest national average electricity price increase masks regional heterogeneity

  15. ASSORTMENT AND PRICE POLICY OF STATE PHARMACIES OF MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Voronovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important index which determines the level and quality of pharmaceutical support is the correspondence of assortment to consumers needs. Assortment policy is determined by the functions implemented, and the problems of organization of pharmaceutical support of medicinal organizations within the frameworks of substantiated and reasonable expenditure of budget funds, and affordable pharmaceutical support of the population. The purpose of this research was the study of assortment and price policy of state pharmacies of Moscow. The objects were pharmacy subdivisions of state pharmacy network of Moscow. We have used sociological methods (questionnaire, interviewing, method of marketing, and statistic analysis. We have studied the assortment structure, assortment groups’ distribution on price segments. We have established that the drugs, more than 60% of which are foreign-made occupied more than a half of the assortment. Medicinal drugs in 50 rubles price spectrum occupy the biggest share of pharmacy assortment. Distribution within every assortment group revealed that more than a half of drugs are in average price spectrum from 50 to 500 rubles. Average charge for VED amounts to 21.87%, and for drugs which were not included in VED list – 34.07%. The charge for the goods, the price of which is not regulated, trade charge is more. 

  16. Comparative Analysis of Food Price Policies in the Developed Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linrong; LI

    2015-01-01

    As the basis for maintenance of national security and global strategic material,food has always captured the attention of governments in the world.After reaching a certain stage of industrialization,most countries will take the food support and protection measures,and the policy objectives and policy tools have evolved into a set of policy systems through continuous adjustment,but the intervention in food price has always been present.The food price intervention only plays a role in regulating food market supply and demand and guaranteeing minimum income for grain producers,and it can not reflect the cost of food production and continuously improve grain producers’ income,but because of its simple operation,low cost and immediate effect,it is suitable for the countries with a large number of grain producers but small operation scale in the short term.

  17. Effectiveness of tax and price policies in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Straif, Kurt; Leon, Maria E

    2011-05-01

    Over 20 experts on economics, epidemiology, public policy and tobacco control were asked by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to evaluate the strength of the available evidence on the effects of tax and price policies to prevent and reduce tobacco use. Draft papers presenting and assessing the evidence on the following topics were developed by the experts in an 8-month period prior to the meeting: tobacco industry pricing strategies and tax related lobbying; tax, price and aggregate demand for tobacco; tax, price and adult tobacco use, use among young people and use among the poor; tax avoidance and tax evasion; and the economic and health impact of tobacco taxation. Subsequently, papers were peer reviewed, revised and resubmitted for final discussion at a 6-day meeting at IARC in Lyon, France, where a consensus evaluation of 18 concluding statements using the pre-established criteria of the IARC Cancer Prevention Handbooks took place. Studies published (or accepted for publication) in the openly available scientific literature were the main source of evidence for the review and evaluation; other types of publications were included when appropriate. In support of 12 of the 18 conclusions, the experts agreed that there was sufficient evidence of effectiveness of increased tobacco excise taxes and prices in reducing overall tobacco consumption and prevalence of tobacco use and improvement of public health, including by preventing initiation and uptake among young people, promoting cessation among current users and lowering consumption among those who continue to use. For the remaining six concluding statements the evidence was strong (four statements) or limited (two statements). The evidence presented and assessed in IARC Handbook volume 14 documents the effectiveness of tax and price policies in the control of tobacco use and improvement of public health.

  18. Per-pack price reductions available from different cigarette purchasing strategies: United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Malarcher, Ann M; Pechacek, Terry F

    2014-06-01

    Following cigarette excise tax increases, smokers may use cigarette price minimization strategies to continue their usual cigarette consumption rather than reducing consumption or quitting. This reduces the public health benefits of the tax increase. This paper estimates the price reductions for a wide-range of strategies, compensating for overlapping strategies. We performed regression analysis on the 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=13,394) to explore price reductions that smokers in the United States obtained from purchasing cigarettes. We examined five cigarette price minimization strategies: 1) purchasing discount brand cigarettes, 2) using price promotions, 3) purchasing cartons, 4) purchasing on Indian reservations, and 5) purchasing online. Price reductions from these strategies were estimated jointly to compensate for overlapping strategies. Each strategy provided price reductions between 26 and 99cents per pack. Combined price reductions were possible. Additionally, price promotions were used with regular brands to obtain larger price reductions than when price promotions were used with generic brands. Smokers can realize large price reductions from price minimization strategies, and there are many strategies available. Policymakers and public health officials should be aware of the extent that these strategies can reduce cigarette prices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Dividend Policy and Price Volatility. Empirical Evidence from Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Imad Zeyad Ramadan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the dividend policy on the share price volatility for the Jordanian industrial firms. All the 77 Jordanian industrial firms listed at Amman Stock Exchange for twelve years from 2000 to 2011 have been selected. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and a cross-sectional time series multiple least square regression method have been used to present data analysis, test hypotheses, and achieve the objective of the study. The experientia...

  20. Estimated effect of alcohol pricing policies on health and health economic outcomes in England: an epidemiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purshouse, Robin C; Meier, Petra S; Brennan, Alan; Taylor, Karl B; Rafia, Rachid

    2010-04-17

    Although pricing policies for alcohol are known to be effective, little is known about how specific interventions affect health-care costs and health-related quality-of-life outcomes for different types of drinkers. We assessed effects of alcohol pricing and promotion policy options in various population subgroups. We built an epidemiological mathematical model to appraise 18 pricing policies, with English data from the Expenditure and Food Survey and the General Household Survey for average and peak alcohol consumption. We used results from econometric analyses (256 own-price and cross-price elasticity estimates) to estimate effects of policies on alcohol consumption. We applied risk functions from systemic reviews and meta-analyses, or derived from attributable fractions, to model the effect of consumption changes on mortality and disease prevalence for 47 illnesses. General price increases were effective for reduction of consumption, health-care costs, and health-related quality of life losses in all population subgroups. Minimum pricing policies can maintain this level of effectiveness for harmful drinkers while reducing effects on consumer spending for moderate drinkers. Total bans of supermarket and off-license discounting are effective but banning only large discounts has little effect. Young adult drinkers aged 18-24 years are especially affected by policies that raise prices in pubs and bars. Minimum pricing policies and discounting restrictions might warrant further consideration because both strategies are estimated to reduce alcohol consumption, and related health harms and costs, with drinker spending increases targeting those who incur most harm. Policy Research Programme, UK Department of Health. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monetary Policy and Financial Asset Prices: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Umer Chhapra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monetary transmission mechanism assumed to be significantly influenced by the effect of policy decisions on financial markets. However, various previous studies have come up with different outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of monetary policy on different asset classes (shares and bonds in Pakistan. This study using stock price and bond yield as dependent variable and discount rate, money supply, inflation, and exchange rate are independent variables. Data of all variables have collected from 2010 to 2016, and Vector Autoregressive (VAR technique has applied. The empirical results indicate that there is an impact of monetary policy components on both stock and bond market as an increase in policy rate causes decline in stocks prices and bonds yields. The findings of this study will help the potential investors in making long-term (in general and short-term (in particular investment strategies concerning monetary policy.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.7099

  2. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Nurwidya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.

  3. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  4. Nodal price volatility reduction and reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, L.; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    With the development of restructured power systems, the conventional 'same for all customers' electricity price is getting replaced by nodal prices. Electricity prices will fluctuate with time and nodes. In restructured power systems, electricity demands will interact mutually with prices. Customers may shift some of their electricity consumption from time slots of high electricity prices to those of low electricity prices if there is a commensurate price incentive. The demand side load shift will influence nodal prices in return. This interaction between demand and price can be depicted using demand-price elasticity. This paper proposes an evaluation technique incorporating the impact of the demand-price elasticity on nodal prices, system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. In this technique, demand and price correlations are represented using the demand-price elasticity matrix which consists of self/cross-elasticity coefficients. Nodal prices are determined using optimal power flow (OPF). The OPF and customer damage functions (CDFs) are combined in the proposed reliability evaluation technique to assess the reliability enhancement of restructured power systems considering demand-price elasticity. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is simulated to illustrate the developed techniques. The simulation results show that demand-price elasticity reduces the nodal price volatility and improves both the system reliability and nodal reliabilities of restructured power systems. Demand-price elasticity can therefore be utilized as a possible efficient tool to reduce price volatility and to enhance the reliability of restructured power systems. (author)

  5. Are Alcohol Taxation and Pricing Policies Regressive? Product-Level Effects of a Specific Tax and a Minimum Unit Price for Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian; Sharma, Anurag

    2016-07-01

    To compare estimated effects of two policy alternatives, (i) a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol and (ii) specific (per-unit) taxation, upon current product prices, per capita spending (A$), and per capita consumption by income quintile, consumption quintile and product type. Estimation of baseline spending and consumption, and modelling policy-to-price and price-to-consumption effects of policy changes using scanner data from a panel of demographically representative Australian households that includes product-level details of their off-trade alcohol spending (n = 885; total observations = 12,505). Robustness checks include alternative price elasticities, tax rates, minimum price thresholds and tax pass-through rates. Current alcohol taxes and alternative taxation and pricing policies are not highly regressive. Any regressive effects are small and concentrated among heavy consumers. The lowest-income consumers currently spend a larger proportion of income (2.3%) on alcohol taxes than the highest-income consumers (0.3%), but the mean amount is small in magnitude [A$5.50 per week (95%CI: 5.18-5.88)]. Both a MUP and specific taxation will have some regressive effects, but the effects are limited, as they are greatest for the heaviest consumers, irrespective of income. Among the policy alternatives, a MUP is more effective in reducing consumption than specific taxation, especially for consumers in the lowest-income quintile: an estimated mean per capita reduction of 11.9 standard drinks per week (95%CI: 11.3-12.6). Policies that increase the cost of the cheapest alcohol can be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, without having highly regressive effects. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of CO2 emissions by influencing fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Zbinden, R.; Haan, P.; Gruetter, J.; Ott, W.

    2002-01-01

    The CO 2 law stipulates quantitative targets for CO 2 emissions (reductions of 10% by 2010 compared with 1990, 15% for heating fuels, 8% for motor fuels). For motor fuels, it is currently estimated that the target will be missed by about 15%, or 2 to 2.5 million tonnes of CO 2 . In order to reach the targets, therefore, all measures that can be taken to reduce emissions are to be checked out and, where sensible and possible, implemented too. The subject of this study is the preferential treatment of diesel, natural gas, liquefied gas and bio-fuels as far as taxation is concerned, with compensation of tax losses on the petrol side. Also, the possibilities for promoting energy-efficient cars are looked at. The reduction of the price for diesel (at least 25 Swiss cents when compensated for via the petrol price) is considered to be unsuitable for reaching the targets because, in the final analysis, fuel sales - the determining factor for the CO 2 emissions that are charged to Switzerland - will increase instead of decreasing. Also, reservations are expressed from the environmental point of view (increased NO x emissions and, in particular, emissions of particulate matter). The modified measure proposed (fixed difference between the prices for petrol and diesel of 25 Swiss cents, for example) is looked at less critically, because it does actually lead to a reduction of CO 2 , even if only a modest one (approx. 10% of the gap to be bridged). On the environmental side, the same reservations apply. Bonus-malus systems, on the other hand, permit a selective choice of the objects of promotion (efficient and, possibly, low-emission vehicles), avoid the unjust preferential treatment of goods traffic and can be implemented without disturbing international price structures (fuel tourism). A bonus-malus system applied at purchase (e.g. different levels of car taxation) is considered to be more efficient than a differentiation in vehicle (road) tax. The promotion of gas is a

  7. Ordering Cost Reduction in Inventory Model with Defective Items and Backorder Price Discount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppuchamy Annadurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real market, as unsatisfied demands occur, the longer the length of lead time is, the smaller the proportion of backorder would be. In order to make up for the inconvenience and even the losses of royal and patient customers, the supplier may offer a backorder price discount to secure orders during the shortage period. Also, ordering policies determined by conventional inventory models may be inappropriate for the situation in which an arrival lot contains some defective items. To compensate for the inconvenience of backordering and to secure orders, the supplier may offer a price discount on the stockout item. The purpose of this study is to explore a coordinated inventory model including defective arrivals by allowing the backorder price discount and ordering cost as decision variables. There are two inventory models proposed in this paper, one with normally distributed demand and another with distribution free demand. A computer code using the software Matlab 7.0 is developed to find the optimal solution and present numerical examples to illustrate the models. The results in the numerical examples indicate that the savings of the total cost are realized through ordering cost reduction and backorder price discount.

  8. Effects of pricing policy in traffic and transport. Overview of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geilenkirchen, G.P.; Geurs, K.; Van Essen, H.P.; Schroten, A.; Boon, B.

    2010-05-01

    Pricing policies play an important role in transport policy making. The results of pricing policy studies, however, are often debated. This report presents a literature overview of the price sensitivities of transport demand and the effects of transport pricing policies in passenger transport, freight transport and aviation. The study concludes that the demand for passenger and freight transport is typically inelastic; the relative price change is greater than the resulting change in transport demand. Fuel demand for cars, public transport demand and air travel demand are, however, relatively sensitive to price changes. Car use is relatively insensitive to price changes. The demand for road freight is, in contrast to what is often assumed, relatively sensitive to changes in total transport costs. Relatively little empirical evidence is available on the impacts of pricing policies on rail freight transport, shipping and aviation. [nl

  9. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON RELATIVE PRICE VARIABILITY OF FOOD CROPS AND INFLATION IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeoluwa Akin Babalola

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prices of food crops in Nigeria tend to exhibit similar trend with inflation. The study therefore established quantitatively relationships among agricultural policy, relative price variability (RPV of food crops and inflation in Nigeria. Data for the study includes annual producer prices (nominal and output of food crops and annual inflation rate obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Nigerian Bureau of Statistics, Food and Agricultural Organisation and Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research covering the period of 1970-2009. Analytical tools used were RPV index and Error Correction Method (ECM. The results showed that the variables are stationary at their levels. As inflation increases, RPV of food crops also increases both in short run (0.0002 and the long run (0.0310. Civilian Post-Structural Adjustment Period Policies (CPSAP caused a significant reduction in inflation and consequently reduced the   RPV of food crops in the long run. There is a need for policies that will buffer the food crop sub-sector from the effects of inflation. Policies that reduce the rate of inflation and minimise RPV among food crops are needed. Effective management of inefficiencies and misallocation of resources in the sub-sector should be explored.

  10. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  11. The role of revenue use in the acceptability of transport pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuitema, Geertje; Steg, Linda

    Generally, pricing policies are believed to be effective in reducing problems of massive car use. However, pricing policies are not easily implemented, as they are hardly acceptable to the public. Studies indicate that revenue allocation is important for the acceptability of transport pricing.

  12. Oil price volatility, financial regulation and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2009, the French Ministry of Economy asked the author to chair a work group on oil price volatility. The report resulting from that work was submitted to the minister on February 9, 2010. Based on the report, this article focuses on three major elements: (i) the operation of the oil market, with interacting physical basics and financial basics (ii) financial market regulation, more specifically commodities-derived product markets and current work in that area and (iii) the lessons one can draw from that exercise in terms of energy policy. Significant projects have been initiated on global, European and national levels. (author)

  13. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  14. Optimal ordering and pricing policy for price sensitive stock–dependent demand under progressive payment scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita H. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The terminal condition of inventory level to be zero at the end of the cycle time adopted by Soni and Shah (2008, 2009 is not viable when demand is stock-dependent. To rectify this assumption, we extend their model for (1 an ending – inventory to be non-zero; (2 limited floor space; (3 a profit maximization model; (4 selling price to be a decision variable, and (5 units in inventory deteriorate at a constant rate. The algorithm is developed to search for the optimal decision policy. The working of the proposed model is supported with a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate critical parameters.

  15. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  16. Pharmaceutical pricing policy in Greece: towards a different path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Affordable, accessible and innovation-promoting pharmaceutical care is essential to the operation of a sustainable health system. External reference pricing (ERP, a common pharmaceutical policy in Europe, suffers today from indigenous weaknesses that may cause market distortions and barriers to care, burdening mostly the weak economies, and hence, raising ethical and political worrying. Objectives and Methods: A non-randomized experiment was conducted, in order to examine the influence of flexible and adaptable to health systems’ affordability ERP structures. Outcomes were assessed by measuring deviations from Greek prices’ level ex ante, as well as effects on pharmaceutical markets affiliated to the European ERP system. Results and Conclusions: Pharmaceutical pricing models that fit prices to income and affordability are better in all aspects, as they produce fairer results, while resulting in low external costs for the European ERP network as a whole. Small sets of reference countries are preferred to large baskets, as they produce similar results, while presenting better qualities by increasing the flexibility of the reimbursement system and the transparency of the market.

  17. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.5 - By what authority is the pricing policy in this part prescribed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pricing policy in this part prescribed? 102-85.5 Section 102-85.5 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.5 By what authority is the pricing policy in this part prescribed? (a) General authority is granted in the Federal Property and...

  19. The effect of the implementation of low price medicine policy on medicine price in China: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaodong; Yang, Mingchun; Man, Chunxia; Tian, Ye; Shi, Luwen

    2018-04-30

    In an effort to relieve the pressure of drug shortages, the Chinese government implemented Low-price Medicines (LPM) policy to raise the price cap in July 2014. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the implementation of this policy on drug price in China. Price data of 491 LPM, including 218 low-price chemical medicines (LPCM) and 273 low-price traditional Chinese medicines (LPTCM), were collected from 699 hospitals. We used interrupted time series design to identify the variation of monthly Laspeyres Indexes (LI) and Paasche Indexes (PI) for LPM, LPCM, and LPTCM. The result demonstrated that although LPM expenditures increased, the proportion of LPM expenditures accounting for all medicine expenditures fell from 3.6% to 3.2%. After the implementation of LPM policy, there was a significant increasing trend in LPM-PI, LPCM-PI, and LPTCM-PI. The trend in LPM-LI and LPCM-LI was found from descending to rising. However, for LPTCM, the trend in the LI remained to decrease after the policy implementation. Despite the LPM policy had an increasing impact on the LPM drug price, the proportion of LPM expenditures accounting for all medicine expenditures did not increase. More efforts are needed in the future to promote the rational drug use in China. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. New Drug Reimbursement and Pricing Policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gau-Tzu; Chang, Shu-Chen; Chang, Chee-Jen

    2018-05-01

    Taiwan has implemented a national health insurance system for more than 20 years now. The benefits of pharmaceutical products and new drug reimbursement scheme are determined by the Expert Advisory Meeting and the Pharmaceutical Benefit and Reimbursement Scheme (PBRS) Joint Committee in Taiwan. To depict the pharmaceutical benefits and reimbursement scheme for new drugs and the role of health technology assessment (HTA) in drug policy in Taiwan. All data were collected from the Expert Advisory Meeting and the PBRS meeting minutes; new drug applications with HTA reports were derived from the National Health Insurance Administration Web site. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the timeline of a new drug from application submission to reimbursement effective, the distribution of approved price, and the approval rate for a new drug with/without local pharmacoeconomic study. After the second-generation national health insurance system, the timeline for a new drug from submission to reimbursement effective averages at 436 days, and that for an oncology drug reaches an average of 742 days. New drug approval rate is 67% and the effective rate (through the approval of the PBRS Joint Committee and the acceptance of the manufacturer) is 53%. The final approved price is 53.6% of the international median price and 70% of the proposed price by the manufacturer. Out of 95 HTA reports released during the period January 2011 to February 2017, 28 applications (30%) conducted an HTA with a local pharmacoeconomic study, and all (100%) received reimbursement approval. For the remaining 67 applications (70%) for which HTA was conducted without a local pharmacoeconomic analysis, 54 cases (81%) were reimbursed. New drug applications with local pharmacoeconomic studies are more likely to get reimbursement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Green Power voluntary purchases: Price elasticity and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewton, Ross T.; Cacho, Oscar J.

    2011-01-01

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of ±68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales.

  2. Green Power voluntary purchases: Price elasticity and policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewton, Ross T., E-mail: rtmewton@hotmail.co [University of New England (Australia); Cacho, Oscar J. [School of Business Economics and Public Policy, School of Economics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of {+-}68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales.

  3. Green Power voluntary purchases. Price elasticity and policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewton, Ross T. [University of New England (Australia); Cacho, Oscar J. [School of Business Economics and Public Policy, School of Economics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia)

    2011-01-15

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of {+-}68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales. (author)

  4. Excessive price reduction and extreme volatility in wind dominant electricity markets; solutions and emerging challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Chen, Zhe; Mousavi, Omid Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    High intermittency in the nature of wind power emphasize conceptual revising in the mechanisms of electricity markets with high wind power penetration levels. This paper introduces overmuch price reduction and high price volatility as two adverse consequences in future wind dominant electricity...... is developed. The paper indicates discriminatory pricing approach can be beneficial in high penetration of wind power because it alleviates high price variations and spikiness in one hand and prevents overmuch price reduction in wind dominant electricity markets on the other hand....... markets. While high price volatility imposes elevated risk levels for both electricity suppliers and consumers, excessive price reduction of electricity is a disincentive for investment in new generation capacity and might jeopardizes system adequacy in long term. A comparative study between marginal...

  5. Electricity pricing policy: A neo-institutional, developmental and cross-national policy design map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sridarshan Umesh

    This dissertation explores the role of ideas and ideology in the mental policy design maps of regulators in the US and in India. The research approach is to describe the regulatory design process in the history of the US electric industry from a neo-institutional and developmental perspective. And then to use the insights of such a study to suggest policy options to a sample of Indian experts. A regulatory process model explores the interactions among normative values, regulatory instruments and historical phases in policy design. A spectrum of seven regulatory instruments--subsidized rates, average cost pricing, marginal cost pricing, time-of-use pricing, ramsey pricing, incentive regulation and spot pricing is examined. A neo-institutional perspective characterizes the process of institutionalizing these regulatory instruments as a design process that infuses them with values beyond mere technical requirements. The process model includes normative values such as efficiency, fairness, free choice and political feasibility. These values arise from an analytical classification of various market metaphors debated in the history of economic thought. The theory of development and co-evolution applied to the history of electricity regulation yields a typology of evolutionary phases in the US. The typology describes hierarchically emergent relationships between supply and demand and among the normative values. The theory hypothesizes technologically contingent relationships between pricing policies and normative values in the historical phases of dependence (or rural), independence (or urban) and interdependence (or informational). The contents of this model are represented as related elements in a policy design map that simplifies the process of designing regulatory instruments in the US. This neo-institutional, developmental policy design map was used to design a survey instrument. The survey was conducted among electricity experts in India to test the hypothesized

  6. Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra S Meier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO "best buy" intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol taxation and pricing strategies differ in their impact on health inequalities.An econometric epidemiological model was built with England 2014/2015 as the setting. Four pricing strategies implemented on top of the current tax were equalised to give the same 4.3% population-wide reduction in total alcohol-related mortality: current tax increase, a 13.4% all-product duty increase under the current UK system; a value-based tax, a 4.0% ad valorem tax based on product price; a strength-based tax, a volumetric tax of £0.22 per UK alcohol unit (= 8 g of ethanol; and minimum unit pricing, a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per unit, below which alcohol cannot be sold. Model inputs were calculated by combining data from representative household surveys on alcohol purchasing and consumption, administrative and healthcare data on 43 alcohol-attributable diseases, and published price elasticities and relative risk functions. Outcomes were annual per capita consumption, consumer spending, and alcohol-related deaths. Uncertainty was assessed via partial probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA and scenario analysis. The pricing strategies differ as to how effects are distributed across the population, and, from a public health perspective, heavy drinkers in routine/manual occupations are a key group as they are at greatest risk of health harm from their drinking. Strength-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have greater effects on mortality among drinkers in routine/manual occupations (particularly for heavy drinkers, where the estimated policy effects on mortality rates are as

  7. Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra S.; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Ally, Abdallah K.; Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO “best buy” intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol taxation and pricing strategies differ in their impact on health inequalities. Methods and Findings An econometric epidemiological model was built with England 2014/2015 as the setting. Four pricing strategies implemented on top of the current tax were equalised to give the same 4.3% population-wide reduction in total alcohol-related mortality: current tax increase, a 13.4% all-product duty increase under the current UK system; a value-based tax, a 4.0% ad valorem tax based on product price; a strength-based tax, a volumetric tax of £0.22 per UK alcohol unit (= 8 g of ethanol); and minimum unit pricing, a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per unit, below which alcohol cannot be sold. Model inputs were calculated by combining data from representative household surveys on alcohol purchasing and consumption, administrative and healthcare data on 43 alcohol-attributable diseases, and published price elasticities and relative risk functions. Outcomes were annual per capita consumption, consumer spending, and alcohol-related deaths. Uncertainty was assessed via partial probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and scenario analysis. The pricing strategies differ as to how effects are distributed across the population, and, from a public health perspective, heavy drinkers in routine/manual occupations are a key group as they are at greatest risk of health harm from their drinking. Strength-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have greater effects on mortality among drinkers in routine/manual occupations (particularly for heavy drinkers, where the estimated policy effects on

  8. Estimated Effects of Different Alcohol Taxation and Price Policies on Health Inequalities: A Mathematical Modelling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra S; Holmes, John; Angus, Colin; Ally, Abdallah K; Meng, Yang; Brennan, Alan

    2016-02-01

    While evidence that alcohol pricing policies reduce alcohol-related health harm is robust, and alcohol taxation increases are a WHO "best buy" intervention, there is a lack of research comparing the scale and distribution across society of health impacts arising from alternative tax and price policy options. The aim of this study is to test whether four common alcohol taxation and pricing strategies differ in their impact on health inequalities. An econometric epidemiological model was built with England 2014/2015 as the setting. Four pricing strategies implemented on top of the current tax were equalised to give the same 4.3% population-wide reduction in total alcohol-related mortality: current tax increase, a 13.4% all-product duty increase under the current UK system; a value-based tax, a 4.0% ad valorem tax based on product price; a strength-based tax, a volumetric tax of £0.22 per UK alcohol unit (= 8 g of ethanol); and minimum unit pricing, a minimum price threshold of £0.50 per unit, below which alcohol cannot be sold. Model inputs were calculated by combining data from representative household surveys on alcohol purchasing and consumption, administrative and healthcare data on 43 alcohol-attributable diseases, and published price elasticities and relative risk functions. Outcomes were annual per capita consumption, consumer spending, and alcohol-related deaths. Uncertainty was assessed via partial probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and scenario analysis. The pricing strategies differ as to how effects are distributed across the population, and, from a public health perspective, heavy drinkers in routine/manual occupations are a key group as they are at greatest risk of health harm from their drinking. Strength-based taxation and minimum unit pricing would have greater effects on mortality among drinkers in routine/manual occupations (particularly for heavy drinkers, where the estimated policy effects on mortality rates are as follows: current tax

  9. Climate policies between carbon prices, oil rents and urban dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, H.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of constraints imposed on economic interactions by limitations due to natural resources, among which oil and urban land play a crucial role in the context of climate change. These dimensions, often neglected in existing analyses, have an ambiguous effect since they suggest both the risk of enhanced costs if carbon limitations reinforce the sub-optimalities caused by pre-existing constraints, but also, conversely, the possibility of co-benefits if the climate policy helps to correct some pre-existing imperfections of socio-economic trajectories. To investigate this issue, an innovative modeling framework of the energy-economy interactions is elaborated that embarks the specificities of the deployment of oil production capacities and the issues related to the spatial organization in urban areas. We demonstrate that, beyond the carbon price, the costs of climate policy essentially depend on the sequencing of complementary measures, with a crucial role of spatial policy designed to control transport-related emissions through mobility. (author)

  10. Social cost of carbon pricing of power sector CO2: accounting for leakage and other social implications from subnational policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline, John E.; Rose, Steven K.

    2018-01-01

    In environments where climate policy has partial coverage or unequal participation, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or economic activity may shift to locations and sectors where emissions are unregulated. This is referred to as leakage. Leakage can offset or augment emissions reductions associated with a policy, which has important environmental and economic implications. Although leakage has been studied at national levels, analysis of leakage for subnational policies is limited. This is despite greater market integration and many existing state and regional environmental regulations in the US. This study explores leakage potential, net emissions changes, and other social implications in the US energy system with regionally differentiated pricing of power sector CO2 emissions. We undertake an economic analysis using EPRI’s US-REGEN model, where power sector CO2 emissions are priced in individual US regions with a range of social cost of carbon (SCC) values. SCC estimates are being considered by policy-makers for valuing potential societal damages from CO2 emissions. In this study, we evaluate the emissions implications within the SCC pricing region, within the power sector outside the SCC region, and outside the power sector (i.e. in the rest of the energy system). Results indicate that CO2 leakage is possible within and outside the electric sector, ranging from negative 70% to over 80% in our scenarios, with primarily positive leakage outcomes. Typically ignored in policy analysis, leakage would affect CO2 reduction benefits. We also observe other potential societal effects within and across regions, such as higher electricity prices, changes in power sector investments, and overall consumption losses. Efforts to reduce leakage, such as constraining power imports into the SCC pricing region likely reduce leakage, but could also result in lower net emissions reductions, as well as larger price increases. Thus, it is important to look beyond leakage and consider a

  11. Biofuel policies and the impact of developing countries' policy responses to the 2007-2008 food price boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de Harry; Drabik, D.

    2016-01-01

    Economists have been unanimous that developing countries’ policy responses to high food grain prices in 2007–2008 in restricting exports and promoting imports increased both world food grain price levels and volatility. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the self-defeating aspects of policy

  12. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation: A Public Health Policy Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A

    2017-05-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar "tax" on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of "empty" calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)-sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources-is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new source of

  13. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio; Del Rio, Pablo; Jorge-Garcia, Marta; Burguillo, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  14. Price and income elasticities of demand for passenger transport fuels in Spain. Implications for public policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Jordan, Desiderio [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz, 26-28, Madrid 28037 (Spain); Jorge-Garcia, Marta [Universidad de Leon (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    The significant increase in passenger transport activity (cars) experienced by Spain and its associated increase in energy consumption have several associated negative aspects, including a greater dependence on foreign energy sources and higher GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing the level of transport activity would bring important socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The aim of this paper, which focuses on energy consumption in the passenger transport, is fourfold: (1) to provide a diagnostic of energy consumption in the Spanish passenger transport system and the related problems; (2) to develop a model to calculate price and income elasticities of demand for transport fuel; (3) to apply this model to the Spanish passenger transport sector; (4) to infer policy recommendations derived from the results of the diagnostic and the model. It is claimed that, in view of those low price elasticities and high income elasticities and if a reduction in the scale of transport activity is deemed socially desirable, a combination of instruments is necessary. Fuel taxes play an important role within this combination. Apart from their long-term effects, the low price elasticity of demand for transport fuel would allow the collection of a significant amount of revenues, which could eventually be earmarked to encourage reductions in private transport demand and modal shifts with other instruments. (author)

  15. Optimal pricing policies for services with consideration of facility maintenance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ruey Huei; Lin, Yi-Fang

    2012-06-01

    For survival and success, pricing is an essential issue for service firms. This article deals with the pricing strategies for services with substantial facility maintenance costs. For this purpose, a mathematical framework that incorporates service demand and facility deterioration is proposed to address the problem. The facility and customers constitute a service system driven by Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. A service demand with increasing price elasticity and a facility lifetime with strictly increasing failure rate are also adopted in modelling. By examining the bidirectional relationship between customer demand and facility deterioration in the profit model, the pricing policies of the service are investigated. Then analytical conditions of customer demand and facility lifetime are derived to achieve a unique optimal pricing policy. The comparative statics properties of the optimal policy are also explored. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effects of parameter variations on the optimal pricing policy.

  16. Establishment of Grain Farmers' Supply Response Model and Empirical Analysis under Minimum Grain Purchase Price Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang

    2012-01-01

    Based on farmers' supply behavior theory and price expectations theory, this paper establishes grain farmers' supply response model of two major grain varieties (early indica rice and mixed wheat) in the major producing areas, to test whether the minimum grain purchase price policy can have price-oriented effect on grain production and supply in the major producing areas. Empirical analysis shows that the minimum purchase price published annually by the government has significant positive imp...

  17. Incorporating traveler response to pricing policies in comprehensive activity-based models of transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khademi, E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of studies and continued policy interest in road pricing strategies and technologies represent new challenges to transportation researchers in their attempt to better understand and predict the impact of various pricing strategies on travel behavior. We contend that these policies

  18. [Policies encouraging price competition in the generic drug market: Lessons from the European experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    To describe alternative policies aimed at encouraging price competition in generic drug markets in countries with strict price regulation, and to present some case studies drawn from the European experience. Systematic literature review of articles and technical reports published after 1999. The shortcomings in consumer price competition observed in some European generic markets, including Spain, may be reduced through three types of public reimbursement or financing reforms: policies aimed at improving the design of current maximum reimbursement level policies; policies aimed at monitoring competitive prices in order to reimburse real acquisition cost to pharmacies; and, more radical and market-oriented policies such as competitive tendering of public drug purchases. The experience of recent reforms adopted in Germany, Belgium, Holland, Norway, and Sweden offers a useful guide for highly price-regulated European countries, such as Spain, currently characterized by limited consumer price competition and the high discounts offered to pharmacy purchases. Direct price regulation and/or the generic reference pricing systems used to reduce generic drug prices in many European countries can be successfully reformed by adopting measures more closely aimed at encouraging consumer price competition in generic drug markets. Copyright 2009 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Regionally-varying and regionally-uniform electricity pricing policies compared across four usage categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Taeyoung; Kim, Hyun Jae; Park, Kihyun; Roberts, Roland K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our research is to predict how electricity demand varies spatially between status quo regionally-uniform electricity pricing and hypothetical regionally-varying electricity pricing across usage categories. We summarize the empirical results of a case study of electricity demand in South Korea with three key findings and their related implications. First, the price elasticities of electricity demand differ across usage categories. Specifically, electricity demands for manufacturing and retail uses are price inelastic and close to unit elastic, respectively, while those for agricultural and residential uses are not statistically significant. This information is important in designing energy policy, because higher electricity prices could reduce electricity demands for manufacturing and retail uses, resulting in slower growth in those sectors. Second, spatial spillovers in electricity demand vary across uses. Understanding the spatial structure of electricity demand provides useful information to energy policy makers for anticipating changes in demand across regions via regionally-varying electricity pricing for different uses. Third, simulation results suggest that spatial variations among electricity demands by usage category under a regionally-varying electricity-pricing policy differ from those under a regionally-uniform electricity-pricing policy. Differences in spatial changes between the policies provide information for developing a realistic regionally-varying electricity-pricing policy according to usage category. - Highlights: • We compare regionally-varying and regionally-uniform electricity pricing policies. • We summarize empirical results of a case study of electricity demand in South Korea. • We confirm that spatial spillovers in electricity demands vary across different uses. • We find positive spatial spillovers in the manufacturing and residential sectors. • Our methods help policy makers evaluate regionally-varying pricing

  20. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Hasenclever, Lia; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement), 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership). CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation. PMID:26759969

  1. Strategies for price reduction of HIV medicines under a monopoly situation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Costa Chaves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze Government strategies for reducing prices of antiretroviral medicines for HIV in Brazil. METHODS Analysis of Ministry of Health purchases of antiretroviral medicines, from 2005 to 2013. Expenditures and costs of the treatment per year were analyzed and compared to international prices of atazanavir. Price reductions were estimated based on the terms of a voluntary license of patent rights and technology transfer in the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement for atazanavir. RESULTS Atazanavir, a patented medicine, represented a significant share of the expenditures on antiretrovirals purchased from the private sector. Prices in Brazil were higher than international references, and no evidence was found of a relationship between purchase volume and price paid by the Ministry of Health. Concerning the latest strategy to reduce prices, involving local production of the 200 mg capsule, the price reduction was greater than the estimated reduction. As for the 300 mg capsule, the amounts paid in the first two years after the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement were close to the estimated values. Prices in nominal values for both dosage forms remained virtually constant between 2011 (the signature of the Partnership for Productive Development Agreement, 2012 and 2013 (after the establishment of the Partnership. CONCLUSIONS Price reduction of medicines is complex in limited-competition environments. The use of a Partnership for Productive Development Agreement as a strategy to increase the capacity of local production and to reduce prices raises issues regarding its effectiveness in reducing prices and to overcome patent barriers. Investments in research and development that can stimulate technological accumulation should be considered by the Government to strengthen its bargaining power to negotiate medicines prices under a monopoly situation.

  2. Mixed Carbon Policies Based on Cooperation of Carbon Emission Reduction in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established cooperation decision model for a mixed carbon policy of carbon trading-carbon tax (environmental tax in a two-stage S-M supply chain. For three different cooperative abatement situations, we considered the supplier driven model, the manufacturer driven model, and the equilibrium game model. We investigated the influence of mixed carbon policy with constraint of reduction targets on supply chain price, productivity, profits, carbon emissions reduction rate, and so on. The results showed that (1 high-strength carbon policies do not necessarily encourage enterprises to effectively reduce emissions, and increasing market acceptance of low carbon products or raising the price of carbon quota can promote the benign reduction; (2 perfect competitive carbon market has a higher carbon reduction efficiency than oligarch carbon market, but their optimal level of cooperation is the same and the realized reduction rate is in line with the intensity of carbon policy; (3 the policy sensitivity of the carbon trading mechanism is stronger than the carbon tax; “paid quota mechanism” can subsidize the cost of abatement and improve reduction initiative. Finally, we use a numerical example to solve the optimal decisions under different market situations, validating the effectiveness of model and the conclusions.

  3. The Economics of Biofuel Policies. Impacts on Price Volatility in Grain and Oilseed Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de H.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    The global food crises of 2008 and 2010 and the increased price volatility revolve around biofuels policies and their interaction with each other, farm policies and between countries. The Economics of Biofuel Policies focuses on the role of biofuel policies in creating turmoil in the world grains

  4. How Can Pricing and Reimbursement Policies Improve Affordable Access to Medicines? Lessons Learned from European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Paris, Valérie; Ferrario, Alessandra; Wirtz, Veronika J; de Joncheere, Kees; Schneider, Peter; Pedersen, Hanne Bak; Dedet, Guillaume; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din

    2017-06-01

    This article discusses pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in European countries with regard to their ability to ensure affordable access to medicines. A frequently applied pricing policy is external price referencing. While it provides some benchmark for policy-makers and has been shown to be able to generate savings, it may also contribute to delay in product launch in countries where medicine prices are low. Value-based pricing has been proposed as a policy that promotes access while rewarding useful innovation; however, implementing it has proven quite challenging. For high-priced medicines, managed-entry agreements are increasingly used. These agreements allow policy-makers to manage uncertainty and obtain lower prices. They can also facilitate earlier market access in case of limited evidence about added therapeutic value of the medicine. However, these agreements raise transparency concerns due to the confidentiality clause. Tendering as used in the hospital and offpatent outpatient sectors has been proven to reduce medicine prices but it requires a robust framework and appropriate design with clear strategic goals in order to prevent shortages. These pricing and reimbursement policies are supplemented by the widespread use of Health Technology Assessment to inform decision-making, and by strategies to improve the uptake of generics, and also biosimilars. While European countries have been implementing a set of policy options, there is a lack of thorough impact assessments of several pricing and reimbursement policies on affordable access. Increased cooperation between authorities, experience sharing and improving transparency on price information, including the disclosure of confidential discounts, are opportunities to address current challenges.

  5. Asymmetric information and list-price reductions in the housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, E.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2013-01-01

    In housing markets with asymmetric information list prices may signal unobserved properties of the house or the seller. Asymmetric information is the starting point for many models for the housing market. In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of list-price reductions on the time houses remain

  6. 48 CFR 538.272 - MAS price reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maintain during the contract period the negotiated price/discount relationship (and/or term and condition relationship) between the eligible ordering activities and the offeror's customer or category of customers on... customers) that results in a less advantageous relationship between the eligible ordering activities and...

  7. Managing Interactions Between Carbon Pricing and Existing Energy Policies. Guidance for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Christina

    2013-07-01

    Carbon pricing can be a key policy tool to help countries move their energy sectors onto a cleaner development path. One important issue to consider when introducing carbon pricing is how it will integrate with other energy policies that also reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including policies to support low-carbon technologies (such as renewable energy) and energy efficiency programmes. Poor policy integration can undermine energy security and affordability, and affect the performance of renewable energy policies and energy markets. Climate objectives can also be undermined, through low and uncertain carbon prices and the risk of stop-start policy. Understanding how to manage policy interactions can improve the climate and energy policy package, reducing the trade-offs and advancing the synergies between energy and climate objectives. This will benefit the country in terms of a more effective and lower-cost low-carbon development path, as well as supporting a more energy-secure future.

  8. The importance of marginal cost electricity pricing to the success of greenhouse gas reduction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient reduction of GHG emissions requires appropriate retail pricing of off-peak electricity. However, off-peak electricity for residential consumers is priced at 331% above its marginal cost in the United States as a whole (June 2009). Even for the 1% of residences that are on some form of time-of-use (TOU) rate schedule, the off-peak rate is almost three times higher than the marginal cost. A barrier to marginal-cost based TOU rates is that less than 9% of U.S. households have the 'smart' meters in place that can measure and record the time of consumption. Policies should be put in place to achieve full deployment. Another important barrier is consumer concern about TOU rate design. Two TOU rate designs (baseline and two-part tariff) are described that utilize marginal-cost based rates, ensure appropriate cost recovery, and minimize bill changes from current rate structures. A final barrier is to get residences on to these rates. Should a marginal-cost based TOU rate design remain an alternative for which residences could 'opt-in,' or become the default choice, or become mandatory? Time-invariant rates are a historical anachronism that subsidize very costly peak-period consumption and penalize off-peak usage to our environmental detriment. They should be phased out. - Highlights: → Off-peak electricity for residences is priced at 331% above marginal cost in the US. → This inefficiently deters vehicle electrification that could reduce GHG emissions. → 9% of U.S. households have the 'smart' meters necessary for time-of-use rates. → Time-invariant rates cause substantial environmental harm and should be phased out.

  9. Government Pricing Policy and Behavioral Consumption of Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the impact of tobacco tax on government revenues and consumer's behavior towards price increases. In this examines historical trends of tobacco tax hikes in Malaysia and consumer's reaction towards anticipated price increases. Methodology consisted of qualitative and quantitative data collection for triangulation in addition to review reports and studies of governmental and independent agencies. Findings suggest that price increases has a minimal affect on consumption h...

  10. Electricity prices, large-scale renewable integration, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Andersson, Jonas; Serletis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intermittent solar and wind power generation on electricity price formation in Germany. We use daily data from 2010 to 2015, a period with profound modifications in the German electricity market, the most notable being the rapid integration of photovoltaic and wind power sources, as well as the phasing out of nuclear energy. In the context of a GARCH-in-Mean model, we show that both solar and wind power Granger cause electricity prices, that solar power generation reduces the volatility of electricity prices by scaling down the use of peak-load power plants, and that wind power generation increases the volatility of electricity prices by challenging electricity market flexibility. - Highlights: • We model the impact of solar and wind power generation on day-ahead electricity prices. • We discuss the different nature of renewables in relation to market design. • We explore the impact of renewables on the distributional properties of electricity prices. • Solar and wind reduce electricity prices but affect price volatility in the opposite way. • Solar decreases the probability of electricity price spikes, while wind increases it.

  11. Per-pack price reductions available from different cigarette purchasing strategies: United States, 2009–2010☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F.; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Following cigarette excise tax increases, smokers may use cigarette price minimization strategies to continue their usual cigarette consumption rather than reducing consumption or quitting. This reduces the public health benefits of the tax increase. This paper estimates the price reductions for a wide-range of strategies, compensating for overlapping strategies. Method We performed regression analysis on the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N = 13,394) to explore price reductions that smokers in the United States obtained from purchasing cigarettes. We examined five cigarette price minimization strategies: 1) purchasing discount brand cigarettes, 2) using price promotions, 3) purchasing cartons, 4) purchasing on Indian reservations, and 5) purchasing online. Price reductions from these strategies were estimated jointly to compensate for overlapping strategies. Results Each strategy provided price reductions between 26 and 99 cents per pack. Combined price reductions were possible. Additionally, price promotions were used with regular brands to obtain larger price reductions than when price promotions were used with generic brands. Conclusion Smokers can realize large price reductions from price minimization strategies, and there are many strategies available. Policymakers and public health officials should be aware of the extent that these strategies can reduce cigarette prices. PMID:24594102

  12. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  13. Impact of US biofuel policy on US corn and gasoline price variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a large number of studies that examine the influence of biofuels and biofuel policy on commodity prices, the impact of biofuel policy on commodity price variability is poorly understood. A good understanding of biofuel policy’s impact on price variability is important for mitigating food insecurity and assisting policy formation. We examine how U.S. ethanol policies such as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) mandates and the blend wall affect the price variability of corn and gasoline. We first present an analytical and graphical framework to identify the effect and then use stochastic partial equilibrium simulation to measure the magnitude of the impacts. We show that RFS mandates and the blend wall both reduce the price elasticity of demand for corn and gasoline and therefore increase the price variability when supply shocks occur to the markets. This has important implications for policy actions with respect to maintaining or changing the current RFS mandates and/or blend wall in the US. -- Highlights: ► The RFS is found to lead to less elastic demand for corn and gasoline. ► Thus the RFS is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices when supply shocks occur. ► The ethanol blend wall is found to lead to less elastic corn and gasoline demand. ► Thus the blend wall is also found to lead to more volatile corn and gasoline prices.

  14. Estimating the Value of Price Risk Reduction in Energy Efficiency Investments in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuominen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for calculating the value of price risk reduction to a consumer that can be achieved with investments in energy efficiency. The value of price risk reduction is discussed to some length in general terms in the literature reviewed but, so far, no methodology for calculating the value has been presented. Here we suggest such a method. The problem of valuating price risk reduction is approached using a variation of the Black–Scholes model by considering a hypothetical financial instrument that a consumer would purchase to insure herself against unexpected price hikes. This hypothetical instrument is then compared with an actual energy efficiency investment that reaches the same level of price risk reduction. To demonstrate the usability of the method, case examples are calculated for typical single-family houses in Finland. The results show that the price risk entailed in household energy consumption can be reduced by a meaningful amount with energy efficiency investments, and that the monetary value of this reduction can be calculated. It is argued that this often-overlooked benefit of energy efficiency investments merits more consideration in future studies.

  15. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    2017-01-01

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...

  16. Policy implementation lessons from six road pricing cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.; Annema, J.A.; Wee, B. van

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of road pricing has been limited worldwide despite the notion that road pricing is generally considered to be a potentially effective measure to reduce externalities, in particular traffic congestion. By means of a content analysis of 106 scientific papers, this paper aims to

  17. Welfare and distribution effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, distribution and welfare effects of changes in block price systems are evaluated. A method is discussed to determine, for a Marshallian demand function, equivalent variation in case of a block price system. The method is applied to analyze welfare and distribution effects of changing

  18. Impact of the revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food package policy on fruit and vegetable prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Powell, Lisa M; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants' purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of the Revised Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Food Package Policy on Fruit and Vegetable Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Powell, Lisa M.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Krauss, Ramona; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Block, Daniel; Campbell, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is generally inversely related to income among women in the United States. Less access to healthy foods is one way lower income can influence dietary behaviors and body weight. Federal food assistance programs, such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), are an important source of healthy food for low-income populations. In 2009, as part of a nationwide policy revision, WIC added a fruit and vegetable (F/V) voucher to WIC food packages. This quasi-experimental study determined whether F/V prices at stores authorized to accept WIC (ie, WIC vendors) decreased after the policy revision in seven Illinois counties. It also examined cross-sectional F/V price variations by store type and neighborhood characteristics. Two pre-policy observations were conducted in 2008 and 2009; one post-policy observation was conducted in 2010. Small pre- to post-policy reductions in some F/V prices were found, particularly for canned fruit and frozen vegetables at small stores. Compared with chain supermarkets, mass merchandise stores had lower prices for fresh F/V and frozen F/V and small stores and non-chain supermarkets had higher canned and frozen F/V prices, but lower fresh F/V prices. Limited price differences were found across neighborhoods, although canned vegetables were more expensive in neighborhoods with higher concentrations of either Hispanics or blacks and fresh F/V prices were lower in neighborhoods with more Hispanics. Results suggest the WIC policy revision contributed to modest reductions in F/V prices. WIC participants’ purchasing power can differ depending on the type and neighborhood of the WIC vendor used. PMID:24183996

  20. [The aspects of pricing policy in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhalilova, K I; Alieva, K Ia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of macro-, middle- and microeconomic factors on price formation in Azerbaijan pharmaceutical market has been studied. Worldwide pharmaceutical leaders have the goals to become leader on the pharmaceutical market of Azerbaijan and maximize their market share. Non-leaders pharmaceutical companies use different strategies of price formation: prime cost plus markup, or price formation on the base of current prices. It was revealed that domestic pharmaceutical market has high demand elasticity. Future market development is related to stimulation of product development, and hard penetration to the market through realization of price formation strategy. Non-state pharmaceutical organizations to achieve the purpose of survive in conditions of high competition should take in to account the factor perceptions of assortment by customers.

  1. The cocaine and heroin markets in the era of globalisation and drug reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Storti, Cláudia; De Grauwe, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Despite the large volume of public effort devoted to restrain drug supply and the growing attention given to drug demand reduction policies, the use of cocaine and heroin remains steady. Furthermore, retail drug prices have fallen significantly in Europe and the US. This puzzling evidence leads us to develop a model aiming at systematically analysing illicit drug markets. We model the markets of cocaine and heroin from production to the final retail markets. One novelty of the analysis consists in characterising the retail market as a monopolistic competitive one. Then, upper level dealers have some market power in the retail market. This allows them to charge a markup and to earn extra profits. These extra profits attract newcomers so that profits tend to fall over time. Theoretical model was used to analyse the effect of supply containment policies on the retail market, the producer market and the export-import business. This introduces the discussion of the impact of demand reduction policies on the high level traffickers' profit. Finally, globalisation enters in the model. Law enforcement measures increase the risk premia received by the lower and higher level traffickers. Consequently, trafficking intermediation margins tend to increase. However, globalisation has the opposite effect. It lowers intermediation margins and, then, pushes retail prices down, thereby stimulating consumption. In doing so, globalisation offsets the effects of supply containment policies. Finally, we discuss how the effectiveness of supply containment policies can be enhanced by combining them with demand reduction policies.

  2. Monetary Policy and Real Estate Prices: A Disaggregated Analysis for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemann, Michael; Freese, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies found that monetary policy has a significant effect on house prices while stock markets remain unaffected by interest rate shocks. In this paper we conduct a more detailed analysis by studying various sub-segments of the real estate market. Em-ploying a new dataset for Switzerland we estimate vector autoregressive models and find substitution effects between house and apartment prices on the one hand and rental prices on the other. Interestingly enough, commercial prope...

  3. Pricing Policy, Social Equity and Institutional Survival in Tertiary Education in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred M.

    New Jersey aids private institutions but is deficit in low-priced open access to public colleges. Discussed is higher education in New Jersey in light of this historical condition; pricing policy; social equity; decisions, especially regarding institutional support, student aid, and public tuition; and the "free market." While the…

  4. Canada's New Generic Pricing Policy: A Reasoned Approach to a Challenging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Aidan; Grootendorst, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Alberta, quickly followed by other Canadian provinces, has introduced a new pricing model for generic drugs, in which prices are inversely related to the number of generic manufacturers of the drug. This paper examines the rationale for the new policy. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  5. THE POLICY OF PRICES AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN SUBSTANTIATION OF PENETRATION STRATEGY IN NEW MARKET SEGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaciuc Elena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pricing policy aims to determine the price of goods and services sold by the organization. These figures have an impact over the turnover that must be higher to the total expenses for the enterprise to make profits. Therefore, it is important to know the

  6. THE POLICY OF PRICES AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN SUBSTANTIATION OF PENETRATION STRATEGY IN NEW MARKET SEGMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaciuc Elena; Boghean Camen; Danila Morosan Lucia; Boghean Florin

    2009-01-01

    Pricing policy aims to determine the price of goods and services sold by the organization. These figures have an impact over the turnover that must be higher to the total expenses for the enterprise to make profits. Therefore, it is important to know the

  7. The Influence of Price on School Enrollment under Uganda's Policy of Free Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2012-01-01

    This study uses household survey data to estimate determinants of schooling in Uganda, with a model that includes the price of school. Uganda's universal education policy offered free tuition, fees, and supplies to up to four children per family, including two daughters. The empirical method includes an estimation of a child-specific price of…

  8. The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will examine the impact of pricing, taxation, and advertising policies on ... of users vs. non-users and consumption -influence of socio-economic status, gender, ... and limitations of current tax and advertising strategies in the four countries.

  9. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, the number of studies examining the impact of a tobacco tax and price policies in China are few. Given China's current low and inefficient cigarette excise tax, and high cigarette affordability, there is ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  10. Choosing greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demerse, C.; Bramley, M.; Craig, L.

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing consensus in Canada that climate change needs to be addressed through concrete actions. The implementation of specific policies have been impeded by concerns over economic costs. However, uncertainty over the course of policy creates a cost since businesses have little idea how to factor future environmental policies into their planning. This report examined the policy tools that federal and provincial governments have at their disposal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon pricing (through cap-and-trade systems or carbon taxes), regulated standards, subsidies, infrastructure spending, research and development, and voluntary initiatives. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of these policy options, the study assessed them against a set of criteria that included environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, fairness and cost-effectiveness. The report also reviewed the real-world experience with the implementation of these policy options in Canada and internationally. In particular, the report examined carbon pricing mechanisms in detail and explored the best ways to use revenues raised through carbon pricing, and the best options to mitigate any reduced international competitiveness that Canadian industries may encounter. The report concluded with a discussion of areas for further research. It was concluded that climate policy in Canada raises a host of jurisdictional questions that would benefit from further research. 7 tabs., 2 appendices

  11. Pricing Policy in the Presence of Pro-environmental Consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2010-02-01

    In response to the climate change issue, many electric utilities introduce price schemes for inducing their customers to reduce electricity consumption. When a significant fraction of consumers find costly to save electricity, one would expect utilities to 'pay' them to use less electricity. This paper suggests a model that helps to understand why a typical electric utility may rather prefer to price discriminate against its pro-environmental customers, by increasing the price of electricity for these latter. This result holds even when the utility is charged for its greenhouse gas emissions. But in this case the price increase is sufficiently small so as to induce energy saving also from customers who have a positive cost of doing so. (author)

  12. Pricing policy for declining demand using item preservation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedlekar, Uttam Kumar; Shukla, Diwakar; Namdeo, Anubhav

    2016-01-01

    We have designed an inventory model for seasonal products in which deterioration can be controlled by item preservation technology investment. Demand for the product is considered price sensitive and decreases linearly. This study has shown that the profit is a concave function of optimal selling price, replenishment time and preservation cost parameter. We simultaneously determined the optimal selling price of the product, the replenishment cycle and the cost of item preservation technology. Additionally, this study has shown that there exists an optimal selling price and optimal preservation investment to maximize the profit for every business set-up. Finally, the model is illustrated by numerical examples and sensitive analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters.

  13. Policy options for alcohol price regulation: the importance of modelling population heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Petra Sylvia; Purshouse, Robin; Brennan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Context and aims Internationally, the repertoire of alcohol pricing policies has expanded to include targeted taxation, inflation-linked taxation, taxation based on alcohol-by-volume (ABV), minimum pricing policies (general or targeted), bans of below-cost selling and restricting price-based promotions. Policy makers clearly need to consider how options compare in reducing harms at the population level, but are also required to demonstrate proportionality of their actions, which necessitates a detailed understanding of policy effects on different population subgroups. This paper presents selected findings from a policy appraisal for the UK government and discusses the importance of accounting for population heterogeneity in such analyses. Method We have built a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model which takes account of differential preferences by population subgroups defined by age, gender and level of drinking (moderate, hazardous, harmful). We consider purchasing preferences in terms of the types and volumes of alcoholic beverages, prices paid and the balance between bars, clubs and restaurants as opposed to supermarkets and off-licenses. Results Age, sex and level of drinking fundamentally affect beverage preferences, drinking location, prices paid, price sensitivity and tendency to substitute for other beverage types. Pricing policies vary in their impact on different product types, price points and venues, thus having distinctly different effects on subgroups. Because population subgroups also have substantially different risk profiles for harms, policies are differentially effective in reducing health, crime, work-place absence and unemployment harms. Conclusion Policy appraisals must account for population heterogeneity and complexity if resulting interventions are to be well considered, proportionate, effective and cost-effective.

  14. Stock Price Volatility and Role of Dividend Policy: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Akif; Noreen, Umara

    2016-01-01

    Despite years of empirical research, the linkage between dividend policy and stock price volatility remains controversial among the researchers and scholars. This research endeavors to figure out the relationship between stock price volatility and dividend policy of listed companies in Pakistan. A sample of fifty firms, based upon consistent dividend paying behavior, listed on Karachi Stock Exchange has been selected from non-financial sectors, for the period of 2005 to 2012. Multiple regress...

  15. The correlation between dividend policy measures and share price volatility on OMX Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Dividend policy refers to the decision whether a firm decides to distribute some of its earnings as dividends to shareholders or not. Two significant variables are related to it: dividend yield and payout ratio. The former indicates how much a firm pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price, whereas the latter refers to the percentage of earnings paid to shareholders in dividends. Dividend policy is seen as one indicator of share price volatility, which measures the dispersio...

  16. Electricity Prices, Large-Scale Renewable Integration, and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kyritsis, Evangelos; Andersson, Jonas; Serletis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intermittent solar and wind power generation on electricity price formation in Germany. We use daily data from 2010 to 2015, a period with profound modifications in the German electricity market, the most notable being the rapid integration of photovoltaic and wind power sources, as well as the phasing out of nuclear energy. In the context of a GARCH-in-Mean model, we show that both solar and wind power Granger cause electricity prices, that solar power ...

  17. Influence of rising commodity prices on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppo, I.J.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few years we have first witnessed a rapid increase in the prices of commodities and then later, as a consequence of the economic downturn, an even more drastic drop. Simultaneously with the commodity price increase, an increase in the investment costs of power plants was experienced. The rise in material costs was often stated as one of the reasons for this increase. In this study the relationship between commodity costs and energy prices is studied. A bottom-up approach is used for estimating what kind of an impact increased commodity prices alone could be expected to have on the investment costs on the one hand, and how increased energy prices may affect commodity production costs on the other. The results indicate that although the commodity production costs usually have a fairly large energy component, even high increases in commodity prices, and therefore raw material costs of power plant investments, can not explain the recently experienced hikes in power plant investment costs; a doubling of the costs of the main raw material flows could explain an investment cost increase of some 5-10%, depending on the power plant type. This would seem to indicate that other contributing factors, such as bottlenecks in the production of power plant components, may play an important role in the recent investment cost increase

  18. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jung-Hua, E-mail: hwaa@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Lung [Exploration and Development Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan, No. 1, Dayuan, Wenfa Road, Miaoli City, Miaoli County 36042, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chang-Chen [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: > System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. > Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. > Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. > Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. > FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  19. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yi-Lung; Liu, Chang-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: → System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. → Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. → Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. → Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. → FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  20. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  1. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  2. The asymmetric effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks. A nonlinear VAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sajjadur; Serletis, Apostolos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks and monetary policy on macroeconomic activity, using monthly data for the United States, over the period from 1983:1 to 2008:12. In doing so, we use a logistic smooth transition vector autoregression (VAR), as detailed in Terasvirta and Anderson (1992) and Weise (1999), and make a distinction between two oil price volatility regimes (high and low), using the realized oil price volatility as a switching variable. We isolate the effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks and their asymmetry on output growth and, following Koop et al. (1996) and Weise (1999), we employ simulation methods to calculate Generalized Impulse Response Functions (GIRFs) to trace the effects of independent shocks on the conditional means of the variables. Our results suggest that in addition to the price of oil, oil price volatility has an impact on macroeconomic activity and that monetary policy is not only reinforcing the effects of oil price shocks on output, it is also contributing to the asymmetric response of output to oil price shocks. (author)

  3. The asymmetric effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks. A nonlinear VAR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Sajjadur [Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks and monetary policy on macroeconomic activity, using monthly data for the United States, over the period from 1983:1 to 2008:12. In doing so, we use a logistic smooth transition vector autoregression (VAR), as detailed in Terasvirta and Anderson (1992) and Weise (1999), and make a distinction between two oil price volatility regimes (high and low), using the realized oil price volatility as a switching variable. We isolate the effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks and their asymmetry on output growth and, following Koop et al. (1996) and Weise (1999), we employ simulation methods to calculate Generalized Impulse Response Functions (GIRFs) to trace the effects of independent shocks on the conditional means of the variables. Our results suggest that in addition to the price of oil, oil price volatility has an impact on macroeconomic activity and that monetary policy is not only reinforcing the effects of oil price shocks on output, it is also contributing to the asymmetric response of output to oil price shocks. (author)

  4. Alcohol Control and Harm Reduction Policies in Lebanon | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Currently alcohol prices are low (with very low excise taxes) and illegal sales to minors are high. This research project aims to generate ... The results should help to identify an optimum policy approach most likely to influence alcohol consumption behaviours among youth. Project findings will be publicly shared, with the ...

  5. Natural gas pricing policy: the case of the Greek energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caloghirou, Y.; Mourelatos, A.; Papayannakis, L.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of the price of natural gas (NG) is examined in industrial and tertiary residential sectors for European Union (EU) countries. The methodological approach is that of comparative analysis. NG price is seen to be positively correlated to prices of liquid fuels. NG price in the tertiary residential sector is significantly higher than that for the industrial sector for all countries examined. An attempt is undertaken to examine tax policies for NG and liquid fuels. All governments of EU countries have the policy of not applying direct taxes to the NG industrial price. They have also taken measures to support its penetration in the residential tertiary sector by applying lower taxes than those on liquid fuels. (author)

  6. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  7. Smart Environmental Policy with Full-Cost Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Olewiler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s natural capital — its resources, ecosystems and wildlife — are indispensable to the productivity of industry. Despite this, both the public and private sectors have failed to adequately factor in the consequences of production and consumption on the natural environment. There is a growing need for full-cost pricing, a system that adjusts market prices to reflect not only the direct costs of good and services, but also their impact on this country’s natural capital. As this paper argues, the onus is on the federal government to create the conditions for full-cost pricing to succeed. Ottawa needs to eliminate energy subsidies (to producers and consumers, implement full-cost pricing on air contaminants and greenhouse gases and encourage projects at the provincial and municipal levels that adopt that methodology. The benefits include productivity gains; potentially billions in savings for consumers, businesses and governments; a strong environment supporting sustainable industries; and simplified tax systems. In surveying past and existing federal initiatives and missed opportunities in previous budgets, this paper assesses costs and consequences, arguing that a healthy environment is synonymous with a healthy economy, and providing hard data to back up that conviction. With Budget 2012 just around the corner, the time is ripe for the Harper government to introduce full-cost pricing, and guarantee Canada a brighter future.

  8. Does climate policy make the EU economy more resilient to oil price rises? A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnave, Hélène; Pycroft, Jonathan; Saveyn, Bert; Ciscar, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The European Union has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared with 1990 levels. This paper investigates whether this policy has an additional benefit in terms of economic resilience by protecting the EU from the macroeconomic consequences due to an oil price rise. We use the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model to analyse the results of three scenarios. The first one refers to the impact of an increase in the oil price. The second scenario analyses the European climate policy and the third scenario analyses the oil price rise when the European climate policy is implemented. Unilateral EU climate policy implies a cost on the EU of around 1.0% of GDP. An oil price rise in the presence of EU climate policy does imply an additional cost on the EU of 1.5% of GDP (making a total loss of 2.5% of GDP), but this is less than the 2.2% of GDP that the EU would lose from the oil price rise in the absence of climate policy. This is evidence that even unilateral climate policy does offer some economic protection for the EU.

  9. Price and distribution policies in healthcare marketing in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coculescu, B I; Coculescu, E C; Purcărea, V L

    2017-01-01

    There is a principle similar to the theory of exchange in the marketing of health services, meaning that what is delivered to the target market (i.e. the beneficiaries) must be equal to or greater than what is to be received (i.e. the price). The price level in the marketing mix is influenced by how the consumer perceives the respective medical service and is quantified in the profit and the turnover of the organization respectively. The cost of the medical act as a whole is the value of all the tangible and intangible variables associated with it, and the planning, distribution and promotion of the product must be taken into account in the price setting.

  10. Credit Market Distortions, Asset Prices And Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    -side effects limit the size of the policy rate response to inflation that is consistent with determinacy, so that inflation-targeting policies may not be capable of ensuring REE uniqueness. In this case it is advisable to combine policy rate responses to inflation with an appropriate reaction to the output gap...

  11. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  13. Deconstructing Solar Photovoltaic Pricing: The Role of Market Structure, Technology, and Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillingham, Kenneth [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Deng, Hao [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nemet, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) system prices in the United States display considerable heterogeneity both across geographic locations and within a given location. Such heterogeneity may arise due to state and federal policies, differences in market structure, and other factors that influence demand and costs. This paper examines the relative importance of such factors on equilibrium solar PV system prices in the United States using a detailed dataset of roughly 100,000 recent residential and small commercial installations. As expected, we find that PV system prices differ based on characteristics of the systems. More interestingly, we find evidence suggesting that search costs and imperfect competition affect solar PV pricing. Installer density substantially lowers prices, while regions with relatively generous financial incentives for solar PV are associated with higher prices.

  14. State Approaches to Demand Reduction Induced Price Effects: Examining How Energy Efficiency Can Lower Prices for All

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Colin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hedman, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goldberg, Amelie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effects (DRIPE) as a real, quantifiable benefit of energy efficiency and demand response programs. DRIPE is a measurement of the value of demand reductions in terms of the decrease in wholesale energy prices, resulting in lower total expenditures on electricity or natural gas across a given grid. Crucially for policymakers and consumer advocates, DRIPE savings accrue not only to the subset of customers who consume less, but to all consumers. Rate-paying customers realize DRIPE savings when price reductions across an electricity or natural gas system are passed on to all retail customers as lower rates (depending upon regulation and market structure, residual savings may be wholly or partially retained by utilities). DRIPE savings, though seemingly small in terms of percent price reductions or dollars per household, can amount to hundreds of millions of dollars per year across entire states or grids. Therefore, accurately assessing DRIPE benefits can help to ensure appropriate programs are designed and implemented for energy efficiency measures. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience from select U.S. states regarding DRIPE (including New York and Ohio), and the potential for expanded application of the concept of DRIPE by regulators. Policymakers and public utility commissions have a critical role to play in setting the methodology for determining DRIPE, encouraging its capture by utilities, and allocating DRIPE benefits among utilities, various groups of customers, and/or society at large. While the methodologies for estimating DRIPE benefits are still being perfected, policymakers can follow the examples of states such as Maryland and Vermont in including conservative DRIPE estimates in their resource planning.

  15. Beyond excise taxes: a systematic review of literature on non-tax policy approaches to raising tobacco product prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Smith, Margaret Holt; Feighery, Ellen C; Roeseler, April; Rogers, Todd; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-07-01

    Raising the price of tobacco products is considered one of the most effective ways to reduce tobacco use. In addition to excise taxes, governments are exploring other policies to raise tobacco prices and minimise price dispersion, both within and across price tiers. We conducted a systematic review to determine how these policies are described, recommended and evaluated in the literature. We systematically searched six databases and the California Tobacco Control library for English language studies or reports, indexed on or before 18 December 2013, that included a tobacco keyword (eg, cigarette), policy keyword (eg, legislation) and a price keyword (eg, promotion). We identified 3067 abstracts. Two coders independently reviewed all abstracts and identified 56 studies or reports that explicitly described a public policy likely to impact the retail price of tobacco products through non-tax means. Two coders independently identified tobacco products targeted by policies described, recommendations for implementing policies and empirical assessments of policy impacts. The most prevalent non-tax price policies were price promotion restrictions and minimum price laws. Few studies measured the impact of non-tax policies on average prices, price dispersion or disparities in tobacco consumption, but the literature includes suggestions for crafting policies and preparing for legal challenges or tobacco industry opposition. Price-focused evaluations of well-implemented non-tax price policies are needed to determine whether they can deliver on their promise to raise prices, reduce price dispersion and serve as an important complement to excise taxes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  17. Ownership Restrictions, Tax Competition and Transfer Pricing Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaw, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes tax/subsidy competition and transfer pricing regulation between governments involved in trade through a multinational firm and a joint venture using an input provided by the former.The paper takes into account the fact that in absence of bargaining, any model of such JV is

  18. Water Price Reforms in China: Policy-Making and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Following the conviction that economic and pricing approaches are an essential addition to conventional command-and-control environmental regulation, China has gradually increased attention to, research on and experiments with the application of economic instruments in urban water management over

  19. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  20. When should green technology support policies supplement the carbon price? The case of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on optimal policy choice. It studies the use of policy combinations to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from electricity production. One finding applies to cases where uncertainty is such that the risk of a nil carbon price cannot be excluded. A cap on emissions alone may then not trigger enough abatements, justifying the addition of e.g. a renewable subsidy. When considering a transition toward a carbon free electricity sector, capital accumulation causes complex dynamic effects to happen. We find that decisions taken by comparing the leveled costs of abatement technologies, even including carbon costs, would favor intermediate technologies (e.g. gas plants) to the detriment of more-expensive but lower-carbon technologies (renewable power), leading to a suboptimal investment schedule. This thesis also studies the effects of marginal policy changes in a mix comprising the main French instruments. We find that surprisingly, adding a tariff for renewables financed by a tax on electricity consumption to a cap on emissions and a subsidy for energy efficiency will reduce the consumer electricity price when the non-renewable production is fixed and does not depend on the carbon price. The assessment of the French climate policies in the electricity sector shows that overlapping policies for mitigation may be justified by multiple carbon price failures, even if the ideal long-term policy mix depends on the carbon price trajectory. (author)

  1. Pharmaceutical policy analysis – A European perspective on pricing and reimbursement in challenging times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, C.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmaceutical policy environment is dynamic as new medicines are being developed and different medical needs arise, while diverse interests by stakeholders influence policy making. Tensions are especially noticeable with respect to pricing and reimbursement of medicines; what health care plans

  2. Is a Price Increase Policy Enough for Adolescent Smokers?: Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Increasing Cigarette Prices Among Korean Adolescent Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Hong-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Do; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Jang, Sung-In; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette pricing policy is one tool for controlling smoking behavior on a national scale. It is unclear, however, what effects such policy has on adolescents and which characteristic subgroups of adolescents are more or less sensitive to cigarette pricing policy. Our data came from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The dependent variable was whether or not a participant was classified as a "persistent smokers," defined as a smoker who would continue smoking despite any price increase. Other variables of interest were smoking days (quantity), previous attempts to stop smoking, and previous education on smoking cessation. The statistical analysis was performed using weighted data and the SURVEYFREQ and SURVEYLOGISTIC procedures in SAS 9.3. Among 7094 adolescent smokers (5349 males and 1745 females), 19.9% of males and 25.1% of females reported as persistent smokers. Compared with light smokers, heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers (male: odds ratio [OR] = 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04-2.95, P value policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional cessation policy is needed along with pricing policy for adolescents with heavier smoking behavior in Korea. This study shows that heavy smokers are more likely to be persistent smokers despite the cigarette price increase policy, compared with light smokers in Korean adolescents. Because heavier smokers were less sensitive to pricing policy than mild smokers, pricing policy alone is not enough to reduce the societal burden caused by smoking. We suggest that additional tobacco control policies should be evaluated and effective ones implemented in addition to cigarette prices to reduce smoking among regular adolescent smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  3. Domestic policy responses to the food price crisis: The case of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Grethe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In face of the global food crisis of 2007–2008, severe concerns arose about how developing countries would be affected by the extreme short-term fluctuations in international commodity prices. We examine the effects of the crisis on Bolivia, one of the poorest countries of the Americas. We focus on the effectiveness of the domestic policy interventions in preventing spillovers of the development of international food prices to domestic markets. Using a cointegration model, we study price interdependencies of wheat flour, sunflower oil and poultry. The analysis suggests that the policy measures taken had little effect on food security during the food crisis. Throughout the entire period, perfect price transmission between the Bolivian poultry and sunflower oil markets and the respective international reference markets existed. Bolivian prices were determined by international prices and the policy interventions in the markets of these two commodities were not found to have had an effect. The government’s large-scale wheat flour imports did not shield Bolivian consumers from the shocks of international prices.

  4. Optimal dynamic pricing and replenishment policy for perishable items with inventory-level-dependent demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lihao; Zhang, Jianxiong; Tang, Wansheng

    2016-04-01

    An inventory system for perishable items with limited replenishment capacity is introduced in this paper. The demand rate depends on the stock quantity displayed in the store as well as the sales price. With the goal to realise profit maximisation, an optimisation problem is addressed to seek for the optimal joint dynamic pricing and replenishment policy which is obtained by solving the optimisation problem with Pontryagin's maximum principle. A joint mixed policy, in which the sales price is a static decision variable and the replenishment rate remains to be a dynamic decision variable, is presented to compare with the joint dynamic policy. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages of the joint dynamic one, and further show the effects of different system parameters on the optimal joint dynamic policy and the maximal total profit.

  5. Strategies to manage barriers in policy formation and implementation of road pricing packages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Isaksson, Karolina; Macmillen, James

    2014-01-01

    Fee scheme implemented in 2001, this paper identifies a selection of strategies which appear to have supported the policymakers' capacity to implement effective road pricing schemes. Together, these three examples offer a sound empirical basis from which to infer a set of strategies......In the transport policy domain, as in other highly-contested spheres of public policy, it is commonplace for certain policy measures to emerge as promising only to then remain unimplemented. Road pricing is one example of a theoretically well-developed transport policy measure that has proven...... for the formulation and implementation of politically-contentious road pricing packages-addressing issues of measure combination, flexibility, legitimacy, communication, timing and organisational dynamics. While acknowledging the primacy of broader external and contextual issues, the conclusion is that taking...

  6. Fuel pricing policies in South America and Mexico. Economic and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomonte, H.; Rogat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing industrialisation and income levels in developing countries are leading to increased demand for energy. A vast majority of this energy is based on fossil fuels, where oil represents the largest share. The burning of fossil fuels gives rise to emissions of gases with severe impacts on local and global environment, and most importantly on human health. In spite of this, oil consumption has been steadily increasing during the last decades, and is expected to continue doing so. According to the IPCC's second assessment report, the use of energy and in particular of fossil fuels, is expected to double by 2020. In Latin America, fuel prices have historically been well below world market prices. Prior to energy reforms in the early 1990s, energy prices did not follow conventional marginal cost or opportunity cost pricing rules, but where instead set with particular regard for income distribution goals or with the avowed purpose of promoting industrialization. This situation started to change in a number of countries at the end of the 1980s as a result of energy reforms, which included changes in pricing policies. These reforms allowed for private sector participation in the exploration, production and distribution of these products, thuds leading in most of the countries to the pricing system being decentralised and profitability criteria being incorporated into the state owned companies. In some countries where energy had been heavily subsidised, energy reforms contributed to reducing or dismantling subsidies and thereby to price levels more in line with those of industrialized countries. Nevertheless, in several countries of the region energy subsidies are still in place. These subsidies are creating market distortions, with prices still well below world market prices being one of the results. The objective of this study is twofold. The first objective is to map current fuel pricing in a number of South American countries and Mexico. This information will

  7. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Methods Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named “fruit and vegetables condition”; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named “nutrient profile condition”. The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. Results At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Conclusion Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet

  8. Food price policies improve diet quality while increasing socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2014-05-20

    Prices are an important determinant of food choices. Consequently, food price policies (subsidies and/or taxes) are proposed to improve the nutritional quality of diets. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of food price policies on the expenditures and nutritional quality of the food baskets chosen by low- and medium-income households. Experimental economics was used to examine two price manipulations: i) a fruit and vegetable price subsidy named "fruit and vegetables condition"; ii) a healthy-product subsidy coupled with an unhealthy-product tax named "nutrient profile condition". The nutrient profiling system called SAIN,LIM was used. This system classifies each individual food according to its overall nutritional quality which then allows for a food item to be taxed or subsidized. Women from low- (n = 95) and medium-incomes (n = 33) selected a daily food basket, first, at current prices and then at manipulated prices. The redistributive effects of experimental conditions were assessed by comparing the extent of savings induced by subsidies and of costs generated by the tax on the two income groups. Energy density (kcal/100 g), free sugars (% energy) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline (before price manipulations), low-income women selected less expensive and less healthy baskets than medium-income ones. After price manipulations expenditures for both income group decreased significantly, whereas, the nutritional quality improved (energy density decreased, the MAR increased). Additionally, the redistributive effects were less favourable for low-income women and their nutritional quality improvements from baseline were significantly lower. Low-income women derived fewer financial and nutritional benefits from implemented food subsidies and taxes than medium-income women. This outcome suggests that food price policies may improve diet quality while increasing socio

  9. Comparing projected impacts of cigarette floor price and excise tax policies on socioeconomic disparities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Farrelly, Matthew C; Luke, Douglas A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-10-01

    About half of all US states have cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs) that require a per cent mark-up on prices, but research suggests they may not be very effective in raising prices. An alternative type of MPL sets a floor price below which packs cannot be sold, and may be more promising. This new type of MPL policy has only been implemented in 1 city, therefore its benefits relative to excise taxes is difficult to assess. We constructed a set of possible state floor price MPL options, and matched them to possible state excise tax hikes designed to produce similar average price increases. Using self-reported price and cigarette consumption data from 23 521 participants in the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey, we projected changes in pack prices and cigarette consumption following implementation of each paired MPL and tax option, for lower and higher income groups. We project that state MPLs set at the average reported pack price would raise prices by $0.33 and reduce cigarette consumption by about 4%; a tax with a similar average price effect would reduce consumption by 2.3%. MPLs and taxes that raise average prices by more than $2.00 would reduce consumption by 15.9% and 13.5%, respectively. In all models, we project that MPLs will reduce income-based smoking disparities more than their comparable excise taxes. Floor price cigarette MPLs set at or above what consumers currently report paying could reduce both tobacco use and socioeconomic disparities in smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Pricing Policy on Business Performance: A Study on Organizational Strategy Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Alvarenga Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the relationship between different pricing policies and the results obtained with them within on Business Games. Beginning from a theoretical review that seeks to reunite concepts about pricing, policy and price definitions, it is proposed a model analysis of pricing decisions made by teams that participate in a Business Game. From the applying of this model on data collected in the game, it seeks to classify the pricing policies applied by the teams. Then the results are discussed and its relationship to literature is referred. There are also comments on the decision make default demonstrated by the teams participating in the game. The results obtained here confirm the literature, indicating the price policy as a helpful and valid tool to support marketing strategies. They also show the adhesion between the simulated environment in a Business Game and the features found in the real world, confirming the trend toward adoption of organizational strategy simulators as instruments in teaching and research in Administration.

  11. Income distribution policies for faster poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Cornia, Giovanni Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Inequality has risen in many countries over the last two decades, especially in the transition economies, but also in many developing and developed economies. This is disturbing since little progress can be made in poverty reduction when inequality is high and rising. Moreover, contrary to earlier theories of development, high inequality tends to reduce economic growth, and therefore poverty reduction through growth. This paper finds evidence of a concave relationship between inequality and g...

  12. Second best pricing policies for an exhaustible resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1977-02-01

    In the theory of exhaustible resources, the classical result, originally derived by Harold Hotelling (J. Polit. Econ., 39: 137-75 (1931)) is that the scarcity rent of the resource must increase at the rate of interest. The scarcity rent is the market price of the resource less extraction costs. At the depletion time, the market price must be equal either to the zero demand price or the cost of a perfect substitute, assuming no adjustment costs in switching to the substitute. The substitute may be either a natural resource with a higher extraction cost or a backstop technology. The Hotelling result is a price equilibrium condition in a competitive asset market (Solow, Amer. Econ. Rev. Proc., 64: 1-14 (1974)). It is also an efficiency condition for allocating the resource over time in a first best world. However, Solow raises the possibility that constraints creating a wedge between interest rates may be important considerations in the resource allocation problem. In a second-best world it is not at all clear how fast the scarcity rent of the resource should increase from a social viewpoint. However, for one simple case the analysis of this problem is straightforward. Suppose consumption is determined by a Keynesian consumption function with marginal propensity to consume (1 - s); s is marginal propensity to save. With consumption determined in this behavioral manner, savings may be inadequate to reduce the market interest rate to the point where it is equal to the social rate of time preference. It is argued here that for this case the scarcity rent of the resource should increase at a rate equal to a weighted combination of these two interest rates.

  13. The Effectiveness of Competition Policy and the Price-Cost Margin: Evidence from Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick McCloughan; Seán Lyons; William Batt

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents robust panel data econometric evidence suggesting that more effective competition policy curtails the exercise of market power because countries in which competition policy is judged to be more effective are characterised by lower market price-cost margins, controlling for other factors, including market growth, import penetration and spare capacity. The measure of competition policy effectiveness incorporated into our analysis is the annual survey-based ratings of nationa...

  14. China's optimal stockpiling policies in the context of new oil price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Nan; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the size of oil stockpiling plays a fundamental role in the process of making national strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) policies. There have been extensive studies on the operating strategies of SPR. However, previous literatures have paid more attention to a booming or stable international oil market, while few studies analyzed the impact of a long-term low oil price on SPR policy. As a supplement, this paper extends a static model to study China's optimal stockpiling policy under different oil price trends, and in response to different current oil prices. A new variable “FC”, which demonstrates the appreciation and depreciation of the reserved oil economic value, has been taken into account to assess the optimal size of SPR. In this paper, a more multi-perspective of view is provided to consider the policies of China's SPR, especially under the different trend of international oil price fluctuations. - Highlights: • We extended a static model to study optimal stockpiling size of China's SPR. • A new variable “FC” was applied to illustrate the shifting financial value of SPR. • We analyzed how current oil price and varied prediction influence optimal size. • Operational measures could be adjusted at the end of each decision-making period. • A more multifaceted of view might be provided for China's SPR policy-making.

  15. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By promoting comparative assessment of policy options, MAS hopes to demonstrate the benefits of evidence-based policymaking, which is needed for the economy to prosper. ... stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.

  16. Comparing effectiveness of mass media campaigns with price reductions targeting fruit and vegetable intake on US cardiovascular disease mortality and race disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Bandosz, Piotr; Rehm, Colin D; Afshin, Ashkan; Peñalvo, Jose L; Whitsel, Laurie; Danaei, Goodarz; Micha, Renata; Gaziano, Tom; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Capewell, Simon; Mozaffarian, Dariush; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Background: A low intake of fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States. Both mass media campaigns (MMCs) and economic incentives may increase F&V consumption. Few data exist on their comparative effectiveness. Objective: We estimated CVD mortality reductions potentially achievable by price reductions and MMC interventions targeting F&V intake in the US population. Design: We developed a US IMPACT Food Policy Model to compare 3 policies targeting F&V intake across US adults from 2015 to 2030: national MMCs and national F&V price reductions of 10% and 30%. We accounted for differences in baseline diets, CVD rates, MMC coverage, MMC duration, and declining effects over time. Outcomes included cumulative CVD (coronary heart disease and stroke) deaths prevented or postponed and life-years gained (LYGs) over the study period, stratified by age, sex, and race. Results: A 1-y MMC in 2015 would increase the average national F&V consumption by 7% for 1 y and prevent ∼18,600 CVD deaths (95% CI: 17,600, 19,500), gaining ∼280,100 LYGs by 2030. With a 15-y MMC, increased F&V consumption would be sustained, yielding a 3-fold larger reduction (56,100; 95% CI: 52,400, 57,700) in CVD deaths. In comparison, a 10% decrease in F&V prices would increase F&V consumption by ∼14%. This would prevent ∼153,300 deaths (95% CI: 146,400, 159,200), gaining ∼2.51 million LYGs. For a 30% price decrease, resulting in a 42% increase in F&V consumption, corresponding values would be 451,900 CVD deaths prevented or postponed (95% CI: 433,100, 467,500) and 7.3 million LYGs gained. Effects were similar by sex, with a smaller proportional effect and larger absolute effects at older ages. A 1-y MMC would be 35% less effective in preventing CVD deaths in non-Hispanic blacks than in whites. In comparison, price-reduction policies would have equitable proportional effects. Conclusion: Both national MMCs and price-reduction policies

  17. Non-Implementation of road pricing policy in the Netherlands : An application of the "advocacy coalition framework"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardic, O.; Annema, J.A.; van Wee, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of road pricing policies is dependent on political support for the policy. It is frequently argued that many pricing proposals fail to be implemented due to the opposition of one or a group of policy actors (e.g. political parties, interest groups). This study considers this issue

  18. Economic Differentiation as a Determinant of Higher Education Pricing and Expenditure Policies and State-wide Public Policy: Implications for Governance. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Richard L.

    A study of the impact of economic differentiation on institutional pricing and expenditure policies, higher education public policy, and governance in public colleges and universities is described. It is suggested that economic differentiation is a likely determinant of variation in institutional expenditure and pricing policies and higher…

  19. The impact of South Korea's new drug-pricing policy on market competition among off-patent drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Kim, Hyungmin; Godman, Brian; Reich, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    A new pricing policy was introduced in Korea in April 2012 with the aim of strengthening competition among off-patent drugs by eliminating price gaps between originators and generics. Examine the effect of newly implemented pricing policy. Retrospectively examining the effects through extracting from the National Health Insurance claims data a 30-month panel dataset (January 2011-June 2013) containing consumption data in four major therapeutic classes (antihypertensives, lipid-lowering drugs, antiulcerants and antidepressants). Proxies for market competition were examined before and after the policy. The new pricing policy did not enhance competition among off-patent drugs. In fact, price dispersion significantly decreased as opposed to the expected change. Originator-to-generic utilization increased 6.12 times (p = 0.000) after the new policy. The new pricing policy made no impact on competition among off-patent drugs. Competition in the off-patent market cannot be enhanced unless both supply and demand side measures are coordinated.

  20. CORPORATE DIVIDEND POLICY AND SHARE PRICE VOLATILITY:A STUDY OF THE BOMBAY STOCK EXCHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The research paper aims to identify the empirical relationship between Corporate Dividend policy in India and share price volatility. Design/Methodology/Approach: A sample of 197 dividend paying companies listed on the Bombay stock exchange (BSE 500) was examined from 2006 to 2010.A panel data approach was applied to identify the relationship between price volatility against dividend yield and dividend payout ratio. Findings: The findings observe a significant relationship be...

  1. Stocking and price-reduction decisions for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under time value of money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Andrés Pérez

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available Deteriorating inventory models are used as decision support tools for managers primarily, although not exclusively, in the retail trade. The mathematical modeling of deteriorating items allows managers to analyze their inventory management systems to identify areas that can be improved and to measure the corresponding potential benefits. This study develops an enhanced deteriorating inventory model for optimizing the inventory control strategy of companies operating in sectors with deteriorating products. In contrast with previous studies, our model holistically accounts for the overall financial effect of a company’s policies on product price discounting and on inventory shortages while considering the time value of money (TVM. We aim to find the optimal replenishment strategy and the optimal price reductions that maximize the discounted profit function of this analytical model over a fixed planning horizon. To this end, we use an economic order quantity model to study the effects of the TVM and inflation. The model accounts for pre- and post-deterioration discounts on the selling price for non-instantaneous deteriorating products with the demand rate being a function of time, price-discounts and stock-keeping units. Shortages are allowed and partially backordered, depending on the waiting time until the next replenishment. Additionally, we consider the effect of discounts on the selling price when items have either an instant deterioration or a fixed lifetime. We propose five implementable solutions for obtaining the optimal values, and examine their performance. We present some numerical examples to illustrate the applicability of the models, and carry out a sensitivity analysis. The study reveals that accounting for TVM and inventory shortages is complex and time-consuming; nevertheless, we find that accounting for TVM and shortages can be valuable in terms of increasing the yields of companies. Finally, we provide some important

  2. Impact of International Oil Price on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of “new normal” economy and frequent “haze”, the strategy of energy conservation and emission reduction aiming to lower costs and reduce pollution is currently still a major strategic direction in China and the world, and will remain so for some time in the future. This paper uses the annual data of West Texas Intermediate (WTI crude oil price in 1987–2014 as samples. We firstly present the direction and mechanism of the influence of oil price change on total consumption of every kind of energy by path analysis, and then consider establishing a Structural Vector Autoregression model of energy conservation and emission reduction in three statuses. Research shows that if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.092% and 0.053% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of high energy consumption and high emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.043% and 0.065% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of low energy consumption and low emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP per unit increases by 0.067% and carbon dioxide emission decreases by 0.085% in the corresponding period.

  3. THE UNILATERAL DETERMINATION OF PRICE – A QUESTION OF CERTAINTY OR PUBLIC POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanri M du Plessis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The unilateral determination of price has been a controversial issue for an extended period of time. During the 1990s the Supreme Court of Appeal asked if the rule should still form part of South African law. Specifically, the court raised a few questions in respect of the rule and commented that the rule as applied in South African law is illogical. The court also remarked that public policy, bona fides and contractual equity might also be employed when considering such issues. Despite the criticisms of the Supreme Court of Appeal, it would seem that the rule still forms part of our law. This article investigates whether or not the rule should be retained in the South African common law. The answer will depend on two separate questions: Is the rule a manifestation of the requirement of certainty of price? If not, does public policy require that the rule be retained? The article shows that the rule prohibiting the unilateral determination of price should not be seen as a manifestation of the requirement of certainty of price. This is because there are various circumstances where the unilateral determination of the price results in certainty of price or can be applied in such a way as to arrive at certainty of price. Most of these arguments require that the discretion to determine the price should not be unfettered and should be subject to some objective standard. This can be done expressly or tacitly in the contract, or an objective standard (in the form of reasonableness will be implied by law. Thereafter, the article considers various public policy considerations that could be used to determine if a discretion to determine the price should be enforced. The article argues that public policy may dictate that such a discretion should be valid and enforceable provided that it is not unfettered and subject to an external objective standard or reasonableness. However, in cases where an unfair bargaining position is present, public policy may dictate

  4. On the Impact of Policy Uncertainty on Oil Prices: An Asymmetry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has assessed the impact of policy uncertainty on a few macro variables. In this paper, we consider its impact on oil prices. Oil prices are usually determined in global markets by the law of demand and supply. Our concern in this paper is to determine which country’s policy uncertainty measure has an impact on oil prices. Using both the linear and the nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL methods, we find that while policy uncertainty measures of Canada, China, Europe, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the U.S. have short-run effects, short-run effects last into the long-run asymmetric effects only in the case of China. This may reflect the importance and recent surge in China’s engagement in world trade.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    2001-01-01

    The chapter begins with an introduction of the main arguments for why global cost-effectiveness in GHG emission reduction policies will suggest that an international collaboration about the policies is established such as initiated by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A general conceptual overview is given on the cost concepts that are relevant to apply to the evaluation of GHG emission reduction policies, and the methodological framework of GHG emission reduction cost studies for developing countries are introduced. The studies have in particular focussed on GHG emission reduction options in the energy sector, and a number of costing results are reported for this sector. Finally, the chapter considers potential local side-impacts on development, the local environment, and social policy objectives of GHG emission reduction projects seen from the perspective of developing countries. It is concluded that there is a potential for combining global cost-effectiveness principles for GHG emission reduction policies, and local policy objectives of developing countries. (LN)

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRADE LAWS: IMPLICATIONS IN THE PRICE CONTROL POLICY OF COMMUNITY NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Engkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Implementation Of Trade Laws: Implications In The Price Control Policy Of Community Needs] Issuing the act no 7 year 2014 about tade, Indonesia has new hope to design the obscene of social basic requirements were going on all this time. The main problem in the research that “increasing and decreasing pricefluctuatively” has became repeatedly in Ramadhan. It has been caused by some factors: Unbalancing Supply and demand not done optimally yet. The aim of the research to collect data, facta and problems analyses them and directly or indirectlywe want to know and increase for academic nuance as theorital, also who want to know about them deeply. The research is qualitative research, using the technical of theresearch are observation, interview, documental history and documental audio visual. The results of research, before, at the moment, after Ramadhan, the price of social basic requirements still increasely and fluctuatively. Government intervention, by short term policy not touched social basic requirements continously yet. So piling them were not clearness of official. Raring supply, increasing demand, It has been caused by social increasing consumption, Finally high increasing price. Conclusion: The price control social basic requirements policy, complately by redesign comprehensive, transparancy, participative and continuosly policy, from central government to local government towards nation autonomy in food. Keywords: Increasing Price, clearness of official, Control.

  7. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  8. Impact of price deregulation policy on the affordability of essential medicines for women's health: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Wang, Liming; Liu, Chenxi; Zhang, Xinping

    2017-12-01

    A new policy which required deregulation on prices of off-patent medicines for women's health during procurement was introduced in China in September 2015. The current study examines this policy's impact on the affordability of essential medicines for women's health. Based on product-level panel data, a fixed effect regression model is employed by using procurement records from Hubei Centralist Tender for Drug Purchase platform. In the model, Affordability was measured with prices. The Competition consists of two parts: generic competition and therapeutic class competition which are measured with generic competitors and therapeutic substitutes. Instrument variable is used to deal with endogeneity. The policy helped control prices of essential medicines for women's health. Generic competition helped control prices, however, therapeutic class competition caused higher prices. The new policy helped enhance the affordability of essential medicines for women's health as expected, which provides empirical evidence on price deregulation. Besides, generic competition is important in price control despite strict regulatory system in China.

  9. Meta-Analysis of the Oil Price Elasticity of the GDP for Policy Analysis: Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, David Charles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Megan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Given the important role of oil in economic activities, policy makers are interested in estimates of the potential damage to the economy from oil price shocks, particularly during periods of rapid and large increases that accompany severe shocks. Such estimates are needed to quantify the economic costs of oil price shocks, and to evaluate the potential benefits of alternative policy responses. Although research on the economic impacts of oil price shocks is extensive and has generally found that large increases in oil prices exert negative economic impacts, the range of estimates, summarized by the oil price elasticity of the GDP or other aggregate measure of economic activity, is very wide. There are also conditions under which the relationship between the oil price and the economy could be positive. The range of estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States is typified by averages from the studies of Hamilton (2005, 2012) and Kilian and Vigfusson (2014), in which the implied elasticities were -0.014 to - 0.069 and +0.004 to -0.052, respectively. We employ a meta-regression approach to systematically summarize available estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for oil importing economies, and examine the role of key factors. The resulting regression model was used to estimate the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States. Based on this we estimate the mean elasticity for the United States at -0.0238, with a 68% confidence interval of -0.0075 to -0.0402, four quarters after a shock.

  10. Real Costs of Transportation and Influence of Pricing Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Small, Kenneth A.

    1993-01-01

    Sustainability of transportation depends on both behavior and technology. Behavior determines how much of various activities are undertaken; technology determines whether they are harmful to the environment. Policies can influence both: they provide behavior incentives, and they affect technological choices and guide technological change.

  11. THE ASSET PRICE CHANNEL AND ITS ROLE IN MONETARY POLICY TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Horatiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available his paper addresses the subject of the monetary policy transmission mechanism by focusing on the asset price channel, which is the monetary transmission channel responsible for the propagation of the effects induced by the monetary policy decisions made by the central bank that affect the price of assets. We will analyze the asset price channel by taking a close look at its structure, internal processes and the way it delivers monetary policy throughout the economy, ultimately influencing key variables such as the unemployment rate and the levels of consumption and production. After an introduction dealing with the entire monetary transmission mechanism, its role and purposes, we will focus on the particularities of the asset price channel and the two main ways in which it delivers monetary policy decision effects: through changes in Tobin’s q value, which is the ratio between the market value of a given company and its replacement cost of capital, and through the effect of wealth, both of financial and housing nature, on consumption. In our study, we will consider theoretical aspects and observations, but also empirical evidence that highlights that the exact way in which the asset price channel functions may differ from one economy to another due to differences in the structures of the respective economies and differences in psychology and cultural values of consumers. The deep understanding of the asset price transmission channel is very important for any central bank, as this is the channel that governs key aspects of monetary policy transmission linked to the market value of assets and individual wealth. These values have, as we will see in more detail throughout the paper, an important impact on both consumption and investment, two economic actions that can help the economy, but can also prove to be a crucial element in starting and perpetuating an economic crisis.

  12. The impact of China's carbon allowance allocation rules on the product prices and emission reduction behaviors of ETS-covered enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Ao-Dong; Tan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    It is an important task for China to allocate carbon emission allowance to realize its carbon reduction target and establish carbon trading market. China has designed several allocation rules within seven pilot regions. What influence those rules may cause is closely related with the enthusiasm of emission trading scheme (ETS) covered enterprises' participation in carbon market, and more importantly, with the mechanism design and sustainable development of carbon market. For this purpose, the multi-stage profit model is developed to analyze the ETS-covered enterprises' product prices and emission reduction behaviors under different allocation rules. The results show that, first, under the rules of grandfathering, self-declaration and auctioning, when deciding the optimal product price and optimal carbon emission reduction, those enterprises may focus on maximizing current stage profit; however, under the rule of benchmarking, those enterprises may care more about the impact of current decisions on the profit in next stage. Second, the optimal product price policy is positively correlated with the price of the same kind products, consumers' low-carbon awareness and government subsidy. Finally, along with the increase of carbon price, consumers' low-carbon awareness and government subsidy and the decrease of carbon emission cap, those enterprises tend to reduce carbon emissions. - Highlights: • Analyze the impact of carbon allowance allocation rules on ETS-covered enterprises. • For grandfather, self-declaration and auction, they may maximize current profits. • For benchmark, they care the effect of current decisions on the coming profits. • The optimal product price positively relates to low-carbon awareness and subsidy. • Carbon price, low-carbon awareness and subsidy rise leads their emission reduction.

  13. Optimal Ordering and Pricing Policies for Seasonal Products: Impacts of Demand Uncertainty and Capital Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhao Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a stochastic price-dependent market demand, this paper investigates how demand uncertainty and capital constraint affect retailer’s integrated ordering and pricing policies towards seasonal products. The retailer with capital constraint is normalized to be with zero capital endowment while it can be financed by an external bank. The problems are studied under a low and high demand uncertainty scenario, respectively. Results show that when demand uncertainty level is relatively low, the retailer faced with demand uncertainty always sets a lower price than the riskless one, while its order quantity may be smaller or larger than the riskless retailer’s which depends on the level of market size. When adding a capital constraint, the retailer will strictly prefer a higher price but smaller quantity policy. However, in a high demand uncertainty scenario, the impacts are more intricate. The retailer faced with demand uncertainty will always order a larger quantity than the riskless one if demand uncertainty level is high enough (above a critical value, while the capital-constrained retailer is likely to set a lower price than the well-funded one when demand uncertainty level falls within a specific interval. Therefore, it can be further concluded that the impact of capital constraint on the retailer’s pricing decision can be influenced by different demand uncertainty levels.

  14. Monetary Policy Rules, Supply Shocks, and the Price-Level Elasticity of Aggregate Demand: A Graphical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyer, Ben L.; Maggs, Gary E.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizes two-dimensional price and output graphs to demonstrate the way that the price-level elasticity of aggregate demand affects alternative monetary policy rules designed to cope with random aggregate supply shocks. Includes graphs illustrating price-level, real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), nominal GDP, and nominal money supply targeting.…

  15. Real price and affordability as challenges for effective tobacco control policies: an analysis for Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Iglesias, Germán; González-Rozada, Martín; Champagne, Beatriz Marcet; Schoj, Verónica

    2015-02-01

    To describe the evolution of cigarettes' real price and affordability during the last decade in Argentina. To analyze the real price of cigarettes, the weighted average monthly price of a pack of 20 cigarettes was divided by the consumer price index (CPI) from 2004 to 2014. The relative income price (RIP) was evaluated for the same period, defining RIP as the percentage of the income required to buy 100 packs of 20-per-pack cigarettes. The RIP was calculated for first-quartile, median, and third-quartile income groups. The lower the RIP, the higher the affordability. The nominal price of a pack of 20 cigarettes sold in Argentina increased from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 14.36 in June 2014 (nominal price increase of about 19.7% per year). The real price fell from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 2.11 in June 2014 (real price drop of about 0.6% per year). Between June 2004 and June 2014, the RIP decreased about 39% for the 3rd quartile income group (from 31.3% to 19.2%), about 42% for the median (from 55.7% to 32.0%), and about 50% for the 1st quartile (from 104.4% to 51.8%). In Argentina, inflation and rising income were greater than growth in cigarette prices. Cigarette affordability increased for each income group, with the highest shifts occurring among the poorest and most vulnerable income earners. The increased affordability of cigarettes might reduce the impact of implemented tobacco control policies.

  16. Real price and affordability as challenges for effective tobacco control policies: an analysis for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez-Iglesias

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the evolution of cigarettes' real price and affordability during the last decade in Argentina. Methods. To analyze the real price of cigarettes, the weighted average monthly price of a pack of 20 cigarettes was divided by the consumer price index (CPI from 2004 to 2014. The relative income price (RIP was evaluated for the same period, defining RIP as the percentage of the income required to buy 100 packs of 20-per-pack cigarettes. The RIP was calculated for first-quartile, median, and third-quartile income groups. The lower the RIP, the higher the affordability. Results. The nominal price of a pack of 20 cigarettes sold in Argentina increased from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 14.36 in June 2014 (nominal price increase of about 19.7% per year. The real price fell from AR$ 2.24 in March 2004 to AR$ 2.11 in June 2014 (real price drop of about 0.6% per year. Between June 2004 and June 2014, the RIP decreased about 39% for the 3rd quartile income group (from 31.3% to 19.2%, about 42% for the median (from 55.7% to 32.0%, and about 50% for the 1st quartile (from 104.4% to 51.8%. Conclusions. In Argentina, inflation and rising income were greater than growth in cigarette prices. Cigarette affordability increased for each income group, with the highest shifts occurring among the poorest and most vulnerable income earners. The increased affordability of cigarettes might reduce the impact of implemented tobacco control policies.

  17. Policy Instruments for Irigation Water Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, António C.; Saraiva, João Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Co...

  18. The Economic Impact of Government Policy on Market Prices of Low-Fat Pork in South Korea: A Quasi-Experimental Hedonic Price Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun No Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government policy can have an influence on market environment and market prices of pork in consequence. In South Korea, consumers prefer high-fat pork cuts due to the prevalence of roosting pork over a hot grill. This paper examines the impact of the government policy which aims to increase the consumption of low-fat pork cuts because of the concerns regarding asymmetric consumption between high-fat and low-fat pork cuts. Using hedonic price methods combined with quasi-experimental approaches we estimate the subsequent impact of food policy on the price of low-fat pork cuts using a time series of sales data. This study utilized an effective approach which has been widely employed for policy evaluation to produce plausible estimates of the economic values generated by the government policy. We find the existence of market segmentation and different impacts of the policy between markets. While the market price for high-fat pork cuts has remained stable, the price for low-fat pork cuts has slightly increased since the policy has been implemented. This paper illustrates that government’s policy can be a good strategy to maintain sustainability of the food industry by improving the balance in pork consumption and the management of stocks.

  19. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Carragher, Natacha; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-11-18

    Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations.

  20. Can nutrition be promoted through agriculture-led food price policies? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangour, Alan D; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Shankar, Bhavani; Watson, Louise; Srinivasan, C S; Morgan, Emily H; Haddad, Lawrence; Waage, Jeff

    2013-06-25

    To systematically review the available evidence on whether national or international agricultural policies that directly affect the price of food influence the prevalence rates of undernutrition or nutrition-related chronic disease in children and adults. Systematic review. Global. We systematically searched five databases for published literature (MEDLINE, EconLit, Agricola, AgEcon Search, Scopus) and systematically browsed other databases and relevant organisational websites for unpublished literature. Reference lists of included publications were hand-searched for additional relevant studies. We included studies that evaluated or simulated the effects of national or international food-price-related agricultural policies on nutrition outcomes reporting data collected after 1990 and published in English. Prevalence rates of undernutrition (measured with anthropometry or clinical deficiencies) and overnutrition (obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes). We identified a total of four relevant reports; two ex post evaluations and two ex ante simulations. A study from India reported on the undernutrition rates in children, and the other three studies from Egypt, the Netherlands and the USA reported on the nutrition-related chronic disease outcomes in adults. Two of the studies assessed the impact of policies that subsidised the price of agricultural outputs and two focused on public food distribution policies. The limited evidence base provided some support for the notion that agricultural policies that change the prices of foods at a national level can have an effect on population-level nutrition and health outcomes. A systematic review of the available literature suggests that there is a paucity of robust direct evidence on the impact of agricultural price policies on nutrition and health.

  1. Western Australian Public Opinions of a Minimum Pricing Policy for Alcohol: Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, David A; Daube, Mike; Hardcastle, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption has significant adverse economic, social, and health outcomes. Recent estimates suggest that the annual economic costs of alcohol in Australia are up to AUD $36 billion. Policies influencing price have been demonstrated to be very effective in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Interest in minimum pricing has gained traction in recent years. However, there has been little research investigating the level of support for the public interest case of minimum pricing in Australia. Objective This article describes protocol for a study exploring Western Australian (WA) public knowledge, understanding, and reaction to a proposed minimum price policy per standard drink. Methods The study will employ a qualitative methodological design. Participants will be recruited from a wide variety of backgrounds, including ethnic minorities, blue and white collar workers, unemployed, students, and elderly/retired populations to participate in focus groups. Focus group participants will be asked about their knowledge of, and initial reactions to, the proposed policy and encouraged to discuss how such a proposal may affect their own alcohol use and alcohol consumption at the population level. Participants will also be asked to discuss potential avenues for increasing acceptability of the policy. The focus groups will adopt a semi-structured, open-ended approach guided by a question schedule. The schedule will be based on feedback from pilot samples, previous research, and a steering group comprising experts in alcohol policy and pricing. Results The study is expected to take approximately 14 months to complete. Conclusions The findings will be of considerable interest and relevance to government officials, policy makers, researchers, advocacy groups, alcohol retail and licensed establishments and organizations, city and town planners, police, and other stakeholder organizations. PMID:26582408

  2. Revisiting Bank Pricing Policies in Brazil: evidence from loan and deposit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S. Alencar

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the micro and macroeconomic determinants of interest rates in the Brazilian banking market. The results suggest that banks fully adjust their loan interest rates to a change in the monetary policy rate, but we also observe a rigid short-term response for some loan product categories. The study confirms that pricing policies can vary substantially depending on the market. For example, microeconomic factors did not seem to be a major determinant of retail loan rates, but th...

  3. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Vončina, Luka

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Methods Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Results Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, ie, compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine’s importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. Conclusion The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure. PMID:21495202

  4. Comparing pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies in Croatia to the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habl, Claudia; Bogut, Martina; Voncina, Luka

    2011-04-15

    To perform a comparative analysis of the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement systems in Croatia and the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. Knowledge about the pharmaceutical systems in Croatia and the 27 EU Member States was acquired by literature review and primary research with stakeholders. Pharmaceutical prices are controlled at all levels in Croatia, which is also the case in 21 EU Member States. Like many EU countries, Croatia also applies external price referencing, i.e., compares prices with other countries. While the wholesale remuneration by a statutorily regulated linear mark-up is applied in Croatia and in several EU countries, the pharmacy compensation for dispensing reimbursable medicines in the form of a flat rate service fee in Croatia is rare among EU countries, which usually apply a linear or regressive pharmacy mark-up scheme. Like in most EU countries, the Croatian Social Insurance reimburses specific medicines at 100%, whereas patients are charged co-payments for other reimbursable medicines. Criteria for reimbursement include the medicine's importance from the public health perspective, its therapeutic value, and relative effectiveness. In Croatia and in many EU Member States, reimbursement is based on a reference price system. The Croatian pharmaceutical system is similar to those in the EU Member States. Key policies, like external price referencing and reference price systems, which have increasingly been introduced in EU countries are also applied in Croatia and serve the same purpose: to ensure access to medicines while containing public pharmaceutical expenditure.

  5. The effectiveness of the European agricultural quality policy: a price analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardaji, I.; Iraizoz, B.; Rapun, M.

    2009-07-01

    The European rural development policy, the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy, is currently playing an increasing role. One of its key instruments is the support for quality standards through Protected Geographical Indications (PGI). The analysis presented in this article investigates prices for two varieties of beef (PGI and non- PGI). The research setting is a specific area in northern Spain, where Ternera de Navarra (Navarra beef) is produced. The results show that quality production systems achieve higher and more stable prices in the long term. Another major point emerging from the analysis, given the nature of the beef production sector, is that the PGI product is better able to stand up to consumer confidence crises, such as that triggered by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak. Additional key words: prices, protected geographical indication, rural development. (Author) 40 refs.

  6. Government policy uncertainty and stock prices: The case of Australia's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, Andrew; Lam, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We investigate effects of government policy uncertainty on stock prices, reflecting tension between ‘private interest’ (economic benefits) and ‘public interest’ arguments over uranium mining. Using a sample of Australian-listed uranium firms from January 2005 through June 2008, we document a positive contemporaneous correlation between stock returns and volatility and two measures of government policy uncertainty, proxied by the spread in voters' opinion polls between the two major political parties and a news-based sentiment index. Event-study results show significant stock price reactions to key uranium-related policy events, with cross-sectional variation in event returns predicted by models incorporating firm- and project-level characteristics. Our research design and findings may inform future research on the capital market effects of government policy uncertainty in other regulated industries. - Highlights: • Government policy uncertainty has direct effects on stock prices of uranium explorers. • Stock returns are positively related to the spread in two-party-preferred voting intention. • Stock volatility is positively related to a uranium news-based sentiment index. • Event-study results show significant market reaction to key uranium policy events.

  7. Diversifying Fiscal Support by Pricing Public Library Services: A Policy Impact Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Donald A.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses the possibility of diversifying the resource base of public libraries dependent on property taxes for funding through the setting of fees for library services, and reports on a pricing policy adopted by the Dallas Public Library System. Twenty-seven references are cited. (FM)

  8. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    A presentation of a conceptual framework for viewing the admissions management process in higher education institutions and a discussion of the pricing policy process, particularly of private colleges and universities, precedes an examination of the stochastic utility model, a statistical model of the college choice process. Using student choice…

  9. Pricing for Efficiency, Equity, and Simplicity: A Model Policy for an Interlibrary Courier Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassler, Robert Scott

    1985-01-01

    Presents an example of a pricing policy for any interlibrary courier service which (1) calculates fixed, travelling, and stopping costs; (2) charges by how often the courier stops at each participating library; and (3) uses any subsidies for costs libraries cannot control. (CDD)

  10. Monetary Policy, Risk-Taking, and Pricing : Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannidou, V.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the impact of monetary policy on bank risk-taking and pricing. Bolivia provides us with an excellent experimental setting to identify this impact. Its small economy is not synchronized with the US economy but its banking system is almost fully dollarized. Consequently the US federal funds

  11. The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alcohol consumption in the Americas comes at a considerable cost. ... It will examine the impact of pricing, taxation, and advertising policies on alcohol ... Le moyen le plus direct et le plus efficace de réduire la consommation de tabac consiste ...

  12. Late-stage pharmaceutical R&D and pricing policies under two-stage regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobjörnsson, Sebastian; Forster, Martin; Pertile, Paolo; Burman, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We present a model combining the two regulatory stages relevant to the approval of a new health technology: the authorisation of its commercialisation and the insurer's decision about whether to reimburse its cost. We show that the degree of uncertainty concerning the true value of the insurer's maximum willingness to pay for a unit increase in effectiveness has a non-monotonic impact on the optimal price of the innovation, the firm's expected profit and the optimal sample size of the clinical trial. A key result is that there exists a range of values of the uncertainty parameter over which a reduction in uncertainty benefits the firm, the insurer and patients. We consider how different policy parameters may be used as incentive mechanisms, and the incentives to invest in R&D for marginal projects such as those targeting rare diseases. The model is calibrated using data on a new treatment for cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pricing and ordering policies for price-dependent demand in a supply chain of a single retailer and a single manufacturer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Hong, Yushin; Kim, Taebok

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses joint pricing and ordering policies for price-dependent demand in a supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single manufacturer. The retailer places orders for products according to an EOQ policy and the manufacturer produces them on a lot-for-lot basis. Four mechanisms with differing levels of coordination are presented. Mathematical models are formulated and solution procedures are developed to determine the optimal retail prices and order quantities. Through extensive numerical experiments, we analyse and compare the behaviours and characteristics of the proposed mechanisms, and find that enhancing the level of coordination has important benefits for the supply chain.

  14. Working Paper - WP/12/08- Exchange Rate Pass-through to Import Prices, and Monetary Policy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Aron; Greg Farrell; John Muellbauer; Peter Sinclair

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how import prices adjust to exchange rates helps anticipate inflation effects and monetary policy responses. This paper examines exchange rate pass-through to the monthly import price index in South Africa during 1980–2009. Various short-run pass-through estimates are calculated simply without recourse to a full structural model, yet without neglecting the long-run relationships between prices or the effects of previous import price changes, and controlling for domestic and fore...

  15. Oil price shocks and policy implications the emergence of U.S. tight oil production: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Voth, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-01

    How have shocks to supply and demand affected global oil prices; and what are key policy implications following the resurgence of oil production in the United States? Highlights: − The recent collapse in global oil prices was dominated by oversupply. − The future of tight oil in the United States is vulnerable to obstacles beyond oil prices. − Opinions on tight oil from the Top 25 think tank organizations are considered. Global oil prices have fallen more than fifty percent since ...

  16. Accurate market price formation model with both supply-demand and trend-following for global food prices providing policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagi, Marco; Bar-Yam, Yavni; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2015-11-10

    Recent increases in basic food prices are severely affecting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the United States, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, whereas an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities, and bonds to take advantage of increased expected returns. Claims that speculators cannot influence grain prices are shown to be invalid by direct analysis of price-setting practices of granaries. Both causes of price increase, speculative investment and ethanol conversion, are promoted by recent regulatory changes-deregulation of the commodity markets, and policies promoting the conversion of corn to ethanol. Rapid action is needed to reduce the impacts of the price increases on global hunger.

  17. The Impact of Trade Policies on Spiraling Prices in International Agricultural Commodity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-2000s food prices have been on an upward trend. In the first months of 2011, agricultural commodity prices reached an all-time high, fuelling fears about the imminent outbreak of a new food crisis, similar to the 1973/74 and 2006/08 ones. Behind concerns about increased price levels and volatility in international agricultural commodity markets lie concerns about food security. Hence, the international community is now under pressure to urgently find solutions for tempering strong upward fluctuations in prices for many major food commodities. Trade policy changes are increasingly discussed as a major contributing factor to food price surges. This paper addresses some issues related to the recurrent global food crises from the perspective of trade policy, specifically export restrictions. After a brief review of the fundamental drivers of the upward trend in real food prices (rising global population and income, climate change, high oil prices, increasing cereal use for biofuel production, and financial speculation, it examines the upsurge in agricultural export restrictions over the recent years. Relying on WTO's trade policy monitoring exercise, it highlights typology, motivations and effects of the newly introduced export restrictions, and finds that a major factor behind their recent proliferation is the lack of effective and binding multilateral rules concerning these trade policy instruments. The paper argues that strenghtening and improving WTO's rules and disciplines is essential for mitigating increased price pressure and volatility as well as the associated food security risks. While the issue of export restrictions is currently the topic of discussions under the Doha Round, trade negotiations are in impasse since 2008. Hence, urgent and successful conclusion of the round would be an essential step. In the meanwhile, a closer regular monitoring of all forms of export restrictions would help to provide at least more

  18. Reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Gong, Chengzhu; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-15

    This paper analyses the reduction potential, shadow prices, and pollution costs of agricultural pollutants in China based on provincial panel data for 2001-2010. Using a parameterized quadratic form for the directional output distance function, we find that if agricultural sectors in all provinces were to produce on the production frontier, China could potentially reduce agricultural emissions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) by 16.0%, 16.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. Additionally, our results show that the shadow price of TN increased rapidly and continuously, while that of COD and TP fluctuated for the whole period. For the whole country, the average shadow price of COD, TN, and TP are 8266 Yuan/tonne, 25,560 Yuan/tonne, and 10,160 Yuan/tonne, respectively. The regional shadow prices of agricultural pollutants are unbalanced. Furthermore, we show that the pollution costs from emissions of COD, TN, and TP are 6.09% of the annual gross output value of the agricultural sector and are highest in the Western and lowest in the Eastern provinces. Our estimates suggest that there is scope for further pollution abatement and simultaneous output expansion for China's agriculture if farmers promote greater efficiency in their production process. Policymakers are required to dynamically adjust the pollution tax rates and ascertain the initial permit price in an emission trading system. Policymakers should also consider the different pollution costs for each province when making the reduction allocations within the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Yousef Mohammad

    2016-11-10

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth\\'s rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World\\'s largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom\\'s role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy.

  20. Impacts of China’s Edible Oil Pricing Policy on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    China’s health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991 to 2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need. PMID:17996345

  1. Seeking lower prices where providers are consolidated: an examination of market and policy strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B; Pawlson, L Gregory

    2014-06-01

    The ongoing consolidation between and among hospitals and physicians tends to raise prices for health care services, which poses increasing challenges for private purchasers and payers. This article examines strategies that these purchasers and payers can pursue to combat provider leverage to increase prices. It also examines opportunities for governments to either support or constrain these strategies. In response to higher prices, payers are developing new approaches to benefit and network design, some of which may be effective in moderating prices and, in some cases, volume. These approaches interact with public policy because regulation can either facilitate or constrain them. Federal and state governments also have opportunities to limit consolidation's effect on prices by developing antitrust policies that better address current market environments and by fostering the development of physician organizations that can increase competition and contract with payers under shared-savings approaches. The success of these private- and public-sector initiatives likely will determine whether governments shift from supporting competition to directly regulating payment rates. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Pricing and inventory policies for Hi-tech products under replacement warranty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Teng, Wei-Guang; Chen, Ruey-Shii; Chou, Wang-Ying

    2014-06-01

    Companies, especially in the Hi-tech (high-technology) industry (such as computer, communication and consumer electronic products), often provide a replacement warranty period for purchased items. In reality, simultaneously determining the price and inventory decisions under warranty policy is an important issue. The objective of this paper is to develop a joint pricing and inventory model for Hi-tech products under replacement warranty policy. In the first model, we consider a Hi-tech product feature in which the selling price is declining in a trend. We determine the optimal inventory level for each period and retail price for the first period while maximising the total profit. In the second model, we further determine the optimal retail price and inventory level for each period in the dynamic demand market. This study develops solution approaches to solve the problems described above. Numerical analysis discusses the influence of system parameters on the company's decisions and behaviours. The results of this study could serve as a reference for business managers or administrators.

  3. The effect of OPEC policy decisions on oil and stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, Marco G.D.; Russell, Alexander; Tarbert, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the effects of OPEC policy decisions on the US and UK stock markets, as well as on oil prices, during periods of conflict and non-conflict from 1986 to 2004. The outcomes of this study are potentially valuable in assessing future strategies for OPEC policy decisions on oil production targets for its Members. This paper also adds to the strong body of evidence supporting the hypothesis that market returns are influenced by factors that affect business conditions, such as oil price shocks. The key findings are that there are asymmetric reactions to OPEC policy decisions during conflict periods for the US and UK stock markets. During conflict periods, oil markets require time to incorporate OPEC decisions. Conversely, in non-conflict periods the evidence suggests that the oil markets incorporate OPEC decisions efficiently. (Author)

  4. A comparison of alternative medicare reimbursement policies under optimal hospital pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittman, D A; Morey, R C

    1983-01-01

    This paper applies and extends the use of a nonlinear hospital pricing model, recently posited in the literature by Dittman and Morey [1]. That model applied a hospital profit-maximizing behavior and studied the effects of optimal pricing of hospital ancillary services on the incidence of payment by private insurance companies and the Medicare trust fund. Here, we examine variations of the above model where both hospital profit-maximizing and profit-satisficing postures are of interest. We apply the model to three types of Medicare reimbursement policies currently in use or under legislative mandate to implement. The policies differ according to hospital size and whether cross-subsidies are allowed. We are interested in determining the effects of profit-maximizing and -satisficing behaviors of these three reimbursement policies on the levels of profits received, and on the respective implications for private payors and the Medicare trust fund. PMID:6347973

  5. [Health technology assessment and its impact on pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Laborde, Carla; Silva-Illanes, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    The article conceptualizes the pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement policies related to financial coverage in the context of health systems. It introduces the pharmaceutical market as an imperfect one, in which appropriate regulation is required. Moreover, the basis that guide the pricing and reimbursement processes are defined and described in order to generate a categorization based on whether they are intended to assess the 'added value' and if the evaluation is based on cost-effectiveness criteria. This framework is used to review different types of these policies applied in the international context, discussing the role of the Health Technology Assessment in these processes. Finally, it briefly discusses the potential role of these types of policies in the Chilean context.

  6. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  7. Food Price Policies May Improve Diet but Increase Socioeconomic Inequalities in Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Nicole; Lacroix, Anne; Muller, Laurent; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is more prevalent among women and people with a low socioeconomic status. Policies that affect the price of food have been proposed to improve diet quality. The study's objective was to compare the impact of food price policies on the nutritional quality of food baskets chosen by low-income and medium-income women. Experimental economics was used to simulate a fruit and vegetable subsidy and a mixed policy subsidizing healthy products and taxing unhealthy ones. Food classification was based on the Score of Nutritional Adequacy of Individual Foods, Score of Nutrients to Be Limited nutrient profiling system. Low-income (n = 95) and medium-income (n = 33) women selected a daily food basket first at current prices and then at policy prices. Energy density (ED) and the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) were used as nutritional quality indicators. At baseline, low-income women selected less healthy baskets than medium-income women (less fruit and vegetables, more unhealthy products, higher ED, lower MAR). Both policies improved nutritional quality (fruit and vegetable quantities increased, ED decreased, the MAR increased), but the magnitude of the improvement was often lower among low-income women. For instance, ED decreased by 5.3% with the fruit and vegetable subsidy and by 7.3% with the mixed subsidy, whereas decreases of 13.2 and 12.6%, respectively, were recorded for the medium-income group. Finally, both policies improved dietary quality, but they increased socioeconomic inequalities in nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Oil price, government policies fuel industry's shift from U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silas, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The world exploration outlook starts with the outlook for the price of oil. This paper reports that oil prices and government policies for fuel industries shift from the U.S. If we've learned anything in the past decade it's that we're not very good at predicting oil prices. We can build economic models of supply and demand but we can't build models for political events in the Middle East or the actions of someone like Saddam Hussein. As we look to 2000 our best estimate is that oil will remain at about $20 for the near term and move upward very gradually during the rest of the decade. Of course, rising demand eventually should cause oil prices to break out and show some strength. But not soon. We don't see oil prices overcoming inflation until the latter part of the decade. And we aren't expecting oil prices much above $25 in inflation adjusted terms until the next century

  9. A comparison of discounted cashflow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPVs) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the weighted average cost of capital and a modern asset pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cashflow components. NPV differences of more than $10 million were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies and could influence tax policy. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model

  10. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the EU level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services

  11. Fair and efficient prices in traffic. Propositions on price policy for the sustainable development of traffic in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibach, M.; Ott, W.; Schreyer, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    Fair and efficient prices are a central topic in traffic policy, both at the European Union level and in Switzerland. They should allow the efficient use of the infrastructure, set up fair terms of competition between road and rail traffic and reduce traffic loading. At the same time, they should also make it possible to finance traffic in a sustainable manner. One of the main directions of attack is letting those responsible pay the external costs which result from traffic jams, accidents and environmental pollution. With the planned introduction of the usage-dependent heavy traffic levy, Switzerland has made an important step in the direction of true cost-allocation for goods vehicles. As for the rest of road traffic, however, considerable external costs are still not covered. On the other hand, rail traffic is not able to cover its infrastructure costs itself in spite of compensation it receives for the provision of public services [de

  12. The price of policy risk — Empirical insights from choice experiments with European photovoltaic project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüthi, Sonja; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Managing the transition to a renewable energy future is an important policy priority in many countries. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is expected to make an essential contribution, but due to relatively high cost, its growth to date has been largely driven by public policy, notably feed-in tariffs. Feed-in tariffs have been implemented in various countries, but with widely differing outcomes in terms of installed PV capacity. Previous research indicates that the level of policy risk may be an important driver for differences in renewable energy policy effectiveness. This paper suggests that project developers who make a decision between PV investment opportunities in different countries carefully weigh feed-in tariff-induced returns against a set of policy risks, and choose the country with the most favorable risk-return profile. This model is empirically tested by a stated preference survey among European PV project developers, consisting of 1575 choice decisions by 63 investors. The findings demonstrate that risk matters in PV policy design, and that a “price tag” can be attached to specific policy risks, such as the duration of administrative processes or uncertainty induced by an approaching capacity cap. Governments can build on these empirical results to design policies that will be effective in attracting private PV investment, while at the same time maintaining efficiency by providing an adequate compensation for policy risk. - Highlights: ► This study is based on 1575 choice and rating decisions made by 63 European PV project developers. ► This study confirms importance of “non-economic” barriers to deployment of renewable energy. ► This study measures “price of policy risk”, i.e. investors' willingness-to-accept certain policy risks.

  13. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Market and National Policies: A Case Study Revisiting the 2008 Price Peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Khabarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodity market super-cycle and food price crisis have been associated with rampant food insecurity and the Arab spring. A multitude of factors were identified as culprits for excessive volatility on the commodity markets. However, as it regards fertilizers, a clear attribution of market drivers explaining the emergence of extreme price events is still missing. In this paper, we provide a quantitative assessment of the price spike of the global phosphorus fertilizer market in 2008 focusing on diammonium phosphate (DAP. We find that fertilizer market policies in India, the largest global importer of phosphorus fertilizers and phosphate rock, turned out to be a major contributor to the global price spike. India doubled its import of P-fertilizer in 2008 at a time when prices doubled. The analysis of a wide set of factors pertinent to the 2008 price spike in phosphorus fertilizer market leads us to the discovery of a price spike magnification and triggering mechanisms. We find that the price spike was magnified on the one hand by protective trade measures of fertilizer suppliers leading to a 19% drop in global phosphate fertilizer export. On the other hand, the Indian fertilizer subsidy scheme led to farmers not adjusting their demand for fertilizer. The triggering mechanism appeared to be the Indian production outage of P-fertilizer resulting in the additional import demand for DAP in size of about 20% of annual global supply. The main conclusion is that these three factors have jointly caused the spike, underscoring the need for ex ante improvements in fertilizer market regulation on both national and international levels.

  14. What happens to drinking when alcohol policy changes? A review of five natural experiments for alcohol taxes, prices, and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P; McNall, Amy D

    2017-05-01

    Natural experiments are an important alternative to observational and econometric studies. This paper provides a review of results from empirical studies of alcohol policy interventions in five countries: Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Sweden, and Switzerland. Major policy changes were removal of quotas on travelers' tax-free imports and reductions in alcohol taxes. A total of 29 primary articles are reviewed, which contain 35 sets of results for alcohol consumption by various subpopulations and time periods. For each country, the review summarizes and examines: (1) history of tax/quota policy interventions and price changes; (2) graphical trends for alcohol consumption and liver disease mortality; and (3) empirical results for policy effects on alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. We also compare cross-country results for three select outcomes-binge drinking, alcohol consumption by youth and young adults, and heavy consumption by older adults. Overall, we find a lack of consistent results for consumption both within- and across-countries, with a general finding that alcohol tax interventions had selective, rather than broad, impacts on subpopulations and drinking patterns. Policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Class Size Reduction: Great Hopes, Great Challenges. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    This policy brief examines the benefits and the challenges that accompany class-size reduction (CSR). It suggests that when designing CSR programs, states should carefully assess specific circumstances in their schools as they adopt or modify CSR efforts to avoid the unintended consequences that some programs have experienced. Some of the…

  16. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999-2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. UK. UK smokers. Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and 'ultra-low price' (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. China's experiment on the differential electricity pricing policy and the struggle for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinjin

    2011-01-01

    Differential electricity pricing was promulgated by China's central government to guide the development of high energy-consuming industries, which are significant for energy conservation. This paper examines the twists and turns of the policy implementation at the provincial level, and seeks to elucidate the difficulties in its implementation. Local governments, concerned that following the central directives would hurt local interests, have tried to deviate from the central orders while the central revises the policy from time to time to ensure local compliance. Three difficulties are analyzed: (1) the current relations between the central and local energy regulatory institutions make these local institutions difficult to perform their duties, and affect incentives for local governments to respond to central directives; (2) financial reform puts a great burden on local governments to raise revenues to cover expenditures, making local governments focus mainly on economic development rather than serving merely as political agents of the central government; (3) the aggressive attitude of local governments in pursuing GDP growth is not necessarily driven by the central government, but by pressure from competition among localities and the need to win local support. Solving these difficulties is important for making national energy conservation polices effective and efficient. - Highlights: → Adopt the differential electricity pricing policy to achieve energy conservation. → The implementation of the differential electricity pricing policy is far from smooth. → Current relations between the central and local energy regulatory institutions. → Financial burden on local governments. → Pressure from competition among localities and the need to win local support.

  18. Energy price, Environmental policy, and technological bias of photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, A. Boudghene; Larbi, N.; Traversa, E.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the most important resource for the development of a country and the utilisation of energy per capita is increasing tremendously. In fact energy security, economic growth and environmental protection (the three E's) are the national energy policy drivers of any country of the world. Utilisation on conventional energy will course environment pollution such as major environmental accidents, water pollution, maritime pollution, land use and sitting impact, radiation and radioactivity, solid waste disposal, hazardous air pollutions, ambient air quality (CO, CO2, SOx, NOx effluent gas emissions), acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and global warming. The world's energy consumption today is estimated to 40 billion kWh per year, about 10 billion metric tons carbon equivalent of greenhouse gas emission are released in the atmosphere to meet this energy demand. Approximately 80% is due to carbon emissions from the combustion of energy fuels. In fact 14 billion tons of greenhouse gas, that contributes to global warming entered the atmosphere in 2003. World Energy Council (WEC) study found that without any change in our current practice, the world energy demand expectation in 2020 would be 53 billion kWh or 50 to 80% higher than 1990 levels. Such ever-increasing demand could place significant strain on the current energy infrastructure and potentially damage the world environment and people's health with over 700.000 deaths resulting each year, according to the World Bank. World emissions of carbon are expected to increase by 54% above 1990 levels by 2020 making the earth likely a warm 1.7-4.9 degree centigrade over the period 1990-2100. During the past century, global surface temperatures have increased at a rate near 0.6 degree centigrade/century. This trend has dramatically increased during the past 25 years and the average temperature of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans has risen by 0.06 degree centigrade since 1995. Global temperatures in 2001were

  19. Energy policies in a macroeconomic model: an analysis of energy taxes when oil prices decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capros, P.; Karadeloglou, P.; Mentzas, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts an analysis of energy and macroeconomic policy issues in oil-importing countries within the context of decreasing oil prices and macroeconomic modelling. A medium-term perspective is retained and the assumption is made that the economy experiences unemployment and excess capacity when the price declines. The analysis excludes any response elements that refer to long-term equilibria, optimum allocation of resources or welfare characterization of results which should be dealt with within the context of price adjusted equilibrium models. This paper adopts the approach of quantity adjusted neo-Keynesian macroeconomic models. The paper also inquires into the macroeconomic models currently used by the Commission of the European Communities. The analysis is carried out using the HGRV model which is a large-scale neo-Keynesian multisectoral macroeconomic model of the Greek economy. (UK)

  20. Energy policy, the energy price fallacy and the role of nuclear energy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    The widely held belief that the world energy problem will be solved by rising prices - closing the energy gap by reducing demand and bringing in new, large, previously overcostly energy sources is rejected by the author who feels that high prices are the problem and not the solution. It is argued that supply and demand will be brought into balance at some price, and the objective of energy policy should be to make it as low as possible, by concentrating on the exploitation of large, low-cost energy sources. The role of nuclear energy in this discussion is considered with respect to three specific points: the currently identified reserves of low-cost uranium, if used in fast reactors, represent an energy source greater than all other energy sources put together; nuclear power is the cheapest, safest and cleanest way of producing electricity; and electricity production accounts for a very large part of total primary energy consumption. (U.K.)

  1. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  2. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshammari, Yousef M.; Sarathy, S. Mani

    2017-01-01

    COP 21 led to a global agreement to limit the earth's rising temperature to less than 2 °C. This will require countries to act upon climate change and achieve a significant reduction in their greenhouse gas emissions which will play a pivotal role in shaping future energy systems. Saudi Arabia is the World's largest exporter of crude oil, and the 11th largest CO_2 emitter. Understanding the Kingdom's role in global greenhouse gas reduction is critical in shaping the future of fossil fuels. Hence, this work presents an optimisation study to understand how Saudi Arabia can meet the CO_2 reduction targets to achieve the 80% reduction in the power generation sector. It is found that the implementation of energy efficiency measures is necessary to enable meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy supply requirements. In addition, we determine the breakeven price of crude oil needed to make CCS economically viable. Results show important dimension for pricing CO_2 and the role of CCS compared with alternative sources of energy. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures are needed to achieve 80% reduction. • Nuclear appears as an important option to achieve deep cuts in CO_2 by 2050. • Technology improvement can enable using heavy fuel oil with CCS until 2050. • IGCC requires lower net CO_2 footprint in order to be competitive. • Nuclear power causes a sharp increase in the CO_2 avoidance costs.

  3. Prices versus policy: An analysis of the drivers of the primary fossil fuel mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, Tarek; Blazquez, Jorge; Hunt, Lester C.; Manzano, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Energy policymakers often attempt to shape their countries' energy mix, rather than leave it purely to market forces. By calibrating and simulating a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model, this paper analyzes the primary fossil fuel mix in the USA and compares it to Germany and the UK, given the different evolution of the mixes and the different roles played by relative prices and policy in North America and Europe. It is found that the model explains well the evolution of the primary fossil fuel mix in the USA for the period 1980–2014, suggesting that relative fossil fuel prices generally dominated in determining the mix during this time. However, this is not the case for Germany and the UK. For both countries, the model performs well only for the period after the market-oriented reforms in the 1990s. Additionally, the volatility of private consumption and output for the pre- and post-reform periods is evaluated for Germany and the UK and it is found that the liberalized energy markets brought about a transition from coal to natural gas, but with increased macroeconomic volatility. - Highlights: • Macroeconomic analysis of the importance of prices vs policy in driving the primary fossil fuel mix. • USA primary fossil fuel mix chiefly driven by relative prices since the early 1980s. • Germany and UK primary fossil fuel mix chiefly driven by policy until 1990s. • Germany and UK primary fossil fuel mix chiefly driven by relative prices since early to mid-1990s. • Transition from coal to natural gas in Germany and UK increased macroeconomic volatility.

  4. Understanding tobacco industry pricing strategy and whether it undermines tobacco tax policy: the example of the UK cigarette market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Tavakoly, Behrooz; Taylor, Gordon; Reed, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Tobacco tax increases are the most effective means of reducing tobacco use and inequalities in smoking, but effectiveness depends on transnational tobacco company (TTC) pricing strategies, specifically whether TTCs overshift tax increases (increase prices on top of the tax increase) or undershift the taxes (absorb the tax increases so they are not passed onto consumers), about which little is known. Design Review of literature on brand segmentation. Analysis of 1999–2009 data to explore the extent to which tax increases are shifted to consumers, if this differs by brand segment and whether cigarette price indices accurately reflect cigarette prices. Setting UK. Participants UK smokers. Measurements Real cigarette prices, volumes and net-of-tax- revenue by price segment. Findings TTCs categorise brands into four price segments: premium, economy, mid and ‘ultra-low price’ (ULP). TTCs have sold ULP brands since 2006; since then, their real price has remained virtually static and market share doubled. The price gap between premium and ULP brands is increasing because the industry differentially shifts tax increases between brand segments; while, on average, taxes are overshifted, taxes on ULP brands are not always fully passed onto consumers (being absorbed at the point each year when tobacco taxes increase). Price indices reflect the price of premium brands only and fail to detect these problems. Conclusions Industry-initiated cigarette price changes in the UK appear timed to accentuate the price gap between premium and ULP brands. Increasing the prices of more expensive cigarettes on top of tobacco tax increases should benefit public health, but the growing price gap enables smokers to downtrade to cheaper tobacco products and may explain smoking-related inequalities. Governments must monitor cigarette prices by price segment and consider industry pricing strategies in setting tobacco tax policies. PMID:23445255

  5. Optimal pricing and replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items with backlogging and trade credit under inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara Rajan, R.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we develop an economic order quantity model to investigate the optimal replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items under inflation and trade credit. Demand rate is a linear function of selling price and decreases negative exponentially with time over a finite planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the optimal selling price, optimal order quantity and optimal replenishment time. An easy-to-use algorithm is developed to determine the optimal replenishment policies for the retailer. We also provide optimal present value of profit when shortages are completely backlogged as a special case. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm provided to obtain optimal profit. And we also obtain managerial implications from numerical examples to substantiate our model. The results show that there is an improvement in total profit from complete backlogging rather than the items being partially backlogged.

  6. Legal and policy foundations for global generic competition: Promoting affordable drug pricing in developing societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Miguel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called 'TRIPS flexibilities' restated in 2001 by the World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health offer a variety of policy avenues for promoting global price-based competition for essential medicines, and thus for improving access to affordable medicines in the developing world. In recent years, developing countries and international organisations alike have begun to explore the potentialities of global generic markets and competition generally, and also of using compulsory licensing to remedy anti-competitive practices (e.g. excessive pricing) through TRIPS-compatible antitrust enforcement. These and other 'pro-competitive' TRIPS flexibilities currently available provide the critical leverage and policy space necessary to improve access to affordable medicines in the developing world.

  7. Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry R

    2012-02-01

    We examined health effects associated with 3 tobacco control interventions in Washington State: a comprehensive state program, a state policy banning smoking in public places, and price increases. We used linear regression models to predict changes in smoking prevalence and specific tobacco-related health conditions associated with the interventions. We estimated dollars saved over 10 years (2000-2009) by the value of hospitalizations prevented, discounting for national trends. Smoking declines in the state exceeded declines in the nation. Of the interventions, the state program had the most consistent and largest effect on trends for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cancer. Over 10 years, implementation of the program was associated with prevention of nearly 36,000 hospitalizations, at a value of about $1.5 billion. The return on investment for the state program was more than $5 to $1. The combined program, policy, and price interventions resulted in reductions in smoking and related health effects, while saving money. Public health and other leaders should continue to invest in tobacco control, including comprehensive programs.

  8. Price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The price terms in wheeling contracts very substantially, reflecting the differing conditions affecting the parties contracting for the service. These terms differ in the manner in which rates are calculated, the formulas used, and the philosophy underlying the accord. For example, and EEI study found that firm wheeling rates ranged from 20 cents to $1.612 per kilowatt per month. Nonfirm rates ranged from .15 mills to 5.25 mills per kilowatt-hour. The focus in this chapter is on cost-based rates, reflecting the fact that the vast majority of existing contracts are based on rate designs reflecting embedded costs. This situation may change in the future, but, for now, this fact can't be ignored

  9. Transfer Pricing and Developing Economies : A Handbook for Policy Makers and Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Joel; Fox, Randall; Loeprick, Jan; Mohindra, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen unprecedented public scrutiny over the tax practices of Multinational Enterprise (MNE) groups. Tax policy and administration concerning international transactions, aggressive tax planning, and tax avoidance have become an issue of extensive national and international debate in developed and developing countries alike. Within this context, transfer pricing, historically a subject of limited specialist interest, has attained name recognition amongst a broader global audie...

  10. Energy prices and the urban poor in India: Some policy imperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are: to study the pattern of domestic energy consumption of poor people in selected urban centers in India; to analyse the role of prices in determining the cost of providing energy for lighting and cooking in these urban areas; and to suggest policy alternatives which can reduce the cost meeting basic energy needs of the urban poor. Refs, 10 tabs

  11. Price Endogeneity and Marginal Cost Effects on Incentive Compatible Stormwater Management Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Matthew C.; Willis, David B.; Hayes, John C.; Privette, Charles V., III

    2010-01-01

    Incentive based stormwater management policies offer the prospect of reducing urban stormwater runoff while increasing developer profits. An incentive compatible Stormwater Banking Program (SBP) is presented that allows developers to build at higher residential densities in exchange for including low impact stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) in the development’s stormwater management infrastructure. Price endogeneity presents itself when the smaller residential lots created by buildi...

  12. Decline in oil prices and the negative interest rate policy in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    In April 2013, the Bank of Japan (BOJ) introduced an inflation target of 2% with the aim of overcoming deflation and achieving sustainable economic growth. But due to lower international oil prices it was unable to achieve this target and was forced to take further measures. Hence, in February 2016, the BOJ adopted a negative interest rate policy by massively increasing the money supply through purchasing long-term Japanese government bonds (JGBs). The BOJ had previously only purchased short-...

  13. Entrepreneurship, Public Policy and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Garba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of entrepreneurship and public policy toward poverty reduction in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship has proven to be a mechanism for poverty reduction through creation of employment opportunities, income as well as wealth. In some occasion entrepreneurs exploit opportunities at the expense of the existing policy to engage in activities that are not economically and socially productive. They neither create wealth nor do they improve on the economic performance of a country. The author conducted survey and interview to solicit for data from small and micro enterprises across Kano state and also used secondary information in analysing the situation in the country. Infrastructural decay, lack of coherent policies and institutional framework were partly responsible for escalating poverty in the Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the government while designing a policy toward entrepreneurship attempt should be made to identify and encourage high impact entrepreneurs that will genuinely contribute in creating real jobs and poverty reduction.

  14. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  15. Planning Oil Prices In The World Market And Preventive Policies In Energy Sector Of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raees Dana, Fariborz

    1999-01-01

    The planning of oil prices in the world can not be analyzed by means of the market-competition theory or the game theory. The current prices seem to be influenced greatly by large energy consuming industries of developed countries, oil producing corporations and cartels, and oil productions outside of OPEC. There is a lack of necessary long term policies and planning so that drastic changes in market prices can be avoided. The goal of this paper is to suggest new policies by means of discussing in following issues: 1.Initiating some form of a financial support for OPEC with the necessary follow up. 2. Utilization of oil income in sectors organized to have the least susceptibility against income loss and the lowest impact on other sectors. 3. Reducing of oil production level in the local and global framework and starting in industrialization process. 4. Replacement of oil with natural gas at a faster rate. 5. improving the oil industry infrastructure for lowering production costs and increasing variety in products in light of country economic policies and occupational strategies. 6. Imposing self-reliance on development of oil-production technology

  16. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  17. Interest groups' influence over drug pricing policy reform in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Joong

    2005-06-30

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way.

  18. Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf: protocol of a randomised controlled trial promoting healthy food and beverage consumption through price reduction and skill-building strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Ha ND

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of rising food prices, there is a need for evidence on the most effective approaches for promoting healthy eating. Individually-targeted behavioural interventions for increasing food-related skills show promise, but are unlikely to be effective in the absence of structural supports. Fiscal policies have been advocated as a means of promoting healthy eating and reducing obesity and nutrition-related disease, but there is little empirical evidence of their effectiveness. This paper describes the Supermarket Healthy Eating for LiFe (SHELf study, a randomised controlled trial to investigate effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored skill-building intervention and a price reduction intervention, separately and in combination, against a control condition for promoting purchase and consumption of healthy foods and beverages in women from high and low socioeconomic groups. Methods/design SHELf comprises a randomised controlled trial design, with participants randomised to receive either (1 a skill-building intervention; (2 price reductions on fruits, vegetables and low-joule soft drink beverages and water; (3 a combination of skill-building and price reductions; or (4 a control condition. Five hundred women from high and low socioeconomic areas will be recruited through a store loyalty card program and local media. Randomisation will occur on receipt of informed consent and baseline questionnaire. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Discussion This study will build on a pivotal partnership with a major national supermarket chain and the Heart Foundation to investigate the effectiveness of intervention strategies aimed at increasing women's purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables and decreased purchasing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. It will be among the

  19. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, Grant M.; Harvie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  20. What policy adjustments in the EU ETS truly affected the carbon prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Jia, Jun-Jun; Wang, Xin; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Carbon market becomes increasingly popular as a cost-effective instrument to mitigate CO_2 emissions. However, its construction is a learning-by-doing process, and needs consistent regulatory updates in order to deliver optimal effects. This paper uses the event study method to assess the impacts of different policy adjustments on the EUA returns in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) since 2005. Comparing to existing studies that focus on the impact of a single policy, this paper provides a complementary reference on if and to what extent policy adjustments can impact the carbon prices by classifying all regulatory update events into six categories. Its key findings are as follows. First, aggregate impacts of total 50 events studied are low while impacts of events having underlying negative impacts are higher than those having underlying positive impacts. Second, 24 events have significant impacts on EUA returns and are coherent to their theoretical impacts (except one event). Third, events having negligible impact on EUA returns are those that are announced not for the first time or those having no impact on CO_2 quotas supply and demand. Finally, there are different impact patterns: some events have different impacts on short-end and long-end carbon prices. - Highlights: • Impacts of policy adjustments in the EU ETS on carbon price are investigated. • Aggregate impacts of total 50 events studied are low. • Policy adjustments having underlying negative impacts have a higher impact. • Events that are announced for the first time are apt to have significant impact. • There are different impact patterns of events on EUA spot and futures returns.

  1. Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumax, Virginie; Philip, Jean-Marc; Sarasa, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs

  2. Elements for a policy of greenhouse effect gases reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the ''Grenelle de l'environnement'' on the fight against the greenhouse effect gases, the authors aim to offer propositions and recommendations for the future energy policy. They explain the possible confusions. They discuss the economic efficiency of propositions of CO 2 emissions reduction, the actions propositions in the different sectors and the axis of research and development. (A.L.B.)

  3. Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing's development by taking a 'multiple-lenses' approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon's multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy 'image' to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for

  4. The economics of gasoline subsidy cost reduction policy: Case study of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimaya, Muhammad I.

    only provides a subsidy for regular gasoline and in turn proposes an alternative policy that introduces a subsidy for premium gasoline at a lower rate to reduce the overall gasoline subsidy cost. There has yet to be any research that simulates price controls for gasoline with different grades. Simulations based on the calibrated demand are performed and the results confirm the existence of potential savings that are largely determined by the cross-price elasticities between regular and premium gasoline. The benchmark scenario, based on a recent study of substitutability between gasoline by grades, results in an 11.5% reduction in subsidy cost of around 950 million USD with a subsidy rate of Rp 2,254/liter. Furthermore, the optimal rate of subsidy for premium gasoline results in a reduction of inefficiency as consumers' welfare increase by 6.8 trillion rupiahs (or 560 million USD).

  5. Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steve; Hanley, Gillian; Greyson, Devon

    2009-01-01

    prescribed drug therapy. From the data available, we were unable to examine the hypothesis that tiered formulary policies result in greater use of physician services and potentially worse health outcomes. The available evidence does not clearly differentiate between reference pricing and tiered formularies in terms of policy outcomes. Reference pricing appears to have a slight evidentiary advantage, given that patients' health outcomes under tiered formularies have not been well studied and that tiered formularies are associated with increased rates of medicine discontinuation.

  6. Examining the Impact of Corporate Dividend Policy On Stock Price Volatility In Singapore : Does Financial Crisis Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Muhammad Asjad

    2016-01-01

    One of the most puzzling and widely researched topics in the field of corporate finance is corporate dividend policy and the probable impact it has on firms’ stock price volatility. Despite years of research and extensive empirical examination of the dividend policy-stock price volatility linkage, conflicting evidence across a multitude of studies implies that no solid conclusion regarding the veracity and validity of this relationship has yet been reached. Furthermore, there is a dearth of s...

  7. Impact of future price increase on ordering policies for deteriorating items under quadratic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita H. Shah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When a supplier announces a price increase at a certain time in the future, for each retailer it is important to choose whether to purchase supplementary stock to take benefit of the current lower price or procure at a new price. This article focuses on the possible effects of price increase on a retailer’s replenishment strategy for constant deterioration of items. Here, quadratic demand is debated; which is appropriate for the products for which demand increases initially and subsequently it starts to decrease with the new version of the substitute. We discuss two scenarios in this study: (I when the special order time coincides with the retailer’s replenishment time and (II when the special order time falls during the retailer’s sales period. We determine an optimal ordering policy for each case by maximizing total cost savings between special and regular orders during the depletion time of the special order quantity. Scenarios are established and illustrated with numerical examples. Through, sensitivity analysis important inventory parameters are classified. Graphical results, in two and three dimensions, are exhibited with supervisory decision.

  8. Pricing Policies in Managing Water Resources in Agriculture: An Application of Contract Theory to Unmetered Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Viaggi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how agricultural water pricing could contribute to lowering water demand when uses are unobserved (asymmetric information. The topic of the paper is justified by the fact that most water authorities worldwide do not control water uses at the farm scale. The study draws inspiration from the pricing policies of a Reclamation and Irrigation Board in Northern Italy. It analyses the optimal design of current tariff strategies with respect both to the actual regulator’s goals and the cost recovery objective of an ideal regulator driven by European Water Framework Directive principles and having full information. The analysis is based on the logic of a Principal-Agent model implemented as a mathematical non-linear programming model. Given the current pricing structure and assuming zero transaction costs, the results show a relevant increase in net benefits for the ideal scenario with respect to the actual one as water use costs increase. Benefits differences between the two scenarios mark a limit in value below which mechanisms able to solve the existing asymmetries between the principal and the agents are economically desirable. The study concludes by showing that the current regulator’s discriminatory strategy (pricing structure would be better justified with higher levels of cost for water use. However, the existence of non-zero transaction costs related to the control of water uses points to the need for further research in order to analyze incentive mechanisms in the absence of water metering.

  9. Fruit and vegetable environment, policy, and pricing workshop: introduction to the conference proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jennifer D; Fenley, Mary Ann; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Khan, Laura Kettel; Serdula, Mary

    2004-09-01

    Americans' consumption of fruits and vegetables has increased slightly over the last 10 years, but most people still do not meet the Dietary Guidelines recommendation to consume 5 to 9 servings per day. New and innovative strategies are needed if we are to significantly increase the mean population intake of fruits and vegetables. To help formulate such strategies as well as to evaluate evidence and identify research gaps, the American Cancer Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened the Fruit and Vegetable Environment, Policy, and Pricing Workshop, which brought together experts in how environmental change, policy, and pricing affect fruit and vegetable consumption. The papers in this supplement consist of a review of environmental interventions to improve nutrition and papers covering pricing and consumer value and how fruit and vegetable consumption can be promoted at worksites, restaurants, grocery stores and other community settings, and schools. Conclusions from the workshop were that existing intervention strategies need to be evaluated, promising example programs need to be disseminated, and new innovative interventions and programs need to be created and evaluated.

  10. Pricing and sales tax collection policies for e-cigarette starter kits and disposable products sold online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Raphael E; Miner, Angela; Mackey, Tim K

    2015-10-23

    Previous studies have examined marketing characteristics of e-cigarettes sold online and others have examined e-cigarettes pricing in retail (non-Internet) settings. This study expands on these findings by examining pricing and marketing characteristics of interest among e-cigarette online vendors. Structured web searches were conducted from August-September 2014 to identify popular e-cigarette Internet vendors. We then collected pricing data (e-cigarette starter kits and disposables), sales tax collection policies and other vendor marketing characteristics. Average price for each product category was then compared with marketing characteristics using linear regression for continuous variables and independent t-tests for binary variables. Our searches yielded 44 e-cigarette Internet vendors of which 77% (n = 34) sold a total of 238 starter kit offerings (Mprice = $55.89). Half (n = 22) sold disposable types of e-cigarettes (Mprice = $7.17 p/e-cigarette) at a price lower than reported elsewhere in retail settings. Average disposable e-cigarette prices were also significantly higher for vendors displaying more health warning notices (P = 0.001). Only 46% disclosed sales tax collection policies and only 39% collected sales tax in their state of business. This study expands on current understanding of e-cigarette pricing and availability online and finds variation in e-cigarette pricing may be influenced by type of product, use of online health warnings and vendor sales tax collection policies. It also finds that e-cigarette online access and availability may be impacted by a combination of pricing and marketing strategies uniquely different from e-cigarette retail settings that requires further study and targeted policy-making. [Cuomo RE, Miner A, Mackey TK. Pricing and sales tax collection policies for e-cigarette starter kits and disposable products sold online. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and

  11. Politics of policy learning: Evaluating an experiment on free pricing arrangements in Dutch dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Martijn; van de Bovenkamp, Hester; de Bont, Antoinette

    2018-01-01

    In Dutch healthcare, new market mechanisms have been introduced on an experimental basis in an attempt to contain costs and improve quality. Informed by a constructivist approach, we demonstrate that such experiments are not neutral testing grounds. Drawing from semi-structured interviews and policy texts, we reconstruct an experiment on free pricing in dental care that turned into a critical example of market failure, influencing developments in other sectors. Our analysis, however, shows that (1) different market logics and (2) different experimental logics were reproduced simultaneously during the course of the experiment. We furthermore reveal how (3) evaluation and political life influenced which logics were reproduced and became taken as the lessons learned. We use these insights to discuss the role of evaluation in learning from policy experimentation and close with four questions that evaluators could ask to better understand what is learned from policy experiments, how , and why .

  12. Pro-poor health policies in poverty reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laterveer, Leontien; Niessen, Louis W; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2003-06-01

    Since 1999, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank have required low-income countries soliciting for debt relief and financial support to prepare a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The objective of this study is to arrive at a systematic assessment of the extent to which the first batch of interim PRSPs actually addresses the health of the poor and vulnerable. A literature study was used to design and test a semi-quantitative approach to assess the pro-poor focus of health policies in national documents. The approach was applied to the existing interim proposals for 23 Highly Indebted Poor Countries. Results show that a majority of proposals lack country-specific data on the distribution and composition of the burden of disease, a clear identification of health system constraints and an assessment of the impact of health services on the population. More importantly, they make little effort to analyze these issues in relation to the poor. Furthermore, only a small group explicitly includes the interests of the poor in health policy design. Attention to policies aiming at enhancing equity in public health spending is even more limited. Few papers that include expenditure proposals also show pro-poor focused health budgets. We conclude that our systematic assessment of a new international development policy instrument, PRSP, raises strong concerns about the attributed role of health in development and the limited emphasis on the poor, the supposed primary beneficiaries of this instrument. There is a need and an opportunity for the international development community to provide assistance and inputs as poor countries shift their policy thinking from an interim stage to fully developed national policies. This paper presents a menu of analytical and policy options that can be pursued.

  13. Energy pricing policy in economies in transition (EIT) - economic and social impact case of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawczynski, F.

    1996-01-01

    The economic and social impact of the energy policy and pricing in countries with economies in transition is shown on the Polish example. Detailed changes in industrial production, growth of investments in Poland are shown for the period 1990-1996 with annual inflation rate unemployment data. This is followed by expected growth of investments and inflation for the period 1993-2000. In the framework of primary energy consumption structure in 1994 and prospect for 2000 two possible scenarios of gas consumption by households, industry and for power generation, are presented up to 2010. Gas prices for the mentioned consumers in Poland are compared to those in Western Europe and environmental impacts are mentioned as well

  14. Optimizing pricing and ordering strategies in a three-level supply chain under return policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori-daryan, Mahsa; Taleizadeh, Ata Allah

    2018-03-01

    This paper develops an economic production quantity model in a three-echelon supply chain composing of a supplier, a manufacturer and a wholesaler under two scenarios. As the first scenario, we consider a return contract between the outside supplier and the supplier and also between the manufacturer and the wholesaler, but in the second one, the return policy between the manufacturer and the wholesaler is not applied. Here, it is assumed that shortage is permitted and demand is price-sensitive. The principal goal of the research is to maximize the total profit of the chain by optimizing the order quantity of the supplier and the selling prices of the manufacturer and the wholesaler. Nash-equilibrium approach is considered between the chain members. In the end, a numerical example is presented to clarify the applicability of the introduced model and compare the profit of the chain under two scenarios.

  15. Policy issues related to substitution of the US dollar in oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa; Algahtani, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This policy paper attempts to evaluate the viability of switching from the US dollar to the euro in international oil pricing. If materialised, the switch would not impact only OPEC nations but would also have ramifications for other oil exporting as well as importing nations. It would also have considerable effect on US economy and international financial system. This paper recommends that in deciding which currency to use in oil pricing, OPEC member countries should not allow their positive or negative political rapport with the US Government to distort their rational choice. Switching to euro or any other currency will not eliminate loss of revenue, as the newly adopted currency will not be immune either from the exchange rate gyrations. In fact, there is no guarantee that the euro, yen, sterling pound, or any other major currency will be immune from fluctuations. As a way out, this paper recommends three alternatives. (Author)

  16. The Effects of the 2004 Reduction in the Price of Alcohol on Alcohol-Related Harm in Finland – a Natural Experiment Based on Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Herttua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in alcohol pricing have been documented as inversely associated with changes in consumption and alcohol-related problems. Evidence of the association between price changes and health problems is nevertheless patchy and is based to a large extent on cross-sectional state-level data, or time series of such cross-sectional analyses. Natural experimental studies have been called for. There was a substantial reduction in the price of alcohol in Finland in 2004 due to a reduction in alcohol taxes of one third, on average, and the abolition of duty-free allowances for travellers from the EU. These changes in the Finnish alcohol policy could be considered a natural experiment, which offered a good opportunity to study what happens with regard to alcohol-related problems when prices go down. The present study investigated the effects of this reduction in alcohol prices on (1 alcohol-related and all-cause mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, (2 alcohol-related morbidity in terms of hospitalisation, (3 socioeconomic differentials in alcohol-related mortality, and (4 small-area differences in interpersonal violence in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. Differential trends in alcohol-related mortality prior to the price reduction were also analysed.  A variety of population-based register data was used in the study. Time-series intervention analysis modelling was applied to monthly aggregations of deaths and hospitalisation for the period 1996-2006. These and other mortality analyses were carried out for men and women aged 15 years and over. Socioeconomic differentials in alcohol-related mortality were assessed on a before/after basis, mortality being followed up in 2001-2003 (before the price reduction and 2004-2005 (after. Alcohol-related mortality was defined in all the studies on mortality on the basis of information on both underlying and contributory causes of death. Hospitalisation related to alcohol meant that there was a

  17. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles-Evidence from China's Stock Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China's stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank's policymaking.

  18. What should be done about policy on alcohol pricing and promotions? Australian experts’ views of policy priorities: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol policy priorities in Australia have been set by the National Preventative Health Task Force, yet significant reform has not occurred. News media coverage of these priorities has not reported public health experts as in agreement and Government has not acted upon the legislative recommendations made. We investigate policy experts’ views on alcohol policy priorities with a view to establishing levels of accord and providing suggestions for future advocates. Methods We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with alcohol policy experts and advocates around Australia. Open-ended questions examined participants’ thoughts on existing policy recommendations, obvious policy priorities and specifically, the future of national reforms to price and promotions policies. All transcripts were analysed for major themes and points of agreement or disagreement. Results Twenty one alcohol policy experts agreed that pricing policies are a top national priority and most agreed that “something should be done” about alcohol advertising. Volumetric taxation and minimum pricing were regarded as the most important price policies, yet differences emerged in defining the exact form of a proposed volumetric tax. Important differences in perspective emerged regarding alcohol promotions, with lack of agreement about the preferred form regulations should take, where to start and who the policy should be directed at. Very few discussed online advertising and social networks. Conclusions Despite existing policy collaborations, a clear ‘cut through’ message is yet to be endorsed by all alcohol control advocates. There is a need to articulate and promote in greater detail the specifics of policy reforms to minimum pricing, volumetric taxation and restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly regarding sporting sponsorships and new media. PMID:23800324

  19. What should be done about policy on alcohol pricing and promotions? Australian experts' views of policy priorities: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2013-06-25

    Alcohol policy priorities in Australia have been set by the National Preventative Health Task Force, yet significant reform has not occurred. News media coverage of these priorities has not reported public health experts as in agreement and Government has not acted upon the legislative recommendations made. We investigate policy experts' views on alcohol policy priorities with a view to establishing levels of accord and providing suggestions for future advocates. We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with alcohol policy experts and advocates around Australia. Open-ended questions examined participants' thoughts on existing policy recommendations, obvious policy priorities and specifically, the future of national reforms to price and promotions policies. All transcripts were analysed for major themes and points of agreement or disagreement. Twenty one alcohol policy experts agreed that pricing policies are a top national priority and most agreed that "something should be done" about alcohol advertising. Volumetric taxation and minimum pricing were regarded as the most important price policies, yet differences emerged in defining the exact form of a proposed volumetric tax. Important differences in perspective emerged regarding alcohol promotions, with lack of agreement about the preferred form regulations should take, where to start and who the policy should be directed at. Very few discussed online advertising and social networks. Despite existing policy collaborations, a clear 'cut through' message is yet to be endorsed by all alcohol control advocates. There is a need to articulate and promote in greater detail the specifics of policy reforms to minimum pricing, volumetric taxation and restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly regarding sporting sponsorships and new media.

  20. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background : Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods : Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results : There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions : There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  1. Price control and macromarketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Price control at macro level is part of integral macro marketing strategic control system, or more precisely, part of social marketing mix control. Price impact is direct, if it is regarded in the context of needs satisfaction, and indirect, within the context of resource allocation. These two patterns of price impact define control mechanism structuring. Price control in sense of its direct impact at process of need satisfaction should comprise qualitative and quantitative level of needs satisfaction at a given price level and its structure, informational dimension of price and different disputable forms of corporate pricing policies. Control of price allocation function is based at objectives of macro marketing system management in the area of resource allocation and the role of price as allocator in contemporary market economies. Control process is founded, on one hand, at theoretical models of correlation between price and demand in different market structures, and on the other hand, at complex limits that price as allocator has, and which make whole control process even more complex because of reduction of the degree of determinism in functioning of contemporary economic systems. Control of price allocation function must be continuous and dynamic process if it is to provide for convergence with environmental changes and if it is to provide for placing control systems at micro marketing levels in the function of socially valid objectives.

  2. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  3. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process

  4. Causes of the EU ETS price drop: Recession, CDM, renewable policies or a bit of everything?—New evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Nicolas; Fuss, Sabine; Grosjean, Godefroy; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    The price of EU allowances (EUAs) in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) fell from almost 30€/tCO 2 in mid-2008 to less than 5€/tCO 2 in mid-2013. The sharp and persistent price decline has sparked intense debates both in academia and among policy-makers about the decisive allowance price drivers. In this paper we examine whether and to what extent the EUA price drop can be justified by three commonly identified explanatory factors: the economic recession, renewable policies and the use of international credits. Capitalizing on marginal abatement cost theory and a broadly extended data set, we find that only variations in economic activity and the growth of wind and solar electricity production are robustly explaining EUA price dynamics. Contrary to simulation-based analyses, our results point to moderate interaction effects between the overlapping EU ETS and renewable policies. The bottom line, however, is that 90% of the variations of EUA price changes remains unexplained by the abatement-related fundamentals. Together, our findings do not support the widely-held view that negative demand shocks are the main cause of the weak carbon price signal. In view of the new evidence, we evaluate the EU ETS reform options which are currently discussed. - Highlights: • We examine whether abatement-related fundamentals justify the EU ETS price drop. • 90% of the variations of EUA price changes remain unexplained. • Variations in economic activity are robustly explaining EUA price dynamics. • Price impact of renewable deployment and international credit use remains moderate. • Reform options are evaluated in the light of the new findings

  5. Gas price policies in Central and Eastern Europe. Papers and proceedings of the Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The seminar on the topic of gas pricing and its future supply to Central and Eastern European countries was organised by the United Nations Gas Centre, part of the Economic Commission for Europe, and sponsored by the Slovenian gas company Geoplin, the N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie and ABN-AMRO Bank. The purpose was to analyse natural gas pricing as the major prerequisite for further integration of the Eastern, Central and Western European gas markets. Almost 150 representatives of gas industries and government officials of 36 different countries presented and discussed their experiences, know-how and visions on the themes of gas pricing and, in relation to these, future supply options. A total of 19 Central and Eastern European countries were represented, 11 western European countries and two from other parts of the world. The large number of participating countries and the high level of participants present witnessed the general acceptance of the importance of sharing views and information as a step towards further integration of the European gas industry. Establishment of commercial price structures and policies was identified as a main concern of Central and Eastern European countries. At present, in many cases in economies in transition the current end user prices are not sufficient to cover import European border prices. Once introduced, the commercial prices will facilitate a country's diversification, which is not only important for diminishing dependency on one supplier, but its also important for the growth of the European market as a whole. Countries that can rely on a diversified supply will allow themselves to have a larger share of gas in their primary energy supply and will be able to support necessary investment. Future market growth in the European gas market as a whole is of great importance for reducing Europe's environmental burden. Experience over the past 20 years in the western European gas industry demonstrated that the market integration is based

  6. A comparison of three policy approaches for tobacco retailer reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E; Hall, Marissa G; Isgett, Lisa F; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1000 ft of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 ft the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another "gold standard" three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 ft of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of an oil price rise on inflation, output, and the exchange rate in the case of subsidization policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, F R

    1982-01-01

    Since the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries raised the price of oil by 400% in 1974, the theory of supply inflation has received a great deal of attention. This study analyses the short and long run effects of an oil price rise on output, inflation, and the exchange rate. The study also analyses dynamic adjustments to the oil price rise in cases where oil-price subsidies are provided and where no subsidies are provided. In the no-subsidy case it is shown that the oil price rise can be inflationary or deflationary. The implications of the policy of subsidizing the price of oil is highlighted by taking account of a government budget constraint which in turn leads to the possibility of monetization as a source of financing the deficit, and thereby to higher output relative to the no subsidy case. As to the price level, the possibility is illustrated that subsidization can actually be more inflationary. The important element giving rise to the above possibility is the subsidy induced increase in the money supply. Exchange-rate flexibility is shown not to insulate the domestic price level against an oil price rise. In the long run the rate of inflation and exchange-rate variations are determined by the rate of growth of the money supply. The dynamic adjustment path of price and output is shown to be determined by the rate of adjustment of inflationary expectations.

  8. The impact of price policy on demand for alcohol in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arjunan; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-10-01

    Whether raising the price of addictive goods can reduce its burden is widely debated in many countries, largely due to lack of appropriate data and robust methods. Three key concerns frequently raised in the literature are: unobserved heterogeneity; omitted variables; identification problem. Addressing these concerns, using robust instrument and employing unique individual-level panel data from Indian Punjab, this paper investigates two related propositions (i) will increase in alcohol price reduce its burden (ii) since greater incomes raise the costs of inebriation, will higher incomes affect consumption of alcohol negatively. Distinct from previous studies, the key variable of interest is the budget share of alcohol that allows studying the burden of alcohol consumption on drinker's and also on other family members. Results presented show that an increase in alcohol price is likely to be regressive, especially on the bottom quartile, with a rise in the budget share of alcohol given budget constraint. This outcome is robust to different econometric specifications. Preliminary explorations suggest that higher per capita income increases the odds of quitting drinking. Results reported have wider implications for the effective design of addiction related health policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy) diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kane, Sarah; Ramsey, Rebecca; Good, Elizabeth; Dick, Mathew

    2016-04-12

    Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy) diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy) diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended) diets, with the majority (53-64 %) of the food budget being spent on 'discretionary' choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20-31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy) diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  10. Testing the price and affordability of healthy and current (unhealthy diets and the potential impacts of policy change in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Price and affordability of foods are important determinants of health. Targeted food pricing policies may help improve population diets. However, methods producing comparable data to inform relevant policy decisions are lacking in Australia and globally. The objective was to develop and pilot standardised methods to assess the price, relative price and affordability of healthy (recommended and current (unhealthy diets and test impacts of a potential policy change. Methods Methods followed the optimal approach proposed by INFORMAS using recent Australian dietary intake data and guidelines. Draft healthy and current (unhealthy diet baskets were developed for five household structures. Food prices were collected in stores in a high and low SES location in Brisbane, Australia. Diet prices were calculated and compared with household incomes, and with potential changes to the Australian Taxation System. Wilcoxen-signed rank tests were used to compare differences in price. Results The draft tools and protocols were deemed acceptable at household level, but methods could be refined. All households spend more on current (unhealthy diets than required to purchase healthy (recommended diets, with the majority (53–64 % of the food budget being spent on ‘discretionary’ choices, including take-away foods and alcohol. A healthy diet presently costs between 20–31 % of disposable income of low income households, but would become unaffordable for these families under proposed changes to expand the GST to apply to all foods in Australia. Conclusions Results confirmed that diet pricing methods providing meaningful, comparable data to inform potential fiscal and health policy actions can be developed, but draft tools should be refined. Results suggest that healthy diets can be more affordable than current (unhealthy diets in Australia, but other factors may be as important as price in determining food choices.

  11. Energy-Saving and Carbon Reduction Effects of Long-Term Green Transportation Policy in Taiwan: International Comparisons and the East Asian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Chiu, Lee-in

    2014-01-01

    Energy-saving and carbon reduction in the transportation industry are becoming important research issues in East Asia. Among various international policy-effect evaluation frameworks, the current study fi rst reviews taxation, pricing, and demand elasticity among car users. Second, it reviews the thinking behind the operation of rail systems, as well as the policies therein, and evaluations of their effi ciency and sustainability. In the United States, developments in train systems that took ...

  12. The Association between Tax Structure and Cigarette Price Variability: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O’Connor, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance when cigarette excise tax structure departs from a uniform specific structure. However, the association between tax structure and cigarette price variability has not been thoroughly studied in the existing literature. Objective To examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with price variability. The variability of self-reported prices is measured using the ratios of differences between higher and lower prices to the median price such as the IQR-to-median ratio. Methods We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Cigarette prices were derived using individual purchase information and aggregated to price variability measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on price variability was estimated using Generalised Estimating Equations after adjusting for year and country attributes. Findings Our study provides empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette price variability. We find that, compared to the specific uniform tax structure, mixed uniform and tiered (specific, ad valorem or mixed) structures are associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). Moreover, while a greater share of the specific component in total excise taxes is associated with lower price variability (p≤0.05), a tiered tax structure is associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). The results suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption and prevalence by limiting price variability and decreasing opportunities for tax avoidance. PMID:25855641

  13. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    Over the past two decades, environmental concern has crept to the forefront of the world policy agenda. This concern has manifested itself differently throughout the world. In the United States, this has come in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) which have become one of the primary policy tools which states use to encourage renewable energy generation. The advent of RPS has spurred intense debate at a federal and state level, centering on the economic merits of promoting renewable energy generation. Detractors argue that RPS will raise electricity rates, since generation from renewable sources is typically costlier than energy generated from fossil fuels. At this point, evidence to the relationship between RPS on electricity prices remains unclear. Researchers have attempted to understand this relationship through a variety of means. The most common being regression based models, which utilize readily available United States Energy Information Agency (US EIA) data, and have uncovered a number of important independent variables which are incorporated into the model in this study. Examples include personal income, state population, and deregulation of an energy market. In addition to empirical studies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created complex mathematical models which generate scenario projections based on a number of assumptions. While interesting, these are forward looking tools and as such have not yielded a tremendous amount of insight into the underlying policy mechanics of RPS. A challenge of addressing this topic which is worth noting is that much of the research available which analyzes the merits of RPS caters to distinct political or private sector agendas. The research gathered for this study is comprehensive, and attempts to avoid studies with any clear political, ideological, or financial motivation. Using the insights from previous researchers this study develops a rigorous fixed effects regression model to

  14. Social Optimization and Pricing Policy in Cognitive Radio Networks with an Energy Saving Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunfu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of wireless application results in an increase in demand for spectrum resource and communication energy. In this paper, we firstly introduce a novel energy saving strategy in cognitive radio networks (CRNs and then propose an appropriate pricing policy for secondary user (SU packets. We analyze the behavior of data packets in a discrete-time single-server priority queue under multiple-vacation discipline. With the help of a Quasi-Birth-Death (QBD process model, we obtain the joint distribution for the number of SU packets and the state of base station (BS via the Matrix-Geometric Solution method. We assess the average latency of SU packets and the energy saving ratio of system. According to a natural reward-cost structure, we study the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior of the energy saving strategy and use an optimization algorithm based on standard particle swarm optimization (SPSO method to search the socially optimal arrival rate of SU packets. By comparing the individually optimal behavior and the socially optimal behavior, we impose an appropriate admission fee to SU packets. Finally, we present numerical results to show the impacts of system parameters on the system performance and the pricing policy.

  15. Applying Psychology to Economic Policy Design: Using Incentive Preserving Rebates to Increase Acceptance of Critical Peak Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Letzler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This project extends the idea that policy makers should address problems by improving economic incentives. This project adds that presenting incentives in a way that reflects how people make decisions can sometimes improve consumers’ responses to the incentives and policy outcomes. This paper uses behavioral economics to propose ways to increase electricity policy effectiveness. The cost of generating power fluctuates enormously from hour to hour but most customers pay time-invariant prices f...

  16. Price elasticities, policy measures and actual developments in household energy consumption - A bottom up analysis for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands it seems likely that the large number of new policy measures in the past decade has influenced the response of households to changing prices. To investigate this issue the energy trends in the period 1990-2000 have been simulated with a bottom-up model, applied earlier for scenario studies, and extensive data from surveys. For a number of alternative price cases the elasticity values found are explained using the bottom-up changes in energy trends. One finding is that the specific set of saving options defines for a great part the price response. The price effect has been analysed too in combination with the policy measures standards, subsidies and energy taxes. The simulation results indicate that the elasticity value could be 30-40% higher without these measures. (author)

  17. Benefits from Liberalisation. Update to EURELECTRIC-KEMA report confirms price reductions for customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    EURELECTRIC believes it important to consider facts and figures when discussing electricity prices. Electricity markets have delivered - and still deliver - lower prices since the beginning of the liberalisation process for a majority of customer categories. A report drawn up by KEMA on behalf of EURELECTRIC in November 2005 ('Review of European Electricity Prices') looked at price evolution from a European perspective. The figures included in this update are based on that report, updated by KEMA for the years 2005 and 2006. It is important to note that all data on electricity prices used are based on official Eurostat data

  18. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. Objective This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. Methods We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Findings Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities

  19. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance and brand

  20. Reduction of regional disparities in electric power prices by spatially effective measures and planning in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G

    1984-01-01

    For a long time energy policy has been trying to reduce disparities in electric power prices by administrative and financial measures alone. Governmental planning was opening up new prospects when long-range fuel transport - and in particular the transport of hard coal by ship or by rail - was seeing a drop in prices in the mid seventies. Since fuel transport has been lower-priced than the transport of equivalent quantities of electric power, regional disparities in electric power prices which are due to the respective supply structures may be levelled by way of power plant site selection and power plant installation according to the specific regional loads. A decentralized expansion of power generation within reach of the consumer requires but a minimum of wiring. Structural price disparities are reduced in particular in regions importing electric power at excessive prices. In addition, costs may be saved by rational energy utilization consisting above all in the application of dual-purpose power plants and by the rationalization of network infrastuctures. The study abstracted is part of a research project of the Federal Research Institute for Land Studies and Planning. The project is dealing with concepts of decentralized electric power supply and space heating. It adds to already existing related studies which deal above all with the basic problems of scheduling and planning the contents and inner structure of decentralized energy concepts.

  1. Impact of deployment of renewable portfolio standard on the electricity price in the State of Illinois and implications on policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Harold H.

    2012-01-01

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) of the State of Illinois specifies a schedule for the fraction of electricity produced from wind to be phased in through 2025. The price of electricity due to implementation of RPS in order to achieve a six-year payback on investment on new wind farms was estimated for six scenarios that examined the effect of electricity consumption growth rate, production tax credit of $0.022/kW h or unrestricted investment tax credit of 30%, and projected changes in installed project costs. In all cases, the electricity price was found to be dominated by the installed project cost (capital cost). Thus, any policy that affects the capital cost directly or indirectly would have a significant effect on the electricity price. Whereas investment tax credit has a direct effect, policies that encourage technology improvement and improve transmission lines would have a similar effect of lowering the capital cost. Carbon tax, on the other hand, would increase the electricity price to the consumers, although it offers other benefits. Highlights: ► Capital cost dominates the price of wind electricity. ► Policies for wind electricity should aim at lowering the capital cost directly or indirectly. ► Carbon tax does not lower wind electricity price, and is beneficial for other reasons.

  2. A structural model for electricity prices with spikes: measurement of spike risk and optimal policies for hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamura, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for electricity prices based on demand and supply, which we call a structural model. We show that the structural model can generate price spikes that fits the observed data better than those generated by other preceding models such as the jump diffusion model and the Box-Cox transformation model. We apply the structural model to obtain the optimal operation policy for a pumped-storage hydropower generator, and show that the structural model can provide more realistic optimal policies than the jump diffusion model. (author)

  3. A structural model for electricity prices with spikes: measurement of spike risk and optimal policies for hydropower plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanamura, Takashi [Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy; Ohashi, Azuhiko [J-Power, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    This paper proposes a new model for electricity prices based on demand and supply, which we call a structural model. We show that the structural model can generate price spikes that fits the observed data better than those generated by other preceding models such as the jump diffusion model and the Box-Cox transformation model. We apply the structural model to obtain the optimal operation policy for a pumped-storage hydropower generator, and show that the structural model can provide more realistic optimal policies than the jump diffusion model. (author)

  4. GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS AND AGRARIAN HOUSEHOLDS' INCOME, REMITTANCE AND PRICES IN RURAL NIGERIA AMID POLICY RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaduabuchukwu Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent global financial crisis affected almost all aspect of human life. This paper explored effects of the global financial crisis on farmers' income, remittance and prices of food staples and highlighted certain government policy responses. The study was conducted in Nigeria. Secondary data were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, equivalent variation and Shannon index analysis. Results showed the global financial crisis affected the agrarian households/sector in Nigeria. The increase in prices meant more nominal income to farmers but grossly reduced their welfare due to decrease in real income as result of high inflation trend. Recommendations include that government should continue to sustain agrarian programs aimed at helping poor farmers to increase their capacity in production to meet the growing demand and changes. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  5. Tobacco control policies are egalitarian: a vulnerabilities perspective on clean indoor air laws, cigarette prices, and tobacco use disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Glantz, Stanton

    2009-04-01

    This study models independent associations of state or local strong clean indoor air laws and cigarette prices with current smoker status and consumption in a multilevel framework, including interactions with educational attainment, household income and race/ethnicity and the relationships of these policies to vulnerabilities in smoking behavior. Cross sectional survey data are employed from the February 2002 panel of the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (54,024 individuals representing the US population aged 15-80). Non-linear relationships between both outcome variables and the predictors were modeled. Independent associations of strong clean indoor air laws were found for current smoker status (OR 0.66), and consumption among current smokers (-2.36 cigarettes/day). Cigarette price was found to have independent associations with both outcomes, an effect that saturated at higher prices. The odds ratio for smoking for the highest versus lowest price over the range where there was a price effect was 0.83. Average consumption declined (-1.16 cigarettes/day) over the range of effect of price on consumption. Neither policy varied in its effect by educational attainment, or household income. The association of cigarette price with reduced smoking participation and consumption was not found to vary with race/ethnicity. Population vulnerability in consumption appears to be structured by non-white race categories, but not at the state and county levels at which the policies we studied were enacted. Clean indoor air laws and price increases appear to benefit all socio-economic and race/ethnic groups in our study equally in terms of reducing smoking participation and consumption.

  6. Sensitivity of district heating system operation to heat demand reductions and electricity price variations: A Swedish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Widén, J.; Henning, D.

    2012-01-01

    In the future, district heating companies in Sweden must adapt to energy efficiency measures in buildings and variable fuel and electricity prices. Swedish district heating demands are expected to decrease by 1–2% per year and electricity price variations seem to be more unpredictable in the future. A cost-optimisation model of a Swedish local district heating system is constructed using the optimisation modelling tool MODEST. A scenario for heat demand changes due to increased energy efficiency in buildings, combined with the addition of new buildings, is studied along with a sensitivity analysis for electricity price variations. Despite fears that heat demand reductions will decrease co-generation of clean electricity and cause increased global emissions, the results show that anticipated heat demand changes do not increase the studied system's primary energy use or global CO 2 emissions. The results further indicate that the heat production plants and the fuels used within the system have crucial importance for the environmental impact of district heat use. Results also show that low seasonal variations in electricity price levels with relatively low winter prices promote the use of electric heat pumps. High winter prices on the other hand promote co-generation of heat and electricity in CHP plants. -- Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Uppsala district heating system is built. ► The impact of heat demand change on heat and electricity production is examined. ► An electricity price level sensitivity analysis for district heating is performed. ► Heat demand changes do not increase the primary energy use or global CO 2 emissions. ► Low winter prices promote use of electric heat pumps for district heating production.

  7. Wind power in the Danish liberalised power market-Policy measures, price impact and investor incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind power has a strong position at the Danish electricity market, mainly caused by high feed-in tariffs in the 1990s. Investments in new wind-power installations on land, however, have declined dramatically after the Danish electricity market was liberalised in 1999. First, the paper describes how policy measures directed towards wind power have been redesigned to match the liberalised market. Then, we estimate the impact of the redesigned tariffs on the electricity prices. Finally, we assess whether the new tariffs make an incentive to invest in wind power. The paper concludes that the new tariffs not by itself make evidence for the actual Danish recession in new wind-power installations after the electricity reform. The main causes could include a combination of problems in spatial planning, high risk aversion of new wind turbine investors and perhaps more favourable support schemes in other countries

  8. On creating of a new pricing policy for natural gas in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G'oshev, P.

    1994-01-01

    The joint venture company BULSOFGAS, representing the interests of SOFREGAS (France) and GAZSTROJMONTAZH (Bulgaria) have investigated in 1991 the natural gas usage in household sector in the towns of Montana and Blagoevgrad. The results received show the necessity of introducing a new pricing policy directed to different consumers' groups. The solving of this problem will contribute to: 1) creating possibilities for financing the projects, their realisation and motivation of users; 2) generating preconditions for setting up domestic corporations involved in organizing, financing and operation of urban gas supply networks; 3) more efficient and economically beneficial usage of energy sources at a significantly higher comfort. A special attention is paid to the government activities in this matter. (orig.)

  9. Pricing Policies in Green Supply Chains with Vertical and Horizontal Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the pricing policies and green strategies in a duopoly green supply chain with vertical and horizontal competition, which includes a green manufacturer, a traditional manufacturer and a common retailer. The purpose of the paper is to address the following research problems: (1 How manufacturers’ market power influences the pricing policies and green strategies of supply chain members in a green supply chain? (2 What conditions do first-mover advantage and green competitive advantage be effective simultaneously? We establish the linear demand functions of the duopoly green supply chain and obtain the players’ optimal decisions under channel members’ different market power. Further, we conduct sensitivity analysis and numerical examples of players’ optimal decisions about consumer’s environmental awareness and greening cost effector. Based on the theoretical and numerical analysis, we find that green manufacturer would benefit from the increment of consumer’s environmental awareness but be depressed by the increase of greening cost, which is contrary to the traditional manufacturer. Additionally, correlations of retailer’ optimal decisions and profits between consumer’s environmental awareness and greening cost effector are related to the manufacturers’ market power structures. Furthermore, we find that the green competitive advantage is more effective than first-mover advantage while first-mover advantage does not always effective in the duopoly green supply chain. Specially, traditional manufacturer always prefers to be the follower competing with the green manufacturer, no matter with the variety of consumer’s environmental awareness and greening cost effector, while green manufacturer would like to be the leader only when the consumer’s environmental awareness is relatively high or the greening cost effector is relatively low.

  10. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  11. Gold prices

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph G. Haubrich

    1998-01-01

    The price of gold commands attention because it serves as an indicator of general price stability or inflation. But gold is also a commodity, used in jewelry and by industry, so demand and supply affect its pricing and need to be considered when gold is a factor in monetary policy decisions.

  12. A Case Study of Pharmaceutical Pricing in China: Setting the Price for Off-Patent Originators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanlian; Zhang, Yabing; He, Jiangjiang; Du, Lixia; Xu, Mingfei; Xie, Chunyan; Peng, Ying; Wang, Linan

    2015-08-01

    This article aims to define a value-based approach to pricing and reimbursement for off-patent originators using a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach centered on a systematic analysis of current pricing and reimbursement policies in China. A drug price policy review was combined with a quantitative analysis of China's drug purchasing database. Policy preferences were identified through a MCDA performed by interviewing well-known academic experts and industry stakeholders. The study findings indicate that the current Chinese price policy includes cost-based pricing and the establishment of maximum retail prices and premiums for off-patent originators, whereas reference pricing may be adopted in the future. The literature review revealed significant differences in the dissolution profiles between originators and generics; therefore, dissolution profiles need to be improved. Market data analysis showed that the overall price ratio of generics and off-patent originators was around 0.54-0.59 in 2002-2011, with a 40% price difference, on average. Ten differentiating value attributes were identified and MCDA was applied to test the impact of three pricing policy scenarios. With the condition of implementing quality consistency regulations and controls, a reduction in the price gap between high-quality off-patent products (including originator and generics) seemed to be the preferred policy. Patents of many drugs will expire within the next 10 years; thus, pricing will be an issue of importance for off-patent originators and generic alternatives.

  13. Diversification of Oil and Gas Companies’ Activities in the Condition of Oil Prices Reduction and Economic Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of the economic sanctions imposed from the USA and the EU and oil prices reduction on the oil and gas companies and the directions of diversification of their activity as a method of management of price risks are considered. In the modern dynamic and quickly developing world, in the conditions of globalization and market economy, the oil and gas companies are affected by various risks which can exert negative impact on production and financial results. Risks can arise in absolutely various spheres, beginning from natural and technological hazards, and finishing with price risks. Sharp reduction of oil prices and decrease in demand for energy resources in the world markets, first of all in the European countries, input of financial or technological sanctions from the USA and Europe against Russia in 2014 has caused necessity of search a new more effective methods of price risks management of the oil and gas company. The methods of price risk management include the creation of commodity reserves, the establishment of a reserve fund, long-term contracts, subsidies from the state and the diversification of activities. The most effective it is possible to offer diversification of oil and gas companies' activity. It is expedient to carry out diversification of oil and gas companies' activity in such directions as geographical diversification of the oil, oil products and gas realization directions, geographical diversification of oil and gas companies' purchasing activity, diversification of oil, oil products and gas transportation ways, diversification of oil and gas companies' business. This approach allows to expand the activities of the oil and gas companies and create additional ways to generate revenue and enhance efficiency of oil and gas companies.

  14. The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Tauras, John A; Ross, Hana

    2005-09-01

    This paper expands the youth cigarette demand literature by undertaking an examination of the determinants of smoking among high school students incorporating the importance of peer effects and allowing cigarette prices (taxes) and tobacco control policies to have a direct effect and an indirect effect (via the peer effect) on smoking behavior. To control for the potential endogeneity of our school-based peer measure we implement a two-stage generalized least squares estimator for a dichotomous dependent variable and implement a series of diagnostic tests. The key finding is that peer effects play a significant role in youth smoking decisions: moving a high-school student from a school where no children smoke to a school where one quarter of the youths smoke is found to increase the probability that the youth smokes by about 14.5 percentage points. The results suggest that there is a potential for social multiplier effects with respect to any exogenous change in cigarette taxes or tobacco control policies.

  15. Review of energy efficiency CO2 and price policies and measures in EU countries and Norway in 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    For each countries of the European Union and the Norway, this document provides statistical data and analysis of the situation concerning the energy efficiency context, the measures and programs on the energy policy, the energy taxes and prices, the budget. (A.L.B.)

  16. Changes in alcohol consumption following a reduction in the price of spirits: a natural experiment in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Jean-Luc; Gmel, Gerhard; Zurbrügg, Christoph; Kuo, Meichun; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-10-01

    To discover what changes in alcohol consumption had occurred in subgroups defined by age, sex, volume of drinking and drinking occasions, following a reduction in the price of spirits in Switzerland in July 1999. Quasi-experimental. Longitudinal general-population survey with baseline 3 months before and follow-up 3 months after price change. Probabilistic telephone sample of 1347 individuals with at least monthly consumption on average in the previous 6 months at both interviews. The response rate at baseline was 74,8% and the attrition rate from baseline to follow-up 20.2%. Alcohol consumption was assessed by means of a beverage-specific graduated-frequency measure. High volume of drinking was defined as 40 + g/day for men and 20 + g/day for women. Binge drinking was defined as six + drinks on an occasion for men and four + drinks for women. Spirits consumption increased significantly (by 28.6%) in the total sample, and specifically in young males and in individuals who were low-volume drinkers at baseline. Consumption of alcohol overall, or of wine or beer, did not change significantly. No indication of effects of substitution was found. Spirits consumption showed price-responsiveness in the early postintervention period. This finding is of particular interest, as (a) the increase in spirits consumption took place at a time of generally declining consumption of alcohol in Switzerland; and (b) in contrast to the findings of most studies, the intervention, namely price reduction, increased availability.

  17. A prospective analysis of Brazilian biofuel economy: Land use, infrastructure development and fuel pricing policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez Amortegui, Hector Mauricio

    Being the two largest ethanol producers in the world, transportation fuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. affect not only their domestic markets but also the global food and biofuel economy. Hence, the complex biofuel policy climate in these countries leaves the public with unclear conclusions about the prospects for supply and trade of agricultural commodities and biofuels. In this dissertation I develop a price endogenous mathematical programming model to simulate and analyze the impacts of biofuel policies in Brazil and the U.S. on land use in these countries, agricultural commodity and transportation fuel markets, trade, and global environment. The model maximizes the social surplus represented by the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses, including selected agricultural commodity markets and fuel markets in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China, and the Rest-of-the-World (ROW), subject to resource limitations, material balances, technical constraints, and policy restrictions. Consumers' surplus is derived from consumption of agricultural commodities and transportation fuels by vehicles that generate vehicle-kilometers-traveled (VKT). While in the other regional components aggregate supply and demand functions are assumed for the commodities included in the analysis, the agricultural supply component is regionally disaggregated for Brazil and the U.S., and the transportation fuel sector is regionally disaggregated for Brazil. The U.S. agricultural supply component includes production of fourteen major food/feed crops, including soybeans, corn and wheat, and cellulosic biofuel feedstocks. The Brazil component includes eight major annual crops, including soybeans, corn, wheat, and rice, and sugarcane as the energy crop. A particular emphasis is given to the beef-cattle production in Brazil and the potential for livestock semi-intensification in Brazilian pasture grazing systems as a prospective pathway for releasing new croplands. In the fuel sector of both

  18. Prices versus quantities: choosing policies for promoting the development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Philippe; Finon, Dominique; Lamy, Marie-Laure

    2003-01-01

    Now that the risks of climate change have been confirmed and the European States have declared their willingness to pursue ambitious objectives for producing electricity from renewable energy sources, it becomes crucial to take a look at the relative efficiency of the different incentive schemes used. Such schemes may focus on quantities-defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading, or they may focus on prices-feed-in tariffs. Clearly, these instruments are much the same as those used in environmental policies, with similar discussion involved in their choice. Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalised. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions--uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects--which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The authors examine the efficiency of the different incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources, both from a theoretical point of view by comparing price-based approaches with quantity-based approaches, and from a practical point of view by looking at concrete examples of how these different instruments have been implemented. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach

  19. Recent developments and current policy issues in road pricing in the US and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin

    2005-01-01

    The United States and Canada lag Europe and Singapore in implementing road pricing on a large scale. But the two countries have shown interest in tolling roads as a way to curb congestion and to generate revenues. The US is funding congestion pricing demonstration projects through its Value Pricing Pilot Program, and Canada has examined new ways to charge for road use and to finance road construction and maintenance. This paper reviews the current state of road pricing and funding...

  20. Alcohol Control and Harm Reduction Policies in Lebanon | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Findings will document the current national alcohol policy and identify the direct and indirect influences of policy-relevant factors and psychosocial mediators on alcohol consumption and purchasing. Researchers will also assess the potential impact of specific alcohol-control policy packages. The results should help to ...

  1. A framework for diagnosing the regional impacts of energy price policies. An application to natural gas deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, S.; Kalt, J.P.; Lee, H.

    1986-03-01

    Energy policy debates in the U.S. have frequently centered upon asserted regional effects. 'Consuming' regions are commonly pitted against 'producing' regions, with the latter purportedly gaining/losing at the expense of the former under higher/lower energy prices. Such simple views ignore regional trade linkages, the geographic distribution of ownership in energy using and producing firms, and the microeconomics of the incidence of energy price changes. This study presents a framework which incorporates these factors and allows assessment of the net regional income effects of changing energy prices. When applied to U.S. natural gas policy, the study's results indicate that the income effects of a rise in gas prices tend to be much more evenly spread than a naive assignment of increased costs and revenues to consuming and producing regions, respectively, would indicate. Under a number of plausible scenarios, in fact, it is likely that certain net gas consuming regions (e.g., the Pacific Northwest) have benefitted from the recent deregulation of U.S. gas prices. 14 refs. (A.V.)

  2. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  3. Policy Brief: Petroleum product pricing reforms in India. Are we on the right track?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Pravin Kumar; Soni, Anmol

    2013-03-15

    The path to petroleum product pricing reforms in India has been full of undulations. Even though Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) was dismantled during 1 April 1998 to 31 March 2002, the government continued to regulate the prices of petrol, diesel, Public distribution System (PDS) kerosene, and domestic LPG, except for over a year, when oil marketing companies (OMCs) revised the consumer prices of petrol and diesel in line with the international prices. In June 2010, petrol pricing was deregulated, but government control continued to an extent. This control of petroleum product prices has not only severely affected the fiscal balance of the economy, but has also adversely impacted the oil companies (both upstream and downstream), eventually affecting the overall development of the sector. In fact, the impact of petroleum product subsidies has compelled the government to announce certain reforms in the past few months.

  4. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  5. Analysis: climate policy in the United States: what economic instrument for a carbon price signal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    At the time of his election as President of the United States, Barack Obama declared that 'We will make it clear to the world that America is ready to lead to protect our environment'. The 2050 objective of cutting CO 2 emissions by 80% compared to the 1990 level, as affirmed in the election campaign, will involve directing the market in accordance with a carbon price signal that includes the true cost of greenhouse gas emissions so as to establish a policy that is both effective and credible, i.e. likely to lead developing countries into the global effort. An emission allowance market, rather than a carbon tax, should therefore come into being. However, those who advocate the tax - more numerous in academic circles than among political decision-makers - are sharpening up their arguments. In particular, they identify the measures to be taken if we wish to attain an environmental objective and curb social inequalities. Similar arguments could serve as the basis for an international agreement that would strongly incite emerging countries to reduce their emissions while remaining equitable towards them. (author)

  6. From policy to practice: Addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in afterschool programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Brie; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a community partnership between afterschool programs (ASPs) and grocery store to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit/vegetable (FV) daily, while eliminating sugar-based foods/beverages. Methods A single-group, pre- with multiple post-test design (Spring 2011–2013) in four large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/day was used along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. Results At baseline FV, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and desserts were served 0.1±0.5, 1.7±2.0, and 2.0±1.4 days/wk. By Spring 2013, FV increased to 5.0±0.0 days/wk, while SSB and desserts were eliminated. Eighty-four percent of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000–$3,000 savings over a standard 180day school year. Conclusions and Implications This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. PMID:24268299

  7. From policy to practice: addressing snack quality, consumption, and price in after-school programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Moore, Justin B; Webster, Collin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a community partnership between after-school programs (ASPs) and grocery stores to provide discounted pricing on snacks to meet the National Afterschool Association Healthy Eating Standards that call for serving a fruit or vegetable (FV) daily while eliminating sugar-based foods and beverages. A single-group, pretest with multiple posttest design (spring, 2011-2013) in 4 large-scale ASPs serving 500 children/d was used, along with direct observation of snacks served, consumed, and cost. At baseline, FV, sugar-sweetened beverages, and desserts were served 0.1 ± 0.5, 1.7 ± 2.0, and 2.0 ± 1.4 d/wk. By spring, 2013, FV increased to 5.0 ± 0.0 d/wk, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts were eliminated. A total of 84% of children consumed the fruit; 59% consumed the vegetables. Cost associated with purchasing snacks resulted in a $2,000-$3,000 savings over a standard 180-day school year. This partnership can serve as a model for successfully meeting nutrition policies established for ASP snacks. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  8. Oscillatory Reduction in Option Pricing Formula Using Shifted Poisson and Linear Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmawati Ro’fah Nur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Option is one of derivative instruments that can help investors improve their expected return and minimize the risks. However, the Black-Scholes formula is generally used in determining the price of the option does not involve skewness factor and it is difficult to apply in computing process because it produces oscillation for the skewness values close to zero. In this paper, we construct option pricing formula that involve skewness by modified Black-Scholes formula using Shifted Poisson model and transformed it into the form of a Linear Approximation in the complete market to reduce the oscillation. The results are Linear Approximation formula can predict the price of an option with very accurate and successfully reduce the oscillations in the calculation processes.

  9. CO-2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 4: Cargo transport - road pricing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    In this paper other financial control measures than fuel prices are considered for the transportation sector. The main effect discussed is that of the road pricing system. From the point of view of the CO 2 emission there could be introduced a registration tax for trucks over 4 tons as the higher transport expenditure would tend to reduce road transport demand. EU infrastructure tax directive however recommends taxes for trucks exceeding 12 tons. Road pricing will grow within the categories of lighter trucks but it is only a minor fraction of the total truck expenditure, taking into account fuel tax, weight tax and registration tax. Insurance cost is not included in these consideration. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 22 refs

  10. Research on CO2 Emission Reduction Mechanism of China’s Iron and Steel Industry under Various Emission Reduction Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage dynamic game model of China’s iron and steel industry is constructed. Carbon tax levy, product subsidy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS and other factors are included in the emission reduction mechanism. The effects of emissions reduction and the economic impact of China’s overall steel industry (and that of its six main regions are investigated for the first time under different scenarios. As new findings, we report the following: (1 Not all factors declined. The overall social welfare, consumer surplus, output and emissions decrease with a gradual increase in the reduction target, whereas the carbon tax value, unit value of product subsidies and total subsidies show a rising trend; (2 A combination of multiple emissions reduction policies is more effective than a single policy. With the implementation of a combined policy, regional output polarization has eased; (3 Steel output does not exceed 950 million tons, far below the current peak. These results will help the industry to formulate reasonable emissions reduction and output targets. In short, in effort to eliminate industry poverty and to alleviate overcapacity, the industry should not only adopt the various coordinated reduction policies, but also fully consider regional differences and reduction needs.

  11. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas; Rosenberg, Mitchell

    2003-01-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level

  12. Pricing policies for a two-part exhaustible resource cartel: the case of OPEC (world oil project). Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnyilicza, E.; Pindyck, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    This paper examines pricing policies for OPEC under the assumption that the cartel is composed of a block of spender countries with large cash needs and a block of saver countries with little immediate need for cash and a lower rate of discount. The decision problem for the two-part cartel is embodied in a game-theoretic framework and the optimal bargaining solution is computed using results from the theory of cooperative games developed by Nash. The set of feasible bargaining points--and the corresponding Nash solution--is computed under two assumptions on the behavior of output shares: that they are subject to choice and that they are fixed at historical values. The results suggest that for fixed output shares, there is little room for bargaining and the price path approximates the optimal monopoly price path. If the shares are subject to control, optimal paths depend significantly on the relative bargaining power of each block.

  13. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, Thomas A.; Hathaway, Brandon J.; Smith, Timothy M.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  14. Peak reduction in decentralised electricity systems : Markets and prices for flexible planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höning, N.F.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary societies, industrial processes as well as domestic activities rely to a large degree on a well-functioning electricity system. This reliance exists both structurally (the system should always be available) and economically (the prices for electricity affect the costs of operating a

  15. Some Key Issues in Policy, Pricing, Regulation, and Financing of Irrigation Development in India Today

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the stylised problems relating to water and irrigation in India and argue that most of the inefficiencies, misuse and environmental damage have their roots in the mispricing of water and electricity. Since the only kind of subsidies thus far used are price based input subsidies they end up distorting the allocative prices, from which the other distortions follow. The problems of the sector can be overcome by changing the method of subsidisation. Converting price based...

  16. Sellers’ Pricing Policy in Spatial Competition Models (a case study of the Russian rolled product market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbenko A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article views competition in the rolled section market. The hypotheses about price discrimination, competition according to Cournot or Hotelling being present at this market, have been tested. The dependence of rolled section prices in the region on the distance between the region and rolled section producers’ location, as well as on other factors, has been tested. It is concluded that the Russian rolled section market is characterized by Hotelling competition without using price discrimination

  17. Empirical study of peak-load pricing and investment policies for the domestic market of gas in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzoannos, J

    1977-06-01

    This paper reports the main results of a study aimed at determining empirically an optimal structure of seasonal tariffs for the domestic sector of gas in Great Britain. The study first involves the development of a peak-load pricing model which maximizes social welfare. The model is then quantified with cost and demand functions which have been statistically estimated for Great Britian using data for town gas. The procedure of estimating these functions is based on an error components model. The seasonal pricing and investment policy resulting from the solution to the above model is then compared with the existing policy for the domestic sector of gas in Great Britain. It is shown that the former is superior to the latter in terms of improvements in social welfare and capacity utilization. 22 references.

  18. Changing policy framing as a deliberate strategy for public health advocacy: a qualitative policy case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in other public health areas. © 2014

  19. Changing Policy Framing as a Deliberate Strategy for Public Health Advocacy: A Qualitative Policy Case Study of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Context Scotland is the first country in the world to pass legislation introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) for alcohol in an attempt to reduce consumption and associated harms by increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol. We investigated the competing ways in which policy stakeholders presented the debate. We then established whether a change in framing helped explain the policy's emergence. Methods We conducted a detailed policy case study through analysis of evidence submitted to the Scottish parliament, and in-depth, one-to-one interviews (n = 36) with politicians, civil servants, advocates, researchers, and industry representatives. Findings Public- and voluntary-sector stakeholders tended to support MUP, while industry representatives were more divided. Two markedly different ways of presenting alcohol as a policy problem were evident. Critics of MUP (all of whom were related to industry) emphasized social disorder issues, particularly among young people, and hence argued for targeted approaches. In contrast, advocates for MUP (with the exception of those in industry) focused on alcohol as a health issue arising from overconsumption at a population level, thus suggesting that population-based interventions were necessary. Industry stakeholders favoring MUP adopted a hybrid framing, maintaining several aspects of the critical framing. Our interview data showed that public health advocates worked hard to redefine the policy issue by deliberately presenting a consistent alternative framing. Conclusions Framing alcohol policy as a broad, multisectoral, public health issue that requires a whole-population approach has been crucial to enabling policymakers to seriously consider MUP, and public health advocates intentionally presented alcohol policy in this way. This reframing helped prioritize public health considerations in the policy debate and represents a deliberate strategy for consideration by those advocating for policy change around the world and in

  20. Harnessing the private health sector by using prices as a policy instrument: Lessons learned from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L; Kumar, Ankit; Roubal, Tomas; Colombo, Francesca; Lorenzoni, Luca

    2018-05-01

    Governments frequently draw upon the private health care sector to promote sustainability, optimal use of resources, and increased choice. In doing so, policy-makers face the challenge of harnessing resources while grappling with the market failures and equity concerns associated with private financing of health care. The growth of the private health sector in South Africa has fundamentally changed the structure of health care delivery. A mutually reinforcing ecosystem of private health insurers, private hospitals and specialists has grown to account for almost half of the country's spending on health care, despite only serving 16% of the population with the capacity to pay. Following years of consolidation among private hospital groups and insurance schemes, and after successive failures at establishing credible price benchmarks, South Africa's private hospitals charge prices comparable with countries that are considerably richer. This compromises the affordability of a broad-based expansion in health care for the population. The South African example demonstrates that prices can be part of a structure that perpetuates inequalities in access to health care resources. The lesson for other countries is the importance of norms and institutions that uphold price schedules in high-income countries. Efforts to compromise or liberalize price setting should be undertaken with a healthy degree of caution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Industrialisation, Trade Policy and Poverty Reduction: Evidence from Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Warr

    2003-01-01

    Over recent decades, most of the developing economies of Asia achieved reductions in absolute poverty incidence, but these reductions varied greatly in size. Differences in the rate of aggregate economic growth explain part, but not all of these differences. One factor that would be important is the sectoral composition of the growth. This paper examines the relationship between poverty reduction outcomes and the rate of growth in the agricultural, industrial and services sectors. It assemble...

  2. Evolving reimbursement and pricing policies for devices in Europe and the United States should encourage greater value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Corinna; Drummond, Michael; Burns, Lawton R

    2013-04-01

    Rising health care costs are an international concern, particularly in the United States, where spending on health care outpaces that of other industrialized countries. Consequently, there is growing desire in the United States and Europe to take a more value-based approach to health care, particularly with respect to the adoption and use of new health technology. This article examines medical device reimbursement and pricing policies in the United States and Europe, with a particular focus on value. Compared to the United States, Europe more formally and consistently considers value to determine which technologies to cover and at what price, especially for complex, costly devices. Both the United States and Europe have introduced policies to provide temporary coverage and reimbursement for promising technologies while additional evidence of value is generated. But additional actions are needed in both the United States and Europe to ensure wise value-based reimbursement and pricing policies for all devices, including the generation of better pre- and postmarket evidence and the development of new methods to evaluate value and link evidence of value to reimbursement.

  3. Price-Cost Ratios in Higher Education: Subsidy Structure and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of US institutions of higher education is manifested in many ways. This study looks at that diversity from the economic perspective by studying the subsidy structure through the distribution of institutional price-cost ratio (PCR), defined as the sum of net tuition price divided by total supplier cost and equals to one minus…

  4. Implications of the recent reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Salovaara, Jackson; McElroy, Michael B

    2012-03-06

    CO(2) emissions from the US power sector decreased by 8.76% in 2009 relative to 2008 contributing to a decrease over this period of 6.59% in overall US emissions of greenhouse gases. An econometric model, tuned to data reported for regional generation of US electricity, is used to diagnose factors responsible for the 2009 decrease. More than half of the reduction is attributed to a shift from generation of power using coal to gas driven by a recent decrease in gas prices in response to the increase in production from shale. An important result of the model is that, when the cost differential for generation using gas rather than coal falls below 2-3 cents/kWh, less efficient coal fired plants are displaced by more efficient natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation alternatives. Costs for generation using NGCC decreased by close to 4 cents/kWh in 2009 relative to 2008 ensuring that generation of electricity using gas was competitive with coal in 2009 in contrast to the situation in 2008 when gas prices were much higher. A modest price on carbon could contribute to additional switching from coal to gas with further savings in CO(2) emissions.

  5. Impact of oil prices, economic diversification policies and energy conservation programs on the electricity and water demands in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Michael; Alsayegh, Osamah A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the influences of oil revenue and government's policies toward economic developments and energy efficiency on the electricity and water demands. A Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model was developed based on historic data of oil income, gross domestic product (GDP), population and electric load and water demand over the past twelve years (1998–2010). Moreover, the model took into account the future mega projects, annual new connected loads and expected application of energy conservation programs. It was run under six circumstances representing the combinations of three oil income scenarios and two government action policies toward economic diversification and energy conservation. The first government policy is the status quo with respect to economic diversification and applying energy conservation programs. The second policy scenario is the proactive strategy of raising the production of the non-oil sector revenue and enforcing legislations toward energy demand side management and conservation. In the upcoming 20 years, the average rates of change of the electric load and water demand increase are 0.13 GW and 3.0 MIGD, respectively, per US dollar oil price increase. Moreover, through proactive policy, the rates of average load and water demand decrease are 0.13 GW and 2.9 MIGD per year, respectively. - Highlights: • Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model is presented. • Strong association between oil income and electricity and water demands. • Rate of change of electric load per US dollar oil price change is 0.13 GW. • Rate of change of water demand per US dollar oil price change is 3.0 MIGD. • By 2030, efficiency lowers electric load and water demand by 10 and 6%, respectively

  6. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  7. Are vehicle travel reduction targets justified? Evaluating mobility management policy objectives such as targets to reduce VMT and increase use of alternative modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2009-09-17

    This article presented several reasons for reforming current transportation policies to include targets to reduce vehicle miles of travel (VMT) and encourage use of alternative modes such as walking, cycling or public transit. Demographic and economic trends are increasing the demand for alternative modes, and economic competitiveness will require increased efficiency. As such, a variety of integrated transportation and land use policy reforms are needed to prepare for the future. Mobility management strategies that reduce vehicle travel include efficient road and parking pricing; more flexible zoning codes; and ridesharing incentives. Most mobility management strategies help solve a variety of problems and provide many benefits, including congestion reduction, road and parking cost savings, consumer savings, traffic safety, improved mobility for non-drivers, energy conservation, emission reductions, efficient land development, and improved public fitness and health. Improvements to public transit, road and parking pricing, and commute trip reduction programs also tend to reduce urban-peak traffic. The article suggested that VMT reduction targets are the first step in implementing mobility management policies. Although automobile travel will not disappear, it will decrease compared with current planning practices. 55 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Policy Implementation Of Poverty Reduction In The District Kutai Kartanegara In East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the implementation of poverty reduction policies of Kutai Kartanegara regency factual research communication in the form of co-ordination Unit SKPD with the Local Government and Regional Work Unit is not maximized so that the Governments poverty reduction of Kutai Kartanegara Regency gives not optimal result as a concept in policy implementation by Goggin 1990 the similarity perception in implementing the policy is an essential condition for the successful implementation of the policy along with the division of functions and roles in the bureaucratic structure that implements public policy should be run and the executor implementor implementation of government policies either parallel or multilevel should make shapes patterns of certain communications in order to facilitate in making the relationship of the parties involved in the implementation of government policy.

  9. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    region, situated in the West of Iran. Materials and Methods: The statistical sample of this research includes all irrigated land of Qorveh as the studied area. A partial equilibrium model has been applied by mathematic programming approach in order to analyze the economic and environmental effects of reduction of energy subsidies for the agriculture sector in the studied area. For this purpose, through a survey, questionnaires were used in order to identify production coefficients of agriculture products and farmers' behavior during 2012-2013. Then relevant equations were used in mathematical programming framework with the aim of maximizing gross margin of agriculture activities in planning horizon by using GAMS 22.9. Results and Discussion: The results showed that by increasing energy price in policy scenarios of ES1 to ES7 the gross margin of agriculture activities decreases. Also, the results indicate that by implementation of scenarios SE1 and SE2, most economical and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability will be improved and increasing energy prices as the mentioned policy scenarios has the most effect on GM_ELEC , GM_GAS, and NIT_H indicators and reduces them by 10.7%, 0.97% and 1.48%, respectively. In scenarios ES3 to ES5 with respect to scenarios ES1 and ES2, there is only 7% decrease in the NIT_H index. In scenario ES6, which grows electricity cost by 2.25 times and diesel fuel cost by 1.98 times, GM_ELEC, and GM_WA have the maximum decrease, namely 12.66% and 14.47%, respectively and WA_H has reached 9010 which shows an increase of 6.47%. In scenario ES7, with the exception of WA_H, GM_ELEC and GM_GAS other indicators decreased and this shows that the closer we keep to real energy prices, the more improvement we observe in the environmental indicators. Conclusions: Consequently, results showed that the reduction of energy subsidies leads to reductions in economic indicators of the study area, as total gross margins. Also, the results showed

  10. An index guiding temporal planting policies for wind erosion reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.X.; Zheng, D.W.; Stigter, C.J.; He, W.Q.; Tuo, D.B.; Zhao, P.

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation cover has spatial as well as temporal characteristics, but the latter are often neglected. Temporal cover characteristics were explored to recommend planting policies for returning arable land into land better protected from serious wind erosion during late autumn, winter, and

  11. Optimal pricing and lot-sizing decisions under Weibull distribution deterioration and trade credit policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna S.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problem of simultaneous determination of retail price and lot-size (RPLS under the assumption that the supplier offers a fixed credit period to the retailer. It is assumed that the item in stock deteriorates over time at a rate that follows a two-parameter Weibull distribution and that the price-dependent demand is represented by a constant-price-elasticity function of retail price. The RPLS decision model is developed and solved analytically. Results are illustrated with the help of a base example. Computational results show that the supplier earns more profits when the credit period is greater than the replenishment cycle length. Sensitivity analysis of the solution to changes in the value of input parameters of the base example is also discussed.

  12. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It aims to fill critical gaps in tobacco tax and price research in China, an area ... to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South. ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  13. Trade policy responses to food price crisis and implications for existing domestic support measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2014-01-01

    jointly moderated rises of domestic grain prices. In particular, domestic and trade measures on key agricultural inputs such as fertilizers are shown to contribute significantly to expand grain outputs and reduce domestic market prices. While the short-term goal in stabilizing domestic grain prices......Many national governments around the world applied export restrictions in order to achieve domestic market stabilization during the 2007/8 world food price crisis. However, current literature says little about how these export restrictions interact with existing domestic support measures in jointly...... determining domestic market outcomes. This paper analyzes this interaction by providing a quantitative assessment on how increased spending on agricultural domestic support in China offset the negative effects on grain production caused by the country's export restrictions and how these two types of measures...

  14. The impact of price reductions on individuals' choice of healthy meals away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in energy, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Irrigation pricing policies and its impact on agricultural inputs demand in Tunisia: a DEA-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, Aymen; Wossink, Ada; Buysse, Jeroen; Speelman, Stijn; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-09-01

    This paper estimates farmers' individual irrigation water demand functions employing the information hidden in individual farmers' technical efficiency. This information is extracted through the development of a new deductive methodology based on inverse Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. The empirical results for Tunisia show that farmers who are more technically efficient have less elastic irrigation water demand functions; these farmers would adjust demand only to a limited extent and they can afford the water price. In contrast, water pricing significantly affects those that are less efficient. These farmers shift towards a different cropping pattern using significantly less water and more land when the price of water increases. Thus, higher water prices would threaten this category's livelihood if their efficiency is not improved. However, if the technical efficiency of these farmers were to improve, then it would be more difficult to reach water saving objectives since their demand will also become highly inelastic. The findings have important implications in view of the objectives of Tunisia water policy which include:full cost recovery, continuity of the irrigation activity, and water saving at the national level. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic Conditions for Opening an Internet Store and Pricing Policies in a Retailer-Dominant Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine when the manufacturer and dominant retailer open their own Internet stores and how setting prices to ensure opening Internet stores are profitable. We consider a two-echelon supply chain with one manufacturer and one dominant retailer. The retailer has a physical store in a monopolist market. Depending on whether the Internet stores are opened successfully by them, we firstly obtain equilibrium prices and profits under four possible supply chain structures. Secondly, we identify several strategic conditions when it is optimal to open an Internet store for the manufacturer and dominant retailer and discuss its implications. It is interesting to note that multichannel retailing is not necessarily the best strategy for the dominant retailer. In addition, we investigate the impacts of problem parameters (the dominant retailer’s bargaining power and consumers’ disutility of purchasing a product from Internet store on the manufacturer and dominant retailer’s pricing policies. We find that the manufacturer’s optimal price at her Internet store is not always being lower than the dominant retailer’s. Finally, we conduct numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. Is congestion pricing a first-best strategy in transport policy? A critical review of arguments

    OpenAIRE

    R H M Emmerink; P Nijkamp; P Rietveld

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the arguments used in the literature pro and contra congestion pricing are analysed. Although it is a first-best instrument in theory, it is argued that the assumptions needed to arrive at this conclusion oversimplify reality. In practice, congestion pricing is a second-best instrument with some advantages over other second-best instruments, but it will also give rise to numerous problems, as discussed in the paper. These problems will be illustrated with the Dutch attempts to ...

  18. Why Changes in Price Matter When Thinking About Marijuana Policy: A Review of the Literature on the Elasticity of Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Lundberg, Russell

    Recent debates regarding liberalization of marijuana policies often rest on assumptions regarding the extent to which such policy changes would lead to a change in marijuana consumption and by whom. This paper reviews the economics literature assessing the responsiveness of consumption to changes in price and enforcement risk and explicitly considers how this responsiveness varies by different user groups. In doing so, it demonstrates how most of the research has examined responsiveness to prevalence of use, which is a composite of different user groups, rather than level of consumption among regular or heavy users, which represent the largest share of total quantities consumed. Thus, it is not possible to generate reliable estimates of the impact of liberalizing policies on either tax revenues or harms, as these outcomes are most directly influenced by the amounts consumed by regular or heavy users, not prevalence rates.

  19. The impact of monetary policy and exchange rate regime on real GDP and prices in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqiri Izet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relative costs and benefits associated with introducing a more active monetary and a different exchange rate regime in the Republic of Macedonia. In this finding, the econometrics result show that introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate targeting in order to promote rapid economic growth could easy disturb macroeconomic stability (after having achieved it at a substantial cost without any significant economic benefits. Therefore, introducing a more active monetary policy and a different strategy of the exchange rate regime is likely to incur more costs than benefits, since changes of the monetary policy and exchange rate regime type do not show a persistent effect on real GDP, while changes of money stock and exchange rate regime do show a strong and persistent effect on prices level.

  20. Achieving 80% greenhouse gas reduction target in Saudi Arabia under low and medium oil prices

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Yousef Mohammad; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    meeting the 80% target, and it would also lower costs of transition to low carbon energy system while maintaining cleaner use of hydrocarbons with CCS. Setting very deep GHG reduction targets may be economically uncompetitive in consideration of the energy

  1. JOINT DETERMINATION OF PRICE, WAR RANTY LENGTH AND PRODUCTION QUANTITY FOR NEW PRODUCTS UNDER FREE RENEWAL WARRANTY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyakumar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An optimal business strategy which integrates the decisions, such as pricing, production quantity, and custom er service, in or der to maximize profit is vital for any manufacturing industry. Post sale factors like warranty, spare parts availability, maintenance, service and cost play an important role in the sale of a product. As better warranty signals higher product quality which provides greater assurance to customers, warranty is an important factor in marketing new products. In this paper, a decision model with the price, warranty length and production quantity of a product as decision variables to maximize profit based on the pre-determined product life cycle is presented. The study considers free renewal warranty policy for producers in the static sales market. The expected number of renewals based on the warranty length is derived for lognormally distributed products. The effect of model parameters on the profit is studied.

  2. Durum Wheat Cover Analysis in the Scope of Policy and Market Price Changes: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Mokrane Siad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land systems are the result of human interactions with the natural environment, and subjective evidence of socio-economic and environmental interactions has been demonstrated. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to analyze empirically the link between agricultural market and policy, as well as the environmental response due to changes in crop management by local stakeholders. In this study, we propose a cross investigation and analysis to bring the link between vegetation cover, policy, market and farmer’s behavior to light. Our methodology is a combination of a rational positive and analogical approach between the quantifiable and non-quantifiable agents on a temporal basis. The method is applied to a dominant mono-crop agricultural watershed in Southern Italy that has been dedicated to durum wheat cultivation. In this region, we studied the relationship between the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, durum wheat market price, vegetation cover and land allocation. As a first step, we conducted a separate analysis for each factor, exploiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite observed Leaf Area Index (LAI to analyze the land vegetation space–time distribution over the period 2000–2014 and three Land Satellite (Landsat validated images as check-points for the agricultural pattern and CAP’s reforms. We used the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN and Eurostat data to investigate the on-farm accountancy and the durum wheat market price changes, respectively. Based on the study period, we developed a storyline of the major relevant CAP’s policy changes. In a second step, we conducted a comparative analysis where the CAP’s reforms were used as interpretational support, the land allocation and the on-farm accountability for CAP’s implementation, the price of durum wheat and the LAI for analytical comparison. We found interesting insights regarding the non-agronomic driving forces of LAI dynamics. The

  3. Comparison of Monetary Policy Actions and Central Bank Communication on Tackling Asset Price Bubbles—Evidence from China’s Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ou; Liu, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    We examine the different effects of monetary policy actions and central bank communication on China’s stock market bubbles with a Time-varying Parameter SVAR model. We find that with negative responses of fundamental component and positive responses of bubble component of asset prices, contractionary monetary policy induces the observed stock prices to rise during periods of large bubbles. By contrast, central bank communication acts on the market through expectation guidance and has more significant effects on stock prices in the long run, which implies that central bank communication be used as an effective long-term instrument for the central bank’s policymaking. PMID:27851796

  4. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a

  5. Formulas for Industrial Tariff Reduction and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Moonsung Kang

    2005-01-01

    A key element of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations under the WTO is the liberalization of trade in industrial products, so-called non-agricultural market access (NAMA). The mandate on the NAMA negotiations is contained in Paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration which aim(s), by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers,...

  6. [Reduction of automobile traffic: urgent health promotion policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, J A

    1998-03-01

    During the last few decades, traffic injuries have become one of the leading causes of death and disability in the world. In urban areas, traffic congestion, noise, and emissions from motor vehicles produce subjective disturbances and detectable pathological effects. More than one billion people are exposed to harmful levels of environmental pollution. Because its combustion engine generates carbon dioxide (CO2), the automobile is one of the chief sources of the gases that are causing the greenhouse effect. The latter has already caused a rise in the average ambient temperature, and over the next decades it will predictable cause significant climatic changes whose consequences, though uncertain, are likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Aside from the greenhouse effect, the relentless growth of parking zones, traffic, and the roadway infrastructure in urban and rural areas is currently one of the leading causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, which is nearly always "planned" around traffic instead of people, leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of life, while it also destroys the social fabric. Unlike the private automobile, public transportation, bicycles, and walking help reduce pollution, congestion, and traffic volume, as well as the morbidity and mortality resulting from injuries and ailments related to pollution. Non-automobile transportation also encourages physical activity--with its positive effect on general health--and helps reduce the greenhouse effect. The drop in traffic volume and the increased use of alternate means of transportation are thus an integrated health promotion policy which should become an inherent part of the movement for the promotion of healthy cities and of transportation policies and economic policy in general.

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL PRICING POLICIES ON ACCESS TO INNOVATIVE DRUGS: THE CASE OF TRASTUZUMAB IN SEVEN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Garay, Osvaldo Ulises; Augustovski, Federico; Vallejos, Carlos; Huayanay, Leandro; Bueno, Maria del Pilar Navia; Rodriguez, Alarico; de Andrade, Carlos José Coelho; Buendía, Jefferson Antonio; Drummond, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Differential pricing, based on countries' purchasing power, is recommended by the World Health Organization to secure affordable medicines. However, in developing countries innovative drugs often have similar or even higher prices than in high-income countries. We evaluated the potential implications of trastuzumab global pricing policies in terms of cost-effectiveness (CE), coverage, and accessibility for patients with breast cancer in Latin America (LA). A Markov model was designed to estimate life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs from a healthcare perspective. To better fit local cancer prognosis, a base case scenario using transition probabilities from clinical trials was complemented with two alternative scenarios with transition probabilities adjusted to reflect breast cancer epidemiology in each country. Incremental discounted benefits ranged from 0.87 to 1.00 LY and 0.51 to 0.60 QALY and incremental CE ratios from USD 42,104 to USD 110,283 per QALY (2012 U.S. dollars), equivalent to 3.6 gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) per QALY in Uruguay and to 35.5 GDPPC in Bolivia. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 0 percent probability that trastuzumab is CE if the willingness-to-pay threshold is one GDPPC per QALY, and remained so at three GDPPC threshold except for Chile and Uruguay (4.3 percent and 26.6 percent, respectively). Trastuzumab price would need to decrease between 69.6 percent to 94.9 percent to became CE in LA. Although CE in other settings, trastuzumab was not CE in LA. The use of health technology assessment to prioritize resource allocation and support price negotiations is critical to making innovative drugs available and affordable in developing countries.

  8. Costly energy : why oil and gas prices are rising and what we can do about it : a collection of progressive analysis and policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.

    2001-02-01

    A collection of essays were presented to address the issue of rising oil and gas prices. This issue has significant social and environmental implications and the public wants to know what is driving prices up and who is profiting. The myth that gas taxes are driving price increases was dispelled. It was argued that price hikes are mainly due to crude oil price increases and to refining and marketing price increases. The link between rising prices and free trade was also emphasized. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) tied Canada into a North American energy market in which U.S. demand sets prices in Canada. It was suggested that trade rules regarding energy should be changed. Other short and longer-term progressive policy alternatives were also presented in the second part of this report. One possible short-term policy response would be to tax windfall oil and gas profits and direct the resulting revenues to rebates for low-income households and for energy conservation initiatives. It was noted that the environmental benefit of rising prices is that it encourages conservation and improved fuel efficiency. The final part of this report discussed the issue of protecting electricity from deregulation and sited lessons learned from the deregulation of natural gas. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Effective Macroprudential Policy: Cross-Sector Substitution from Price and Quantity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizel, J.; Frost, J.; Houben, A.; Wierts, P.

    Macroprudential policy is increasingly being implemented worldwide. Key questions are its effectiveness in influencing bank credit and substitution effects beyond banking. Our results confirm the expected effects of macroprudential policies on bank credit, both for advanced economies and emerging

  10. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply; Zbornik radova Cetvrtoga foruma: Dan energije u Hrvatskoj, Cijene i tarifna politika u energetici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The principle topic of the four Forums ``Croatian Energy Day`` was ``prices and tariff policy in energy supply``. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs.

  11. Il livello dei prezzi e la politica monetaria (The Price Level and Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Kindleberger

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Most central banks are required or choose to stabilize a price index, largely by manipulating short term interest rates. A serious problem is what index to choose among the national income deflator, wholesale prices, the cost of living, with or eliminating highly volatile commodities such as food and energy, to produce a core index, plus others such as housing, including or without imputed rent of owner-occupied houses, or assets, whether equities or houses. No obvious and widely agreed index exists. Even if there were a clear choice, there remains a question whether a central bank should carefully consider action to achieve other goals: full employment, adjustment of the balance of payments, of the exchange rate, prevention of bubbles in asset prices, or recovery from financial crises. If so, the question of central bank weapons remains: monetary expansion or contraction, credit controls, overall or for particular purposes, and moral suasion.

  12. [The French medecine pricing committee and the medicine economic policy: Rules and competences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, D

    2017-09-01

    The French medicine pricing committee (CEPS), a governmental and inter-institutional body exercises essential competences for the regulation of the economy of the reimbursable drugs in France. It provides a good example of administered price regulation. It also supervises the proper use of products (control of promotion, conventional control of sales volumes). Finally, it regulates the annual envelope of drug expenditures by means of discounts paid by pharmaceutical companies. The article presents the legal criteria and the doctrine of price setting used in France. It details the types of market access contracts concluded by the CEPS. It specifies the conditions governing the annual envelope of expenditures on reimbursable medicines. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2002-07-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)

  14. Monetary Policy, Commodity Prices and Infl ation – Empirical Evidence from the US

    OpenAIRE

    Verheyen, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The past years were characterized by unprecedented rises in prices of commodities such as oil or wheat and inflation rates moved up above the mark of two percent per annum. This led to a revival of the debate whether commodity prices indicate future CPI inflation and if they can be used as indicator variables for central banks or not. We apply various econometric methods like Granger causality tests and SVAR models to US data. The results corroborate the notion that there was a strong link be...

  15. Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)

  16. Discounted Cash Flow and Modern Asset Pricing Methods - Project Selection and Policy Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emhjellen, Magne; Alaouze, Chris M

    2002-07-01

    We examine the differences in the net present values (NPV's) of North Sea oil projects obtained using the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and a Modern Asset Pricing (MAP) method which involves the separate discounting of project cash flow components. NPV differences of more than $1 Om were found for some oil projects. Thus, the choice of valuation method will affect the development decisions of oil companies. The results of the MAP method are very sensitive to the choice of parameter values for the stochastic process used to model oil prices. Further research is recommended before the MAP method is used as the sole valuation model. (author)

  17. A Study on the Pricing Policy of Wind Power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Jingli, Shi; Hongwen, Xie; Yanqin, Song

    2006-10-01

    A review is given of the development of wind power and the pricing system in China. In particular, the report looks at the existing wind concession projects and sums up the lessons learned. The report finds that the current tender system for wind pricing needs to be improved in order to build a fair environment for the wind industry competition. Special attention should be paid to restricting the phenomenon of unreasonably low and unreasonably high wind tariffs, to facilitate the long-term development of the Chinese wind industry.

  18. A carbon floor price for the electric power sector: which consequences? Policy Brief nr 2015-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, Raphael; Solier, Boris; Perthuis, Christian de

    2015-11-01

    As France envisages to introduce a carbon floor price (raised from 8 to 30 euros) for the electricity sector like it has been the case in the UK since 2013, such a measure would not result in CO_2 emission reductions, but in emission transfers between actors. The authors comments and analyse the possible consequences of such a measure. By using the ZEPHYR model, they discuss the consequences on the European ETS and on the western European electric power market. They notably briefly comment the impact of a price of 30 euros per CO_2 ton on the emissions by the electricity sector in France, Germany, the UK and Poland, and more particularly of French emissions in 2013 and 2014

  19. DISCLOSURE POLICY AND PRICE VOLATILITY: A THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION AND EMPIRICAL TESTS OF THE 'FILTER EFFECT'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangminChen; JianghuiLin

    2004-01-01

    In the context of a push towards full disclosure by the regulatory authorities of securities markets, we evaluate the effectiveness of corporate disclosure policy by examining the 'filter effect'. Controlling for firm size and earnings changes, we conduct an empirical test of various disclosure options. Our results shows that the recent increase in disclosure frequency in mainland China's securities markets has not yet achieved its anticipated objective. Disclosure quality remains low and small firms often manipulate their stock prices through selective release of information.

  20. Rights questioned. Limitations of poverty-reduction policies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur, Eleonor; Campos, Luis; Pautassi, Laura; Zimerman, Silvina

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses, from a human rights' approach, a group of social programmes implemented in Argentina from the year 2002, at the time of the biggest socioeconomic crisis that the country has suffered in the last decades. The main characteristics of the programmes are reviewed, and their anti-poverty strategy, along with design and implementation, are evaluated in relation to human rights. An assessment is also made of the existence of mechanisms for citizens to present claims. Finally, a set of recommendations are made to facilitate the adaptation of the programmes analysed to the duties the State of Argentina has as result of its adherence to international laws on human rights. The analytical methodology proposed by this article could be applied to other policy areas.

  1. Radiation dose reduction at a price: the effectiveness of a thyroid shield during head CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; Lu Tao; Zhang Ling

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess radiation dose to the thyroid in patients undergoing head CT scanning and to evaluate dose reduction to the thyroid by load shielding. Methods: A post-morterm was scanned by different model and study was undertaken to evaluate the dose reduction by thyroid lead shields and assess their practicality in a clinical setting. (a)No thyroid shields and (b) thyroid shield. One thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs)were placed over the thyroid gland center, A thyroid lead shield (Pb eq 0.5mm)was placed around the neck of post-morterm. Scan parameter, CTDIw and DLP were recorded. Results: (a) 0.207mSv; (b) 0.085mSv. A mean effective radiation dose reduction of 58% was seen in the shielded versus the unshielded. Conclusion: Thyroid exposure to scattered radiation from head CT scanning only once is associated with a low but not negligible risk of cancer, but accumulatived doses to the thyroid are serious, highlighting the need for increased awareness of patient radiation protection. Thyroid lead shielding yields significant radiation protection, which should be used routinely during head CT scan. (authors)

  2. Fairness of prices, user fee policy and willingness to pay among visitors to a national forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin Young Chung; Gerard T. Kyle; James F. Petrick; James D. Absher

    2011-01-01

    Imposing user fees in Nature-Based Tourism (NBT) contexts has been a controversial issue. Based on the notions of justice and fairness, this study extended previous work examining the relationship between attitudes toward user fees and spending support. In a proposed structural model of price fairness, fee spending support, and willingness to pay (WTP), this paper...

  3. An economic evaluation of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in England: a policy modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Marissa; Mason, Helen; O'Flaherty, Martin; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Dietary salt intake has been causally linked to high blood pressure and increased risk of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular disease causes approximately 35% of total UK deaths, at an estimated annual cost of £30 billion. The World Health Organization and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence have recommended a reduction in the intake of salt in people's diets. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four population health policies to reduce dietary salt intake on an English population to prevent coronary heart disease (CHD). The validated IMPACT CHD model was used to quantify and compare four policies: 1) Change4Life health promotion campaign, 2) front-of-pack traffic light labeling to display salt content, 3) Food Standards Agency working with the food industry to reduce salt (voluntary), and 4) mandatory reformulation to reduce salt in processed foods. The effectiveness of these policies in reducing salt intake, and hence blood pressure, was determined by systematic literature review. The model calculated the reduction in mortality associated with each policy, quantified as life-years gained over 10 years. Policy costs were calculated using evidence from published sources. Health care costs for specific CHD patient groups were estimated. Costs were compared against a "do nothing" baseline. All policies resulted in a life-year gain over the baseline. Change4life and labeling each gained approximately 1960 life-years, voluntary reformulation 14,560 life-years, and mandatory reformulation 19,320 life-years. Each policy appeared cost saving, with mandatory reformulation offering the largest cost saving, more than £660 million. All policies to reduce dietary salt intake could gain life-years and reduce health care expenditure on coronary heart disease. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug usage by outpatients in Croatia during an 8-year period: Influence of changes in pricing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitezic, Dinko; Madjarevic, Tomislav; Gantumur, Monja; Buble, Tonci; Vitezic, Miomira; Kovacevic, Miljenko; Mrsic-Pelcic, Jasenka; Sestan, Branko

    2012-07-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the changes in drug usage and financial expenditure according to legal changes in Croatia during the period 2001 - 2008, especially considering pricing policy. The data on outpatient drug usage during the studied period was obtained from the Croatian National Health Insurance (CNHI). CNHI maintains a database on drugs prescribed by primary health care physicians and dispensed by pharmacies. The data was calculated and presented in defined daily doses (DDD) per inhabitant per year for antibiotics and in DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day for other drugs. The data is also presented in Euro/DDD and the financial expenditures are presented in Euros. During the investigated period drug usage increased 81.33%, while financial expenditure increased 77.23%. While total DDD/1,000 increased ~ 10% every year, financial expenditure increased 10 - 20% annually until 2006, but since then there have been no significant changes. Pricing policy changes could influence drug financial expenditure considerably in the short-term, but it is also important to apply a combination of measures for drug expenditure control. Numerous interventions from authorities from different countries all over the world, prove that there is still no so called "gold standard" which could restrain growing usage and expenditure of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists and clinical pharmacists should be included in these processes.

  5. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  6. Specialty pharmaceuticals: policy initiatives to improve assessment, pricing, prescription, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Howell, Scott

    2014-10-01

    The value of "specialty pharmaceuticals" for cancer and other complex conditions depends not merely on their molecular structures but also on the manner in which the drugs are assessed, insured, priced, prescribed, and used. This article analyzes the five principal stages through which a specialty drug must pass on its journey from the laboratory to the bedside. These include regulatory approval by the Food and Drug Administration for market access, insurance coverage, pricing and payment, physician prescription, and patient engagement. If structured appropriately, each stage improves performance and supports continued research and development. If structured inappropriately, however, each stage adds to administrative burdens, distorts clinical decision making, and weakens incentives for innovation. Cautious optimism is in order, but neither the continued development of breakthrough products nor their use according to evidence-based guidelines can be taken for granted. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Productivity, pricing policy and investments in French and British nationalized electric companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chick, Martin; Huret, Romain

    2003-01-01

    This is a comparative study of the development of, and interaction between, pricing, investment and productivity in the nationalised electricity industries in the United Kingdom and France between 1945 and 1973. The paper concentrates on examining why the rate of diffusion of marginal approaches to pricing and investment was faster in France than in the UK, although it notes that, in theory at least, the coverage of marginalist ideas was greater in the UK than in France by the late 1960's. The paper highlights the influence of French engineers and economists such as Marcel Boiteux and Pierre Masse on the development of applied public economics in the UK, and suggests that the experiences of 1945- 1973 were to have a significant long-term impact on subsequent attitudes towards privatisation and the promotion of competition in the electricity industry in each economy

  8. India's grain security policy in the era of high food prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Bandara, Jayatilleke

    2017-01-01

    policies, which are superior in terms of their welfare effects and fiscal costs and might also be politically feasible. These findings have important implications on the ongoing debates on India's food security policy, particularly in relation to the discussion on its National Food Security Act....

  9. The Price of Higher Education: How Rational Is British Tuition Fee Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the introduction of variable tuition fees for university students in the UK--an initiative that has become totemic in British higher education policy. The article seeks to identify the origin of this policy, using the work of Michael Oakeshott (1962) as a framework for discussing the rationality of new Labour. The rhetoric of…

  10. Optimal Pricing and Advertising Policies for New Product Oligopoly Models. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    advertising is the most important strategic -element in determining the market share achieved by a firm. For most consumer products during their...products which can be made more efficiently or which have higher consumer appeal can support a higher level of advertising ; this is an intuitively...extended in several different ways. For in- stance, we may assume that the number of potential custom ,-rs is dependent on both advertising and price

  11. Design of price incentives for adjunct policy goals in formula funding for hospitals and health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckett Stephen J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital policy involves multiple objectives: efficiency of service delivery, pursuit of high quality care, promoting access. Funding policy based on hospital casemix has traditionally been considered to be only about promoting efficiency. Discussion Formula-based funding policy can be (and has been used to pursue a range of policy objectives, not only efficiency. These are termed 'adjunct' goals. Strategies to incorporate adjunct goals into funding design must, implicitly or explicitly, address key decision choices outlined in this paper. Summary Policy must be clear and explicit about the behaviour to be rewarded; incentives must be designed so that all facilities with an opportunity to improve have an opportunity to benefit; the reward structure is stable and meaningful; and the funder monitors performance and gaming.

  12. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle II.Optimum policy and influence of changes in production and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A dynamic programming model was developed to determine the optimum replacement policy of dairy cows. In the model cows were described in terms of lactation number, stage of lactation and the level of milk production during the previous and present lactations. The objective in determining the optimum

  13. An Analysis of Decision Factors on the Price of South Korea’s Certified Emission Reductions in Use of Vector Error Correction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumin Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes factors affecting the price of South Korea’s Certified Emission Reduction (CER using statistical methods. CER refers to the transaction price for the amount of carbon emitted. Analysis of results found a co-integration relationship among the price of South Korea’s CER, oil price (WTI, and South Korea’s maximum electric power demand, which means that there is a long-term relationship among the three variables. Based on this result, VECM (vector error correction model analysis, impulse response function, and variance decomposition were performed. As the oil price (WTI increases, the demand for gas in power generation in Korea declines while the demand for coal increases. This leads to increased greenhouse gas (GHG; e.g., CO2 emissions and increased price of South Korea’s CERs. In addition, rising oil prices (WTI cause a decline in demand for oil products such as kerosene, which results in an increase in South Korea’s maximum power demand.

  14. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district : a case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-res...

  15. Juxtaposition of micro and macro dynamics of dividend policy on stock price volatility in financial sector of Pakistan : (comparative analysis through common, fixed, random and GMM effect)

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, Kashif; Khurram, Muhammad Usman; Ghaffar, Wasim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the dividend policy dynamics in context to firm specific and macroeconomic variables with stock price volatility in the financial sector of Pakistan. Panel data is used for the period 2006-2014 to identify the common, fixed, random and GMM effect. It is concluded that dividend payout ratio, market value, interest volatility and inflation volatility have positive significant correlation with price volatility. Common effect model shows that dividend payou...

  16. CHOOSING CONGESTION PRICING POLICY: CORDON TOLLS VS. LINK-BASED TOLLS. (R831450)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  18. European Economic Policies at Work : the costs of Price Stability and Budget Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Altavilla

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the policy framework adopted by the EMU participating countries might create recessive tendencies. First, we check the existence of a deflationary bias by separately analysing monetary and fiscal policy. The analysis of monetary policy focuses on a backward- and a forward-looking monetary rule. The reaction functions are estimated to capture the criteria that a centralized monetary authority should use in setting short-term interest rate. Second, a comparative analysis is made of the ability of different central banks to stabilize output and inflation. Precisely, we compare the strategy followed by the European Central Bank, the Deutsche Bundesbank and the US Federal Reserve. Then, a measure of fiscal bias is retrieved by estimating the impact that a change in the primary surplus to GDP ratio has on the real economy. Finally, we search for a quantitative assessment of the recessive propensity of the European economic policies by estimating an overall policy bias. The results suggest the EU institutional set-up might create and/or amplify the recessive tendencies. The policy constraints the EMU members face were dreamt when the Community was struggling with an inflationary legacy. The danger nowadays is not inflation but rather its opposite, deflation. As a consequence, the EU institutions need to be at least partially reformed

  19. Monetary Policy in a Low Inflation Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Ullersma (Cornelis Alexander)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis shows that since the mid 1980s a sharp fall in equity and house prices tends to go hand in hand with a reduction of the monetary policy interest rate, which is the central bank’s main instrument to safeguard price stability. In exceptional circumstances, the policy rate can

  20. The impact of different energy policy options on feedstock price and land demand for maize silage: The case of biogas in Lombardy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, A.; Cavicchioli, D.; Kremmydas, D.; Rozakis, S.; Olper, A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of maize silage for biogas production in Northern Italy has triggered an intense debate concerning land rents, maize prices and their possible negative consequences on important agri-food chains. The aim of this work is to quantify the extent to which the rapid spread of biogas raised the maize price at regional level, increasing the demand of land for energy crops. For this purpose we applied a partial-equilibrium framework simulating the agricultural sector and the biogas industry in Lombardy, under two alternative schemes of subsidization policy. Results show that policy measures implemented in 2013 – reducing the average subsidy per kWh – may contribute to enforce the complementarity of the sector with agri-food chains, decreasing the competition between energy and non-energy uses. Compared to the old scheme, maize demand for biogas would decrease, lessening the market clearing price (as well as feed opportunity cost for livestock sector) and reducing land demand for energy purposes. - Highlights: •We investigate biogas production in Lombardy under two alternative policy scenarios. •We model the biogas sector using a partial equilibrium approach. •Past legislation significantly increases maize demand and its market clearing price. •New incentive system favors manure based plants (130 kWe) decreasing maize demand. •Wider, new policy mitigates past distortions and negative effects on maize price.

  1. Determinants of contractor pricing strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Moses, O. Douglas

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates pricing strategies used by major defense contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified and discussed: penetration, which calls for a relatively low initial price followed by little reduction in price over time, and skimming, which calls for a relatively high initial price coupled with greater reduction in price over time. It is argued that contractor pricing strategy will depend on features of the defense program under consideration and featur...

  2. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the 'Sheffield model'). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders' views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the 'real life' world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. Research document no. 25. Prices versus quantities: environmental policies for promoting the development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2001-05-01

    Now that the risks of climate change have been confirmed and the European States have declared their willingness to pursue ambitious objectives for producing electricity from renewable energy sources, it becomes crucial to take a look at the relative efficiency of the different incentive schemes used. Such schemes may focus on quantities, or on prices. Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. The authors examine the efficiency of the different incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources, both from a theoretical point of view by comparing price-based approaches with quantity-based approaches, and from a practical point of view by looking at concrete examples of how these different instruments have been implemented. The paper concludes that a system of fixed feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (A.L.B.)

  4. Why do we price electricity the way we do? Canadian policy in the light of political-economic theories of governmental behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.D.; Heyes, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the past few decades, Canadian crown electrical utilities have exhausted available economies of scale. At marginal cost prices, the utilities could recover costs and even a rent. Yet the available rents have not been collected through economically efficient pricing, but distributed to consumers through low prices. An economically preferred pricing method, known as second-best pricing, is formulated in which there are rents to the hydro resource but these rents are distributed to consumers through the pricing of the product rather than collected by the crown owner of the resource. The model assumes three types of demand: households with different annual incomes which are dependent on the profits of the other two types; small industrial or commercial firms; and large industrial firms. Revenues from the different demand classes are assumed to take the form of two-part tariffs. The pricing policies of crown utilities are discussed, with an emphasis on Hydro-Quebec, and the results of the model are used as informal tests of various theories of public decisionmaking. Most theories provide a partial explanation, but no theory provides a complete explanation of pricing behavior. 24 refs

  5. PRICE AND PRICING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    SUCIU Titus

    2013-01-01

    In individual companies, price is one significant factor in achieving marketing success. In many purchase situations, price can be of great importance to customers. Marketers must establish pricing strategies that are compatible with the rest of the marketing mix. Management should decide whether to charge the same price to all similar buyers of identical quantities of a product (a one-price strategy) or to set different prices (a flexible price strategy). Many organizations, especially retai...

  6. Toward a more consistent combined approach of reduction targets and climate policy regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Frederiksen, Pia; Thomsen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how targets, policy instruments and accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction need to be complemented and aligned, to achieve a more effective road to reduce the GHG emission. We focus on gaps in the policy framework presently adopted by countries that are ...... level. We argue that to reveal the effect of policy instruments such as a meat tax, on GHG emissions reduced, an alternative consumption-based accounting could favorably complement the traditional GHG accounting.......In this paper we discuss how targets, policy instruments and accounting frameworks for greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction need to be complemented and aligned, to achieve a more effective road to reduce the GHG emission. We focus on gaps in the policy framework presently adopted by countries...... that are parties to the UNFCCC, using as illustrative case study the meat tax recently proposed in Denmark. We argue that when the GHG reduction targets for individual countries are based on a territorial approach alone (such as in the UNFCCC framework), i.e. sum of emissions from production inside the country...

  7. 76 FR 58543 - Draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-Level Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Reopening of comment... for public comment a draft Policy Statement on Volume Reduction and Low-Level Radioactive Waste...-based approaches to managing waste are also needed to safely manage Low-Level Radioactive Waste. The...

  8. Unemployment and house price crises: lessons for fiscal policy from the Dutch recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teulings, C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008, the Dutch economy lost 6% of gdp relative to Germany, even though the Netherlands (unlike the GIPSI countries) did not face serious problems to finance its sovereign debt. This bad performance is explained by the interaction of fiscal policy and

  9. "Don't Affect the Share Price": Social Media Policy in Higher Education as Reputation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Tony

    2012-01-01

    The last 5 years have seen a growing number of universities use social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to engage with past, present and prospective students. More recently still, a number of universities have published policy or guidance documents on the use of social media for a range of university-related purposes including…

  10. Renewable energy policies and competition for biomass: Implications for land use, food prices, and processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Önal, Hayri

    2016-01-01

    We use a mathematical programming model to examine the impacts of simultaneous implementation of two US biofuel and bioenergy policies on commodity markets and spatial distribution of future cellulosic biorefineries. The key findings based on our numerical simulation are: (1) the number and average annual production capacity of cellulosic biofuel refineries depend on the total renewable fuels mandate; (2) the mix of cellulosic biomass feedstock depends on the assumptions about the production costs of energy crops and the amount of cropland that can be used for energy crops, but regardless of the assumptions crop residues are the primary biomass source to meet the demand for biomass for biofuel production and electricity generation; and (3) the biomass production areas would surround either future cellulosic biorefineries or the existing coal-based power plants to reduce the costs of biomass transportation. These findings have important implications for biorefinery investors and provide valuable policy insights for the selection of Biomass Crop Assistance Program project areas. - Highlights: •Impacts of US biofuel and bioenergy policies are analyzed. •The number and production capacity of biorefineries depend on the biofuel policies. •Crop residues are the primary biomass source for bioenergy production. •Biomass production areas will surround cellulosic biorefineries or power plants.

  11. Gas prices and price process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewegen, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    On a conference (Gas for Europe in the 1990's) during the Gasexpo '91 the author held a speech of which the Dutch text is presented here. Attention is paid to the current European pricing methods (prices based on the costs of buying, transporting and distributing the natural gas and prices based on the market value, which is deducted from the prices of alternative fuels), and the transparency of the prices (lack of information on the way the prices are determined). Also attention is paid to the market signal transparency and gas-gas competition, which means a more or less free market of gas distribution. The risks of gas-to-gas competition for a long term price stability, investment policies and security of supply are discussed. Opposition against the Third Party Access (TPA), which is the program to implement gas-to-gas competition, is caused by the fear of natural gas companies for lower gas prices and lower profits. Finally attention is paid to government regulation and the activities of the European Commission (EC) in this matter. 1 fig., 6 ills., 1 tab

  12. Households Willingness to Pay for the Emissions Reduction Policy, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines households’ willingness to support the emissions reduction policy and their perceptions of climate change using an Internet survey of more than 1,000 households in Queensland, Australia. Respondents were asked for their willingness to pay (WTP to support the emissions reduction target proposed by the Australian Government by paying extra on their electricity bills. The results can be summarized in four key findings. First, respondents’ WTP to support the emissions reduction target is higher if they perceive that climate change will result in high loss of biodiversity. Second, respondents were willing to support a higher emissions target than proposed by the Australian Government. Third, there is a correlation between respondents WTP to support the emissions reduction and their beliefs about climate change, its effect on standards of living, the environment, and future generations. Fourth, as the data show a high rate of zero responses, common for the contingent valuation method (CVM used in the survey, the zero bids were further investigated using the non-parametric Turnbull model and the more recent spike model. The results showed that although there is some support for the emissions reduction policy, it is not sufficient for the policy to be successful.

  13. Prices and Price Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Faber (Riemer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies price data and tries to unravel the underlying economic processes of why firms have chosen these prices. It focuses on three aspects of price setting. First, it studies whether the existence of a suggested price has a coordinating effect on the prices of firms.

  14. Examination of energy price policies in Iran for optimal configuration of CHP and CCHP systems based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichi, S.G.; Ardehali, M.M.; Nazari, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The current subsidized energy prices in Iran are proposed to be gradually eliminated over the next few years. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of current and future energy price policies on optimal configuration of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems in Iran, under the conditions of selling and not-selling electricity to utility. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for minimizing the cost function for owning and operating various CHP and CCHP systems in an industrial dairy unit. The results show that with the estimated future unsubsidized utility prices, CHP and CCHP systems operating with reciprocating engine prime mover have total costs of 5.6 and $2.9x10 6 over useful life of 20 years, respectively, while both systems have the same capital recovery periods of 1.3 years. However, for the same prime mover and with current subsidized prices, CHP and CCHP systems require 4.9 and 5.2 years for capital recovery, respectively. It is concluded that the current energy price policies hinder the promotion of installing CHP and CCHP systems and, the policy of selling electricity to utility as well as eliminating subsidies are prerequisites to successful widespread utilization of such systems.

  15. The Brazilian policy for reduction of accidents and violence aligns with international perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Namie Sakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed The Brazilian Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence, in the socio-political perspective. We used as a base the chapter “Violence: a global public health problem” from the World Report on Violence and Health. The analysis revealed convergent and divergent elements of the Brazilian Policy in comparison with the international perspectives. We verified that the Brazilian Policy tried to converge to the international policies, however: it emphasizes the health promotion actions, but are limited to the context and behavior of individuals and individual communities; the performance of health professionals is expected without providing more structural investments, as the improvement in work conditions, the increase of financial and material resources; there are few clear definitions of the government and economical sector responsibilities.

  16. Synergistic interactions of dynamic ridesharing and battery electric vehicles land use, transit, and auto pricing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is widely recognized that new vehicle and fuel technology is necessary, but not sufficient, to meet deep greenhouse gas (GHG) : reductions goals for both the U.S. and the state of California. Demand management strategies (such as land use, transit...

  17. Price strategy and pricing strategy: terms and content identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panasenko Tetyana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the terminology and content identification of seemingly identical concepts "price strategy" and "pricing strategy". The article contains evidence that the price strategy determines the direction, principles and procedure of implementing the company price policy and pricing strategy creates a set of rules and practical methods of price formation in accordance with the pricing strategy of the company.

  18. Policy options and their potential effects on Moroccan small farmers and the poor facing increased world food prices: A general equilibrium model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Doukkali, Rachid; Yu, Bingxin

    2008-01-01

    "This study evaluates the potential impact of the recent rise in world food prices on the Moroccan economy and possible policy options to respond to it. The study focuses mainly on the poverty effects of such an external shock and the possible policy responses to it. A new social accounting matrix (SAM) and a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model have been developed for this study based on micro-level data in combination with sectoral and economywide data. The CGE model simulations show ...

  19. Pricing as a means of controlling alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Sinha, Kompal; Vandenberg, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Reducing the affordability of alcohol, by increasing its price, is the most effective strategy for controlling alcohol consumption and reducing harm. We review meta-analyses and systematic reviews of alcohol tax/price effects from the past decade, and recent evaluations of tax/price policies in the UK, Canada and Australia. While the magnitudes of price effects vary by sub-group and alcoholic beverage type, it has been consistently shown that price increases lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. There remains, however, a lack of consensus on the most appropriate taxation and pricing policy in many countries because of concerns about effects by different consumption level and income level and disagreement on policy design between parts of the alcoholic beverage industries. Recent developments in the research highlight the importance of obtaining accurate alcohol price data, reducing bias in estimating price responsiveness, and examining the impact on the heaviest drinkers. There is a need for further research focusing on the substitution effects of taxation and pricing policies, estimation of the true tax pass-through rates, and empirical analysis of the supply-side response (from alcohol producers and retailers) to various alcohol pricing strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. The effect of agricultural price-support policies on interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea: 1976-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, D

    1987-08-01

    The impact of rice price-support policies, designed to increase farmers' income and reduce rural-urban migration in the Republic of Korea, is examined for the period 1976-1980 using a polytomous logistic model. "Our findings revealed that the elasticity of migration with respect to rice yield per origin farm household is positive and is significantly different from zero. The elasticities of migration with respect to rate of urbanization, particularly urban concentration-agglomeration, and population size of the destination are also positive and are significantly different from zero.... Our findings questioned the wisdom of employing rice price price-support programs as a viable policy for reducing interregional and rural-to-urban migration in Korea." excerpt

  1. Assessing the effectiveness of voluntary solid waste reduction policies: Methodology and a Flemish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Simon de; Eyckmans, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of statistical techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments for waste management. The voluntary character of these instruments implies that latent characteristics, unobserved by the analyst, might influence the subscription decision and might lead to biased estimates of the effectiveness of the policy instrument if standard techniques are used. We propose an extension of the difference-in-differences (DiD) estimator to evaluate the effectiveness of voluntary policy instruments, which is termed the dynamic difference-in-differences (or DDD) estimator. We illustrate the technique by estimating the effectiveness of voluntary cooperation agreements between the Flemish environmental administration and individual municipalities aimed at curbing residential solid waste. Using a dataset covering all 308 Flemish municipalities for the period 2000-2005, our results indicate that municipalities subscribing to the agreement accomplished less reduction of their waste levels compared to what could be expected on the basis of their own performance prior to subscription and the performance of the non-subscribers. This result might be explained by the rising marginal cost of extra residential solid waste reduction policies. In addition, there are indications that subscribing municipalities refrain from additional reduction efforts once the target waste level of the program is achieved. The more complicated DDD methodology is shown to generate additional insight over the ordinary DiD analysis

  2. Education as networking: Rethinking the success of the harm reduction policy of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-shin

    2015-05-01

    The harm reduction policy of Taiwan has been considered a success. However, the HIV incidence among injection drug users declined before the nationwide needle and syringe program and drug substitution treatments were implemented. Thus, other factors in the policy might have contributed to its success. Some authors have suggested that education may have played a pivotal part. In this research, the purported significance of education in the success of the policy is conceptualized by reviewing the studies on harm reduction in Taiwan and reflecting upon my own fieldwork. Moreover, relevant literature is used as reference to reformulate this notion of education. This article shows that harm reduction education may be conducted in numerous forms, most of which are non-formal, improvisational, and contingent. Non-governmental organizations may play a role, but more actors, strategies, infrastructures, and interactions should be considered. This article draws from actor-network theory and refines the current thesis that attributes the policy success to education by utilizing three reflections, namely, appreciating materiality and spatiality, recognizing covert actors in the networking, and treating education as an outcome rather than a means. In conclusion, looking at education as a form of networking offers theoretical insight that increases understanding of its participants, mechanisms, processes, and permutations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Bio-economic modelling to assess the impact of water pricing policies at the farm level in the Oum Zessar watershed, southern Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeder, H.; Sghaier, M.; Louhchi, P.; Reidsma, P.

    2014-01-01

    For integrated assessment at farm level, the Farm System SIMulator model (FSSIM) was used. FSSIM is a bio-economic model developed for the European context, and was adapted and tested for Tunisian conditions to assess, ex-ante, impacts of water pricing policies at the farm level to the year 2015.

  4. Implications for alcohol minimum unit pricing advocacy: what can we learn for public health from UK newsprint coverage of key claim-makers in the policy debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Wood, Karen; Patterson, Chris; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2014-02-01

    On May 24th 2012, Scotland passed the Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) Bill. Minimum unit pricing (MUP) is an intervention that raises the price of the cheapest alcohol to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. There is a growing literature on industry's influence in policymaking and media representations of policies, but relatively little about frames used by key claim-makers in the public MUP policy debate. This study elucidates the dynamic interplay between key claim-makers to identify lessons for policy advocacy in the media in the UK and internationally. Content analysis was conducted on 262 articles from seven UK and three Scottish national newspapers between 1st May 2011 and 31st May 2012, retrieved from electronic databases. Advocates' and critics' constructions of the alcohol problem and MUP were examined. Advocates depicted the problem as primarily driven by cheap alcohol and marketing, while critics' constructions focused on youth binge drinkers and dependent drinkers. Advocates justified support by citing the intervention's targeted design, but critics denounced the policy as illegal, likely to encourage illicit trade, unsupported by evidence and likely to be ineffective, while harming the responsible majority, low-income consumers and businesses. Critics' arguments were consistent over time, and single statements often encompassed multiple rationales. This study presents advocates with several important lessons for promoting policies in the media. Firstly, it may be useful to shift focus away from young binge drinkers and heavy drinkers, towards population-level over-consumption. Secondly, advocates might focus on presenting the policy as part of a wider package of alcohol policies. Thirdly, emphasis on the success of recent public health policies could help portray the UK and Scotland as world leaders in tackling culturally embedded health and social problems through policy; highlighting past successes when presenting future policies may be a valuable

  5. The short-term impact of Ontario's generic pricing reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Law

    Full Text Available Canadians pay amongst the highest generic drug prices in the world. In July 2010, the province of Ontario enacted a policy that halved reimbursement for generic drugs from the public drug plan, and substantially lowered prices for private purchases. We quantified the impact of this policy on overall generic drug expenditures in the province, and projected the impact in other provinces had they mimicked this pricing change.We used quarterly prescription generic drug dispensing data from the IMS-Brogan CompuScript Audit. We used the price per unit in both the pre- and post-policy period and two economics price indexes to estimate the expenditure reduction in Ontario. Further, we used the post-policy Ontario prices to estimate the potential reduction in other provinces.We estimate that total expenditure on generic drugs in Ontario during the second half of 2010 was between $181 and $194 million below what would be expected if prices had remained at pre-policy level. Over half of the reduction in spending was due to savings on just 10 generic ingredients. If other provinces had matched Ontario's prices, their expenditures over during the latter half of 2010 would have been $445 million lower.We found that if Ontario's pricing scheme were adopted nationally, overall spending on generic drugs in Canada would drop at least $1.28 billion annually--a 5% decrease in total prescription drug expenditure. Other provinces should seriously consider both changes to their generic drug prices and the use of more competitive bulk purchasing policies.

  6. Pricing of the Policy Life in Absence of Default Risk and Asset Liability Management

    OpenAIRE

    Giandomenico, Rossano

    2006-01-01

    The model, by using the option theory, determines the fair value of the life insurance policies in absence of default risk and shows that the fair fixed guaranteed interest-rate is less than the risk free interest rate due to the exchange of options between policyholders and shareholders. Furthermore, it shows that the effective liabilities duration is different from the duration of a default free zero coupon bond with the same time of maturity such that the equity value is immunized by using...

  7. The concept of a new natural gas price policy in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshev, P.

    1996-01-01

    Development of the gas industry is an important issue in the energy policy in Bulgaria. It is based on a long term strategy based on available natural resources, geopolitical considerations, regional development an international co-operation. Current political and economic situation and a market based transition of the economy exert the key influence on the strategy. Regardless the mentioned, it is obvious that there is a desire to use relevant world experience, which opens up the possibility of a quick integration in the European energy market

  8. Equating Efficiency with Reduction: A Self-Deception in Energy Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhite, Harold; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    power, mobility and so on). The policy makers at the centre of the policy discourse on energy sustainability suffer from a form for self-deception which revolves around the equation of ‘efficiency’ with ‘reduction’ and ‘sustainability’, i.e., the untenable contention that technological and market...... and infrastructure for homes, businesses, transport, health and public services, so that it is neither ethical nor even practical to argue for restrictions in overall energy growth in these and other developing countries. This places the onus for deep reductions in energy use on Europe, North America and the other...

  9. Monetary Policy under the Border between Price Stability and Financial Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Raluca BADEA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The international financial crisis drew the line for the international and national authorities that conducted and implemented faulty monetary and financial policies, regardless the potential risks that might arise. It was only after the crisis burst when everyone realized the impact the systemic risk can have on the global financial system and, consequently, on every national economy. The conventional point of view is that inflation is the main source of financial instability, but recent evidence points out the fact that reaching the inflation target does not necessarily mean that the financial system is stable. What is the most important is that any source of financial instability should be diminished if not erased, hence preserving financial stability has become an important goal for the authorities, who dispute whether to include it on the objectives list of central banks or authorize another institution to achieve it. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is framing the present monetary policy framework with respect to its objectives and strategies and the necessity to reconsider it in a realistic manner in order to prevent another collapse in case of an economic downturn.

  10. Freemium Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Julian; Wagner, Stefan; Claussen, Jörg

    Firms commonly run field experiments to improve their freemium pricing schemes. However, they often lack a framework for analysis that goes beyond directly measurable outcomes and focuses on longer term profit. We aim to fill this gap by structuring existing knowledge on freemium pricing...... into a stylized framework. We apply the proposed framework in the analysis of a field experiment that contrasts three variations of a freemium pricing scheme and comprises about 300,000 users of a software application. Our findings indicate that a reduction of free product features increases conversion as well...... as viral activity, but reduces usage – which is in line with the framework’s predictions. Additional back-of-the-envelope profit estimations suggest that managers were overly optimistic about positive externalities from usage and viral activity in their choice of pricing scheme, leading them to give too...

  11. Pricing and ordering decisions of two competing supply chains with different composite policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taleizadeh, Ata Allah; Noori-Daryan, Mahsa; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    In todays global highly competitive markets, competition happens among supply chains instead of companies, as the members of supply chains. So, the partners of the chains seek to apply efficient coordinating strategies like discount, return, refund, buyback, or the other coordinating policies...... to abate the operation costs of the chains and subsequently increase market shares. Hence, because of the importance and application of these strategies in the current non-exclusive markets, in this study, we introduce different composite coordinating strategies to enhance the coordination of the supply...... chains. Here, we consider two competing supply chains where both chains launch the same product under different brands to the market by applying different composite coordinating strategies. Each supply chain comprises one manufacturer and a group of non-competing retailers where the manufacturer receives...

  12. A right to health care? Participatory politics, progressive policy, and the price of loose language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, David A

    2016-08-01

    This article begins by clarifying and noting various limitations on the universal reach of the human right to health care under positive international law. It then argues that irrespective of the human right to health care established by positive international law, any system of positive international law capable of generating legal duties with prima facie moral force necessarily presupposes a universal moral human right to health care. But the language used in contemporary human rights documents or human rights advocacy is not a good guide to the content of this rather more modest universal moral human right to health care. The conclusion reached is that when addressing issues of justice as they inevitably arise with respect to health policy and health care, both within and between states, there is typically little to gain and much to risk by framing deliberation in terms of the human right to health care.

  13. How to achieve emission reductions in Germany and the European Union. Energy policy, RUE with cross cutting technologies, Pinch technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-10-01

    The German presentations will cover three main topics. These are: (1) Energy policy on the national level and in the European Community. (2) Rational use of energy and efficiency improvements by cross cutting technologies. (3) Optimizing heat recovery and heat recovery network with Pinch technology. Actual development of carbon dioxide emissions and scenarios to forecast for the future development will be presented. It will be shown, that long term agreements are widely used in the EC to obtain a reduction of emissions. Specific attention will also be placed on the burden sharing in the EC and the other GHG. In the second part the efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, waste heat recovery, electric motors, compressed air systems, cooling systems, lighting and heat pumps. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application have to be overcome which will be discussed. In the last part a systematic method for the optimization of heat recovery networks is presented. The Pinch technology, developed in the late seventies is an easy and reliable way to obtain quickly a good insight into the heat flows of a process. The basics of Pinch technology will be presented with a simple example and the presentation of an in deep analysis of a fertilizer complex. (orig.)

  14. "Like throwing a bowling ball at a battle ship" audience responses to Australian news stories about alcohol pricing and promotion policies: a qualitative focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Fogarty

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Policies affecting alcohol's price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. METHOD: From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18-25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. RESULTS: Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol's price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. CONCLUSIONS: News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol's price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well

  15. “Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Chapman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Policies affecting alcohol’s price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. Method From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18–25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. Results Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol’s price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. Conclusions News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol’s price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well as facilitate

  16. PRICING POLICY AND MARKETING STRATEGIES AS A PART OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF RETAILS STORES IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslava Gburová; Róbert Štefko; Radovan Baèík

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with price and marketing pricing strategies of retail chain stores in the Slovak Republic. The aim of this paper is to highlight the perception of the impact of economic recession in the retail chain stores. To determine the most used marketing pricing strategies has been used analysis of variance ANOVA. The global finance crisis does not have influence to selection and implementation of pricing strategy, which is used by branches of chain stores marketing management of in are...

  17. Is College Affordable? Are Loans Manageable? What Do Colleges' Net Price Calculators Show? Policy Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A review of net price calculators--a financial aid tool mandated by the "Higher Education Opportunity Act" of 2008--reveals that students from low-, moderate-, and middle-income families face record-level net prices at 4-year public colleges today. These net prices will translate into levels of average total loan burden far in excess of…

  18. Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategies: Shifting policies to promote employment in the poorest four deciles

    OpenAIRE

    Ardi Adji; Sri Hartini Rachmad

    2018-01-01

    This paper observes the working status and conditions of people who fall into the poorest four deciles in Indonesia. The research aims to provoke policy shifts in the drive to accelerate poverty reduction in Indonesia, taking a longer view of people being more employable and less dependent; also identifying the dominant factors preventing people from moving out of poverty and improving their life quality. By comparing elements of gender, age, education and health against employment status and...

  19. Fertility reduction policies and poverty in Third World countries: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D J

    1985-01-01

    This article begins with a discussion of the motivation for fertility reduction and related population policies. Next, it identifies the two major approaches to evaluating these policies in the population ethics literature: the individualistic approach and the international approach. Each approach is then characterized according to the kinds of policies evaluated, the ethical principles that are most prominent, and the major conclusions drawn. Major empirical gaps in the population ethics literature are identified, and pertinent social science issues concerning the effectiveness of family planning programs, the socioeconomic determinants of fertility, and the interpersonal or community determinants of fertility are discussed. Finally, these issues are linked with the United Nations World Population Plan of Action to identify ethical questions that warrant detailed scrutiny.

  20. What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control programme funding had on Australian adolescents' smoking? Findings over a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; Warne, Charles D; Spittal, Matthew J; Durkin, Sarah; Purcell, Kate; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-08-01

    To assess the impact of tobacco control policies relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising at point-of-sale and outdoors, in addition to cigarette price and per capita tobacco control spending, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression analyses examined association between policies and smoking prevalence. Australia, 1990-2005. A nationally representative sample of secondary students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a triennial survey (sample size per survey range: 20 560 to 27 480). Students' report of past-month smoking. In each jurisdiction, extent of implementation of the three policies for the year of the survey was determined. For each survey year, national per capita tobacco control spending was determined and jurisdiction-specific 12-month change in cigarette price obtained. Extent of implementation of the three policy areas varied between states and over the survey years. Multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographic factors, year and all tobacco control variables showed that 12-month cigarette price increases [odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.99], greater per capita tobacco control spending (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and stronger implementation of clean indoor air policies (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) were associated with reduced smoking prevalence. Adult-directed, population-based tobacco control policies such as clean indoor air laws and increased prices of cigarettes, implemented as part of a well-funded comprehensive tobacco control programme are associated with lower adolescent smoking. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  2. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a “balanced” way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage. PMID:26045639

  3. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  4. Intelligent pricing policy and service marketing. Measures to prevent price cutting wars; Intelligente Preis- und Dienstleistungspolitik. Massnahmen zur Vermeidung von Preiskriegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laker, M.; Herr, S. [Simon-Kucher and Partners, Strategy and Marketing Consultants GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Cost-reducing programmes are only the first step in a series of measures to be taken by the power utilities in order to become fit for the free competition markets. A great number of empirical studies on the future power markets do show that for the customers, prices are a priority criterium, but offering competitive prices alone will not suffice to keep one`s competitive edge. The negative consequences of pure price competition (shown by the aviation industry) and the lessons to be learned from ``intelligent`` branches of industry, (eg. mineral oil and cigarettes), who have been clever enough to avoid price cutting wars, demonstrate that there are chances for development also in deregulated power markets. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Zur Vorbereitung auf die anstehende Liberalisierung muss eine Neuausrichtung der EVU schnellstmoeglich erfolgen. Reine Kostensenkungsprogramme sind dabei nur der erste Schritt, um fuer den Wettbewerb fit zu werden. Hierzu zaehlt die strategische und marketingorientierte Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf den Wettbewerb. Zahlreiche empirische Studien zum EVU-Markt kommen zwar zu dem Ergebnis, dass aus der Sicht des Kunden der Preis einen hohen Stellenwert einnimmt. Ein wettbewerbsorientierter Preis ist notwendig, reicht aber zum erfolgreichen Ueberleben im Wettbewerb alleine nur bei ueberlegener Kostenfuehrerschaft aus. Die negativen Auswirkungen eines reinen Preiswettbewerbs (Luftfahrt) sowie die Lehren aus `intelligenten` Branchen (Mineraloel-, Zigarettenindustrie), die dies vermeiden, zeigen die vielfaeltigen Entwicklungsmoeglichkeiten auch fuer den Energie-Wettbewerbsmarkt auf. (orig./RHM)

  5. Press point on prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilansky, J.L.

    2005-06-01

    This document presents information and statistical data on the prices of the crude oils, refining and petroleum products, at the date of the 28 June 2005: evolution of the barrel price, supply and demand, geo-policy, consumption, diesel and gasoline, prices at the service station. (A.L.B.)

  6. Export pricing objectives and factors influencing them

    OpenAIRE

    Snieškienė, Gabrielė; Pridotkienė, Jūratė

    2010-01-01

    Pricing is recognized as one of the most important tools to achieve a successful export operation. The starting point in every pricing effort is the process of creating pricing objectives. Pricing objectives are the strategic and economic goals desired by management in pricing the product. Pricing objectives constitute the basis on which pricing methods and policies are formulated. Therefore, a better understanding of the pricing objectives should direct the company’s overall pricing process....

  7. The relation between price and daily consumption of cigarettes and bidis: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Wave 1 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, P S; Pednekar, M S; Gupta, P C; Shang, C; Quah, A C K; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    In India, 14% of the population use smoked tobacco products. Increasing prices of these products is one of the measures to curb their consumption. This study analyzes "unit price" and "daily consumption" of cigarettes and bidis and investigates their relation with each other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four states of India (Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra) as a part of the International Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) Evaluation Project (the TCP India Project) during 2010-2011. Information was collected from adult (aged ≥ 15) daily exclusive smokers of cigarette/bidi regarding (a) last purchase (purchase in pack/loose, brand and price) and (b) daily consumption. Average unit price and daily consumption was calculated for different brands and states. Regression model was used to assess the impact of price on daily consumption. Bidis were much less expensive ([symbol in text]0.39) than cigarettes ([symbol in text]3.1). The daily consumption was higher (14) among bidi smokers than cigarette smokers (8). The prices and daily consumption of bidis ([symbol in text]0.33-0.43; 12-15) and cigarettes ([symbol in text]2.9-3.6; 5-9) varied across the four states. The unit prices of bidis and cigarettes did not influence their daily consumption. Smokers purchasing bidis in packs paid substantially less per unit and purchase of bidis and cigarettes in packs influenced their consumption positively. Cigarettes although more expensive than bidis, seem very cheap if compared internationally. Hence, prices of both cigarettes and bidis do not influence their consumption.

  8. The long-run price sensitivity dynamics of industrial and residential electricity demand: The impact of deregulating electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom, Philip Kofi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the demand-side of Ghana's electricity sector. We test two important related hypotheses: (1) deregulation of electricity price does not promote energy conservation, and (2) demand-price relationship is not an inverted U-shaped. The Stock and Watson dynamic OLS is used to address the so-called second-order bias. The result showed that, deregulation of electricity price in Ghana has induced behaviours that are more consistent with energy conservation improvements. The demand-price relationship is an inverted U, which suggests that there is a price range that end-users can tolerate further price rise and still increase their consumption of electricity. However, the degree of price tolerability is higher for residential consumers than industrial consumers. The simulation results showed that, further economic growth is likely to compromise energy conservation but more in the industrial sector than the residential sector. On the other hand, future crude oil price is likely to deteriorate energy conservation in the initial years after 2016, but this trend is likely to reverse after the year 2020. Pricing mechanisms are potent to induce energy conservation but inadequate. The results suggest that they should be complemented with other stringent policies such as a mandatory energy reduction policy, investment in renewables, and personalization of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: • Studies the demand-side of the electricity sector • Deregulating electricity price promotes energy conservation • Demand-price relationship is an inverted U-shaped • Pricing policies should be combined with other energy mandatory reduction policies

  9. The economic impact of carbon pricing with regulated electricity prices in China—An application of a computable general equilibrium approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ji Feng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Ya Xiong; Kou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    We use a dynamic CGE model (SICGE) to assess the economic and climate impacts of emissions trading system (ETS) in China with a carbon price of 100 Yuan/ton CO2. A particular focus is given to the regulated electricity price regime, which is a major concern of electricity sector’s cost-effective participation in ETS in China. We found: (1) Carbon pricing is an effective policy for China to reduce CO 2 emissions. Total CO 2 emissions reduction ranges from 6.8% to 11.2% in short-term. (2) Rigid electricity price entails lower CO 2 emissions reduction but can be considered as a feasible starting point to introduce carbon pricing policies in short-term as long as governmental subsidies are given to electricity production. (3) In mid- and long-term, the efficient policy is to earmark carbon revenue with competitive electricity price. We propose to use carbon revenue to reduce consumption tax in the first year of the introduction of carbon price and to use the carbon revenue to reduce production tax in following years. - Highlights: • We use a CGE model to assess the impacts of carbon pricing in China. • We test different scenarios of carbon cost pass-through in electricity price. • Carbon pricing policy cost-efficiency is examined with double-dividend hypothesis

  10. The effects of carbon prices and anti-leakage policies on selected industrial sectors in Spain – Cement, steel and oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaría, Alberto; Linares, Pedro; Pintos, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impacts on the cement, steel and oil refining sectors in Spain of the carbon prices derived from the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), and the potential effect on these sectors of the European Union anti-leakage policy measures. The assessment is carried out by means of three engineering models developed for this purpose. Our results show a high exposure to leakage of cement in coastal regions; a smaller risk in the steel sector, and non-negligible risk of leakage for the oil refining sector when carbon allowance prices reach high levels. We also find that the risk of leakage could be better handled with other anti-leakage policies than those currently in place in the EU. - Highlights: • We simulate the impact of carbon prices on the risk of leakage in the cement, steel and oil refining sectors. • We also assess the effectiveness of different anti-leakage policies in Europe. • Cement production in coastal areas is highly exposed. • The risk of leakage for steel and oil refining is smaller. • Anti-leakage policies should be modified to be efficient

  11. Energy price slump and policy response in the coal-chemical industry district: A case study of Ordos with a system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Delu; Ma, Gang; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    We employ system dynamics method towards a coal-chemical industry district economy evolution model, using coal industry, the coal-chemical industry, their downstream industries, and the manufacture-related service industry. Moreover, we construct energy price and policy response scenarios based on Ordos’ management experience. The results show that the energy price slump had a negative impact on the overall economic development of the coal-chemical industry district, despite promoting non-resource industries. Furthermore, policies had different effects on the industry's output value and profit. In the long-term, developing alternative industries (AI) helps increase the industrial output value and profit. Decreasing value added tax (VAT) has immediate results and a distinctive effect on industrial short-term production value and profit, its long-term effect being limited. The effect of production limit (PL) on industrial profit is stronger than output value, and financial support (FS) is more conducive to improve the latter. However, coal mining and coal-chemical loan increases decrease the gross industrial profit level. Technology innovation (TI) has the best individual policy overall effect on production value and profits. Furthermore, the simultaneous implementation of PL, TI and AI can generate the synergy effect for each of them. And the simultaneous implementation of VAT and one or couple of other policies will generate the crowding-out effect both for VAT and other policies. - Highlights: • A system dynamics model of the coal-chemical industry district economy evolution in Ordos is constructed. • The impact of coal and oil prices slump on the output value and profit of each industry is revealed. • The differences in the effects especially cumulative effects of different response policies are clarified. • The crowding-out and synergy effects of policy implementation are analyzed.

  12. Optimal transfer, ordering and payment policies for joint supplier-buyer inventory model with price-sensitive trapezoidal demand and net credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nita H.; Shah, Digeshkumar B.; Patel, Dushyantkumar G.

    2015-07-01

    This study aims at formulating an integrated supplier-buyer inventory model when market demand is variable price-sensitive trapezoidal and the supplier offers a choice between discount in unit price and permissible delay period for settling the accounts due against the purchases made. This type of trade credit is termed as 'net credit'. In this policy, if the buyer pays within offered time M1, then the buyer is entitled for a cash discount; otherwise the full account must be settled by the time M2; where M2 > M1 ⩾ 0. The goal is to determine the optimal selling price, procurement quantity, number of transfers from the supplier to the buyer and payment time to maximise the joint profit per unit time. An algorithm is worked out to obtain the optimal solution. A numerical example is given to validate the proposed model. The managerial insights based on sensitivity analysis are deduced.

  13. How Do Oil Prices, Macroeconomic Factors and Policies Affect the Market for Renewable Energy?:Oil Price, Macroeconomic Factors and Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Imran; Hiles, Carlie; Morley, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the nature of any relationship between renewable energy investment, oil prices, GDP and the interest rate, using a time series approach. We concentrate on three countries with different relationships to the renewable energy industry, with Norway and the UK being oil-exporters for most of the sample and the USA an importer. Following estimation using a VAR model, the results provide evidence of considerable heterogeneity across the countries, with the USA ...

  14. Faces of pricing and profit planning at the doorstep of the EU: government pricing policy in the innovative pharmaceutical sector in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    De Kervenoael, Ronan J.; Nilsson, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    The majority of research on the pharmaceutical sector has focused on an overall micro economic, medical oriented welfare issues, whereas the marketing management role of the innovative drug manufacturer has to a large extent been disregarded. Using the case of Turkey, through a series of in-depth interviews with highly innovative companies, other marketing management possibilities to develop pricing strategies and plan for profit are explored based on broader definitions of value and transpar...

  15. Electricity price, energy production and emissions impact : evaluating proposed GHG emission reduction frameworks for the Alberta electricity industry : updated reference case and sensitivity results prepared for CASA EPT Greenhouse Gas Allocation Subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the results of a study which quantified the potential impact of various greenhouse gas (GHG) policy scenarios on Alberta generators' energy production, airborne emissions and electricity wholesale market price. The study examined proactive policy frameworks compared to business as usual scenarios. A reference case scenario was included to represent the status quo environment where electricity demand continues on its current path. Five additional sensitivity cases were examined, of which 3 evaluated the impact of many key assumptions regarding progressive GHG reduction levels and costs related to meeting GHG requirements. The other two evaluated an all-coal future electricity supply both with and without GHG emission reduction costs. Environmental costs were also evaluated in terms of emissions of nitrous oxides, sulphurous oxides, mercury and particulate matter. The impact of generation retirement and renewable energy source development was also analyzed. Demand and supply forecasts for oil, natural gas, electric energy and energy sales were presented along with generation supply forecasts for the reference case scenario, coal generation and natural gas fired retirements. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Harm reduction and women in the Canadian national prison system: policy or practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Laurene; Gahagan, Jacqueline; DiCenso, Anne Marie; Dias, Giselle

    2004-01-01

    Applying the principles of harm reduction within the context of incarcerated populations raises a number of challenges. Although some access to harm reduction strategies has been promoted in general society, a divide between what is available and what is advocated continues to exist within the prison system. This paper explores the perceptions and lived experiences of a sample of nationally incarcerated women in Canada regarding their perceptions and experiences in accessing HIV and Hepatitis C prevention, care, treatment and support. In-depth interviews were conducted with 156 women in Canadian national prisons. Q.S.R. Nudist was used to assist with data management. A constant comparison method was used to derive categories, patterns, and themes. Emergent themes highlighted a gap between access to harm reduction in policy and in practice. Despite the implementation of some harm reduction techniques, women in Canadian prisons reported variable access to both education and methods of reducing HIV/HCV transmission. Concerns were also raised about pre-and post-test counseling for HIV/HCV testing. Best practices are suggested for implementing harm reduction strategies within prisons for women in Canada.

  17. 'Be nice, unless it pays to fight' : a new theory of price determination with implications for competition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Jan

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple extensive form pricing game where firms can react to each others’ price changes before the customers arrive. The Bertrand outcome is a Nash equilibrium outcome in this game, but it is not necessarily subgame perfect. The subgame perfect equilibrium outcome features the following comparative static properties. The more similar firms are, the higher the equilibrium price. Further, a new firm that enters the industry or an existing firm that becomes more efficient ...

  18. Empirical effects of policy induced competition in the electricity industry : the case of district heat pricing in Finland 1996-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola-Ojala, P.; Linden, L.

    2007-01-01

    Following open-market competition in Finland's household electricity markets, the Electricity Market Authority began regulation of electricity and distribution networks to limit unreasonable pricing and to separate the different business units, notably production, distribution and sales. The district heating industry in Finland is regulated through general Competition Laws. The district heating industry is considered to have a regional monopoly within its distribution network and the level of public ownership within the industry is high. This paper presented the results of a study that analyzed how the policy induced competition in the electricity industry in Finland has affected the district heating industry. Both the electricity and district heating industries compete in the same household heating markets. The impact of competition was studied through pricing behaviour using panel data models. The data was gathered from 76 district district heating companies in Finland from 1996 to 2002. It was shown that the price of district heating decreased slightly as a result of electricity market reform, but the effect was short-term. The price decrease was stronger in apartment buildings than in small houses. The results suggest that the district heat markets are non-competitive and some evidence which supports regulatory threat hypothesis can be found. It was suggested that large and market dominant firms are more responsive to policy reform compared to small firms. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 3 appendices

  19. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society’s alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. Methods We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007–10. Results Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Conclusions Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. PMID:24261642

  20. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. The challenge corporate lobbying poses to reducing society's alcohol problems: insights from UK evidence on minimum unit pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris

    2014-02-01

    There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007-10. Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. ©2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for the Study of Addiction.