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Sample records for preweaned dairy calves

  1. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  2. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...

  3. Amelioration of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products in feed and milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matthew T; Anderson, Kristi L; Yoon, Ilkyu; Scott, Mark F; Carlson, Steve A

    2014-08-06

    Salmonellosis is an insidious and potentially epidemic problem in pre-weaned dairy calves. Managing this disease, or any other diarrheal disease, is a financial burden to producers. Calf mortalities and medicinal treatments are overt costs of salmonellosis, while hidden costs include hampered weight gains and persistent intestinal colonization of the pathogen. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) incorporated into both the milk replacer and the starter grain. In a blinded study, 2-8 day-old calves were fed SCFP (n=20 calves) or an SCFP-free Control (n=20 calves) for two weeks before and three weeks after experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Following the challenge, calves were monitored for clinical signs and parameters associated with salmonellosis. Calves were then euthanized and examined for rumen development and intestinal Salmonella colonization. When compared to calves that received milk replacer and feed lacking SCFP, calves fed SCFP had fewer bouts of diarrhea and fever. Rumens from these calves were more developed, as measured by the length of papillae, which is consistent with the enhanced weight gain observed in this treatment group. Additionally, Salmonella intestinal colonization was reduced in SCFP-fed calves and Salmonella fecal shedding disappeared at an earlier stage in these calves. This study revealed that the combination of two proprietary S. cerevisiae fermentation products provide marked benefit for preventing the negative effects of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves, while also boosting productivity. The mechanism of action needs to be clarified, but it may be related to the observed decrease in colonization by the pathogen and increase in rumen development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of thoracic auscultation, clinical score, and ultrasonography as indicators of bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Forté, G; Francoz, D; Bélanger, A-M

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic tools for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis include clinical inspection, thoracic auscultation, and ultrasonography. Thoracic auscultation and clinical examination have limitations in the detection of lung consolidation in dairy calves. Prospective cohort of 106 preweaned calves from 13 different dairy herds (10 with a history of active bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves and 3 without suspected BRD problems). Each preweaned calf was clinically inspected using the Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) and treatment history was noted. Systematic thoracic auscultation and ultrasonography then were performed, the latter focusing on lung consolidation. Mortality was recorded over a 30-day period. A total of 56 of 106 calves had ultrasonographic evidence of lung consolidation. The sensitivity of thoracic auscultation to detect consolidation was 5.9% (range, 0-16.7%). Only 41.1% (23/33) of calves with consolidated lungs had been treated previously by the producers. When adding CRSC and previous BRD treatment by the producer, sensitivity of detection increased to 71.4% (40/56). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.809 (95% CI, 0.721-0.879) for the number of areas within the lungs with consolidation and 0.743 (95% CI, 0.648-0.823) for the maximal depth of consolidation as predictors of death within 1 month after examination. These were not significantly different (P = .06). This study shows that thoracic auscultation is of limited value in diagnosing lung consolidation in calves. Ultrasonographic assessment of the thorax could be a useful tool to assess BRD detection efficiency on dairy farms. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Incremental Value (Bayesian Framework) of Thoracic Ultrasonography over Thoracic Auscultation for Diagnosis of Bronchopneumonia in Preweaned Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Ménard, J; Timsit, E

    2016-07-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) is a specific and relatively sensitive method to diagnose bronchopneumonia (BP) in dairy calves. Unfortunately, as it requires specific training and equipment, veterinarians typically base their diagnosis on thoracic auscultation (AUSC), which is rapid and easy to perform. We hypothesized that the use of TUS, in addition to AUSC, can significantly increase accuracy of BP diagnosis. Therefore, the objectives were to (i) determine the incremental value of TUS over AUSC for diagnosis of BP in preweaned dairy calves and (ii) assess diagnostic accuracy of AUSC. Two hundred and nine dairy calves (<1 month of age) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Prospective cross-sectional study. All calves from a veal calves unit were examined (independent operators) using the Wisconsin Calf Respiratory Scoring Criteria (CRSC), AUSC, and TUS. A Bayesian latent class approach was used to estimate the incremental value of AUSC over TUS (integrated discrimination improvement [IDI]) and the diagnostic accuracy of AUSC. Abnormal CRSC, AUSC, and TUS were recorded in 3.3, 53.1, and 23.9% of calves, respectively. AUSC was sensitive (72.9%; 95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI]: 50.1-96.4%), but not specific (53.3%; 95% BCI: 43.3-64.0%) to diagnose BP. Compared to AUSC, TUS was more specific (92.9%; 95% BCI: 86.5-97.1%), but had similar sensitivity (76.5%; 95% BCI: 60.2-88.8%). The incremental value of TUS over AUSC was high (IDI = 43.7%; 5% BCI: 22.0-63.0%) significantly improving proportions of sick and healthy calves appropriately classified. The use of TUS over AUSC significantly improved accuracy of BP diagnosis in dairy calves. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Effect of Pre-weaning Diet on the Ruminal Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Communities of Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Juliana; Marcondes, Marcos I; Noronha, Melline F; Resende, Rafael T; Machado, Fernanda S; Mantovani, Hilário C; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Suen, Garret

    2017-01-01

    At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed) on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days). Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea , and Succinivribrio ). Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides , and Parabacteroides ). In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces . Relative

  7. Effect of Pre-weaning Diet on the Ruminal Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Communities of Dairy Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Juliana; Marcondes, Marcos I.; Noronha, Melline F.; Resende, Rafael T.; Machado, Fernanda S.; Mantovani, Hilário C.; Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A.; Suen, Garret

    2017-01-01

    At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed) on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days). Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea, and Succinivribrio). Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides). In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces. Relative

  8. Effect of Pre-weaning Diet on the Ruminal Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Communities of Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At birth, calves display an underdeveloped rumen that eventually matures into a fully functional rumen as a result of solid food intake and microbial activity. However, little is known regarding the gradual impact of pre-weaning diet on the establishment of the rumen microbiota. Here, we employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the effects of the inclusion of starter concentrate (M: milk-fed vs. MC: milk plus starter concentrate fed on archaeal, bacterial and anaerobic fungal communities in the rumens of 45 crossbred dairy calves across pre-weaning development (7, 28, 49, and 63 days. Our results show that archaeal, bacterial, and fungal taxa commonly found in the mature rumen were already established in the rumens of calves at 7 days old, regardless of diet. This confirms that microbiota colonization occurs in the absence of solid substrate. However, diet did significantly impact some microbial taxa. In the bacterial community, feeding starter concentrate promoted greater diversity of bacterial taxa known to degrade readily fermentable carbohydrates in the rumen (e.g., Megasphaera, Sharpea, and Succinivribrio. Shifts in the ruminal bacterial community also correlated to changes in fermentation patterns that favored the colonization of Methanosphaera sp. A4 in the rumen of MC calves. In contrast, M calves displayed a bacterial community dominated by taxa able to utilize milk nutrients (e.g., Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides. In both diet groups, the dominance of these milk-associated taxa decreased with age, suggesting that diet and age simultaneously drive changes in the structure and abundance of bacterial communities in the developing rumen. Changes in the composition and abundance of archaeal communities were attributed exclusively to diet, with more highly abundant Methanosphaera and less abundant Methanobrevibacter in MC calves. Finally, the fungal community was dominated by members of the genus SK3 and Caecomyces

  9. Short communication: Use of fecal starch concentration as an indicator of dry feed digestion in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Hu, W; Suarez-Mena, F X; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-08-01

    Fecal starch (FS) has been used as a tool to evaluate starch and diet digestibility in lactating dairy cows and feedlot steers. Some on-farm advisors also use FS to evaluate calf starter digestibility in preweaned dairy calves. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of starter intake (SI), starch and organic matter digestibility, milk replacer (MR) feeding rate, and age on FS concentrations in preweaned dairy calves. Male Holstein calves (43 ± 2.9 kg of body weight; n = 35) from a single farm were fed different amounts of MR ranging from 0.44 to 1.10 kg of dry matter (DM) daily (27% crude protein, 17% fat) and weaned by 7 wk of age. Starter ingredient composition was 37% whole corn, 20% whole oats, 35% protein pellet, and 3% molasses and contained 43 ± 1.9% starch. Fecal grab samples were taken at 3 (n = 20), 6 (n = 20), and 8 wk (n = 35) of age. Twelve fecal samples per calf were taken via rectal palpation over a 5-d period each week, frozen daily, combined on an equal wet-weight basis, and subsampled for analysis. Chromic oxide was used as an external digestibility marker at 3 and 6 wk (included in MR), whereas acid-insoluble ash was used as an internal marker at 8 wk. Milk replacer and starter intakes (offered and refused) were recorded daily during collection periods. Multiple and linear regression of organic matter digestibility (% of DM), total-tract starch digestibility (TTSD; % of DM), MR intake (kg/d), SI (kg/d), and age (week) versus FS (% of fecal DM) were determined using PROC REG of SAS (version 9.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Prior to weaning, SI, age, and MR rate explained 89% of the variation in TTSD, where TTSD = [19.7 × SI (±4.25)] + [3.8 × age (±0.79)] - [24.8 × MR (±3.19)] + 56.2 (±3.39). At 3 wk of age, TTSD increased (coefficient of determination = 0.53) and SI decreased (coefficient of determination = 0.20) with increasing FS. At 6 wk of age, TTSD and SI were unrelated to FS. In 8-wk-old calves (with 2 trials), SI, MR rate

  10. Nitrogen utilization, preweaning nutrient digestibility, and growth effects of Holstein dairy calves fed 2 amounts of a moderately high protein or conventional milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Hill, T M; Elder, D R; Erickson, P S

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that calves fed milk replacers (MR) with crude protein (CP) concentrations greater than 20%, as typically found in conventional MR, have higher dry matter intakes (DMI) and greater average daily gains (ADG) but consume less starter, which can lead to stress during weaning and reduced rumen development. The greater amount of CP being fed to preweaned calves may alter their nitrogen (N) balance, and excess N may be excreted in the urine. The objective of this study was to determine N utilization in preweaned calves fed diets varying in the amount of CP and MR fed. This study used 24 newborn dairy heifer calves blocked by birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) 446g dry matter (DM) of a conventional MR (CON; 20% CP, 20% fat), (2) 669g DM of a moderately high protein MR (moderate; MOD; 26% CP, 18% fat), or (3) 892g DM of a moderately high protein MR (aggressive; AGG; 26% CP, 18% fat). All calves had ad libitum access to starter and water. Both MR and starter were medicated with decoquinate. During weaning (d 43-49), the morning MR feeding ceased. On d 50, all MR feedings ended; however, starter and water intakes were continuously recorded until d 56. At 5wk of age, urine was collected using urinary catheters for 3d and chromium oxide was administered by bolus at 2g/d for 7d to estimate N efficiency. Calves fed MOD and AGG had similar starter intakes, feed efficiencies, and ADG, with the combined treatments having reduced starter intakes (258 vs. 537g/d), greater ADG (674 vs. 422g/d), and improved feed efficiency (0.57 vs. 0.45 gain:feed) compared with CON calves preweaning. However, DMI and water intake were similar across all treatments. Results from the N utilization phase showed that MOD and AGG treatments had similar but lower N efficiency compared with CON calves (45.5 vs. 52.7%). This could be due to MOD- and AGG-fed calves having greater urine volume and thereby, greater combined urine N output compared with CON calves (17.6 vs

  11. Development of equations, based on milk intake, to predict starter feed intake of preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A L; DeVries, T J; Tedeschi, L O; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-16

    There is a lack of studies that provide models or equations capable of predicting starter feed intake (SFI) for milk-fed dairy calves. Therefore, a multi-study analysis was conducted to identify variables that influence SFI, and to develop equations to predict SFI in milk-fed dairy calves up to 64 days of age. The database was composed of individual data of 176 calves from eight experiments, totaling 6426 daily observations of intake. The information collected from the studies were: birth BW (kg), SFI (kg/day), fluid milk or milk replacer intake (MI; l/day), sex (male or female), breed (Holstein or Holstein×Gyr crossbred) and age (days). Correlations between SFI and the quantitative variables MI, birth BW, metabolic birth BW, fat intake, CP intake, metabolizable energy intake, and age were calculated. Subsequently, data were graphed, and based on a visual appraisal of the pattern of the data, an exponential function was chosen. Data were evaluated using a meta-analysis approach to estimate fixed and random effects of the experiments using nonlinear mixed coefficient statistical models. A negative correlation between SFI and MI was observed (r=-0.39), but age was positively correlated with SFI (r=0.66). No effect of liquid feed source (milk or milk replacer) was observed in developing the equation. Two equations, significantly different for all parameters, were fit to predict SFI for calves that consume less than 5 (SFI5) l/day of milk or milk replacer: ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\lt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1839_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0581}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}{\\times}{\\rm exp}^{{\\left( {\\left( {0.0333_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0021 }} {\\minus}0.0040_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0011}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right){\\times}\\left( {{\\rm A}{\\minus}{\\rm }\\left( {0.8302_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.5092}} {\\plus}6.0332_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.3583}} {\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)} \\right)} \\right)}} {\\minus}\\left( {0.12{\\times}{\\rm MI}} \\right)$ ; ${\\rm SFI}_{{\\,\\gt\\,5}} {\\equals}0.1225_{{\\,\\pm\\,0.0005 }} {\\times

  12. Risk assessment modelling of fecal shedding caused by extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli transmitted through waste milk fed to dairy pre-weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosile, Babafela B; Smith, Ben A

    2017-12-01

    Waste milk feeding is a common practice in dairy operations. Regardless of the benefits of this practice to the dairy farmers, concerns from the potential dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria through the gut and subsequent shedding by calves into the environment are increasing. In this study, we employed Monte Carlo simulation to assess the risk of shedding extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (ESC-R E. coli) caused by waste milk feeding in pre-weaned calves using an exponential dose-response model fit to data for E. coli O157:H7 in cattle. Data from pertinent studies were included in our model to predict the risk of shedding. The median (5th and 95th percentiles) for the daily risk of shedding ESC-R E. coli by calves fed only contaminated waste milk was predicted to be 2.9 × 10 -3 (2.1 × 10 -3 , 3.7 × 10 -3 ), representing a median daily risk of 29 out of 10,000 calves shedding ESC-R E. coli due to exclusive feeding of waste milk containing ESC-R E. coli. This median value was reduced by 94% when accounting for the proportion of waste milk that does not contain ESC-R E. coli. The overall risk of shedding ESC-R E. coli through the pre-weaning period for farms that feed waste milk to calves was 5.7 × 10 -3 (2.4 × 10 -3 , 1.1 × 10 -2 ), representing 57 out of 10,000 calves. When accounting for the proportion of farms that do not feed waste milk, the pre-weaning period risk was reduced by 23%. By varying the prevalence of ESC-R E. coli in waste milk using values of 3, 1.5, and 1%, the daily risk of shedding decreased by factors of 50, 65, and 82%, respectively, which supports the reduction of contamination or discontinuation of feeding waste milk containing ESC-R E. coli as major mitigation measures to reduce the risk of shedding caused by ingestion of resistant bacteria. It is anticipated that the effects of antimicrobial residues in waste milk, which was not considered herein due to lack of data, would further increase risks

  13. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  14. Effect of milk replacer and concentrate intake on growth rate, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of pre-weaned bull calves of two dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Johnston, D; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A

    2017-09-01

    Early-life nutrition affects calf development and thus subsequent performance. The aim of this study was to examine the effect plane of nutrition on growth, feeding behaviour and systemic metabolite concentrations of artificially reared dairy bull calves. Holstein-Friesian (F; n=42) and Jersey (J; n=25) bull calves with a mean±SD age (14±4.7 v. 27±7.2 days) and BW (47±5.5 v. 33±4.7 kg) were offered a high, medium or low plane of nutrition for 8 weeks using an electronic feeding system which recorded a range of feed-related events. Calves were weighed weekly and plasma samples were collected via jugular venipuncture on weeks 1, 4 and 7 relative to the start of the trial period. The calves offered a high plane of nutrition had the greatest growth rate. However, the increased consumption of milk replacer led to a reduction in feed efficiency. Holstein-Friesian calves offered a low plane of nutrition had the greatest number of daily unrewarded visits to the feeder (Pcalves on a low plane of nutrition (Pcalves increased before weaning, concomitant with an increase in concentrate consumption. Urea concentrations were unaffected by plane of nutrition within either breed. Jersey calves on a low plane of nutrition tended to have lower triglycerides than those on a high plane (P=0.08), but greater than those on a medium plane (P=0.08). Holstein-Friesian calves offered a high plane of nutrition tended to have greater triglyceride concentrations than those on a medium plane (P=0.08). Triglycerides increased from the start to the end of the feeding period (Pfeeding behaviour and metabolic response comparable with a high plane of nutrition in pre-weaned bull calves of both F and J breeds.

  15. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniece R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR or second-milking colostrum (transition milk on failure of passive transfer (FPT and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1, 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2, or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3. Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L. Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.. Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp. or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp. did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia.

  16. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  17. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  18. Prevalence of and management factors contributing to Cryptosporidium sp. infection in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhid, Aida; Robertson, Ian; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to identify species and determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. shedding in pre-weaned and post-weaned dairy calves and to identify management factors that may be contributing to disease. A total of 240 calf faecal samples were collected from 16 farms in two districts in Johor, Malaysia, and screened by PCR. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence was 27.1%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in pre-weaned calves was 32.4% for C. parvum, 26.5% for C. bovis, followed by C. andersoni (20.6%), C. ryanae (11.8%) and mixed sp. (8.8%). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in post-weaned calves was 35% for C. bovis followed by C. andersoni and C. ryanae (30% each) and mixed sp. (5%). Subtyping analysis of 8 of the 11 C. parvum isolates at the gp60 locus identified five isolates as IIdA15G1, one as IIa18A3R1 and two isolates as IIa17G2R1. Management factors that increased the risk of Cryptosporidium infection included having other cattle farms close by, feeding calves with saleable milk, keeping pre-weaned calves in pens with slatted floors and keeping post-weaned calves in pens with a sand floor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cryptosporidium Infection in Dairy Cattle Calves and its Public Health Significance in Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that causes diarrhoea in neonates and young calves. This longitudinal study was conducted at two large dairy cattle farms in central Ethiopia during February/2014 to June/2015 to determine the age-related distribution of Cryptosporidium species, to identify risk factors of the disease and to assess the public health significance of the parasite. Thirty calves born to these dairy farms were followed-up from birth to three months of age, and 270 faecal samples were collected and examined by the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen, PCR-RFLP and Sequencing. Cryptosporidium was detected from week 1 to 3 months of age with an overall prevalence of 14.8%, Peak of the infection was at two weeks of age when 12 of the 30 calves (40% shedded oocysts. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. andersoni were identified in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the C. parvum isolates from this study with GenBank sequences for C. parvum bovine genotype IIa and IId subtypes. This study showed the predominance of the zoonotic C. parvum species in pre-weaned calves and demonstrated that this age group of calves pose the greatest risk for human infection. Due attention on the management of pre-weaned calves is recommended to prevent transmission of the infection to humans and lessen contamination of the environment by oocysts.

  20. Phenotypically divergent classification of preweaned heifer calves for feed efficiency indexes and their correlations with heat production and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, J M; Coelho, S G; Machado, F S; Azevedo, R A; Lima, J A M; Carneiro, J C; Lage, C F A; Ferreira, A L; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Campos, M M

    2018-03-07

    the other sites. These results support the hypothesis that calves are divergent for RFI, RG, and FE during preweaning and divergence tests are applicable during this phase. The face mask method described here is a useful tool for estimating differences in HP among phenotypically divergent RFI calves. Eye temperature measured by infrared thermography may have potential to screen phenotypically divergent RG calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  2. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance and health responses of dairy calves offered different milk replacer allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Terré, M; Pinto, A

    2013-01-01

    , LMR grow more than HMR calves, overcoming the difference in BW at preweaning. As a result, with the weaning scheme followed herein, providing more milk does not ensure greater performance; no differences are obtained in BW at weaning and at 228 d of life. Also, based on solid feed consumption patterns seen in this study, we determined that the optimum age to reduce MR allowances and foster solid feed intake is around 45 d of age. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing intake of essential fatty acids from milk replacer benefits performance, immune responses, and health of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Shin, J H; Schlaefli, A; Greco, L F; Maunsell, F P; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R

    2015-01-01

    males fed T2 or T3; and skin-fold thickness increased in response to an intradermal antigen injection of all calves fed up to T4. Across sex and under the conditions of the present study, mean daily intakes of linoleic acid between 3 to 5g/d and intakes of α-linolenic acid between 0.3 and 0.6g/d during the first 30 d of life promoted growth of preweaned Holstein calves, possibly by improving their immune status. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of waste milk pasteurization on fecal shedding of Salmonella in pre-weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if pasteurization of non-saleable waste milk influences fecal Salmonella concentrations, prevalence, or antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype of cultured isolates, 211 Holstein dairy calves were housed on a single commercial dairy in the southwestern United States and randomly allot...

  6. Short- and long-term effects of forage supplementation of calves during the preweaning period on performance, reproduction, and milk yield at first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Ll; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2015-07-01

    Sixty female Holstein calves [body weight (BW)=39.5±3.76kg] were fed a ground starter concentrate [19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] during the preweaning period. Furthermore, oats hay (68% NDF) was supplemented only during the postweaning period (CON) or during both pre- and postweaning periods (OH) to evaluate performance until first breeding, diet digestibility after weaning, reproductive performance, and milk yield at first lactation. Calves were individually housed and bedded with wood shavings. All calves were offered 6 L/d of milk replacer (MR) at 12% dry matter (DM) in 2 feedings until 28d of age, 3 L/d of MR at 12% DM in 2 feedings from 29 to 44d of age calves, and 1.5 L of MR at 12% DM in 1 feeding from 45 to 51d of age. Animals were weaned at 52d of age. Starter concentrate and forage intake were recorded daily and BW weekly until 65d of age. Two weeks after weaning, total-tract apparent digestibility was determined in 6 calves per treatment. Heifer BW was recorded at 10 mo of age. Breeding and milk yield at first lactation were also recorded. Starter concentrate intake was greater in OH compared with CON animals during the preweaning period. As a result, calves in the OH treatment had greater average daily gain (ADG) than CON animals during the preweaning period. After weaning, OH calves consumed more forage than CON animals, but we found no differences between treatments in ADG and starter concentrate intake. Similarly, total-tract apparent digestibility did not differ between treatments, and BW and ADG from 2wk after weaning to 10mo of age did not differ between treatments. Moreover, no differences in reproductive performance [age at first artificial insemination (AI), age at fertile insemination, conception rate at first AI, and number of AI] or milk yield at first lactation were observed between treatments, although a positive relationship between growth rate early in life and future energy-corrected milk yield was found. We

  7. Ingestion of Milk Containing Very Low Concentration of Antimicrobials: Longitudinal Effect on Fecal Microbiota Composition in Preweaned Calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Although antimicrobial drugs are central to combat disease in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. One consequence is the post-therapy excretion of pharmacological agents, such as the elimination of drug residues at very low concentrations in the milk of lactating mammals. Limited information is currently available on the impact from the exposure of the gut microbiota to drug residues using in vivo natural models. The objective of our study was to address this knowledge gap and evaluate the effect on the fecal microbiota composition from feeding preweaned dairy calves raw milk with residual concentrations of ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and oxytetracycline from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth, prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment, until 6 weeks of age. Sequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA genes was conducted using the Illumina MiSeq, which provides a high resolution of the microbiota down to the genus level. Discriminant analysis showed that, except for pre-treatment samples, calves fed milk with drug residues and calves fed milk without drug residues easily discriminated at the genus level on their weekly microbial profile. However, analysis comparing the abundance of taxon between NR and DR showed significant differences only at the genus levels, and not at the phylum, class, order or family levels. These results suggest that although drug residues can result in clear discriminate gut microbial communities, they do not result in disruption of

  8. Short communication: Effects of increasing protein and energy in the milk replacer with or without direct-fed microbial supplementation on growth and performance of preweaned Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Ward, S H; Williams, C C; Rude, B J; Cabrera, C J; Kalestch, K N; Voelz, B E

    2014-11-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves were fed a direct-fed microbial (DFM) and 1 of 2 milk replacers to evaluate calf performance and growth. Treatments were (1) a control milk replacer [22:20; 22% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat], (2) an accelerated milk replacer (27:10; 27% CP and 10% fat), (3) the control milk replacer with added DFM (22:20+D), and (4) the accelerated milk replacer with added DFM (27:10+D). Dry matter intake, rectal temperatures, respiration scores and rates, and fecal scores were collected daily. Body weight, hip and withers height, heart girth, blood, and rumen fluid samples were collected weekly. Effects of treatment, sex, week, and their interactions were analyzed. Calves fed an accelerated milk replacer, regardless of DFM supplementation, consumed more CP and metabolizable energy in the milk replacer. No treatment differences were found for starter intake or intake of neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber in the starter. Calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had greater preweaning and weaning body weight compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Average daily gain was greater during the preweaning period for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but the same pattern did not hold true during the postweaning period. Feed efficiency did not differ among treatments. Hip height tended to be and withers height and heart girth were greater at weaning for calves fed the accelerated milk replacer compared with calves fed the control milk replacer. Fecal scores were greatest in calves fed DFM. Overall acetate, propionate, butyrate, and n-valerate concentrations were lower in calves fed the accelerated milk replacer, but DFM did not have an effect. Rumen pH was not different. Blood metabolites were unaffected by DFM supplementation, but calves fed the accelerated milk replacer had increased partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate, and total bicarbonate in the blood. Direct-fed microbial supplementation did not appear to benefit the calf

  9. Calf health from birth to weaning. II. Management of diarrhoea in pre-weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.

  10. Benchmarking passive transfer of immunity and growth in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2017-05-01

    Poor health and growth in young dairy calves can have lasting effects on their development and future production. This study benchmarked calf-rearing outcomes in a cohort of Canadian dairy farms, reported these findings back to producers and their veterinarians, and documented the results. A total of 18 Holstein dairy farms were recruited, all in British Columbia. Blood samples were collected from calves aged 1 to 7 d. We estimated serum total protein levels using digital refractometry, and failure of passive transfer (FPT) was defined as values below 5.2 g/dL. We estimated average daily gain (ADG) for preweaned heifers (1 to 70 d old) using heart-girth tape measurements, and analyzed early (≤35 d) and late (>35 d) growth separately. At first assessment, the average farm FPT rate was 16%. Overall, ADG was 0.68 kg/d, with early and late growth rates of 0.51 and 0.90 kg/d, respectively. Following delivery of the benchmark reports, all participants volunteered to undergo a second assessment. The majority (83%) made at least 1 change in their colostrum-management or milk-feeding practices, including increased colostrum at first feeding, reduced time to first colostrum, and increased initial and maximum daily milk allowances. The farms that made these changes experienced improved outcomes. On the 11 farms that made changes to improve colostrum feeding, the rate of FPT declined from 21 ± 10% before benchmarking to 11 ± 10% after making the changes. On the 10 farms that made changes to improve calf growth, ADG improved from 0.66 ± 0.09 kg/d before benchmarking to 0.72 ± 0.08 kg/d after making the management changes. Increases in ADG were greatest in the early milk-feeding period, averaging 0.13 kg/d higher than pre-benchmarking values for calves ≤35 d of age. Benchmarking specific outcomes associated with calf rearing can motivate producer engagement in calf care, leading to improved outcomes for calves on farms that apply relevant management changes. Copyright

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned dairy calves in the Czech Republic: Absence of C. ryanae and management-associated distribution of C. andersoni, C. bovis and C. parvum subtypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Hromadová, N.; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, M.; Sak, Bohumil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 177, 3/4 (2011), s. 378-382 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Calves * Cryptosporidium andersoni * C. bovis * C. parvum * GP60 * SSU Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  12. Potency of fiber rumen bacterial isolates from local buffalo inoculated into Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-digesting bacteria are the main rumen bacteria that play an important role in digesting feed. These bacteria are adapted to low quality forage from agricultural byproduct. The aim of these study was to determine the potency of fiber-digesting bacteria consortium obtained from buffalo rumen inoculated to Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning on feed consumption, utilization, mineral uptake and physiological status. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria obtained from collection of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The experimental unit consisted of six Frisian Holstein calves at two week old with the average body weight of 38.00 ± 6.23 kg. Calves were inoculated by 20 ml of fiber-digesting rumen bacterial isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/ml] every morning for four weeks. Experimental design used was based on a completly randomized design with three calves received the respective inoculation (treatment group and three calves without any inoculation (control group. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test method with α = 0.05 and 0.01. The results showed that fiber-digesting bacteria (FDB from rumen buffalo have adapted in the calves rumen since preweaning periode. Inoculation FDB increased the number of rumen bacteria, digestibility of protein and P uptake calves at eight weeks old. Increased feed intake, uptake of Mg and cobalt calves at 14 weeks old. Without causing any negative effects on ADG, physiological status and rumen fermentability.

  13. Immune responses of Holstein and Jersey calves during the preweaning and immediate postweaned periods when fed varying planes of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of breed and planes of preweaned milk replacer (MR) nutrition on the immune responses of pre- and postweaned dairy calves. Forty-two bull calves (n=20 Holstein and n=22 Jersey, 2±1 d old) were studied. Holstein and Jersey calves came from separate dairies. Calves were fed either a higher plane of MR nutrition or a lower plane of MR nutrition. Holstein and Jersey calves on the lower planes of MR nutrition were fed 454 g (as fed)/d of a 20% crude protein (CP)/20% fat MR. Holstein calves on the higher plane of MR nutrition were fed 810 and 1,180 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/20% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. Jersey calves on the higher plane of nutrition were fed 568 and 680 g (as fed)/d of a 28% CP/25% fat MR for wk 1 and wk 2 to 6, respectively. On d 4, 42, and 77, peripheral blood was collected for ex vivo immunological analyses, and on d 7 all calves were challenged subcutaneously with commercially available lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli (4 µg/kg of body weight); clinical and biochemical responses were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 72 h. We observed a breed difference in total serum protein, wherein Jersey calves had higher concentrations than Holsteins. Holsteins and calves fed the higher plane of MR nutrition had greater glucose concentrations following the LPS challenge. With the exception of plasma haptoglobin concentrations at 24 h postchallenge, we observed no treatment × time interactions following the LPS challenge. Calves fed higher planes of MR nutrition had greater plasma haptoglobin concentrations 24h following the LPS challenge. Isolated mononuclear cells from Holstein calves secreted more tumor necrosis factor-α than did cells from Jersey calves when stimulated ex vivo with LPS on d 77. In addition, when whole blood was incubated with a live enteropathogenic E. coli culture, blood from Holsteins had a greater killing capacity than did whole blood from

  14. Cryptosporidium species and Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in dairy calves and goat kids reared under traditional farming systems in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul; Yasa-Duru, Sibel; Usluca, Selma; Lysen, Colleen; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-11-01

    Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in ruminants reared under traditional animal management systems are scarce and studies conducted thus far have revealed largely an absence of the pathogenic and zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum in pre-weaned animals. In this study, we examined Cryptosporidium species and subtype distribution in free-range pre-weaned dairy calves and goat kids with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium-positive specimens from pre-weaned calves on 10 farms and goat kids on 4 farms in Ankara, Balikesir, Corum, Kirikkale, and Kirsehir Provinces, Turkey were genotyped by PCR-restriction length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, which identified C. parvum in 27 calves and 9 goat kids and Cryptosporidium ryanae in 1 calf. Among the C. parvum isolates successfully subtyped by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene, three subtypes were detected in calves, including IIaA13G2R1 (20/23), IIdA18G1 (2/23), and IIdA20G1b (1/23), and four subtypes were detected in goat kids, including IIaA13G2R1 (3/8), IIaA15G1R1 (2/8), IIdA22G1 (2/8), and IIdA18G1 (1/8). Data of the study suggest that dairy calves reared in a traditional cow-calf system in Turkey are mainly infected with a C. parvum subtype rarely seen elsewhere, whereas goat kids are infected with diverse subtypes. As all five C. parvum subtypes found in this study are known human pathogens, pre-weaned farm animals could play a potential role in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. THE EFFECT OF CALF STARTER RATION FOR PRE-WEANING ONGOLE GRADE (PO CALVES ON BODY WEIGHT GAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Winarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to determine the effect of calf starter in the pre-weaning calves against the daily body weight gain. Twenty Ongole grade (PO calves age of 1 month divided into 4 treatment groups of feed, 5 calves for each treatment. Treatment (P1 fed with extra soybean groats; (P2 soybean groats 50% + Gliricidia 50%; (P3 soybean groats 50%+ rice bran 50%; (P4 soybean groats 50%+ rejected bread 50%. Calf starter was given at age 1 month to 3 months. Observation was carried out on calves daily weight gain. This experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design. Data was  analyzed by analysis of variance and continued Least Significant Difference Test. Statistical analysis showed that feed of (P <0.05 significantly affected the daily weight gain of the calves. Results of the study can be concluded that calf starter with soya groats provide the best daily weight gain of pre-weaning calf.

  17. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... preference between degrees of isolation or difference in calving behavior in the different calving pens was found. However, cows experiencing a longer calving duration chose to calve in the most secluded calving pen (tall and wide). These results cannot determine cause and effect, but may suggest...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  18. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Management practices for male calves on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, D L; Duffield, T F; LeBlanc, S J; Haley, D B; Kelton, D F

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial use and resistance are major concerns in the rearing of male dairy calves, so information to support disease prevention is important. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe management practices associated with the care of male calves during their first days of life on Canadian dairy farms. A survey was completed by dairy producers across Canada between March 1 and April 30, 2015. The survey included 192 questions covering producer background, farm characteristics, biosecurity practices, disease prevalence, calf health, animal welfare, lameness, milking hygiene, reproduction, and Internet and social media use. A total of 1,025 surveys were completed online, by telephone, or by mail, representing 9% of all dairy farms in Canada. Five percent of respondents (n = 49) answered that they had euthanized at least 1 male calf at birth in the previous year, and blunt force trauma was commonly used in these cases. The majority of respondents always fed colostrum to male calves; however, 9% (n = 80) did not always feed colostrum. Almost 40% (n = 418) of respondents reported always dipping the navels of male calves, 12% (n = 123) vaccinated male calves, and 17% (n = 180) did not provide the same quantity of feed to male calves as heifer calves. The care of male calves differed greatly depending on the geographical region of the respondents. However, some regional effects may be confounded by economic conditions and the logistics of marketing male dairy calves in different parts of the country. Herd size was another important variable in many aspects of the management of male calves on dairy farms. Larger herd sizes were more likely to use an appropriate method of euthanasia at birth but were less likely to always feed colostrum to their male calves or feed them the same as female calves. Familiarity with the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle (National Farm Animal Care Council) by respondents

  20. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  1. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage

  2. Comparison of three methods of feeding colostrum to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, T E; Gay, C C; Pritchett, L

    1991-02-01

    Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by Holstein calves was studied in 3 herds in which 3 methods of colostrum feeding were used. Failure of passive transfer, as determined by calf serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration less than 10 mg/ml at 48 hours of age, was diagnosed in 61.4% of calves from a dairy in which calves were nursed by their dams, 19.3% of calves from a dairy using nipple-bottle feeding, and 10.8% of calves from a dairy using tube feeding. The management factor determined to have the greatest influence on the probability of failure of passive transfer in the herds using artificial methods of colostrum feeding (bottle feeding or tube feeding) was the volume of colostrum fed as it affected the amount of IgG1 received by the calf. In dairies that used artificial feeding methods, failure of passive transfer was infrequent in calves fed greater than or equal to 100 g IgG1 in the first colostrum feeding. In the dairy that allowed calves to suckle, prevalence of failure of passive transfer was greater than 50% even among calves nursed by cows with above-average colostral IgG1 concentration. Analysis of the effect of other management factors on calf immunoglobulin absorption revealed small negative effects associated with the use of previously frozen colostrum and the use of colostrum from cows with long nonlactating intervals.

  3. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  4. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  5. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  6. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influence metabolic responses in post-weaned Holstein calves challenged with bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences metabolic responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose of M...

  7. Effect of physical form and protein source of starter feed on growth and development of dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this paper was to review the literature on effects of different methods of processing of grain fraction of the starter feeds for young dairy calves, as well as providing another part of starter which is a source of protein, minerals and vitamins in different physical forms. The second aim was to discus the impact of the main protein sources for starter feeds on performance of preweaning and posteweaning dairy calves. The main criteria for assessment of physical form effect and sources of protein in the starter feeds were intake of dry feeds, daily live weight gain and frame size growth of calves, morphological and functional development of forestomachs, digestibility of feeds and health status of young calves. Data show big variations and lack of consistency of experimental results. Good results were achieved when calves were fed whole, ground, dry-rolled, pelleted and steam-flaked grains. It seemed that fineness of grinding and quantities of fine fraction were important for starter intake. Steam-flaking and grinding improved digestibility to the same extent, but whole grain stimulated chewing and improved rumen environment for bacteria growth. Soybean meal was the most palatable and ensured best performance of calves. Evidently, it is possible to replace soybean meal with rape seed, canola type meal, dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS and other protein sources which contain more fiber and are less digestible. However, it is difficult to appraise how much and at what conditions is it possible to replace completely or a maximum possible portion of soybean meal. Additional studies are needed to clarify interactions between physical form of starters, rumen fermentation environments and age of calves. Information for composition of diets is needed allowing inclusion of maximum amounts of canola meal, DDGS and sunflower meal, which are produced locally and are cheaper than soybean meal, without decreasing live weight

  8. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups....

  9. Genotype x environment interactions in preweaning traits of purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman calves on common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Tharel, L M; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1993-02-01

    Preweaning data on 486 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross calves (AB, BA) managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interactions of forage type and sex of calf with direct effects, individual heterosis, and maternal effects. Calves were spring-born in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 to five sires of each breed. Male calves were castrated at birth, and calves were not creep-fed. Average values of heterosis for birth weight, 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (WT/HT) were important (P < .01) and consistent across forage environment. Heterosis for birth weight was larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .05), whereas heterosis for other preweaning traits were consistent across sex of calf. Average maternal effects for WT/HT (P < .10) were important and consistent across forage environment. Maternal effects for birth weight were larger with bull calves than with heifer calves (P < .01). Maternal effects for weaning hip height favored the Angus dam managed on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not managed on fescue. A similar but nonsignificant trend occurred in maternal effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for birth weight were larger in bull calves than in heifer calves (P < .01). Direct effects for weaning height were larger in calves managed on bermudagrass than in calves managed on tall fescue (P < .07). A similar but nonsignificant trend was evident in direct effects for 205-d weight. Direct effects for WT/HT were relatively small and unimportant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of passive immunity was determined in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented of total serum protein (TSP) have corresponded to measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, during the months of August and November in 50 dairy farms. 2500 heifer calves born from Holstein cows, Jersey, HolsteinxJersey crosses and others were evaluated. When the TSP concentration has been less than 5,5 g / dl, it was considered as a failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPTI). TSP concentration has ranged between 2,0 and 10,0 g/dl, with an overall mean of 5,9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. The animals sampled have presented 38,8% of FPTI. A significantly higher TSP concentration (P<0,05) to the Holstein breed and others were obtained from the animals from the Jersey breed and HolsteinxJersey crosses. When considering calving of the dam, the concentration of TSP of the offsprings remains without significant differences. The offspring of first calving cows have showed the lowest proportion of animals with FPTI. The TSP concentration has varied significantly (P <0,05) between calves that have remained with the dams and were fed with colostrum by bottle. The FPTI has been higher when calves have stayed with their mother (44 vs. 33%). (Author) [es

  12. Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Calves in Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podhorský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, in terms of analysis of causes of disorders in calves on dairy farms, to evaluate occurrence of metabolic disorders in their postnatal period. In 23 agricultural farms (14 farms with the incidence of clinical forms of disease in calves during milk nutrition period - group D; 9 farms with no clinical disease - group H clinical examination was performed, blood samples were collected and data concerning the provision of permanent day and night care for calves (PDC during delivery and in early postpartum period were collected. The samples were taken from 3 - 5 calves in every farm (totally 97, H - 38, D - 59. Biochemical indicators that have some relations to the quality of colostral nutrition were determined (the concentrations of immunoglobulins - Ig, total protein - TP, albumin - A, globulins - G, vitamin E and A, the activity of gammaglutamyl transferase - GMT and to the microelement metabolism (the activities of glutathione peroxidase - GSH-Px for evaluation of selenium (Se status, the concentrations of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. While evaluating the entire group of examined calves, we found a high occurrence of metabolic disorders in calves connected with colostral nutrition and also high occurrence of microelement deficiencies. The decrease in TP was diagnosed in 80%, the decrease in G in 78%, the decrease in concentration of Ig in 78% and 74% of calves had higher A/G ratio. Insufficient intake of colostrum showed also lower activities of GMT in 76% of calves. Hypovitaminosis E was diagnosed in 67% of calves and hypovitaminosis A in 19% of calves. Microelement deficiencies were found in 77% (Cu, 39% (Se, and 10% (Zn of calves. While comparing the results for calves in groups H and D, in the group of calves from farms with no clinical disease (H a significantly higher (p p p p < 0.01 A/G ratio, which proves a higher-quality colostral nutrition. The results thus prove that the incidence of metabolic disorders in dairy

  13. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  14. Short communication: Promotion of glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion in dairy calves with a bioactive extract from Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S Y; Pastor, J J; Quintela, J C; Holst, J J; Hartmann, B; Drackley, J K; Ipharraguerre, I R

    2017-03-01

    Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation during the neonatal phase is the nutrient-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and associated effects on mucosal cell proliferation, barrier function, and inflammatory response. Bioactive molecules found in Olea europaea have been shown to induce the release of regulatory peptides from model enteroendocrine cells. The ability to enhance GLP-2 secretion via the feeding of putative GLP-2 secretagogues is untested in newborn calves. The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding a bioactive extract from Olea europaea (OBE) mixed in the milk replacer (1) can stimulate GLP-2 secretion beyond the response elicited by enteral nutrients and, thereby, (2) improve intestinal permeability and animal growth as well as (3) reduce the incidence of diarrhea in preweaning dairy calves. Holstein heifer calves (n = 60) were purchased, transported to the research facility, and blocked by body weight and total serum protein and assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Treatments were control (CON), standard milk replacer (MR) and ad libitum starter; CON plus OBE added into MR at 30 mg/kg of body weight (OBE30); and CON plus OBE added into MR at 60 mg/kg of body weight (OBE60). The concentration of GLP-2 was measured at the end of wk 2. Intestinal permeability was measured at the onset of the study and the end of wk 2 and 6, with lactulose and d-mannitol as markers. Treatments did not affect calf growth and starter intake. Compared with CON, administration of OBE60 increased the nutrient-induced response in GLP-2 by about 1 fold and reduced MR intake during the second week of study. Throughout the study, however, all calves had compromised intestinal permeability and a high

  15. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  16. Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves. P.T.C. Johnson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  17. Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be derived from milk recording data, therefore this fertility trait can easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. The aim of this ...

  18. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving....... Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access...... at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because...

  19. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  20. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens.

  1. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of age at first calving in Iranian Holstein dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Seyeddokht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Age at first calving (AFC has an important effect on profitability and reproductive management of dairy cattle. Every month increase in AFC beyond 24 months increases the cost of production. The time between birth and first calving represents a period in which replacement heifers are not generating income. Instead this rearing period requires considerable capital expenditures including feed, housing, and veterinary expenses. These expenses constitute 15% to 20% of the total expenses related to milk production. A basic approach to reduce this cost is to decrease the time between birth and her first freshening. Worldwide recommendations for one particular AFC might be an incorrect management goal for all of the cattle on all of the farms, since the recommendation might not represent the management goals and/or capabilities of a particular production system or farm. We realize that each dairy has its own set of unique management and environmental conditions, which makes a universal AFC and BW after first calving, a difficult goal to achieve. The AFC has a profound influence on the total cost of raising dairy replacements in which older calving heifers are more expensive to raise than younger ones. Materials and methods: A total of 19499 calving records belonged to 96 herd from 1996 to 2008 were used to estimate genetic components and genetic trend for age at first calving in Holstein dairy cows of Iran. Data were analyzed using a univariate model and Wombat software. Linear regression of estimated breeding values on calving year was used to estimate genetic trend. Results and Discussion: Estimated genetic trend was positive for some years and was negative for others and showed that reducing age at first calving has not been considered in the selection strategies; however, the phenotypic trend was decreased. The age at first calving for Yazd, Markazi, and southern Khorasan provinces were the highest and for Kermanshah, East Azarbayjan

  3. Effects of forage source and forage particle size as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Mirzaei, M; Kiani, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the interactive effects of forage source and forage particle size (PS) as a free-choice provision on growth performance, rumen fermentation, and behavior of dairy calves fed texturized starters. Forty-eight Holstein calves (42 ± 3 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned (n = 12 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors of forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)] and forage PS [(AH: medium = 1.96 mm or long = 3.93 mm) and (WS: medium = 2.03 mm or long = 4.10 mm), as geometric mean diameters]. The treatments were (1) AH with medium PS (AH-MPS), (2) AH with long PS (AH-LPS), (3) WS with medium PS (WS-MPS), and (4) WS with long PS (WS-LPS). Regardless of forage PS, the preweaning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy intake, weaning body weight, and forage intake were greater for AH calves than WS calves. Average daily gain, average daily gain/metabolizable energy intake, feed efficiency, and final body weight of the calves did not differ among groups. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced acetate, propionate, and acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen on d 35, with the greatest acetate proportion and acetate-to-propionate ratio, but the least propionate proportion for AH-MPS calves than the other calves. The total volatile fatty acid concentration and the rumen proportions of propionate (d 70), butyrate (d 35), and valerate (d 35) were greater in AH-MPS calves than in AH-LPS calves. Calves fed AH had greater total volatile fatty acid concentration (d 35 and 70) and propionate proportion (d 70), but lesser ruminal proportions of butyrate (d 35 and 70), valerate (d 35 and 70), and acetate-to-propionate ratio (d 70) compared with calves fed WS. The ruminal valerate proportion (d 70) was greatest in WS-MPS calves than the other calves. An interaction of forage source and forage PS influenced preweaning standing time and starter eating time, with the least

  4. Direct and maternal genetic effects for preweaning growth in Retinta cattle estimated by a longitudinal approach throughout the calving trajectory of the cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; Avilés, C; Molina, A

    2013-12-01

    The direct and maternal genetic effects were estimated for the preweaning growth of Retinta calves with a multitrait model across parities, using a longitudinal approach with random regression models (RRM). The 120 (P120) and 180 days (P180) weights (5972 calves) were considered as different traits in each calving. The heritability of direct effect across parities was on average 0.37 for P120 and 0.58 for P180, slightly higher than the estimates by univariate (0.30 and 0.56) and bivariate models (0.30 and 0.51, respectively). The heritability for maternal effects was 0.16 for P120 and 0.26 for P180 and very similar by uni- (0.16 and 0.23) and multivariate model (0.16 and 0.22, respectively). The correlation between direct and maternal effects by RRM showed a pronounced antagonism -0.64 for P120 and -0.78 for P180), likewise uni- (-0.62 and -0.72) and multivariate case (-0.64 and -0.74, respectively). The preweaning weights should be considered as different traits across parities, because the genetic correlations were different from unity. The RRM also allowed us to estimate all the parameters throughout the calving trajectory of the cow. The use of multiple traits RRM across parities can provide very useful information for the breeding programmes. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive

  6. Effects of milk replacer feeding strategies on performance, ruminal development, and metabolism of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silper, B F; Lana, A M Q; Carvalho, A U; Ferreira, C S; Franzoni, A P S; Lima, J A M; Saturnino, H M; Reis, R B; Coelho, S G

    2014-02-01

    feeding strategy did not affect glucose concentration, but insulin was higher in 6L-60 d calves than in the other groups. Glucose concentration increased with age, whereas insulin decreased until 45 d old, and then started to increase until 90 d. In conclusion, MR feeding strategy did not influence ruminal development. Feeding calves 6 L of MR/d over 60 d resulted in greater rate of weight gain without negative effects on starter intake or forestomach development. The weight advantage that 6L-60 d calves obtained preweaning was maintained until 90 d of age. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health benefits of orally administered anti-IL-10 antibody in milk-fed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabis, S M; Ollivett, T L; Cook, M E; Sand, J M; McGuirk, S M

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether anti-IL-10 egg yolk antibodies fed upon arrival to a calf ranch would lower the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum shedding in naturally challenged preweaned dairy calves. The secondary objectives included measuring the effect of anti-IL-10 antibodies on calf health, performance, and shedding of less common diarrheal pathogens. A total of 133 calves, enrolled at 24 to 72 h of age, received a daily dose of 0.96 g of egg yolk powder with anti-IL-10 antibodies (MAB, n = 71) or without anti-IL-10 antibodies (MEP, n = 62) split between 2 feedings for the first 11 d on feed at a calf ranch. Daily health evaluations were completed for 15 d after arrival and on d 56. Digital weights were collected at enrollment and d 56, and hipometer weights were collected at enrollment and d 7 and 56. Packed cell volume and serum total protein concentration were measured at enrollment and on d 7 and 14. Fecal pH was measured at enrollment and on d 5 and 14, and fecal pathogen (C. parvum, coronavirus, rotavirus, and Salmonella spp.) shedding was assessed at d 5 and 14. Continuous outcomes were compared between groups using a Student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. Fecal pathogen shedding at d 14, respiratory disease at d 56, and antibiotic usage were compared using relative risk (RR) and chi-squared test. Fecal pH (median and interquartile range) on d 14 was 6.65 (6.39-6.99) and 6.52 (5.97-6.81) for MAB and MEP, respectively. On d 56, the risk of respiratory disease was lower for MAB compared with MEP (RR = 0.40; confidence interval = 0.16-0.99). The risk for antibiotic treatment was lower for MAB- compared with MEP-treated calves (RR = 0.38; confidence interval = 0.17-0.88). The risk of shedding rotavirus was higher in MAB (RR = 1.38; confidence interval = 1.10-1.81) calves. After multivariable analyses, hipometer weights (least squares means ± standard error) were 1.7 ± 0.8 kg greater on d 56 in

  8. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A

    2018-01-17

    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p calves-fed EO (p = .05) and was lower in those fed 180P vs. 200P (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and growth performance of dairy calves fed extruded full-fat soybean as a replacement for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZeidAli-Nejad, A; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.

  10. Housing and environment for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J E

    1980-03-01

    Many cases of poor health in calves have been traced to bad management and inadequate ventilation in the calf nursery. Important management principles for improved calf health include calf housing isolated from the adult herd and periodic depopulation and sanitizing of the calf nursery area. In good weather, low-cost calf rearing portables such as the "calf hutch" can provide alternative housing during the cleanup period.Calf nursery ventilation systems must have flexibility to give the full winter-to-summer range of controlled ventilation rates and critical air inlet adjustments. Earlier recommendations were for three stepped ventilation rates of 3.3, 6.6 and 24 L/s per calf to cover the range from cold winter to warm summer weather. Later recommendations are for a simpler two stepped fan system starting at 6.7 L/s (continuous winter rate) and increasing to 50 L/s for temperature control in warm to hot weather. Even with the best insulated construction, increased supplementary heating is required to support this increased continuous winter ventilation. To save energy the heating must be controlled to stop before the higher-rate ventilation starts. Other design features for more uniform temperatures and improved calf nursery ventilation include: 1) preheating the ventilation air before it enters the calf room, 2) distributing air to the ceiling with round holes and adjustable slots adjusted to give at least 4 m/s inlet velocity, 3) using a properly sized centrifugal fan running continuously to exhaust air from near the floor in winter and 4) protecting air intakes and fan openings from the effects of wind. Air recirculation systems and variable-speed fans are not recommended.

  11. Genetic parameters for production and fertility in spring-calving Irish dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk production and selected fertility traits in Irish dairy cattle. Data were derived from 74 seasonal spring-calving dairy herds with a potential cow population of 6,783 in the 1999 calving season. The average 305-day yields (kg)

  12. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    grouping in duration of rest and rest with a neighbor. In conclusion, from the age of 3wk of life, calves housed with full social contact performed more social behaviors than calves housed individually with limited social contact, whereas only minor differences were found in the social behavior of calves......This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... sniffing and licking another calf more than were the L calves. No difference was found in duration of lying down in body contact with another calf between F and LF calves on d 22; however, on d 34, LF calves performed more of this behavior than did F calves. Continuous recordings of social behavior were...

  13. Lead isotope profiling in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John; McClure-Brinton, Kimberly; Zyskowski, Justin; Stensen, Lauren; Lehner, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a common cause of heavy metal poisonings in cattle. Sources of Pb on farms include crankcase oil, machinery grease, batteries, plumbing, and paint chips. Consequently, consumption of Pb from these sources may negatively impact animal health and Pb may be inadvertently introduced into the food supply. Therefore, the scope of poisoning incidents must be clearly assessed and sources of intoxication identified and strategies to mitigate exposure evaluated and implemented to prevent future exposures. Stable isotope analysis by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has proven itself of value in forensic investigations. We report on the extension of Pb stable isotope analysis to bovine tissues and profile comparisons with paint chips and soils collected from an affected dairy farm to elucidate the primary source. Pb occurs naturally as four stable isotopes: (204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb. Herein a case is reported to illustrate the use of (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios to link environmental sources of exposure with tissues from a poisoned animal. Chemical Pb profiling provides a valuable tool for field investigative approaches to Pb poisoning in production agriculture and is applicable to subclinical exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products, SmartCare in milk replacer and Original XPC in calf starter, on the performance and health of preweaned Holstein calves challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of supplementing SmartCare™ (SC) in milk replacer and Original XPC™(XPC) in calf starter on performance and health of preweaned calves following an oral challenge with Salmonella enterica. The study was performed in two 35-d periods with 30 Holstein...

  15. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period influences the pathophysiological responses to a combined intranasal bovine herpesvirus-1 and intratracheal Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in post-weaned Holstein calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) influences the pathophysiological responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge. Thirty Holstein calves (1 day of age) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement with preweaned PO...

  16. Plane of nutrition during the preweaned period and Mannheimia haemolytica dose influences inflammatory responses to a combined bovine herpesvirus-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in post-weaned Holstein calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether previous plane of milk replacer nutrition (PON) and M. haemolytica (MH) dose influences inflammatory responses to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge, Holstein calves (1 day of age; n=30) were assigned to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial with preweaned PON and dose o...

  17. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    .4 g of dry matter per minute). It appears that during weaning, and postweaning, calves fed TMR were attempting to maximize their nutrient intake but were unable to match that of calves in other treatments because of the high moisture content of their feed, and thus were unable to achieve similar average daily gain. Additionally, growth and total intake throughout the preweaning and weaning stages were similar for calves fed chopped hay along with concentrate and those not offered hay, suggesting no detrimental effect of feeding forage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparisons of housing, bedding, and cooling options for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-04-01

    the nursery pens. In trial 2b, weight gain, feed efficiency, and hip width change were greater and breaths per minute were less for calves cooled with fans compared with calves that were not cooled. In trial 3, airborne bacteria concentrations were greater in the hutches than in the nursery pens. Straw bedding (vs. sand), nursery pens (vs. hutches), and summer daytime cooling with fans improved calf weight gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of plane of milk replacer intake and age on glucose and insulin kinetics and abomasal emptying in female Holstein Friesian dairy calves fed twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, J A R; Berends, H; Leal, L N; Cant, J P; Martín-Tereso, J; Steele, M A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how preweaning plane of milk replacer intake and age can affect insulin and glucose kinetics as well as abomasal emptying rate in dairy calves fed twice a day. A total of 12 female Holstein Friesian calves were blocked by cow parity, paired by colostrum origin, and were randomly assigned to a high plane of milk replacer intake (8 L/d, 1.2kg of milk replacer/d; n=6) or a low plane of nutrition (4 L/d, 0.6kg of milk replacer/d; n=6). All calves received 4 L of colostrum over 2 meals (1 and 6h after birth) and were then directly transferred to their assigned feeding plans until they were stepped-down from milk by 50% during wk 7 and weaned on wk 8. Milk replacer (24% crude protein, 18% crude fat) was fed at 150g/L twice daily (0700 and 1700h) and all calves had ad libitum access to pelleted calf starter, chopped wheat straw, and water. Jugular catheters were placed in all calves at 4, 7, and 10wk of age. Then, postprandial response to plasma glucose, insulin, and acetaminophen (supplied with the meal) were determined to measure abomasal emptying. The next day, a glucose tolerance test was conducted by infusing glucose via the jugular catheter. At 4 and 7wk of age, the rate constant (%/h) for abomasal emptying of the meal was lower in high calves (0.21±0.02 in wk 4; 0.27±0.02 in wk 7) compared with low (0.34±0.02 in wk 4; 0.47±0.02 in wk 7). The postprandial plasma insulin area under the curve over 420min was greater in high calves (18,443±7,329; low=5,834±739 µU/mL) compared with low. We found no differences in glucose tolerance test kinetics between the high and low dairy calves at 4, 7, or 10wk of age. The findings from this study suggest that feeding dairy calves an elevated plane of nutrition in 2 meals of milk replacer per day does not decrease insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress-related hormonal alterations, growth and pelleted starter intake in pre-weaning Holstein calves in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, E; Mellado, M; Martínez, A M; Véliz, F G; García, J E; de Santiago, A; Carrillo, E

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of heat stress and month of birth on growth performance, pelleted starter intake, and stress-related hormones in Holstein calves. Birth weight and growth records, representing 4735 Holstein calves from a large commercial dairy herd in northern Mexico (25° N; 22.3 °C mean annual temperature) from 2013 to 2015, were analyzed. Temperature-humidity index (THI) at calving, season of birth, and month of birth were the independent variables, whereas growth traits were the dependent variables. Increased THI at birth from  85 units was associated with a decrease in birth weight from 39.3 to 38.7 kg. Calves subjected to high THI (> 75 units) at calving showed lesser (P calves born with THI calves born in the fall was about 70 g less (P calves delivered in winter months. Plasma triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine levels were lower (1.02 ± 0.21 and 48 ± 7.9 ng/mL, respectively; P calves born in summer (59 ± 40 ng/mL) than calves born in winter (20 ± 28 ng/mL). Pelleted starter intake 1 week before weaning was lowest (P calves. Thus, environmental management of the newborn calf during hot spring and summer months is warranted to optimize pelleted starter intake and calf growth rates.

  1. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on passage rate, nutrient digestibility, ruminal development, and body composition in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Lopes, D R G; Costa, S F; Mantovani, H C; Lopes, F C F; Marcondes, M I; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-11-01

    passage rate, nutrient digestibility, ruminal and organ development, or body composition in calves during the preweaning period, indicating that this strategy may be a viable alternative for feeding without increasing the total volume of liquid feed provided to dairy calves. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  3. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Šlosárková; Petr Fleischer; Oldřich Pěnkava; Miloslav Skřivánek

    2014-01-01

    Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh) from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and...

  4. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  5. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  6. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  7. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-02-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or

  8. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  9. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during...... levels. The present results show that only a rather high reduction in tube diameter led to reduced drinking rate. Neither reduced nor increased hunger levels led to changes in drinking rate, but calves showed reduced nonnutritive sucking and butting when they were less hungry and increased nonnutritive...

  10. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    . Within minutes after calving cows stood up and licked their calves; second parity cows had a longer latency to stand than later parity cows. Sniffing and licking the calf peaked during the first hour after calving and decreased during the five successive hours, while calves’ sniffing the cow peaked...

  11. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  12. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  13. Pre-weaning growth and feed intake of dairy calves receiving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teen 'n hoeveelheid van 12 9 droemateriaal (OM)/kg geboorte- massa, gerekonstitueer tot 15% OM en die kontrolegroep het volmelk teen 10% van geboortemassa ontvang. AI die kalwers is op 30·dae-ouderdom gespeen. Massatoename ..... quality in calf nutrition. Problems and possibilitiesof milk protein substitutes. Proc.

  14. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  15. Effects of supplementation level and particle size of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaei, M.; Khorvash, M.; Ghorbani, G.R.; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M.; Riasi, A.; Nabipour, A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of particle size (PS) of alfalfa hay on growth characteristics and rumen development in dairy calves at two levels of alfalfa supplementation. Fifty newborn dairy calves (42.7 ± 2.2 kg BW) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors

  16. The effect of arginine supplementation and milk allowance on small intestinal development in pre-weaning calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van P.; Welboren, A.C.; Khan, M.A.; Knol, F.W.; Dijkstra, J.; McCoard, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is an organ system crucial in feed digestion, nutrient absorption and protection against external pathogens. In this respect, changes in the structure of the small intestine in pre-ruminant calves are particularly important because it is the primary site of digestion and

  17. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M

    2015-04-04

    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Technical note: Use of accelerometers to describe gait patterns in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passillé, A. M. de; Jensen, Margit Bak; Chapinal, N.

    2010-01-01

    Developments in accelerometer technology offer new opportunities for automatic monitoring of animal behavior. Until now, commercially available accelerometers have been used to measure walking in adult cows but have failed to identify walking in calves. We described the pattern of acceleration...... associated with various gaits in calves and tested whether measures of acceleration could be used to count steps and distinguish among gait types. A triaxial accelerometer (sampling at 33 readings/s with maximum measurement at +/-3.2 g) was attached to 1 hind leg of 7 dairy calves, and each calf was walked...

  19. Influence of high dietary lead on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Alfaro, E.; Fielding, A.S.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of orally dosed 75 Se was studied in 10 intact male Holstein calves that were fed ad libitum a control diet containing no added Pb or supplemented with 1000 ppm Pb as PbSO 4 for 4 wk. Lead-supplemented calves did not exhibit any clinical signs of Pb toxicity. Voluntary feed intake was reduced by 9.5% and average daily gain by 23%. Lead content of rib, liver, and kidney increased. Serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase activity was increased during the last 2 wk of the experiment in calves fed Pb. In calves receiving supplemental Pb, 75 Se absorption, blood concentration, and urine concentration were reduced by 26, 21, and 42%, respectively. Tissue 75 Se concentrations were significantly lower in kidney, liver, testicle, pancreas, small intestine, heart, spinal cord, and muscle in calves fed Pb. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.78) between 75 Se and stable Pb concentrations in the liver. It is not clear whether the ingestion of subclinical amounts of Pb could affect the absorption and utilization of Se in dairy calves to the extent of Se deficiency when dairy calves are kept in areas known to be low in Se

  20. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Abstract. Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the ... Calving Interval (CI), Days Open and Pregnancy Rate. The last group of ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA. VanRaden ...

  1. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Šlosárková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and zinc sulphate turbidity units, and the age of calves. These groups were compared using nonparametric tests. The samples had good mean values (total protein 63.5 g·l-1, albumin 30.5 g·l-1, zinc sulphate turbidity 11.5 U, γ-glutamyltransferase 10.7 μkat·l-1 but 41% and 54% of calves had low total protein (-1 and zinc sulphate turbidity (P P -1; calves aged 3–6 days had significantly lower activity. It is newly suggested that samples be taken from calves 1–3 days old for γ-glutamyltransferase analysis and traditionally anytime during the first week of life for all other indicators. This first extensive analysis of passive transfer in Central Europe shows that there are widespread deficiencies in the feeding of colostrum to calves.

  2. Short communication: Comparison of pH, volatile fatty acids, and microbiome of rumen samples from preweaned calves obtained via cannula or stomach tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, L; Fàbregas, F; Bach, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare rumen samples from young dairy calves obtained via a stomach tube (ST) or a ruminal cannula (RC). Five male Holstein calves (46±4.0 kg of body weight and 11±4.9 d of age) were ruminally cannulated at 15 d of age. Calves received 4 L/d of a commercial milk replacer (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) at 12.5% dry matter, and were provided concentrate and chopped oats hay ad libitum throughout the study (56 d). In total, 29 paired rumen samples were obtained weekly throughout the study in most of the calves by each extraction method. These samples were used to determine pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, and to quantify Prevotella ruminicola and Streptococcus bovis by quantitative PCR. Furthermore, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed on rumen samples harvested during wk 8 of the study to determine the degree of similarity between rumen bacteria communities. Rumen pH was 0.30 units greater in ST compared with RC samples. Furthermore, total VFA concentrations were greater in RC than in ST samples. However, when analyzing the proportion of each VFA by ANOVA, no differences were found between the sampling methods. The quantification of S. bovis and P. ruminicola was similar in both extraction methods, and values obtained using different methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.89 and 0.98 for S. bovis and P. ruminicola, respectively). Fingerprinting analysis showed similar bacteria band profiles between samples obtained from the same calves using different extraction methods. In conclusion, when comparing rumen parameters obtained using different sampling techniques, it is recommended that VFA profiles be used rather than total VFA concentrations, as total VFA concentrations are more affected by the method of collection. Furthermore, although comparisons of pH across studies should be avoided when samples are not obtained using the same sampling method, the comparison of fingerprinting of a

  3. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of

  4. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...... period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas...... time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves...

  5. The effect of palatability of protein source on dietary selection in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Terré, M; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that soybean meal is perceived as more palatable than canola meal by dairy calves in short-term preference tests. This study evaluated the effect of protein source on longer-term dietary selection of dairy calves. In experiment 1, 40 Holstein bull calves (11.4 ± 4.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets for 6 wk: base starter pellet (S; 12% crude protein; CP) and high-protein pellet (40% CP) containing either (1) soybean meal (SB) or (2) canola meal (CM). In wk 7 to 8, all calves were offered a single pelleted diet containing the protein source to which they were previously exposed. In experiment 2, 22 Holstein bull calves (9.9 ± 4.6d of age) were offered, for 6 wk, a choice of 2 mixed pelleted diets: (1) 70% S and 30% SB (SB mix), or (2) 70% S and 30% CM (CM mix). In wk 7 to 8, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets, as in experiment 1: (1) SB + S, or (2) CM + S. All feeds were provided ad libitum. Calves received 6 L/d of milk replacer [0.75 kg/d of dry matter (DM)] for the duration of both experiments. Feed intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed every 14 d. Feeds were sampled weekly to analyze DM and nutrient intake. Mixed diets in experiment 2 were analyzed for CP in wk 4 and 6 to assess feed sorting (calculated as actual CP intake as a percentage of predicted intake). In experiment 1, calves offered SB + S in wk 1 to 6 consumed more high-protein pellet than calves offered CM + S [73 vs. 42% of DM intake (DMI)] and, consequently, more CP (168 vs. 117 g/d). Solid feed DMI and average daily gain were similar between treatments. When offered a single diet in wk 7 to 8, calves offered starter containing soybean meal increased intake to a greater extent than calves offered the starter containing canola meal. In experiment 2, calves preferred the SB mix to CM mix (preference ratio: 0.7). Calves consumed more CP than predicted from SB mix in wk 4 and 6 (108 ± 2.0%), indicating that they were sorting in

  6. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    The study collected up-to-date data on prevalence and importance of Eimeria infections in Danish dairy calves with suspected clinical eimeriosis and analysed correlation between Eimeria spp., oocyst excretion and diarrhoea. From October 2010 through August 2011, veterinarians collected faecal...... determined, along with opg values for the specific Eimeria spp. Association between opg and faeces consistency was evaluated in a multinomial, logistic regression model. Overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 96.2 % with a prevalence of 60.9 % in individual calves. E. zuernii and/or E. bovis were detected...... in 88.5 % of herds and 41.5 % of the calves. Mean opg was 2,040 (range 0–114,000) in the calves, of which 18.1 % had opg values ≥ 1,000. A total of 12 Eimeria spp. was found with the following calf prevalences: E. ellipsoidalis (37 %), E. zuernii (32 %), E. bovis (28 %), E. cylindrica (23 %), E...

  7. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Giménez, A; Juaristi, J L; Ahedo, J

    2007-06-01

    One hundred six female Holstein calves [body weight (BW) = 41.5 +/- 0.37 kg and 11.2 +/- 0.3 d old] were used to evaluate the effects of physical form of a starter on animal performance and starter intake. Calves were randomly allocated to 2 treatments consisting of either a multiparticle or a pelleted starter. Both starters had exactly the same ingredient and nutrient composition but differed in their physical form. Calves received 4 L/d of the same milk replacer at a 150 g/kg dilution rate in 2 offers of 2 L each until they consumed an average of 300 g/d of starter (as fed) for 2 consecutive days; then the dilution rate was decreased to 120 g/kg until the age of 49 d when milk replacer was limited to 1 daily dose of 2 L until 57 d of age. Calves were kept in individual hutches for at least 1 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 49 and 64 d of age. The median perimeters for the multiparticle and pelleted starters were 0.61 +/- 0.016 and 2.71 +/- 0.082 cm, respectively. Overall starter consumption was greater in calves receiving the multiparticle starter (944.8 +/- 30.01 g/d) than in those receiving the pelleted starter (863.9 +/- 32.04 g/d). There were no differences in the total milk replacer intake between the 2 treatments. Calf BW when leaving the individual hutches at the end of the study was similar between both treatments. Consequently, feed conversion efficiency was greater in calves consuming the pelleted than the multiparticle starter up to 64 d of age, mainly due to the greater conversion efficiency obtained with the pelleted than with the multiparticle starter after the preweaning period. It is concluded that pelleted starters may result in lower dry feed consumption compared with multiparticle starters, but because final BW was similar in both treatments, feed efficiency of calves consuming pelleted starters may be greater than that of calves consuming multiparticle starters. Therefore, when feeding a starter

  8. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  9. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Jalvingh, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  10. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g......An on-farm study was carried out in Tanzania to assess the performance of crossbred (Frisian/Ayrshire x Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu) dairy calves fed on a concentrate, previously developed and tested on-station. The developed concentrate contained 189 g crude protein (CP) and 13 ME MJ per kg DM...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  11. Understanding the gut microbiome of dairy calves: Opportunities to improve early-life gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Guan, Le Luo

    2017-07-01

    Early gut microbiota plays a vital role in the long-term health of the host. However, understanding of these microbiota is very limited in livestock species, especially in dairy calves. Neonatal calves are highly susceptible to enteric infections, one of the major causes of calf death, so approaches to improving gut health and overall calf health are needed. An increasing number of studies are exploring the microbial composition of the gut, the mucosal immune system, and early dietary interventions to improve the health of dairy calves, revealing possibilities for effectively reducing the susceptibility of calves to enteric infections while promoting growth. Still, comprehensive understanding of the effect of dietary interventions on gut microbiota-one of the key aspects of gut health-is lacking. Such knowledge may provide in-depth understanding of the mechanisms behind functional changes in response to dietary interventions. Understanding of host-microbial interactions with dietary interventions and the role of the gut microbiota during pathogenesis at the site of infection in early life is vital for designing effective tools and techniques to improve calf gut health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternative parameterizations of relatedness in whole genome association analysis of pre-weaning traits of Nelore-Angus calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Riley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestation length, birth weight, and weaning weight of F2 Nelore-Angus calves (n = 737 with designed extensive full-sibling and half-sibling relatedness were evaluated for association with 34,957 SNP markers. In analyses of birth weight, random relatedness was modeled three ways: 1 none, 2 random animal, pedigree-based relationship matrix, or 3 random animal, genomic relationship matrix. Detected birth weight-SNP associations were 1,200, 735, and 31 for those parameterizations respectively; each additional model refinement removed associations that apparently were a result of the built-in stratification by relatedness. Subsequent analyses of gestation length and weaning weight modeled genomic relatedness; there were 40 and 26 trait-marker associations detected for those traits, respectively. Birth weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA5. Gestation length associations included 37 SNP on BTA21, 2 on BTA27 and one on BTA3. Weaning weight associations were on BTA14 except for a single marker on BTA10. Twenty-one SNP markers on BTA14 were detected in both birth and weaning weight analyses.

  13. Effects of Protein-Iron Complex Concentrate Supplementation on Iron Metabolism, Oxidative and Immune Status in Preweaning Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kupczyński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding protein-iron complex (PIC on productive performance and indicators of iron metabolism, hematology parameters, antioxidant and immune status during first 35 days of a calf’s life. Preparation of the complex involved enzymatic hydrolysis of milk casein (serine protease from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Iron chloride was then added to the hydrolyzate and lyophilizate. Calves were divided into treated groups: LFe (low iron dose 10 g/day calf of protein-iron complex, HFe (height iron dose 20 g/day calf, and control group. Dietary supplements containing the lower dose of concentrate had a significant positive effect on iron metabolism, while the higher dose of concentrate resulted in increase of total iron binding capacity (TIBC, saturation of transferrin and decrease of and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC, which suggest iron overload. Additionally, treatment with the lower dose of iron remarkably increased the antioxidant parameters, mainly total antioxidant (TAS and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Higher doses of PIC were related to lower total antioxidant status. IgG, IgM, insulin, glucose, TNFα and IGF-1 concentration did not change significantly in either group after supplementation. In practice, the use of protein-iron complex concentrate requires taking into account the iron content in milk replacers and other feedstuffs.

  14. Effect of halofuginone lactate on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and growth of neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, B D; Trotz-Williams, L A; McKnight, D R; Leslie, K E; Wallace, M M; Todd, C G; Sharpe, P H; Peregrine, A S

    2005-05-01

    Thirty-one Holstein bull calves were purchased at birth from 3 dairy farms in Eastern Ontario. Each calf was assigned at random to oral treatment with either 5 mg of halofuginone lactate in 10.0 mL of aqueous carrier solution (Halocur, base comprised 10 mg of benzoic acid, 100 mg of lactic acid, and 0.3 mg of tartrazine) or 10 mL of placebo (Halocur base minus the active ingredient, halofuginone lactate) administered 15 to 30 min after morning milk feeding for the first 7 d of life. Intakes of milk, calf starter, and water, and fecal consistency score were recorded daily for 56 d. Calf weights were recorded weekly for 56 d. Fecal samples were taken from all calves at approximately 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d of age for isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess the effect of treatment on the incidence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection status. The odds of C. parvum shedding among calves in the halofuginone lactate-treated group was 70% lower than the odds of shedding among calves in the placebo group. In calves treated with halofuginone lactate, no oocyst shedding occurred until 2 wk of age, whereas 12.5% of calves in the placebo group began shedding oocysts during wk 1. From all ages of placebo-treated calves, 31 of 73 samples (42.5%) were positive for C. parvum, whereas only 15 of 67 samples (22.4%) from all ages of halofuginone lactate-treated calves tested positive. The largest number of C. parvum-positive samples occurred in the third week of life. There was a significant delay of 3.1 d in the incidence of diarrhea among calves treated with halofuginone lactate. Intake of milk and starter, body weight gains, and age at weaning were not significantly different between treatment groups.

  15. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  17. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of pre-ruminant dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal dairy calves throughout the United States are commonly fed pasteurized whole milk as the primary dietary component during their first several weeks of life. Whole milk fails to meet the recommendations for dietary inclusion of vitamins D and E for neonatal calves put forth by the National R...

  18. Accelerated Growth Programme with Polyherbal Formulations for Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Hadiya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental field study in approximately one month old, forty eight Jaffrabadi buffalo calves was carried out to evaluate efficacy of herbal formulations on growth & average daily gain. Calves were randomly divided into four groups, one control & three treatments. Treated groups were administered herbal formulations; Ruchamax, AV/DAC/16 @5gm/calf/day & Yakrifit @1 bolus/calf/day following treatment regimen of once a week per month for three consecutive months therapy. Growth related parameters were recorded for ninety days of experimental trial. It was observed that supplementation of herbal growth promoter & liver tonic products significantly improved liver function, feed assimilation & digestibility of ration ultimately leading to gain in body weight as compared to untreated control group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 62-64

  19. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

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    J. L. Uys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120 in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV, consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV, consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age.Adjusting for birth mass, birth date,damparity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG, both pre-weaning (days 0–42 and overall (days 0–60, was higher inHMVthan inRMVcalves (P<0.001.After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001. The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMVcalves. Overall feed conversion rate ofHMVcalves was 9.6%better thanRMVcalves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea.We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  20. The influence of postnatal nutrition on reproductive tract and endometrial gland development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Meghan L; McCoski, Sarah R; Geiger, Adam J; Akers, R Michael; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D

    2017-04-01

    Uterine gland development occurs after birth in cattle and other mammals. The timeline of gland development has been described in various species, but little is known about how postnatal diet influences uterine gland development. This is especially concerning in dairy heifers, where a variety of milk replacer and whole milk nutrition options exist. Little work also exists in cattle to describe how early exposure to steroids influences reproductive tract and uterine gland development. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of early postnatal plane of nutrition and estrogen supplementation on uterine gland development in calves. In both studies, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to restricted milk replacer (R-MR) or enhanced milk replacer (EH-MR) diets. In study 1, calves (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) were euthanized at 8 wk. In study 2, calves were weaned at 8 wk and administered estradiol (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 6) or placebo (R-MR, n = 6; EH-MR, n = 5) for an additional 14 d before euthanasia. Average daily gain and final body weight was greater in both studies in heifers fed the enhanced diet. At 8 wk, EH-MR calves had a greater number of glands and a smaller average gland size, but total gland area was not different from the R-MR group. At 10 wk, uterine gland number and size were not affected by diet or estrogen. Expression profiles of several paracrine mediators of gland development were examined. Increases in transcript abundance for IGF1 and IGFBP3 and a decrease in abundance of WNT7A were detected in calves fed the enhanced diet at 8 wk of age. Plane of nutrition did not affect transcript profiles at 10 wk of age, but estradiol supplementation decreased MET and WNT7A transcript abundance. To conclude, heifer calves on a restricted diet exhibited a uterine morphology and transcript profile suggestive of delayed uterine gland development. These changes appear to be corrected by wk 10 of life. Also, this work provides evidence supporting the

  1. Efficiency of use of supplementary lighting in rearing of dairy calves during milk feeding stage

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    Gledson L. P. de Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate programs of supplementary lighting for calves in individual shelters with different roof materials, as a strategy to stimulate concentrate consumption and the reduction of the milk feeding period and increase financial viability. Twenty seven dairy crossed Holstein × Gir female calves were randomly distributed in individual shelters with three different roofing materials (cement fiber tile, recycled tile and thatched roofs, associated with three different light duration (12, 16 and 20 h and with three repetitions. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between the types of roofs × supplemental light; also, there was no significant effect of the covering types on the average consumption of concentrate and occurance of diarrhea in calves. On the other hand 20 h of lighting stimulated the consumption of concentrate and allowed weaning of calves at 55 days of age and 20% reduction in the cost of rearing animals during milk feeding stage.

  2. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows undergo significant metabolic and endocrine changes during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, and impaired insulin action influences nutrient partitioning toward the fetus and the mammary gland. Because impaired insulin action during transition is thought to be related to elevated body condition and body fat mobilization, we hypothesized that over-conditioned cows with excessive body fat mobilization around calving may have impaired insulin metabolism compared with cows with low fat mobilization. Nineteen dairy cows were grouped according to their average concentration of total liver fat (LFC) after calving in low [LLFC; LFC 24.4% total fat/DM; n=10) fat-mobilizing cows. Blood samples were taken from wk 7 antepartum (ap) to wk 5 postpartum (pp) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin. We applied euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (EGHIC) and hyperglycemic clamps (HGC) in wk 5 ap and wk 3 pp to measure insulin responsiveness in peripheral tissue and pancreatic insulin secretion during the transition period. Before and during the pp EGHIC, [(13)C6] glucose was infused to determine the rate of glucose appearance (GlucRa) and glucose oxidation (GOx). Body condition, back fat thickness, and energy-corrected milk were greater, but energy balance was lower in HLFC than in LLFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and adiponectin decreased at calving, and this was followed by an immediate increase of glucagon and adiponectin after calving. Insulin concentrations ap were higher in HLFC than in LLFC cows, but the EGHIC indicated no differences in peripheral insulin responsiveness among cows ap and pp. However, GlucRa and GOx:GlucRa during the pp EGHIC were greater in HLFC than in LLFC cows. During HGC, pancreatic insulin secretion was lower, but the glucose infusion rate was higher pp than ap in both groups. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids decreased during HGC and EGHIC, but in both

  3. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  4. Effects of forage offering method on performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and nutritional behaviour in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EbnAli, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Mahdavi, A H; Malekkhahi, M; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-10-01

    The potential effect of dietary forage supplementation on the performance and rumen development in dairy calves is well established. However, limited research has been directed to the comparative effects of forage offering methods on calf performance. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of forage provision methods (total mixed ration or free choice) on the performance, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and nutritional behaviour in newborn calves. Forty-five Holstein dairy calves (3 days of age and 41 ± 2 kg of body weight) were assigned to the following three groups (n = 15): (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter supplemented with 10% alfalfa hay (AH) as a total mixed ration (AH-TMR) and (iii) starter and AH as a free-choice provision (AH-FC) for a period of 70 days. All the calves were offered 5 l of milk/day from day 3 to 50, and 2.5 l/day from day 50 until weaning on day 56. Dry matter intake (DMI) was greater (p forage tended (p = 0.08) to increase crude protein digestibility and overall volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen. No differences were observed among the treatments at the time spent on standing, lying, eating and performing non-nutritive oral behaviours. Compared to CON calves, animals in the AH-TMR treatment spent more time (p forage supplementation in both forage offering methods increased total DMI, ruminal pH and ruminating time in dairy calves. Hence, there is no benefit in the free-choice provision of AH in dairy calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in calves with and without diarrhea in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Alispahic, M; Sofka, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M; Hilbert, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter in feces of calves with and without diarrhea on dairy farms and to survey farm characteristics and management practices to define risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter. Fifty dairy farms were chosen based on the presence of calf diarrhea, and 50 farms in which calves were free from diarrhea served as a standard of comparison. In total, fecal samples were taken from 382 calves. Farm data and management practices were surveyed using a questionnaire on farm. Campylobacter were isolated from fecal samples and colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Campylobacter spp., mainly Campylobacter jejuni (93% of isolated species), were detected on 33% of the farms and in 14.9% of the calves. Detection of Campylobacter did not differ between farms or between calves with and without diarrhea, although we found a tendency for calves suffering from diarrhea to shed Campylobacter more often. Calves may act as a reservoir of Campylobacter and may therefore lead to infections of other animals and humans. To define control strategies to reduce Campylobacter in calves, we identified on-farm risk factors. The presence of poultry on the farm, the time of cow-calf separation following birth, the use of an individual bucket for each calf, the feeding of waste milk, and the duration of individual housing were variables significantly associated with the appearance or absence of Campylobacter. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The association between subclinical mastitis around calving and reproductive performance in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Arcila, N A; Sanchez, J; Ratto, M H; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Duque-Madrid, P C; Sanchez-Arias, S; Ceballos-Marquez, A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) on calving-to-first-service interval (CFS), calving-to-conception interval (CC), and on the number of services per conception (S/C) in grazing Holstein and Normande cows. Primiparous (n=43) and multiparous (n=165) cows were selected from five dairy herds. Two composite milk samples were aseptically collected from each cow at drying-off, and then every week during the first postpartum month. One sample was used for somatic cell count (SCC), and the other one for bacteriological analysis. Cows were followed up to 300 d after calving. Non-parametric and parametric survival models, and negative binomial regression were used to assess the association between SCM, evaluated by SCC and milk culture, and reproductive indices. Staphylococcus aureus, CNS, and Streptococcus uberis were the most frequent isolated pathogens. Subclinical mastitis in the first month of lactation was not associated with CFS; however, the CC interval was longer in cows with SCM compared to healthy cows, the former also had a higher number of S/C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary preference in dairy calves for feed ingredients high in energy and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2014-03-01

    In 3 experiments, we assessed preference of recently weaned dairy calves for (1) 8 high-energy feed types [barley meal, corn meal, corn gluten feed (CGF), oat meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, wheat meal, and wheat middlings meal]; (2) 6 high-protein feed types [corn gluten meal (CGM), wheat distillers dried grains, rapeseed meal, soybean meal (SBM), sunflower meal, and pea meal]; and (3) 4 mixtures (50:50) of the highest- and lowest-ranked high-energy and high-protein feeds, to assess whether calves maintain preference for feed ingredients that are included in a mixture. In all experiments, pairwise preference tests were conducted between all feed types (28 different pairwise preference tests in experiment 1, 15 tests in experiment 2, and 6 tests in experiment 3). Each pairwise preference test was conducted by offering ad libitum access to both feed types for 6h. All tests were repeated with 20 Holstein calves. Before this study, calves were offered milk replacer at a rate of 4 L/d and a pelleted starter feed ad libitum. After weaning at 62 d of age, each calf was involved in a pairwise preference test at 3 and 5d postweaning. A preference ratio was calculated for each calf in each test as (intake of feed type A)/(intake of feed type A + intake of feed type B). Preference for feed types was ranked across tests in each experiment using pairwise comparison charts. In experiment 1, the highest-ranked high-energy feed type was wheat meal and the lowest ranked were rice meal and CGF. In experiment 2, the highest-ranked high-protein feed type was SBM and the lowest ranked was CGM. According to the preference rankings from experiments 1 and 2, experiment 3 evaluated (50:50) mixtures of SBM + wheat meal, SBM + CGF, CGM + wheat meal, and CGM + CGF. The mixture of SBM + wheat meal was highest ranked, CGM + CGF was lowest ranked, and the mixtures containing one high-ranked and one low-ranked feed ingredient (SBM + CGF and CGM + wheat meal) were ranked equally. The results of

  8. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    O?Hara, Lisa A.; B?ge, Ren?e; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    Background Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and S...

  9. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  10. Association between human and animal thermal comfort indices and physiological heat stress indicators in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Ruff, F; Szenci, O; Jurkovich, V

    2018-06-06

    Warm summer episodes have a significant effect on the overall health and well-being of young cattle; however, it is not known which temperature measure should be used for estimating heat stress in dairy calves. In this study, generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the relationships between thermal comfort indices and animal-based heat stress indicators in sixteen Holstein bull calves that were housed in individual calf hutches. Data were collected under continental weather characteristics over a 5-day period: day 1 (lower-temperature day), days 2 and 3 (heat stress days), and a 2-day post-stress period. Relative humidity, ambient temperature, the heat index, the humidex and five different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were used as thermal indices. Physiological variables monitored included respiratory rate, rectal temperature, ear skin temperature and heart rate. The heat index and the humidex measuring human thermal comfort were more closely associated with physiological measures than were the ambient temperature or the THIs (in case of heat index: R 2 = 0.87 for respiratory rate, R 2 = 0.63 for rectal temperature, R 2 = 0.70 for ear skin temperature, and R 2 = 0.78 for heart rate, respectively; in case of humidex: R 2 = 0.85 for respiratory rate, R 2 = 0.60 for rectal temperature, R 2 = 0.68 for ear skin temperature, and R 2 = 0.75 for heart rate, respectively). Based on our results, parameters of human outdoor comfort seem better to estimate heat stress in dairy calves in a continental region than those of THIs or ambient temperature. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  12. Heterozigose individual e materna sobre o ganho de peso do nascimento ao desmame de terneiros Pampiano-Braford Individual and maternal heterozigosis on preweaning weight gain of Pampiano-Braford calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guidoux Leal Wolf

    1999-09-01

    a change in the ranking of calves at preweaning, but the number of animals chosen in common by the two methods did not differ much. The cows with 1/2 breed composition had the best performance on GNDa, while the calves with maximum heterosis (breed composition 1/2 were excelled by those 3/8, when HM was included in the performance, emphasizing the importance of HM on GNDa.

  13. Genetic parameters for direct and maternal calving ease in Walloon dairy cattle based on linear and threshold models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderick, S; Troch, T; Gillon, A; Glorieux, G; Gengler, N

    2014-12-01

    Calving ease scores from Holstein dairy cattle in the Walloon Region of Belgium were analysed using univariate linear and threshold animal models. Variance components and derived genetic parameters were estimated from a data set including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were season, herd and sex of calf × age of dam classes × group of calvings interaction as fixed effects, herd × year of calving, maternal permanent environment and animal direct and maternal additive genetic as random effects. Models were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Direct heritability for calving ease was approximately 8% with linear models and approximately 12% with threshold models. Maternal heritabilities were approximately 2 and 4%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be not significantly different from zero. Models were compared in terms of goodness of fit and predictive ability. Criteria of comparison such as mean squared error, correlation between observed and predicted calving ease scores as well as between estimated breeding values were estimated from 85,118 calving records. The results provided few differences between linear and threshold models even though correlations between estimated breeding values from subsets of data for sires with progeny from linear model were 17 and 23% greater for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively, than from threshold model. For the purpose of genetic evaluation for calving ease in Walloon Holstein dairy cattle, the linear animal model without covariance between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be the best choice. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. White muscle disease in three selenium deficient beef and dairy calves in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martín Rodriguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: White muscle disease (WMD, nutritional myodegeneration or enzootic muscular dystrophy, is a nutritional condition associated with selenium and/or vitamin E deficiency in ruminants. These elements are constituents of the major body antioxidant systems. Depletion of selenium results in oxidative damage to cardiac and skeletal muscle cells, resulting in myodegeneration and myonecrosis, typical lesions of WMD. Selenium deficiency is common in South America, but WMD is underreported. This research describes clinical, biochemical and pathological findings in two episodes of WMD associated with selenium deficiency in beef and dairy calves in Argentina and Uruguay with concurrent copper deficiency in one of them, which resulted in spontaneous calf mortality. Further studies are necessary to estimate the true incidence and economic impact of clinical and subclinical mineral deficiencies in livestock production systems in the southern cone of South America.

  15. Short communication: Effect of age at group housing on behavior, cortisol, health, and leukocyte differential counts of neonatal bull dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, E M; Karousa, M M; Lay, D C; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of age at grouping on behavior, health, and production of dairy bull calves, 90 Holstein-Friesian bull calves were housed in individual pens until moved to 1 of 3 treatments. Calves were housed in groups of 3 calves at 3 d old (GH3), 7 d old (GH7), or 14 d old (GH14) until 7 wk of age. Ten groups of 3 calves for each treatment were used, with 5 pens/treatment in each of 2 replications (10 pens/treatment, 3 treatments, 3 calves/treatment; 90 calves total). Direct behavioral observations using instantaneous scan sampling every 10 min were conducted twice per week for 7 wk. At the same times, video data were recorded for continuous observations at feeding time to observe the overall activity of group-housed calves. Hip height, heart girth, and health scores were recorded weekly and body weight was recorded at the start and end of the study. Calves in GH3 spent more time playing and but more time cross-sucking and displacing other calves from milk bottles. Calves engaged in social interaction as early as 3 d of age, and social interactions between 3 to 6 wk of age increased markedly. Calves housed in GH14 vocalized more than did calves in GH7 and GH3. No difference was found between treatments in growth performance. Calf fecal, cough, and nasal and ocular discharge scores, differential leukocyte counts, and plasma cortisol concentrations were not affected by age at grouping. However, during the first week of grouping, when calves were moved from individual pens to group pens, some calves were unable to find their milk bottles and required guidance. In conclusion, these data show no adverse effects on health or performance and some benefits on social behavior for early (d 3) grouping of calves. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

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    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  18. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Callie H.; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning), and 12 (5 weeks after weaning). ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX), macrolide (ermB, ermF), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2) classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies per gram wet manure) of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes) of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onward, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional nutritional intake applied

  19. Effect of Lactation Yield on First Follicular Wave Surge After Calving of Crossbred Dairy Cattle

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    R.C.A Berber

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed  to evaluate the effect of lactation on first follicular wave surge of crossbred (Gir x Holstein dairy cattle.  Nine multiparous crossbred dairy cattle were divided according to daily milk production (Group 1 = milk production higher than average, n = 5; Group 2 = milk  production  lower  than  average,  n  =  4.  From  calving  (Day  0  until  divergence  of  first follicular wave, ovaries  was monitored daily by ultrasound exams to observed the follicular emergence,  growth  rate,  maximum  follicular  diameter,  day  of  follicular  divergence  and ovulation. The mean of milk production was 17.4 + 6.4 L/day (n= 9. Group 1 had higher daily milk production than Group 2 (21.8 + 3.8 L/day vs. 11.9 + 3.9 L/day, P< 0.001. Data of follicular emergence were similar in both groups (P >0.05. The growth  rate of first follicular surge was higher  in  Group  2  than  Group  1  (2.0  + 0.0  mm/day  vs  1.2  + 0.6  mm/day,  P<  0.05.  The maximum follicular diameter was 11.6  + 0.9 mm (Group 1 and 13.5  + 1.7 mm (Group 2; P< 0.05. The follicular divergence occurred earlier  in Group 1 than Group 2 (12.2  + 0.8 days vs 13.7 + 0.6 days; P< 0.05. One animal of Group 2 ovulated. In conclusion, data suggested that milk production had influence on ovarian follicular dynamic after calving.Keywords: Follicle, post-partum, lactation, dairy cattle

  20. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

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    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  1. Characterizing social behavior, activity, and associations between cognition and behavior upon social grouping of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, K C; Miller-Cushon, E K

    2018-05-09

    Weaned dairy calves are commonly exposed to changing physical and social environments, and ability to adapt to novel management is likely to have performance and welfare implications. We characterized how behavioral responses of weaned heifer calves develop over time after introduction to a social group. Previously individually reared Holstein heifer calves (n = 15; 60 ± 5 d of age; mean ± standard deviation) were introduced in weekly cohorts (5 ± 3 new calves/wk) to an existing group on pasture (8 ± 2 calves/group). We measured activity and behavior on the day of initial introduction and after 1 wk, when calves were exposed to regrouping (addition of younger calves and removal of older calves from the pen). Upon introduction, calves had 2 to 3 times more visits to each region of the pasture; they also spent more time at the back of the pasture, closest to where they were introduced and furthest from the feeding area (25.13 vs. 9.63% of observation period, standard error = 5.04), compared with behavior after 1 wk. Calves also spent less time feeding (5.0 vs. 9.6% of observation period, standard error = 0.82) and self-grooming (0.52 vs. 1.31% of observation period; standard error = 0.20) and more time within 1 to 3 body lengths of another calf (16.3 vs. 11.9% of observation period, standard error = 2.3) when initially grouped. We also explored whether behavioral responses to initial postweaning grouping might be associated with individual differences in behavioral flexibility. To evaluate this, we assessed cognition of individually housed calves (n = 18) at 5 wk of age using a spatial discrimination task conducted in a T-maze to measure initial learning (ability to learn the location of a milk reward) and reversal learning (ability to relearn location of the milk reward when it was switched to opposite arm of the maze). Calves were categorized by reversal learning success (passed, n = 6, or failed, n = 8). Calves that passed the reversal learning stage of the

  2. Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Achieving high milk production performance at grass with minimal concentrate supplementation with spring-calving dairy cows: actual performance compared to simulated performance

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, M.; Ruelle, Elodie; Coughlan, F.; Delaby, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of high-profitability grazing systems is to produce milk efficiency from grazed pasture. There is very limited information available on the milk production capacity of dairy cows offered a grass-only diet for the main part of her lactation. In this study, spring-calving dairy cows were managed to achieve high milk production levels throughout the grazing season without supplementation. The calving date of the herd was 12 April; the herd had access to grass as they calved a...

  4. The relationship between energy balance after calving and reproductive functions in Holstein dairy cows treated by the OVSYNCH system

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    Martina Doležalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the course and the depth of negative energy balance (NEB rated by changes of the body condition after calving and subsequent recovery of reproductive abilities of Holstein dairy cows treated by OVSYNCH. The body condition was evaluated by the BCS system one week before calving and subsequently at 30-day intervals for the period of 6 months of lactation. Recovery of ovarian functions was evaluated by the results of ultrasound examination of all the dairy cows’ ovaries in two controls after calving. The first one was performed on an average of 67 days after calving, and the second at a 60-day interval. The occurrence of individual findings - the presence of corpus luteum, ovarian cysts or ovaries without findings was evaluated as an effect of NEB on the recovery of the ovarian cycle of dairy cows and their subsequent possibility of conception. The suitable cows were treated by the OVSYNCH system after the 1st and 2nd ultrasound examination. Therefore, the insemination interval was calculated and in the case of dairy cows, pregnancy detection, also the number of services per conception and the length of open days. Twice performed hormonal treatment of 73.6% of the animals delayed the period by 50.2 days. In all, 202 dairy cows calved in the period from 29th July 2011 to 7th February 2012 were included in this observation. Significant effects of the body condition change on the ovarian activity as documented by sonographic examination and reproductive indicators appeared primarily in the second month of lactation. The best reproductive indicators were found in cows with the lowest body condition change, thus with a small decline or even increase of body condition score (−0.0 to +0.75 points, P < 0.05. On the contrary, the worst level of indicators of recovery of the reproduction functions were documented in the dairy cows with the most marked decline of BCS (P < 0.05.

  5. Automated oestrus detection using multimetric behaviour recognition in seasonal-calving dairy cattle on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassel, J; Rohrssen, F; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2018-06-11

    To evaluate the performance of a novel accelerometer-based oestrus detection system (ODS) for dairy cows on pasture, in comparison with measurement of concentrations of progesterone in milk, ultrasonographic examination of ovaries and farmer observations. Mixed-breed lactating dairy cows (n=109) in a commercial, seasonal-calving herd managed at pasture under typical farming conditions in Ireland, were fitted with oestrus detection collars 3 weeks prior to mating start date. The ODS performed multimetric analysis of eight different motion patterns to generate oestrus alerts. Data were collected during the artificial insemination period of 66 days, commencing on 16 April 2015. Transrectal ultrasonographic examinations of the reproductive tract and measurements of concentrations of progesterone in milk were used to confirm oestrus events. Visual observations by the farmer and the number of theoretically expected oestrus events were used to evaluate the number of false negative ODS alerts. The percentage of eligible cows that were detected in oestrus at least once (and were confirmed true positives) was calculated for the first 21, 42 and 63 days of the insemination period. During the insemination period, the ODS generated 194 oestrus alerts and 140 (72.2%) were confirmed as true positives. Six confirmed oestrus events recognised by the farmer did not generate ODS alerts. The positive predictive value of the ODS was 72.2 (95% CI=65.3-78.4)%. To account for oestrus events not identified by the ODS or the farmer, four theoretical missed oestrus events were added to the false negatives. Estimated sensitivity of the automated ODS was 93.3 (95% CI=88.1-96.8)%. The proportion of eligible cows that were detected in oestrus during the first 21 days of the insemination period was 92/106 (86.8%), and during the first 42 and 63 days of the insemination period was 103/106 (97.2%) and 105/106 (99.1%), respectively. The ODS under investigation was suitable for oestrus detection in

  6. Performance in preweaning pure and crossbred calves in the Mato Grosso do Sul Pantanal region, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fabio Rafael Leão Fialho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purebred and crossbred calves (n = 3,871 were selected that were born in the sub-region of the Pantanal of Aquidauana (Brazil, derived from Nellore, Brangus, Wagyu, and ½ Brangus + ½ Nellore cows, which were artificially inseminated by bulls of the Aberdeen Angus, Red Angus, Brangus, Nellore, and Wagyubreeds. Parameters such as weaning weight, daily gain from birth to weaning, and the number of days to gain 160 kg, were assessed inthese calves and phenotypic correlations between the traits were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two statistical models. The first model included sire breed effects, the genetic group of the cow, sex, year of birth (AN, birth season (EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The second model included the genetic group of the calf, sex, AN, EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The genetic group of the cow and calf and the interaction AN * EN did not significantly affect body weight (p < 0.05. The average weaning weights of progeny were as follows: Aberdeen Angus bulls, 177.70 ± 3.28 kg; Red Angus, 180.31 ± 3.46 kg; Brangus, 181.48 ± 3.15 kg; Nellore, 175.43 ± 3.60 kg; and Wagyu, 173.16 ± 2.96 kg.

  7. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  8. Evaluation of a Brix refractometer to estimate serum immunoglobulin G concentration in neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, S M; Ollivett, T L; Haines, D M; Leslie, K E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a digital Brix refractometer for the assessment of success of passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulin compared with the measurement of serum total protein (STP) by refractometry. Blood samples (n = 400) were collected from calves at 3 to 6d of age. Serum IgG concentration was determined by radial immunodiffusion (RID), and STP and percentage Brix (%Brix) were determined using a digital refractometer. The mean IgG concentration was 24.1g/L [standard deviation (SD) ± 10.0] with a range from 2.1 to 59.1g/L. The mean STP concentration was 6.0 g/dL (SD ± 0.8) with a range from 4.4 to 8.8 g/dL. The mean %Brix concentration was 9.2% (SD ± 0.9) with a range of 7.3 to 12.4%. Brix percentage was highly correlated with IgG (r = 0.93). Test characteristics were calculated to assess failure of passive transfer (FPT; serum IgG <10 g/L). The sensitivity and specificity of STP at 5.5 g/dL were 76.3 and 94.4%, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to plot the true positive rate against the false positive rate for consecutive %Brix values. The optimal combination of sensitivity (88.9%) and specificity (88.9%) was at 8.4% Brix. Serum total protein was also positively correlated with %Brix (r = 1.00) and IgG (r = 0.93). Dairy producers can successfully monitor their colostrum management and the overall success of passive transfer using a digital Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration of colostrum and calf serum. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishment of ruminal enzyme activities and fermentation capacity in dairy calves from birth through weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, M; Enjalbert, F; Monteils, V

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the establishment of ruminal fermentation and enzymatic activities in dairy calves from birth to weaning (d 83). Six Holstein calves, immediately separated from their mother at birth, were fed colostrum for 3 d after birth, and thereafter milk replacer, starter pelleted concentrate, and hay until d 83 of age. Ruminal samples were collected from each calf every day for the first 10 d, and additionally at d 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29, 33, 36, 40, 43, 47, 50, 55, 62, 69, and 83. Ruminal samples were collected 1h after milk feeding with a stomach tube. The pH and redox potential (E(h)) were immediately measured. Samples were kept for further determination of ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and xylanase, amylase, urease, and protease activities. Ruminal pH averaged 6.69, 5.82, and 6.34, from d 1 to 9, d 10 to 40, and d 43 to 83 of age, respectively. At first day of life, the ruminal E(h) value was positive (+224 mV). From d 2 to 9, d 10 to 40, and d 43 to 83 of age, ruminal E(h) averaged -164, -115, and -141 mV, respectively. From d 1 to 3, d 4 to 22, and d 26 to 83 of age, NH(3)-N concentration averaged 60.1, 179.8, and 58.2 mg/L, respectively. No VFA were detected in ruminal samples collected on d 1 of life of calves. From d 2 to 10 and d 12 to 83 of age, ruminal total VFA concentration averaged 19.5 and 84.4mM, respectively. Neither ruminal xylanase or amylase activities were observed at d 1 of age. From d 5 to 15 and d 19 to 83 of age, the xylanase activity averaged 182.2 and 62.4 μmol of sugar released per hour per gram of ruminal content dry matter (DM), respectively. From d 5 to 83 of age, the amylase activity reached 35.4 μmol of sugar released per hour per gram of ruminal content DM. The ruminal ureolytic activity was observed with an average value of 6.9 μg of NH(3)-N released per minute per gram of ruminal content DM over the 83-d experimental period. From d 1 to 4 and d

  10. Determining optimum age of Holstein dairy calves when adding chopped alfalfa hay to meal starter diets based on measures of growth and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the optimum age of Holstein dairy calves for an effective inclusion of alfalfa hay (AH) in starter feed on performance, apparent digestibility and feeding behavior. A total of 40 Holstein dairy calves (20 female and 20 male) were used in a completely randomized design in which calves were randomly assigned to one of four different dietary treatments including control (CON) calves fed starter feed without any forage and three treatments consisting of the same starter feed plus 15% chopped AH fed when calves were at the 2nd (AH2), 4th (AH4) or 6th (AH6) week of age. Calves were individually housed and bedded with sand that was replaced every other day. Feed and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Calves were fed milk at 10% of birth BW twice daily until d 57. The study concluded when calves were 73 days old. Starter intake was recorded daily and BW was measured weekly. Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design by MIXED procedures of SAS. Results demonstrate that calves receiving AH treatments numerically consumed more starter feed (0.62 v. 0.78, 0.71 and 0.65 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6, respectively) and had greater average daily gain (ADG) compared with CON (0.48 v. 0.57, 0.49 and 0.49 kg/day for CON, AH2, AH4 and AH6), although the significant difference was observed only between AH2 and CON. Among AH treatments, calves in AH2 had better performance than AH6 in several cases including starter intake, ADG. No detectable differences were observed, however, in apparent dry matter, organic matter or CP digestibility among treatments. Ruminal pH and NH3 concentrations, measured on weeks 4, 6, 8 and 10, were lower for calves fed CON compared with other treatments, with ammonia concentrations decreasing over time. Calves in the AH treatments spent more time eating and ruminating compared with CON. Calves fed CON, however, spent more time on laying down compared with other treatments

  11. Influence of dietary component manipulation and feed management strategies on growth and rumen development of weaned dairy heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Tana Shea

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed replacement heifers provide a central foundation for the continued success of the dairy industry. Emphasis on improving pre-weaned calf nutrition has predominated in the industry, but opportunities exist to improve post-weaning heifer nutrition and management. We aimed to evaluate common feed management strategies seen in the industry and their effects on growth, feed efficiency (G:F), and rumen development of calves from birth to 8 mo of age using pen- and individually-fed ani...

  12. The Effect of Age, Stocking Density and Flooring during Transport on Welfare of Young Dairy Calves in Australia

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    Ellen C. Jongman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport of young (‘bobby’ calves for slaughter is a contentious welfare issue for some sectors of the Australian community. Factors of age, stocking density and flooring need further research to develop appropriate welfare standards for transport of bobby calves. The objective of this study was to identify the space allowance requirements for transport of bobby calves and to understand factors such as age and flooring that minimise risks to calf welfare during transport. Animals aged 3-, 5- and 10-day old were transported for 12 h in a custom-made cattle truck fitted with 9 pens, with movable mesh divisions. Each pen contained 4 calves, with space allowances of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 m2 per calf and flooring of solid metal, mesh or straw bedding. A total of 432 male dairy calves were transported in 12 trips during the 2-year study. Behavioural measurements included lying during transport, and lying and drinking for 12 h after transport during recovery. Blood samples were taken prior to transport, immediately after transport and 12 h after transport. Blood samples were analysed for metabolic state (glucose, beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB, hydration (packed cell volume (PCV and exhaustion/bruising (creatine kinase (CK activity. It was found that several measures were affected by age, which indicates that the physiology and in particular lying behaviour of 3-day old calves is fundamentally different from that of older calves. It is unclear how this affects their ability to cope with the stressors of transport. Space affected the posture changes and CK activity during and after transport and it is concluded that space allowance should be at least 0.3 m2 per calf for calves of average size, while CK activity suggested that providing more space to 0.5 m2 per calf may provide even greater benefits. Straw bedding is of clear benefit to calves during transport, to the extent that it may even reduce some of the negative effects of reduced space on lying

  13. An observational cohort study on persistency of internal teat sealant residues in milk after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabera, Fidèle; Dufour, Simon; Keefe, Greg; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-04

    factors explaining persistency of ITS residues following calving, observed differences were often relatively small and, perhaps, not clinically relevant. In conclusion, an ITS plug was present until first milking after calving for 83% quarters, quarters without an ITS plug at first milking appeared to have been protected from new IMI, and ITS residues could be observed in milk up to 12 d in milk. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    were all fed noncompetitively (2 buckets/pen in periods 1 and 3), calves previously fed CF had greater intakes in period 3 (4.87 vs. 4.44 kg/d) and a tendency for greater intake in period 1 (2.80 vs. 2.63 kg/d), greater rates of intake in period 3 (87.8 vs. 72.0 g/min) and a tendency for greater rates of intake in period 1 (44.3 vs. 38.9 g/min), and greater meal frequencies in both periods (11.1 vs. 9.9 meals/d). In the competitive challenge period (1 bucket/pen in period 2), intake, rates of intake, and meal frequencies were subject to treatment × week interactions: calves in NCF pens had lower intake and meal frequencies, but increased meal frequency, intake, and rate of intake over time to a greater extent than calves previously in CF pens. These results indicate that calves are able to adapt to moderate competition by increasing meal frequency and that behavioral responses to competition persist postweaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical note: The development of a methodology for ruminal and colon tissue biopsying of young Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, J K; Middeldorp, M; Steele, M A

    2018-05-09

    The objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for biopsying the rumen and colon of young dairy calves and to collect suitable quality tissue samples for microscopic and gene expression analysis. Six Holstein dairy bull calves (45.0 ± 1.5 kg birth weight) were ruminally cannulated during the second week of life and weaned at the end of wk 6. Ruminal and colon tissue samples were collected at the end of wk 5, 6, 7, 8, and 12. Calves were not sedated but were restrained in a chute for sampling. The endoscope (100 cm length, 9.8 mm diameter) was introduced through the rumen cannula to harvest ruminal tissue. Endoscopic biopsies of the rumen with endoscopic biopsy forceps were unsuccessful 85% of the time because they were unable to shear the ruminal tissue. Thereafter, an Allis clamp was used to retrieve the blind sac through the rumen cannula to perform direct tissue biopsying with surgical scissors. To biopsy the colon, the lubricated distal tip of an endoscope was slowly inserted into the calf's anus. A total of 6 colon tissue samples (12.6 ± 0.74 mg) were collected per calf per time point from the distal colon 30 to 40 cm from the calf's anus using endoscopic biopsy forceps, which were inserted through the instrument channel. A new forcep was used between sites and calves. Between calves, the outside of the endoscope was washed with 4% chlorohexidine and rinsed with water and the instrument channel was washed with distilled water and 70% ethanol. Colon and ruminal samples were processed for histological measurements, and RNA was isolated and sequenced. High-quality RNA (RNA integrity number 8.8 ± 0.08) was collected from samples, and light and electron microscopy was performed on samples. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsying can be used for tissue harvest in the colon of young calves. However, it was found that collecting ruminal tissue by retracting the rumen from the cannula and taking samples with surgical scissors was more successful than an

  16. Effect of early exposure to mixed rations differing in forage particle size on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Montoro, C; Bach, A; DeVries, T J

    2013-05-01

    Feed sorting of dairy cattle is influenced by dietary forage particle size. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of early exposure to rations differing in forage particle size on development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for 8 wk to 1 of 2 mixed rations containing (on a dry-matter basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3- to 4-cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2-mm) grass hay (FN; n=10), both offered ad libitum. Calves received 8L of milk replacer/d (1.2 kg of dry matter/d), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk, to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the CRS diet and were followed for 3 wk. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice per week. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken on d 1 to 4 of wk 9 and 11 for analysis of feed sorting. Sorting of the ration was assessed through analysis of nutrient intake. Actual intake of each nutrient was expressed as a percentage of predicted intake of that nutrient, based on the concentration in the fresh sample. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was similar between treatments after transition to the common CRS ration (3.20 kg/d, standard error=0.25 kg/d). However, feed efficiency was subject to a treatment-by-week interaction, with calves previously fed the FN diet having an initially greater gain-to-feed ratio than those fed the CRS diet [in wk 9, 0.60 vs. 0.47 kg of average daily gain (ADG)/kg of DMI] and similar feed efficiency in the following weeks (in wk 10, 0.43 vs. 0.43 kg of ADG/kg of DMI). A corresponding tendency was observed for ADG and body weight to evolve differently, depending on treatment, with calves previously fed the FN diet having greater ADG initially (in wk 9, 1.60 vs. 1.32 kg/d) but similar ADG to those fed the CRS diet in the following weeks (in wk 10, 1.39 vs. 1.33 kg/d and in wk 11, 1.32 vs. 1.31 kg/d). Calves

  17. Technical note: Quantifying and characterizing behavior in dairy calves using the IceTag automatic recording device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, P.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Decker, Erik Luc

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were 1) to validate the IceTag ( http://www.icerobotics.com/ ) automatic recording device for measuring lying, standing, and moving behavior in dairy calves, and 2) to improve the information yield from this device by applying a filtering procedure allowing...... for the detection of lying versus upright. The IceTag device provides measures of intensity (I) of lying, standing, and activity measured as percent lying, percent standing, and percent active, but does not directly measure lying, standing, and moving behavior because body movements occurring while lying (e...... (LPC) was established empirically, and IceTag data were filtered according to the LPC, providing information on the posture of the animal as lying versus being upright. Third, a new threshold of I was estimated for moving activity conditional on the animal being upright. IceTag recordings from 9 calves...

  18. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-03

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort.

  19. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, M J; Steele, M A; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding patterns persist after calves were switched to a conventional silage-based diet. Ten Holstein bull calves (91 ± 2.4d of age, weighing 136 ± 12.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a TMR containing [dry matter (DM) basis] either (1) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 10 wk (wk 1 to 10) or (2) 85% concentrate and 15% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 1 to 5), then 70% concentrate and 30% chopped straw for 5 wk (wk 6 to 10). After 10 wk, all animals were transitioned to a TMR containing (DM basis) 42.3% corn silage and 57.7% haylage for 2 wk (wk 11 to 12). During wk 1 to 5, all calves had similar DMI (5.5 kg/d), average daily gain (1.7 kg/d), feed efficiency (3.5 kg of DM/kg of gain), and eating time (151.9 min/d). During wk 6 to 10, calves transitioned to the 70% diet ate less DM (5.5 vs. 7.4 kg/d), grew more slowly (1.3 vs. 1.6 kg/d), sorted more against long forage particles (62.8 vs. 103.8%), and had greater feeding times (194.9 vs. 102.6 min/d). The difference in feeding time occurred only during the first 8 h after feed delivery. Despite similar DMI (5.2 kg/d) and average daily gain (1.1 kg/d) in wk 11 to 12, differences in behavior were observed resulting from previous diets. In wk 11 to 12, calves previously fed the 70% diet continued to have a longer meal immediately after feed delivery. Overall, the results indicate that diluting a dry TMR containing a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw with more straw resulted in calves spending more time feeding and having longer meals immediately after feed delivery; this feeding pattern carried over after calves were transitioned to a silage-based ration. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  20. The effect of body condition at calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on energy status and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlIbrahim, R M; Crowe, M A; Duffy, P; O'Grady, L; Beltman, M E; Mulligan, F J

    2010-08-01

    Improving the energy status of dairy cows during the early post-partum (PP) period by adding a safe dietary supplement such as live yeast culture (YS) may have a positive effect on reproductive function. The objective was to examine potential benefits of YS supplementation on PP energy status and fertility indices of dairy cows managed to have low or high body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) at calving. Forty (10 primiparous and 30 multiparous) Holstein/Friesian dairy cows were blocked by yield, parity, BCS, and predicted calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly allocated to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments which were: BCS at calving (low or =3.75; n=20) and YS supplementation (2.5g/cow/day for pre-calving and 10g/cow/day for post-calving x 10(8) CFU of Saccharomyces cerevisiae/g) (supplemented or control; n=20). Daily milk yield was recorded and weekly milk composition, BCS and BW were assessed from calving to week 10 PP. Forage (100% grass silage pre-calving; 50% grass silage, 50% maize silage post-calving; ad libitum) intake was recorded individually. Concentrate (2kg of pre-calver nuts+/-YS for pre-calving and 8 kg of lactating nuts+/-YS for post-calving) feeding was controlled individually. Estimated energy balance PP was calculated on a weekly basis individually as the difference between the net energy (NE) intake and the sum of NE for maintenance and milk production. Insulin and IGF-I concentrations were determined on days 14 and 7 pre-calving and 1, 5, 15, 25 and 35 post-calving. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed from day 10 PP to monitor the size and development of the first dominant follicle (>10mm in diameter with absence of other large growing follicles), first ovulatory follicle and days to first ovulation PP. Pre-ovulatory peak of serum oestradiol concentration was determined during the 2 days before ovulation day. Cows with high BCS (over-conditioned) at calving ingested less NE, produced more milk NE output, and

  1. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimizing preweaning growth of suckling calves and reconcep- tion of the lactating cow. ... daily requirements of a lactating beef cow grazing spring grass. ...... buffalo cows which had the greatest mass at calving also lost most thereafter, when ...

  2. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  3. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    infections were less common during the pasture season than during the late housing season. The relative occurrence of the 3 pathogens, infection types of each pathogen, and genotype diversity of each pathogen throughout the year or in different seasons and parities varied among the herds, indicating that underlying factors predisposing for udder infections at calving differ between herds. Genotyping of bacterial isolates gave important insight into how such infection patterns differed within and between herds. These findings emphasize the need to choose preventive strategies for each individual herd. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received 30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat

  5. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  6. The motivation-based calving facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    To ease calving and safeguard animal welfare, cows are moved to individual calving pens when calving is due. However, cows may be moved too late and disturbed, which prolongs calving and challenges welfare. Development of calving systems based on dairy cows’ pre-calving motivation to seek isolation...

  7. Influence of Soft or Hard Floors before and after First Calving on Dairy Heifer Locomotion, Claw and Leg Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Bergsten

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Claw health, an important dairy cow welfare parameter, may be affected by early-life foot/leg stresses. To investigate this, groups of pregnant heifers were allocated to deep straw bedding (Soft or cubicles (Hard, both with scraped concrete feeding alleys. After the grazing season, they were re-housed in cubicle systems, half on slatted concrete (Hard and half on slatted rubber (Soft alleys. Claw measurements, contact area and pressure distribution claw/flooring, claw disorders and leg lesions were recorded at the start and end of each housing season. Locomotion and leg lesions were also scored monthly after calving. Prevalence of sole haemorrhages was higher among pregnant heifers in cubicles than in deep straw. After calving, first-calvers on Hard floors had higher odds for lameness (OR = 3.6; P < 0.01, sole haemorrhages/ulcers (OR = 2.2; P < 0.05, white-line haemorrhages (OR = 2.8; P < 0.01 and leg lesions (OR = 2.6; P < 0.02 than those on Soft floors. Lowest prevalence and severity of sole and white-line haemorrhages (non-significant in first-calvers was found in those on Soft floors and reared on Hard floors and the highest prevalence and severity on those on Hard floors reared on Soft floors. Soft flooring after calving is of most importance for healthy feet and legs.

  8. Mortality risk factors for calves entering a multi-location white veal farm in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Charlotte B; Kelton, David F; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-12-01

    Mortality in preweaned dairy-breed calves, whether they are replacement dairy heifers, veal animals, or dairy beef animals, represents both a welfare issue and a source of economic loss for the industries involved. Studies describing morbidity and mortality in veal calves have illustrated different management practices and requirements in terms of housing and nutrition around the world. Studies examining the rearing of replacement dairy heifers have shown that rates of morbidity and mortality can vary dramatically between farms, perhaps reflecting differences in management strategies. It has been over 2 decades since morbidity and mortality in veal calves in Ontario were described. The objective of this retrospective population cohort study was to describe mortality and determine whether on-arrival information could be used to predict mortality risk. Predictors could be used to both better classify and group calves on arrival and provide feedback to suppliers about the characteristics of the highest- and lowest-risk calves. We collected data from 10,910 calves entering 7 barns of a single white veal farm, all in Ontario, from January 1 to December 31, 2014. Calves were followed until death or marketing (typically 140 to 150 d). We developed logistic regression models to determine the effects of weight on arrival, season of arrival, supplier, sex, barn, and purchase price on the risk of total mortality, early mortality (0-21d after arrival), and late mortality (>21d after arrival). We identified significant associations between season, barn, supplier, weight, and total mortality risk, with lighter-weight calves arriving in winter being at increased risk. Early mortality was significantly associated with weight, season, barn, and supplier, and tended to be associated with standardized price; lighter-weight calves arriving in winter at lower prices were at increased risk. Late mortality was significantly associated with season of arrival, barn, and supplier. On

  9. Effects of different forage sources as a free-choice provision on the performance, nutrient digestibility, selected blood metabolites and structural growth of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, B; Foroozandeh, A D; Shakeri, P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different forage sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 40; body weight = 41.2 ± 3.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 10 calves per treatment: five males and five females) to one of the following four treatments: (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter plus chopped alfalfa hay (AH), (iii) starter plus chopped wheat straw (WS) and 4) starter plus dried sugar beet pulp (BP) flakes. Calves fed AH diets had lowest (p Digestibility of NDF and ADF was greater (p digestibility of DM and OM than those fed CON diets and similar to those fed AH and WS diets. Calves in the AH treatment had greater (p digestibility than CON, but similar to WS and BP calves. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was lower in forage-offered calves than CON one. Body measurements (with the exception of body barrel) did not differ across treatments. It was concluded that BP improves final body weight, ADG and nutrient digestibility of calves than starter without forage provision during weaning transition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  11. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  12. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  13. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  14. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Fadel, J G; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T; Gaillard, C; Kebreab, E

    2016-01-01

    The idea of managing cows for extended lactations rather than lactations of the traditional length of 1 yr primarily arose from observations of increasing problems with infertility and cows being dried off with high milk yields. However, it is vital for the success of extended lactation practices that cows are able to maintain milk yield per feeding day when the length of the calving interval (CInt) is increased. Milk yield per feeding day is defined as the cumulated lactation milk yield divided by the sum of days between 2 consecutive calvings. The main objective of this study was to investigate the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk yield, and this effect interacted with parity for ECM per feeding day, ECM per lactating day and ECM per day during late lactation. The results showed that cows were at least able to produce equivalent ECM per feeding day with increasing CInt, and that first- and second-parity cows maintained ECM per lactating day. Cows with a CInt between 17 and 19 mo produced 476 kg of ECM more during the first 305 d compared with cows with a CInt of less than 13 mo. Furthermore, early

  15. Comparison of a commercially available oral nutritional supplement and intravenous fluid therapy for dehydration in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared D; Rodenburg, Merel; Snider, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours. Twenty-four colostrum-fed suckling dairy calves were used in a modified crossover design. An osmotic diarrhea was induced by orally feeding commercial milk replacer modified with high level of sucrose to create a hypertonic milk solution, and administering oral hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone for 48 h. The intention was to create a challenge sufficient to result in moderately dehydrated, standing calves without producing severe depression or loss of suckle. The efficacy of i.v. fluid therapy and a commercial nutritional supplement were subsequently compared for reversing the effects of the diarrheal disease. Treatment A consisted of administering the nutritional supplement according to label directions (100 g in 1.9 L of warm water, 3 times a day), and treatment B consisted of i.v. LRS (2 L, once a day). Clinical signs and laboratory results were obtained once daily by a blinded observer. The induction method was effective in creating the desired effect, as demonstrated by weight loss and subjective health and hydration scores. Both treatment groups experienced increases in body weight, base excess, and bicarbonate, and decreases in total protein and packed cell volume following treatment. Both i.v. LRS and Diaque are effective methods to correct hypovolemia and control derangements in acid-base status in calves with diarrhea and dehydration. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the

  16. Stillbirth in dairy calves is influenced independently by dystocia and body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Mason, C; Dwyer, C M; Haskell, M J; Macrae, A I

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if stillborn calves born following dystocia present with specific injuries/pathological changes compared to stillborns delivered without difficulty, and (2) whether such stillborns differ in conformation from dystocic calves that survive. Post-mortem examinations were carried out on 20 stillborns that were either unassisted (N) or were 'farm-staff'-assisted/normally presented (FN) at birth. Evidence of greater trauma and bruising was observed in the FN calves and parameters such as body length, birth-weight and thyroid:body weight were similar. In a second part of the study birth-weight, body length and height, girth length, body mass (BMI), and ponderal (PI) indices were assessed in 490 calves. Regardless of the severity of dystocia, stillborns had greater body lengths and lower BMIs and PIs than calves born alive (Pdystocia. Half of the stillborns had breathed indicating they were alive and possibly had experienced pain/distress at time of delivery. Body conformation was related to stillbirth independently of dystocia, a finding likely reflecting inadequate prenatal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of varying the amounts of dietary calcium on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Fielding, A.S.; Etheridge, R.E.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of dietary Ca on Se metabolism was studied with 16 intact male Holstein calves averaging 86 kg. Calves were assigned randomly and fed one of four diets containing .17, .67, 1.31, and 2.35% Ca at 3% of their body weight for 4 wk. The diets contained .062 ppm Se and .34% P. Four days prior to the end of the experiment, calves were dosed orally with radioactive 75 Se. Dietary Ca had no significant effect on 75 Se absorption. There was a slight curvilinear relationship between apparent 75 Se absorption and dietary Ca intakes. Urinary excretion of 75 Se and stable Se tended to decrease with increasing dietary Ca, but differences were not significant. No significant differences were found in concentration of 75 Se in several tissues. Kidney and liver had the highest concentration with that in kidney being about four times that of liver. Apparent 75 Se absorption was decreased 10 to 6%, respectively, in calves fed extremely low and high amounts of Ca, compared with those receiving the requirement (.67% Ca). These small reductions along with a small R 2 suggest that dietary Ca probably is of little practical importance relative to Se metabolism in calves

  18. Effect of calving interval and parity on milk yield per feeding day in Danish commercial dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; G. Fadel, J.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    the milk production of cows managed for lactations of different lengths, and the primary aim was to investigate the relationship between CInt, parity, and milk yield. Five measurements of milk yield were used: energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield per feeding day, ECM yield per lactating day, cumulative ECM...... yield during the first 305 d of lactation, as well as ECM yield per day during early and late lactation. The analyses were based on a total of 1,379 completed lactations from cows calving between January 2007 and May 2013 in 4 Danish commercial dairy herds managed for extended lactation for several...... years. Herd-average CInt length ranged from 414 to 521 d. The herds had Holstein, Jersey, or crosses between Holstein, Jersey, and Red Danish cows with average milk yields ranging from 7,644 to 11,286 kg of ECM per cow per year. A significant effect of the CInt was noted on all 5 measurements of milk...

  19. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Nutrition-induced Changes of Growth from Birth to First Calving and Its Impact on Mammary Development and First-lactation Milk Yield in Dairy Heifers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; Südekum, K-H; Pattanaik, A K

    2012-09-01

    This review focuses on the nutritional effects from birth until age at first calving on growth, mammary developmental changes, and first-lactation milk yield in heifer calves. The advancement in the genetic potential and the nutritional requirements of the animals has hastened the growth rate. Genetic selection for high milk yield has suggested higher growth capacity and hence increasing nutritional inputs are required. Rapid rearing by feeding high energy or high concentrate diets not only reduces the age of sexual maturity but also lowers the time period of attaining the age of first calving. However, high energy diets may cause undesirable fat deposition thereby affecting future milk yield potential. Discrepancies exist whether overfed or overweight heifers at puberty can influence the mammary development and future milk yield potential and performance. The data on post-pubertal nutritional management suggested that body weight at calving and post-pubertal growth rate is important in first lactation milk yield. There is a continuous research need for strategic feeding that accelerates growth of dairy heifers without reduction in subsequent production. Nutritional management from birth, across puberty and during pregnancy is critical for mammary growth and for producing a successful cow. This review will mostly highlight studies carried out on dairy breeds and possible available opportunities to manipulate nutritional status from birth until age at first calving.

  1. In utero exposure to heat stress during late gestation has prolonged effects on the activity patterns and growth of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, J; Fabris, T F; Skibiel, A L; Powell, J L; Hayen, M J; Horvath, K; Miller-Cushon, E K; Dahl, G E

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to heat stress during late gestation exerts negative carryover effects on the postnatal performance of the calf. In this study, we evaluated the health, growth, and activity patterns of calves born to cows exposed to heat stress (HT, provided only shade, n = 31) or cooling (CL, fans, soakers, and shade, n = 29) during late gestation (∼46 d, maternal dry period). Calves' body weight, rectal temperature, suckling reflex, and movement scores were recorded at birth, and calves were fed 6.6 L of maternal colostrum in 2 meals. Blood samples were collected at birth (before feeding), 24 h after birth, and at d 10 and 28 of age. Calves were housed in individual pens, fed pasteurized milk (6 L/d), and had ad libitum access to grain and water until weaning (49 d). Activity was assessed during the first week of life (wk 1), at weaning (wk 7), and in the first week postweaning (wk 8) using electronic data loggers. Health and body weight were monitored weekly. At birth, calves born to CL cows were heavier (41.9 vs. 39.1 ± 0.8 kg), their temperature was lower (38.9 vs. 39.3 ± 0.08°C), and they were more efficient at absorbing IgG than HT calves. Suckling reflex and movement score at birth were not different between groups, but calves born to CL cows spent more time (50 min/d) standing in the first week of life as a result of longer standing bouts. In wk 7 and 8, calves born to CL cows had less frequent standing bouts than HT heifers, but CL heifers maintained greater total daily standing time (36 min/d) due to longer (7 min/bout) standing bouts. All calves were healthy, but HT heifers tended to have higher (looser) fecal scores on d 10. Heifers born from CL cows gained 0.2 kg/d more from birth to weaning, weighed 4 kg more at weaning, and had greater concentrations of IGF-1 than HT calves, particularly on d 28. In utero heat stress during late gestation had immediate and prolonged effects on passive immunity, growth, and activity patterns in dairy calves. Copyright

  2. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  3. Effect of crossbreeding on market value of calves from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittante

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Market values (¤/kg of calves obtained from six paternal breeds , Brown Swiss (BS, Holstein Friesian (HF, Simmental (SI, Alpine Grey (AG, Limousin (LI and Belgian Blue (BB, and four maternal breeds (BS, HF, SI, AG, were studied in order to estimate the crossbreeding effects. A total of 58,877 calves sold during 143 weekly auctions from 2003 to 2005 in Bolzano in Italy near the Austrian border, were analyzed using ANOVA procedure according to a linear model that included the effects of cross, sex and age of the calf, year and month of the auction. Coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.84; cross and sex effects resulted the most important. The BBxSI calves showed the highest commercial value (7.01 ¤/kg, while the BS purebreds the lowest one (2.74 ¤/kg. The LI and BB breeds used as sire breeds showed the greater commercial prices when crossbred with SI and AG respect to BS and HF. However, BB resulted the best sire breed. On average male calves showed greater commercial values than female ones (5.16 vs. 4.44 ¤/kg, but in HF and BS purebreds the commercial value of males and females was similar.

  4. First-calving age and first-lactation milk production on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers attempting to reduce first-calving age (FCA) need to understand which rearing management factors influence FCA and first-lactation milk production (FLP). Reduced FCA might be associated with lower FLP. This study describes the association between herd FCA, FLP, and several herd-level health

  5. Effect of portion size and milk flow on the use of a milk feeder and the development of cross-sucking in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Peetz; Jensen, Margit Bak; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    milk feeder in each pen, and exposed to four milk-feeding treatments in a cross-over design with four periods of 1 week. All four treatments involved a daily allowance of 8. L of whole milk, with variation in the maximum portion size and the rate at which milk entered the teat of the milk feeder......This study aimed to investigate whether reducing the milk flow and increasing the milk portion size of a computer-controlled milk feeder would lead to less cross-sucking and fewer unrewarded feeder visits in dairy calves. Five groups, each with 9 or 10 calves (n = 48), were housed in pens with one...

  6. The creation and evaluation of a model predicting the probability of conception in seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Caroline; O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Dunnion, John; Shalloo, Laurence; Butler, Stephen T

    2017-07-01

    Reproductive performance in pasture-based production systems has a fundamentally important effect on economic efficiency. The individual factors affecting the probability of submission and conception are multifaceted and have been extensively researched. The present study analyzed some of these factors in relation to service-level probability of conception in seasonal-calving pasture-based dairy cows to develop a predictive model of conception. Data relating to 2,966 services from 737 cows on 2 research farms were used for model development and data from 9 commercial dairy farms were used for model testing, comprising 4,212 services from 1,471 cows. The data spanned a 15-yr period and originated from seasonal-calving pasture-based dairy herds in Ireland. The calving season for the study herds extended from January to June, with peak calving in February and March. A base mixed-effects logistic regression model was created using a stepwise model-building strategy and incorporated parity, days in milk, interservice interval, calving difficulty, and predicted transmitting abilities for calving interval and milk production traits. To attempt to further improve the predictive capability of the model, the addition of effects that were not statistically significant was considered, resulting in a final model composed of the base model with the inclusion of BCS at service. The models' predictions were evaluated using discrimination to measure their ability to correctly classify positive and negative cases. Precision, recall, F-score, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Calibration tests measured the accuracy of the predicted probabilities. These included tests of overall goodness-of-fit, bias, and calibration error. Both models performed better than using the population average probability of conception. Neither of the models showed high levels of discrimination (base model AUC 0.61, final model AUC 0.62), possibly because of the

  7. Effect of inhibiting the lactogenic signal at calving on milk production and metabolic and immune perturbations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, N; Ollier, S; Beaudoin, F; Blouin, R; Lacasse, P

    2017-07-01

    During the periparturient period, the abrupt increase in energy demand for milk production often induces metabolic and immunological disturbances in dairy cows. Our previous work has shown that reducing milk output by milking once a day or incompletely in the first few days of lactation reduces these disturbances. The aim of this study was to reduce metabolic and immunological disturbances by limiting milk production during the first week of lactation by inhibiting the lactogenic signal driven by prolactin. Twenty-two fresh cows received 8 i.m. injections of the prolactin-release inhibitor quinagolide (QUIN; 2 mg) or water as a control (CTL). The first injection was given just after calving, and the subsequent 7 injections were given every 12 h. Milk production was measured until d 28 after calving. Blood samples were taken from d 1 (calving) to d 5 and then on d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 to measure concentrations of urea, phosphorus, calcium, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and prolactin. Other blood samples were taken on d 2, 5, 10, and 28 to analyze oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and the effect of the serum on the lymphoproliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donor cows. Blood prolactin concentration was lower from d 2 to 5 but higher from d 10 to 28 in the QUIN cows than in the CTL cows. Milk production was lower from d 2 to 6 in the QUIN cows than in the CTL cows (24.3 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 4.1 kg/d on average, respectively). We observed no residual effect of quinagolide on milk production after d 6. During the first week of lactation, blood glucose and calcium concentrations were higher and β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was lower in the QUIN cows than in the CTL cows. Blood NEFA, urea, and phosphorus concentrations were not affected by the treatment. At d 2 and 5, the phagocytosis ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was not affected by treatment; however, quinagolide injection enhanced the proportion of cells

  8. Effects of feeding unlimited amounts of milk replacer for the first 5 weeks of age on rumen and small intestinal growth and development in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäff, C T; Gruse, J; Maciej, J; Pfuhl, R; Zitnan, R; Rajsky, M; Hammon, H M

    2018-01-01

    circumference and height tended to be greater, whereas crypt depth was smaller in ADLIB than in RES calves. The findings from this study indicate that ad libitum MR feeding for 5 wk of age followed by its gradual reduction promotes growth performance without any negative influence on gastrointestinal growth and development in dairy calves at 9 wk of age. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of cephalonium alone and in combination with an internal teat sealant for dry cow therapy in seasonally calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A J; Chambers, G; Laven, R A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of combining an internal teat sealant (ITS) and a long-acting cephalonium-based dry cow therapy (DCT) on the prevalence of cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving, and the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the first 100 days after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based, dairy farm in the South Canterbury region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive cephalonium DCT (n=289) or cephalonium and internal teat sealant (n=304) at the end of lactation. Cows were inspected twice daily by farm staff during the dry period and following calving for signs of mastitis. Individual SCC were determined from herd tests conducted in the previous lactation and following calving. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships with the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, and survival analysis was used to model time to the first case of clinical mastitis following calving at the cow and quarter level. The OR for a cow with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, including age and individual SCC in the preceding lactation in the model, was 0.53 (95% CI=0.32-0.89) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.017). At the cow level, including age and preceding SCC in the model, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis by farm staff in the first 100 days of lactation was 0.60 (95% CI=0.39-0.98) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.04). At the quarter level, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis, with age included in the model, was 0.41 (95% CI=0.23-0.74) for the combination therapy compared to cephalonium alone (pmastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the 100 days after calving, and the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving. This study adds to the evidence that the prevention of intra mammary

  10. Effects of Kefir as a Probiotic Source on the Performance and Health of Young Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Satık

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kefir as a probiotic on the performance and health status of calves. Thirty Holstein female calves with 3-day-old were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: Control (without any probiotic, probiotic (a commercial probiotic mixture-3 g/d/calf bacteria-based and 2 g/d/calf yeast-based and kefir (20 ml/d/calf. The calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The experiment was performed in 70 days. Treatment had no effect (P>0.05 on weaning and final body weight and starter intake. Although differences in weight gain were not significant (P>0.05, there were trend to increase by probiotic treatments during 0-14 days. Probiotic treatments tended to have a positive effect on the population of the fecal lactic acid bacteria at 14 days. The results of the study indicated that kefir as a natural probiotic in calf nutrition may be beneficial during the first weeks of life.

  11. Performance, nutritional behavior, and metabolic responses of calves supplemented with forage depend on starch fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M; Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F

    2018-05-16

    This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk and weaned on d 56 of the experiment; the study was terminated on d 70. Steam-flaked corn contained higher amounts of gelatinized starch in comparison with cracked corn (44.1 vs. 12.5% of total starch, respectively). Starter intake was not affected by corn processing methods or AH provision during the pre- or postweaning periods. However, we noted an interaction between corn processing methods and forage supplementation for starter intake during d 31 to 50 of the experiment, where calves fed on SF-AH starter had greater starter intake than those fed SF-NO starter, but the starter intake was not different between CR-NO and CR-AH fed calves. Furthermore, AH increased average daily gain (ADG) of calves fed an SF-based diet but not in calves fed a CR-based diet during the preweaning and overall periods. Interaction between forage provision and time was significant for ADG and feed efficiency, as calves supplemented with forage had higher ADG (0.982 vs. 0.592, respectively) and feed efficiency compared with forage unsupplemented calves at the weaning week. Forage supplementation resulted in more stable ruminal condition compared with nonforage-fed calves, as evidenced by higher ruminal pH (5.71 vs. 5.29, respectively) at postweaning and lower non-nutritive oral behavior around weaning time (55 vs. 70.5 min

  12. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogenetic Grouping and Phenotypic Detection of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Among Escherichia coli From Calves and Dairy Cows in Khuzestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Barzan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food-producing animals are under suspicion for the reservoir and colonization of ESBL (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria especially Enterobacteriaceae and therefore infection of the humans with them. The increasing reports on the ESBLs presence in the pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli isolates have been a concern worldwide. These strains can be attributed to one of the main phylogenetic groups and subgroups. Several studies have shown the relationship between the phylogeny and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli strains. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the phylogenetic group of ESBL-producing E. coli and detect its phenotype using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR and combined disk method. Materials and Methods: Two hundred five E. coli fecal isolates were obtained from 103 calves (90 healthy and 13 diarrheic and 102 dairy cows (healthy from 8 farms in Khuzestan province, Iran. The triplex PCR method was used to allocate the E. coli isolates based on the presence or absence of 3 genes (chuA, yjaA, and tspE4.C2 to yield 4 definite phylogenetic groups and 7 subgroups. Phenotypic ESBL-producing E. coli was determined using the double disk diffusion method according to the manufacturer’s instructions and Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: A total of 65.04% and 22.3% of isolates from calves and 70.5% and 20.5% of isolates from dairy cows belonged to phylogroups B1 and A, respectively. In addition, no isolate from the diarrhoeic calves was found to belong to group B2 and subgroups D2 and A0. A low prevalence (2/205 isolates, 0.97% of ESBL-producing E. coli was found only in the samples of dairy cows which belonged to the phylogenetic group A and phylogenetic subgroup A1. There was no statistically significant relationship between the phylogenetic group and the production of ESBLs (P = 0.11. There was also no difference between the E. coli isolates

  14. Evaluation of the Brix refractometer as an on-farm tool for the detection of passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, J B; Krebs, G L; Petzel, C E

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of both the optical and digital Brix refractometers compared with radial immunodiffusion (RID) for determining the immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations in dairy calf serum. The experiment design was a cross-sectional survey of four dairy farms. Serum was sampled from 12 calves from each farm at approximately 48 hours of age. Serum IgG concentrations of 48 calves were measured using RID and both types of Brix refractometer. IgG concentrations measured by Brix refractometer scores correlated with RID results: 0.74 and 0.71 for the digital and optical devices, respectively. The minimum Brix score that identified calf serum with success of passive immunity (>1000 mg/dL RID IgG) with 100% accuracy was 10% for both devices. The optical and digital devices performed similarly at identifying IgG concentrations in calf serum, with a concordance of 87%. Brix refractometer score ≥10% can be used to classify calves with successful transfer of passive immunity and the devices are sufficiently accurate for use as a simple, inexpensive on-farm tool for the monitoring of neonatal dairy calf immunity levels. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Different milk feeding intensities during the first 4 weeks of rearing in dairy calves: Part 1: Effects on performance and production from birth over the first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, M; Koch, C; Kesser, J; Müller, U; Romberg, F-J; Rehage, J; Eder, K; Sauerwein, H

    2017-04-01

    different among groups, nor was milk composition. Milk yields (305 d) were numerically but not statistically greater in the ad libitum-fed groups during the first lactation (+765 kg for WM-ad lib vs. MR-res; +612 kg for MR-ad lib vs. MR-res). Feeding WM-ad lib and MR-ad lib was 1.37- and 1.21-fold more costly than MR-res, respectively, but amounted to 18, 15, and 13% of the total estimated feed costs until first calving in WM-ad lib, MR-ad lib, and MR-res, respectively. Our study confirms that ad libitum feeding is an attractive measure for rearing dairy calves, both for animal welfare and-with the caveat of a small sample size in trial 2 that led to insufficient power-economic profit from milk. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of forage provision to dairy calves on growth performance and rumen fermentation: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, M; Mirzaei, M; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    A meta-analysis of the potential effect of forage provision on growth performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2016). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effects of different forage levels, forage sources, forage offering methods, physical forms of starter, and grain sources on the heterogeneity of the results. We considered 27 studies that reported the effects of forage provision to dairy calves. Estimated effect sizes of forage were calculated on starter feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (FE), body weight (BW), and rumen fermentation parameters. Intake of starter feed, ADG, BW, ruminal pH, and rumen molar proportion of acetate increased when supplementing forage but FE decreased. Heterogeneity (the amount of variation among studies) was significant for intake of starter feed, ADG, FE, final BW, and rumen fermentation parameters. Improving overall starter feed intake was greater in calves offered alfalfa hay compared with those offered other types of forages. During the milk feeding and overall periods, improving ADG was greater for calves fed a high level of forage (>10% in dry matter) compared with those fed a low level of forage (≤10% in dry matter) diets. The advantages reported in weight gain at a high level of forage could be due to increased gut fill. Improving overall ADG was lower for calves offered forages with textured starter feed compared with ground starter feed. The meta-regression analysis revealed that changes associated with forage provision affect FE differently for various forage sources and forage offering methods during the milk-feeding period. Forage sources also modulated the effect of feeding forage on ruminal pH during the milk-feeding period. In conclusion, forage has the potential to affect starter feed intake and performance of dairy calves, but its effects depend on source, level, and method of forage feeding and physical form of starter

  17. Effects of level of social contact on dairy calf behavior and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Housing preweaned dairy calves in pairs rather than individually has been found to positively affect behavioral responses in novel social and environmental situations, but concerns have been raised that close contact among very young animals may impair their health. In previous studies, the level...... of social contact permitted in individual housing has been auditory, visual, or physical contact. It is unclear how these various levels of social contact compare with each other and to pair housing, when their effects on behavior and health are considered, and whether the timing of pair housing has...

  18. SULPHUR DEFICIENCY IN DAIRY CALVES REARED ON PASTURE OF Brachiaria decumbens DEFICIÊNCIA DE ENXOFRE EM BEZERROS LEITEIROS MANTIDOS EM PASTAGEM DE Brachiaria decumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lippi Ortolani

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of sulphur (S deficiency is described by the first time in Brazilian dairy calves. Twelve crossbred six-month-old weaned dairy calves, reared on pasture of S-deficient Brachiaria decumbens, were used. The calves were randomly assigned in two groups of six calves each to verify the influence of S supplementation on some clinical and serum biochemical variables. All animals were fed a basal-supplement mix containing macro and microlements, urea and ground corn grain added (41gS/kg or not of S (elemental S; 1g S/kg, for six months. At the end of the experiment, the S-supplemented calves had higher mean body weight (p São descritos, pela primeira vez no Brasil, os sinais clínicos de bezerros leiteiros com deficiência de enxofre (S. Doze bezerros mestiços, recém-desmamados e com seis meses de idade, foram distribuídos, ao acaso, em dois grupos iguais. Todos os animais pastejaram em piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens e receberam, por seis meses, um suplemento básico contendo macro e microelementos, uréia e fubá, contendo 1gS/kg. No segundo grupo, essa mistura era suplementada com S-elementar para conter 41gS/kg. Ao término do experimento, o grupo suplementado com S apresentou um maior ganho de peso (p < 0,01, melhor condicão corporal (p < 0,016, e maiores concentrações séricas de sulfato inorgânico (p < 0,001 e de albumina ( p < 0,01 que os bezerros não suplementados. Os animais deficientes em S apresentaram perda de condição corporal, retardo de crescimento, perda de peso e discreta apatia.

  19. Pre-breeding ovaro-uterine ultrasonography and its relationship with first service pregnancy rate in seasonal-calving dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, J F; Buckley, F; Ryan, D; Dillon, P

    2009-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize an ultrasound reproductive tract scoring (URTS) system to assess suitability for breeding in dairy cows, to describe the prevalence of these scores in commercial dairy herds and to examine their relationship with subsequent fertility. Ultrasound examinations (7797) were performed on 5751 Holstein-Friesian cows prior to breeding in 62 seasonally calving herds over 2 years. Data recorded from images of both ovaries and the uterus were combined into a six point scoring system and the prevalence of cows with cystic ovarian follicles and uterine abscesses and adhesions was recorded separately. The prevalence of ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1), or had mild (2) or moderate endometritis (3) was 62.5%, 21.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of anovulatory cows with moderate endometritis (4), ovulatory cows with pyometra (5) and anovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (6) was 3.3%, 2.2% and 8.1%, respectively. The interval between calving and examination differed between cows with each of the scores 1, 2, 5 and 6 (61, 46, 53 and 50 days, respectively, p scores 3 and 4 (37 and 35 days, respectively). Ovulatory cows which had completed uterine involution (score 1) had a higher likelihood of pregnancy to first service than ovulatory or anovulatory cows which had not completed uterine involution (p reproductive tract was 3.9% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, 29% and 11% of cows in seasonally calving and breeding dairy herds had not completed uterine involution or were anovulatory prior to the mating start date, respectively. Both conditions, detected using a URTS system, significantly reduced first service pregnancy rate in these pasture-based dairy herds.

  20. Why Do So Many Calves Die on Modern Dairy Farms and What Can We Do about Calf Welfare in the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Mee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor bovine neonatal survival rates are an international animal welfare issue. The key modifiable risk factors associated with such loss are age at first calving in primiparae, calf breed, gender and gestation length and calving management. The primary causes of mortality in the perinatal period are calving problems, in particular dystocia, defined as both difficult and abnormal calvings. Calf loss rates are rising on modern dairy farms in many countries internationally. High calf loss rates are often not recognised at national or at farm-level; recording needs to be improved. Improving bovine neonatal survival requires re-prioritization of this issue. Stakeholders need to be made cognisant of this prioritization. Actions to effect change need to occur at both national and farm-levels. National-level actions need firstly to address raising awareness of the issue. Farm-level actions need to focus on identifiable problem farms through targeted surveillance. Application of existing knowledge to alter modifiable risk factors is the key to improving calf welfare in the future. Research also has a role to play in filling knowledge gaps in particular about the ‘unexplained stillbirth’.

  1. Interactions between the physical form of starter (mashed versus textured) and corn silage provision on performance, rumen fermentation, and structural growth of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Riasi, A; Soltani, A; Moshiri, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-02-01

    Introducing forage in the young calf diet during the milk-feeding period stimulates rumen development. It was hypothesized that performance in dairy calves would depend on forage provision and starter physical form such that the textured starter (TS) feed with corn silage (CS) supplementation would benefit calf performance. This study evaluates the effects of the physical form of starter diets and CS supplementation on performance, rumen fermentation characteristics, and structural growth of dairy calves. Forty-eight 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves with a mean starting BW of 42.1 kg (SD 2.4) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary CS level (0 or 15% on DM basis) and physical form of starter (mashed vs. textured). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned ( = 12 calves per treatment: 6 males and 6 females) to 4 treatments: 1) a mashed starter (MS) feed with no CS (MS-NCS), 2) a MS feed with CS (MS-CS), 3) a TS feed with no CS (TS-NCS), and 4) a TS feed with CS (TS-CS). The calves had ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 56 of age and remained in the study until d 66. The interaction of the physical form of the starter and CS provision was significant ( intake, with the greatest intake for TS-CS treatment during the preweaning and overall periods. Regardless of the physical form of starter, starter intake, ADG, weaning BW, final BW, ruminal pH, the molar proportion of acetate, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio were greater ( calves compared with unsupplemented calves. No interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between the physical form of starter and CS provision with respect to the rumen fermentation parameters and body measurements. Total rumen VFA concentration and the molar proportion of propionate were greater ( calves fed TS compared with MS-fed calves. In conclusion, independent of the physical form of starter, inclusion of 15% CS in starter diets improves the performance of

  2. Contribution of the calving interval to dairy farm profitability: results of a cluster analysis of FADN data for a major milk production area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the potential economic impact of good management of the calving interval on dairy farms. This involved the assessment of economics and production of a sample of farms, selected from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN, and located in Sardinia, Italy. Two farm models were derived from clustering the sample by k-means, which were validated by verifying their consistency in relation to nutritional needs, feed supply and milk production of the herds. Differences in indices of performance and dynamics were found (e.g. ROE is -0.8% vs 4.7%, with evident linkages between economic performance, greater efficiency, reproductive capacity, and potential turnover. The model better performing reflected greater economic feeding efficiency and a shorter calving interval. Hence, management, more than structural aspects, determined the economic results of the sampled farms.

  3. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  4. Grazing dairy cows had decreased interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-17, and increased expression of interleukin-10 during the first week after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Axel; McCarthy, Allison; Wedlock, Neil; Meier, Susanne; Kay, Jane; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Morgan, Stuart; Watkins, Kate; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R

    2015-02-01

    Peripartum, and especially during the transition period, dairy cows undergo dramatic physiological changes. These coincide with an increased risk of disease during the first 2 wk after calving and have been linked to dairy cows failing to achieve production as well as reproductive targets. Previous evidence suggests that these physiological changes affect the immune system and that transition dairy cows experience some form of reduced immunocompetence. However, almost all of these studies were undertaken in high-production, housed dairy cows. Grazing cows have much lower levels of production and this study aimed to provide clarity whether or not the dysfunctional attributes of the peripartum immune system reported in high production housed cows are evident in these animals. Therefore, cell culture techniques, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR were applied to analyze the cellular composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from transition dairy cows as well as the performance of these cells in an in vitro assay. First, a combination of in vitro stimulation and quantitative PCR for cytokines was validated as a quantifiable immunocompetence assay in 29 cattle and a correlation of quantitative PCR and ELISA demonstrated. Second, the relative number of T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, γδ T cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes in peripheral blood was measured, of which B cells and natural killer cells increased in number postcalving (n=29) compared with precalving. Third, following in vitro stimulation cytokine profiles indicated decreased expression of IFNγ, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-17 and increased expression of IL-10 wk 1 after calving, which later all returned to precalving values (n=39). Additionally, treatment of transition cows with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., carprofen) administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (n=19; untreated control n=20) did not affect the cytokine expression at any time point. In conclusion

  5. An empirical analysis of the cost of rearing dairy heifers from birth to first calving and the time taken to repay these costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, A C; Rushton, J; Wathes, D C

    2017-08-01

    Rearing quality dairy heifers is essential to maintain herds by replacing culled cows. Information on the key factors influencing the cost of rearing under different management systems is, however, limited and many farmers are unaware of their true costs. This study determined the cost of rearing heifers from birth to first calving in Great Britain including the cost of mortality, investigated the main factors influencing these costs across differing farming systems and estimated how long it took heifers to repay the cost of rearing on individual farms. Primary data on heifer management from birth to calving was collected through a survey of 101 dairy farms during 2013. Univariate followed by multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the influence of farm factors and key rearing events on costs. An Excel spreadsheet model was developed to determine the time it took for heifers to repay the rearing cost. The mean±SD ages at weaning, conception and calving were 62±13, 509±60 and 784±60 days. The mean total cost of rearing was £1819±387/heifer with a mean daily cost of £2.31±0.41. This included the opportunity cost of the heifer and the mean cost of mortality, which ranged from £103.49 to £146.19/surviving heifer. The multivariable model predicted an increase in mean cost of rearing of £2.87 for each extra day of age at first calving and a decrease in mean cost of £6.06 for each percentile increase in time spent at grass. The model also predicted a decrease in the mean cost of rearing in autumn and spring calving herds of £273.20 and £288.56, respectively, compared with that in all-year-round calving herds. Farms with herd sizes⩾100 had lower mean costs of between £301.75 and £407.83 compared with farms with economic analysis suggest that management decisions on key reproduction events and grazing policy significantly influence the cost of rearing and the time it takes for heifers to start making a profit for the farm.

  6. The effects of social contact and milk allowance on responses to handling, play, and social behavior in young dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    5 L of milk/d; (2) housed singly and fed 9 L of milk/d; (3) housed in pairs and fed 5 L of milk/d; (4) housed in pairs and fed 9 L of milk/d; or (5) kept with the dam and fed 9 L of milk/d. From 4 to 6 wk of age, all calves were offered 5 L of milk/d to promote intake of solid feed before weaning...... with the dam, and pair-housed calves struggled at an intermediate level. Play behavior was recorded for 20 min/wk after the provision of fresh straw; calves housed singly and fed a low milk allowance spent less time playing than did calves in all other treatments. Three days after grouping, calves were...

  7. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Munakata, Megumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya; Matsui, Motozumi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (Pinsulin-like growth factor-I concentration (Pinsulin concentration (Pdairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves.

  8. Effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth and blood and serum variables, and on nutrient digestibility and gene expression of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohakare, J D; van de Sand, H; Gerlach, K; Hosseini, A; Mielenz, M; Sauerwein, H; Pries, M; Südekum, K-H

    2012-02-01

    This study elucidated the effects of limited concentrate feeding on growth, nutrient digestibility, blood profile and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver of dairy calves. The study utilized 36 German Holstein dairy calves (5-7 days of age) divided into two groups of 18 calves each for 150 days. Control group calves received 2 kg/(calf × day) of concentrate, whereas calves in the restricted group received only 1 kg/(calf × day). Good quality forage (mixture of maize and grass silages) was available for ad libitum consumption to both groups. The intake of milk replacer before weaning, and of concentrate were recorded daily per calf; however, the consumption of forages was quantified as daily average of the group. Body weights (BW) were recorded at start and on days 35, 70, 112 and 150. Blood and serum samples and spot urinary and faecal samples were also collected at similar time points. On days 70 and 150, liver biopsies were collected from seven animals in each group. The BW was not different between the groups at all times. Total BW gain in the control group was 124 kg as opposed to 111 kg in restricted group that led to average BW gain of 827 g/day and 739 g/day in respective groups, and the differences were significant (p = 0.018). As planned, the control group had higher concentrate and lower forage intake than the restricted group. The blood haemoglobin, haematocrit and serum variables (glucose, total protein, albumin and urea) were within the normal range in both groups, but serum glucose was higher (p < 0.05) in control than in restricted group at 70 days. There was no difference between groups in organic matter (OM) digestibility which declined (p < 0.001) with increasing age in both groups. Microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis estimated from urinary allantoin excretion increased (p < 0.001) in both groups with increasing age but was not different between groups. The mRNA expressions for the gluconeogenic enzymes, cytosolic and

  9. Practical use of a uterine score system for predicting effects on interval from calving to first insemination and non-return rate 56 in Danish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise; Gustafsson, Hans; Callesen, Henrik

    2013-12-01

    A detailed study of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows was undertaken. The objective was to investigate the information gained by evaluating vaginal discharge in cows from 5 to 19 days post-partum (p.p.) using an ordinal scale from 0 to 9. The study focused on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and the non-return rate 56 days after first insemination (NR56), adjusted for the confounders milk production and body condition score (BCS). For the analyses, BCS was evaluated on the same day that the uterine score was made. Milk production was defined as test-day milk yield in the first month p.p. The study showed that the evaluation of vaginal discharge according to this score system permitted ranking of cows according to CFI and NR56, i.e. an increasing uterine score was associated with a significantly longer time from calving to first insemination and significantly reduced the probability of success of the first insemination. Reproductive success was already affected if the uterine score had reached 4 (i.e. before the discharge smelled abnormally). The negative effect on CFI and NR56 increased as the uterine score increased, which suggested that the uterine scoring system was a useful guide to dairy producers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between age at first calving, rearing average daily weight gain, herd milk yield and dairy herd production, reproduction, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Kvapilík, J; Burdych, J; Crump, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of variable intensity in rearing dairy heifers on 33 commercial dairy herds, including 23,008 cows and 18,139 heifers, with age at first calving (AFC), average daily weight gain (ADG), and milk yield (MY) level on reproduction traits and profitability. Milk yield during the production period was analyzed relative to reproduction and economic parameters. Data were collected during a 1-yr period (2011). The farms were located in 12 regions in the Czech Republic. The results show that those herds with more intensive rearing periods had lower conception rates among heifers at first and overall services. The differences in those conception rates between the group with the greatest ADG (≥0.800 kg/d) and the group with the least ADG (≤0.699 kg/d) were approximately 10 percentage points in favor of the least ADG. All the evaluated reproduction traits differed between AFC groups. Conception at first and overall services (cows) was greatest in herds with AFC ≥800 d. The shortest days open (105 d) and calving interval (396 d) were found in the middle AFC group (799 to 750 d). The highest number of completed lactations (2.67) was observed in the group with latest AFC (≥800 d). The earliest AFC group (≤749 d) was characterized by the highest depreciation costs per cow at 8,275 Czech crowns (US$414), and the highest culling rate for cows of 41%. The most profitable rearing approach was reflected in the middle AFC (799 to 750 d) and middle ADG (0.799 to 0.700 kg) groups. The highest MY (≥8,500 kg) occurred with the earliest AFC of 780 d. Higher MY led to lower conception rates in cows, but the highest MY group also had the shortest days open (106 d) and a calving interval of 386 d. The same MY group had the highest cow depreciation costs, net profit, and profitability without subsidies of 2.67%. We conclude that achieving low AFC will not always be the most profitable approach, which will depend upon farm

  11. Vitamin B12 status and the effects of vitamin B12 supplementation during the first year of life of spring calves from pasture-fed dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, N D; Knowles, S O; Nortjé, R

    2014-09-01

    To determine the vitamin B12 status of dairy calves during their first year of life, and to evaluate the benefits of vitamin B12 supplementation. In Experiment I, 20 17-day-old heifer calves from the AgResearch Flock House herd were monitored until 198 days old. On Days 0 and 90 of the study, half of the animals received an injection of microencapsulated vitamin B12 at 0.12 mg/kg bodyweight. All received colostrum, milk replacer and calf meal, with ad libitum access to pasture. At regular intervals the calves were weighed and serum collected for vitamin B12 measurement. In Experiment II at Flock House and the adjacent Landcorp Tangimoana station, 80 150-day-old heifer calves were monitored until 342 days old. On Days 0 and 97, half of the animals received vitamin B12 as per Experiment I. At regular intervals samples were collected from 12 calves per group, to determine concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum. Mean concentration of vitamin B12 in milk replacer was 63 (SE 4) µg/kg dry matter (DM). Cobalt concentrations in calf meal were 0.45-1.58 and 0.07-0.28 mg/kg DM in pastures. From 17 to 198 days of age (Experiment I) mean concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum of the control group decreased from 119 (SE 8) to 57 (SE 5) pmol/L. From 150 to 342 days of age (Experiment II), overall mean concentrations of the control groups at Flock House and Tangimoana were 90 (SE 2) and 96 (SE 3) pmol/L, respectively. Vitamin B12 injections increased (ppasture-based diet. Supplementation increased concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum but did not improve liveweight gains. Under this calf rearing system, vitamin B12 deficiency is unlikely to occur prior to weaning, and vitamin B12 supplementation is unlikely to increase growth rates of grazing calves when concentrations of vitamin B12 in serum are > 90 pmol/L.

  12. Effect of Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria on Diarrheal Incidence, Growth Performance and Microbiological and Blood Profiles of Newborn Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, N C; Chiaraviglio, J; Bru, E; De Chazal, L; Santos, V; Nader-Macías, M E F

    2017-08-02

    The effect of the administration of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria to calves was evaluated. The strains included were: Lactobacillus murinus CRL1695, Lact. mucosae CRL1696, Lact. johnsonii CRL1693, and Lact. salivarius CRL1702, which were selected for their beneficial and functional properties and isolated from healthy calves in the northwestern region of Argentina. The trial was conducted on a dairy farm located in Tucumán (Holando-Argentino calves). A randomized controlled trial was performed in which 56 new-born animals were divided into two groups: the treated group (T) received the fermented milk for 60 days and the control group (C) only milk. The animals were fed a solid diet ad libitum. The treated group was given a daily dose of 1 × 10 9 CFU of the probiotic fermented milk while the control group was fed milk. Body weight and biometrical parameters were recorded between 15 and 60 days of age, and average daily gain was calculated with three samplings per animal throughout the trial. Rectal swabs and fecal and blood samples were also collected. Results showed the efficacy of the probiotic: lower morbidity and mortality of calves (morbidity was 69.20% in animals without the probiotic, and 46.15% in probiotic-treated animals, with P = 0.09; mortality in C was 34.61 and 7.69% in animals fed with ferment milk; P = 0.02).The calves fed with probiotic evidenced an improvement in nutritional parameters, body condition and weight gain (health index P = 0.01; average daily gain P = 0.03).Viable bacterial numbers showed no differences between the two experimental groups. Hematological parameters and serum proteins were not modified by the treatment. The results suggest that the fermented milk containing lactic acid bacteria can be a viable veterinary product for young calves due to its beneficial effects on health and growth.

  13. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Leucine Affects α-Amylase Synthesis through PI3K/Akt-mTOR Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Liang, Ziqi; Zheng, Chen; Liu, Baolong; Yin, Qingyan; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu

    2018-05-23

    Dietary nutrient utilization, particularly starch, is potentially limited by digestion in dairy cow small intestine because of shortage of α-amylase. Leucine acts as an effective signal molecular in the mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates a series of biological processes, especially protein synthesis. It has been reported that leucine could affect α-amylase synthesis and secretion in ruminant pancreas, but mechanisms have not been elaborated. In this study, pancreatic acinar (PA) cells were used as a model to determine the cellular signal of leucine influence on α-amylase synthesis. PA cells were isolated from newborn Holstein dairy bull calves and cultured in Dulbecco's modifed Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12 liquid media containing four leucine treatments (0, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.90 mM, respectively), following α-amylase activity, zymogen granule, and signal pathway factor expression detection. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, was also applied to PA cells. Results showed that leucine increased ( p synthesis of α-amylase as well as phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and S6K1 while reduced ( p synthesis. In addition, the extracellular leucine dosage significantly influenced intracellular metabolism of isoleucine ( p synthesis through promoting the PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway and reducing the GCN2 pathway in PA cells of dairy calves. These pathways form the signaling network that controls the protein synthesis and metabolism. It would be of great interest in future studies to explore the function of leucine in ruminant nutrition.

  15. Effects of dietary CLA supplementation, parity and different concentrate levels before calving on immunoglobulin G1, G2 and M concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Horn, Jana; Hussen, Jamal; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Scharf, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Bostedt, Hartwig; Breves, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves. Blood samples were collected from 64 cows from 21days before until 56days after parturition and colostrum samples for the first 3days of lactation. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations of 19 calves were determined before colostrum uptake. Neither plasma IgG1, nor IgG2 levels were affected by CLA or dietary energy level. However, immunoglobulin levels were affected by parity. Heifers possessed the lowest IgG1 concentrations. IgG2 concentrations were highest in cows with 2 lactations prior to parturition and in heifers after parturition. Plasma IgM levels were characterized by a sharp decrease 3days prior to parturition and were scarcely affected by the feeding regimen or parity. Generally, immunoglobulin levels appear to be mostly independent from the peripartal energy balance of the cows and are not influenced by dietary CLA. However, pronounced differences among parities for IgG1 and IgG2 were revealed which should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short communication: Milk meal pattern of dairy calves is affected by computer-controlled milk feeder set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2009-01-01

    for a minimum of 2 and 4 portions, respectively, whereas low-fed calves ingested their milk in 2.4 and 4.4 meals for a minimum of 2 and 4 portions, respectively. Calves on a high milk allowance had fewer milk meals over time, whereas calves on a low milk allowance had the same number of milk meals throughout...... milk portions, whereas the other half could ingest the milk in 4 or more daily portions. Data were collected during 3 successive 14-d periods, the first period starting the day after introduction to the feeder at minimum 12 d of age. High-fed calves ingested their milk in 4.0 and 4.9 meals....... Thus, the development from small and frequent milk meals to fewer and larger meals reported by studies of natural suckling was also found among high-fed calves on a computer-controlled milk feeder. Irrespectively of minimum number of milk portions, the low-fed calves had more unrewarded visits...

  17. Effects of late-gestation heat stress on immunity and performance of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, G E; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A

    2016-04-01

    Lactating cows that experience heat stress will have reduced dry matter intake and milk yield and shift metabolism, which ultimately reduces the efficiency of milk production. Dry cows that are heat stressed similarly experience lower intake, reduced mammary growth, and compromised immune function that ultimately results in a poorer transition into lactation and lower milk yield in the next lactation. A recent focus in our laboratory is on the effects of late gestation, in utero heat stress on calf survival and performance. We have completed a series of studies to examine preweaning growth and health, and later reproductive and productive responses, in an attempt to quantify acute and persistent effects of in utero heat strain. Late gestation heat stress results in calves with lower body weight at birth, shorter stature at weaning, and failure to achieve the same weight or height at 12 mo of age observed in calves from dams that are cooled when dry. A portion of the reduced growth may result from the lower immune status observed in calves heat stressed in utero, which begins with poorer apparent efficiency of immunoglobulin absorption and extends to lower survival rates through puberty. Heat-stressed calves, however, have permanent shifts in metabolism that are consistent with greater peripheral accumulation of energy and less lean growth relative to those from cooled dams. Comparing reproductive performance in calves heat stressed versus those cooled in utero, we observe that the cooled heifers require fewer services to attain pregnancy and become pregnant at an earlier age. Tracking the milk production in calves that were heat stressed in utero versus those cooled in late gestation revealed a significant reduction of yield in the first lactation, approximately 5 kg/d through 35 wk of lactation, despite similar body weight and condition score at calving. These observations indicate that a relatively brief period of heat stress in late gestation dramatically alters

  18. Use of a clinical sepsis score for predicting bacteremia in neonatal dairy calves on a calf rearing farm.

    OpenAIRE

    Fecteau, G; Paré, J; Van Metre, D C; Smith, B P; Holmberg, C A; Guterbock, W; Jang, S

    1997-01-01

    In human, equine, and bovine neonates, early diagnosis of bacteremia remains a challenge for the internist. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for risk of bacteremia, based on a clinical evaluation system called the clinical sepsis score. Blood from 90 ill calves, 1- to 14-days-old from a calf-raising farm in the San Joaquin Valley of California was cultured. The calves were also scored according to a clinical score for hydration status, fecal appearance, general at...

  19. Plutonium retention in dairy calves following ingestion of either in vivo labeled or in vitro labeled milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.W.; Patzer, R.G.; Hahn, P.B.; Potter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    Holstein calves, 4 to 8 days of age, were used to compare the gastrointestinal uptake of plutonium-238 from either in vivo or in vitro plutonium-labeled milk. In vivo labeled milk was collected from intravenously dosed lactating adults and the in vitro labeled milk was prepared at the same nuclide concentration by adding citrate-buffered plutonium nitrate to uncontaminated cow's milk. Dosing was accomplished with individual plastic feeding buckets twice daily for 7 consecutive days. The calves were sacrificed 2 days after the final plutonium dose, at which time tissues were collected for nuclide analysis

  20. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  1. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  2. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious......Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd...

  3. Short communication: Effect of straw inclusion rate in a dry total mixed ration on the behavior of weaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, M.J.; Steele, M.A.; DeVries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of straw inclusion levels on the feeding behavior of young, weaned calves adapted to a dry total mixed ration (TMR) composed of a multitextured concentrate and chopped straw. A secondary objective was to determine how developed feeding

  4. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B

    2013-12-01

    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Short communication: The effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on umbilical cord healing and infection rates in the first 24 hours in dairy calves from a commercial herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A L; Timms, L L; Stalder, K J; Tyler, H D

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on the healing rate and incidence of infection of umbilical cords in newborn calves (n=60). Late gestation Jersey cows were monitored at a commercial farm (Sioux Jersey, Salix, IA) and newborn purebred (n=30) and crossbred (n=30) calves were obtained within 30min after birth. Calves were alternately assigned by birth order to 4 treatment groups: 7% tincture of iodine, 0.1% chlorine created using a novel chlorine disinfectant technology, chlorohexidine gluconate 4.0% wt/vol, and 10% trisodium citrate. Prior to dipping (within 30min of birth), diameter of the umbilical cords (as an indicator of cord drying and healing) were determined using digital calipers. In addition, as an indicator of umbilical infections, surface temperature of the umbilical stump (along with a reference point at the midpoint of the sternum) was determined using a dual-laser infrared thermometer. These measurements were all repeated at 24±1 h of age. All data were analyzed using mixed model methods. All models included fixed effects of breed (Jersey or Jersey cross), sex (bull or heifer), and treatment. Fixed effect interactions were not included in the statistical model due to the relatively small sample size. No treatment differences were noted for healing rate of umbilical cords. Initially, mean umbilical cord diameter was 22.84±3.89mm and cords healed to a mean diameter of 7.64±4.12mm at 24 h of age. No umbilical infections were noted for calves on any treatment during the course of this study. Mean surface temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.1±2.2°C at birth (1.5±1.6°C higher than the sternal reference temperature), and at 24±1 h of age the mean temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.0±4.3°C (0.5±1.8°C lower than the sternal reference temperature). These data suggest that these antiseptic compounds are equally effective for preventing infections and permitting healing of the umbilical cord

  6. Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

    2013-08-01

    efficiency, even in low-input systems, CH HF were not suited to pasture-based seasonal-calving production systems due to poor reproductive performance. On the contrary, CH FV fulfilled the compact-calving reproduction objectives and deserve further consideration in seasonal calving systems, despite their lower milk production potential. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: I. Estudo no intestino delgado proximal Colostral antibodies absorption in dairy calves: I. Proximal small intestine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Bessi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região anterior do intestino delgado, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 bezerros machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se a presença de células vacuoladas do duodeno ao jejuno médio no recém-nascido, preenchidas por material absorvido após a ingestão de colostro. Foram verificadas mudanças nas características morfológicas aos três dias de idade, com o início da detecção de reação da fosfatase ácida em lisossomos, indicando ação enzimática sobre o material absorvido. A morfologia aos três dias de idade pode representar o diferente estádio de maturação das células epiteliais do intestino delgado de bezerros, indicando que o processo depende das características da primeira geração de células desta região do intestino.The objective of this study was to study the morphology and the localization of acid phosphatase at calves anterior small intestine, from birth to intestinal closure. Fifteen male dairy calves were used in this study, which were aged: unsuckled neonatal, three hours after colostrum ingestion and three days old. Vacuolated cells from duodenum to medium jejunum could be found in the newborn calf, which have shown absorbed material after colostrum ingestion. Changes at the morphological characteristics and the initiation of phosphatase acid reaction in lysosomes were observed in calves aged three days old. The three days old morphology can represent a different phase of epithelium cells maturation of calves small intestine indicating that the absorption process is dependent of the first generation of cells from this intestinal region.

  8. Cell wall and yeast culture supplementation on prepartum dairy cows and its effects on colostrum quality and immune status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Campos-Granados

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at a private dairy farm located in Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Cartago Province. Thirty prepartum Jersey cows and their calves were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments of 15 repetitions each. Treatments were: first, unsupplemented control; and second, daily supplement from 21 days prepartum with 40 g of cell wall and yeast culture. The concentration of total immunoglobulins of colostrum was quantified, giving average values of 90.06±23.74 mg.ml-1 for the control group and 105.94±17.59 mg.ml-1 for the supplemented (p<0.05. The concentration of total serum protein in the blood serum of calves was quantified, giving average values of 8.57±1.27 g.dl-1 for the control group and 8.24±1.26 g.dl-1 for the supplemented (p>0.05. The daily weight gain, weekly growth expressed as height at the withers, solid diet daily intake and feed conversion of calves during the first 8 weeks were quantified, obtaining average values of solid diet intake of 985.17±8.51 g and 977.51±5.74 g (p>0.05, daily gain of 382.86±1.20 g and 410.94±51.22 g (p>0.05, weekly growth of 1.45±0.33 cm and 1.70±0.31 cm (p>0,05 and feed conversion of 2.57±0.11 and 2.38±0.09 (p>0.05, for the control group and supplemented, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation with cell wall and yeast culture had an enhancing effect on concentration of total immunoglobulins in colostrum and an improving effect on the health of calves, reflected in lower incidence of respiratory and digestive tract diseases.

  9. Effect of prepubertal and postpubertal growth and age at first calving on production and reproduction traits during the first 3 lactations in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpálková, L; Cabrera, V E; Vacek, M; Stípková, M; Stádník, L; Crump, P

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), average daily weight gain (ADG), and age at first calving (AFC) of Holstein heifers on production and reproduction parameters in the 3 subsequent lactations. The data set consisted of 780 Holstein heifers calved at 2 dairy farms in the Czech Republic from 2007 to 2011. Their BW and BCS were measured at monthly intervals during the rearing period (5 to 18 mo of age), and the milk production and reproduction data of the first 3 lactations were collected over an 8-yr period (2005 to 2012). The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with medium ADG (5 to 14 mo of age; 0.949 to 0.850 kg of ADG). The highest average milk yield over lifetime performance was detected in heifers with the highest total ADG (≥ 0.950 kg/d). The difference in milk yield between the evaluated groups of highest ADG (in total and postpubertal growth ≥ 0.950 kg/d and in prepubertal growth ≥ 0.970 kg/d) and the lowest ADG (≤ 0.849 kg/d) was approximately 1,000 kg/305 d per cow. The highest milk yield in the first lactation was found in the group with the highest AFC ≥ 751 d, for which fat and protein content in the milk was not reduced. Postpubertal growth (11 to 14 mo of age) had the greatest effect on AFC. The group with lowest AFC ≤ 699 d showed a negative effect on milk yield but only in the first 100 d of the first parity. The highest ADG was detrimental to reproduction parameters in the first lactation. The highest BW at 14 mo (≥ 420 kg) led to lower AFC. Groups according to BCS at 14 mo showed no differences in AFC or milk yield in the first lactation or lifetime average production per lactation. We concluded that low AFC ≤ 699 d did not show a negative effect on subsequent production and reproduction parameters. Therefore, a shorter rearing period is recommended for dairy herds with suitable management. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  10. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive

  11. Reproductive management of dairy herds in New Zealand: attitudes, priorities and constraints perceived by farmers managing seasonal-calving, pasture-based herds in four regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlie, T S; Weir, A M; Tarbotton, I; Morton, J M; Heuer, C; McDougall, S

    2011-01-01

    To examine attitudes, priorities, and constraints pertaining to herd reproductive management perceived by farmers managing seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy herds in four regions of New Zealand, and to explore how these varied with demographic and biophysical factors. Key decision makers (KDM) on 133 dairy herds in four dairy regions (Waikato, Taranaki, and north and south Canterbury) were interviewed between May and July 2009. They were asked to provide demographic and biophysical data about the farm, and to rate their attitude in relation to their own personality traits, management issues and priorities, and likely constraints affecting reproductive performance in their herds. Associations between demographic factors and attitudes, priorities and constraints were analysed using univariable and multivariable proportional-odds regression models. Farms in the regions studied in the South Island were larger, had larger herds and more staff than farms in the regions studied in the North Island. The farms in the South Island were more likely to be owned by a corporation, managed by younger people or people who had more education, and the herds were more likely to be fed a higher percentage of supplementary feed. The majority of KDM rated the current genetics, milksolids performance and reproductive performance of their herds as high or very high, and >70% believed that the reproductive performance had remained the same or improved over the preceding 3 years. Despite this, improving reproductive performance was the most highly rated priority for the next 3 years. The constraints considered most likely to have affected reproductive performance in the last 2 years were anoestrous cows, protracted calving periods, and low body condition scores; those considered least likely were artificial breeding and heat detection. Of the variables examined related to attitudes, priorities and likely constraints, there were significant differences between region for 10/40, and with

  12. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  13. Effect of feeding level pre- and post-puberty and body weight at first calving on growth, milk production, and fertility in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2005-09-01

    greater calving BW, as BW-corrected milk yield declined in both breeds with increasing prepubertal feed allowance. Growth rate during period 2 was positively correlated with first lactation milk production. Milk yield increased 7% in first lactation heifers on the high feed allowance, which resulted in higher growth rate during period 2. Milk production during subsequent lactations was not affected. Results suggest that accelerated prepubertal growth may reduce mammary development in grazing dairy cows, but this does not affect milk production in early lactations because of superior size. Body weight at calving and postpubertal growth rate management are important in first lactation milk production, but do not affect milk production in subsequent lactations.

  14. Rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and growth performance of calves during transition from liquid to solid feed: Effects of dietary level and particle size of alfalfa hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, M; Amanlou, H; Khorvash, M; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of particle size (PS) and dietary level of alfalfa hay (AH) on rumen fermentation parameters, blood metabolites, eating behavior, and growth performance in dairy calves during transition from liquid to solid feed. Sixty newborn dairy calves (41 ± 2.5,kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors dietary AH level (medium, 12.5%, or high, 25%, on DM basis) and PS (fine = 1mm or medium = 3mm, as geometric means) of AH. Hence, the dietary treatments were (1) medium level of AH with fine PS (M-FPS), (2) medium level of AH with medium PS (M-MPS), (3) high level of AH with fine PS (H-FPS), and (4) high level of AH with medium PS (H-MPS). Particle size of AH did not affect total DMI (TDMI) during the preweaning period, although TDMI was greater for calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS during the postweaning and overall periods. Calves fed MPS spent more time eating solid feed and ruminating and less time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with FPS calves. The dietary level of AH did not affect behavioral parameters. Average daily gain of calves was not affected by dietary treatment before weaning. During the postweaning and overall periods, average daily gain was greater in calves fed MPS than in those fed FPS at the 25% AH level, but this effect was absent with 12.5% AH. Furthermore, the rumen pH values on d 35 and 70 of the study were greater for MPS than for FPS, regardless of the dietary level of AH. Effects of AH level, PS, and their interaction did not affect blood glucose concentrations in developing calves. These results indicate that feed intake, feeding behavior, rumen fermentation parameters, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration may be affected by rations differing in forage PS; thus, providing calves with MPS can improve calf performance and reduce their nonnutritive oral behaviors. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  16. The use of an internal teat sealant in combination with cloxacillin dry cow therapy for the prevention of clinical and subclinical mastitis in seasonal calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, D J; Malmo, J; Deighton, M

    2010-10-01

    Cows (n=2,053) from 6 seasonally calving dairy herds were enrolled in a trial to compare the efficacy of 2 dry cow treatments. Cows received either a combination dry cow therapy of 600 mg of cloxacillin (CL) followed by an internal teat sealant (ITS) containing 2.6 g of bismuth subnitrate in all 4 quarters immediately following their final milking for the season, or only an intramammary infusion of 600 mg of CL. All cases of clinical mastitis were recorded and cultured during the first 150 d of lactation in each herd, and cow somatic cell count (SCC) was measured between 7 and 50 d postcalving. A large difference was found between treatment groups in the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis over the first 21 d of lactation, after which time the rate at which cows were diagnosed with clinical mastitis was similar between treatment groups. Analysis of the relative proportions of cows with clinical mastitis was performed at both the gland and cow levels. The relative risk (RR) of clinical mastitis diagnosed within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving in a gland treated with the ITS-CL combination was, respectively, 0.30 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.21-0.44], 0.39 (0.28-0.53), and 0.58 (0.46-0.75) that of the CL group. An interaction between treatment and previous SCC was found when clinical mastitis was analyzed at the cow level. In a subset of cows that had low SCC in their previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in cows with the ITS-CL combination within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.54 (95% CI=0.33-0.87), 0.57 (0.37-0.88), and 0.69 (0.50-0.99) that of cows that received only CL at drying off. In the subset of cows that had at least 1 high SCC in the previous lactation, the RR of mastitis in the ITS-CL combination group within 21, 30, and 100 d of calving was, respectively, 0.26 (95% CI=0.16-0.44), 0.37 (0.24-0.57), and 0.72 (0.55-0.96) that of the CL-only group. The ITS-CL combination of dry cow treatments was associated with a

  17. Consequences of dry period length and dietary energy source on physiological health variables in dairy cows and calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, Nova

    2017-01-01

    During the transition period, dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, while feed intake is limited. Severity of the NEB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious

  18. Performance of Holstein calves fed whole milk with or without kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladgar, S; Shahraki, A D Foroozandeh; Ghalamkari, G R; Khani, M; Ahmadi, F; Erickson, P S

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests health-promoting effects of kefir consumption on different nonruminant species, leading to the speculation that kefir may act as a probiotic and benefit calf performance and health. Our objectives were to determine effects of feeding kefir on performance and health of calves in the first 70d of life. Thirty 3-d-old female Holstein calves (body weight=38.2±3.1kg) were blocked by initial body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (1 calf per pen; 10 pens per treatment). Kefir was added to whole milk (vol/vol) at 0:1 (control; KF0), 1:3 (KF1), or 1:1 (KF2) and fed twice per day (0800 and 1600h) from d3 through 45 and then once per day until weaning, which occurred on d50. Pre- and postweaning intake of starter, daily body weight gain, and gain-to-feed ratio exhibited no difference among treatments. Adding kefir to whole milk fed directly to calves had no effect on concentration of blood metabolites collected on d20, 40, and 70. Body length on d50 (weaning) and 70 was greater in kefir-fed calves. Kefir intake improved fecal scores and reduced days with diarrhea during the first 2wk of life. Apparent digestibility of organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber remained unaffected by treatment. Overall, it appears that directly feeding kefir to calves during the preweaning period did not improve the performance of calves under the conditions of the current study; however, its consumption marginally improved body length and fecal consistency in the first weeks of life, which is an important concern in intensive calf-rearing systems. Feeding kefir to neonatal calves may be a viable approach to improve the health of calves in commercial calf-rearing operations, although to validate its health-promoting effects additional research is needed to investigate its effects under different calf-rearing conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Comparing the Effect of Oral Supplementation of Vitamin E, Injective Vitamin E and Selenium or Both during Late Pregnancy on Production and Reproductive Performance and Immune Function of Dairy Cows and Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum supplementation of vitamin E with or without injective vitamin E and selenium (Se on productive and reproductive performances and immune function in dairy cows. Sixty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided randomly into three groups at the end of gestation. Cows in each group received one of three treatments: (1 a single intramuscular (im injection of vit. E + selenium 3 weeks prepartum; (2 daily supplementation of oral vit. E given from 3 weeks prepartum to parturition; (3 injective vit. E + Se with daily supplementation of oral vit. E. Blood samples were collected from cows at calving and from calves at 0 and 7 days of age. Concentration of IgG in serum of cows and calves as well as in colostrum was determined. No significant differences among treatments occurred in the concentrations of IgG, animal, and calf production and reproduction performance. Due to the lack of significant difference between injection and oral supplementation, it is recommended to replace the injection with oral supplementation.

  20. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-09-01

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  1. The creation and evaluation of a model to simulate the probability of conception in seasonal-calving pasture-based dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Caroline; O'Grady, Luke; Butler, Stephen; Doherty, Michael L; Dunnion, John

    2017-01-01

    Herd fertility in pasture-based dairy farms is a key driver of farm economics. Models for predicting nulliparous reproductive outcomes are rare, but age, genetics, weight, and BCS have been identified as factors influencing heifer conception. The aim of this study was to create a simulation model of heifer conception to service with thorough evaluation. Artificial Insemination service records from two research herds and ten commercial herds were provided to build and evaluate the models. All were managed as spring-calving pasture-based systems. The factors studied were related to age, genetics, and time of service. The data were split into training and testing sets and bootstrapping was used to train the models. Logistic regression (with and without random effects) and generalised additive modelling were selected as the model-building techniques. Two types of evaluation were used to test the predictive ability of the models: discrimination and calibration. Discrimination, which includes sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and ROC analysis, measures a model's ability to distinguish between positive and negative outcomes. Calibration measures the accuracy of the predicted probabilities with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit, calibration plot and calibration error. After data cleaning and the removal of services with missing values, 1396 services remained to train the models and 597 were left for testing. Age, breed, genetic predicted transmitting ability for calving interval, month and year were significant in the multivariate models. The regression models also included an interaction between age and month. Year within herd was a random effect in the mixed regression model. Overall prediction accuracy was between 77.1% and 78.9%. All three models had very high sensitivity, but low specificity. The two regression models were very well-calibrated. The mean absolute calibration errors were all below 4%. Because the models were not adept at identifying unsuccessful

  2. Responses of dairy cows with divergent residual feed intake as calves to metabolic challenges during midlactation and the nonlactating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, K; Norris, E; Dunshea, F R; Hayes, B J; Marett, L C; Wales, W J; Leury, B J

    2018-03-28

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the actual and expected feed intake required to support animal maintenance and growth. Thus, a cow with a low RFI can obtain nutrients for maintenance and growth from a reduced amount of feed compared with a cow with a high RFI. Variation in RFI is underpinned by a combination of factors, including genetics, metabolism, thermoregulation and body composition; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness is also a possible contributor. Responses to 3 metabolic challenges were measured in lactating and nonlactating dairy cattle. Sixteen Holstein Friesian cows with phenotypic RFI measurements that were obtained during the growth period (188-220 d old) were grouped as either low-calfhood RFI (n = 8) or high-calfhood RFI (n = 8). An ACTH (2 µg/kg of body weight), insulin (0.12 U/kg), and epinephrine (a low dose of 0.1 µg/kg and a high dose of 1.6 µg/kg of epinephrine) challenge were each conducted during both midlactation (122 ± 23.4 d in milk) and the nonlactating period (dry period; approximately 38 d after cessation of milking). Cows were housed in metabolism stalls for the challenges and were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes ad libitum for at least 10 d before the experiment (lactating cows also were offered a total of 6 kg of dry matter/d of crushed wheat grain plus minerals fed as 3 kg of dry matter at each milking) and were fasted for 12 h before the challenges. The efficiency of conversion of feed into milk (the ratio of feed consumed to milk produced over the 7 d before the experiment) during midlactation was better (lower) in low-calfhood RFI cows, although dry matter intake did not differ between RFI groups. Low-calfhood RFI cows exhibited a lower plasma cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than high-calfhood RFI cows, particularly in midlactation (-15%). The low-calfhood RFI cows had a greater plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 response to the insulin challenge and plasma fatty

  3. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( feeding methods and forage provision with respect to BW, DMI, G:F, apparent nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, and CP), and body measurements. The interaction of milk feeding method and forage provision was significant

  4. Validation of a calf-side β-hydroxybutyrate test and its utility for estimation of starter intake in dairy calves around weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelen, S M; Leslie, K E; Steele, M A; Eckert, E; Brown, H E; DeVries, T J

    2016-09-01

    Recent research suggests that circulating β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels may be a meaningful indicator of grain intake and rumen development in pre-ruminant calves. As such, BHB levels may be a surrogate measure of rumen function to contribute to minimal weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The primary objective of this study was to determine the optimal cut-point of circulating BHB levels that would be predictive of sufficient grain intake and rumen development for a successful transition from liquid to solid feed at the time of weaning. An additional objective was to validate the Precision Xtra (Abbott Diabetes Care, Abingdon, UK) calf-side test for determination of BHB in whole blood in calves around weaning, as compared with the gold standard laboratory method. A total of 20 Holstein female calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 wk (n=10) or 8 wk (n=10) of age. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2kg/calf per d in 2 meals until a 1-wk step down, when milk meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily measurements included the intakes of starter grain, chopped straw, and water. Weekly measurements included body weight and blood BHB, until 70 d of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids. Whole blood was collected by jugular venipuncture, and BHB was determined by the Precision Xtra test at calf-side. In addition, serum was separated from a clotted sample, frozen, and stored until laboratory analysis was performed. Laboratory BHB results were correlated with both the Precision Xtra test (r=0.95) and starter intake over 1 d (r=0.89), a 3-d average (r=0.90), and a 7-d average (r=0.90). Additionally, laboratory BHB results were associated with total ruminal volatile fatty acids (r=0.82), ruminal butyrate (r=0.77), and body weight (r=0.69). A receiver operating characteristic

  5. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  6. Effects of Feeding Acidified Milk Replacer on the Growth, Health and Behavioural Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Mete; GÜLER, Olcay; BAYRAM, Bahri; METİN, Jale

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of calves fed acidified milk replacer (AMR) or sweet (regular) milk replacer (SMR) at 8% of birth weight. Twenty-one calves (10 males, 11 females) were offered replacers reconstituted to 12% of dry matter over 5 weeks. In the group fed AMR, daily body weight gains of calves at the different stages of growth were comparable to those for calves fed SMR. In the preweaning period, calves offered AMR had similar dry matter intakes from st...

  7. Including gene networks to predict calving ease in Holstein, Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Calving difficulty or dystocia has a great economic impact in the US dairy industry. Reported risk factors associated with calving difficulty are feto-pelvic disproportion, gestation length and conformation. Different dairy cattle breeds have different incidence of calving difficulty, wit...

  8. Effect of management on prevention of Salmonella Dublin exposure of calves during a one-year control programme in 84 Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Vesterbæk, Inge Langborg; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2012-01-01

    having good hygienic routines in place and therefore not having introduced new routines between barn sections in the study period. The discriminant analysis furthermore identified successful control to be associated with preventing cows from calving before being moved to the designated calving pen...

  9. Effect of preweaning nutritional management on yearling weight response in an open-herd selection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, J D; Benyshek, L L

    1988-10-01

    Records on 276 progeny were collected in the final 2 yr (1984 and 1985) of an 8-yr Hereford cattle selection project. Selection was practiced using the top sires from the American Hereford Association's National Cattle Evaluation based on yearling weight expected progeny difference. An unselected control line was maintained to monitor environmental change. One-half of each line was creep-fed during the preweaning period for the last 2 yr to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Direct response to yearling weight selection averaged 28 +/- 8 kg. Correlated response to selection amounted to .057 +/- .028 kg/d in preweaning ADG, 14 +/- 6 kg in weaning weight, .085 +/- .033 kg/d in postweaning ADG, 4.6 +/- 1.5 cm in yearling hip height and 11.2 +/- 3.0 cm2 in yearling pelvic area. Yearling fat thickness and scrotal circumference were not significantly affected by selection. Significant effects of creep feeding were observed for yearling weight (15 +/- 3 kg), preweaning ADG (.067 +/- .012 kg/d), weaning weight (13 +/- 2 kg), yearling hip height (1.2 +/- .5 cm) and yearling fat thickness (.07 +/- .03 cm). Postweaning ADG, yearling pelvic area and yearling scrotal circumference were not affected by creep feeding. No significant genetic group x creep feeding effects were found for any of the traits analyzed, indicating calves genetically superior for growth did not gain any additional advantage from creep feeding.

  10. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,conventional herds (MC, ≥200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin conditions, most organic

  11. Desempenho, variáveis fisiológicas e comportamento de bezerros mantidos em diferentes instalações: época seca Performance, physiological and behavioral measurements of dairy calves in different housing systems: dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Noronha Figueiredo Vieira da Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar o desempenho, o conforto térmico e o comportamento de bezerros mestiços Holandês × Zebu mantidos em abrigos móveis, sob sombrites ou a céu aberto durante a época seca do ano (26/04/2002 a 30/08/2002. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros do nascimento aos 70 dias de idade, distribuídos em blocos casualizados, nas instalações: 1 - abrigos móveis; 2 - sob telas de polipropileno (sombrite; 3 - a céu aberto. Os animais mantidos a céu aberto apresentaram, à tarde, maior temperatura retal e maior frequência respiratória. Não foram observadas diferenças entre intalações quanto às variáveis relacionadas ao comportamento animal. Bezerros mantidos em abrigos móveis passaram a maior parte do tempo fora das instalações. O desempenho dos animais não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Nos três tipos de instalação, os bezerros intensificaram, à tarde, os mecanismos latentes de perda de calor elevando a frequência respiratória acima da faixa considerada normal. Os animais mantidos a céu aberto não conseguem manter a temperatura retal na faixa considerada normal. Bezerros mantidos em abrigos móveis, sob telas de polipropileno ou a céu aberto apresentam desempenhos semelhantes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate performance, thermal comfort and behavior of crossbred Holstein x Zebu dairy calves kept in different housing systems during the dry season (26/04/2002 to 30/08/2002. Twenty-four calves were raised from birth to 70 days of age in one of the following housing systems: (1 - hutches; 2 - shadecloth; or 3 - with no shelter. Calves raised with no shelter showed higher rectal temperatures and respiratory rates in the afternoon. It was also observed that calves spend most of the time outside the hutches. There were no differences among housing systems for behavior measurements as well as for body weight, average daily weight gain, starter intake, and feed efficiency. In all three housing systems

  12. Clinical, blood gas and biochemical profile of diarrheic dairy calves fed starter concentrate containing citrus pulp as a replacement for corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cezar Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, gas analysis, and metabolic effects of diarrhea in milk-fed calves consuming starter feed containing citrus pulp (CP as a replacement for corn. Twenty-four newborn Holstein male calves were distributed into treatments according to starter composition: (1 0% CP, (2 32% CP, (3 64% CP, on dry matter basis. The calves were housed in individual hutches, with free access to water and concentrate, and received 4 L/d of milk replacer. After diarrhea diagnosis, evaluations of fecal score, score of clinical signs and measurement of physiological parameters were performed three times a day during 3-d. Blood samples were collected for electrolytes, blood gases, and plasma biochemical analysis. Starter feed composition had no negative effect (P>0.05 on fecal score, characteristics of diarrheic stools and on the aggravation of diarrhea clinical signs. Biochemical, blood gases and electrolytes changes, as a function of starter composition, did not resulted (P>0.05 in dehydration, acidosis, or other metabolic disturbance animals. Total lactate and D-lactate plasma concentrations were higher for calves on control and 64% CP, and L-lactate was highest for the 64% CP; however, calves showed no signs of metabolic acidosis. Thermal comfort indexes influenced clinical and physiological parameters (P<0.05. Citrus pulp may replace corn in starter composition without prejudice to intestinal health or metabolism of young diarrheic calves.

  13. Invited review: Use of butyrate to promote gastrointestinal tract development in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Zabielski, R; Guilloteau, P

    2018-03-07

    Promotion of microbial butyrate production in the reticulorumen is a widely used method for enhancing forestomach development in calves. Additional acceleration of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, both the forestomach and lower parts of the GIT (e.g., abomasum, intestine, and also pancreas), can be obtained by dietary butyrate supplementation. For this purpose, different sources (e.g., butyrate salts or butyrins), forms (e.g., protected or unprotected), methods (e.g., in liquid feed or solid feed), and periods (e.g., before or after weaning) of butyrate administration can be used. The aim of this paper was to summarize the knowledge in the field of butyrate supplementation in feeds for newborn calves in practical situations, and to suggest directions of future studies. It has been repeatedly shown that supplementation of unprotected salts of butyrate (primarily sodium salt) in milk replacer (MR) stimulates the rumen, small intestine, and pancreas development in calves, with a supplementation level equating to 0.3% of dry matter being sufficient to exert the desired effect on both GIT development and growth performance. On the other hand, the effect of unprotected butyrins and protected forms of butyrate supplementation in MR has not been extensively investigated, and few studies have documented the effect of butyrate addition into whole milk (WM), with those available focusing mainly on the growth performance of animals. Protected butyrate supplementation at a low level (0.3% of protected product in DM) in solid feed was shown to have a potential to enhance GIT development and performance of calves fed MR during the preweaning period. Justification of this form of butyrate supplementation in solid feed when calves are fed WM or after weaning needs to be documented. After weaning, inclusion of unprotected butyrate salts in solid feed was shown to increase solid feed intake, but the effect on GIT development and function has not been determined in detail

  14. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  15. Body condition scores at calving and their association with dairy cow performance and health in semiarid environment under two cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.B. Mandour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under tropical environments cow’s body condition at calving may influence productivity and health performance. Therefore, the current research evaluated the impact of body condition score (BCS at calving on milk production traits and health problems of primiparous and multiparous cows raised under two cooling systems in semi-arid environment. Milk yield parameters and health disorders data at different parities were obtained from 1700 Holstein cows, which were managed under Korral Kool (KKC and fan (FC cooling systems in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that KKC system induced high level of milk production improvement (305TM, days in milk, daily milk yield (P<0.05 compared to FC, especially in multiparous cows. There was an advantage of the high BCS group under KKC system over the FC system for peak yield and period. Cows from both cooling systems having moderate BCS outdid the other groups for total milk yield. Low BCS primiparous cows reared under KKC system were the most to suffer from stillbirth (18%, and calving ease (26.1% in winter, while high BCS were the most to be treated for mastitis (8.5% in summer. On the other hand, spring calved multiparous cows raised under FC system suffered more from lameness (21.57% - high BCS and milk fever (4.4% - moderate BCS. Further, cows having moderate BCS kept under KKC system had the highest incidence of lameness (62.2%, and abomasum displacement (4.4%. In conclusion, achieving correct BCS at calving and cooling system is important to avoid calving subsequent lactation performance and metabolic disease losses.

  16. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: correlation to uterine condition and calving management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjær, K; Ancker, M-L; Gustafsson, H; Friggens, N C; Waldmann, A; Mølbak, L; Callesen, H

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflecting the "fingerprint" of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0-19) and 28 (range 22-38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were found in all cows at both examinations, and the flora was composed of many species, including species not traditionally reported to be present in the bovine uterus. The bacterial composition differed according to days from calving and herd. In all five herds Fusobacterium necrophorum, Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter and Bacteroides/Sphingobacterium/Prevotellaceae were among the most common at both examinations. In four herds there was a percentage decrease of F. necrophorum from first to second examination, and in all herds there was a percentage increase of Pseudomonas/Acinetobacter from first to second examination. No differences in bacterial flora were found between cows with different uterine scores, which were influenced by herd, calving difficulty and retained placenta. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Evans, Ursula; Purnell, R E

    2004-12-01

    Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective larvae on the pastures.

  18. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective

  19. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  20. Effects of Processing of Starter Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Biochemical Parameters and Body Measurements of Brown Swiss Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of physical forms of starter diets on performance, weaning age, nutrient digestibility and rumen biochemical factors, 24 female of neonatal Brown Swiss calves (average body weight of 39.5±1.2 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments. Dietary treatments were mashed (MS, pelleted (PS, and texturized (TS starter using 8 calves from birth till 90 days of age in each treatment. Diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous with 21% crude protein. Based on the experimental results, calves that received PS and TS diets, had significant higher average daily gain (ADG than those receiving MS (p0.05. Ruminal pH was higher (p<0.01 in MS than the other groups, but ruminal ammonia (g/dl concentration was not different among the treatments. Body measurements such as body length, pin width, hip width, pin to hip length, size of metacarpus and metatarsus bones, hip height, wither height, stomach size and heart girth were not significantly different among the treatments. Overall, it is concluded that starter diets in the form of pellet and texture can improve performance in neonatal Brown Swiss calves compared to the mashed form.

  1. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present......, reflecting the “fingerprint” of the actual microbial flora. As well as characterizing changes in flora with time from calving and between herds, data were examined for strong relations between uterine bacterial flora, calving management and uterine condition. In total 125 Holstein cows from five herds were...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  2. Age-related and housing-dependence of Cryptosporidium infection of calves from dairy and beef herds in South Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kouba, M.; Vítovec, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 137, 3/4 (2006), s. 202-209 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0992 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * calves * prevalence Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2006

  3. Desempenho, variáveis fisiológicas e comportamento de bezerros mantidos em diferentes instalações: época chuvosa Performance, physiological and behavioral measurements of dairy calves in different housing systems: rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Noronha Figueiredo Vieira da Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho, o conforto térmico e o comportamento de bezerros mestiços Holandês ´ Zebu mantidos em abrigos móveis, sob sombrites ou a céu aberto durante a estação chuvosa do ano (dezembro a abril. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros mestiços do nascimento aos 70 dias de idade, distribuídos em blocos casualizados, nas seguintes instalações: abrigos móveis, telas de polipropileno e a céu aberto. Os animais mantidos a céu aberto apresentaram, à tarde, maior temperatura retal e maior frequência respiratória. Não foi observada influência dos tipos de instalação sobre as variáveis relacionadas ao comportamento, entretanto, os bezerros mantidos em abrigos móveis passaram a maior parte do tempo do lado de fora das instalações. As instalações não afetaram o desempenho dos animais. Nos três tipos de instalação, no período da tarde, os bezerros elevaram a frequência respiratória acima da faixa considerada fisiologicamente normal, o que caracteriza condição de desconforto térmico. Bezerros permanecem a maior parte do tempo do lado de fora dos abrigos móveis, mesmo nos horários de radiação solar mais intensa ou durante as horas de chuva. Bezerros mantidos em abrigos individuais, sob sombrites ou a céu aberto apresentam desempenhos semelhantes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate performance, thermal comfort and behavior of crossbred Holstein x Zebu dairy calves kept in different housing systems during the rainy season (December to April. Twenty-four calves were raised from birth to 70 days of age in one of the following housing systems: hutches; shadecloth; or no shelter. Rectal temperature and respiratory rate measurements were taken twice a day (8:00 AM and 3:00 PM when calves were 1, 4 and 9 weeks old. Respiratory rate was measured counting the number of respiratory movements per minute and rectal temperatures were taken with clinical thermometers. Behavior evaluation was done by visual

  4. Management of obstructive urolithiasis in dairy calves with intact bladder and urethra by Fazili’s minimally invasive tube cystotomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb ur Rehman Fazili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate minimally invasive tube cystotomy technique in calves suffering from obstructive urolithiasis having intact urinary bladder and urethra. Fifteen male non-castrated calves with age ranging from 1-10 months (mean 4.05 months, presented for treatment within one to three days (mean 2.2 days of complete urinary tract obstruction due to urethral calculi with intact bladder and urethra, were included in this study. Under light sedation and local infiltration anaesthesia, all the animals were subjected through left paralumbar fossa, to a minimally invasive surgical tube cystotomy in which catheter was placed in the bladder lumen through a metallic cannula and fixed to the skin with a stay suture (Fazili’s technique. All the animals were discharged the same day. Time taken for the procedure varied from 8 to 17 minutes (mean 11.0 minutes. Normal urination resumed in twelve (80.0% calves. Mean time taken for normal urination was 10.50 days. In two of the remaining calves, urine flow stopped through the catheter prematurely and they were then subjected to standard surgical tube cystotomy. One more calf did not urinate normally for 30 postoperative days and was lost to the follow up thereafter. Recurrence of the obstruction was not detected in ten and nine animals observed up to six and 12 months respectively. In conclusion, the outcome of this minimally invasive technique is similar to the standard tube cystectomy. Additionally, the procedure is cost effective, quick, simple and field applicable. It also minimizes exposure of abdominal cavity of metabolically compromised animals. However, the technique needs to be tried in larger number of such calves wherein better quality catheter of larger diameter be used before recommending its extensive use.

  5. Effect of intravenous plasma transfusion on granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity in dairy calves with failure of passive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Victoria C; Rayburn, Maire C; Chigerwe, Munashe

    2017-12-01

    Plasma administration has been recommended in calves older than 48h with failure of passive immunity (FPI) to provide immunity consistent with adequate colostral ingestion. However, the protective serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations (≥1000mg/dL) of plasma derived IgG only lasts up to 12h. In addition to IgG, maternally derived colostral cells also confer immunity. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of intravenous plasma transfusion on granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity in calves with FPI. Twenty-seven, one day-old, Jersey calves were assigned into 3 groups. The colostral (CL, N=9) group received 3L of colostrum once by oroesophageal tubing. Two other groups of calves received 1L of colostrum once by oroesophageal tubing and were assigned based on their health status (sick or non-sick) at 4days of age, as the sick-group (SG, N=7) or the non-sick (NG, N=11) groups. At 4days of age, the SG and NG groups were administered plasma intravenously at 30mL/kg. Granulocyte and monocyte oxidative and phagocytic activity was determined by flow cytometry. There was no significant difference in the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative or phagocytic activity among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Plasma administration had no significant effect on the oxidative or phagocytic activity of granulocytes or monocytes. In clinical practice, plasma administration for enhancing oxidative or phagocytic activity of granulocytes or monocytes, alone, might not be justified in calves with FPI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short communication: Effect of canola meal use as a protein source in a starter mixture on feeding behavior and performance of calves during the weaning transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadam, D; Kański, J; Burakowska, K; Penner, G B; Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P

    2016-02-01

    and rate of eating the SM and time of drinking water did not differ between treatments. It is concluded that presence of canola meal in a SM does not affect feeding behavior and performance of calves during weaning transition but has a negative effect on ADG, feed efficiency, and number of days with diarrhea during the preweaning phase of rearing. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  8. Staphylococcal milk poisoning in calves | Ngatia | Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of 89 dairy calves fed on unsold raw milk returned from the fresh milk market, became sick within one hour after consuming the milk. The main clinical signs observed were sudden collapse, bloating, tetany, and diarrhea, seven of the sick calves died and two were submitted for necropsy. Postmortem findings ...

  9. The impact of early life nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Curtis

    Full Text Available Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100 were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.6 kg/day P 0.050 in any of the mean values of measured reproductive parameters, multivariable Cox regression suggested that there was a weak trend (P = 0.072 for Group A animals to achieve first service earlier than their Group R counterparts (62.6 weeks versus 65.3 weeks. Irrespective of dietary group, the hazard for achievement of all measured reproductive parameters, apart from time to puberty, was 20-40% less for heifers borne from multiparous dams compared to heifers from primiparous dams.

  10. The impact of early life nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G; McGregor Argo, C; Jones, D; Grove-White, D

    2018-01-01

    Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age. Group R calves were initially housed in individual pens and received 2.5 litres of MR twice daily via a bucket until 21 days of age when they were group housed and fed 3 litres of MR twice daily via a group trough with weaning commencing at 56 days. From 12 weeks of age onwards, calves in both dietary groups were subject to common nutritional and husbandry protocols. All breeding of heifers was via artificial insemination with no hormonal intervention. Calves were weighed, body condition scored and morphometric measures recorded weekly up till 12 weeks of age then monthly until conception. Pre-weaning growth rates (kg/day) were significantly higher in Group A calves compared to Group R (0.89, 95% CI 0.86-0.93 vs 0.57, 95% CI 0.54-0.6 kg/day P 0.050) in any of the mean values of measured reproductive parameters, multivariable Cox regression suggested that there was a weak trend (P = 0.072) for Group A animals to achieve first service earlier than their Group R counterparts (62.6 weeks versus 65.3 weeks). Irrespective of dietary group, the hazard for achievement of all measured reproductive parameters, apart from time to puberty, was 20-40% less for heifers borne from multiparous dams compared to heifers from primiparous dams.

  11. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation in preweaning gain and in milk production measured by the weigh-suckle-weigh method was partitioned into genetic and non-genetic components.

  12. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W; Krause, Denis O; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  13. The features of fecal and ileal mucosa-associated microbiota in dairy calves during early infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman eDerakhshani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD, a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP, lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049 and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068 in MAP-infected versus control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe; several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we

  14. The Features of Fecal and Ileal Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dairy Calves during Early Infection with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshani, Hooman; De Buck, Jeroen; Mortier, Rienske; Barkema, Herman W.; Krause, Denis O.; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), lack the sensitivity to identify infected animals at early (asymptomatic) stages of the disease. The objective was to determine the pattern of MAP-associated dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota as a potential biomarker for early detection of infected cattle. To that end, genomic DNA was extracted from ileal mucosa and fecal samples collected from 28 MAP-positive and five control calves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was used for community profiling of ileal mucosa-associated (MAM) or fecal microbiota. The PERMANOVA analysis of unweighted UniFrac distances revealed distinct clustering of ileal MAM (P = 0.049) and fecal microbiota (P = 0.068) in MAP-infected vs. control cattle. Microbiota profile of MAP-infected animals was further investigated by linear discriminant analysis effective size (LEfSe); several bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were overrepresented in ileal MAM of control calves. Moreover, based on reconstructed metagenomes (PICRUSt) of ileal MAM, functional pathways associated with MAP infection were inferred. Enrichment of lysine and histidine metabolism pathways, and underrepresentation of glutathione metabolism and leucine and isoleucine degradation pathways in MAP-infected calves suggested potential contributions of ileal MAM in development of intestinal inflammation. Finally, simultaneous overrepresentation of families Planococcaceae and Paraprevotellaceae, as well as underrepresentation of genera Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia in the fecal microbiota of infected cattle, served as potential biomarker for identifying infected cattle during subclinical stages of JD. Collectively, based on compositional and functional shifts in intestinal microbiota of infected cattle, we inferred that

  15. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso, J.; Wijlen, ter H.; Laar, van H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in

  16. Comparing the immune response to a novel intranasal nanoparticle PLGA vaccine and a commercial BPI3V vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Fawad; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P; Markey, Bryan; Doherty, Simon; Welsh, Michael D

    2015-08-21

    There is a need to improve vaccination against respiratory pathogens in calves by stimulation of local immunity at the site of pathogen entry at an early stage in life. Ideally such a vaccine preparation would not be inhibited by the maternally derived antibodies. Additionally, localized immune response at the site of infection is also crucial to control infection at the site of entry of virus. The present study investigated the response to an intranasal bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) antigen preparation encapsulated in PLGA (poly dl-lactic-co-glycolide) nanoparticles in the presence of pre-existing anti-BPI3V antibodies in young calves and comparing it to a commercially available BPI3V respiratory vaccine. There was a significant (P administration of the nanoparticle vaccine an early immune response was induced that continued to grow until the end of study and was not observed in the other treatment groups. Virus specific serum IgG response to both the nanoparticle vaccine and commercial live attenuated vaccine showed a significant (P local mucosal immunity induced by nanoparticle vaccine has obvious potential if it translates into enhanced protective immunity in the face of virus outbreak.

  17. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  18. Oral inoculation of young dairy calves with Mycoplasma bovis results in colonization of tonsils, development of otitis media and local immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Maunsell

    Full Text Available Because M. bovis otitis media is an economically important problem, there is a need to understand the pathogenesis of disease, not only to improve our understanding of the factors contributing to the development of this disease but also to inform the development of improved diagnostic tests and therapy. Oral ingestion of M. bovis-contaminated milk is linked, but not definitively proven, to development of otitis media. In the current study, we demonstrate that oral ingestion of M. bovis infected colostrum can result in an ascending infection and development of otitis media. Importantly, M. bovis was found to have a previously unrecognized tendency for colonization of the tonsils of calves, which most likely contributed to the subsequent development of otitis media. In contrast, transtracheal inoculation failed to produce clinically significant upper respiratory tract disease, although did induce lower respiratory tract disease. The upper respiratory tract was the major site of M. bovis-specific B cell and mucosal IgA responses in calves inoculated by the oral route. The oral inoculation route of infection presented here is particularly suited to the study of host-pathogen interactions during initial colonization of the tonsils, expansion of infection and dissemination to the lower respiratory tract and middle ear. In addition, it could be used to investigate potential new preventative or control strategies, especially those aimed at limiting colonization of the tonsils and/or spread to the middle ear.

  19. Caracterização das fibras musculares do músculo Semitendinosus de bezerros mestiços Angus-Nelore recebendo somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST até a desmama Characterization of Semitendinosus muscle fibers in pre-weaning Angus-Nellore crossbred calves receiving recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Costa Cervieri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar o efeito da somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST sobre a freqüência de distribuição e o diâmetro das fibras musculares do músculo Semitendinosus, 36 bezerros mestiços ½Angus-Nelore, com idade inicial de 63 ± 17 dias e pesando 76,8 ± 14,7 kg, criados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e suplementados em creep feeding, foram submetidos a dois tratamentos até a desmama (217 dias: 18 bezerros receberam 1,4 mg/kg de rbST (Boostin® a cada 14 dias e 18 receberam solução salina (controle. As amostras de músculo foram coletadas aos 117 (biópsia e aos 217 dias de idade, quando foram abatidos cinco animais por tratamento. Os animais suplementados apresentaram maior diâmetro para as fibras do tipo glicolítica de contração rápida (FG aos 117 dias e tendência de aumento aos 217 dias e não diferiram em relação ao grupo controle quanto ao diâmetro das fibras oxidativas-glicolíticas de contração rápida (FOG e oxidativas de contração lenta (SO e à frequência de FG, FOG e SO aos 117 e 217 dias de idade. Independentemente da aplicação de rbST, houve significativo aumento do diâmetro das fibras SO e FOG, tendência de aumento de diâmetro das fibras FG, maior frequência de SO e redução da frequência de FG entre 117 e 217 dias de idade. A utilização de somatotropina exógena possibilitou maior hipertrofia das fibras musculares brancas de contração rápida em bezerros suplementados em creep feeding durante a fase de cria, sem interferir na frequência de distribuição dos tipos de fibras no músculo Semitendinosus.The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of the recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST on the percentage distribution and diameter of semitendinosus muscle fibers. Thirty-six ½ Angus-Nellore crossbred bull calves, 63 ± 17 days old and weighting 76.8 ± 14.7 kg, raised in Brachiaria decumbens pastures and creep fed, were assigned to one of two treatments until weaning

  20. Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, and diarrhea in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Peter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the household, calf management, and calf factors associated with the occurrence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and diarrhea in pre-weaned calves reared in smallholder dairy farms in Mukurweini Sub-County of Nyeri County, Kenya. In addition, the study also evaluated factors associated with average daily weight gain in the same pre-weaned calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 newborn calves (63 males and 49 females on 111 farms (1 set of twins were followed for 2 months between June 2013 and August 2013. Two calves were lost to follow-up. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on household characteristics and calf management practices in the 111 selected farms. On the first visit to the farm (within 7 days of the birth of the calf, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein to assess the level of maternal immunity acquired by the calf, by determining the serum total protein and selenium concentration. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, fecal samples from the calves were collected to assess the presence of Cryptosporidia and Eimeria oocysts. Every 2 weeks for 2 months, the calves and their environments were examined, their 2-week consumption and health history were recorded, and weights were estimated with a weight tape. Each of the factors was evaluated in a univariable regression model and only those found to be significant (p≤0.20 were included in a multivariable model. Elimination of non-significant factors was done in the multivariable model through a backward elimination procedure so that only those variables which were confounders, and/or significant at (p≤0.05 remained in the final model. Results: About 37% (41/110 of the calves experienced diarrhea at least once during the 2-month study period. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria and Cryptosporidia was 42.7% (47/110 and 13.6% (15/110, respectively. Low serum protein was associated with 1.8 and 2.4 times the odds of

  1. Nutrient Digestibility and Performances of Frisian Holstein Calves Fed with Pennisetum purpureum and Inoculated with Buffalo’s Rumen Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Prihantoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB are potential in digesting fiber feed. BRB already adapted well with low quality forages and agricultural byproducts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of buffalo’s rumen bacteria (BRB consortium inoculated into preweaning Frisian Holstein calves on nutrient digestibility, physiological status, mineral uptake, and blood profile. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of four local buffalos. The research units consisted of seven Frisian Holstein calves at two weeks old with the average body weight of 43.6±4.5 kg. Calves were inoculated with 20 mL of buffalo’s rumen bacteria isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/mL] every morning for 10 weeks. The calves were divided into two groups i.e., three calves received bacterial inoculation and four calves without any inoculation. The variables which were analyzed in the preweaning and weaning period were feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, rumen fermentation characteristics, body weight, physiological status, blood profile, and mineral status. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test. The results showed that inoculation of buffalo’s rumen bacteria into Frisian Holstein calves effectively increased feed intake, characteristics of leukocytes and neutrophils, and cobalt (Co uptake during the weaning period. Inoculation of rumen bacteria improved rumen pH during preweaning and weaning periods. Inoculation of rumen bacteria also had no negative effects on digestibility, feed conversion (FCR, average daily gain (ADG, and physiological status.

  2. Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ

  3. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  4. Serum biochemical indices and haematology of preweaned west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve primiparous pre-weaned lambs were randomly assigned to three treatments of four lambs per treatment. Each lamb was allowed to suckle their respective dam thrice daily in addition to supplementary experimental creep diets and water ad libitum. The creep feed was formulated such that 0% (A), 50% (B) and 100% ...

  5. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...

  6. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Frankena, K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing

  7. CEACAM18 as candidate for the Holstein calving QTL on BTA18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; de Koning, DirkJan

    . Phenotypes used were estimated breeding values (EBV) for six direct calving traits and one compound index trait. A SNP by SNP mixed model approach was first applied using HD genotypes. Haplotypes in the significant region were fitted in a mixed model. Finally, NGS variants in the significant region were...... utilized to precisely locate causative mutations. Results identified 21 QTL regions associated with one or more calving traits on 16 autosomes. These findings contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic architecture of the calving traits. They may help in improving calving performance in dairy...... breeding programs...

  8. [Familial occurrence of diprosopus in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ursula; Kuiper, Heidi; Doeleke, Renate; Ulrich, Reiner; Gerdwilker, Axel; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Diprosopus was diagnosed in six German Holstein calves born on different dairy farms. The degree of facial duplication varied from a partial doubling of the nostrils and upper jaw to complete duplication of the face with formation of two mouths, four eyes and four ears. Further calves descending from the same parents or dams and calves from the same farms were not affected. A joint pedigree was ascertained for the calves with diprosopus. Furthermore, a previously reported case of diprosopus could be traced back to the same ancestors of this pedigree. Consequently, we detected the first time a familial accumulation of diprosopus. Since the ancestors showed no signs of diprosopus and the frequency of diprosopus in German Holsteins is presumably low, an oligogenic inheritance is likely. Recessive genes or a combination of recessive and dominant genes may cause this anomaly.

  9. Cryptosporidiosis in pre-weaned calves : observations in Germany and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Anna Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A criptosporidiose é uma das mais importantes causas de diarreia neonatal bovina, sendo uma potencial ameaça à produção e uma importante causa de prejuízos económicos. Vitelos recém-nascidos e até ao desmame são especialmente susceptíveis à infecção e desenvolvimento de sinais clínicos pelo parasita protozoário Cryptosporidium parvum, já que nascem quase completamente desprovidos de mecanismos de imunidade naturais. Este paras...

  10. Performance and behavior of dairy calves fed diets containing milk and citric flavor agents Desempenho e comportamento de bezerros leiteiros alimentados com dietas contendo agentes de flavor lácteo e cítrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvane Barcelos Carlotto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available While young ruminants prefer milk aroma and researches about this theme are being developed, the use of citric aroma, very appetized for older ruminants, are low utilized to young animals. This work aims to compare the influence of milk and citric flavor agents on the diets of nursing dairy calves. In this trial, 12 animals of Holstein breed were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (concentrate without flavor agent, concentrate with milk flavor or citrus flavor, and concentrate with milk plus citrus flavor agent and three repetitions. The parameters evaluated were: concentrate dry matter intake (CDMI, hay dry matter (HDMI, milk dry matter intake (MDMI and total dry matter intake (TDMI, average weight gain (ADWG, feed conversion (FC, initial (IBW and final body weight (FBW, initial thoracic perimeter (ITP and final thoracic perimeter (FTP, initial abdominal perimeter (IAP and final abdominal perimeter (FAP, initial withers height (IWH and final withers height (FWH and animal behavior. The CDMI, HDMI and TDMI, as well as IBW, FBW, ITP, FTP, IAP, FAP, IWH and FWH did not show differences (P>0.05. The averages daily gain and feed conversion showed no differences, with means of 0.55 kg/animal and 2.09, respectively. The diets did not affect animal behavior parameters (P>0.05.Enquanto ruminantes jovens preferem aroma de leite e pesquisas sobre este tema são desenvolvidas, o uso de aroma cítrico, muito apreciado por ruminantes adultos, é pouco utilizado para animais jovens. Portanto, com este trabalho visou-se comparar a influência de aromas lácteo e cítrico nas dietas de bezerros na fase de aleitamento. Neste experimento foram utilizados 12 animais da raça Holandesa, distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quarto tratamentos (concentrado sem palatabilizante e concentrado com palatabilizante lácteo, cítrico e lácteo mais cítrico e três repetições. Foram avaliados o consumo de matéria seca do

  11. Processamento de milho (floculado vs. laminado a vapor e adição de monensina para bezerras leiteiras, pré e pós-desmama precoce Corn processing (steam-flaked vs. steam-rolled and monensin for pre and post early weaning dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2003-02-01

    to evaluate the effects of concentrates containing processed grains (steam-flaked vs. steam-rolled, with or without monensin, on intake, weight gain and blood parameters of baby calves, before and after weaning at six weeks of life. Thirty-two female calves were utilized on a completely randomized block, with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The animals received concentrate ad libitum up to 2 kg/d, plus 4 L of milk. Calves had free access to water. After weaning, at the sixth week of life, calves received concentrate and chopped hay. The treatments did not affect concentrate or hay intake, final live weight, average daily gain, plasma glucose and NEFA cocentration. PUN was lower on calves fed steam-rolled corn and monensin. There was a significant effect of age on glucose, PUN, and NEFA concentrations. Only glucose and NEFA were affected by time after feeding. Addition of monensin or processed grain to dairy calves diet did not result on better performance, before or after weaning.

  12. Impacto del nivel de producción, estación de parto y el tipo de servicio sobre la tasa de preñez acumulada a 100 días en vacas lecheras en la Argentina Impact of the production level, calving season and type of service on the 100-day cumulative pregnancy rate of dairy cows in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Piccardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue estimar, a través de una regresión logística múltiple, la contribución relativa de factores que afectan la probabilidad de preñez a los 100 días en lactancia en rodeos lecheros argentinos. Los factores analizados fueron: nivel productivo, estación de parto, número de lactancia, tipo de servicio utilizado inseminación artificial (IA, natural o combinación de ambas y la interacción del nivel productivo y el tipo de servicio. Los 291 tambos (162.116 lactancias son usuarios del software Dairy Comp305, del cual se obtiene la producción estimada que se espera alcance la vaca adulta (305 equivalente maduro. Todos los factores resultaron estadísticamente significativos. Las vacas con bajo nivel productivo tuvieron mayores chances de preñarse que vacas con niveles productivos mayores. Las vacas con parición en estaciones más frías tuvieron mayores chances de preñarse a los 100 días. La relación resultó cuadrática entre la probabilidad de preñarse a los 100 días y el número de lactancia. Los bovinos que recibieron servicio natural presentaron mayor tasa de preñez acumulada; sin embargo, la IA estuvo asociada a niveles productivos mayores. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de diseños alternativos y evaluación del manejo reproductivo según niveles productivos específicos, como herramienta para incrementar la eficiencia reproductiva global.The aim of this study was to estimate using a multiple logistic regression the relative contribution of factors affecting the probability of getting pregnant at the first 100 days of milk production in Argentine dairy herds. The factors considered were milk production level, lactation number, calving season, type of service used, artificial insemination (AI, natural breeding, or combined, and the interaction between type of service and level of production. The 291 Dairy farms (162.116 lactations are users of the software Dairy Comp 305 herd

  13. Subclinical laminitis in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, H K; Shannon, D; Neilson, D R

    1989-08-19

    By causing poorer horn quality, subclinical laminitis is considered to be a major predisposing cause of other hoof problems, particularly sole ulcers in newly calved heifers. In this study the hind hooves of 136 female Friesian/Holstein cattle aged between four months and two years were examined to discover at what age the signs of subclinical laminitis appeared. Sole haemorrhages were found in the hoof horn of calves as young as five months. The consistent finding of these lesions in heifers of all ages indicated that subclinical laminitis of varying degree was a common condition during the early growing period of young dairy heifers.

  14. Predictors and impacts of colostrum consumption by 4h after birth in newborn beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homerosky, E R; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Kastelic, J P; Windeyer, M C

    2017-10-01

    Newborn beef calf vigor is a vital survival characteristic that promotes timely colostrum consumption. Modified APGAR scores intended to identify compromised calves are not widely adopted due to impracticality, inconsistent associations with blood gas disturbances, and unclear recommendations for intervention. The objectives were to: (1) determine differences in at-birth blood parameters between calves that were successful in colostrum consumption by 4h (CC4) compared to those that failed; (2) develop a Beef Calf Vigor Assessment by determining calving characteristics and clinical examination parameters associated with CC4; and (3) evaluate impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and treatment risk. As a predictor for CC4, suckle reflex had the highest specificity (98%), whereas calving ease had the highest sensitivity (89%). Calves with a weak suckle reflex had 41.6 (95% CI: 7.4-787.5) times greater odds of failed CC4 compared to calves with a strong suckle reflex (P24g/L serum IgG; OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.2-34.4; P=0.02), and higher odds of being treated (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4; P=0.03) than those that succeeded. Measuring suckle reflex in combination with calving ease was a quick and easy method to assess newborn beef calf vigor. The value of this Beef Calf Vigor Assessment was further emphasized by the negative impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and pre-weaning health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukengela Claude Muya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0 and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14. Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward, starter and water were offered ad libitum. Intakes were measured daily and body weights (BW weekly. Blood samples were collected on day 7, 21, 28, 42, and 56 for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA analysis. Performance was measured for an additional 14 d post-weaning. Pre-weaning milk intake was lower (p = 0.010 and starter DMI (dry matter intake greater (p = 0.001 for Meg14 than Meg0 calves. Total DMI, metabolisable energy (ME intake and average daily gain (ADG were similar (p > 0.05 for both groups, but Meg14 calves had greater weaning BW (p = 0.012 and feed efficiency (p < 0.029. The average BHBA between d 21 and 56 was greater for Meg14 (p = 0.03 compared to Meg0 calves. After weaning, Meg14 calves had greater DMI (p = 0.027, ME intake (p = 0.023 and ADG (p = 0.002 and tended to have better feed efficiencies (p = 0.07 than Meg0 calves. Administering M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter intake and feed efficiency, which was associated with high blood BHBA.

  16. The effect of calving season on reproductive performance of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy records, containing 1269 lactation record of 462 Jersey dairy cows collected over 16 years, from an agricultural state farm were used. Data for reproductive performance of cows were also collected. Means of the herd for lactation milk yield, calving interval, days open, interval from calving to the first insemination, lactation length, gestation length and dry period were 3195.7±20.2 kg, 366.6±1.7 d, 92.9±1.6 d, 78.0±1.3 d, 301.7±1.1 d, 275.2±0.2 d and 69.3±0.8 d, respectively. The effect of calving season (winter, spring, summer and autumn on reproductive performance for high, low and moderate milk-yield cows was investigated. Calving season affected the days from calving to first insemination in high and moderate yielding cows (P<0.001 while didn’t affect low yielding cows. In summer, days open in high yielding cows were 35 days longer compared to winter season (P<0.001 as observed for moderate yielding cows (P<0.01. In high yielding cows, calving interval was 18 days longer in spring compared to winter calving season. Calving season also affected the first service conception rate in high yielding cows (P<0.05. Services per conception in autumn were lower than the other seasons (P<0.001. In conclusion, high yielding dairy cows need more attention in summer season with respect to body condition score, dietary energy: protein ratio, uterus health and elimination of heat stress, to get more profit in dairy farm.

  17. Effect of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and natural and specific antibody titers in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Remmelink, G.J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry

  18. Applying ontologies in the dairy farming domain for big data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.P.C.; Spek, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Dutch SmartDairyFarming project, main dairy industry organizations like FrieslandCampina, AgriFirm and CRV work together on better decision support for the dairy farmer on daily questions around feeding, insemination, calving and milk production processes. This paper is concerned with the

  19. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11....... Cows gradually reduced the time spent sniffing and licking their calves from 59 to 49 min over the days studied (P cow from less than half a minute on days 3 and 7 to 1 min on day 11 (P ... studied (P cows’ behavioural priorities, the cows were tested on either day 4, 8 or 12 after calving by removing them from their pens during 3 h and subsequently reintroducing them. Behavioural observations during 3 h after reintroduction showed...

  20. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  1. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Susanne WF

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  2. Produção de vitelos a partir de bezerros leiteiros mestiços e da raça Holandesa Veal production from crossbred and Holstein dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Roma Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o desempenho produtivo de nove animais jovens Zebu × Holandês em comparação a nove animais da raça Holandesa para produção de vitelos. Todos os animais foram mantidos em condições idênticas de ambiente, manejo e alimentação, com acompanhamento individual da ingestão de matéria seca. As medidas de avaliação do desenvolvimento animal, conversão e eficiência alimentar possibilitaram comparações entre os tratamentos, a partir de delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os bezerros Zebu × Holandês apresentaram maior ganho de perímetro torácico (23,3 cm e ganho de peso diário (1,45 kg, além de conversão alimentar (2,77 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal, se comparados aos bezerros da raça Holandesa, com, respectivamente, 18,5 cm de perímetro torácico, 1,16 kg de ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar de 3,48 kg de MS/kg de peso corporal. Não houve diferença na ingestão de matéria seca entre os animais avaliados. Quanto ao estudo econômico da produção de carne de vitelo, os animais mestiços apresentaram o menor custo de produção por quilo de carne produzida e, conseqüentemente, o melhor potencial de produção de vitelos a partir de animais Zebu × Holandês, como atividade complementar à produção de leite.In this study, it was evaluated the productive performance of nine Zebu × Holstein crossbred calves in comparison with nine Holsteins calves for veal production. All animals were maintained in the similar environmental conditions, management and feeding, with individual measurement of dry matter intake. The evaluation measurements of the development of animal, as feed conversion ratio make possible to compare between the treatments, using a completely randomized design. The Zebu × Holstein calves showed higher values of hearth girth growth (23.3 cm and average weight gain (1.45 kg, and also better feed conversion ratio (2.77 kg DM/kg BW, as compared to Holstein calves with 18

  3. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, H.M.A; Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  4. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and

  5. Supplementation of dairy weaners grazing tropical pastures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropical pastures for growth of dairy replacement heifers, and to assess the need for ... restricted by intake of digestible nutrients. Tropical pastures ... 1983, 13(l). Table 1 Effect of rnaize or maize plus cotton seed meal on the growth of weaner calves. Level. Wean wt wean ro ll0 kg ll0- 130 kg. Wean ro 130 kg. Supplements.

  6. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  7. Milk progesterone measures to improve genomic selection for fertility in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenghe, Amabel Manyu Mefru

    2017-01-01

    Improved reproductive performance has a substantial benefit for the overall profitability of dairy cattle farming by decreasing insemination and veterinary treatment costs, shortening calving intervals, and lowering the rate of involuntary culling. Unfortunately, the low heritability of classical

  8. Short communication: Absorption of protein and immunoglobulin g in calves fed a colostrum replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G W; Foster, D M

    2007-06-01

    A well-managed colostrum program on farms is the most important step in reducing disease in neonatal calves. In the last few years, colostrum replacers have increased in popularity and are designed to be an alternative to colostrum on farms that have poor colostrum quality, limited colostrum reserves, or to break the cycle of transmission for certain infectious diseases. However, it is important to make sure these products are effective and are capable of providing adequate serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available colostrum replacer product in dairy calves. Holstein calves from a single dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at birth. Group 1 (n = 21) calves were given 4 quarts of colostrum via esophageal feeder within 3 h of birth and served as the control group for this study. Group 2 (n = 21) received 2 packages of a colostrum replacer product, and group 3 (n = 21) received 3 packages of the colostrum replacer product within 3 h of birth. Blood samples from all calves were collected 24 h after colostrum administration and analyzed for serum total protein and IgG concentrations. Calves fed fresh colostrum had significantly higher serum total protein levels and IgG concentrations compared with calves fed the colostrum replacer product. Calves fed the colostrum replacer also had a significantly higher percentage of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <1,000 mg/dL). The colostrum replacer product evaluated in this study failed to routinely provide adequate IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.

  9. No foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission between individually housed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, A.; Dekker, A.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in The Netherlands in 2001 most likely started on a mixed veal-calf/dairy-goat farm. The outbreak among the 74 calves on this farm appeared to be limited to four animals, and no clinical signs of FMD were reported. Also on a second veal-calf farm minor clinical

  10. Evaluation of covering materials in individual shelters and its effects on physiological responses and performance of dairy calves Avaliação de materiais de cobertura em abrigos individuais sobre respostas fisiológicas e desempenho de bezerros leiteiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C. de F Fonseca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Tropical regions, the animal performance is often affected by climate conditions. This study aimed to evaluate covering materials in individual shelters, normally used to house dairy calves, and its influence on the calves physiology and performance. The design used was completely randomized, with a 2x3 factorial arrangement to compare the averages of 5% through the Tukey's test, i.e., both genders- and three types of covering in the shelters (Z - zinc; AC - asbestos cement; and WPAC - white-painted asbestos cement. Parameters evaluated included daily weight gain (DWG, dry matter intake (DMI, feed conversion (FC, rectal temperature (RT, and respiratory frequency (RF. Results showed significant differences (P 0.05 in the FC and the RT, and there were significant differences (P Nos trópicos, o desempenho animal é prejudicado pela ação do clima. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar materiais de cobertura em abrigos individuais sobre a fisiologia e o desempenho de bezerros leiteiros. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, fatorial 2 X 3, para a comparação das médias ao nível de 5%, pelo teste de Tukey, ou seja, dois sexos e três tipos de coberturas (Z - zinco; CA - cimento-amianto e CAB - cimento-amianto pintado de branco. Foram medidos o ganho de peso diário (GPD, o consumo alimentar (CMS, a conversão alimentar (CA, a temperatura retal (TR e a frequência respiratória (FR. Os resultados mostraram que houve diferença significativa (P 0,05 para CA e TR e observou-se diferença significativa (P < 0,05 para FR nos tratamentos Z (56,9 mov.min-1, CAB (62,2 mov.min-1 e CA (70,25 mov.min-1. Conclui-se que os diferentes tipos de coberturas não influenciaram no desempenho e no consumo alimentar, mas interferiram na fisiologia de termorregulação dos animais.

  11. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    OpenAIRE

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R.; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina Anna Maria; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Study design Randomised, prospective clinical study. Animals Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Methods Detomidine at 80 μg kg−1 was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg−1 to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg−1) a...

  12. Preweaning mortality in piglets in loose-housed herds: etiology and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielland, C; Wisløff, H; Valheim, M; Fauske, A K; Reksen, O; Framstad, T

    2018-01-08

    Preweaning mortality in piglets is a welfare issue, as well as an ethical and economic concern in commercial pig farming. Studying the causes of preweaning mortality and their prevalence is necessary to reduce losses. Preweaning piglet mortality was investigated in a field study including 347 sows from 14 loose-housed Norwegian piglet-producing herds. A total of 5254 piglets were born in these herds during the study period, and 1200 piglets were necropsied. The cause of death was based on pathoanatomical diagnosis (PAD). Preweaning mortality of all piglets in the study was 23.4%, including 6.3% stillborn. The two main causes of preweaning mortality in live-born piglets (n=4924) were trauma (7.1%) and starvation (2.7%). Piglets dying of an infection accounted for 2.0%. Among the necropsied piglets (n=1200), 29.1% had died due to trauma, 26.8% were categorized as stillborn and 11% had died of starvation. Piglets that had died of trauma, had a mean time of death of 1 lactation day (LD 1), ranging from LD 0 to LD 21. The mean time of death of piglets that died due to bacterial infection was LD 9, ranging from LD 0 to LD 31, with Escherichia coli accounting for most infections found in necropsied piglets. Farmers were able to identify death by trauma in piglets, but were less able to identify death due to hunger. Most piglets that died in the preweaning period, died of trauma. Surprisingly, this included large and well-fed piglets. The second most prevalent cause of preweaning mortality was starvation. Improved monitoring may reveal piglets with low body mass index, and additional nutrition may contribute to increase the survival rate.

  13. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  15. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  16. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  17. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.; Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d 7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d 7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d 0 ) on d 14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first

  18. Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2013-02-01

    The physical form of forage may influence rumen development and, consequently, the body weight gain, dry matter (DM) consumption, digestibility, and welfare of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different physical forms of forage on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior of young calves. Twenty Holstein male calves (46.8 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding treatments in which they were exposed to a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3 to 4 cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2mm) grass hay (FN; n=10). All calves were offered 8L/d of milk replacer (MR; 1.2 kg of DM) from birth; the amount of MR was progressively reduced after 5 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. The study finished after wk 8. Consumption of the mixed ration, MR, and water was recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice weekly. Samples of feed and orts were taken in wk 7 and 8 for nutrient content analysis. Behavioral data for each calf were obtained for 2h/d during wk 6 and 8, for a total observation time per animal of 28 h. Total feces were collected during wk 8 to determine apparent digestibility. Calves fed CRS had greater DM intake than those fed FN (2.70 vs. 2.45 ± 0.11 kg/d, respectively) during the week after weaning (wk 8). Body weight gain was similar between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to have a greater gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed FN (0.68 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 kg of gain/kg of DM intake). No differences were observed in crude protein and acid detergent fiber consumption between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to consume more neutral detergent fiber than calves fed FN during the last week of the study (719.2 vs. 610.5 ± 25.84 g/d). Calves receiving CRS sorted in favor of neutral detergent fiber to a greater extent than calves consuming FN, whereas calves fed FN sorted in favor of

  19. Feeding behavior and performance of dairy cows during the transition period seven days before and after calvingComportamento e desempenho de vacas leiteiras no período de transição de sete dias antes e após o parto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Veira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows experience challenges during the transition period, which may put them at risk of diseases such as rumen acidosis and laminitis. The traditional recommendations during the transition period is to feed dairy cows on moderate level of concentrates in the pre-partum and switch it to high grain diet just after calving. However, there are some evidences that this management may cause a bump effect on the feeding intake in the post-partum period. The aim of this work was to study the effect of a constant diet during all transition period on the behaviour; feeding intake and milk yield of dairy cows. Thirty primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cows were at random allocated in one group fed on higher fibre diet in the pre-partum followed by a higher concentrate diet in the post-partum (traditional management and in a second group fed constantly on a higher fibre diet during all transition period. The behaviour and the feeding intake were monitored by an electronic feeding system and data loggers and milk yield data obtained in the milking parlour computer. The animals fed on the constant diet spent more time eating ration in second day post-partum, 142 minutes/day and cows in traditional recommendations 105minutes/day, while cows fed on lactation diet just after calving had higher dry matter intake in day 1 averaging 2.2 kg/day/100 kg LW but not in the following days, longer for cows receiving the constant diet the DMI was 1.7 kg/day/100 kg LW. There were no significant differences between the two diets related to milk yield (P>0.05. Cows fed diets constant throughout the transition period produced an average of 29.0 ± 8.2 liters of milk/day, while those who received traditional treatment ration with the highest concentrate after birth, produced an average of 29.1 ± 7.5 liters of milk/day. These results do not allow to a final conclusion about the recommendation to delay or not to switch diet after post-partum to avoid the bump in dry

  20. Clinical report: Detection and management of bovine viral diarrhea virus Type 1b in a large dairy herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case Description: 1,081 newborn calves from a commercial dairy were tested for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by pooled RT-PCR as part of a screening program. Ear tissue from twenty six calves initially tested positive and 14 confirmed positive with antigen capture ELISA two weeks later (1.3...

  1. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  2. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  4. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluschke, A.M.; Gilbert, M.S.; Williams, B.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with

  5. Relationship between pre-weaning gain, age at puberty, and reproductive tract development in Angus heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef heifers should initiate reproductive cycles by 12 mo of age to insure multiple estrous cycles before the start of the breeding season to maximize fertility. Previous research indicated that pre-weaning gain positively influenced the onset of puberty and antral follicle numbers. Therefore, the...

  6. Performance of pre-weaned West African Dwarf lambs fed rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C) of groundnut cake (GNC) were replaced with RES in a creep concentrate containing 20% GNC. At week-six after parturition,twelve pre-weaned lambs were allocated to three dietary treatments of four lambs per treatment. They were offered ...

  7. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cow in Algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Article Number: 8C8D1B562380. ISSN 1684-5315. Copyright ... lactation on reproductive performance of dairy cows in Algeria. Calving to first .... sniffing the vulva of other cows, mucus presence in the vulva, nervousness, pink ...

  8. Identification of Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidiumspecies and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates thatCryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvumsubtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidiumoocysts.

  9. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  10. Changes in leukocyte populations of cows with milk fever or displaced abomasum after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Kudo, Katsunori; Tomioka, Michiko; Koiwa, Masateru; Kimura, Kayoko

    2013-07-01

    Most of the metabolic diseases of dairy cows occur within the first 2 wk after calving, and cows with a metabolic disease are prone to infectious diseases. Although metabolic diseases are generally recognized as a risk factor for infectious diseases owing to the associated decrease in immune function, the difference in immune status between cows with milk fever (MF) or displaced abomasum (DA) during the lactation period has not been clarified. Therefore, the peripheral blood leukocyte populations in 38 multiparous Holstein cows from 1 herd were analyzed after calving. The cows were divided into 3 groups according to health: 21 cows that remained clinically healthy throughout the experimental period (control group), 9 cows that had MF on the day of calving, and 8 cows with an onset of DA within 4 wk after calving. The T- and B-cell numbers were lowest at week 0, and they increased gradually after calving. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in the number of each subset of leukocytes on the day of calving, but the number of CD8⁺ T-cells was significantly lower in the MF and DA groups than in the control group at week 1. The numbers of CD4⁺, CD8⁺, and WC1⁺ T-cells tended to be lower in the DA group than in control group from weeks 4 to 12, a tendency not observed in the MF group. These data suggest that when cows have DA around the time of calving, their lymphocyte numbers remain lower until 12 wk after calving.

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  12. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether supplementing dry cow rations with phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) would interfere with the beneficial effect of zeolite supplementation on the periparturient blood calcium (Ca) concentration in dairy cattle. Three groups (A-C) of 10 Danish Jersey...... cows were each given the following daily supplements from 2 weeks before the expected date of calving until actual calving: group A: zeolite, monoammonium phosphate, standard dry cow mineral and vitamin mix, containing 61g magnesium phosphate; group B: zeolite, standard mineral and vitamin mix without...... the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop...

  13. Main causes of mortality in Holstein calves on rural properties in the Bragantina region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Moraes de Olivera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on two dairy farms that breed Holstein cattle in the municipality of Bragança Paulista, São Paulo. The study included 11 female calves that were one to three months old. The animals were autopsied. Tissue samples of affected organs were collected for histopathological and microbiological examination and blood was collected for serological tests. The aim of this study was to identify the main causes of death in calves of dairy cattle from the Bragantina region. Among the causes, the frequency of dysentery and respiratory diseases was similar. The samples evalulated identified a higher frequency of macroscopic and microscopic lung lesions when compared to intestinal lesions. The etiological agents associated with the diseases found were Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Pasteurella spp., syncytial virus and coronavirus, which affect the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems and can lead to septicemia and death.

  14. The impact of dystocia on dairy calf health, welfare, performance and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Haskell, M J; Birch, S; Bagnall, A; Bell, D J; Dickinson, J; Macrae, A I; Dwyer, C M

    2013-01-01

    Up to one-third of dairy calves are born after dystocia and this is a major cause of calf mortality. This study investigated the neonatal physiology, survival, health and subsequent growth of dairy calves following dystocia and is the first longitudinal study to analyse multiple effects and to look beyond the perinatal period. A total of 455 live born Holstein calves (N: No assistance, n=360; FN: Farmer assistance but normally presented calf, n=82; FM: Farmer assistance of malpresented calf, n=13) were followed from birth to first service (heifers) or until leaving the farm (bulls). Compared to N calves, FN and FM animals had higher salivary cortisol concentrations at day 1 (PDystocia had no biologically significant impact on rectal temperature throughout the first 4 days (P>0.05). During the first 60 days, FM calves had a higher proportion of days with non-routine health treatments (Pdystocia category (P>0.05). Calves which survive dystocia experience lower passive immunity transfer, higher mortality and higher indicators of physiological stress. Such calves have poorer welfare in the neonatal period and possibly beyond. Strategies need to be implemented to improve the subsequent health and welfare of such calves and to lower the incidence of dystocia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  16. Effects of alfalfa hay and its physical form (chopped versus pelleted) on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Mahjoubi, E; Hossein Yazdi, M; Cardoso, F C; Drackley, J K

    2015-06-01

    Inclusion of forage and its physical form in starter may affect rumen development, average daily gain (ADG), and dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy calves. To evaluate the effects of forage and its physical form (chopped vs. pelleted) on growth of calves under a high milk feeding regimen, 32 Holstein calves (38.8±1.1kg) were assigned at birth to 1 of 3 treatments in a completely randomized block design. Dietary treatments (% of dry matter) were (1) 100% semi-texturized starter (CON); (2) 90% semi-texturized starter + 10% chopped alfalfa hay (mean particle size=5.4mm) as a total mixed ration (TMR; CH); and (3) 90% semi-texturized starter + 10% pelleted alfalfa (mean=5.8mm) hay as a TMR (PH). Data were subjected to mixed model analysis with contrasts used to evaluate effect of forage inclusion. Calves were weaned at 76 d of age and the experiment finished 2 wk after weaning. Individual milk and solid feed consumption were recorded daily. Solid feed consumption and ADG increased as age increased (effect of week), but neither forage inclusion nor physical form of forage affected these variables pre- or postweaning. Plasma urea N was affected by treatments such that the CON group had a lower concentration than forage-fed groups. Forage inclusion, but not physical form, resulted in increased total protein in plasma. Although days with elevated rectal temperature, fecal score, and general appearance were not affected by dietary treatments, calves fed alfalfa hay during the first month of life had fewer days with respiratory issues, regardless of physical form of hay. We concluded that provision of forage does have some beneficial effects in calves fed large amounts of milk replacer, but pelleted alfalfa hay did not result in any improvement in calf performance or health. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic lead intoxication in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, G

    1963-01-01

    Four calves born in the winter of 1961-1962 died on a farm after a disease which had run its course for periods ranging from six weeks to a few months. A calf had also died showing similar symptoms during the previous year. All calves showed identical symptoms. Initially, their liveliness diminished; subsequently, they drank less and showed signs of pica. They finally died after the disease had run its course for about six weeks. The last calf, born late in February 1962, was in poor health as early as May, improved slightly when it had been sent out to grass but died in September, having fallen ill again in August. Autopsy was performed on three calves; all three were affected with chronic interstitial nephritis and uraemic endocarditis of the left auricle was present as well. The results obtained on toxicological investigation were indicative of lead poisoning. The liver of the calf was found to contain two mg of lead per kg, the cortex of the kidney containing twenty-five mg of lead per kg. These figures did not provide direct evidence of lead poisoning, but in evaluating these figures the fact was taken into account that the calf had no longer been able to ingest any lead for several months. Meanwhile, it was found that the stock-owner had fitted an old painted door in the calf-shed, which door was constantly being licked by the calves. The paint contained 18.6% of lead. This finding was followed by examination of the liver of a calf that had died previously. It was found to contain 49.7 mg of lead per kg. Accordingly, the calves had been affected with a form of lead poisoning running a relatively slow course, as a result of which the animals had developed chronic interstitial nephritis. The calves eventually died from uraemia. 4 references.

  18. Changes in leukocyte populations of cows with milk fever or displaced abomasum after calving

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Kudo, Katsunori; Tomioka, Michiko; Koiwa, Masateru; Kimura, Kayoko

    2013-01-01

    Most of the metabolic diseases of dairy cows occur within the first 2 wk after calving, and cows with a metabolic disease are prone to infectious diseases. Although metabolic diseases are generally recognized as a risk factor for infectious diseases owing to the associated decrease in immune function, the difference in immune status between cows with milk fever (MF) or displaced abomasum (DA) during the lactation period has not been clarified. Therefore, the peripheral blood leukocyte populat...

  19. Tuberculosis en terneros: resultados de un estudio prospectivo (Tuberculosis in calves: results of a prospective study)

    OpenAIRE

    Garro, C; Cobos Roldán M; Oriani, S; Garbaccio S

    2011-01-01

    ResumenUn estudio prospectivo fue realizado en un rodeo lechero con tuberculosis bovina (TB) endémica para investigar el riesgo atribuido a la alimentación con leche cruda en terneros durante la crianza artificial.SummaryA prospective study was conducted in a dairy herd with endemic bovine tuberculosis (BT) to assess the risk attributed to raw milk in feeding calves during the artificial rearing.

  20. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  1. Dairy Cows Productivity and Socio-Economic Profile of Dairy Smallholder’s Communities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyobroto, B. P.; Rochijan; Noviandi, C. T.; Astuti, A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this field questionnaire survey was to describe the dairy cow productivity and socio-economic profile of dairy cattle farmers in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta smallholder farming communities which have been targeted dairy development policy. The study was conducted on 190 Friesian Holstein (FH) cows maintained under smallholder’s management system in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A total of 83 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed with structured questionnaire to assess the socio-economic dairy farmer and productivity performance of dairy cows. The number of dairy productivity performance within the normal. Shortages as well as high cost of feed, occurrence of disease, scarce information about feeding and high medicament cost were the main constraints which might have contributed considerably to delayed age at first service, late age at first calving, long calving interval, short lactation length and low milk production. Therefore, strategies designed to solve the existing problem should be important by involving all stakeholders in the formulation and implementation of improvement strategiesor dairy development policy was being implemented and necessary respect to environmental factors affecting agricultural activities such as a constraint on land use and access to water resources.

  2. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, Hadi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza; Dadpasand, Mohammad; Asaadi, Anise

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD) calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42) kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (pdystocia than male calves (pdystocia than singletons (pdystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05). PMID:25049584

  3. Adjusting the weaning age of calves fed by automated feeders according to individual intakes of solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J

    2012-09-01

    When weaned at the ages typical of commercial dairy production, dairy calves usually show reduced growth rates, lowered energy intake, and increased behavioral signs of hunger, reflecting their difficulty in switching from a milk diet to solid feed. However, large differences exist between calves in their ability to adapt to solid feed, and automated feeders allow the age of weaning to be adjusted to an individual calf's intake of solid feed. We examined the effects of weaning according to solid feed intake on age at weaning, feed intake, and behavioral signs of hunger. In a 2×2 factorial design, 60 female Holstein calves in groups of 8 and fed milk, grain starter, and hay from automated feeders began to be weaned when their voluntary intake of grain starter was either 400 g/d (high start) or 200 g/d (low start), with weaning completed when their voluntary intakes of starter were either 1,600 g/d (high end) or 800 g/d (low end). Digestible energy intakes were calculated from milk, starter and hay intakes, corrected for body weights, calves were weighed, and the frequency of visits to the milk feeders were measured each day. The main effects and interactions between treatments were tested with ANOVA. Large differences were observed between calves in the age at which weaning was complete, with weaning completed earlier for low-end calves compared with high-end calves. No treatment effects (either of start amount or end amount) on intakes of milk, starter, or hay or on weight gains occurred. However, the calves that began weaning earlier had longer durations of weaning, greater growth rates from d 20 to 87, and were heavier on d 87, and had lower milk intakes, higher starter intakes, higher hay intakes, and a greater digestible energy intake, but showed more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder. Adjusting the age at which individual calves are weaned off milk according to their ability to eat solid feed can reduce the age at which weaning occurs while reducing the

  4. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  5. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  6. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry

    OpenAIRE

    HEPPELMANN, Maike; KRACH, Karoline; KRUEGER, Lars; BENZ, Philipp; HERZOG, Kathrin; PIECHOTTA, Marion; HOEDEMAKER, Martina; BOLLWEIN, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then ev...

  7. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient digestibility of veal calves fed large amounts of different solid feeds during the first 80 days of fattening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating nutrients apparent digestibility in veal calves fed 3 feeding plans based on milk-replacer plus large amounts of solid feeds differing in their composition during the first 80 days of fattening. Twelve Polish Friesian male calves (70.6±1.9 kg were randomly assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: i milk-replacer plus corn grain (CG; ii milk-replacer plus 80:20 mixture (as fed basis of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS; and iii milk-replacer plus 72:20:8 mixture of corn grain, wheat straw and extruded soybean (CGSES. Calves received the same milk-replacer but the daily amount was restricted (96% for CGSES calves to balance dietary protein. Total dry matter intake from milk-replacer and solid feeds was similar among treatments, but CGSES calves showed better growth performance than CG ones. Calves were introduced into a metabolism stall (1/pen during week 9 of fattening for a 3- day adaptation period and a 4-day digestibility trial. Calves fed CG showed the greatest DM, NFC, and ash digestibility while CGSES calves showed the lowest CP digestibility. Haemoglobin concentrations measured at day 5, 31 and 80 were similar among feeding treatments and significantly decreased over time. In CGSES treatment, the combination of milkreplacer with solid feed closer to a complete diet for ruminants led to better calves’ growth performance. However, the reduced protein digestibility with CGSES indicates that protein quality becomes a key factor when formulating diets for veal calves using alternatives to dairy sources.

  9. Factors affecting pre-weaning kid mortality in South African Angora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data used for this study were collected in 12 different Angora goat studs from 2000 to 2004. Data collected on 17534 kids born alive in the different studs were included in the analyses. Average pre-weaning mortality rate was 11.5% and ranged from 8.6% to 16.5% (of the 17534 kids born alive, 2018 kids died between ...

  10. EFFECT OF INBREEDING ON PRE-WEANING GROWTH TRAITS IN THALLI SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. HUSSAIN, P. AKHTAR, S. ALI, M. YOUNAS1 AND M. SHAFIQ2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Pedigree records of 17250 Thalli sheep with 17030 lambings maintained at the Livestock Experiment Station, Rakh Ghulaman, Distt. Bhakkar, Pakistan during the period from 1975 to 2004 were utilized in the present study. Average values for birth weight, weights at 60 and 90 days of age, weaning weight and pre-weaning average daily gain were 4.11 ± 0.82, 11.58 ± 3.57, 14.92 ± 4.56, 18.95 ± 4.56 and 0.12 ± 0.04 kg, respectively. Coefficients of inbreeding ranged from 10.15 to 37.50 percent for 295 animals, being 1.70 percent of the flock. Inbreeding significantly (P<0.01 affected birth and 60 days weight. Birth weight and 60 days weight decreased by 0.051 and 0.048 kg for each 1 percent increase in the level of inbreeding. However, inbreeding had non significant effect on weight at 90 days of age, weaning weight and pre-weaning average daily gain. The regression values for these traits were 0.010, 0.083 and 0.105, respectively. It was concluded that inbreeding showed deleterious effects only in early stages of life but as the lambs grew older the effect of inbreeding on pre-weaning traits diminished.

  11. Peripartal rumination dynamics and health status in cows calving in hot and cool seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, S; Maunsell, F; Richeson, J; Risco, C; Donovan, A; Pinedo, P

    2016-11-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of season of calving, associated with variable levels of heat stress, on the dynamics of rumination during the prepartum period and early lactation of cows that were healthy or affected by peripartal health disorders. Three weeks before the estimated due date, 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers, providing rumination time (RT) in 2-h periods. One blood sample was collected in a subpopulation of cows (n=76) at 12 to 48h postcalving to assess metabolic status by determining serum calcium, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. The occurrence of peripartal health disorders (dystocia, clinical ketosis, clinical hypocalcemia, metritis, and mastitis) was assessed by University of Florida veterinarians and trained farm personnel. We analyzed the dynamics of daily RT over ± 14d relative to parturition in cows that were healthy or affected by specific health disorders by season of calving [hot season, June to September (n=77); cool season, November to April (n=118)] using repeated measures analysis and comparison of least squares means at different time points relative to calving. Rumination was consistently reduced on the day of calving in both healthy and sick cows in both the hot and cool seasons. Only hot-season calvings had shorter average daily RT prepartum and postpartum in cows affected by severe negative energy balance and subclinical ketosis. Dystocia during the hot season was associated with shorter daily RT prepartum; for cool-season calvings, cows with dystocia had reduced RT postpartum. We also observed reduced RT in cows with ketosis prepartum and postpartum in both the hot and cool seasons. Daily RT was reduced postpartum in cows with hypocalcemia and mastitis that calved during the cool season, and it was shorter in cows with metritis in both the hot and cool seasons. Our results indicated that

  12. Occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous Estonian dairy cows in different housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasmäe Birgit

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectives of the study were to document the impact of some management factors on the occurrence of clinical mastitis in primiparous dairy cows and to identify common udder pathogens of clinical mastitis in freshly calved heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving. Methods A one-year study was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 11 selected Estonian dairy herds. Data consisted of 68 heifers with clinical mastitis and 995 heifers without clinical mastitis on the day of calving. Multivariable logistic regression with a random herd effect was used to investigate any association between housing system or the time interval from movement of heifers to the calving facility and day of calving on occurrence of clinical mastitis. Milk samples for bacteriological analysis were collected from affected heifers and multiparous cows on the day of calving Results Clinical mastitis occurrence in the study population of freshly calved heifers equalled 6.1 %. Housing system was not a significant risk factor for clinical mastitis of freshly calved heifers. Moving heifers to the cowbarn less than two weeks before calving in tiestall farms increased risk (OR = 5.9 p = 0.001 for clinical mastitis at parturition. The most frequently isolated udder pathogens among heifers were Escherichia coli (22.1%, Streptococcus uberis (19.1% and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8.8%. In comparison, the main pathogen in multiparous cows with clinical mastitis at parturition was Staphylococcus aureus (11.2%. Conclusion Moving heifers to the calving facilities too late in tiestall farms increased risk for clinical mastitis at parturition. The isolated udder pathogens did not differ significantly in tiestall farms compared to freestall farms in heifers, but differences were found between heifers and multiparous cows at parturition.

  13. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  14. [Diprosopus in calves of different breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Beineke, A; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-04-01

    Three calves of the breeds German Holstein, German Angus and German Fleckvieh from three farms were born showing different forms of facial duplication. Two calves were classified as diprosopus with tetraophthalmus and in one calf a partial duplication of the forehead with a third nostril was observed. Further relatives of these affected calves or animals in the same herds were not affected by diprosopus. The calves with diprosopus were examined by means of clinical and pathological-anatomical methods. The increased occurrence of twin births and inbreeding could be of importance for the observed congenital anomaly, whereas conception early in life and conception during the winter months of the mothers of the affected calves are unlikely as reasons for the observed congenital anomaly of these calves. Even if the cases of diprosopus showed no increased frequency by paternal half sib groups, it is likely that diprosopus is genetically influenced and a larger number of genes may determine the phenotype.

  15. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from two dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: 1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; 2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; 3) CR, vitamin A; 4) CR, vitamin D3; 5) CR, vitamin E; 6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, ...

  17. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  18. Mineral supplementation in Tunisian smallholder dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekhis, J.; Kouki-Chebbi, K.; Dhaouadi, B.; Khlif, K.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effects of supplementation of di-calcium-phosphate in the form of blocks in late pregnancy (2 months before calving), on production and reproduction parameters of dairy cattle in smallholder farms. The experiment covered 63 animals in 20 smallholder farms, divided into control and supplemented groups. Results showed that mineral supplementation had a significant effect on calf weight, milk fat content and reproduction parameters. Calves born to cattle supplemented with di-calcium-phosphate were heavier by 1.67 kg than those in the control group. Similarly, the average milk fat content in the supplemented group was 5.6 g/L (P 0.05). (author)

  19. Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Vandehaar, M J; Sordillo, L M; Catherman, D R; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that

  20. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Mirzaei, M; Jahani-Moghadam, M; Soltani, A; Mahjoubi, E; Patton, R A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21.5%, whereas high RUP starter contained 34.3% RUP as % of CP, whereas low fat starter contained 2.9% and high starter contained 5.8% crude fat based on DM. Isonitrogenous levels in the starter grain were maintained by replacing solvent soybean meal with heat treated soybean meal while fat levels were increased by the addition of prilled fatty acids. Calves were housed individually and had ad libitum access to water and calf starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age but remained in the study until d 70 for final measurements. Overall, there was no interaction between RUP and fat levels for measured variables. Starter intake tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for calves fed low fat starter during the postweaning period, although over the whole experiment and during the preweaning period, differences in starter intake were not different. Although there were no differences for most VFA concentrations, the molar proportion of butyrate tended ( RUP ( RUP starter. However, feeding a calf starter with over 3% fat appeared to decrease starter intake as growth progressed.

  1. Effects of chronic environmental cold on growth, health, and select metabolic and immunologic responses of preruminant calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnecke, B J; Foote, M R; Miller, B L; Fowler, M; Johnson, T E; Horst, R L

    2009-12-01

    The physiological response of the preruminant calf to sustained exposure to moderate cold has not been studied extensively. Effects of cold on growth performance and health of preruminant calves as well as functional measures of energy metabolism, fat-soluble vitamin, and immune responsiveness were evaluated in the present study. Calves, 3 to 10 d of age, were assigned randomly to cold (n = 14) or warm (n = 15) indoor environments. Temperatures in the cold environment averaged 4.7 degrees C during the study. Frequent wetting of the environment and the calves was used to augment effects of the cold environment. Temperatures in the warm environment averaged 15.5 degrees C during the study. There was no attempt to increase the humidity in the warm environment. Preventative medications or vaccinations that might influence disease resistance were not administered. Nonmedicated milk replacer (20% crude protein and 20% fat fed at 0.45 kg/d) and a nonmedicated starter grain fed ad libitum were fed to all calves. Relative humidity was, on average, almost 10% higher in the cold environment. Warm-environment calves were moderately healthier (i.e., lower respiratory scores) and required less antibiotics. Scour scores, days scouring, and electrolyte costs, however, were unaffected by environmental temperature. Growth rates were comparable in warm and cold environments, although cold-environment calves consumed more starter grain and had lower blood glucose and higher blood nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. The nonesterified fatty acid and glucose values for cold-stressed calves, however, did not differ sufficiently from normal values to categorize these calves as being in a state of negative-energy balance. Levels of fat-soluble vitamin, antibody, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and haptoglobin were unaffected by sustained exposure to moderate cold. These results support the contention that successful adaptation of the dairy calf to cold is dependent upon the availability

  2. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  3. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri M; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M

    2014-07-01

    To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Randomised, prospective clinical study. Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Detomidine at 80 μg kg(-1) was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg(-1) to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) and local anaesthetic (lidocaine 3 mg kg(-1) ) were administered before heat cauterization of horn buds. Heart rate (HR), body temperature and clinical sedation were monitored over 240 minutes. Blood was collected from the V. cephalica during the same period for drug concentration analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated from the plasma detomidine concentration-time data using non-compartmental methods. Statistical analyses compared routes of administration by Student's t-test and linear mixed models as relevant. The maximum plasma detomidine concentration after GEL was 2.1 ± 1.2 ng mL(-1) (mean ±SD) and the time of maximum concentration was 66.0 ± 36.9 minutes. The bioavailability of detomidine was approximately 34% with GEL. Similar sedation scores were reached in both groups after administration of detomidine, but maximal sedation was reached earlier in the IV group (10 minutes) than in the GEL group (40 minutes). HR was lower after IV than GEL from 5 to 10 minutes after administration. All animals were adequately sedated, and we were able to administer local anaesthetic without resistance to all of the calves before disbudding. Oromucosally administered detomidine is an effective sedative agent for calves prior to disbudding. © 2014 The Authors Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  4. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  5. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....

  6. The quality of colostrum and vitality of calves, born from cows with different reaction to stress experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Chernenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying cortisol concentration and creatine phosphokinase activity in the blood serum of 40 half-sib Ukrainian black and white dairy cows an hour after planned blood extraction, which was a stress experience. We divided the cows into three groups according to the distribution of cortisol concentration in the animals: I – high, II – average and III – low stress resistance. During the research, the cows from these groups were in their fourth month of lactation after their first calving. They were kept untethered in their summer quarters, natural pastures. The aim of the research was to identify the differences in the quality of colostrum, the vitality of the calves up to the age of 6 months, the vitality of the mother-cows, and also the influence of their different adaptation potentials in cases of abortion and stillborn calves among the cows from different groups. At the dairy complex where the research was conducted, the quality of the cows’ colostrum is not monitored. This is typical for most dairy plants of Ukraine. We found that the classes of A and M immunoglobulins did not depend upon which particular groups the animals belonged to, whereas the content of immunoglobulins of class G is 6.7 g/l higher, and the content of total protein is 8.9 g/l higher in the yield of colostrum of the cows from group 1. The influence of cows’ different levels of resistance to stress experiences on their incidence of abortions and stillborn calves was not determined. Gastroenteritis occurred among calves of cows from group 3 three times more often than with those of group 1. Vitality of calves from cows of groups 1 and 2 was significantly higher. Therefore, technological stress experiences of mother-cows have a negative effect upon the quality of colostrum and upon the vitality of calves. This factor ought to be taken into consideration in the exploitation of animals, especially during pregnancy in order to

  7. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0

  8. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have

  9. Technical note: ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves: effects of cannulation on feed intake, body weight gain, and ruminal development at six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Engbaek, M; Vestergaard, M; Harmon, D L

    2010-02-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43+/-3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract were not affected by cannulation. Minimum ruminal pH increased with sampling week, but average ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids concentration, and volatile fatty acids proportions were not affected by sampling week. In conclusion, the implemented surgical technique was found to have no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  11. Effects of feeding an immunomodulatory supplement to heat-stressed or actively cooled cows during late gestation on postnatal immunity, health, and growth of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiel, Amy L; Fabris, Thiago F; Corrá, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, James D; Kirk, David J; Dahl, Geoffrey E; Laporta, Jimena

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress during late gestation negatively affects the physiology, health, and productivity of dairy cows as well as the calves developing in utero. Providing cows with active cooling devices, such as fans and soakers, and supplementing cows with an immunomodulating feed additive, OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corporation), improves immune function and milk yield of cows. It is unknown if maternal supplementation of OG combined with active cooling during late gestation might benefit the developing calf as well. Herein we evaluated markers of innate immune function, including immune cell counts, acute phase proteins, and neutrophil function, of calves born to multiparous dams in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Dams were supplemented with OG or a bentonite control (NO) beginning at 60 d before dry off and exposed to heat stress with cooling (CL) or without active cooling (HT) during the dry period (∼46 d). At birth, calves were separated from their dams and fed 6.6 L of their dams' colostrum in 2 meals. Calf body weight and rectal temperature were recorded, and blood samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding) and at 10, 28, and 49 d of age. Calves born to either CL dams or OG dams were heavier at birth than calves born to HT or NO dams, respectively. Concentrations of serum amyloid A were higher in the blood of calves born to OG dams relative to NO and for HT calves relative to CL calves. In addition, calves born to cooled OG dams had greater concentrations of plasma haptoglobin than calves born to cooled control dams. Neutrophil function at 10 d of age was enhanced in calves born to cooled OG dams and lymphocyte counts were higher in calves born to OG dams. Together these results suggest that adding OG to maternal feed in combination with active cooling of cows during late gestation is effective in mitigating the negative effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal calf growth and immune competence. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  12. Weaning age of calves fed a high milk allowance by automated feeders: effects on feed, water, and energy intake, behavioral signs of hunger, and weight gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, A M; Borderas, T F; Rushen, J

    2011-03-01

    Dairy calves are increasingly fed large volumes of milk, which reduces feeding motivation and improves weight gain. However, calves often show signs of hunger and lose weight when weaned off milk due to low starter intake. We examined whether delaying the age at weaning would reduce responses to weaning. Calves were raised in groups of 9 and fed milk, starter, hay, and water with automated feeders. In each group, 3 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) low-milk, early-weaned: fed 6 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d of age; (2) high-milk early-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 47 d; (3) high-milk later-weaned: fed 12 L/d of milk and weaned at 89 d of age. Milk, starter, and hay intakes were recorded daily and digestible energy (DE) intake estimated. Feeder visits were recorded. Before weaning, the high-milk calves drank more milk, ate less starter and hay, but had higher DE intakes, gained more weight, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the low-milk, early-weaned calves. During and immediately after weaning, the high-fed, early-weaned calves ate less starter and hay, had lower DE intakes, and gained less weight than the low-milk, early-weaned calves and lost their body weight advantage 7 d after weaning. During and immediately after weaning, the high-milk, later-weaned calves ate more starter and hay and had higher DE intakes, higher weight gains, and made fewer visits to the milk feeder than the high-milk, early-weaned calves. They were still heavier than the low-milk, early-weaned calves 18 d after weaning. Delaying the age at which calves are weaned off milk reduces the drop in energy intake and behavioral signs of hunger that result from weaning. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Mugunieri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

  14. Factors affecting pre-weaning kid mortality in South African Angora goats

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The data used for this study were collected in 12 different Angora goat studs from 2000 to 2004. Data collected on 17534 kids born alive in the different studs were included in the analyses. Average pre-weaning mortality rate was 11.5% and ranged from 8.6% to 16.5% (of the 17534 kids born alive, 2018 kids died between birth and weaning at four months of age). Mortality rate in male kids was higher than that recorded for female kids (11.9% vs. 11.1%). When comparing the management systems foll...

  15. Engineering to support wellbeing of dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, Gerardo; Castro-Costa, Andreia; Knight, Christopher H

    2016-05-01

    Current trends in the global milk market and the recent abolition of milk quotas have accelerated the trend of the European dairy industry towards larger farm sizes and higher-yielding animals. Dairy cows remain in focus, but there is a growing interest in other dairy species, whose milk is often directed to traditional and protected designation of origin and gourmet dairy products. The challenge for dairy farms in general is to achieve the best possible standards of animal health and welfare, together with high lactational performance and minimal environmental impact. For larger farms, this may need to be done with a much lower ratio of husbandry staff to animals. Recent engineering advances and the decreasing cost of electronic technologies has allowed the development of 'sensing solutions' that automatically collect data, such as physiological parameters, production measures and behavioural traits. Such data can potentially help the decision making process, enabling early detection of health or wellbeing problems in individual animals and hence the application of appropriate corrective husbandry practices. This review focuses on new knowledge and emerging developments in welfare biomarkers (e.g. stress and metabolic diseases), activity-based welfare assessment (e.g. oestrus and lameness detection) and sensors of temperature and pH (e.g. calving alert and rumen function) and their combination and integration into 'smart' husbandry support systems that will ensure optimum wellbeing for dairy animals and thereby maximise farm profitability. Use of novel sensors combined with new technologies for information handling and communication are expected to produce dramatic changes in traditional dairy farming systems.

  16. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    during the first 4 h after feeding and tended to prefer SF only after 6 h from feeding. Plasma glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were greater in FED than in FAS calves. Injection of naloxone decreased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in NAL calves. Blocking opioid receptors reduced intake the first 2 h after naloxone injection in FED calves, altered oro-sensorial preferences, and reduced plasma GLP-1 concentration. In conclusion, the opioid peptide system may control short-term feed intake by modulating the oro-sensorial response triggered by feed consumption, especially when calves are fed ad libitum. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigations on dairy welfare and performance on German organic farms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerning, Bernhard; Simantke, Christel; Aubel, Erhard

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on 74 organic dairy farms in Germany. Results were an average milk production of 5.960 kg, 223.000 somatic cell counts (SCC), 387 days calving interval, 23.5 % culling rate, 46 Euro annual veterinary costs per cow. Farmers were asked for disease incidences. Cows were scored for injuries and body condition. The results were combined with possible influencing factors (herd size, breed, region, farming association, housing system, housing factors, amounts of conc...

  18. Comparison of metabolic, hematological, and peripheral blood leukocyte cytokine profiles of dairy cows and heifers during the periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Fortes, M R S; Piper, E K; Vankan, D M; de Cisneros, J Prada J; Wittek, T

    2013-04-01

    The periparturient period presents major physiological challenges for the dairy cow. It is a period that is affected by metabolic stressors, major changes in endocrine status, and altered immune function, which together result in an increased risk of disease. Immunological, hematological, and metabolic profiles from the periparturient period of heifers (primipara) were compared with those of cows (pluripara) to test the hypothesis that at the time of calving they have qualitatively different peripheral blood profiles. Blood samples were collected from 22 Holstein-Friesian animals on 3 occasions: approximately 2 wk before calving, within 24h after calving, and approximately 2 wk after calving. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the expression of a selected set of cytokines and receptors by peripheral blood leukocytes. Additional analyses included hemoglobin concentration, red cell, platelet and white cell counts (total and differentiated), and clinical diagnostic biochemical profiles. Total leukocyte counts, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were higher in heifers than cows before calving and within 24h after calving. Alkaline phosphatase was consistently higher in heifers than cows and several significant differences were observed between the 2 groups with regards to cytokine and cytokine-receptor mRNA expression. The results warrant further investigation from the perspective of identifying risk factors for metabolic and parturient disease in dairy cattle. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Consequent Effect of Dystocia in Holstein Dairy Cows in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Atashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and consequent effect of dystocia on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows in Iran. The data set consisted of 55,577 calving records on 30,879 Holstein cows in 30 dairy herds for the period March 2000 to April 2009. Factors affecting dystocia were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression models through the maximum likelihood method in the GENMOD procedure. The effect of dystocia on lactation performance and factors affecting calf birth weight were analyzed using mixed linear model in the MIXED procedure. The average incidence of dystocia was 10.8% and the mean (SD calf birth weight was 42.13 (5.42 kg. Primiparous cows had calves with lower body weight and were more likely to require assistance at parturition (p<0.05. Female calves had lower body weight, and had a lower odds ratio for dystocia than male calves (p<0.05. Twins had lower birth weight, and had a higher odds ratio for dystocia than singletons (p<0.05. Cows which gave birth to a calf with higher weight at birth experienced more calving difficulty (OR (95% CI = 1.1(1.08–1.11. Total 305-d milk, fat and protein yield was 135 (23, 3.16 (0.80 and 6.52 (1.01 kg less, in cows that experienced dystocia at calving compared with those that did not (p<0.05.

  20. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  1. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe

    2016-01-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database....... According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn...

  2. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  3. Estimating the economic impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Hogeveen, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability.

  4. Economic comparison of a sixty day dry period with no dry period on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, J.A.H.; Steeneveld, W.; Berentsen, P.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands it is general practice that dairy cows have a dry period of six to eight weeks. Research, however, shows that omission of the dry period avoids the negative energy balance after calving with its potential negative effects on metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and fertility.

  5. Epidemiology of 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli on dairy farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy cattle have been identified as a reservoir for 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Escherichia coli. We previously identified 3GC-resistant E. coli from manure composite samples of calves and cows in a survey of 80 farms in Pennsylvania. Resistant strains were most frequently isolated...

  6. Studies on fertility in dairy cattle based on analysis of AI data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Fertility is one of the non-yield traits which is of great economic importance in dairy herds. Reduced fertility results in prolonged calving intervals and an increased culling rate. Both are undesirable. Fertility problems account for about 30% of all disposals.

    In this thesis it

  7. Rumen-protected rice bran to induce the adaptation of calcium metabolism in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín-Tereso López, J.

    2010-01-01

    Dairy cows suffer from hypocalcaemia in the days around calving, which may result in a condition generally known as milk fever. Calcium metabolism sharply shifts at the start of lactation, because Ca needs suddenly become much greater than at the end of gestation. Calcium metabolism is able to adapt

  8. An index for beef and veal characteristics in dairy cattle based on carcass traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Groen, A.F.; Jong, de G.

    1998-01-01

    Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows

  9. a note on tntensive weaner calf production fro]ii dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    creep feeding under these conditions demanded atten- tion. Naudd (1964) reported that out cf a total of 9l dairy herds investigated in the Republic of South Africa. only 3l e; of the herds suckled calves. ln 869oof the cases only one calf per cow was suckled. This differs conl- pletely from the practice in Britain where more than ...

  10. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  11. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  12. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-10

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  13. Genetic parameters of calving ease using sire-maternal grandsire model in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Calving ease (CE is a complex reproductive trait of economic importance in dairy cattle. This study was aimed to investigate the genetic merits of CE for Holsteins in Korea. Methods A total of 297,614 field records of CE, from 2000 to 2015, from first parity Holstein heifers were recorded initially. After necessary data pruning such as age at first calving (18 to 42 mo, gestation length, and presence of sire information, final datasets for CE consisted of 147,526 and 132,080 records for service sire calving ease (SCE and daughter calving ease (DCE evaluations, respectively. The CE categories were ordered and scores ranged from CE1 to CE5 (CE1, easy; CE2, slight assistance; CE3, moderate assistance; CE4, difficult calving; CE5, extreme difficulty calving. A linear transformation of CE score was obtained on each category using Snell procedure, and a scaling factor was applied to attain the spread between 0 (CE5 and 100% (CE1. A sire-maternal grandsire model analysis was performed using ASREML 3.0 software package. Results The estimated direct heritability (h2 from SCE and DCE evaluations were 0.11±0.01 and 0.08±0.01, respectively. Maternal h2 estimates were 0.05±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 from SCE and DCE approaches, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal genetic components were −0.68±0.09 (SCE and −0.71±0.09 (DCE. The average direct genetic effect increased over time, whereas average maternal effect was low and consistent. The estimated direct predicted transmitting ability (PTA was desirable and increasing over time, but the maternal PTA was undesirable and decreasing. Conclusion The evidence on sufficient genetic variances in this study could reflect a possible selection improvement over time regarding ease of calving. It is expected that the estimated genetic parameters could be a valuable resource to formulate sire selection and breeding plans which would be directed towards the reduction of

  14. Veterinarians’ and agricultural advisors’ perception of calf health and welfare in organic dairy production in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, C. M.; Hansen, B.

    2012-01-01

    and opinions on calf health and welfare in organic dairy farming. The response rate was 52 % for veterinarians and 54 % for advisors. In direct comparison, both groups thought that the calves’ overall health status and well-being did not differ in organic and conventional dairy farming systems. However...... of respondents considered the routine of keeping calves with their mothers and the good care of the calves by stockpersons as important welfare advantages. Among all factors related to health, welfare, morbidity and mortality, low calf mortality and adequate treatment of disease and injury received the best...... scores. Body condition and growth, as well as the use of calf health recording cards, received the worst scores. The two professions differed in their views on the most important welfare challenges for calves in an organic environment: while both groups agreed on poor feed quality, veterinarians...

  15. Pharmacokinetics and effect of intravenous meloxicam in weaned Holstein calves following scoop dehorning without local anesthesia

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    Coetzee Johann F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dehorning is a common practice involving calves on dairy operations in the United States. However, less than 20% of producers report using analgesics or anesthetics during dehorning. Administration of a systemic analgesic drug at the time of dehorning may be attractive to dairy producers since cornual nerve blocks require 10 – 15 min to take effect and only provide pain relief for a few hours. The primary objectives of this trial were to (1 describe the compartmental pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in calves after IV administration at 0.5 mg/kg and (2 to determine the effect of meloxicam (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 treatment on serum cortisol response, plasma substance P (SP concentrations, heart rate (HR, activity and weight gain in calves after scoop dehorning and thermocautery without local anesthesia. Results Plasma meloxicam concentrations were detectable for 50 h post-administration and fit a 2-compartment model with a rapid distribution phase (mean T½α = 0.22 ± 0.087 h and a slower elimination phase (mean T½β = 21.86 ± 3.03 h. Dehorning caused a significant increase in serum cortisol concentrations and HR (P  Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first published report examining the effects of meloxicam without local anesthesia on SP, activity and performance of calves post-dehorning. These findings suggest that administration of meloxicam alone immediately prior to dehorning does not mitigate signs of acute distress but may have long term physiological, behavior and performance effects.

  16. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

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    Alireza Heravi Mosavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  17. Multi-Omic Biogeography of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota of a Pre-Weaned Lamb

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    Antonio Palomba

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The digestive functions of the pre-weaned lamb gastrointestinal tracts (GITs have been the subject of much research in recent years, but the microbial and host functions underlying these complex processes remain largely unknown. Here, we undertook a proof-of-principle metaproteogenomic investigation on luminal and mucosal samples collected from 10 GITs of a 30-day-old pre-weaned lamb. We demonstrate that the analysis of the diverse ecological niches along the GITs can reveal microbiota composition and metabolic functions, although low amounts of microbial proteins could be identified in the small intestinal and mucosal samples. Our data suggest that a 30-day lamb has already developed mature microbial functions in the forestomachs, while the effect of the milky diet appears to be more evident in the remaining GITs. We also report the distribution and the relative abundance of the host functions, active at the GIT level, with a special focus on those involved in digestive processes. In conclusion, this pilot study supports the suitability of a metaproteogenomic approach to the characterization of microbial and host functions of the lamb GITs, opening the way to further studies aimed at investigating the impact of early dietary interventions on the GIT microbiota of small ruminants.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON PRE-WEANING DAILY WEIGHT GAIN IN TEDDY GOAT KIDS

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    Asad Ullah Hyder, Pervez Akhtar and Omer Usman Haider

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Records belonging to 1248 Teddy goats kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, (Okara, Pakistan were analyzed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting pre-weaning average daily weight gain. Sex of kid, season and year of kidding affected average daily weight gain significantly (P<0.01. Male kids gained at a faster rate (111.00 ± 6.01 g/day than female kids (106.00 ± 6.06 g per day. The kids born in summer gained 108.90 + 1.3 g per day, which. was lower (P<0.01 than winter born kids ( 115.4 ± 1.4 9 per day. Different years of birth had shown gradual decrease in pre-weaning average daily gains. The effects of. parity of dam and birth type were found to be non-significant. Habitability estimate for daily weight gain was 0.12 ± 0.06. The phenotypic and genetic trends were negative.

  19. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of ges...

  20. Persistent effects of pre-weaning in piglets on composition of fecal microbiota are diet-, genus-, and time-specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of diet on gut microbiota composition in the pre-weaning period have been characterized, but it is unknown whether differences in composition are sustained after weaning. The objective of this study was to determine if post-natal diet-induced differences in microbiota persist after weani...

  1. Adoption of milk cooling technology among smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing adoption of milk cooling technology were studied with data for 90 smallholder dairy farmers who were randomly selected from seven dairy cooperative societies in Kiambu County, Kenya. Logistic regression identified the age of the household head, daily household milk consumption......, freehold land ownership, fodder production area, number of female calves, cooperative membership and cooperative services as significant factors influencing farmers’ willingness to invest in milk cooling technology. These findings offer an entry point for increased interventions by policy makers...... and various dairy sector stakeholders in promoting milk cooling technology with the aim of significantly reducing post-harvest losses and increasing the sector’s competitiveness....

  2. How to Start Growing Beef Calves on Feed

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R

    2003-01-01

    Starting calves on feed takes time and effort because of the stress young calves are susceptible to at this point in their lives. The reduction of stress will result in calves consuming more feed, thus remaining healthier. To successfully start calves on feed, dry matter intake must be maximized while minimizing health problems. The following is a 5-step applied method for starting calves on a silage-based ration.

  3. The effect of replacing lactose by starch on protein and fat digestion in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluschke, A M; Gilbert, M S; Williams, B A; van den Borne, J J G C; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-08-01

    Replacing dairy components from milk replacer (MR) with vegetable products has been previously associated with decreased protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves resulting in lower live weight gain. In this experiment, the major carbohydrate source in MR, lactose, was partly replaced with gelatinized corn starch (GCS) to determine the effect on protein and fat digestibility in milk-fed calves. In total, 16 male Holstein-Friesian calves received either MR with lactose as the carbohydrate source (control) or 18% GCS at the expense of lactose. In the adaptation period, calves were exposed to an increasing dose of GCS for 14 weeks. The indigestible marker cobalt ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was incorporated into the MR for calculating apparent nutrient digestibility, whereas a pulse dose of chromium (Cr) chloride was fed with the last MR meal 4 h before slaughter as an indicator of passage rates. The calves were anesthetized and exsanguinated at 30 weeks of age. The small intestine was divided in three; small intestine 1 and 2 (SI1 and SI2, respectively) and the terminal ileum (last ~100 cm of small intestine) and samples of digesta were collected. Small intestinal digesta was analysed for α-amylase, lipase and trypsin activity. Digestibility of protein was determined for SI1, SI2, ileum and total tract, whereas digestibility of fat was determined for SI1, SI2 and total tract. Apparent protein digestibility in the small intestine did not differ between treatments but was higher in control calves at total tract level. Apparent crude fat digestibility tended to be increased in SI1 and SI2 for GCS calves, but no difference was found at total tract level. Activity of α-amylase in SI2 and lipase in both SI1 and SI2 was higher in GCS calves. Activity of trypsin tended to be higher in control calves and was higher in SI1 compared with SI2. A lower recovery of Cr in SI2 and a higher recovery of Cr in the large intestine suggest an increased rate of passage for GCS

  4. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  5. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. S.; Hashem, A. L.S.; Azamel, A. A. [Department of Animal Physiology, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Farghaly, H. A.M., [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76{+-}0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d{sub 7} post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d{sub 7} post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d{sub 0}) on d{sub 14} post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by

  6. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows.

  7. Uterine inflammation affects the reproductive performance of dairy cows: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Eduardo Molina-Coto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of post- partum uterine disease is an important concern in dairy cattle, because it affects its reproduction. Therefore, the objective of this review of literature was to generate a multifactorial overview about uterine diseases, and the reproductive performance of dairy cows, from a zootechnical approach. Dairy cows face multiple challenges around parturition. Immune suppression around calving, exposition to trauma and uterine bacterial contamination, metabolic diseases, lactation, and changes in management make dairy cows susceptible to uterine diseases. Most cows are able to eliminate uterine infection after calving, however, some cows keep uterine disease. Uterine disease may show clinical signs, but also silent signs that affect fertility as well. Poor reproductive performance is not caused by those signs by themselves, but due to alterations in ovarian and uterine function. Also, the problem of this silent signs is that farmers become aware of the disease when it has already caused negative effects on the reproductiveperformance. Sometimes, uterine disease is still present at the moment of the first service after calving. Uterine diseasemake it harder for cows to get pregnant because it affects the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, being another cause for infertility, increasing the cull rate and decreasing incomes from the dairy industry.

  8. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; Pantophlet, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; Hendriks, W H; Schols, H A; Gerrits, W J J

    2016-02-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy and protein metabolism in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian calves (114±2.4 kg) were fed milk replacer containing 46% lactose (CON) or 31% lactose and 15% of glucose (GLUC), fructose (FRUC), or glycerol (GLYC). Solid feed was provided at 10 g of dry matter (DM)/kg of metabolic body weight (BW(0.75)) per day. After an adaptation of 48 d, individual calves were harnessed, placed in metabolic cages, and housed in pairs in respiration chambers. Apparent total-tract disappearance of DM, energy, and N and complete energy and N balances were measured. The GLUC, FRUC, and GLYC calves received a single dose of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]fructose, or [U-(13)C]glycerol, respectively, with their milk replacer at 0630 h and exhaled (13)CO2 and (13)C excretion with feces was measured. Apparent total-tract disappearance was decreased by 2.2% for DM, 3.2% for energy, and 4.2% for N in FRUC compared with CON calves. Energy and N retention did not differ between treatments, and averaged 299±16 kJ/kg of BW(0.75) per day and 0.79±0.04 g/kg of BW(0.75) per day, respectively, although FRUC calves retained numerically less N (13%) than other calves. Recovery of (13)C isotopes as (13)CO2 did not differ between treatments and averaged 72±1.6%. The time at which the maximum rate of (13)CO2 production was reached was more than 3 h delayed for FRUC calves, which may be explained by a conversion of fructose into other substrates before being oxidized. Recovery of (13)C in feces was greater for FRUC calves (7.7±0.59%) than for GLUC (1.0±0.27%) and GLYC calves (0.5±0.04%), indicating incomplete absorption of fructose from the small intestine resulting in fructose excretion or

  9. Characterisation of the Whole Blood mRNA Transcriptome in Holstein-Friesian and Jersey Calves in Response to Gradual Weaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Johnston

    Full Text Available Weaning of dairy calves is an early life husbandry management practice which involves the changeover from a liquid to a solid feed based diet. The objectives of the study were to use RNA-seq technology to examine the effect of (i breed and (ii gradual weaning, on the whole blood mRNA transcriptome of artificially reared Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. The calves were gradually weaned over 14 days (day (d -13 to d 0 and mRNA transcription was examined one day before gradual weaning was initiated (d -14, one day after weaning (d 1, and 8 days after weaning (d 8. On d -14, 550 genes were differentially expressed between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves, while there were 490 differentially expressed genes (DEG identified on d 1, and 411 DEG detected eight days after weaning (P 0.05. The pathways, gene ontology terms, and biological functions consistently over-represented among the DEG between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey were associated with the immune response and immune cell signalling, specifically chemotaxis. Decreased transcription of several cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulin-like genes, phagocytosis-promoting receptors and g-protein coupled receptors suggests decreased monocyte, natural killer cell, and T lymphocyte, chemotaxis and activation in Jersey compared to Holstein-Friesian calves. Knowledge of breed-specific immune responses could facilitate health management practices better tailored towards specific disease sensitivities of Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves. Gradual weaning did not compromise the welfare of artificially-reared dairy calves, evidenced by the lack of alterations in the expression of any genes in response to gradual weaning.

  10. Effects of chestnut tannins on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Li, K

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned either to a diet supplemented with CT (CNT, 10 g of CT/kg of diet, dry matter basis) or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet from 3 wk prepartum to 3 wk postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d -21, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver samples were taken by puncture biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for analysis of SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA. Data were analyzed for a completely randomized block design with repeated measures. The addition of CT had no significant effects on dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk composition but did decrease milk MDA and somatic cell score in transition dairy cows. Dry matter intake decreased from d -21 to 0 and increased from d 1 to 21 relative to calving across treatments. During the experimental period, body weight and body condition score decreased, whereas milk MDA and somatic cell score increased across treatments. A time effect was also observed for plasma MDA, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than that on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT decreased MDA concentrations in plasma and liver. Neither time nor CT × time effects were observed for SOD and T-AOC in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px in liver; a time effect was observed for plasma GSH-Px, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than those on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT increased SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver. In conclusion, addition of CT might

  11. The effect of increasing the nutrient and amino acid concentration of milk diets on dairy heifer individual feed intake, growth, development, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison, J K; Robarts, A D J; Reynolds, G W

    2013-10-01

    Increasing early (dairy calves has been found to increase their milk production potential. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of offering milk diets with or without added carbohydrates and amino acids on calf growth, weaning age, and subsequent growth and milk yield of dairy heifers in their first lactation. Friesian calves born at Massey University (n=57) were selected at random, weighed, and allocated to receive 1 of 3 diets. All calves were fed colostrum from 1 to 3d of age, followed by 4 L of whole milk (WM) per head per day and probiotics between 3 and 18d of age. At 18d of age, calves were weighed to ensure mean body weight (BW); then, at 19 d of age, calves changed diets to 1 of 3 treatments, which reached full treatment rate at 21 d of age. The diets were 4 L/head per day of WM (M); 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates (MP); and 4 L/head per day of WM plus 200 g of plant carbohydrates with amino acids (MPA). Calves were weaned upon reaching a BW of 90 kg. During this period, BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured. The heifers were commingled and grazed on ryegrass and white clover pastures until calving at 23 mo of age, when BW, body condition, and hip height and width were measured again. Milk yield and composition were measured throughout first lactation. At weaning, calves fed MPA had greater mean BW gain, a lower number of days to target BW, and a greater mean hip width gain compared with calves in the M group, although mean gain in hip height did not differ among treatments. Total calf starter intake during the milk period was lower for MPA-fed calves compared with those offered M, mainly due to a shorter milk feeding period required to attain the 90-kg weaning weight, whereas mean daily starter intake and straw intake did not differ. No difference was observed in the calving rate or calving age of heifers in any of the dietary feeding groups. First lactation fat-corrected milk yield, milk fat

  12. A decision-tree model to detect post-calving diseases based on rumination, activity, milk yield, BW and voluntary visits to the milking robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, M; Antler, A; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Maltz, E; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Early detection of post-calving health problems is critical for dairy operations. Separating sick cows from the herd is important, especially in robotic-milking dairy farms, where searching for a sick cow can disturb the other cows' routine. The objectives of this study were to develop and apply a behaviour- and performance-based health-detection model to post-calving cows in a robotic-milking dairy farm, with the aim of detecting sick cows based on available commercial sensors. The study was conducted in an Israeli robotic-milking dairy farm with 250 Israeli-Holstein cows. All cows were equipped with rumination- and neck-activity sensors. Milk yield, visits to the milking robot and BW were recorded in the milking robot. A decision-tree model was developed on a calibration data set (historical data of the 10 months before the study) and was validated on the new data set. The decision model generated a probability of being sick for each cow. The model was applied once a week just before the veterinarian performed the weekly routine post-calving health check. The veterinarian's diagnosis served as a binary reference for the model (healthy-sick). The overall accuracy of the model was 78%, with a specificity of 87% and a sensitivity of 69%, suggesting its practical value.

  13. Laboratory experiments inform iceberg-calving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M.; Burton, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Globally detected glacial earthquakes are produced during cubic-kilometer scale calving events. The mechanism producing these earthquakes and the dependence of the seismic moment on iceberg size and glacial calving front geometry are not well established. We use a laboratory-scale model of the post-fracture calving process to measure aspects of the calving process not observable in nature. In our experiments, buoyant plastic blocks rest against against a force plate (glacial terminus) which measures both the total force and the torque exerted during the calving process. The blocks are gravitationally unstable, so that they will spontaneously capsize and rotate away from the terminus. We find that hydrodynamics are crucial when considering the coupling between the calving process and the solid earth. There is both a pushing contact force and a simultaneous pulling hydrodynamic force created by a reduced pressure along the terminus face. This suggests that a single couple force mechanism is a more appropriate mode for glacial earthquakes than the commonly used centroid single force model.

  14. Reticulo-rumen temperature as a predictor of calving time in primiparous and parous Holstein females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J B G; Ahola, J K; Weller, Z D; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Barcellos, J O J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research was to define and analyze drops in reticulo-rumen temperature (Trr) as an indicator of calving time in Holstein females. Data were collected from 111 primiparous and 150 parous Holstein females between November 2012 and March 2013. Between -15 and -5 d relative to anticipated calving date, each female received an orally administered temperature sensing reticulo-rumen bolus that collected temperatures hourly. Daily mean Trr was calculated from d -5 to 0 relative to using all Trr values (A-Trr) or only Trr values ≥37.7°C (W-Trr) not altered by water intake. To identify a Trr drop, 2 methodologies for computing the baseline temperature were used. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to estimate the probability of calving within the next 12 or 24 h for primiparous, parous, and all females, based on the size of the Trr drop. For all GLM, a large drop in Trr corresponded with a large estimated probability of calving. The predictive power of the GLM was assessed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The ROC curve analyses showed that all models, regardless of methodology in calculation of the baseline or tested category (primiparous or parous), were able to predict calving; however, area under the ROC curve values, an indication of prediction quality, were greater for methods predicting calving within 24 h. Further comparisons between GLM for primiparous and parous, and using baseline 1 and 2, provide insight on the differences in predictive performance. Based on the GLM, Trr drops of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4°C were identified as useful indicators of parturition and further analyzed using sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios. Based on sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratios, the best indicator of calving was an average Trr drop ≥0.2°C, regardless of methodology used to compute the baseline or category of animal evaluated. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  15. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    calves were treated for respiratory ailments and respiratory treatment cost was lower for AMF compared with control. Several factors may have contributed to an overall lack of observed treatment effect in this study, including include the use of a low-forage (compared with concentrate) diet, immunocompetent calves, and the selected product dose and routes of delivery. Dietary inclusion (2 g/d) of an extract of A. oryzae did not affect calf growth, intake, and ruminal or health measurements. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. South African Journal of Animal Science - Vol 15, No 1 (1985)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-weaning growth and feed intake of dairy calves receiving different combinations of soybean flour, whey powder and colostrum · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. CW Cruywagen, Joretha G. Horn, 11-14 ...

  17. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    increasing the contribution of fat to the digestible energy intake from the MR from 20 to 50%, at the expense of lactose does not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in calves. However, a high-lactose MR increases postprandial glucose and insulin responses, whereas a high-fat MR increases fat accumulation in liver but not muscle. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On-farm biosecurity practices and causes of preweaning mortality in Canadian commercial mink kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, Nicole; Pearl, David L; Tapscott, Brian; Storer, Amanda; Hammermueller, Jutta; Brash, Marina; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-08

    Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits. We found that very few biosecurity and management practices were uniformly used by producers, despite good awareness of appropriate practices. Use of personal protective equipment was implemented by fewer than 50% of respondents, while control of mink shed access, disinfection of feed containers after use, and use of a rodent control program were the only practices implemented by greater than 70% of respondents. Only 18% of producers reported regular use of antimicrobials in feed or water, although 91% stated they used antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases on a regular basis. On post mortem examination, no gross abnormalities were noted in 71% of the kits, 45% were thought to be stillborn or aborted, 27% had some form of abnormal fluid distribution in the body, and 2% had a congenital malformation. A subset of 69 gastrointestinal tract samples was submitted for bacterial culture, of which 45 samples yielded sufficient growth. Most interesting was the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in 11% of samples. The results of this study will provide a benchmark for Canadian mink producers and their veterinarians, defining the areas to which greater attention should be given to ensure more rigorous biosecurity practices are in place. Ultimately, these improvements in practices may contribute to increased mink

  19. Parâmetros de fermentação e medidas morfométricas dos compartimentos ruminais de bezerros leiteiros suplementados com milho processado (Floculado vs. Laminado a vapor e monensina Ruminal fermentation parameters and metric measurements of the rumen of dairy calves fed processed corn (Steam-rolled vs. Steam-flaked and monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maris Bittar Nussio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações do fornecimento de grãos processados (laminado a vapor vs. floculado e monensina em parâmetros ruminais. Dezesseis bezerros holandeses foram fistulados no rúmen com 3-5 dias de vida e agrupados em blocos ao acaso, com arranjo fatorial 2 x 2. Os animais receberam concentrado ad libitum até o consumo de 2 kg/d, 4 litros diários de leite e tiveram acesso livre à água. Após a desmama, realizada na oitava semana de vida, os animais passaram a receber 2 kg/d de concentrado e feno de coastcross picado ad libitum. Os tratamentos não afetaram o consumo de concentrado e feno, assim como o desempenho animal, os quais foram inferiores ao esperado. A concentração molar de propionato foi maior para animais recebendo grão laminado. Houve tendência de maior concentração molar de AGV total (P = 0,11 e butirato (P = 0,13 para animais recebendo grão laminado. A inclusão de monensina tendeu a reduzir as concentrações de N-NH3 ruminal (P = 0,12. O peso do retículo-rúmen (% trato total tendeu (P = 0,09 a ser maior em animais recebendo grão laminado e monensina. A capacidade do retículo-rúmen foi aumentada pelo fornecimento de grão laminado e monensina. Milho floculado resultou em maior peso do abomaso em % trato total.The objective of this study was the evaluation of the effects of grain processing (steam-rolled vs. steam-flaked and monensin on ruminal parameters. Sixteen Holstein calves were ruminally canulated with 3 to 5 days of life, and utilized on a completely randomized design block with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. The animals received concentrate ad libitum up to 2 kg/d, plus 4 L/d of milk. Calves had free access to water. After weaning at the eight weeks of life, calves received concentrate and chopped hay. Animal performance, concentrate and hay intakes were lower than expected and not affected by treatments. The molar proportion of propionate was higher for steam

  20. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  1. Associations of prepartum body condition score with occurrence of clinical endometritis and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Ali; Ahmadi, Mohammad Rahim; Vatankhah, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of periparturient body condition score on the occurrence of clinical endometritis and postpartum resumption of ovarian activity in dairy cows. Eighty-seven lactating Holstein cows, fed with a total mixed ration diet, were included into the study. Body condition scoring (using a 5-point scale with quarter-point divisions) was performed by the same investigator using the visual technique every 2 weeks, from 2 weeks before until 6 weeks after calving. Palpation of the reproductive tract and ultrasonographic assessment of ovaries for detection of corpus luteum using a rectal linear probe was also performed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after calving. Cows with clinical endometritis had significantly lower body condition score (BCS) than normal cows at all weeks pre- and postcalving, and cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving had a significantly lower BCS pre- and postpartum. Cows that did not ovulate until 45 days after calving also lost more BCS from 2 weeks before to 4 weeks after calving. Besides, first ovulation after calving take occurred later in cows with clinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P < 0.05). In conclusion, low BCS is a risk factor for postpartum endometritis and delayed cyclicity in dairy cows. BCS loss from dry-off to early lactation and occurrence of clinical endometritis can significantly affect postpartum ovarian activity.

  2. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  3. Effects of physical form of starter and forage provision to young calves on blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, H; Mahdavi, A H; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Oskoueian, E; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of physical form of starter feed and forage provision on the performance, blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 52; body weight = 41.5 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 13 per treatment) to one of the following four treatments: (i) ground starter feed (GS; mean particle size = 0.72 mm in diameter), (ii) textured starter feed (TS; mean particle size = 3.61 mm in diameter, including steam-flaked corn and barley), (iii) pelleted starter feed (PS; mean particle size = 4.53 mm in diameter) and (iv) ground starter feed with chopped alfalfa hay (GS + AH; mean particle size = 1.02 mm in diameter). The calves fed GS + AH diets had greater (p intake, final body weight and average daily gain compared with the other groups, while GS and TS groups both had greater (p intake than the PS group. Feed efficiency was found to be better (p calves fed GS + AH had the highest blood concentrations of total protein, globulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), T3 : T4 ratio (p calves fed GS + AH exhibited a greater muscle layer thickness (p calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effects of amount of colostrum replacer, amount of milk replacer, and housing cleanliness on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves to 8 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Hill, T M; Deikun, L L; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-11-01

    changes in serum IgG and total protein varied by treatment. Serum IgG in calves fed C150 varied little from 0 to 4 wk and increased thereafter, whereas IgG in calves fed C450 declined to 4 wk (estimated half-life = 23.9 d) and increased thereafter. Differences in serum IgG concentrations caused by feeding different amounts of colostrum replacer did not markedly affect growth or intake when calves were fed different amounts of milk replacer or when they were housed with clean or dirty bedding. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  6. Associations between the time of conception and the shape of the lactation curve in early lactation in Norwegian dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Fredrik; Østerås, Olav; Reksen, Olav

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine if an association exists between the shape of the lactation curve before it is influenced by the event of conception and the time from calving to conception in Norwegian dairy cattle. Lactation curves of Norwegian Red cows during 5 to 42 days in milk (DIM) ...

  7. Effect of feeding rumen-protected rice bran on mineral status of non-lactating dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Tereso Lopez, J.; Distefano, C.; Laar, van H.; Mulder, K.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Adapting Ca homeostasis of dairy cows before calving can prevent milk fever. Rice bran, treated with formaldehyde to prevent ruminal degradation of phytic acid, was fed to heifers to study its effect on Ca homeostasis. For 3 weeks 18 heifers were supplemented 3 kg of two feeds: placebo (PF) and rice

  8. THE RESISTANCE TO ANTIBIOTICS IN STRAINS OF E. COLI AND ENTEROCOCCUS SP. ISOLATED FROM RECTAL SWABS OF LAMBS AND CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA NOVÁKOVÁ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of enterococcii and E. coli strains isolated from dairy calves and lambs. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci were tested using the disk diffusion method. The interpretation of inhibition zones around the disks was according to CLSI 2004 Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In our study, all isolates (E. coli and enterococci were multiresistant (100% to tetracycline, streptomycin and compound sulphonamides. Lower levels of resistance to enrofloxacin were noted. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of Enterococcus sp. isolated from lambs indicated that the highest percentage of susceptibility was exhibited to tetracycline (100% and streptomycin (100% and compound sulphonamides (100%. The intermediate resistance was exhibited against compound enrofloxacin (80%. The high frequencies of resistant isolates of Enterococcus sp. from calves were documented in tetracycline (100%, streptomycin (100% and compound sulphonamides (100% and enrofloxacin (50%. The high percentage (compound sulphonamides-100%, tetracycline-100% and streptomycin- 100% of multiresistant E. coli (isolates from dairy calves was noticed. There were no significant correlations between groups.

  9. [Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein; Terjesen, Terje

    2011-05-20

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is characterized by avascular necrosis of the head of the femur. This article deals with the epidemiology, possible causes, treatment and prognostic factors connected with the disease. The article is based on a non-systematic literature search and own clinical practice, with special emphasis on a Norwegian countrywide study of children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The incidence of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease varies in different countries and regions. Those who are older than six years at the time of diagnosis and have over 50% femoral head necrosis have a worse prognosis than younger children where the necrosis is less extensive. Treatment has been discussed extensively over the past 100 years, and still varies considerably. The Norwegian countrywide investigation showed that the results in children who were over six years at the time of diagnosis and had more than 50% femoral head necrosis were significantly better after varus femoral osteotomy than after physiotherapy or orthosis. This agrees with the only other prospective study that has been published. Operative treatment should be considered in children who are six years old or older and have over 50% femoral head necrosis when the diagnosis Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is made. Those who are younger than six years at the time of diagnosis or who have less than 50% femoral head necrosis should be treated symptomatically. Abduction orthosis has no place in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  10. Field trial on progesterone cycles, metabolic profiles, body condition score and their relation to fertility in Estonian Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, J; Ling, K; Waldmann, A; Jaakson, H; Kaart, T; Leesmäe, A

    2008-08-01

    Resumption of luteal activity postpartum and fertility were investigated in an Estonian Holstein high milk production and good fertility dairy herd. Body condition was scored after every 10 days in 54 multiparous dairy cows (71 lactations) calving inside from December to March during 4-year period. Blood samples were taken 1-14 days before calving and 1-14, 28-42 and 63-77 days after calving: analytes estimated were serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose, ketone bodies, total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides. The general linear mixed model was used to compare the data for cows with different characteristics in luteal activity postpartum based on their milk progesterone profiles. Forty-five per cent of cases had abnormal profiles; delayed resumption of ovarian cyclicity postpartum (DC) was the most prevalent abnormality. There was no difference in body condition scores between the groups. The DC and prolonged luteal phase groups had higher serum AST activity (p fertility.

  11. Genetic parameters of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium serum concentrations during the first 8 days after calving in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-07-01

    Calcium, Mg, P, and K are of great importance for the health and productivity of dairy cows after calving. So far genetic studies have focused on clinical hypocalcemia, leaving the genetic parameters of these macroelements unstudied. Our objective was to estimate the genetic parameters of Ca, Mg, P, and K serum concentrations and their changes during the first 8d after calving. The study was conducted in 9 herds located in northern Greece, with 1,021 Holstein cows enrolled from November 2010 until November 2012. No herd used any kind of preventive measures for hypocalcemia. Pedigree information for all cows was available. A total of 35 cows were diagnosed and treated for periparturient paresis and, therefore, excluded from the study. The remaining 986 cows were included in genetic analysis. The distribution of cows across parities was 459 (parity 1), 234 (parity 2), 158 (parity 3), and 135 (parity ≥4). A sample of blood was taken from each cow on d1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving and serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in each sample. A final data set of 15,390 biochemical records was created consisting of 3,903 Ca, 3,902 P, 3,903Mg, and 3,682K measurements. Moreover, changes of these concentrations between d1 and 4 as well as 1 and 8 after calving were calculated and treated as different traits. Random regression models were used to analyze the data. Results showed that daily heritabilities of Ca, P, and Mg concentrations traits were moderate to high (0.20-0.43), whereas those of K were low to moderate (0.12-0.23). Regarding concentration changes, only Mg change between d1 and 8 after calving had a significant heritability of 0.18. Genetic correlations between Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations and their concentration changes from d1 to 4 and 1 to 8 after calving were not significantly different from zero. Most phenotypic correlations among Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations were positive and low (0.09-0.16), whereas the correlation between P and Mg was

  12. Exigências nutricionais de bezerros nelores lactentes Nutritional requirements of nursing Nellore calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    females (F with average body weight (BW of 30±3 kg were used. Soon after birth, four (2 males and 2 females calves were slaughtered to estimate initial body composition of animals that remained in the trial. At 90 days, another eight calves were slaughtered (4 males and 4 females, and the remaining animals were slaughtered at 180 days. Besides milk, the calves were fed with corn silage ad libitum and commercial concentrate set at a maximum of 0.5 kg/animal/day. Two digestibility assay were conducted at 30 and 90 days to estimate the energy intake of the calves. After slaughtered all calves had their right half-carcasses dissected. The content of protein, energy and minerals were estimated by the equation Y = a. EBWb, where EBW is the empty body weight. The relationship EBW/BW of calves was 0.9622 and EBWG/BWG was 0.958, where G is the gain. The net requirements of protein and energy increased with increasing body weight, while calcium decreased. The metabolizable protein requirements for gain of 1 kg BW were 216.96 and 261.98 g for calves with 100 and 200 kg respectively. The following equations are recommended to estimate the body content of preweaning Nellore calves: protein (g/day = 0.135 × EBW1.0351; energy (Mcal/day = 1.1798 × EBW1.1805; calcium (g/day = 0.091 × EBW0.6019; phosphorus (g/day = 0.00894 × EBW0.9629; sodium (g/day = 0.00126 × EBW0.9791; magnesium (g/day = 0.000405 × EBW0.9827; potassium (g/day = 0.00165 × EBW0.9364.

  13. Effect of postpartum suppression of ovulation on uterine involution in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Heppelmann, M; Brömmling, A; Weinert, M; Piechotta, M; Wrenzycki, C; Bollwein, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of time of first postpartum ovulation after calving on uterine involution in dairy cows with and without uterine puerperal disease. Transvaginal follicular puncture (FP) of follicles >6 mm suppressed ovulation and development of a CL until Day 42 after calving. Fifty-three lactating Holstein Friesian cows (3.4 ± 1.2 years old, parity 2.5 ± 1.0 [median ± mean absolute deviation]) were divided into groups on the basis of the presence (UD...

  14. Calving body condition score combined with milk test data and rectal tempreture improved the prognostic value of non-invasive markers for infectious diseases in Holestein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouryar, M.; Mirzaei-Alamouti, H.; Banadaky, M. Dehghan

    2018-01-01

    Early lactating dairy cows, are predisposed for calving-related diseases. Early prediction of “at risk” animals increases the likelihood of a successful recovery. In this regard, test-days milk data and body condition score (BCS) at calving have been evaluated as potential indicators of cows at......), BCS at calving and at the first two milk test-days and RT measured daily from day 1 (parturition) to 14 postpartum. Cows were furthermore monitored for subclinical mastitis (SCM), metritis and endometritis in the postpartum period, and diseases diagnosed using standardized definitions. The predicting...... value of variables were evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. None of the determined variables provided accuracy individually in prediction of post-partum diseases. Only the mean value of rectal temperature at week 2 (RT2) showed an area under the curve (AUC) higher than 0...

  15. Association of oxidative status and insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cattle: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-04-01

    Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Calf and replacement heifer mortality from birth until weaning in pasture-based dairy herds in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttance, E L; Mason, W A; McDermott, J; Laven, R A; McDougall, S; Phyn, C V C

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) estimate the perinatal (birth to 24 h) and postnatal (∼24 h to the mean weaning age of 13 wk) mortality risk in pasture-based dairy calves until weaning, and (2) identify associated risk factors in the 2015 calving season. A prospective survey of 32 seasonal calving dairy farms was undertaken. Farmers recorded (daily) the number and sex of the calves alive or dead in the paddocks where cows calved. All daily animal movements in and out of the calf rearing facilities, including death and euthanasia, and the identification of the animals (if applicable) were recorded, and a survey of the farm management practices was undertaken. Individual and farm-level risk factors for perinatal mortality were modeled separately using generalized logistic mixed models with a random effect fitted for herd. Postnatal mortality incidence risk was calculated using time at risk for each calf from 24 h of age, collapsed into weeks, and multiplying the incidence risk by the mean weaning age of the study population. Farm-level risk factors contributing to postnatal mortality in the first week of life were assessed using a multivariable logistic mixed regression model. The mean perinatal mortality risk was 5.7% (95% confidence interval 5.4 to 6.1%) with a range from 2.2 to 8.6% (18,437 calves, 30 farms). Perinatal calf mortality was greater for male relative to female calves (odds ratio 1.39; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.59), calves born in the first week of the calving period in comparison to wk 2 to 11 (odds ratio 0.32 to 0.66), and those born on days with greater rainfall (odds ratio 1.01 per 1 mm increase; 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.02). At the farm level, perinatal mortality increased for every extra week of calving period length (odds ratio 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.17). The mean postnatal mortality risk was 4.1% (95% confidence interval 3.6 to 4.6%) with a range of 0 to 11% between farms. Farm-level risk factors

  17. Milk production and fertility performance of Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows and their respective crosses in seasonal-calving commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Horan, B; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-07-01

    There is renewed interest in dairy cow crossbreeding in Ireland as a means to further augment productivity and profitability. The objective of the present study was to compare milk production and fertility performance for Holstein, Friesian, and Jersey purebred cows, and their respective crosses in 40 Irish spring-calving commercial dairy herds from the years 2008 to 2012. Data on 24,279 lactations from 11,808 cows were available. The relationship between breed proportion, as well as heterosis and recombination coefficients with performance, was quantified within a mixed model framework that also contained the fixed effects of parity; cow and contemporary group of herd-year-season of calving were both included as random effects in the mixed model. Breed proportion was associated with all milk production parameters investigated. Milk yield was greatest for Holstein (5,217kg), intermediate for Friesian (4,591kg), and least for Jersey (4,230kg), whereas milk constituents (i.e., fat and protein concentration) were greatest for Jersey (9.38%), intermediate for Friesian (7.91%), and least for Holstein (7.75%). Yield of milk solids in crossbred cows exceeded their respective parental average performance; greatest milk solids yield (i.e., fat kg + protein kg) was observed in the Holstein × Jersey first-cross, yielding 25kg more than the mid-parent mean. There was no consistent breed effect on the reproductive traits investigated. Relative to the mid-parent mean, Holstein × Jersey cows calved younger as heifers and had a shorter calving interval. Friesian × Jersey first-cross cows also had a shorter calving interval relative to their mid-parent mean. Results were consistent with findings from smaller-scale controlled experiments. Breed complementarity and heterosis attainable from crossbreeding resulted in superior animal performance and, consequently, greater expected profitability in crossbred cows compared with their respective purebreds. Copyright © 2016 American

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.

    2011-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves) were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862) and 30.8% for calves (12/39) respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed. PMID:22091468

  19. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea R.R.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862 and 30.8% for calves (12/39 respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed.

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  1. Relationship between the pre- and postpartum body condition scores and periparturient indices and fertility in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS determined on the dry-off day, calving day, and in the first month of lactation, its changes during the dry period and early lactation, and periparturient indices and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in two herds: A and B, located in Western Poland. The studies were conducted on 116 and 108 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows respectively, with an average milk yield of >10 000 kg/305-day lactation. The experiment included the dry period (-56 d to the calving day, the calving day, and early lactation (from +1 to +56 d. The experimental factor was BCS (0 to 5-point scale. The BCS was performed by one person on day -56, on parturition day (in the first 12 h after calving and on day 30 of lactation. Results: A decrease in BCS (≥-0.25 in herd A during the dry period accelerated the planned calving period by 7.3 d. In the group of cows with BCS 3.50 in the first month of lactation (30 d resulted in the extension of uterine involution period (56 d. Improvement of BCS during the dry period shortened the anoestrus (60 d in herd A and the period of insemination service (60 d in herd B. However, in this group (IM BCS ≥ 0.25 of cows the day of the highest artificial insemination index (2.50 in herd B was analysed. Conclusion: The body condition on the dry-off day and at calving, as well as its deterioration in the first month of lactation, have a considerable effect on fertility indices in dairy cows, thus confirming the advisability of its regular monitoring during routine operations connected with the management of a dairy cattle herd.

  2. Effect of stall design on dairy calf transition to voluntary feeding on an automatic milk feeder after introduction to group housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tanya R; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Haley, Derek B

    2018-06-01

    Automatic milk feeders (AMF) for young dairy calves are widely used in the dairy industry. These feeders are thought to have benefits for calf health and welfare and may reduce labor required for feeding; however, little is known about how calves adapt to feeding with AMF. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of feeding stall design on calves learning to use the AMF. The hypothesis was that solid side stalls, compared with steel bar stalls, would result in a longer latency to approach and feed from the AMF without assistance. A total of 147 Holstein calves (80 male and 67 female) were enrolled at 4 d of age, introduced to a group pen, and, at the same time, trained on an AMF. For training, calves were allowed to suck on the trainer's fingers and guided to the teat. Calves were allocated to 1 of 2 stall designs at the pen level, depending on which treatment cohort they were born into, either with steel bar stall walls (n = 46 male, 34 female calves) or with solid side stall walls (n = 34 male, 33 female calves). For 72 h after introductory training on the AMF, data from the feeders were collected and calf behavior was monitored by video. Outcomes measured included latency to first voluntary visit to the feeder and to first feeding, time spent in the feeder, amount of milk consumed over 72 h, number of retraining sessions required (retrained if linear regression models or a Poisson model for the outcome of retraining. For certain outcomes the effects of stall design interacted with difficulty of training (willingness to enter feeder and drink); for the 38% of calves that were scored as moderately difficult to train on a scale of easy, moderate, or difficult, treatment (stall design) differences were detected. These calves took 2× longer to lick or bite toward the nipple, 2× longer to first voluntarily feeding, and consumed less milk over 72 h following training when trained on the steel bar stall design. These results suggest simple features of a

  3. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  4. Thoracoscopy as a safe and effective technique for exploring calves affected with bovine respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natividad Perez-Villalobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is one of the leading causes of economic losses in the beef and dairy industry. Reliable antemortem tools for diagnosing BRD would improve the efficacy of treatment and reduce costs. Here we examined whether the relatively simple technique of thoracoscopy can support BRD diagnosis under field conditions. We also compared various equipment set-ups in order to optimize the safety and efficacy of the procedure. A total of 24 thoracoscopic procedures were performed in 17 calves diagnosed with BRD and in 2 healthy control calves. Rigid and flexible endoscopes and industrial videoscopes were tested using various insertion approaches. The suitability of the technique was assessed in terms of duration, volume of air extracted, visualization score, and image quality. Safety was assessed in terms of rectal temperature, body weight, breaths/min, presence of fibrinogen, pain score, recovery time, intraoperative complications and risk of laceration or threatening collapse. Results Insertion of a flexible endoscope via a right, dorso-caudal approach at the 5th intercostal space allowed complete examination of the right lung in 15 min, as well as identification of main lung lesions and adherences in calves with BRD, without compromising calf welfare. While the dorso-caudal approach was optimal, it was associated with substantial discomfort when rigid endoscopes were used, minimal complications or mortality due to thoracoscopy were observed up to 28 days after the procedure. Videoscopes were as safe and easy to use as endoscopes, but endoscopes provided better image quality. Conclusion This study provides the first field evidence that thoracoscopy can be safe to explore BRD-diseased calves. These results justify a larger study to rigorously assess the diagnostic performance of the technique.

  5. Wolf predation on caribou calves in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, B.; Mech, L. David; Carbyn, Ludwig N.; Fritts, Steven H.; Seip, Dale R.

    1995-01-01

    During 1987-1991, 29 to 45 radio-collared caribou cows were monitored daily during calving each year and their calves were radio-collared (n = 147 calves) to investigate calf production and survival. We determined characteristics of wolf predation on caribou calves and, utilizing information from a companion wolf study, evaluated the role of spacing by caribou cows in minimizing wolf predation on neonates (calves wolf abundance doubled. On average, 49% of the neonates died, ranging from 30% in 1987 to 71% in 1991. Overall, wolves killed 22% of the neonates produced and were the most important mortality agent. Wolves preyed on calves primarily during six days following the peak of calving and usually killed calves five to 15 days old. The mortality rate for neonates was strongly inversely correlated with average birthweight. Neonatal losses to wolves were also correlated with birthweight but not spring wolf density or mean calving elevation. Caribou concentrated on a calving ground when spring snow conditions allowed and adjusted their distribution on the calving ground depending on snow conditions and wolf distribution and abundance. Even though the wolf population doubled, the exposure of caribou calves to wolf predation did not increase, when spacing by caribou at the wolf pack territory scale was accounted for.

  6. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  7. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    intake decreased urea production, increased protein retention, and coincided with improved fiber degradation. Therefore, results suggest that low N availability in the rumen limits microbial growth and rumen fermentation in calves fed low-N SF (93g of CP/kg of DM), and this effect cannot be compensated for by recycling of urea originating from MR. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Colostro fermentado, associado ao óleo de soja e promotor de crescimento, em substituição ao leite, na alimentação de bezerros mestiços leiteiros Effects of replacing milk with fermented colostrum, with or without soy oil and growth promoter for crossbred dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de 40 bezerros F1 Holandês x Gir com peso médio de 36 kg, provenientes de rebanhos leiteiros alimentados com leite integral ou colostro fermentado, associado ou não com óleo de soja, com ou sem promotor de crescimento (Zeranol. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, a circunferência torácica, altura de cernelha dos animais, o consumo de leite ou de colostro fermentado e o consumo de ração concentrada, entre o 15º e 60º dia de idade. A utilização de Zeranol não promoveu diferença no consumo de ração concentrada quando se utilizou leite integral. Os animais que receberam colostro fermentado mais promotor de crescimento apresentaram consumo de ração concentrada 44,23% maior que aqueles sem promotor de crescimento e 132% superior ao dos animais alimentados com leite integral e Zeranol. Para ganho de peso, não houve efeito entre as associações de óleo de soja e Zeranol. Os bezerros do tratamento com leite e Zeranol apresentaram maior altura de cernelha (-85,70 cm. A utilização de óleo de soja ou de Zeranol não influenciou a circunferência torácica (média de 88,19 cm. Os bezerros submetidos aos dois tipos de dieta líquida apresentaram taxa de crescimento constante e semelhante, demonstrando que o colostro fermentado é capaz de promover ganhos de peso da mesma magnitude que o leite integral.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of replacing milk with whole milk or fermented colostrum, supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without growth promoter (Zeranol on performance of 40 F1 Holstein x Gir calves averaging 36 kg. Weight gain, thoracic circumference, withers height and milk or fermented colostrums intake, and concentrated ration intake were the variables investigated from age 15 to 60 days. No significant difference on feed intake was observed when whole milk and Zeranol were fed. Feed intake of animals fed fermented colostrum with Zeranol increased by 44.23% than those

  9. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcontrols (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV diarrhea. Moreover a strong active ASC immune response is induced in the

  10. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    % of the variation in feed efficiency in later life could not be explained by early life characterization of the calves. It is speculated that variation in health status explains a substantial portion of variation in feed efficiency in later life. Significant relations between fasting plasma glucose concentrations, fecal pH, drinking speed, and plasma natural antibodies in early life (i.e., not exposed to the lactose replacer) and feed efficiency in later life depended on MR composition. These measurements are therefore potential tools for screening calves in early life on their ability to cope with MR varying in lactose content. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of

  12. Calving interval and survival breeding values as measure of cow fertility in a pasture based production system with seasonal calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olori, V.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    In a grass-based production system with seasonal calving, fertility is of major economic importance. A delay in conception due to poor fertility prolongs intercalving interval and causes a shift in calving pattern, which can lead to culling. Calving interval (CIV) information is readily available

  13. Innovative look at dairy heifer rearing: Effect of prenatal and post-natal environment on later performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Opsomer, G

    2017-08-01

    As heifer rearing is a costly investment, dairy farmers have been stimulated to maximize early growth of their calves, mainly by enhanced liquid feeding. However, the long-term effects of this "accelerated growth" are largely unknown. Studies recently performed at Ghent University indicate that in dairy cattle, certain maternal factors (such as young age and high milk yield) and environmental factors (such as high ambient temperatures) create a suboptimal environment for the developing foetus, altering the phenotype of the newborn calf. According to the "thrifty phenotype hypothesis," these metabolic alterations prepare the newborn for similar ("matching") conditions after birth, enhancing its survival during periods of limited feeding. Yet, when an abundance of nutrients is available in post-natal life (e.g., during periods of enhanced feeding), the "mismatch" between pre- and post-natal environment results in an early catch-up growth, with potential negative consequences. The aim of the article was to discuss this mismatch between pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. Previous studies, especially in human medicine, have shown catch-up growth to be associated with obesity, fertility problems, metabolic diseases and a reduced lifespan. Hence, we hypothesize that, by applying programs of accelerated growth, our current management system accentuates the mismatch between the pre- and post-natal environment in dairy calves. We can conclude that, although more research is necessary, the current findings point towards a more individual approach when rearing dairy heifers. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue.

  15. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  16. A 100-Year Review: Reproductive technologies in dairy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Hasler, J F

    2017-12-01

    Reproductive technology revolutionized dairy production during the past century. Artificial insemination was first successfully applied to cattle in the early 1900s. The next major developments involved semen extenders, invention of the electroejaculator, progeny testing, addition of antibiotics to semen during the 1930s and 1940s, and the major discovery of sperm cryopreservation with glycerol in 1949. The 1950s and 1960s were particularly productive with the development of protocols for the superovulation of cattle with both pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin/equine chorionic gonadotrophin and FSH, the first successful bovine embryo transfer, the discovery of sperm capacitation, the birth of rabbits after in vitro fertilization, and the development of insulated liquid nitrogen tanks. Improved semen extenders and the replacement of glass ampules with plastic semen straws followed. Some of the most noteworthy developments in the 1970s included the initial successes with in vitro culture of embryos, calves born after chromosomal sexing as embryos, embryo splitting resulting in the birth of twins, and development of computer-assisted semen analysis. The 1980s brought flow cytometric separation of X- and Y-bearing sperm, in vitro fertilization leading to the birth of live calves, clones produced by nuclear transfer from embryonic cells, and ovum pick-up via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration. The 20th century ended with the birth of calves produced from AI with sexed semen, sheep and cattle clones produced by nuclear transfer from adult somatic cell nuclei, and the birth of transgenic cloned calves. The 21st century has seen the introduction of perhaps the most powerful biotechnology since the development of artificial insemination and cryopreservation. Quick, inexpensive genomic analysis via the use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping chips is revolutionizing the cattle breeding industry. Now, with the introduction of genome editing technology, the

  17. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in she