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Sample records for previously reported x-ray

  1. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  2. Early reports of x ray dangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzola, P.V.

    1974-01-01

    The development of diagnostic radiography is one of the most valuable tools in the diagnosis of medical and dental problems today. This has only been achieved after its destructive and mutating effects on human tissue were recognized, and protective devices were adopted and exposure routines were developed that resulted in making a radiographic examination the relatively safe and simple procedure it is today. It is unfortunate that many of the earlier workers in this field suffered exposure to a degree that led to required amputation of hands and fingers, to malignancies at the sites of exposure, and, in several cases, even to death. But without these intrepid and earnest pioneers in an unchartered course, the tremendous boon to mankind which is the x ray may never have reached its full potential. (U.S.)

  3. Workshop report on new directions in x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Del Grande, N.K.; Fuoss, P.; Mallett, J.H.; Pratt, R.; Templeton, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a summary of the Workshop on New Directions in X-Ray Scattering held at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, April 2-5, 1985. The report primarily consists of the edited transcript of the final review session of the workshop, in which members of a panel summarized the proceedings. It is clear that we are close to achieving an accurate theory of scattering in independent particle approximation, but for edge regions, there is need to go beyond this approach. Much of what is experimentally interesting in scattering is occurring between the photoabsorption edge and the photoelectric threshold. Applications in condensed matter and biological and chemical material studies are expanding, exploiting higher intensity sources and faster time resolution as in magnetic scattering and surface studies. Storage rings are now conventional sources, and new high-intensity beam lines are under development; the free electron laser is one of the more speculative sources. Recent work in x-ray scattering has led to advances in x-ray optics, and conversely, advances in x-ray optics have benefitted our understanding of x-ray scattering

  4. X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane V. Morgan

    2006-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments

  5. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  6. Quality assurance in X-ray diagnostic radiology - Report II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosmark, H.; Rozycki, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In the context of an analysis of technical quality assurance in Norwegian X-ray departments, a survey has been carried out in 21 laboratories in 4 hospitals. The tests were restricted to equipment used in general radiography, and the parameters analysed were of kV (using an electronic penetrameter), exposure time, waveform, output and automatic exposure control systems. In addition, a trial to compare overall performance in radiography and fluoroscopy was performed with a PMMP test phantom (SPRI). The survey is presented in two reports. The first one covers details of procedures and equipment. In this second report results are given and discussed. The results show that most of the equipment does function satifactorily, but also demonstrate the need to introduce quality assurance in X-ray departments

  7. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi [eds.

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.).

  8. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.)

  9. Final Report on Small Particle Speciation for Forensics Analysis by Soft X-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacold, J. I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Altman, A. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Donald, S B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davisson, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, K S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Minasian, S. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nelson, A J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tyliszczak, T [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Materials of interest for nuclear forensic science are often highly heterogeneous, containing complex mixtures of actinide compounds in a wide variety of matrices. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is ideally suited to study such materials, as it can be used to chemically image specimens by acquiring X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data with 25 nm spatial resolution. In particular, STXM in the soft X-ray synchrotron radiation regime (approximately 120 – 2000 eV) can collect spectroscopic information from the actinides and light elements in a single experiment. Thus, STXM combines the chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectroscopy with high spatial resolution in a single non-destructive characterization method. This report describes the application of STXM to a broad range of nuclear materials. Where possible, the spectroscopic images obtained by STXM are compared with information derived from other analytical methods, and used to make inferences about the process history of each material. STXM measurements can yield information including the morphology of a sample, “elemental maps” showing the spatial distribution of major chemical constituents, and XANES spectra from localized regions of a sample, which may show spatial variations in chemical composition.

  10. [Diffraction gratings used in x-ray spectroscopy]: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    This subcontract was initiated in order to facilitate the development at MIT of technologies for fabricating the very fine diffraction grating required in x-ray spectroscopy at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL). These gratings are generally gold transmission gratings with spatial periods of 200 nm or less. The major focus of our efforts was to develop a means of fabricating gratings of 100 nm period. We explored two approaches: e-beam fabrication of x-ray lithography masks, and achromatic holographic lithography. This work was pursued by Erik Anderson as a major component of his Ph.D. thesis. Erik was successful in both the e-beam and holographic approaches. However, the e-beam method proved to be highly impractical: exposure times of about 115 days would be required to cover an area of 1 cm 2 . The achromatic holography, on the other hand, should be capable of exposing areas well in excess of 1 cm 2 in times under 1 hour. Moreover, 100 nm-period gratings produced by achromatic holography are coherent over their entire area whereas gratings produced by e-beam lithography are coherent only over areas /approximately/100 μm. The remainder of this report consists of portions excerpted from Erik Anderson's thesis. These contain all the details of our work on 100 nm period gratings. 26 refs., 17 figs

  11. The utility of administrative diagnostic x rays. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, E.J.; Gard, J.W.; Gift, D.A.; Harris, G.I.; Alexander, G.P.

    1982-08-01

    A significant proportion of diagnostic medical procedures is used in response to public or private policy rather than individual patient/physician interaction. Such administrative use of diagnostic procedures illustrates the lack of accepted 'referral criteria.' This document reports results of a descriptive study of policy formulation and implementation regarding use of employment-related chest and lumbar-spine radiographs by employers in the State of Michigan. Major observations of the study are that: factors influencing policy formulation are diverse and largely nonmedical; organizational policies developed in similar environments are often very dissimilar and are highly subject to external influence; and perceptions of policy success and examination utility typically are subjective and uncertain. It is concluded that considerable opportunity exists to enhance the utility of policy-motivated x rays by modifying the processes of policy formulation and evaluation

  12. X-ray emission in heavy ion collisions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed accounting of the yearly activities of the research program entitled X-ray Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions may be found in the annual progress reports submitted in accordance with the terms of the contract. The principal goals of the program to be summarized herein were (a) to delineate the mechanisms whereby highly ionized atoms in the condensed phase deexcite and return to charge neutrality, (b) to investigate the charge quenching processes acting to reduce the charge states of highly ionized projectiles, and (c) to attain a better understanding of the interactions occurring between highly charged ions and solid surfaces. These projects all relate to problems associated with the ultimate application of controlled thermonuclear reactions as a practical energy source

  13. Final Report - X-ray Studies of Highly Correlated Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Clement [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States)

    2017-11-27

    The overall goal of the research was to improve the capabilities of x-ray synchrotron instrumentation to enable cutting-edge research in condensed matter physics. The main goal of the current grant cycle was to find a method to measure the polarization of the scattered x-ray in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. To do this, we developed a polarization analysis apparatus using a thin, toroidally bent single crystal, which could be set to reflect one or the other of the two polarization components in the scattered x-ray beam. Resonant x-ray scattering measurements were also carried out on interfaces and the charge density wave in high temperature superconducting materials.

  14. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the application of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to characterize materials related to deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of contaminated facilities. Two portable XRF instruments manufactured by TN Spectrace were used in a technology evaluation as part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) held at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The LSDP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Are (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate innovative technologies or technology applications potentially beneficial to the D and D of contaminated facilities. The portable XRF technology offers several potential benefits for rapid characterization of facility components and contaminants, including significant cost reduction, fast turnaround time,a nd virtually no secondary waste. Field work for the demonstration of the portable XRF technology was performed from August 28--September 3, 1996 and October 30--December 13, 1996

  15. Report on the fifth workshop on synchrotron x ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P.; Godel, J. B.; Brown, G. S.; Liebmann, W.

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel, and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990s. X ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin, and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the exposure tool, that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources.

  16. 3D Fourier synthesis of a new X-ray picture identical in projection to a previous picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    A central problem in diagnostic radiology is to compare a new X-ray picture with a previous picture and from this comparison be able to decide if anatomical changes have occurred in the patient or not. It is of primary interest that these pictures are identical in projection. If not it is difficult to decide with confidence if differences between the pictures are due to anatomical changes or differences in their projection geometry. In this thesis we present a non invasive method that makes it possible to find the relative changes in the projection geometry between the exposure of a previous picture and a new picture. The method presented is based on the projection slice theorem (central section theorem). Instead of an elaborate search for a single new picture a pre-planned set of pictures are exposed from a circular orbit above the patient. By using 3D Fourier transform techniques we are able to synthesize a new X-ray picture from this set of pictures that is identical in projection to the previous one. The method has certain limits. Those are as follows: *The X-ray focus position must always be at a fixed distance from the image plane. *The object may only be translated parallel to the image plane and rotated around axes perpendicular to this plane. Under those restrictions, we may treat divergent projection pictures as if they are generated by a parallel projection of a scaled object. The unknown rotation and translation of the object in the previous case are both retrieved in two different procedures and compensated for. Experiments on synthetic data has proved that the method is working even in the presence of severe noise

  17. Report of the workshop on transferring X-ray Lithography Synchrotron (XLS) technology to industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on plans to develop an x-ray synchrotron for use in lithography. The primary concern of the present paper is technology transfer from national laboratories to private industry. (JDH)

  18. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis study. Final report, December 1, 1970-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneip, T J; Laurer, G R

    1978-01-01

    This report has described the most significant experiments and the results obtained, during the development of a system for the detection and measurement of Pb in blood using radioisotope-excited x-ray fluorescence analysis, over the contract period. Briefly, the report described: detector selection; source selection; source-sample-detector geometry; sample preparation; system calibration; and separation technique. (PSB)

  20. Development of an x-ray beam line at the NSLS for studies in materials science using x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The research programs reported span virtually the entire range of condensed matter studies involving the fields of solid state physics, chemistry, electrochemistry, materials science and biochemistry. Results are discussed for various groups. Topics reported include work on amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors, particularly photostructural changes, kinetics of structural changes and rapid quenching, bond strengths, force constants and phonons. Also reported are temperature dependent EXAFS studies of bonding in high temperature alloys, amorphous systems, disordered alloys and studies of resolve electronic structure, EXAFS and XANES studies of permanent magnet systems based on Nd 2 Fe 14 B, glancing angle EXAFS study of Nb/Al and Nb/Si interfacial systems, x-ray absorption of krypton-implanted solids and high dose implants into silicon, and x-ray absorption and EXAFS studies of superconducting oxide compounds of Cu and related magnetic systems. Work is also reported on XAFS measurements on the icosahedral phase

  1. RXTE detects X-ray bursts from Circinus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Soleri, P.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.

    After the recent report of X-ray re-brightening (ATel #2608), RXTE has observed the peculiar neutron star X-ray binary Cir X-1 eleven times during the last two weeks (May 11-25, 2010). We report the detection of nine X-ray bursts in RXTE-PCA data, 25 years after the first -and the only previous-

  2. KMSF x-ray laser experiments. Task No. 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charatis, G.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes work done at KMS Fusion, Inc. in support of the x-ray laser experimental program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It follows an earlier report of Task No. 1 of the subject purchase order. As in that report, most of the original data has been reviewed by the LLNL technical staff, with much of it transferred to LLNL for analysis. Consequently, this report does not include a detailed presentation of the data

  3. Report on the workshop on new directions in soft x-ray near-threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.; Perera, R.C.C.

    1988-07-01

    The ''Workshop on New Directions in Soft X-Ray Near-Threshold Phenomena'' was held at the Asilomar Conference Center in Pacific Grove, CA on March 1--4, 1987. It was attended by 59 scientists from 8 countries, representing 27 institutions. Major funding for the meeting was donated by L-Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who hosted and organized two previous workshops on photoabsorption and scattering in the soft x-ray energy range. Additional funding was provided by the User's Group of the Advanced Light Source. The Workshop, as its name suggests, emphasized physical phenomena in atoms, molecules, and solids near inner-shell thresholds. Of particular interest were threshold ionization, post-collisional interaction, resonant photoemission and fluorescence, and multi-electron effects such as shake-up and shake-off. In these areas and others, special consideration was given to presenting recent discoveries and potential ''new directions'' for future work

  4. Preliminary report for using X-rays as verification and authentication tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Ernst Ingo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-06

    We examined x-rays for the use as authentication and verification tool in treaty verification. Several x-ray pictures were taken to determine the quality and feasibility of x-rays for these tasks. This document describes the capability of the used x-ray system and outlines its parameters and possible use.

  5. Three-dimensional x-ray stereometry from paired coplanar images: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Moffitt, F H; Curry, S

    1983-10-01

    More than fifty years ago, Broadbent reported the development of a three-dimensional cephalometric method which complexed information from pairs of x-ray images oriented in two planes at right angles to each other. Empirical problems have prevented the routine clinical use of this "biplanar" method, notwithstanding its obvious conceptual brilliance. The present article reports on recent work toward the development of an alternative method of three-dimensional cephalometry in which the two images of each x-ray pair are positioned in the same plane rather than being at right angles to each other. It is believed that this "coplanar" method avoids many of the technical problems that have limited the use of the Broadbent method.

  6. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Beamline Collaborative Development Team Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Clement

    2008-01-01

    This is the final report for the project to create a beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source. The facility is complete and operating well, with spectrometers for both high resolution and medium resolution measurements. With the advent of third generation synchrotron sources, inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) has become a valuable technique to probe the electronic and vibrational states of a wide variety of systems of interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. IXS is a weak probe, and experimental setups are complex and require well-optimized spectrometers which need a dedicated beamline to function efficiently. This project was the result of a proposal to provide a world-class, user friendly beamline for IXS at the Advanced Photon Source. The IXS Collaborative Development Team (IXS-CDT) was formed from groups at the national laboratories and a number of different universities. The beamline was designed from the front end to the experimental stations. Two different experimental stations were provided, one for medium resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (MERIX) and a spectrometer for high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HERIX). Funding for this project came from several sources as well as the DOE. The beamline is complete with both spectrometers operating well. The facility is now open to the general user community and there has been a tremendous demand to take advantage of the beamline's capabilities. A large number of different experiments have already been carried out on the beamline. A detailed description of the beamline has been given in the final design report (FDR) for the beamline from which much of the material in this report came. The first part of this report contains a general overview of the project with more technical details given later.

  7. Standardized X-ray reports of the spine in osteogenesis imperfecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerber, Friederike; Demant, A.W.; Koerber, S.; Semler, O.; Schoenau, E.; Lackner, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we present a standard for radiological reports in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The parameters can be used to describe X-rays of the lateral spine and give an impartial description of anatomical structures during a treatment with bisphosphonates. Material and Methods: In this retrospective analysis we included 48 patients with OI (31 female, 17 male [1.5 months - 19 years, mean age 9.0 years]). Lateral spine X-rays were analyzed by 2 radiologists before and during treatment. The parameters of the standardized report are degree of kyphoscoliosis, compression of single vertebrae, predominant type of vertebral deformities and extent of vertebral compression (score 1 - 5). Results: There was no clear trend in the change of compression of single vertebrae. Some vertebrae with ventral compression showed an upgrowth to vertebrae with harmonic compression. Other deformities showed only marginal changes. In 26 patients the kyphoscoliosis improved (mean 10 degrees), in 36 patients the thoracic vertebrae compression increased and in 30 patients the vertebral height in the lumbar spine increased. The improvement of vertebral height was 1 point in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Conclusion: We propose a standardized report of X-rays of the lateral spine in patients with OI with quantitative and semiquantitative parameters using morphological criteria. These include compression of single vertebrae, degree of kyphoscoliosis, vertebral deformities and the severity of vertebral compression in the thoracic and lumbar spine. (orig.)

  8. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization

  9. Workshop report on new directions in soft x-ray photoabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.; Del Grande, N.K.; Lindau, I.; Manson, S.; Merts, A.L.; Pratt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Workshop Report integrates what was said at the Workshop on New Directions in Soft X-Ray Photoabsorption, which focused on the region from 100 eV to 10 keV. The report clarifies the current state of theory and experiment and identifies the opportunities which new theoretical methods and experimental facilities could be expected to provide. The understanding of photoabsorption (which requires experimental photoabsorption cross section data) is a key to understanding the properties and behavior of atoms, molecules and solids. The Workshop participants were forty-three physicists and quantum chemists, from twenty-four institutions in four countries, all interested in photoabsorption from different perspectives

  10. A study to compare chest X-ray reports on overseas nursing recruits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, S

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out to assess if there was a difference in the Chest X- ray (CXR) report on recruited nurses carried out overseas and later repeated in Ireland. This study was carried out in two Irish teaching hospitals. The subjects of this study comprised all overseas nurses recruited in each of the two hospitals within the defined period. The total number of subjects recruited from the 2 two centres was 84. Only nurses that had a repeat CXR were included in this study. 6\\/84 (7%) of the CXR that were initially reported as normal were subsequently reported as abnormal and were later diagnosed as Latent TB. 2\\/84(2%) of the CXR that were reported as abnormal were subsequently reported as normal. The data collected in this study has demonstrated that there was a significant difference in the CXR report from overseas and the CXR report in Ireland.

  11. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  12. AtomDB Progress Report: Atomic data and new models for X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Cumbee, Renata; Mullen, Patrick Dean; AtomDB Team

    2018-06-01

    The AtomDB project collects atomic data from both theoretical and observational/experimental sources, providing both a convenient interface (http://www.atomdb.org/Webguide/webguide.php) as well as providing input to spectral models for many types of astrophysical X-ray plasmas. We have released several updates to AtomDB in response to the Hitomi data, including new data for the Fe K complex, and have expanded the range of models available in AtomDB to include the Kronos charge exchange models from Mullen at al. (2016, ApJS, 224, 2). Combined with the previous AtomDB charge exchange model (http://www.atomdb.org/CX/), these data enable a velocity-dependent model for X-ray and EUV charge exchange spectra. We also present a new Kappa-distribution spectral model, enabling plasmas with non-Maxwellian electron distributions to be modeled with AtomDB. Tools are provided within pyAtomDB to explore and exploit these new plasma models. This presentation will review these enhancements and describe plans for the new few years of database and code development in preparation for XARM, Athena, and (hopefully) Arcus.

  13. Development of improved x-ray optics for analytical x-ray microbeams. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1294-0283

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.A.; Gao, N.; Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to develop improved glass capillary, x-ray optics for analytical x-ray microbeam applications. X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc. (XOS) designed and fabricated capillary optics and LMES tested those optics for x-ray microanalytical applications using its unique X-Ray Microprobe. Tapered capillaries with 3-microm and 8-microm output openings were fabricated and tested. The tapered capillaries had better spectral quality for x-ray microfluorescence (XRMF) analysis, than non-tapered, straight capillaries that are currently used in the system. X-ray beam count-rates for the tapered capillaries were also greater than the straight capillaries. Two monolithic, polycapillary optics were fabricated and tested. The polycapillary optics produced focal spots of 40 and 100 microm. Beam intensities for the polycapillaries were, respective, 44 and 18 times the intensities found in straight 50-microm and 100-microm capillaries. High-sensitivity scanning will be possible because of the enhanced intensity of the polycapillary optic. LMES and the DP program will benefit from improved capabilities for nondestructive x-ray microanalysis, while XOS will benefit from test results that will enhance the marketability of their products

  14. A final report to the Laboratory Directed Research and Development committee on Project 93-ERP-075: ''X-ray laser propagation and coherence: Diagnosing fast-evolving, high-density laser plasmas using X-ray lasers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; Moreno, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Exploratory Research Project (ERP) entitled ''X-ray Laser Propagation and Coherence: Diagnosing Fast-evolving, High-density Laser Plasmas Using X-ray Lasers,'' tracking code 93-ERP-075. The most significant accomplishment of this project is the demonstration of a new laser plasma diagnostic: a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser at 155 angstrom as the probe source. Detailed comparisons of absolute two-dimensional electron density profiles obtained from soft x-ray laser interferograms and profiles obtained from radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as LASNEX, will allow us to validate and benchmark complex numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Thus the development of soft x-ray interferometry technique provides a mechanism to probe the deficiencies of the numerical models and is an important tool for, the high-energy density physics and science-based stockpile stewardship programs. The authors have used the soft x-ray interferometer to study a number of high-density, fast evolving, laser-produced plasmas, such as the dynamics of exploding foils and colliding plasmas. They are pursuing the application of the soft x-ray interferometer to study ICF-relevant plasmas, such as capsules and hohlraums, on the Nova 10-beam facility. They have also studied the development of enhanced-coherence, shorter-pulse-duration, and high-brightness x-ray lasers. The utilization of improved x-ray laser sources can ultimately enable them to obtain three-dimensional holographic images of laser-produced plasmas

  15. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda; Harper David A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrot...

  16. Development of an x-ray beam line at the NSLS for studies in materials science using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Progress report, February 1, 1985-January 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Research is reported for x-ray studies at NSLS. Energy-loss spectroscopy experiments (EXAFS) were performed on various materials including iron, silicon, gold, glass, niobium-aluminum alloys, and metglass

  17. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G. [Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frontera, F. [CNR, Bologna (Italy). Istituto di TESRE]|[Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-09-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes.

  18. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G.; Frontera, F.; Ferrara, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes

  19. Reliability test: X-ray ring exit chambers crotch radiation absorbers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.R.; Morgan, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the efforts by engineers at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to evaluate the reliability of water-cooled radiation absorbers used in the NSLS X-ray ring. These absorbers are part of the 16 dipole vacuum chambers which comprise the arc sections of the ring. They are located at the intersections (crotch) of the beamline exit ports with the electron beam chamber, and are commonly referred to as crotches. The purpose of these efforts was to demonstrate the reliability of the crotches under operating conditions that the crotches will be subjected to over the entire expected life of the ring. The efforts described include engineering calculations, finite element analysis, conceptual design for a reliability test, test implementation and descriptions, results and conclusions related to these analyses and tests

  20. Demonstration of Laser Plasma X-Ray Source with X-Ray Collimator Final Report CRADA No. TC-1564-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, S. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Forber, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and JMAR Research, Inc. (JRI), was to demonstrate that LLNL x-ray collimators can effectively increase the wafer throughput of JRI's laser based x-ray lithography systems. The technical objectives were expected to be achieved by completion of the following tasks, which are separated into two task lists by funding source. The organization (LLNL or JMAR) having primary responsibility is given parenthetically for each task.

  1. Important changes in medical x-ray imaging facility shielding design methodology. A brief summary of recommendations in NCRP Report No. 147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Benjamin R.; Gray, Joel E.

    2005-01-01

    The recently published Report No. 147 of The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements entitled 'Structural shielding design for medical x-ray imaging facilities' provides an update of shielding recommendations for x rays used for medical imaging. The goal of this report is to ensure that the shielding in these facilities limits radiation exposures to employees and members of the public to acceptable levels. Board certified medical and health physicists, as defined in this report, are the 'qualified experts' who are competent to design radiation shielding for these facilities. As such, physicists must be aware of the new technical information and the changes from previous reports that Report No. 147 supersedes. In this article we summarize the new data, models and recommendations for the design of radiation barriers in medical imaging facilities that are presented in Report No. 147

  2. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  3. Development of an x-ray beam line at the NSLS for studies in materials science using x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Although only in operation since May, 1985, the X-11 participation research team (PRT) at the NSLS has already demonstrated that it is one of the leading centers of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). During this time, results have been obtained and programs initiated in a number of areas, for example: interfaces, including deposited metal-metal and metal-semiconductor systems, multilayers and ion implanted layers; electrochemical systems, including Pt electrode fuel cells, Ni oxide battery electrodes, conducting polymers, passivation and corrosion; catalysts, including highly-dispersed supported metal catalysts and zeolite systems; quasi-crystals, heavy fermion systems, uranium and neptunium compounds, rare gas clusters, disordered metals and semiconductors, ferroelectric transition; and, biological systems and related models, including synthetic porphyrins and a number of metalloproteins. In concert with these scientific results have been a number of developments involving the technique itself. These include implementation of unique optical systems on both the A and B lines for optical performance over their designed energy ranges, advances in experimental capability, particular in glancing angle studies, optimization of ion chambers for surface studies, the improvement of electron yield detectors, and improved software for data acquisition and analysis. This report emphasizes some of the research highlights and significant developments of our PRT which occurred during the past year. A detailed bibliography of papers and talks resulting from work done at our beamline and the progress reports for our PRT which were in the 1985 NSLS Annual Report are appended

  4. Analysis of OGO-5 and OSO-7 x-ray data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.L.

    1975-02-01

    The physical nature of solar flares implied by the data was studied. The empirical results were obtained primarily from the OGO-5 and OSO-7 x-ray data in combination with optical data. The principal conclusions regarding the physics of flares are the following. (1) Flares are produced by magnetic field reconnection. (2) The resulting thermal x-ray plasma is cooled primarily by heat conduction rather than by radiative cooling. (3) The heating and cooling of the thermal x-ray plasma are approximately in balance during the maximum phase of the flare. (auth)

  5. X-ray, neutron, and electron scattering. Report of a materials sciences workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The ERDA Workshop on X-ray, Neutron, and Electron Scattering to assess needs and establish priorities for energy-related basic research on materials. The general goals of the Workshop were: (1) to review various energy technologies where x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques might make significant contributions, (2) to identify present and future materials problems in the energy technologies and translate these problems into requirements for basic research by x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques, (3) to recommend research areas utilizing these three scattering techniques that should be supported by the DPR Materials Sciences Program, and (4) to assign priorities to these research areas

  6. X-ray spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Annual progress report, August 1983-July 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingalls, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of several materials as a function of pressure have been performed. Of particular interest has been the EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure). Materials studied include the alkali halides, NaBr and RbCl, zinc blend semiconductors ZnSe and CuBr and mixed-valence materials SmS and SmSe. In the former, the volume dependence of bond lengths and their mean square fluctuations were determined from the EXAFS. In the latter materials the XANES exhibited the pressure induced change from the Sm 2+ configuration to Sm 3+

  7. Development of an X-Ray Catheter Final Report CRADA No. TC-1265-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schlossberg, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Toe goal of this CRADA project was to develop a catheter-based x-ray source to provide treatment of restenosis in arteries with a radiation source which can be precisely controlled and turned on and off at will.

  8. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  9. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  10. [2011 Shanghai customer satisfaction report of DSA/X-ray equipment's after-service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Qian, Jianguo; Cao, Shaoping; Zheng, Yunxin; Xu, Zitian; Wang, Lijun

    2012-11-01

    To improve the manufacturer's medical equipment after-sale service, the fifth Shanghai zone customer satisfaction survey was launched by the end of 2011. The DSA/X-ray equipment was setup as an independent category for the first time. From the survey we can show that the DSA/X-ray equipment's CSI is higher than last year, the customer satisfaction scores of preventive maintenance and service contract are lower than others, and CSI of local brand is lower than imported brand.

  11. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes: Progress report, November 1, 1988--October 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    We report on the progress of our project entitled ''X-ray Scattering Studies of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' In-house time-resolved x-ray scattering has been used to investigate ordering kinetics in single crystal thin films of Cu 3 Au. Scaling analysis of the results shows that two dimensional kinetic behavior is observed in 260 /angstrom/ thick films. Significant improvements have been made in the local capabilities for fast time resolved measurements and data analysis. Measurements of microphase separation and ordering kinetics have been made in block-co-polymers, and experiments on Au-Cd martensitic material are continuing. 15 refs., 7 figs

  12. Final Report on Developing Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High-Energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Almer, Jonathan D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a summary of research activities on understanding microstructure – property correlation in reactor materials using in situ high-energy X-rays. The report is a Level 2 deliverable in FY16 (M2CA-13-IL-AN_-0403-0111), under the Work Package CA-13-IL-AN_- 0403-01, “Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High Energy Xrays”, as part of the DOE-NE NEET Program. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the application of in situ high energy X-ray measurements of nuclear reactor materials under thermal-mechanical loading, to understand their microstructure-property relationships. The gained knowledge is expected to enable accurate predictions of mechanical performance of these materials subjected to extreme environments, and to further facilitate development of advanced reactor materials. The report provides detailed description of the in situ X-ray Radiated Materials (iRadMat) apparatus designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermal-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. We conducted several case studies using the iRadMat to obtain a better understanding of deformation and fracture mechanisms of irradiated materials. In situ X-ray measurements on neutron-irradiated pure metal and model alloy and several representative reactor materials, e.g. pure Fe, Fe-9Cr model alloy, 316 SS, HT-UPS, and duplex cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) CF-8 were performed under tensile loading at temperatures of 20-400°C in vacuum. A combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and imaging techniques were utilized to interrogate microstructure at different length scales in real time while the specimen was subject to thermal-mechanical loading. In addition, in situ X-ray studies were

  13. Recent observations with phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tu, Jinhong; Hirano, Keiichi

    1999-09-01

    Recent development in phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer is reported. To observe larger samples than is possible with our previous X-ray interferometer, a large monolithic X-ray interferometer and a separated-type X-ray interferometer were studied. At the present time, 2.5 cm X 1.5 cm interference patterns have been generated with the X-ray interferometers using synchrotron X-rays. The large monolithic X-ray interferometer has produced interference fringes with 80% visibility, and has been used to measure various tissues. To produce images with higher spatial resolution, we fabricated another X-ray interferometer whose wafer was partially thinned by chemical etching. A preliminary test suggested that the spatial resolution has been improved.

  14. Effects of X-Ray Dose On Rhizosphere Studies Using X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Susan; Helliwell, Jonathan R.; Tracy, Saoirse R.; Mairhofer, Stefan; Sturrock, Craig J.; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm; Mooney, Sacha J.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a non-destructive imaging technique originally designed for diagnostic medicine, which was adopted for rhizosphere and soil science applications in the early 1980s. X-ray CT enables researchers to simultaneously visualise and quantify the heterogeneous soil matrix of mineral grains, organic matter, air-filled pores and water-filled pores. Additionally, X-ray CT allows visualisation of plant roots in situ without the need for traditional invasive methods such as root washing. However, one routinely unreported aspect of X-ray CT is the potential effect of X-ray dose on the soil-borne microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere investigations. Here we aimed to i) highlight the need for more consistent reporting of X-ray CT parameters for dose to sample, ii) to provide an overview of previously reported impacts of X-rays on soil microorganisms and plant roots and iii) present new data investigating the response of plant roots and microbial communities to X-ray exposure. Fewer than 5% of the 126 publications included in the literature review contained sufficient information to calculate dose and only 2.4% of the publications explicitly state an estimate of dose received by each sample. We conducted a study involving rice roots growing in soil, observing no significant difference between the numbers of root tips, root volume and total root length in scanned versus unscanned samples. In parallel, a soil microbe experiment scanning samples over a total of 24 weeks observed no significant difference between the scanned and unscanned microbial biomass values. We conclude from the literature review and our own experiments that X-ray CT does not impact plant growth or soil microbial populations when employing a low level of dose (<30 Gy). However, the call for higher throughput X-ray CT means that doses that biological samples receive are likely to increase and thus should be closely monitored. PMID:23840640

  15. Nuclear and x-ray spectroscopy with radioactive sources. Fifteenth annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, R.W.; Wood, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Research during the year is summarized briefly for the following areas: nuclear spectroscopy (including nuclear systematics and models and experimental studies of heavy-nucleus decays), x rays from radioactive sources (including L-subshell x-ray fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields and the measurement of tailing corrections in low-energy coincidence intensity determinations), and miscellaneous topics concerning computer codes and equipment. One may assume publication of completed work in the usual channels. Lists of personnel, publications, etc., are included. 7 figures

  16. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10keV) x-ray astronomy: Status report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Pasqualini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction tec......The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg...

  17. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  19. Report of the fifth workshop on synchrotron x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.P.; Godel, J.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Brown, G.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab.); Liebmann, W. (Suss (Karl) America, Essex Junction, VT (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990's. X-ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x-ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x-ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the Exposure Tool,'' that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x-ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources.

  20. Report of the fifth workshop on synchrotron x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.; Godel, J.B.; Brown, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Semiconductors comprise a greater part of the United States economy than the aircraft, steel and automobile industries combined. In future the semiconductor manufacturing industry will be forced to switch away from present optical manufacturing methods in the early to mid 1990's. X-ray lithography has emerged as the leading contender for continuing production below the 0.4 micron level. Brookhaven National Laboratory began a series of workshops on x-ray lithography in 1986 to examine key issues and in particular to enable United States industry to take advantage of the technical base established in this field. Since accelerators provide the brightest sources for x-ray lithography, most of the research and development to date has taken place at large accelerator-based research centers such as Brookhaven, the University of Wisconsin and Stanford. The goals of this Fifth Brookhaven Workshop were to review progress and goals since the last workshop and to establish a blueprint for the future. The meeting focused on the ''Exposure Tool,'' that is, a term defined as the source plus beamline and stepper. In order to assess the appropriateness of schedules for the development of this tool, other aspects of the required technology such as masks, resists and inspection and repair were also reviewed. To accomplish this, two working groups were set up, one to review the overall aspects of x-ray lithography and set a time frame, the other to focus on sources

  1. A pin diode x-ray camera for laser fusion diagnostic imaging: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jernigan, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray camera has been constructed and tested for diagnostic imaging of laser fusion targets at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) of the University of Rochester. The imaging detector, developed by the Hughes Aircraft Company, is a germanium PIN diode array of 10 x 64 separate elements which are bump bonded to a silicon readout chip containing a separate low noise amplifier for each pixel element. The camera assembly consists of a pinhole alignment mechanism, liquid nitrogen cryostat with detector mount and a thin beryllium entrance window, and a shielded rack containing the analog and digital electronics for operations. This x-ray camera has been tested on the OMEGA laser target chamber, the primary laser target facility of LLE, and operated via an Ethernet link to a SUN Microsystems workstation. X-ray images of laser targets are presented. The successful operation of this particular x-ray camera is a demonstration of the viability of the hybrid detector technology for future imaging and spectroscopic applications. This work was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) as a project of the National Laser Users Facility (NLUF)

  2. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  3. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  5. Genetic effects of low x-ray doses. Progress report, October 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Meyer, H.U.

    1976-09-01

    Experiments on dose-kinetics of x-ray induced sexlinked lethal mutations in Drosophila oogonia were continued. A wide range of doses was tested, with special emphasis on the low-dose range (20 to 500R). This year more data were added for O R, 200, 500, 1500R and some high doses. Oogonia of adult females were irradiated, and only one daughter from each experimental parent-female was analyzed for a new lethal in her maternal X-chromosome. Thus no clusters of mutations of identical origin are encountered. The extensive accumulated data do not support the linearity principle, firmly established for recessive mutations induced in mature spermatozoa for high doses down to very low x-ray doses. A mathematical model describing the mutational yield is included that suggests that recessive mutations, like chromosome aberrations, result from both one-track and two-track events, with the latter playing an increasingly important role at higher doses

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  7. Miniature CCD X-Ray Imaging Camera Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-773-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mummolo, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The goal of the project was to develop a compact, large active area, high spatial resolution, high dynamic range, charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating X-rays. The camera head and controller needed to be capable of operation within a vacuum environment and small enough to be fielded within the small vacuum target chambers at LLNL.

  8. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  9. A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

    2002-01-01

    Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60

  10. A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

    2002-05-23

    Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60.

  11. Clinical and X-ray findings of mycetoma (report of 18 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Qiande

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic clinical and X-ray findings of mycetoma and to enhance the understanding of mycetoma. Methods: The clinical and X-ray findings of mycetoma in 18 cases were analyzed with the review of literatures. There were 11 males and 7 females, the age ranged from 21-65 years, with the average of 41.5 year. The cases were all peasants, barefoot and with the history of trauma, which lasted for 4-17 years with the average of 9.8 year. Results: Sixty-seven lesions of bone in 18 cases (30 metatarsal, 20 cuneiform, 7 cuboid, 5 phalanx, 3 tibia, 2 calcaneus) were presented, including 8 rodent, 3 osteolytic, 3 cystic, 2 rodent and sclerosis changes, 2 sclerosis, 9 irregular thickened bony cortex, 7 irregular deleted bony cortex, 12 periosteal reaction, 3 irregular crest of bone in lesion, 13 rarefaction of bone cortex, 11 swimmy of surface arthrosis, 8 constriction of interval arthrosis, 2 spot calcification in the soft tissue, 2 sequestrum, and 2 soft tissue mass. The mycelium had been discovered in grain in 18 cases and the colour of grain was from brown to black. Conclusion: Mycetoma involves extensively and tends to involve multiple bones. The main X-ray findings are rodent and osteolytic changes

  12. Report based on fiscal 2000 diagnostic X-ray equipment questionnaire survey. Conditions of radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Mitsuo [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Allied Health Sciences; Matsuura, Takatoshi [Sekishinkai Sayama Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Imai, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Atsuko [Kanto Medical Center NTT EC, Tokyo (Japan); Ide, Toshinori [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Kajima Clinic; Shinohara, Fuminori [Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Second Hospital; Miyazaki, Shigeru [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital

    2002-08-01

    X-ray equipment has seen advances in inverters and the digitalization of reception systems. The X-ray Systems Study Group, in order to examine changes in the conditions of radiography, including pediatric radiography, variations in shortest irradiation time, and standardization of the conditions of radiography, carried out investigative research using a questionnaire survey that was sent to 400 facilities. The recovery rate was 33%. In terms of the reception system, half of the general radiography systems were using computed radiography (CR). Seventy percent of respondents used an intensifying screen and film (SEF) in stomach double-contrast radiography. About 80% used digital radiography (DR) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in aorta abdominalis angiography. At least 70% of high-voltage generators were of the inverter type. The conditions of radiography were not greatly influenced by changes in reception systems and X-ray equipment. Many pediatric radiographies were carried out by radiological technologists. We consider it useful to conduct such survey investigations. (author)

  13. [Report based on fiscal 2000 diagnostic x-ray equipment questionnaire survey(conditions of radiography)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Mitsuo; Matsuura, Takatoshi; Okuaki, Tomiyuki; Imai, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Atsuko; Ide, Toshinori; Shinohara, Fuminori; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2002-08-01

    X-ray equipment has seen advances in inverters and the digitalization of reception systems. The X-ray Systems Study Group, in order to examine changes in the conditions of radiography, including pediatric radiography, variations in shortest irradiation time, and standardization of the conditions of radiography, carried out investigative research using a questionnaire survey that was sent to 400 facilities. The recovery rate was 33%. In terms of the reception system, half of the general radiography systems were using computed radiography (CR). Seventy percent of respondents used an intensifying screen and film(S EF)in stomach double-contrast radiography. About 80% used digital radiography (DR) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in aorta abdominalis angiography. At least 70% of high-voltage generators were of the inverter type. The conditions of radiography were not greatly influenced by changes in reception systems and X-ray equipment. Many pediatric radiographies were carried out by radiological technologists. We consider it useful to conduct such survey investigations.

  14. Probing muscle myosin motor action: x-ray (m3 and m6) interference measurements report motor domain not lever arm movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Carlo; Offer, Gerald; Ranatunga, K W; Squire, John M

    2009-07-10

    The key question in understanding how force and movement are produced in muscle concerns the nature of the cyclic interaction of myosin molecules with actin filaments. The lever arm of the globular head of each myosin molecule is thought in some way to swing axially on the actin-attached motor domain, thus propelling the actin filament past the myosin filament. Recent X-ray diffraction studies of vertebrate muscle, especially those involving the analysis of interference effects between myosin head arrays in the two halves of the thick filaments, have been claimed to prove that the lever arm moves at the same time as the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in response to muscle length or force steps. It was suggested that the sliding of myosin and actin filaments, the level of force produced and the lever arm angle are all directly coupled and that other models of lever arm movement will not fit the X-ray data. Here, we show that, in addition to interference across the A-band, which must be occurring, the observed meridional M3 and M6 X-ray intensity changes can all be explained very well by the changing diffraction effects during filament sliding caused by heads stereospecifically attached to actin moving axially relative to a population of detached or non-stereospecifically attached heads that remain fixed in position relative to the myosin filament backbone. Crucially, and contrary to previous interpretations, the X-ray interference results provide little direct information about the position of the myosin head lever arm; they are, in fact, reporting relative motor domain movements. The implications of the new interpretation are briefly assessed.

  15. Image guided radiotherapy. Quality control of X ray equipment. S.F.P.M. report nr 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpon, Gregory; Aubignac, Leone; Bramoulle, Celine; Boutry, Christine; Guerin, Lucie; Lafay, Frederic; Benoit, David; Garcia, Robin; Jaegle, Enric; Vieillevigne, Laure; Dedieu, Veronique; Ferrrer, Ludovic; Guillhem, Marie-Therese; Lacaze, Brigitte; Mazurier, Jocelyne; Simon, Luc

    2014-01-01

    This report presents different X ray imagery systems used for positioning support in external radiation therapy, and installed in treatment rooms. If portal imagery systems and rail-mounted tomodensitometry systems are not addressed in this document, the authors distinguish and describe various embedded systems in which devices are directly mounted on the treatment apparatus (X-Ray Volume Imaging by Elekta, On Board Imager by Varian), peripheral systems which are independent from the machine (Cyberknife by Accuray and Exatrac by BrainLab), MVCT or Mega Voltage Computed Tomography systems (Tomotherapy by Accuray), and MVCBCT or Megavoltage Cone Beam Computed Tomography systems (Artiste by Siemens). After a brief presentation of these systems, the author present various aspects of quality controls (list, periodicity, test tolerance, tested objects), and then more precisely describe the above-mentioned systems. For each of them, the following aspects are addressed: generator, geometry, image quality, dose, environment and safety, gating module, quality controls

  16. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, G. T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  17. Development of a Radiation Dose Reporting Software for X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Aiping

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has experienced tremendous technological advances in recent years and has established itself as one of the most popular diagnostic imaging tools. While CT imaging clearly plays an invaluable role in modern medicine, its rapid adoption has resulted in a dramatic increase in the average medical radiation exposure to the worldwide and United States populations. Existing software tools for CT dose estimation and reporting are mostly based on patient phantoms that contain overly simplified anatomies insufficient in meeting the current and future needs. This dissertation describes the development of an easy-to-use software platform, “VirtualDose”, as a service to estimate and report the organ dose and effective dose values for patients undergoing the CT examinations. “VirtualDose” incorporates advanced models for the adult male and female, pregnant women, and children. To cover a large portion of the ignored obese patients that frequents the radiology clinics, a new set of obese male and female phantoms are also developed and applied to study the effects of the fat tissues on the CT radiation dose. Multi-detector CT scanners (MDCT) and clinical protocols, as well as the most recent effective dose algorithms from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 103 are adopted in “VirtualDose” to keep pace with the MDCT development and regulatory requirements. A new MDCT scanner model with both body and head bowtie filter is developed to cover both the head and body scanning modes. This model was validated through the clinical measurements. A comprehensive slice-by-slice database is established by deriving the data from a larger number of single axial scans simulated on the patient phantoms using different CT bowtie filters, beam thicknesses, and different tube voltages in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) code. When compared to the existing CT dose software packages, organ dose data in this

  18. Final Report, DOE Award Number DE-FG02-02ER45964, Electromagnetic Properties of Matter at X-ray Wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David Y.

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a collaborative study of photon and charged-particle interactions with matter between the University of Vermont and Argonne and Brookhaven National Laboratories. A major goal was to extend the study of electromagnetic properties of selected materials to as wide a spectral range as possible. This broad approach discloses systematic trends not apparent in isolated measurements and exploits the power of dispersion analysis and sum-rule constraints. Emphasis was largely on UV and X-ray processes and capitalized on the wide range of photon energies available at NSLS. A key finding is that, under favorable circumstances, dispersion theory relates dispersive processes (e.g. refractive index, dielectric constant) to spectral moments of absorptive processes. This appears to be a new method in optics; it yields significant simplifications and provides a precise, model-independent characterization of optical materials. Problems addressed included (a) x-ray magnetooptics; (b) UV/soft-x-ray processes in insulators and their contribution to visible dispersion; (c) demonstration of moments/dispersion analysis in glasses and applications to fiber-optic systems; (d) the optical constants of silicon and their application to the stopping power of silicon for charged-particles. Results include: (1) Resolution of a long-standing conflict over the relation between x-ray Faraday rotation and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Specifically, the Kramers-Kronig relations must be generalized to account for the breaking of time-reversal symmetry by magnetic fields. Experimental reports to the contrary were shown to be inconclusive. Reanalysis of x-ray Faraday rotation data supports the generalization. (2) Demonstration that the optical properties of dielectrics in their region of transparency are determined by a series expansion in spectral moments of the dielectrics infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectra. Application of this to silicate glasses clarifies the role of

  19. Genetic effects of low x-ray doses. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Meyer, H.U.

    1977-09-01

    A linear-quadratic model of dose-kinetics is proposed for x-ray induced recessive lethal mutations in oogonia of Drosophila. From this it should follow that at higher total doses fractionation treatments should give a lower yield of mutations than an equivalent acute exposure. A dose of 6000 R, given acutely and in 3 different fractionation regimes gave results in the expected direction for 2 x 3000 R, and a significant decrease for 3 x 2000 R and for 4 x 1500 R fractionations

  20. Final Report for X-ray Diffraction Sample Preparation Method Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, T. M. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Meznarich, H. K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Valero, T. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-01-30

    WRPS-1500790, “X-ray Diffraction Saltcake Sample Preparation Method Development Plan/Procedure,” was originally prepared with the intent of improving the specimen preparation methodology used to generate saltcake specimens suitable for XRD-based solid phase characterization. At the time that this test plan document was originally developed, packed powder in cavity supports with collodion binder was the established XRD specimen preparation method. An alternate specimen preparation method less vulnerable, if not completely invulnerable to preferred orientation effects, was desired as a replacement for the method.

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  3. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  4. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  5. Segmented Monolithic Germanium Detector Arrays for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, Ethan L.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental results from the Phase I effort were extremely encouraging. During Phase I PHDs Co. made the first strides toward a new detector technology that could have great impact on synchrotron x-ray absorption (XAS) measurements, and x-ray detector technology in general. Detector hardware that allowed critical demonstration measurements of our technology was designed and fabricated. This new technology allows good charge collection from many pixels on a single side of a multi-element monolithic germanium planar detector. The detector technology provides 'dot-like' collection electrodes having very low capacitance. The detector technology appears to perform as anticipated in the Phase I proposal. In particular, the 7-pixel detector studied showed remarkable properties; making it an interesting example of detector physics. The technology is enabled by the use of amorphous germanium contact technology on germanium planar detectors. Because of the scalability associated with the fabrication of these technologies at PHDs Co., we anticipate being able to supply larger detector systems at significantly lower cost than systems made in the conventional manner.

  6. A status report on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry quality control in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Su; Ro, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Sung Su; Kim, Kyoung Ah

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used technical instrument for evaluating bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in patients of all ages. In 2016, DEXA devices operating is 5617 in Korea. In this study we investigated the quality of management practices survey for DEXA equipment and we analyzed it. We got a survey response rate of 12.6%. Accurate bone densitometry test is used data for estimation a patient's risk of fracture. However, improper bone densitometry will increase the possibility of causing a false positive. Therefore. it is essential to use the proper aids accurate bone densitomenty to be performed, and the quality control of the device to reduce the error factor of the tester through the training to reduce error for the device and the attitude

  7. The quality of X-ray film processing. Report of a sensitometric field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stargardt, A.; Buehler, G.

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and eighty of about 800 X-ray film processors used in the GDR were checked sensitometrically. Sensitometric control strips, pre-exposed at a certain level, were mailed, processed and re-mailed; fog, the density of a medium-density step and a density difference were then determined. Reference data were obtained by processing exactly according to the recommendations of the film manufacturer; the mean of fog measurements equals the reference value. Seven per cent of processors produced fog which was unacceptable. The mean of the medium density measurements was 10% below the reference value. Five per cent of all processors operated at unacceptably high, and 16% at unacceptably low, density. Since failures in processing are commonly compensated for by changing radiation doses, consequences for radiation exposure are obvious. Analysis of data on operating parameters supplied by the users identified the disproportion between developer replenisher rate and film load as the main reason for this unsatisfactory situation. (author)

  8. A status report on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry quality control in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su [Dept. of Radiogic Technology, Chungbuk Health and Science University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Young Hoon; Lee, In Ju; Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Su [Dept. of Healthcare Management, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Ah [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most widely used technical instrument for evaluating bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) in patients of all ages. In 2016, DEXA devices operating is 5617 in Korea. In this study we investigated the quality of management practices survey for DEXA equipment and we analyzed it. We got a survey response rate of 12.6%. Accurate bone densitometry test is used data for estimation a patient's risk of fracture. However, improper bone densitometry will increase the possibility of causing a false positive. Therefore. it is essential to use the proper aids accurate bone densitomenty to be performed, and the quality control of the device to reduce the error factor of the tester through the training to reduce error for the device and the attitude.

  9. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  10. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  11. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  12. X-ray and γ-ray spectroscopy of solids under pressure: Annual technical progress report, October 1987-October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingalls, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes studies of various materials at high pressures by means of x-ray and α-ray absorption spectroscopy. It is to be recalled that pressure is a fundamental thermodynamic variable. In particular it enables one to control the state of the material, such as liquid or solid, insulating or conducting, para- or ferromagnetic, etc. We have developed such techniques suitable for use with synchrotron radiation such as at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Under the subject DOE grant we have successfully continued such work. We have also renewed our Moessbauer studies

  13. X-ray and {Gamma}-ray spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Annual technical progress report, November 1996--October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingalls, R.L.

    1997-04-30

    This report describes our recent synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on a number of systems that undergo pressure induced changes in local structure at high pressure. Our general technique is based upon a pressure cell which utilizes scintered boron carbide anvils, since diamond anvils generally produce Bragg glitches which spoil the high quality EXAFS necessary for precision structural measurements. Sample pressure is determined at the beam-line by measuring and analyzing, via XAFS, the compression of some cubic material contained within the sample chamber. Recently we have extended this work to 77 K using helium gas for the applied force, rather than hydraulic oil.

  14. Quantitative Interpretation of X-ray Absorption Near Structure Continuation Progress Report for 1st year 9/15/98-9/14/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, John J.; Bare, Simon; Stocht, Joachim

    1999-01-01

    OAK-B135 Quantitative Interpretation of X-ray Absorption Near Structure Continuation Progress Report for 1st year 9/15/98-9/14/99. This paper proposes to develop two industrial research collaborations to further develop the FEFF8 x-ray spectroscopy code to achieve a quantitative interpretation of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in materials of interest in energy research: (a) Quantitative interpretation of XANES for heterogeneous catalysts and disordered materials; and (b) quantitative interpretation of white-lines in XANES. The paper also outlines significant results achieved during the first Grant year

  15. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  16. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  17. X-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions. Progress report, April 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1980-04-01

    Recent research in the cyclotron institute and department of chemistry at Texas A and M University on the x-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions is described. Areas covered include: spectra of Ka x-rays from 64 MeV sulfur ions traveling in solids; foil-excited Ka x-ray transitions in few-electron sulfur ions; high-resolution study of the target thickness dependence of x-ray emission from 65 MeV sulfur ions; dynamic screening of highly stripped sulfur ions in solids; Mg Ka x-ray satellites excited by ion bombardment, multiplet structure and dependence on projectile and chemical environment; angular distributions of beam and target Ka x-rays; chemical effects on K x-ray satellites of fluorine compounds; and a non-linear least-squares peak-fitting program employing Voight functions

  18. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  19. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  2. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  3. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  4. Conventional X-ray examination of hiatus hernia in aged people (31 cases report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoyuan; Xie Zirong; Liao Chengyang; Xiong Bo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methods and features of X-ray examination in aged people with hiatus hernia. Methods: Imaging features of chest film, fluoroscopy and barium meal examination of 31 cases with hiatus hernia diagnosed by barium meal examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results Sac shadows behind the heart were showed in all 23 cases, including chest film (14/23 cases) and fluoroscopy (9/23 cases), 20 cases of which were irreducible hiatus hernia diagnosed by barium meal immediately. 3 cases were misdiagnosed by the chest film, with occupying lesions of the left lower lung (2/3 cases) or aneurysm of descending aorta (1/3 cases). Gastric mucosa was showed in thorax above the left hemidiaphragm in another 8 cases with hiatus hernia evaluated by barium meal, including 5 cases irreducible hiatus hernia and 3 cases sliding hiatus hernia. Conclusion: Chest film, fluoroscopy and barium meal play different roles in the diagnosis of hiatus hernia. Though chest film and fluoroscopy could detect easily, barium meal is of the most importance in evaluation of hiatus hernia due to its characteristics. (authors)

  5. Einstein pictures the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartline, B.K.

    1979-01-01

    The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2, Einstein) is revolutionizing x-ray astronomy just as its namesake revolutionized physics. Earlier x-ray observatories, including HEAO-1, were designed to scan the sky for x-ray emitters. With Einstein, the challenge has shifted from discovering x-ray sources to understanding the processes producing the x-rays. But having 500 times the sensitivity of previous detectors, Einstein makes more than its share of discoveries, too. For example, it sees distant quasars and clusters of galaxies that can barely be detected by the largest optical telescopes

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  8. X-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions. Progress report, March 1, 1982-March 1, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    A major project involving the study of electron transfer in fluorine compounds following multiple K-plus L-shell ionization by 5.5 MeV He, 22 MeV C, 48 MeV Mg, and 80 MeV Ar ions was completed. This comprehensive investigation, which began three years ago, uncovered a resonant electron transfer mechanism, provided the first quantitative estimates of electron transfer rates, and revealed the importance of fast electron transfer to n greater than or equal to 3 states in solid compounds. Considerable progress was made in delineating the effects of solid state environment on x-ray emission from highly stripped projectile ions. A surprising result in this project area was the discovery of lines associated with states involving n = 3 electrons in 48 MeV Mg projectile x-ray spectra obtained with thick carbon targets. Work was completed on a study of the alignment of foil-excited H- and He-like states in 65 MeV sulfur ions. These measurements are being extended to Magnesium ions with the intention of searching for surface and tilted foil effects. The report contains a summary of the research activities supported by this contract during the 1981 to 1982 contract year

  9. The use of X Rays in diagnostic and interventional imaging, excluding radiotherapy. Report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray discovery (W.C. Roentgen, 1895) offers an immediate progress to the medical efficiency. Today, the medical diagnostic imaging knows a considerable and constant growing when becoming 'interventional', as a surgical help in the operating room. These 'ionizing' radiations, simultaneously, are the first treatment for cancers (A. Beclere, 1900's). But their use in diagnostic presents a potential danger, in children and young people who are the most sensible. The medical and paramedical members of the team are dangerously exposed, too, through the accumulative exposure. Our group reminds the consequences of the ionizing radiations. Invisible, they do not create the suspicion. Therefore, the radioprotection is mandatory because of the all-lifelong cumulative dose of exposure. Many Rules and obligations, international (WHO), European (EU), and national (Agencies, HAS, Ministry of health) with the close cooperation of Societe Francaise de Radiologie (SFR) and Societe Francaise de Radioprotection (SFRP) either in radiodiagnosis or in interventional (500.000 procedures each year in France). Closely concerned by the observance of this radioprotection, the ANM had given information and texts from more than 10 years. Alas, as a pediatric orthopedist surgeon, we observe that today half of the irradiation complications (in the past from radiotherapy) went from interventional radiological procedures (and dental exercise). We went to a 30 years bibliography about this question and to a memorandum about the new indications in modern imaging and its indications with minimization of the dose delivery. We insist on the non-ionizing radiations (MRI, echography, photonic techniques). Five guidelines, concluding the text are underlined. (authors)

  10. Polycapillary x-ray optics for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, S.M.; Gibson, W.M.; Carter, D.C.; Sisk, R.C.; Ho, J.X.

    1996-01-01

    Polycapillary x-ray optics have found potential application in many different fields, including antiscatter and magnification in mammography, radiography, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray lithography, and x-ray diffraction techniques. In x-ray diffraction, an optic is used to collect divergent x-rays from a point source and redirect them into a quasi-parallel, or slightly focused beam. Monolithic polycapillary optics have been developed recently for macromolecular crystallography and have already shown considerable gains in diffracted beam intensity over pinhole collimation. Development is being pursued through a series of simulations and prototype optics. Many improvements have been made over the stage 1 prototype reported previously, which include better control over the manufacturing process, reducing the diameter of the output beam, and addition of a slight focusing at the output of the optic to further increase x-ray flux at the sample. The authors report the characteristics and performance of the stage 1 and stage 2 optics

  11. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  12. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  13. Small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; DiCicco, D.S.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Application of an existing soft x-ray laser to x-ray microscopy has begun. A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 18,2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The authors present a composite optical x-ray laser microscope design

  14. X-ray Studies of Materials Dynamics at MHATT-CAT Sector 7 , Advanced Photon Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Clarke

    2006-01-01

    This Final Report describes the scientific accomplishments that have been achieved with support from grant DE-FG02-03ER46023 during the period 12/01/02-11/30/05. The funding supported a vigorous scientific program allowing the PI to achieve leadership in a number of important areas. In particular, research carried out during this period has opened way to ultrafast dynamics studies of materials by combining the capabilities of synchrotron radiation with those of ultrafast lasers. This enables the initiation of laser-induced excitations and studies of their subsequent dynamics using laser-pump/x-ray probe techniques. Examples of such excitations include phonons, shock waves, excitons, spin-waves, and polaritons. The breadth of phenomena that can now be studied in the time-domain is very broad, revealing new phenomena and mechanisms that are critical to many applications of materials

  15. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  16. X-ray survey of the Pleiades: dependence of X-ray luminosity on stellar age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G.S.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F.R.; Rosner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The study of X-ray emission of stellar clusters, allows to decouple the influence of some individual stellar parameters, as initial conditions, composition and age, on the stellar X-ray function. The authors report preliminary results from an Einstein X-ray survey of the Pleiades. (Auth.)

  17. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  18. Very high resolution UV and x-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W.A.; Haisch, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the x-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical x-ray observations using this new technique

  19. Development of a compact x-ray source via laser compton scattering at KEK-LUCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Washio, Masakazu; Aryshev, Alexander; Araki, Sakae; Urakawa, Junji; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Fukuda, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Takeda, Ayaki

    2013-01-01

    The compact X-ray source based on Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) has been developed at LUCX (Laser Undulator Compact X-ray source) facility in KEK. The multi-bunch high quality electron beam produced by a standing wave 3.6 cell RF Gun and accelerated by the followed S-band normal conducting 12 cells standing wave 'Booster' linear accelerator is scattered off the laser beam stored in the optical cavity. The 4-mirror planar optical cavity with finesse 335 is used. The MCP (Micro-Channer Plate) detector as well as SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor was used for scattered X-ray detection. The SOI pixel sensor has been used for LCS X-ray detection for the first time and has demonstrated high spatial resolution and high SN ratio X-ray detection that in turn lead to clearest X-ray images achieved by LCS X-ray. We have also achieved generation of 6.38x10 6 ph./sec., which is more than 30 times larger LCS X-ray flux in comparison with our previous results. The complete details of LUCX LCS X-ray source, specifications of both electron and laser beams, and the results of LCS X-ray generation experiments are reported in this paper. (author)

  20. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  1. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  2. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  4. Final report on the scientific and engineering design of a soft X-ray diode array diagnostic system for JET (KJ 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrbach, H.U.; Goss, H.; Harmeyer, E.; Schramm, G.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the Soft-X-Ray Diode Array Diagnostic System for JET. It was designed by the IPP under an Article 14 contract for Phase I. The diagnostics will be capable of measuring the Soft-X-ray emission from H and D plasmas in JET with high resolution in space and time. Two slot-hole cameras with 150 detectors viewing the same toroidal cross-section of the plasma are foreseen. Thin beryllium and aluminium filters in the line of sight of the detectors allow simultaneous measurements within different limits of the X-ray spectrum. Heavy shielding against neutron and gamma radiation is provided in order to reduce radiation induced signals and to increase detector lifetimes. The signals of 100 detectors can be simultaneously sampled with a sampling rate variable up to 250 KHz and stored in 12 bit memories of about 20 Kwords size. (orig.)

  5. Infrared, x-ray, and xuv astrophysics. Semiannual status report, 1 Apr.--30 Sep. 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An observational program convering wavelengths from the near infrared to 1 millimeter is reviewed. The program of millimeter observations consisted largely of analyzing previous observations, since the summer humidity was too high for new observations. Maps of millimeter emission from W3, Sgr B2, W49, and M42 were made. Five extragalactic sources were detected and are discussed. Energy distributions of several of the discrete sources at the Galactic Center were studied. A 5-year visual/infrared program on Markarian galaxies is discussed which showed the presence of both thermal and nonthermal infrared radiation sources, and established correlations between the infrared sources and the emission line regions. The Nova Cygnus 1975, caught during its rise as well as subsequent dimming, is also discussed. Several other continuing programs are described, including studies of dark clouds and CO maser sources

  6. The Livermore X-ray Laser Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    I will report on the status of x-ray laser development and its applications at Livermore. I will review some of our recent results and comment on where our future research is headed including plans for developing a compact x-ray laser users facility. Finally, I will briefly summarize the results of an X-ray Laser Applications Workshop that was held in San Francisco in January 1992

  7. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  8. Legal directives in the X-ray regulation for the field of X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The operation of each X-ray device is subject to the requirements of the X-ray regulations (RoeV); for different operational modes or applications like curative diagnostics, X-ray serial examinations, X-ray radiotherapy and teleradiology different directives exist and have to be respected. The report discusses the issues licensing and notification procedures, radiation protection representative, requirements for the commissioning (teleradiology, serial X.ray examinations), technical qualification and radiation protection knowledge of physicians, technical qualification of the assistant personnel.

  9. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  10. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  11. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  12. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  13. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  14. X-ray and computed tomography findings in macrodystrophia lipomatosa of the foot with secondary osteoarthritic changes diagnosed in an elderly female: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajesh; Gupta, Puneet; Mahajan, Manik; Arora, Manjit; Gupta, Anchal, E-mail: drrajeshradiology@gmail.com [Department of Radio-diagnosis and Imaging, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2017-03-15

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare entity that is mostly diagnosed in children. It has been very rarely reported in adults. Here, we describe the X-ray and computed tomography findings in a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa in an elderly female presenting with an enlarged second toe since birth and bony outgrowths causing pressure effects and cosmetic problems. (author)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  17. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  1. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  2. X-ray and Γ-ray spectroscopy of solids under pressure. Technical progress report, November 1996 - December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingalls, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the recent synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on a number of systems that undergo pressure induced changes in local structure at high pressure. The reader should also refer to the accompanying renewal proposal for a more in-depth discussion of the general scope of this program, and its relevance to condensed matter science. The author merely states that the methods here are aimed at using XAFS to probe the various phenomena that are caused by high pressure, especially including various structural, and/or electronic, changes or transitions. The general technique is based upon a pressure cell which utilizes sintered boron carbide anvils, since diamond anvils generally produce Bragg glitches which spoil the high quality XAFS necessary for precision structural measurements. Sample pressure is determined at the beam-line by measuring and analyzing, via XAFS, the compression of some cubic material contained within the sample chamber. Recently, the author has extended this work to 77 K using helium gas for the applied force, rather than hydraulic oil

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Electronics for Large Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detector Arrays for Synchrotron Soft X-ray Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, William K

    2009-03-06

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors offer a an approach to detecting soft x-rays with energy resolutions 4-5 times better and at rates 10 faster than traditions semiconductor detectors. To make such detectors feasible, however, then need to be deployed in large arrays of order 1000 detectors, which in turn implies that their processing electronics must be compact, fully computer controlled, and low cost per channel while still delivering ultra-low noise performance so as to not degrade the STJ's performance. We report on our progress in designing a compact, low cost preamplifier intended for this application. In particular, we were able to produce a prototype preamplifier of 2 sq-cm area and a parts cost of less than $30 that matched the energy resolution of the best conventional system to date and demonstrated its ability to acquire an STJ I-V curve under computer control, the critical step for determining and setting the detectors' operating points under software control.

  4. X-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions. Progress report, April 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    During the past year, work on x-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions has concentrated on the following topics: environmental influences on the Kα x-ray spectra of 65-MeV sulfur ions traveling in solids; multiplet structure of few-electron sulfur ions; multiplet structure of Mg Kα x-ray satellites; polarization of 1s2p→1s 2 transitions in He-like sulfur ions; and interatomic electron transfer in ionic fluorine compounds following 1s2p vacancy production. Among the most significant accomplishments of the program was a study of the dependence of dynamic screening energy shifts on electron density. It was found that the shifts measured for the 2 1 P→1 1 S and 2 2 P→1 2 S x-ray transitions of He- and H-like sulfur ions (respectively) were in remarkably good agreement with theoretical expectations. Another interesting discovery evolved from measurements of fluorine Kα x-ray spectra for the alkali metal and alkaline earth fluorides using 5.5-MeV He + ions. The systematics of these spectra provide the first evidence for direct electron transfer between inner levels of neighboring atoms in a solid. 10 figures, 3 tables

  5. Picosecond Soft-X-ray studies of Dense Plasma Regimes Progress Report (April 1, 2006 - March 31, 2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Jorge; Marconi, Mario; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav; Dunn, James; Moon, Stephen; Nilsen, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate and characterize high-density converging plasma configurations using new soft x-ray laser based interferometric techniques. The results are used to verify and validate multi-dimensional hydrodynamic codes in plasma regimes which densities and size exceed those that can be probed with optical laser beams. The dynamics of converging plasmas created by laser irradiation of half-hohlraum cylindrical cavities targets was probed using a compact 46.9 nm soft x-ray laser. The results were used for comparison with extensive simulations conducted with the multi-dimensional hydrodynamic code HYDRA. As part of this study we have also investigated plasma regimes in which the index of refraction of the plasmas can not be defined solely based on the contribution of free electron, as is usually assumed for multiply ionized plasmas. Our results demonstrate the existence of plasma regimes in which the contribution of bound electrons from ions dominates the refractive index at soft x-ray wavelengths. We are also working in extending plasma interferometry to the sub 10 nm wavelength range. In the process we are advancing soft x-ray laser plasma diagnostics techniques to allow the measurement of large-scale, high-density plasmas with picosecond temporal resolution and micrometer spatial resolution, laying the foundations for future advanced diagnostics at high energy density DOE facilities. Dense plasma diagnostics, soft x-ray laser interferometry, converging plasmas

  6. Instrumentation of x-ray diffraction and materials research on the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1984-11-01

    MATRIX was organized in 1980 to formulate a research team to design and construct a beam line at NSLS for x-ray diffraction studies of materials. A versatile system was designed to allow a full range of experimental capabilities for wide angle x-ray scattering experiments including surface diffraction studies. The design and construction of the system has been completed. Testing of parts of the system was completed at CHESS and with x-ray sources or other equipment at member institutions. Installation of the beam line at NSLS is in progress and will proceed in parallel with the commissioning of the x-ray ring at NSLS. Full operation of the beam line is expected to be ready by December 1, 1984 being limited only by the source power of NSLS at that time. Useful experiments could be started if the power is at least 2 GeV and 100ma. The MATRIX beam line was one of the first x-ray beam lines to see light in the beam line in early spring of 1984. In July of 1984, the MATRIX beam line as the first port at NSLS to have a monochromatic beam and to scan part of the spectrum from the source. As part of this contract, six publications have resulted from the various projects. Three publications are concerned directly with the beam line and/or its operation while the other three publications are the result of research associated with the project

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  9. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  17. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  18. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  19. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  6. Optical and X-ray studies of Compact X-ray Binaries in NGC 5904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotia, Vanshree; Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high stellar densities, globular cluster systems trigger various dynamical interactions, such as the formation of compact X-ray binaries. Stellar collisional frequencies have been correlated to the number of X-ray sources detected in various clusters and we hope to measure this correlation for NGC 5904. Optical fluxes of sources from archival HST images of NGC 5904 have been measured using a DOLPHOT PSF photometry in the UV, optical and near-infrared. We developed a data analysis pipeline to process the fluxes of tens of thousands of objects using awk, python and DOLPHOT. We plot color magnitude diagrams in different photometric bands in order to identify outliers that could be X-ray binaries, since they do not evolve the same way as singular stars. Aligning previously measured astrometric data for X-ray sources in NGC 5904 from Chandra with archival astrometric data from HST will filter out the outlier objects that are not X-ray producing, and provide a sample of compact binary systems that are responsible for X-ray emission in NGC 5904. Furthermore, previously measured X-ray fluxes of NGC 5904 from Chandra have also been used to measure the X-ray to optical flux ratio and identify the types of compact X-ray binaries responsible for the X-ray emissions in NGC 5904. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Close binary star type x-ray star and its mechanism of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, R [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-09-01

    Recent progress of the study of an X-ray star is described. In 1970, the periodical emission of pulsed X-rays from Cen X-3 and Her X-1 was observed. An optically corresponding celestial object for the Cen X-3 was reported in 1973, and the mass of Cen X-3 was revised. The optical object was named after Krzeminsky. From the observed variation of luminosity, it is said that the Krzeminsky's star is deformed. This fact gave new data on the mass of the Cen X-3, and the mass is several times as large as the previously estimated value. The behavior of the Her X-1 shows four kinds of clear time variation, and indicates the characteristics of an X-ray star. The Her X-1 is an X-ray pulser the same as Cen X-3, and is a close binary star. The opposite star is known as HZ-Her, and shows weaker luminosity than the intensity of X-ray from the Her X-1. Thirty-five day period was seen in the intensity variation of X-ray. The mechanism of X-ray pulsing can be explained by material flow into a neutron star. The energy spectrum from Her X-1 is different from that from the Cen X-3. Another X-ray star, Cyg X-1, is considered to be a black hole from its X-ray spectrum.

  8. X-ray diagnosis of retropatellar diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlers, B.

    1979-01-01

    The article reports on a comprehensive, stepwise diagnosis in diseases of the knee joints. This includes a description of the indication, the technique of taking X-ray films, and X-ray findings, as well as arthrography of the femoropatellar joint in retropatellar diseases such as chondropathia patellae, osteochondrosis dissecans, traumas of the knee joints and arthrosis deformans. (orig.) [de

  9. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  10. Limitations of Routine Verification of Nasogastric Tube Insertion Using X-Ray and Auscultation: Two Case Reports of Life-Threatening Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejo, Takahide; Oya, Soichi; Tsukasa, Tsuchiya; Yamaguchi, Naomi; Matsui, Toru

    2016-12-01

    Several bedside approaches used in combination with thoracoabdominal X-ray are widely used to avoid severe complications that have been reported during nasogastric tube management. Although confirmation by X-ray is considered the gold standard, it is not yet perfect. We present 2 cases of rare complications in which the routine verification methods could not detect all the complications related to the nasogastric tube placement. Case 1 was a 17-year-old male who presented with a brain tumor and repeatedly required nasogastric tube placement. Despite normal auscultatory and X-ray findings, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly after resuming the enteral nutrition (EN). Computed tomography images showed the presence of hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG). Urgent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed esophagogastric submucosal tunneling of the tube that required an emergency open total gastrectomy. Case 2 was a 76-year-old man with long-term EN after stroke. While the last auscultatory verification was normal, he suddenly developed extensive HPVG due to gastric mucosal injury following EN, which resulted in progressive intestinal necrosis, general peritonitis, and death. These 2 cases indicated that routine verification methods consisting of auscultation and X-ray may not be completely reliable, and the awareness of the limitations of these methods should be reaffirmed because expeditious examinations and necessary interventions are critical in preventing life-threatening complications.

  11. Development of a high resolution cylindrical crystal spectrometer for line shape and spectral diagnostics of x-rays emitted from - hot - plasmas. Final report, June 1, 1976-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellne, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    The development, installation and evaluation of a high resolution X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics are reported. The approach has been to optimize spectrometer throughput to enable single shot plasma diagnostics with good time resolution and to ensure sufficient energy resolution to allow line profile analysis. These goals have been achieved using a new X-ray geometry combined with a new position sensitive X-ray detector. These diagnostics have been used at Alcator C to detect X-ray emission of highly ionized impurity elements as well as argon seed elements specially introduced into the plasma for this diagnostic. Temporally resolved ion temperature profiles have been obtained from the recorded X-ray spectra simultaneously with other plasma parameters such as electron temperature, ionization temperature and ionization stage distribution. Radial profiles have also been measured. The developed X-ray diagnostics thus serve as a major multiparameter probe of the central core of the plasma with complementary informtion on radial profiles

  12. Evaluation of the x-ray fluorescence method of precious metal plating thickness measurements. Technological spinoff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.S.; Hearn, N.K.; Pettie, C.B.

    1975-09-01

    It is shown that gold and silver plating thickness measurements made using an x-ray spectrograph could be closely correlated with thicknesses measured from sectional samples. Good correlations were also shown for single overlays of gold over silver when each layer was less than 0.0003 inch thick

  13. Radiation hormesis using an x-ray radiography device. The fourth report. Radiation hormesis of salad rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Atsushi; Nakayama, Miho

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hormesis was studied for salad rocket plant (Eruca vesicaria sp.sativa), using different energies of X-ray (100 kV and 10 MV). To get the optimum dose for plant to provide the highest growth, the dose for the seeds was changed from 0 to 3000 mGy using 100 kV of X-ray. The highest growth of the plant was found for the dose of 600 mGy. When the seeds were irradiated to 600 mGy with 100 kV and 10 MV X-rays, in both cases, the growth of the irradiated seeds was higher than those without irradiation, where P-values were 0.0112 and 0.0214, respectively. In the case of 600 mGy irradiation, there was not any significant change in the plant growth between the seeds irradiated with 10 MV and 100 kV X-ray (P=0.862). (author)

  14. Development of synchrotron x-ray micro-spectroscopic techniques and application to problems in low temperature geochemistry. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The focus of the technical development effort has been the development of apparatus and techniques for the utilization of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopies in a microprobe mode. The present XRM uses white synchrotron radiation (3 to 30 keV) from a bending magnet for trace element analyses using the x-ray fluorescence technique Two significant improvements to this device have been recently implemented. Focusing Mirror: An 8:1 ellipsoidal mirror was installed in the X26A beamline to focus the incident synchrotron radiation and thereby increase the flux on the sample by about a factor of 30. Incident Beam Monochromator: The monochromator has been successfully installed and commissioned in the X26A beamline upstream of the mirror to permit analyses with focused monochromatic radiation. The monochromator consists of a channel-cut silicon (111) crystal driven by a Klinger stepping motor translator. We have demonstrated the operating range of this instrument is 4 and 20 keV with 0.01 eV steps and produces a beam with a {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} energy bandwidth. The primary purpose of the monochromator is for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements but it is also used for selective excitation in trace element microanalysis. To date, we have conducted XANES studies on Ti, Cr, Fe, Ce and U, spanning the entire accessible energy range and including both K and L edge spectra. Practical detection limits for microXANES are 10--100 ppM for 100 {mu}m spots.

  15. Molecular design concept for multi-kilovolt x-ray amplification. Final report, December 13, 1990--December 14, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.K.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this program is the construction of an X-ray laser in the multi-kilovolt regime which can serve as a vital enabling technology in the broad and fundamental field of materials science. Experimental findings indicate that an entirely new technique for amplification at X-ray wavelengths is feasible. This method involves the combination of (a) a recently discovered mode of multiphoton coupling to molecules which efficiently yields core excited ions, (b) a new channeled mode of propagation for spatial organization, and (c) an ultrahigh brightness subpicosecond laser technology. The concept of molecular X-ray laser design, which involves matching the conditions of excitation to the molecular structure, enables the inner-shell excitation to be selectively achieved. Basically, the molecular approach enables the copious generation of a highly excited species to occur rapidly in an environment characteristic of dense cold matter, a situation exceptionally conducive to X-ray amplification. High energy efficiency and wavelength tunability also appear as intrinsic features of this method. Experimental data concerning the study of five cases [Xe(N), Xe(M), Xe(L), Kr(M), and Kr(L)], spanning-spectrally from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 5 keV, have (1) established the important role of cluster formation, (2) verified the scaling of this phenomenon into the kilovolt region, (3) demonstrated the production of hollow atoms having multiple inner-shell vacancies, (4) provided evidence for the crucial influence of coherent electronic motions on the strength of the multiphoton coupling, (5) led to the conclusion that a regime of strong-coupling exists in which multi-electron ejection from an inner-shell can occur with high probability, (6) revealed the scaling in atomic number which potently favors heavy atoms, and (7) combined the multiphoton induced X-ray emission from clusters with channeled propagation

  16. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  17. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  18. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  19. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  20. Design and testing of a compact X-ray diode. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Student research reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, A.

    1999-03-01

    Omega, the University of Rochester's high powered laser dedicated to fusion research gives off x-rays with different energy levels. Measuring the number of x-rays and the energy of each is important in understanding what happens in the target chamber when Omega is fired. Existing x-ray detectors are expensive, big, and cumbersome. Imaging detectors such as x-ray pinhole cameras which record onto film, x-ray framing cameras which make videos, and most often, x-ray streak cameras which measure time dependences of x-rays. They require a lot of maintenance and are difficult to keep operational. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed the Dante Diode. The Dante diode array on Omega functions as a group of 12 diodes which take up a 24 inch port in the target chamber, making it space-consuming and difficult to move for alternate views. In designing a new detector, space was the main issue. The smallest possible functional diode, without losing accuracy was desired. Since the laser pulse only lasts a few nanoseconds it is important that the x-ray detector have a response time of a few tenths of a nanosecond. Other criteria include that it be easy to use for measuring the energy and number of x-ray photons and that cost be kept down. This report discusses the design process and testing of the new diode

  1. X-ray scattering by interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, D.

    1980-10-01

    This thesis reports work carried out to make a first observation of x-rays scattered by interstellar dust grains. Data about the dust, obtained at wavelengths ranging from the infrared to ultra-violet spectral regions, are discussed in order to establish a useful description of the grains themselves. This is then used to estimate the magnitude and form of the expected x-ray scattering effect which is shown to manifest itself as a diffuse halo accompanying the image of a celestial x-ray source. Two x-ray imaging experiments are then discussed. The first, specifically proposed to look for this effect surrounding a point x-ray source, was the Skylark 1611 project, and comprised an imaging proportional counter coupled to an x-ray mirror. This is described up to its final calibration when the basis for a concise model of its point response function was established. The experiment was not carried out but its objective and the experience gained during its testing were transferred to the second of the x-ray imaging experiments, the Einstein Observatory. The new instrumental characteristics are described and a model for its point response function is developed. Using this, image data for the point x-ray source GX339-4 is shown to exhibit the sought after scattering phenomenon. (author)

  2. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  3. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  4. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  5. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  6. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  7. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  14. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  15. Operation of beam line facilities for real-time x-ray studies at Sector 7 of the advanced photon source. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Roy

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report documents the research accomplishments achieved in the first phase of operations of a new Advanced Photon Source beam line (7-ID MHATT-CAT) dedicated to real-time x-ray studies. The period covered by this report covers the establishment of a world-class facility for time-dependent x-ray studies of materials. During this period many new and innovative research programs were initiated at Sector 7 with support of this grant, most notably using a combination of ultrafast lasers and pulsed synchrotron radiation. This work initiated a new frontier of materials research: namely, the study of the dynamics of materials under extreme conditions of high intensity impulsive laser irradiation

  16. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring high......-quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  17. Primary benign tumors in chiropractic practice and the importance of x-ray diagnosis: A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jacques C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of primary benign bone tumors were diagnosed radiographically in a chiropractic practice. Although primary osseous tumors are somewhat uncommon, their potential presence emphasizes the importance of x-ray diagnosis as an essential adjunct to chiropractic practice. This procedure may preclude underlying lesions before considering treatment of seemingly uncomplicated injuries. Two such cases are presented: unicameral bone cyst and osteochondroma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  18. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  19. Phosphor Scanner For Imaging X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Hecht, Diana L.; Witherow, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic scanning apparatus generates digitized image of x-ray image recorded in phosphor. Scanning fiber-optic probe supplies laser light stimulating luminescence in areas of phosphor exposed to x rays. Luminescence passes through probe and fiber to integrating sphere and photomultiplier. Sensitivity and resolution exceed previously available scanners. Intended for use in x-ray crystallography, medical radiography, and molecular biology.

  20. Soft X-Ray Measurements of Z-Pinch-Driven Vacuum Hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.; Porter, J.L.; Ruggles, L.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Deeney, Chris; Varas, M.; Moats, Ann; Struve, Ken; Torres, J.; McGurn, J.; Simpson, W.W.; Fehl, D.L.; Chrien, R.E.; Matuska, W.; Idzorek, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the experimental characterization of a z-pinch driven-vacuum hohlraum. The authors have measured soft x-ray fluxes of 5 x 10 12 W/cm 2 radiating from the walls of hohlraums which are 2.4--2.5 cm in diameter by 1 cm tall. The x-ray source used to drive these hohlraums was a z-pinch consisting of a 300 wire tungsten array driven by a 2 MA, 100 ns current pulse. In this hohlraum geometry, the z-pinch x-ray source can produce energies in excess of 800 kJ and powers in excess of 100 TW to drive these hohlraums. The x-rays released in these hohlraums represent greater than a factor of 25 in energy and more than a factor of three in x-ray power over previous laboratory-driven hohlraums

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  2. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  3. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  5. Standardized X-ray reports of the spine in osteogenesis imperfecta; Standard zur Befundung von Roentgenaufnahmen der Wirbelsaeule bei Patienten mit Osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerber, Friederike; Demant, A.W.; Koerber, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Kinderradiologie, Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Semler, O.; Schoenau, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Osteologie, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Kinderheilkunde; Lackner, K.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: In this study we present a standard for radiological reports in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The parameters can be used to describe X-rays of the lateral spine and give an impartial description of anatomical structures during a treatment with bisphosphonates. Material and Methods: In this retrospective analysis we included 48 patients with OI (31 female, 17 male [1.5 months - 19 years, mean age 9.0 years]). Lateral spine X-rays were analyzed by 2 radiologists before and during treatment. The parameters of the standardized report are degree of kyphoscoliosis, compression of single vertebrae, predominant type of vertebral deformities and extent of vertebral compression (score 1 - 5). Results: There was no clear trend in the change of compression of single vertebrae. Some vertebrae with ventral compression showed an upgrowth to vertebrae with harmonic compression. Other deformities showed only marginal changes. In 26 patients the kyphoscoliosis improved (mean 10 degrees), in 36 patients the thoracic vertebrae compression increased and in 30 patients the vertebral height in the lumbar spine increased. The improvement of vertebral height was 1 point in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Conclusion: We propose a standardized report of X-rays of the lateral spine in patients with OI with quantitative and semiquantitative parameters using morphological criteria. These include compression of single vertebrae, degree of kyphoscoliosis, vertebral deformities and the severity of vertebral compression in the thoracic and lumbar spine. (orig.)

  6. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl 4 ), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs

  7. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra.

  8. Low-energy x-ray and electron physics and applications to diagnostics development for laser-produced plasma research. Final report, April 30, 1980-April 29, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, B.L.

    1981-08-01

    This final report describes a collaborative extension of an ongoing research program in low-energy x-ray and electron physics into particular areas of immediate need for the diagnostics of plasmas as involved in laser-produced fusion research. It has been for the continued support for one year of a post-doctoral research associate and for three student research assistants who have been applied to the following specific efforts: (1) the continuation of our research on the absolute characterization of x-ray photocathode systems for the 0.1 to 10 keV photon energy region. The research results were applied collaboratively to the design, construction and calibration of photocathodes for time-resolved detection with the XRD and the streak and framing cameras; (2) the design, construction and absolute calibration of optimized, bolt-on spectrographs for the absolute measurement of laser-produced plasma spectra

  9. Chandra observations of Jupiter's X-ray Aurora during Juno upstream and apojove intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Jackman, C. M.; Kraft, R.; Gladstone, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Knigge, C.; Altamirano, D.; Elsner, R.; Kammer, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Chandra space telescope has recently conducted a number of campaigns to observe Jupiter's X-ray aurora. The first set of campaigns took place in summer 2016 while the Juno spacecraft was upstream of the planet sampling the solar wind. The second set of campaigns took place in February, June and August 2017 at times when the Juno spacecraft was at apojove. These campaigns were planned following the Juno orbit correction to capitalise on the opportunity to image the X-ray emission while Juno was orbiting close to the expected position of the magnetopause. Previous work has suggested that the auroral X-ray emissions map close to the magnetopause boundary [e.g. Vogt et al., 2015; Kimura et al., 2016; Dunn et al., 2016] and thus in situ spacecraft coverage in this region combined with remote observation of the X-rays afford the chance to constrain the drivers of these energetic emissions and determine if they originate on open or closed field lines. We aim to examine possible drivers of X-ray emission including reconnection and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and to explore the role of the solar wind in controlling the emissions. We report on these upstream and apojove campaigns including intensities and periodicities of auroral X-ray emissions. This new era of jovian X-ray astronomy means we have more data than ever before, long observing windows (up to 72 ks for this Chandra set), and successive observations relatively closely spaced in time. These features combine to allow us to pursue novel methods for examining periodicities in the X-ray emission. Our work will explore significance testing of emerging periodicities, and the search for coherence in X-ray pulsing over weeks and months, seeking to understand the robustness and regularity of previously reported hot spot X-ray emissions. The periods that emerge from our analysis will be compared against those which emerge from radio and UV wavelengths.

  10. Intensity of diffracted X-rays from biomolecules with radiation damage caused by strong X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Moribayashi, Kengo; Fukuda, Yuji; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of single biomolecules, the diffraction intensities, per effective pixel of a single biomolecule with radiation damage, caused by irradiation using a strong coherent X-ray pulse, were examined. A parameter survey was carried out for various experimental conditions, using a developed simulation program that considers the effect of electric field ionization, which was slightly reported on in previous studies. The two simple relationships among the parameters were identified as follows: (1) the diffraction intensity of a biomolecule slightly increases with the incident X-ray energy; and that (2) the diffraction intensity is approximately proportional to the target radius, when the radius is longer than 400 Å, since the upper limit of the incident intensity for damage to the biomolecules marginally changes with respect to the target radius. (author)

  11. Soft X-ray spectroscopy measurements of plasma conditions at early times in ICF experiments on OMEGA. Semi-annual report, November 1, 1998-April 30, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Since arrival of FY-99 funding in December, the authors have been preparing for the first series of experiments under this grant on the OMEGA laser facility, which just took place (for one day) on April 27, 1999. The campaign was successful and results will be included in the next progress report following analyses. For the first time, they fielded their Ten Inch Manipulator (TIM-) mounted flat-field, grazing-incidence extreme-ultraviolet (euv) spectrograph with a four-channel gated-stripline microchannel plate (MCP) detector. This spectrograph covers the spectral range of 30--250 angstrom (hv = 50--400 eV). As in a previous campaign of May 1998, where the authors used this instrument with time-integrated photographic recording, the spectrograph reached closer to the target than did the previous version mounted on the chamber wall; such that the sensitivity increased by at least a factor-of-10 for viewing weak spectral features. The analysis during this reporting period of the euv spectroscopic results from the October 1998 NLUF/OMEGA campaign of Mg X, XI and XII spectra from n = 3 to n = 2 transitions are shown in Fig. 1 versus time. The data plotted represent a composite between the three most sensitive striplines, delayed relative to each other, for a number of shots. The intended emphasis was on the early portion of the event while the laser intensity is rising to a peak. This measured euv history agrees with that from the x-ray streak spectrographic data shown in Fig. 2 from the same campaign, i.e., the peak period of emission being in the first 1.5 ns

  12. On the origin of highly ionized X-ray absorbers detected in the galactic X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) revealed numerous highly ionized metal absorption lines. However, it is unclear whether such lines are produced by the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or the circumstellar medium intrinsic to the binaries. Here we present a Chandra X-ray absorption line study of 28 observations of 12 XRBs, with a focus on the Ne IX and Fe XVII lines. We report the first detections of these lines in a significant amount of observations. We do not find a significant dependence of the line equivalent width on the distance of the XRBs, but we do see a weak dependence on the source X-ray luminosity. We also find 2 out of 12 selected targets show strong temporal variation of the Ne IX absorbers. While the line ratio between the two ion species suggests a temperature consistent with the previous predictions of the ISM, comparing with two theoretical models of the ISM shows the observed column densities are significantly higher than predictions. On the other hand, photoionization by the XRBs provides a reasonably good fit to the data. Our findings suggest that a significant fraction of these X-ray absorbers may originate in the hot gas intrinsic to the XRBs, and that the ISM makes small, if not negligible, contribution. We briefly discuss the implications to the study of the Milky Way hot gas content.

  13. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Dennis [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Padmore, Howard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lessner, Eliane [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  14. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today's X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today's resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting

  15. X-ray Outburst in Mira A

    OpenAIRE

    Karovska, M.; Schlegel, E.; Hack, W.; Wood, B.

    2005-01-01

    We report here the Chandra ACIS-S detection of a bright soft X-ray transient in the Mira AB interacting symbiotic-like binary. We resolved the system for the first time in the X-rays. Using Chandra and HST images we determined that the unprecedented outburst is likely associated with the cool AGB star (Mira A), the prototype of Mira-type variables. X-rays have never before been detected from an AGB star, and the recent activity signals that the system is undergoing dramatic changes. The total...

  16. X-ray fluorescence analyzer arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, Endre; Ando, Laszlo; Gal, Janos.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence analyzer for the quantitative determination of one or more elements of complex samples is reported. The novelties of the invention are the excitation of the samples by x-rays or γ-radiation, the application of a balanced filter pair as energy selector, and the measurement of the current or ion charge of ionization detectors used as sensors. Due to the increased sensitivity and accuracy, the novel design can extend the application fields of x-ray fluorescence analyzers. (A.L.)

  17. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  18. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M.; Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-01-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called open-quotes water windowclose quotes area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition

  19. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes} area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition.

  20. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  1. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  2. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  3. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  4. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  5. VETA-I x ray test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissenden, R. J. V.; Chartas, G.; Freeman, M. D.; Hughes, J. P.; Kellogg, E. M.; Podgorski, W. A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Zhao, P.

    1992-01-01

    This interim report presents some definitive results from our analysis of the VETA-I x-ray testing data. It also provides a description of the hardware and software used in the conduct of the VETA-I x-ray test program performed at the MSFC x-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). These test results also serve to supply data and information to include in the TRW final report required by DPD 692, DR XC04. To provide an authoritative compendium of results, we have taken nine papers as published in the SPIE Symposium, 'Grazing Incidence X-ray/EUV Optics for Astronomy and Projection Lithography' and have reproduced them as the content of this report.

  6. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  7. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  8. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  9. X-ray and VLBI radio observations of the quasars NRAO 140 and NRAO 530

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marscher, A.P.; Broderick, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    We have detected the quasars NRAO 140 and NRAO 530 with the Einstein X-Ray Observatory, thereby confirming the previously reported detection by HEAO 1 (Marscher et al.). The low-energy X-ray flux of NRAO 140 is consistent with the high-energy results from the earlier satellite. However, either the X-ray emission from NRAO 530 decreased by an order of magnitude from 1978.0 to 1979.7, or a second bright source was present within the HEAO 1 field

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  14. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  2. An X-ray BBB Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Materlik, Gerhard; Nishino, Yoshinori; Rostomyan, Armen; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina

    2004-09-01

    A new X-ray Michelson interferometer based on the BBB interferometer of Bonse and Hart and designed for X-rays of wavelength approximately 1 A was described in a previous paper. Here, a further test carried out at the SPring-8 1 km beamline BL29XUL is reported. One of the BBB's mirrors was displaced by a piezo to introduce the required path-length difference. The resulting variation of intensity with piezo voltage as measured by an avalanche photodiode could be ascribed to the phase variation resulting from the path-length change, with a small additional contribution from the change of the position of the lattice planes of the front mirror relative to the rest of the crystal. This 'Michelson fringe' interpretation is supported by the observed steady movement across the output beam of the interference fringes produced by a refractive wedge when the piezo voltage was ramped. The front-mirror displacement required for one complete fringe at the given wavelength is only 0.675 A; therefore, a quiet environment is vital for operating this device, as previous experiments have shown.

  3. Patient doses from x-ray examinations in Sweden - a compilation of the results from the reports from the Swedish health care 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.; Joensson, Helene

    2001-01-01

    In early 1999 the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) requested data on patient doses and frequency of x-ray examinations from the 30 licensees with the largest activities. This was comprising five conventional x-ray examinations, mammography and six computed tomography examinations. Patient doses and other relevant data from roughly 400 x-ray stands with an average of 20 patients each were reported. The average of the patient doses was calculated for each x-ray stand and examination type. The average values for the twelve types of examinations varied with a factor up to 15. It must be emphasized that a judgement of x-ray examinations based on one single parameter, the patient dose, is not fair. Low doses may imply poor diagnostic accuracy, high doses may be justified when the patient sample is representing many unusual clinical problems which are leading to more excessive examinations, which might be the case in e. g. university hospitals. Another problem is that the various examination types are not defined unambiguously, meaning that the clinical problem to be solved and hence the extent of the examination may differ between various clinics. Some parameters that are directly influencing the spread in patient dose have been identified, e. g. different sensitivities of the image receptors, different numbers of projections, differences in patient anatomy and different fluoroscopy times. It became obvious that the large dose variations cannot be accounted for by merely medical reasons. This is supported by the response from clinics after being informed that their doses were high. Straight forward countermeasures for dose reduction could be taken as e. g. changing the (insensitive) image receptor, increasing the filtration or modifying the examination methodology. Based on these results SSI will continue with the work of introducing diagnostic reference levels. In addition to numerical values and instructions on how and how often assessments have to be

  4. Gas position sensitive x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.F.

    1994-12-01

    The construction of gas x-ray detectors used to count and localize x-ray photons in one and two dimensions is reported. The principles of operation of the detectors are described, as well as the electronic modules comprised in the data acquisition system. Results obtained with detectors built at CBPF are shown, illustrating the performance of the Linear Position Sensitive Detectors. (author). 6 refs, 14 figs

  5. Target for production of X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  6. Target for production of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented

  7. Target for production of X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S. A.

    2004-09-01

    The patented new type of X-ray target is considered in this report. The main concept of the target consists in developing a sandwich structure depositing a coating of materials with high Z on the substrate with low Z, high thermal conductivity and high thermal stability. The target presents multiple layers system. The thermal conditions for X-ray target are discussed. The experimental results for Ta target on the Al and Cu substrates are presented.

  8. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  13. The Ultracompact Nature of the Black Hole Candidate X-Ray Binary 47 Tuc X9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Tudor, Vlad; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    47 Tuc X9 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, and was previously thought to be a cataclysmic variable. However, Miller-Jones et al. recently identified a radio counterpart to X9 (inferring a radio X-ray luminosity ratio consistent with black hole LMXBs), and suggested that the donor star might be a white dwarf. We report simultaneous observations of X9 performed by Chandra, NuSTAR and Australia Telescope Compact Array. We find a clear 28.18+/- 0.02-min periodic modulation in the Chandra data, which we identify as the orbital period, confirming this system as an ultracompact X-ray binary. Our X-ray spectral fitting provides evidence for photoionized gas having a high oxygen abundance in this system, which indicates a CO white dwarf donor. We also identify reflection features in the hard X-ray spectrum, making X9 the faintest LMXB to show X-ray reflection. We detect an approx. 6.8-d modulation in the X-ray brightness by a factor of 10, in archival Chandra, Swift and ROSAT data. The simultaneous radio X-ray flux ratio is consistent with either a black hole primary or a neutron star primary, if the neutron star is a transitional millisecond pulsar. Considering the measured orbital period (with other evidence of a white dwarf donor), and the lack of transitional millisecond pulsar features in the X-ray light curve, we suggest that this could be the first ultracompact black hole X-ray binary identified in our Galaxy.

  14. A PILOT DEEP SURVEY FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM fuvAGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C. [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Stute, M. [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ∼(0.002–0.2) L{sub ⊙} and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ∼(35–160) × 10{sup 6} K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  15. Exploratory X-ray monitoring of luminous radio-quiet quasars at high redshift: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Stein, Matthew S. [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Paolillo, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II di Napoli, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kaspi, Shai [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università degli studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Lira, Paulina [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino del Observatorio 1515, Santiago (Chile); Gibson, Robert R., E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We present initial results from an exploratory X-ray monitoring project of two groups of comparably luminous radio-quiet quasars (RQQs). The first consists of four sources at 4.10 ≤ z ≤ 4.35, monitored by Chandra, and the second is a comparison sample of three sources at 1.33 ≤ z ≤ 2.74, monitored by Swift. Together with archival X-ray data, the total rest-frame temporal baseline spans ∼2-4 yr and ∼5-13 yr for the first and second group, respectively. Six of these sources show significant X-ray variability over rest-frame timescales of ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} days; three of these also show significant X-ray variability on rest-frame timescales of ∼1-10 days. The X-ray variability properties of our variable sources are similar to those exhibited by nearby and far less luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). While we do not directly detect a trend of increasing X-ray variability with redshift, we do confirm previous reports of luminous AGNs exhibiting X-ray variability above that expected from their luminosities, based on simplistic extrapolation from lower luminosity sources. This result may be attributed to luminous sources at the highest redshifts having relatively high accretion rates. Complementary UV-optical monitoring of our sources shows that variations in their optical-X-ray spectral energy distribution are dominated by the X-ray variations. We confirm previous reports of X-ray spectral variations in one of our sources, HS 1700+6416, but do not detect such variations in any of our other sources in spite of X-ray flux variations of up to a factor of ∼4. This project is designed to provide a basic assessment of the X-ray variability properties of RQQs at the highest accessible redshifts that will serve as a benchmark for more systematic monitoring of such sources with future X-ray missions.

  16. Material Discriminated X-Ray CT System by Using New X-Ray Imager with Energy Discriminate Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Material discriminated X-ray CT system has been constructed by using conventional X-ray tube (white X-ray source and photon-counting X-ray imager as an application with energy band detection. We have already reported material identify X-ray CT using K-shell edge method elsewhere. In this report the principle of material discrimination was adapted the separation of electron-density and atomic number from attenuation coefficient mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image in two wavelength X-ray CT method using white X-ray source and energy discriminated X-ray imager by using two monochrome X-ray source method. The measurement phantom was prepared as four kinds material rods (Carbon(C, Iron(Fe, Copper(Cu, Titanium(Ti rods of 3mm-diameter inside an aluminum(Al rod of 20mm-diameter. We could observed material discriminated X-ray CT reconstructed image, however, the discrimination properties were not good than two monochrome X-ray CT method. This results was could be explained because X-ray scattering, beam-hardening and so on based on white X-ray source, which could not observe in two monochrome X-ray CT method. However, since our developed CdTe imager can be detect five energy-bands at the same time, we can use multi-band analysis to decrease the least square error margin. We will be able to obtain more high separation in atomic number mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image by using this system.

  17. X-ray imaging: Status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Martz, H.E.; Hernandez, J.M.; Haskins, J.J.; Day, R.A.; Brase, J.M.; Cross, B.; Wherry, D.

    1987-08-01

    There is a veritable renaissance occurring in x-ray imaging. X-ray imaging by radiography has been a highly developed technology in medicine and industry for many years. However, high resolution imaging has not generally been practical because sources have been relatively dim and diffuse, optical elements have been nonexistent for most applications, and detectors have been slow and of low resolution. Materials analysis needs have therefore gone unmet. Rapid progress is now taking place because we are able to exploit developments in microelectronics and related material fabrication techniques, and because of the availability of intense x-ray sources. This report describes the methods and uses of x-ray imaging along with a discussion of technology advances in these areas

  18. 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Menoni, Carmen; Marconi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2014). This conference is part of a continuing series dedicated to recent developments and applications of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with attention to supporting technologies and instrumentation. New results in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays and progress toward practical devices and their applications in numerous fields are reported. Areas of research in plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generation, and other x-ray generation schemes are covered.  The scope of ICXRL 2014 included, but was not limited to: Laser-pumped X-ray lasers Discharge excitation and other X-ray laser pumping methods Injection/seeding of X-ray amplifiers New lasing transitions and novel X-ray laser schemes High Harmonic sources-Free-electron laser generation in the XUV and X-ray range Novel schemes for coherent XUV and X-ray ge...

  19. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  20. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  1. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  2. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  3. X-ray calibration qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Since the recent publication of IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 374 ''Calibration of Dosimeters Used in Radiotheraphy'', there have been a number of queries about the origin of, and the rationale behind, the X-ray qualities recommended for calibration purposes. The simple answer is that these are the qualities derived at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in 1971 for calibration of therapy-level dosimeters and which are still in use for that purpose. As some SSDLs may have difficulties in adopting these exact combinations of kV and filtration. This paper discusses the basic ideas involved, and how to go about deriving a different series of qualities

  4. Development of X-ray excitable luminescent probes for scanning X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moronne, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Transmission soft X-ray microscopy is now capable of achieving resolutions that are typically 5 times better than the best-visible light microscopes. With expected improvements in zone plate optics, an additional factor of two may be realized within the next few years. Despite the high resolution now available with X-ray microscopes and the high X-ray contrast provided by biological molecules in the soft X-ray region (λ=2-5 nm), molecular probes for localizing specific biological targets have been lacking. To circumvent this problem, X-ray excitable molecular probes are needed that can target unique biological features. In this paper we report our initial results on the development of lanthanide-based fluorescent probes for biological labeling. Using scanning luminescence X-ray microscopy (SLXM, Jacobsen et al., J. Microscopy 172 (1993) 121-129), we show that lanthanide organo-polychelate complexes are sufficiently bright and radiation resistant to be the basis of a new class of X-ray excitable molecular probes capable of providing at least a fivefold improvement in resolution over visible light microscopy. Lanthanide probes, able to bind 80-100 metal ions per molecule, were found to give strong luminescent signals with X-ray doses exceeding 10 8 Gy, and were used to label actin stress fibers and in vitro preparations of polymerized tubulin. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  6. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes.

  9. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  10. An X-ray view of the very faint black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Méndez, M.; Miller, J. M.; Degenaar, N.

    We report on the X-ray spectral (using XMM-Newton data) and timing behaviour [using XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data] of the very faint X-ray transient and black hole system Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum of this source can be

  11. Report of the specialists' workshop on phase transition studies on hydrogen-bonded crystals by neutron and X-ray diffractometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Shibuya, I.

    1989-01-01

    The report carries a total of 15 studies on hydrogen-bonded crystals made by means of neutron/X-ray diffraction which were presented at a technical study meeting held on December 12 and 13, 1988, at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. The report covers 'introduction', 'linear relation between transition temperature and hydrogen-bond length in KDP type crystals', 'X-ray study of crystal structure under high pressure in DKDP', 'crystal structure of ADP in the paraelectric phase', 'crystal structure of Rochelle salt in the paraelectric phase', 'distortion of AsO 4 in KDA', 'study of phase transition in KDP family by dielectric dispersion', 'dielectric relaxation and phase transition in ice Ih', 'Raman scattering study of KDP', 'mechanism of phase transition in KDP by Raman scattering study under high pressure-reinvestigation of the Peercy's conclusion', 'localized modes of proton in KDP', 'hyper-Raman scattering study of hydrogen-bonded crystals', 'phase transition of CDP', 'the 180deg law in phase diagram', and 'comments'. (N.K.)

  12. High temperature GaAs X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Whitaker, M. D. C.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa X-ray photodiodes were characterized for their electrical and photon counting X-ray spectroscopic performance over the temperature range of 100 °C to -20 °C. The devices had 10 μm thick i layers with different diameters: 200 μm (D1) and 400 μm (D2). The electrical characterization included dark current and capacitance measurements at internal electric field strengths of up to 50 kV/cm. The determined properties of the two devices were compared with previously reported results that were made with a view to informing the future development of photon counting X-ray spectrometers for harsh environments, e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces in high temperature environments. The best energy resolution obtained (Full Width at Half Maximum at 5.9 keV) decreased from 2.00 keV at 100 °C to 0.66 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D1, and from 2.71 keV at 100 °C to 0.71 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D2. Dielectric noise was found to be the dominant source of noise in the spectra, apart from at high temperatures and long shaping times, where the main source of photopeak broadening was found to be the white parallel noise.

  13. Observation and theory of X-ray mirages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnitskiy, Sergey; Nagorskiy, Nikolay; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana; Tanaka, Mamoko; Ishino, Masahiko; Nishikino, Masaharu; Fukuda, Yuji; Kando, Masaki; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    The advent of X-ray lasers allowed the realization of compact coherent soft X-ray sources, thus opening the way to a wide range of applications. Here we report the observation of unexpected concentric rings in the far-field beam profile at the output of a two-stage plasma-based X-ray laser, which can be considered as the first manifestation of a mirage phenomenon in X-rays. We have developed a method of solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations for this problem, and find that the experimentally observed phenomenon is due to the emergence of X-ray mirages in the plasma amplifier, appearing as phase-matched coherent virtual point sources. The obtained results bring a new insight into the physical nature of amplification of X-ray radiation in laser-induced plasma amplifiers and open additional opportunities for X-ray plasma diagnostics and extreme ultraviolet lithography.

  14. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  15. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  16. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  17. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  18. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  19. X-ray Binaries in the Central Region of M31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudolyubov, Sergey P.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Cordova, F. A.

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of the systematic survey of X-ray sources in the central region of M31 using the data of XMM-Newton observations. The spectral properties and variability of 124 bright X-ray sources were studied in detail. We found that more than 80% of sources observed in two or more observations show significant variability on the time scales of days to years. At least 50% of the sources in our sample are spectrally variable. The fraction of variable sources in our survey is much higher than previously reported from Chandra survey of M31, and is remarkably close to the fraction of variable sources found in M31 globular cluster X-ray source population. We present spectral distribution of M31 X-ray sources, based on the spectral fitting with a power law model. The distribution of spectral photon index has two main peaks at 1.8 and 2.3, and shows clear evolution with source luminosity. Based on the similarity of the properties of M31 X-ray sources and their Galactic counterparts, we expect most of X-ray sources in our sample to be accreting binary systems with neutron star and black hole primaries. Combining the results of X-ray analysis (X-ray spectra, hardness-luminosity diagrams and variability) with available data at other wavelengths, we explore the possibility of distinguishing between bright neutron star and black hole binary systems, and identify 7% and 25% of sources in our sample as a probable black hole and neutron star candidates. Finally, we compare the M31 X-ray source population to the source populations of normal galaxies of different morphological type. Support for this work was provided through NASA Grant NAG5-12390. Part of this work was done during a summer workshop ``Revealing Black Holes'' at the Aspen Center for Physics, S. T. is grateful to the Center for their hospitality.

  20. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  1. X-RAY STUDIES OF THE BLACK WIDOW PULSAR PSR B1957+20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R. H. H.; Kong, A. K. H.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Hui, C. Y.; Lin, L. C. C.

    2012-01-01

    We report on Chandra observations of the black widow pulsar, PSR B1957+20. Evidence for a binary-phase dependence of the X-ray emission from the pulsar is found with a deep observation. The binary-phase-resolved spectral analysis reveals non-thermal X-ray emission of PSR B1957+20, confirming the results of previous studies. This suggests that the X-rays are mostly due to intra-binary shock emission, which is strongest when the pulsar wind interacts with the ablated material from the companion star. The geometry of the peak emission is determined in our study. The marginal softening of the spectrum of the non-thermal X-ray tail may indicate that particles injected at the termination shock are dominated by synchrotron cooling.

  2. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2015-01-01

    of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10...... kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt...... outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre....

  3. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  4. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  5. Development of miniaturized proximity focused streak tubes for visible light and x-ray applications. Final report and progress, April-September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, J.J.; Knight, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    Research performed to develop miniaturized proximity focused streak camera tubes (PFST) for application in the visible and the x-ray modes of operation is described. The objective of this research was to provide an engineering design and to fabricate a visible and an x-ray prototype tube to be provided to LASL for test and evaluation. Materials selection and fabrication procedures, particularly the joining of beryllium to a suitable support ring for use as the x-ray window, are described in detail. The visible and x-ray PFST's were successfully fabricated

  6. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  7. The Secret Lives of Cepheids: δ Cep—The Prototype of a New Class of Pulsating X-Ray Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; Harper, Graham M.; Cuntz, Manfred; Remage Evans, Nancy; Neilson, Hilding R.; Fawzy, Diaa E.

    2017-03-01

    From our Secret Lives of Cepheids program, the prototype Classical Cepheid, δ Cep, is found to be an X-ray source with periodic pulsation-modulated X-ray variations. This finding complements our earlier reported phase-dependent FUV-UV emissions of the star that increase ˜10-20 times with highest fluxes at ˜ 0.90{--}0.95φ , just prior to maximum brightness. Previously δ Cep was found as potentially X-ray variable, using XMM-Newton observations. Additional phase-constrained data were secured with Chandra near X-ray emission peak, to determine if the emission and variability were pulsation-phase-specific to δ Cep and not transient or due to a possible coronally active, cool companion. The Chandra data were combined with prior XMM-Newton observations, and were found to very closely match the previously observed X-ray behavior. From the combined data set, a ˜4 increase in X-ray flux is measured, reaching a peak {L}{{X}} = 1.7 × 1029 erg s-1 near 0.45ϕ. The precise X-ray flux phasing with the star’s pulsation indicates that the emissions arise from the Cepheid and not from a companion. However, it is puzzling that the maximum X-ray flux occurs ˜0.5ϕ (˜3 days) later than the FUV-UV maximum. There are several other potential Cepheid X-ray detections with properties similar to δ Cep, and comparable X-ray variability is indicated for two other Cepheids: β Dor and V473 Lyr. X-ray generating mechanisms in δ Cep and other Cepheids are discussed. If additional Cepheids are confirmed to show phased X-ray variations, then δ Cep will be the prototype of a new class of pulsation-induced X-ray variables.

  8. Massive stars and X-ray pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrichs, H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of 7 separate articles entitled: long term changes in ultraviolet lines in γ CAS, UV observations of γ CAS: intermittent mass-loss enhancement, episodic mass loss in γ CAS and in other early-type stars, spin-up and spin-down of accreting neutron stars, an excentric close binary model for the X Persei system, has a 97 minute periodicity in 4U 1700-37/HD 153919 really been discovered, and, mass loss and stellar wind in massive X-ray binaries. (Articles 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7 have been previously published). The first three articles are concerned with the irregular mass loss in massive stars. The fourth critically reviews thoughts since 1972 on the origin of the changes in periodicity shown by X-ray pulsars. The last articles indicate the relation between massive stars and X-ray pulsars. (C.F.)

  9. Contribution to industrial X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, J.; Thomas, G.

    1983-06-01

    Based on the previous experience on medical scanner, a prototype of industrial X-Ray scanner has been studied and realized by the CEA. This apparatus uses a 420 kVolts generator as a beam source. The results obtained are shown. The characteristics of a flexible and polyvalent system well adapted to industrial testing are defined [fr

  10. A Chandra High-Resolution X-ray Image of Centaurus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft; Forman; Jones; Kenter; Murray; Aldcroft; Elvis; Evans; Fabbiano; Isobe; Jerius; Karovska; Kim; Prestwich; Primini; Schwartz; Schreier; Vikhlinin

    2000-03-01

    We present first results from a Chandra X-Ray Observatory observation of the radio galaxy Centaurus A with the High-Resolution Camera. All previously reported major sources of X-ray emission including the bright nucleus, the jet, individual point sources, and diffuse emission are resolved or detected. The spatial resolution of this observation is better than 1&arcsec; in the center of the field of view and allows us to resolve X-ray features of this galaxy not previously seen. In particular, we resolve individual knots of emission in the inner jet and diffuse emission between the knots. All of the knots are diffuse at the 1&arcsec; level, and several exhibit complex spatial structure. We find the nucleus to be extended by a few tenths of an arcsecond. Our image also suggests the presence of an X-ray counterjet. Weak X-ray emission from the southwest radio lobe is also seen, and we detect 63 pointlike galactic sources (probably X-ray binaries and supernova remnants) above a luminosity limit of approximately 1.7x1037 ergs s-1.

  11. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  14. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  19. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Measurements of Plasma Conditions at Early Times in ICF Experiments on OMEGA. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, Hans R.; Elton, Raymond C.

    2000-01-01

    Our previously-reported observation of a disruptive prepulse on OMEGA, possibly as large as 1% of the extreme ultraviolet (euv) radiation measured from the main pulse, has recently been substantiated by the measurement of euv absorption spectra, prior to the main pulse. The absorption features have been identified with n=2 photoionization in aluminum atoms and ions up to Al5+. Cold aluminum is originally present as a 0.0125-um thick sealant coating applied to a neon-filled (10 atm) CH microballoon, with an euv transmission at the L-absorption edge of ∼50%. The aluminum in turn is overcoated with 2 um of Mg. The spectra which show the absorption also include continua as well as line emissions from Mg9+ to Mg11+ ions. These occur prior to the onset of laser target irradiation by at least 10 ns, and imply a prepulse irradiance of about 10 12 W/cm 2 . Since the neon and CH are opaque to euv radiation from the rear, a likely scenario is early (prepulse) vaporization of the outer Mg layer, perhaps in hot spots, followed by laser radiation transmitted through the thin Al layer, thereby heating the CH surface. This could provide an euv continuum backlighter for the aluminum that leads to the euv absorption features in various ionic species, perhaps from different points on the target surface

  20. X-RAY-EMITTING STARS IDENTIFIED FROM THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY AND THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Newsom, Emily R.; Anderson, Scott F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Szkody, Paula; Covey, Kevin R.; Posselt, Bettina; Margon, Bruce; Voges, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) was the first imaging X-ray survey of the entire sky. Combining the RASS Bright and Faint Source Catalogs yields an average of about three X-ray sources per square degree. However, while X-ray source counterparts are known to range from distant quasars to nearby M dwarfs, the RASS data alone are often insufficient to determine the nature of an X-ray source. As a result, large-scale follow-up programs are required to construct samples of known X-ray emitters. We use optical data produced by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to identify 709 stellar X-ray emitters cataloged in the RASS and falling within the SDSS Data Release 1 footprint. Most of these are bright stars with coronal X-ray emission unsuitable for SDSS spectroscopy, which is designed for fainter objects (g > 15 [mag]). Instead, we use SDSS photometry, correlations with the Two Micron All Sky Survey and other catalogs, and spectroscopy from the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope to identify these stellar X-ray counterparts. Our sample of 707 X-ray-emitting F, G, K, and M stars is one of the largest X-ray-selected samples of such stars. We derive distances to these stars using photometric parallax relations appropriate for dwarfs on the main sequence, and use these distances to calculate L X . We also identify a previously unknown cataclysmic variable (CV) as a RASS counterpart. Separately, we use correlations of the RASS and the SDSS spectroscopic catalogs of CVs and white dwarfs (WDs) to study the properties of these rarer X-ray-emitting stars. We examine the relationship between (f X /f g ) and the equivalent width of the Hβ emission line for 46 X-ray-emitting CVs and discuss tentative classifications for a subset based on these quantities. We identify 17 new X-ray-emitting DA (hydrogen) WDs, of which three are newly identified WDs. We report on follow-up observations of three candidate cool X-ray-emitting WDs (one DA and two DB (helium) WDs); we have not

  1. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  2. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  3. Chandra's Observations of Jupiter's X-Ray Aurora During Juno Upstream and Apojove Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, C.M.; Dunn, W.; Kraft, R.; Gladstone, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Knigge, C.; Altamirano, D.; Elsner, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Chandra space telescope has recently conducted a number of campaigns to observe Jupiter's X-ray aurora. The first set of campaigns took place in summer 2016 while the Juno spacecraft was upstream of the planet sampling the solar wind. The second set of campaigns took place in February, June and August 2017 at times when the Juno spacecraft was at apojove (expected close to the magnetopause). We report on these upstream and apojove campaigns including intensities and periodicities of auroral X-ray emissions. This new era of jovian X-ray astronomy means we have more data than ever before, long observing windows (up to 72 kiloseconds for this Chandra set), and successive observations relatively closely spaced in time. These features combine to allow us to pursue novel methods for examining periodicities in the X-ray emission. Our work will explore significance testing of emerging periodicities, and the search for coherence in X-ray pulsing over weeks and months, seeking to understand the robustness and regularity of previously reported hot spot X-ray emissions. The periods that emerge from our analysis will be compared against those which emerge from radio and UV wavelengths.

  4. A library for X-ray-matter interaction cross sections for X-ray fluorescence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it; Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Golosio, B. [INFN, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Simionovici, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon, F-69364 (France); Somogyi, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2004-10-08

    Quantitative estimate of elemental composition by spectroscopic and imaging techniques using X-ray fluorescence requires the availability of accurate data of X-ray interaction with matter. Although a wide number of computer codes and data sets are reported in literature, none of them is presented in the form of freely available library functions which can be easily included in software applications for X-ray fluorescence. This work presents a compilation of data sets from different published works and an xraylib interface in the form of callable functions. Although the target applications are on X-ray fluorescence, cross sections of interactions like photoionization, coherent scattering and Compton scattering, as well as form factors and anomalous scattering functions, are also available.

  5. Three Bright X-ray Sources in NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E.; Petre, R.; Schlegel, E.

    1992-12-01

    Three bright X-ray sources were detected in a recent (April/May 1991) ROSAT PSPC observation of the nearby (D ~ 4.5 Mpc) face--on barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313. Two of the sources were at positions coincident with X-ray sources detected by Fabbiano & Trinchieri (ApJ 315, 1987) in a previous (Jan 1980) Einstein IPC observation. The position of the brightest Einstein source is near the center of NGC 1313, and the second Einstein source is ~ 7' south of the ``nuclear'' source, in the outskirts of the spiral arms. A third bright X-ray source was detected in the ROSAT observation ~ 7' southwest of the ``nuclear'' source. We present X-ray spectra and X-ray images for the three bright sources found in the ROSAT observation of NGC 1313, and compare with previous Einstein results. Spectral analysis of these sources require them to have very large soft X-ray luminosities ( ~ 10(40) erg s(-1) ) when compared with typical X-ray sources in our Galaxy. Feasible explanations for the X-ray emission are presented. The third X-ray source is positively identified with the recently discovered (Ryder et. al., ApJ 1992) peculiar type-II supernova 1978K.

  6. X-ray spectroscopy with EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Cauble, R.; Chen, M.; DelGrande, N.; Knapp, D.; Marrs, R.; Osterheld, A.; Reed, K.; Schneider, M.; Scofield, J.; Wong, K.; Vogel, D.; Zasadzinski, R.; Chantrenne, S.; Wargelin, B.

    1992-04-01

    X-ray spectroscopy with the Livermore electron beam ion traps provides data on a wide range of atomic physics issues including ionization, recombination, and excitation cross sections, identification of forbidden transitions, and contributions from relatively and quantum electrodynamics to the transition energies. Here we briefly discuss the source characteristics and x-ray instrumentation, and report measurements of the excitation cross sections of the Kα transitions in heliumlike Ti 20+ as a function of beam energy. The measurements allow detailed comparisons with theoretical predictions of the direct electron-impact excitation cross sections, resonance-excitation contributions, and the electron temperature dependence of the ratio of triplet and singlet lines. The results demonstrate the importance of such measurements for increasing the reliability of x-ray diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas

  7. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  8. Use of X-ray computed tomography in core analysis of tight North Sea Chalk. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, K.; Stenby, E.H.

    1997-12-01

    This EFP-95 final report summarizes work performed at the Engineering Research Center (IVC-SEP) on the use of CT scanning in core analysis of tight core material from the North Sea. In this work, CT scanning has been applied to chalk material from Danish North Sea oil reservoirs. Results indicate that CT is fast and reliable for prediction of porosity. Typical errors lie within 2-3%. Calculation of fluid saturations requires considerable care from the experimentalists. Saturating a core ought to be performed by pulling vacuum to avoid trapped air bubbles. These bubbles may be produced after subsequent water and gas flooding, thereby ruining the mass balance calculations. Results performed at Stanford University show that if these simple precautions are taken, fluid saturations calculated from CT scanning are generally very accurate. Moreover, it appears that contrast agents need not be added to either phase. Regarding three-phase measurements the results are somewhat disappointing. Previous work using the dual-energy technique has indicated that the accuracy is less than satisfactory, due to an increased noise level at the low-energy setting. More work needs to be done in the future to develop the necessary expertise. The image analysis of the residual oil saturation after a gas flood can be simplified if water is assumed to be immobile during the injection. In that case, the resulting prediction of residual oil saturation is in excellent agreement with measured values. The general conclusion is that CT scanning holds a great potential as an assisting tool in modern core analysis, despite its limitations and the numerous implementation-related problems encountered during this work. (au) EFP-95. 57 refs.

  9. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  10. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  11. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R.; Lin, Yong; Wilder, Julie; Hutt, Julie A.; Padilla, Mabel T.; Gott, Katherine M.

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  12. X-ray observations of symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia)

    1981-11-01

    Observations of 19 symbiotic stars made with the image proportional counter of the Einstein Observatory are reported. Three were detected as soft X-ray sources. All three have shown slow-nova eruptions in the past 40 years. The data are interpreted as support for a model for slow novae involving thermonuclear events on white dwarfs which accrete from M giant companions. Symbiotic stars in their steady state, not being detected X-ray sources, are presumed to be powered by the accretion process alone.

  13. X-ray observations of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of 19 symbiotic stars made with the image proportional counter of the Einstein Observatory are reported. Three were detected as soft X-ray sources. All three have shown slow-nova eruptions in the past 40 years. The data are interpreted as support for a model for slow novae involving thermonuclear events on white dwarfs which accrete from M giant companions. Symbiotic stars in their steady state, not being detected X-ray sources, are presumed to be powered by the accretion process alone. (author)

  14. Infrared and X-ray bursts from the rapid burster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Chitre, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on sudden bursts from the cosmic X-ray sources are reported. The processes occuring from the rise in luminosity of an x-ray source to its collapse are described. Records of the x-ray burst from the globular cluster NGC 6624 and the 'Rapid Burster' are shown. The Infra-red bursts from the Rapid Burster are also explained. (A.K.)

  15. Design and fabrication of soft x-ray mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, Masaru; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kazuo [Shimadzu Corp., Production Engineering Laboratory, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic technology is important for measuring the chemical status of material surface in the LSI manufacturing process. We report on non-spherical mirrors focusing laser-induced plasma soft x-ray to fine sample surface. We designed toric and ellipsoidal mirror as soft x-ray condensing means, simulated focusing image, manufactured mirror surface on fused quartz substrate, and measured form accuracy. (author)

  16. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  17. From Surface Down To Bulk X-Ray Channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.

    2003-01-01

    The basic point to be considered in this report is that X-ray capillary optics relies on the ability of a tapered and/or bent capillary channel to act as an X-ray waveguide. Recently several coherent phenomena associated with propagation of X-rays in capillary optical elements have been observed. In order to describe coherent phenomena of radiation propagation a quantum-wave theory of X-ray channeling was developed. Simple estimations speak on possibility of X-ray channeling in nano-scale capillaries, but with a significant change in character of channeling. In this connection, discovery of carbon nanotubes opens new opportunities to apply capillary waveguide optics. X-ray propagation in capillary micro- and nanostructures within the frame of wave approach will be discussed

  18. PAL-XFEL soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics: First commissioning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kim, Minseok; Min, Changi-Ki; Eom, Intae; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Heung-Soo; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seonghan; Hwang, Sun-min; Park, Gi-Soo; Park, Jaehun; Koo, Tae-Yeong; Kwon, Soonnam

    2018-05-01

    We report an overview of soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics at the free electron laser (FEL) of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, with selected first-commissioning results. The FEL exhibited a pulse energy of 200 μJ/pulse, a pulse width of power of 10 500 was achieved. The estimated total time resolution between optical laser and X-ray pulses was <270 fs. A resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer was set up; its commissioning results are also reported.

  19. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  20. Parameters estimation for X-ray sources: positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the sizes of the positional error boxes for x-ray sources can be determined by using an estimation method which we have previously formulated generally and applied in spectral analyses. It is explained how this method can be used by scanning x-ray telescopes, by rotating modulation collimators, and by HEAO-A (author)

  1. X-RAY IRRADIATION OF THE LkCa 15 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Guedel, Manuel, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-03-01

    LkCa 15 in the Taurus star-forming region has recently gained attention as the first accreting T Tauri star likely to host a young protoplanet. High spatial resolution infrared observations have detected the suspected protoplanet within a dust-depleted inner gap of the LkCa 15 transition disk at a distance of {approx}15 AU from the star. If this object's status as a protoplanet is confirmed, then LkCa 15 will serve as a unique laboratory for constraining physical conditions within a planet-forming disk. Previous models of the LkCa 15 disk have accounted for disk heating by the stellar photosphere but have ignored the potential importance of X-ray ionization and heating. We report here the detection of LkCa 15 as a bright X-ray source with Chandra. The X-ray emission is characterized by a cool, heavily absorbed plasma component at kT {sub cool} Almost-Equal-To 0.3 keV and a harder component at kT {sub hot} Almost-Equal-To 5 keV. We use the observed X-ray properties to provide initial estimates of the X-ray ionization and heating rates within the tenuous inner disk. These estimates and the observed X-ray properties of LkCa 15 can be used as a starting point for developing more realistic disk models of this benchmark system.

  2. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  4. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  5. X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Martin; Bunk, O.; David, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the application of the PILATUS 100K pixel detector for medical imaging. Experimental results are presented in the form of X-ray radiographs using standard X-ray absorption contrast and a recently developed phase contrast imaging method. The results obtained with the PILATUS detector...... are compared to results obtained with a conventional X-ray imaging system consisting of an X-ray scintillation screen, lens optics, and a charge coupled device. Finally, the results for both systems are discussed more quantitatively based on an image power spectrum analysis. Udgivelsesdato: April...

  6. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  7. THE X-RAY FLUX DISTRIBUTION OF SAGITTARIUS A* AS SEEN BY CHANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, J.; Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute, Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >Markoff, S.; Nowak, M. A.; Baganoff, F. K.; Dexter, J.; Witzel, G.; Barrière, N.; Li, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Fragile, P. C.; Gammie, C.; Goldwurm, A.; Grosso, N.; Haggard, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray flux distribution of Sgr A* from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory's 3 Ms Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project in 2012. Our analysis indicates that the observed X-ray flux distribution can be decomposed into a steady quiescent component, represented by a Poisson process with rate Q = (5.24 ± 0.08) × 10 –3  counts s –1 , and a variable component, represented by a power law process (dN/dF∝F –ξ , ξ=1.92 −0.02 +0.03 ). This slope matches our recently reported distribution of flare luminosities. The variability may also be described by a log-normal process with a median unabsorbed 2-8 keV flux of 1.8 −0.6 +0.8 ×10 −14  erg s –1  cm –2 and a shape parameter σ = 2.4 ± 0.2, but the power law provides a superior description of the data. In this decomposition of the flux distribution, all of the intrinsic X-ray variability of Sgr A* (spanning at least three orders of magnitude in flux) can be attributed to flaring activity, likely in the inner accretion flow. We confirm that at the faint end, the variable component contributes ∼10% of the apparent quiescent flux, as previously indicated by our statistical analysis of X-ray flares in these Chandra observations. Our flux distribution provides a new and important observational constraint on theoretical models of Sgr A*, and we use simple radiation models to explore the extent to which a statistical comparison of the X-ray and infrared can provide insights into the physics of the X-ray emission mechanism

  8. Supernova remnants in M33: X-ray properties as observed by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofali, Kristen; Williams, Benjamin F.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Wold, Brian; Haberl, Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Gross, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    We have carried out a study of the X-ray properties of the supernova remnant (SNR) population in M33 with XMM-Newton, comprising deep observations of eight fields in M33 covering all of the area within the D25 contours, and with a typical luminosity of 7.1 × 1034 erg s-1 (0.2-2.0 keV). Here, we report our work to characterize the X-ray properties of the previously identified SNRs in M33, as well as our search for new X-ray detected SNRs. With our deep observations and large field of view we have detected 105 SNRs at the 3σ level, of which 54 SNRs are newly detected in X-rays, and three are newly discovered SNRs. Combining XMM-Newton data with deep Chandra survey data allows detailed spectral fitting of 15 SNRs, for which we have measured temperatures, ionization time-scales and individual abundances. This large sample of SNRs allows us to construct an X-ray luminosity function, and compare its shape to luminosity functions from host galaxies of differing metallicities and star formation rates to look for environmental effects on SNR properties. We conclude that while metallicity may play a role in SNR population characteristics, differing star formation histories on short time-scales, and small-scale environmental effects appear to cause more significant differences between X-ray luminosity distributions. In addition, we analyse the X-ray detectability of SNRs, and find that in M33 SNRs with higher [S II]/H α ratios, as well as those with smaller galactocentric distances, are more detectable in X-rays.

  9. Epidemiological evidence for the risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrington, A.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the risk of cancer following exposure to a single moderate or high dose of ionising radiation has been studied extensively and is quite well understood. The size of the risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays, which are low dose, fractionated exposures and constitute the largest man-made source of radiation exposure, is much more uncertain. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the risk of cancer to radiologists and to the population from exposure to diagnostic X-rays using various epidemiological methods. The effect of fractionated radiation exposure was investigated in a cohort of 2698 British radiologists who first registered with a radiological society after 1921. There was no evidence of an overall excess risk of cancer mortality. However, there was evidence of an increasing trend in cancer mortality with time since registration with the society (p=0.0002), such that those who had first registered more than 40 years previously had a 41% (95% Cl: 3% to 90%) excess risk compared to cancer mortality rates for all medical practitioners. Indirect estimates of the risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays to the population were calculated with lifetable methods. Using data on the current annual frequency of diagnostic X-ray exposures to the population, estimated organ doses from these X-rays and models for the risk of cancer from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, it was estimated that 1.5% of the lifetime risk of cancer in the U.K. population could be attributable to diagnostic X-ray exposures. In fourteen other developed countries estimates ranged from 1.6% in Finland to 8.6% in Japan. Several published case-control studies of leukaemia, brain and parotid gland tumours and thyroid cancer demonstrated significant excess risks with self-reported exposures to diagnostic X-rays. Analysis of original data from a case-control study of thyroid cancer in Kuwait also found a significant trend in risk with estimated thyroid dose from self-reported upper-body X-rays

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  13. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

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    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  16. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

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    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

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  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  19. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  20. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  1. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  4. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  5. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  13. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  14. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  15. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  16. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  17. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  18. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  19. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  20. X-RAY ACTIVE MATRIX PIXEL SENSORS BASEDON J-FET TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR THE LINAC COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARINI,G.A.; CHEN, W.; LI, Z.; REHAK, P.; SIDDONS, D.P.

    2007-10-29

    An X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) is being developed for recording data for the X-ray Pump Probe experiment at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Special attention has to be paid to some technological challenges that this design presents. New processes were developed and refined to address problems encountered during previous productions of XAMPS. The development of these critical steps and corresponding tests results are reported here.

  1. Optimization of parameters affecting LSM performance as diffractors of x rays: Final technical report, 13 May 1986-31 October 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.V.

    1987-10-01

    Our efforts during this contract period were directed toward a deeper understanding of several important issues related to multilayer x-ray mirrors. The results have important practical applications. The topics studied included: Basic Stress-Strain-Curvature Theory for Thin Silicon Wafers with Oxide and Nitride Films; this theory and accompanying experimental verification could form the basis for development of a code that will be able to predict the final figure of a silicon substrate that has been etched and treated with oxide or nitride films; this code will allow the design and fabrication of sophisticated curved multilayers; we have applied our theoretical understanding of multilayers to the design of multilayer x-ray optics; Multilayer X-ray Data Analysis Codes; these codes allow the massaging and display of x-ray multilayer characterization data in a wide variety of graphical ways; the code is user friendly; simulation of multilayers behavior in a high x-ray flux environment; this code combines an x-ray input code (BUCKL) with a 1-D hydrodynamic code (Chart-D) and our own iterative multilayer design code to determine the reflectivity of multilayers as a function of time when the multilayer is in a region of high x-ray flux; BUCKL and Chart-D are from Sandia Labs.; and we have completed the first series of experimental measurements of multilayer reflectivity while subjected to a pulse of intense x-ray flux; the experiments were done with the Phoenix laser at LLNL; the results are included. 48 refs., 29 figs

  2. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  3. Development of a high resolution, high sensitivity cylindrical crystal spectrometer for line shape diagnostics of x-rays emitted from hot plasmas. Progress report, August 1, 1977--July 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.O.; Schnopper, H.

    1978-05-01

    This report oulines progress towards development of a high resolution, high throughput, curved crystal spectrometer suitable for line shape diagnostics of x-rays emitted from hot plasmas. The instrument is designed to interface with the MIT Tokamak (Alcator) with the initial aim of studying the prominent MoL lines which occur in the x-ray spectrum. However, it will have the versatility to function over an energy range of at least 1.5 keV to 7 keV allowing determination of temperature, charge state and density distributions for important impurity ions. The spectrometer employs a large, cylindrically bent crystal which focuses the dispersed x-rays along the cylinder axis where they are recorded by a position sensitive proportional counter. Thus, a wide energy range of the spectrum can be recorded simultaneously and sensitively from a short duration plasma. Computer control of data acquisition and analysis will allow real-time diagnostics

  4. X-ray testing of fiber composite plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, O.; Lembke, B.

    1984-01-01

    Besides the ultrasonic test, X-raying is the most important non-destructive test procedure for supporting fibre composite structures. This report presents some auxiliary means and test results regarding the limits of fault detectibility during the X-raying of fiber composite structures, preferrably carbon fiber laminates (CFRP). (orig.) [de

  5. Optical observations of binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynton, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution to the recent progress in astronomy made by optical observations is pointed out. The optical properties of X-ray sources help to establish the physical nature of these objects. The current observational evidence on the binary X-ray sources HZ Her/Her X-1 and HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 is reported. (P.J.S.)

  6. X-ray generation by femtosecond laser pulses and its application to soft X-ray imaging microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2002-01-01

    We have developed laser-produced plasma X-ray sources using femtosecond laser pulses at 10Hz repetition rate in a table-top size in order to investigate basic mechanism of X-ray emission from laser-matter interactions and its application to a X-ray microscope. In a soft X-ray region over 5 nm wavelength, laser-plasma X-ray emission from a solid target achieved an intense flux of photons of the order of 1011 photons/rad per pulse with duration of a few 100 ps, which is intense enough to make a clear imaging in a short time exposure. As an application of laser-produced plasma X-ray source, we have developed a soft X-ray imaging microscope operating in the wavelength range around 14 nm. The microscope consists of a cylindrically ellipsoidal condenser mirror and a Schwarzshird objective mirror with highly-reflective multilayers. We report preliminary results of performance tests of the soft X-ray imaging microscope with a compact laser-produced plasma X-ray source

  7. X-ray shout echoing through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    gamma-ray explosion is shown in each panel in seconds. At their largest size, the rings would appear in the sky about five times smaller than the full moon. Credit: ESA, S. Vaughan (University of Leicester) More about XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is expected to return data for a decade. XMM-Newton's high-tech design uses over 170 wafer-thin cylindrical mirrors spread over three telescopes. Its orbit takes it almost a third of the way to the Moon, so that astronomers can enjoy long, uninterrupted views of celestial objects.

  8. Cosmological Implications of the Effects of X-Ray Clusters on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, William R.

    1996-01-01

    We have been carrying forward a program to confront X-ray observations of clusters and their evolution as derived from X-ray observatories with observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). In addition to the material covered in our previous reports (including three published papers), most recently we have explored the effects of a cosmological constant on the predicted Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from the ensemble of clusters. In this report we summarize that work from which a paper will be prepared.

  9. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Chicago until his death in 1995. The Chandra X-ray Observatory will help astronomers worldwide better understand the structure and evolution of the universe by studying powerful sources of X rays such as exploding stars, matter falling into black holes and other exotic celestial objects. X-radiation is an invisible form of light produced by multimillion degree gas. Chandra will provide X-ray images that are fifty times more detailed than previous missions. At more than 45 feet in length and weighing more than five tons, it will be one of the largest objects ever placed in Earth orbit by the Space Shuttle. Tyrel Johnson, a student at Priest River Lamanna High School in Priest River, Idaho, and Jatila van der Veen, a physics and astronomy teacher at Adolfo Camarillo High School in Camarillo, California, who submitted the winning name and essays, will receive a trip to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida to view the launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, a prize donated by TRW. Members of the contest's selection committee were Timothy Hannemann, executive vice president and general manager, TRW Space & Electronics Group; the late CNN correspondent John Holliman; former Secretary of the Air Force Sheila Widnall, professor of aeronautics at MIT; Charles Petit, senior writer for U.S. News & World Report; Sidney Wolff, Director, National Optical Astronomy Observatories; Martin Weisskopf, Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility project scientist, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL.; and Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility Science Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory program is managed by the Marshall Center for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC. TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA, is NASA's prime contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations of the observatory for NASA

  10. Analysis of sculptures using XRF and X-ray radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Freitas, R. P.; Rocha, H. S.; Nascimento, J. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood using X-ray Radiography and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. The first case is the analysis of a sculpture portraying Saint Sebastian, the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro, which is considered the second most ancient sacred image of Brazil. This sculpture was made in Portugal and was transported to Brazil by Estácio Sá, founder of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 1565. Nowadays, it is located on the main altar of the Church of Capuchin Friars. The second case is the analysis of a sculpture representing Our Lady of Conception, which is located in the D. João VI Museum (EBA/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro). The objective of these analyses was to evaluate the general conditions of the sculptures, identifying possible problems and internal damages, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the materials and pigments employed by the artists, in order to assist its restoration procedures. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek and an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube with W anode. An X-ray source, a CR System GE CR50P and IP detectors were used to perform the radiographs. The XRF analysis of the sculptures identified the original pigments in both cases and the radiographic images revealed details of the manufacture; restored regions; extensive use of lead white; presence of cracks on the wood; use of nails and spikes, etc.

  11. Trends in x-ray photography and patient exposure dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Takeo; Sanada, Shigeru; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke

    1980-01-01

    The exposure doses of patients in X-ray photography are influenced by such technological factors as X-ray tube voltage, filter, sensitizing screen, film and grid. Survey by questionnnaire was made previously in 1973 on the above factors. The trends five years after were surveyed similarly, in connection with the exposure doses of patients. Questionnaires were sent to 200 radiation technicians, and 121 (60.5%) answered the survey in March, 1979. The results in the cases of simple X-ray photography and obstetric, infant and breast X-ray photographings are described. X-ray tube voltage is generally on the increase. In the sensitizing screens, exposure doses are fairly decreased due to the use of improved intensifying screen (LT-II). In the grid, the ratio 8 : 1 is used more than 5 : 1. In the usage of additional filters and in the distance of photography, improvements are desired. (J.P.N.)

  12. Modeling Radiation Effects of Ultrasoft X Rays on the Basis of Amorphous Track Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Tamara; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that ultrasoft X rays (0.1-5 keV) show a higher biological effectiveness than high-energy photons. Similar to high-LET radiation, this is attributed to a rather localized dose distribution associated with a considerably smaller range of secondary electrons, which results in an increasing yield of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and potentially more complex lesions. We previously reported on the application of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion (GLOBLE) model to ultrasoft X rays, in which experimental values of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for DSB induction were used to show that this increasing DSB yield was sufficient to explain the enhanced effectiveness in the cell inactivation potential of ultrasoft X rays. Complementary to GLOBLE, we report here on a modeling approach to predict the increased DSB yield of ultrasoft X rays on the basis of amorphous track structure formed by secondary electrons, which was derived from Monte Carlo track structure simulations. This procedure is associated with increased production of single-strand break (SSB) clusters, which are caused by the highly localized energy deposition pattern induced by low-energy photons. From this, the RBE of ultrasoft X rays can be determined and compared to experimental data, showing that the inhomogeneity of the energy deposition pattern represents the key variable to describe the increased biological effectiveness of ultrasoft X rays. Thus, this work demonstrates an extended applicability of the amorphous track structure concept and tests its limits with respect to its predictive power. The employed model mechanism offers a possible explanation for how the cellular response to ultrasoft X rays is directly linked to the energy deposition properties on the nanometric scale.

  13. Development of a focussing-crystal spectrograph for x-rays from laser-fusion targets. Final report for the period ending September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Burek, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The report is arranged in five major sections, Section II describes the measurements of mica and lithium fluoride crystal properties before and after the cylindrical bending required for a Von-Hamos spectrograph. It also describes the property of mosaic focussing and the measurements of the spatial as well as spectral resolutions of bent crystals. Section III describes the imaging calculations which relate the instrument focussing capability to source misalignment. These calculations demonstrate the necessity to maintain fabrication and alignment precision which is about equal to the radiation source size, if the full potential of the instrument is to be realized. Section IV shows x-ray spectra obtained on the OMEGA 24 laser facility at LLE. The targets used were plastic shells, coated with copper either on the outside or the inside surface, germania shells, and krytpon-filled glass shells. The data indicate deeper heat penetration on the target surface, than predicted by a flux-limited heat transport model. In Section V, we list new spectral lines involving multiple electron excitation, which are observed here for the first time and whose wavelengths are calculated using Hartrer-Fock methods

  14. Discovery of Hard Nonthermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Méndez, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of nonthermal pulsed X-ray/soft gamma-ray emission up to ~150 keV from the anomalous 11.8 s X-ray pulsar AXP 1E 1841-045 located near the center of supernova remnant Kes 73 using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array and High Energy X-Ray Timing

  15. Particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    The accelerator based ion beam technique of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is discussed in some detail. This report pulls together all major reviews and references over the last ten years and reports on PIXE in vacuum and using external beams. The advantages, limitations, costs and types of studies that may be undertaken using an accelerator based ion beam technique such as PIXE, are also discussed. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 40 figs

  16. X-ray safety in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    In July 1979 the Ontario Advisory Committee on Radiology was formed to develop a comprehensive strategy for x-ray safety in the province. At its hearings the committee recieved submissions from groups representing physicians, dentists, chiropractors, radiological technicians, physiotherapists, podiatrists, and consumers, among others; these briefs are included as appendices to the report. The report surveys the historical background and the current situation in Ontario, and makes recommendations for an organized safety program. (L.L.)

  17. Correlated charge changing interactions and K x-ray emission in ion-atom collisions. Progress report, August 15, 1983-March 15, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, E.M.; Tanis, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    Correlations between K x-ray emission and charge-changing interactions have been investigated for highly charged vanadium and sulfur ions incident on gas targets under single collision conditions. From measurements of K x-rays coincident with single electron capture, significant new evidence was obtained for the existence of resonant-transfer-and-excitation (RTE) in 180 to 460 MeV V 19+ 20+ 21+ + He collisions and 70 to 160 MeV S 13+ + He collisions. The RTE process, which proceeds via an inverse Auger transition, is qualitatively analogous to dielectronic recombination. For both vanadium and sulfur, the cross section for coincidences between K x rays and capture showed strong resonant behavior. Of particular significance is the observation that for V + He all three charge states exhibited two maxima in the coincidence cross section. Calculations show that these maxima are correlated to intermediate states in the RTE process for which the excited and captured electrons have principal quantum numbers n = 2,2 and n = 2, greater than or equal to 3, respectively. In these same experiments, coincidences between K x-rays and ions which lose an electron were also measured, as well as cross sections for total K x-ray production and total electron capture and loss

  18. Pionic 4f-3d X-rays from 208Pb and 209Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, A.; Forsman, J.W.; MacDonald, J.A.; Marshall, G.M.; Numao, T.; Poffenberger, P.R.; Van Esbroek, P.; Kunselman, A.R.; Olaniyi, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray energies and widths of the pionic 4f-3d and 5g-4f transitions have been measured in 208 Pb and 209 Bi. The 3d widths obtained are in reasonable agreement with theory, and do not support the anomalously small values previously reported. (orig.)

  19. Observations of X-ray sources in the Large Magellanic cloud by the OSO-7 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Clark, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud with the 1-40 keV X-ray detectors on the OSO-7 satellite are reported. Results include the discovery of a previously unreported source LMC X-5, measurements of the spectral characteristics of four sources, and observations of their variability on time scales of months

  20. INTEGRAL finds renewed X-ray activity of the Neutron star X-ray transient SAX J1750.8-2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, Celia; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring observations (ATel #438) on UT 13 September 2015 18:50-22:32 reveal renewed X-ray activity from the low-mass X-ray binary transient and Type I X-ray burster SAX J1750.8-2900 (IAU Circ. #6597). The last outburst from this source was reported in 2011 (ATels #3170,...

  1. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R.; Garcia-Heras, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies

  2. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  3. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  4. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  5. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  6. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  7. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  8. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  9. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  10. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  11. Computerized tomography using high resolution X-ray imaging system with a microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaprazny, Z.; Korytar, D.; Konopka, P.; Ac, V.; Bielecki, J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there is an effort to image an internal structure of an object by using not only conventional 2D X-ray radiography but also using high resolution 3D tomography which is based on reconstruction of multiple 2D projections at various angular positions of the object. We have previously reported [1] the development and basic parameters of a high resolution x-ray imaging system with a microfocus source. We report the recent progress using this high resolution X-ray laboratory system in this work. These first findings show that our system is particularly suitable for light weight and nonmetallic objects such as biological objects, plastics, wood, paper, etc. where phase contrast helps to increase the visibility of the finest structures of the object. Phase-contrast X-ray Computerized Tomography is of our special interest because it is an emerging imaging technique that can be implemented at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and also in laboratory conditions using a microfocus X-ray tube or beam conditioning optics. (authors)

  12. Versatile, reprogrammable area pixel array detector for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0004079 is presented. The goal of the grant was to perform research, development and application of novel imaging x-ray detectors so as to effectively utilize the high intensity and brightness of the national synchrotron radiation facilities to enable previously unfeasible time-resolved x-ray research. The report summarizes the development of the resultant imaging x-ray detectors. Two types of detector platforms were developed: The first is a detector platform (called a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD) that can image continuously at over a thousand images per second while maintaining high efficiency for wide dynamic range signals ranging from 1 to hundreds of millions of x-rays per pixel per image. Research on an even higher dynamic range variant is also described. The second detector platform (called the Keck Pixel Array Detector) is capable of acquiring a burst of x-ray images at a rate of millions of images per second.

  13. Hohlraums energy balance and x-ray drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    For many years there has been an active ICF program in the US concentrating on x-ray drive. X-ray drive is produced by focusing laser beams into a high Z hohlraum. Conceptually, the radiation field comes close to thermodynamic equilibrium, that is it becomes isotropic and Planckian. These properties lead to the benefits of x-ray drive--it is relatively easy to obtain drive symmetry on a capsule with no small scalelengths drive perturbations. Other advantages of x-ray drive is the higher mass ablation rate, leading to lower growth rates for hydrodynamic instabilities. X-ray drive has disadvantages, principally the loss of energy to the walls of the hohlraum. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) review of blackbody radiation; (2) laser absorption and conversion to x-rays; (3) x-ray absorption coefficient in matter and Rosseland mean free path; (4) Marshak waves in high Z material; (5) x-ray albedo; and (6) power balance and hohlraum temperature

  14. Human genome sequencing with direct x-ray holographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    Direct holographic imaging of biological materials is widely applicable to the study of the structure, properties and action of genetic material. This particular application involves the sequencing of the human genome where prospective genomic imaging technology is composed of three subtechnologies, name an x-ray holographic camera, suitable chemistry and enzymology for the preparation of tagged DNA samples, and the illuminator in the form of an x-ray laser. We report appropriate x-ray camera, embodied by the instrument developed by MCR, is available and that suitable chemical and enzymatic procedures exist for the preparation of the necessary tagged DNA strands. Concerning the future development of the x-ray illuminator. We find that a practical small scale x-ray light source is indeed feasible. This outcome requires the use of unconventional physical processes in order to achieve the necessary power-compression in the amplifying medium. The understanding of these new physical mechanisms is developing rapidly. Importantly, although the x-ray source does not currently exist, the understanding of these new physical mechanisms is developing rapidly and the research has established the basic scaling laws that will determine the properties of the x-ray illuminator. When this x-ray source becomes available, an extremely rapid and cost effective instrument for 3-D imaging of biological materials can be applied to a wide range of biological structural assays, including the base-pair sequencing of the human genome and many questions regarding its higher levels of organization

  15. Small Pixel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel; Bray, Evan; Burrows, David N.; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Kern, Matthew; McQuaide, Maria; Wages, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    Concepts for future space-based X-ray observatories call for a large effective area and high angular resolution instrument to enable precision X-ray astronomy at high redshift and low luminosity. Hybrid CMOS detectors are well suited for such high throughput instruments, and the Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors, has recently developed new small pixel hybrid CMOS X-ray detectors. These prototype 128x128 pixel devices have 12.5 micron pixel pitch, 200 micron fully depleted depth, and include crosstalk eliminating CTIA amplifiers and in-pixel correlated double sampling (CDS) capability. We report on characteristics of these new detectors, including the best read noise ever measured for an X-ray hybrid CMOS detector, 5.67 e- (RMS).

  16. Small area silicon diffused junction X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. T.; Pehl, R. H.; Larsh, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low-temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy X-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 sq cm and a thickness of 100 microns. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values, indicating that the defects introduced by the high-temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low-energy X-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 K to 150 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low-energy X-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon-diffused junction technology to X-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon X-ray detector designs.

  17. Small area silicon diffused junction x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Pehl, R.H.; Larsh, A.E.

    1981-10-01

    The low temperature performance of silicon diffused junction detectors in the measurement of low energy x-rays is reported. The detectors have an area of 0.04 cm 2 and a thickness of 100 μm. The spectral resolutions of these detectors were found to be in close agreement with expected values indicating that the defects introduced by the high temperature processing required in the device fabrication were not deleteriously affecting the detection of low energy x-rays. Device performance over a temperature range of 77 to 150 0 K is given. These detectors were designed to detect low energy x-rays in the presence of minimum ionizing electrons. The successful application of silicon diffused junction technology to x-ray detector fabrication may facilitate the development of other novel silicon x-ray detector designs

  18. The BESSY X-ray microfocus beamline project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erko, A.; Schaefers, F.; Firsov, A.; Peatman, W.B.; Eberhardt, W.; Signorato, R.

    2004-01-01

    The design and construction of a beamline dedicated to X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray small-angle scattering measurements with micron and submicron spatial resolution in the photon energy range of 1.9-30 keV are reported here. The main feature of the beamline is a combination of all these methods in one experimental station. The source will be a BESSY 7-T wavelength shifter, which is already in operation. Such a wavelength shifter with its continuous spectrum is an optimum source for these experiments. Glass capillaries and the combination of a linear Bragg-Fresnel lens and bimorph mirror were chosen as the special optical components in the beamline. This beamline will open for BESSY users the possibility to perform experiments on the same sample applying a microfocused X-ray beam in combination with advanced experimental methods

  19. X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, R.; Pietsch, W.; Biermann, P.L.; Kronberg, P.P.; Schmutzler, T.

    1989-01-01

    Long X-ray observations of the starburst galaxy M82 with the European X-ray satellite EXOSAT are reported. The observations with the low-energy imaging instrument confirm that there is extended X-ray emission from above and below the disk, with an overall extent perpendicular to the disk of almost 6 arcmin corresponding to 6 kpc. One of the best defined X-ray spectra yet of a starburst galaxy is presented. The medium energy instrument measurements can be fitted with a power-law spectrum, consistent with inverse Compton emission, or with thermal emission from optically thin hot gas of a temperature of 9 + 9 or -4 keV. Using, in addition, the earlier Einstein HRI and MPC observations, the possible origin of the X-ray emission is discussed. 31 references

  20. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  1. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  2. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  3. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  4. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  5. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Observation of hard X-rays line emission from Her X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; la Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.; Manchanda, R.K.; Damle, S.V.

    1982-04-01

    We present the results of a hard X-ray measurement of the binary source Her X-1, carried out with a balloon borne X-ray telescope consisting of two Multiwire Proportional Counters, having 900 cm/sup 2/ sensitive area each and spectral resolution of 15% and 24% FWHM respectively at 60 keV. The source was observed during the 'Mid-on' state. Our data confirm the previously reported high energy emission line overimposed on the low energy thermal spectrum.

  7. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  8. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. Lifetime-vibrational interference effects in resonantly excited x-ray emission spectra of CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The parity selection rule for resonant X-ray emission as demonstrated for O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be seen as an effect of interference between coherently excited degenerate localized core states. One system where the core state degeneracy is not exact but somewhat lifted was previously studied at ALS, namely the resonant X-ray emission of amino-substituted benzene (aniline). It was shown that the X-ray fluorescence spectrum resulting from excitation of the C1s at the site of the {open_quotes}aminocarbon{close_quotes} could be described in a picture separating the excitation and the emission processes, whereas the spectrum corresponding to the quasi-degenerate carbons could not. Thus, in this case it was necessary to take interference effects between the quasi-degenerate intermediate core excited states into account in order to obtain agreement between calculations and experiment. The different vibrational levels of core excited states in molecules have energy splittings which are of the same order of magnitude as the natural lifetime broadening of core excitations in the soft X-ray range. Therefore, lifetime-vibrational interference effects are likely to appear and influence the band shapes in resonant X-ray emission spectra. Lifetime-vibrational interference has been studied in non-resonant X-ray emission, and in Auger spectra. In this report the authors discuss results of selectively excited soft X-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules, where they focus on lifetime-interference effects appearing in the band shapes.

  12. TRACING THE REVERBERATION LAG IN THE HARD STATE OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Nandra, K.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations to obtain broadband energy coverage of both the disk and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability-power signal-to-noise ratio (typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (∼0.05–9 Hz), we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power-law component, already well known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disk variability. At low frequencies (long timescales) the disk component always leads the power-law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high frequencies (short timescales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disk fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically thick disk where reprocessing occurs gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disk truncation

  13. Matching microlensing events with X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, N.; Treves, A.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: The detection of old neutron stars and stellar mass black holes in isolation is one of the most sought after goals of compact object astrophysics. Microlensing surveys may help in achieving this aim because the lensing mechanism is independent of the emission properties of the lens. Several black hole candidates have indeed been detected by means of microlensing observations have been reported in the literature. The identification of counterparts, especially in the X-rays, would be a strong argument in favor of the compact nature of these lenses. Methods: We perform a cross-correlation between the catalogs of microlensing events produced by the OGLE, MACHO, and MOA teams, and those of X-rays sources from the data acquired by the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. On the basis of our previous work, we select only microlensing events with durations longer than one hundred days, which should contain a large fraction of lenses as compact objects. Our matching criterion takes into account the positional coincidence on the sky. Results: We find a single match between a microlensing event, OGLE-2004-BLG-081 (tE ~ 103 days), and the X-ray source 2XMM J180540.5-273427. The angular separation is ~0.5 arcsec, i.e. well within the 90% error box of the X-ray source. The hardness ratios reported in the 2XMM catalog imply that it has a hard spectrum with a peak between 2 keV and 4.5 keV or it has a softer but highly absorbed spectrum. Moreover, the microlensing event is not fully constrained, and other authors propose a possible association of the source star with either a flaring cataclysmic variable or a RS Canum Venaticorum-like star. Conclusions: The very small angular separation (within uncertainties) is a strong indicator that 2XMM J180540.5-273427 is the X-ray counterpart of the OGLE event. However, the uncertainties in the nature of both the lensed system and the lens itself challenge the interpretation of 2XMM J180540.5-273427 as the first confirmed isolated black

  14. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  15. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  16. A survey on coordinate metrology using dimensional X-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) has been occupying indispensable position in geometrical and dimensional measurements in industry, which is capable of measuring both external and internal dimensions of industrial products. Since dimensional X-ray CT has problems about ensuring traceability and estimating uncertainty, requirement of developing measurement standard for dimensional X-ray CT is increasing. Some of national metrology institutes (NMIs) including NMIJ have been working on developing measurement standard. In this report, the background of coordinate metrology using dimensional X-ray CT is reviewed. Then, measurement error sources are discussed. Finally, the plan to develop high accuracy dimensional X-ray CT is presented. (author)

  17. X-ray lasing in colliding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.W.; Davis, J.; Velikovich, A.L.; Whitney, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    Conditions favorable for the achievement of population inversion and large gains in short-pulse laser-heated selenium have been reported on previously [K. G. Whitney et al., Phys. Rev. E 50, 468 (1994)]. However, the required density profiles to minimize refraction and amplification losses can be difficult to achieve in conventional laser heated blowoff plasmas. The feasibility of accelerating plasma with a laser, and letting it collide with a solid density wall plasma has been explored. The density of the resulting shocked plasma can be controlled and refraction can be reduced in this design. A radiation hydrodynamics model is used to simulate the collision of the laser produced selenium plasma with the wall plasma. The heating of the stagnated plasma with a short-pulse laser is then simulated, providing the hydrodynamic response of the selenium plasma and detailed configuration nonequilibrium atomic populations. From the results of these calculations, it appears feasible to create an x-ray lasing selenium plasma with gains in the J=0 endash 1 line at 182 Angstrom in excess of 100cm -1 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Zhekov, Svetozar A. [Space and Solar-Terrestrial Research Institute, Moskovska str. 6, Sofia-1000 (Bulgaria); Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Schmutz, Werner [Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD), Dorfstrasse 33, CH-7260 Davos Dorf (Switzerland); Sokal, Kimberly R., E-mail: Stephen.Skinner@colorado.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  19. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Güdel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L x ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v ∞ ). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L x with wind luminosity L wind = (1/2)M-dot v 2 ∞ , suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  20. Nanoparticle-Assisted Scanning Focusing X-Ray Therapy with Needle Beam X Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we show a new therapeutic approach using 40-120 keV X rays to deliver a radiation dose at the isocenter located many centimeters below the skin surface several hundred times greater than at the skin and how this dose enhancement can be augmented with nanomaterials to create several thousand-fold total dose enhancement effect. This novel approach employs a needle X-ray beam directed at the isocenter centimeters deep in the body while continuously scanning the beam to cover a large solid angle without overlapping at the skin. A Monte Carlo method was developed to simulate an X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter filled with X-ray absorbing and catalytic nanoparticles in a water phantom. An experimental apparatus consisting of a moving plastic phantom irradiated with a stationary 1 mm needle X-ray beam was built to test the theoretical predictions. X-ray films were used to characterize the dose profiles of the scanning X-ray apparatus. Through this work, it was determined that the X-ray dose delivered to the isocenter in a treatment voxel (t-voxel) underneath a 5 cm deep high-density polyethylene (HDPE) phantom was 295 ± 48 times greater than the surface dose. This measured value was in good agreement with the theoretical predicted value of 339-fold. Adding X-ray-absorbing nanoparticles, catalytic nanoparticles or both into the t-voxel can further augment the dose enhancement. For example, we predicted that adding 1 weight percentage (wp) of gold into water could increase the effective dose delivered to the target by onefold. Dose enhancement using 1 mm X-ray beam could reach about 1,600-fold in the t-voxel when 7.5 wp of 88 nm diameter silica-covered gold nanoparticles were added, which we showed in a previously published study can create a dose enhancement of 5.5 ± 0.46-fold without scanning focusing enhancement. Based on the experimental data from that study, mixing 0.02 wp 2.5 nm diameter small tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC

  1. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors

  2. Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

    1999-07-21

    Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors.

  3. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  4. The Ultraluminous X-Ray Source X-37 Is a Background Quasar in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Christopher, M. H.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2005-10-01

    In this Letter we report that a bright, X-ray source in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9), previously identified as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), is in fact a background quasar. We identify an isolated infrared and optical counterpart within 0.3" +/- 0.5" of the X-ray source X-37. After acquiring an optical spectrum of its counterpart, we use the narrow [O III] and broad Hα emission lines to identify X-37 as a quasar at a redshift of z=0.26. Through a U, V, and Ks photometric analysis, we demonstrate that most of the observable light along this line of sight is from the quasar. We discuss the implications of this discovery and the importance of acquiring spectra for optical and IR counterparts to ULXs.

  5. Imaging osteoarthritis in the knee joints using x-ray guided diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

    2010-02-01

    In our previous studies, near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) had been successfully applied to imaging osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints where significant difference in optical properties of the joint tissues was evident between healthy and OA finger joints. Here we report for the first time that large joints such as the knee can also be optically imaged especially when DOT is combined with x-ray tomosynthesis where the 3D image of the bones from x-ray is incorporated into the DOT reconstruction as spatial a priori structural information. This study demonstrates that NIR light can image large joints such as the knee in addition to finger joints, which will drastically broaden the clinical utility of our x-ray guided DOT technique for OA diagnosis.

  6. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  7. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  9. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  10. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  11. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  13. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  14. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  15. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  17. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  18. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  1. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  4. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  5. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  6. Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence with a brillant undulator x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.; Numako, C.; Suzuki, M.; Inoue, K.; Yagi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a highly sensitive technique for analyzing trace elements, because of the very low background from the sample support. Use of third-generation synchrotron x-ray source could further enhance the detection power. However, while such high sensitivity permits the detection of signals from trace elements of interest, it also means that one can observe weak parasitic x-rays as well. If the sample surface becomes even slightly contaminated, owing to air particulates near the beamline, x-ray fluorescence lines of iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and titanium can be observed even for a blank sample. Another critical problem is the low-energy-side tail of the scattering x-rays, which ultimately restricts the detection capability of the technique using a TXRF spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector. The present paper describes our experiments with brilliant undulator x-ray beams at BL39XU and BL40XU, at the SPring-8, Harima, Japan. The emphasis is on the development of instruments to analyze a droplet of 0.1 μl containing trace elements of ppb level. Although the beamline is not a clean room, we have employed equipment for preparing a clean sample and also for avoiding contamination during transferring the sample into the spectrometer. We will report on the successful detection of the peak from 0.8 ppb selenium in a droplet (absolute amount 80 fg). We will also present the results of recent experiments obtained from a Johansson spectrometer rather than a Si(Li) detector. (author)

  7. [High-Performance Active Pixel X-Ray Sensors for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, Mark; Suntharalingam, Vyshnavi

    2005-01-01

    The subject grants support development of High-Performance Active Pixel Sensors for X-ray Astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Space Research and at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. This memo reports our progress in the second year of the project, from April, 2004 through the present.

  8. Recent advances in X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrina, F.

    1992-01-01

    We report some significant developments in the area of X-ray technology, in the area of the modeling of image formation, in distortion control and in mask replication. Early simple models have been replaced by complete optical calculations based on physical optics and including all relevant factors. These models provide good agreement with the available experimental results. In the area of mask distortions, the use of finite element analysis models has clarified the roles played by the various sources of stress and explained in greater detail the origin of temperature changes. These progress have paved the way to the optimization of the exposure system and to the achievement of the large exposure latitude potential of X-ray lithography. (author)

  9. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  10. X-ray time and spectral variability as probes of ultraluminous x-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj Ranga Reddy

    in frequency by factors of approximately 4 and 6, respectively. However, we did not find evidence for changes in their energy-spectral indices. The apparent lack of a correlation---unlike the type-C QPOs---implies that either the ULX mHz QPOs are fundamentally different compared to the stellar-mass black hole low-frequency QPOs or they are indeed analogous to the low-frequency QPOs but with the observed dependence corresponding to the saturated portion of the correlation seen in stellar-mass black holes. We analyzed all the archival Swift data of ULX NGC 5408 X-1 and found evidence for a 243+/-23 day X-ray period. Based on its variation profile, energy dependence and transient nature, we argue that this period represents the orbital period of the black hole binary. We revisit the previously reported 62 day X-ray period of M82 X-1 and found evidence that the accretion disk's flux varies with this period's phase and also noted that the period's phase changed unusually fast during a certain epoch. Based on this we argue that this period might not be orbital but instead be due to a precessing accretion disk. By combining and averaging all the archival RXTE/PCA data of M82 we detect stable, 3:2 frequency ratio QPOs (>4.7 sigma statistical significance) which we argue represent the high-frequency QPO analogs of stellar-mass black holes. Unlike the low-frequency QPOs, the high-frequency QPOs of stellar-mass black holes are stable, often occur in frequency ratios of 3:2 and scale inversely with black hole mass. Using the most recent mass estimates of stellar-mass black holes which show high-frequency QPOs and the detected 3:2 pair frequencies of 3.32+/-0.06 and 5.07+/-0.06 Hz from M82 X-1, we were able to accurately weigh its black hole to 428+/-105 solar masses. This detection presents a unique technique to weigh the black holes in variable ULXs. Similar oscillations in other ULXs should be detectable with future X-ray observatories. Finally, we conclude by discussing our

  11. Exposure of nitrous oxide to X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, H.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed to determine how much NO and NO 2 is produced when nitrous oxide is exposed to X-radiation. Polyethylene bottles filled with either nitrous oxide alone or with nitrous oxide and 30% oxygen were placed 30 cm from the X-ray tube at a standard X-ray beam setting for chest fluoroscopy for 0 to 5 minutes. In the bottles filled with nitrous oxide alone, the production of NO was not affected by the duration of X-ray exposure, but the longer duration of X-ray exposure produced a larger amount of NO 2 . In the bottles filled with nitrous oxide and 30% oxygen, the longer duration of X-ray exposure produced larger amounts of both NO and NO 2 . These findings confirmed a previous investigation in which nitrous oxide was not inert under X-ray exposure. As the presence of oxygen plays an important role in the oxidation of nitrous oxide under X-ray exposure, this study suggests another potentially hazardous interaction that may occur secondary to the administration of an anaesthetic in the presence of X-irradiation as in pulmonary angiography, cardiac catheterisation, and fluoroscopic bronchoscopy or biopsy. (author)

  12. Structure in galactic soft X-ray features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davelaar, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations are described of the soft X-ray background in a part of the northern hemisphere in the energy range 0.06 - 3.0 keV. The X-ray instruments, placed onboard a sounding rocket, are a one-dimensional focusing collector with multi-cell proportional counters in the focal plane and eight large area counters on deployable panels. A description of the instruments and their preflight calibration is given. Precautions were taken to prevent UV sensitivity of the X-ray instruments. The observation program, which consisted of a number of pre-programmed slow scans, is outlined. The spectral date on the soft X-ray background in these and previous observations showed that at least two components of different temperature are present. A low temperature component of approximately (3-10)x10 5 is found all over the sky. Components of higher temperature approximately 3x10 6 K are found in regions of soft X-ray enhancement; The North Polar Spur has been observed in two scans at the galactic latitude b=25 0 and b=75 0 . The X-ray ridge structure is found to be strongly energy dependent. The low energy data ( 0 reveals two separate emission features on the ridge, both probably of finite extensions (approximately equal to 0 0 .5). A wider X-ray ridge (approximately equal to 10 0 ) is observed above 0.4 keV. (Auth.)

  13. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  14. Laboratory of computerized tomography and X-ray of Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET) from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelin, Hugo R.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Jakubiak, Rosangela J.; David, Denise E.H.; Gomes, Cintia L.; Soboll, Daniel S.; Ruehle, Gustavo; Carvalho, Arnolfo

    1996-01-01

    The development of X-ray laboratory at CEFET-PR (Brazil) is considered. The advancement and hospital practice application of an Image Quality Program for X-ray and tomography scanning is studied. A project regarding to the modernization of installed X-ray equipment, particularly X-ray detector, software and hardware is reported

  15. Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y.

    2017-07-01

    X-ray binaries are a class of binary systems, in which the accretor is a compact star (i.e., black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf). They are one of the most important objects in the universe, which can be used to study not only binary evolution but also accretion disks and compact stars. Statistical investigations of these binaries help to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, and sometimes provide useful constraints on the cosmological models. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the formation and evolution processes of X-ray binaries including Be/X-ray binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), and cataclysmic variables. In Chapter 1 we give a brief review on the basic knowledge of the binary evolution. In Chapter 2 we discuss the formation of Be stars through binary interaction. In this chapter we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. Using binary evolution and population synthesis calculations, we find that in Be/neutron star binaries the Be stars have a lower limit of mass ˜ 8 M⊙ if they are formed by a stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that the isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally the fraction of Be stars produced by binary interactions in all B type stars can be as high as ˜ 13%-30% , implying that most of Be stars may result from binary interaction. In Chapter 3 we show the evolution of intermediate- and low-mass X-ray binaries (I/LMXBs) and the formation of millisecond pulsars. Comparing the calculated results with the observations of binary radio pulsars, we report the following results: (1) The allowed parameter space for forming binary pulsars in the initial orbital period

  16. Legal directives in the X-ray regulation for the field of X-ray diagnostics; Rechtsvorschriften der Roentgenverordnung fuer den Bereich der Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Walter [Ministerium fuer Arbeit, Integration und Soziales des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The operation of each X-ray device is subject to the requirements of the X-ray regulations (RoeV); for different operational modes or applications like curative diagnostics, X-ray serial examinations, X-ray radiotherapy and teleradiology different directives exist and have to be respected. The report discusses the issues licensing and notification procedures, radiation protection representative, requirements for the commissioning (teleradiology, serial X.ray examinations), technical qualification and radiation protection knowledge of physicians, technical qualification of the assistant personnel.

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of the 2002 Outburst of GX 339-4: Two Patterns of X-Ray-Optical/Near-Infrared Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen; Buxton, Michelle; Markoff, Sera; Bailyn, Charles D.; Nespoli, Elisa; Belloni, Tomaso

    2005-05-01

    We report on quasi-simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and optical/near-infrared (NIR) observations of the black hole candidate X-ray transient GX 339-4. Our observations were made over a time span of more than 8 months in 2002 and cover the initial rise and transition from a hard to a soft spectral state in X-rays. Two distinct patterns of correlated X-ray-optical/NIR behavior were found. During the hard state, the optical/NIR and X-ray fluxes correlated well, with a NIR versus X-ray flux power-law slope similar to that of the correlation found between X-ray and radio fluxes in previous studies of GX 339-4 and other black hole binaries. As the source went through an intermediate state, the optical/NIR fluxes decreased rapidly, and once it had entered the spectrally soft state, the optical/NIR spectrum of GX 339-4 was much bluer, and the ratio of X-ray to NIR flux was higher by a factor of more than 10 compared to the hard state. In the spectrally soft state, changes in the NIR preceded those in the soft X-rays by more than 2 weeks, indicating a disk origin of the NIR emission and providing a measure of the viscous timescale. A sudden onset of NIR flaring of ~0.5 mag on a timescale of 1 day was also observed during this period. We present spectral energy distributions, including radio data, and discuss possible sources for the optical/NIR emission. We conclude that, in the hard state, this emission probably originates in the optically thin part of a jet and that in none of the X-ray states is X-ray reprocessing the dominant source of optical/NIR emission. Finally, comparing the light curves from the all-sky monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instruments, we find that the X-ray/NIR delay depends critically on the sensitivity of the X-ray detector, with the delay inferred from the PCA (if present at all) being a factor of 3-6 times shorter than the delay inferred from the ASM; this may be important in interpreting previously reported X-ray

  18. X-ray characteristics of acute lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilyin, R.Yu.; Kramnij, Yi.O.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of x-ray investigation of 35 patients with lung abscess reported. Our data allow to determine the early sings, to define the nature of radiological peculiarities of acute and chronic abscess and carry out differential diagnosis

  19. Thin film characterisation by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuccio, G; Terranova, M L [eds.; INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    This report described the papers presented at the 5. School on X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials held at Frascati (Rome) in 2-5 October 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers.

  20. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....

  1. X-rays revolutionized the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, P.

    1995-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of Professor Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen's accidental discovery of x-radiation. On 8 November 1895, Roentgen was conducting laboratory tests at the University of Wuertsburg in order to study cathode rays in a gasdischarge tube. He noticed that a fluorescence paper that happened to be near the tube began to glow even though the radiation should not have penetrated the shield of the gas-discharge tube. Less than two months later Roentgen reported the discovery of a new type of penetrating radiation, which he called x-rays. The discovery became an immediate worldwide sensation, and doctors realised that they could now see inside the human body without surgery. In Finland, the first x-ray equipment was acquired as early as 1900. The following year, Roentgen was awarded the Nobel prize in physics for his work. The health risks of x-radiation were noticed early on, but their severity was not always understood. The new x-ray examination methods were difficult to control and the exposure times then were quite long. It was therefore not uncommon that radiation damage eventually led to skin cancer and haematological diseases. (orig.) (7 figs.)

  2. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  3. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  4. From Relativistic Electrons to X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Garson, A. B. [Washington U., St. Louis; Anastasio, M. A. [Washington U., St. Louis

    2017-10-09

    We report the initial demonstrations of the use of single crystals in indirect x-ray imaging for x-ray phase contrast imaging at the Washington University in St. Louis Computational Bioimaging Laboratory (CBL). Based on single Gaussian peak fits to the x-ray images, we observed a four times smaller system point spread function (21 μm (FWHM)) with the 25-mm diameter single crystals than the reference polycrystalline phosphor’s 80-μm value. Potential fiber-optic plate depth-of-focus aspects and 33-μm diameter carbon fiber imaging are also addressed.

  5. Nanodiamond targets for accelerator X-ray experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobko, A., E-mail: lobko@inp.bsu.by [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Golubeva, E. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Prosp., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Ryazan State RadioEngineering University, 59/1 Gagarina Street, Ryazan 390005 (Russian Federation); Paddubskaya, A. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Shenderova, O. [International Technology Center, 8100 Brownleigh Dr., S. 120, Raleigh, NC 27617 (United States); Uglov, V. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Prosp., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Valynets, N. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, 11 Bobrujskaya Str., Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2015-07-15

    Results of fabrication of a nanodiamond target for accelerator X-ray experiments are reported. Nanodiamond film with dimensions 5 × 7 mm and thickness of 500 nm has been made of the high pressure high temperature nanodiamonds using a filtration method. The average crystallite size of primary nanodiamond particles varies around 100 nm. Source nanodiamonds and fabricated nanodiamond film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Preliminary results show that targets made of nanodiamonds are perspective in generating crystal-assisted radiation by the relativistic charged particles, such as parametric X-rays, diffracted transition radiation, diffracted Bremsstrahlung, etc.

  6. Nanodiamond targets for accelerator X-ray experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobko, A.; Golubeva, E.; Kuzhir, P.; Maksimenko, S.; Paddubskaya, A.; Shenderova, O.; Uglov, V.; Valynets, N.

    2015-01-01

    Results of fabrication of a nanodiamond target for accelerator X-ray experiments are reported. Nanodiamond film with dimensions 5 × 7 mm and thickness of 500 nm has been made of the high pressure high temperature nanodiamonds using a filtration method. The average crystallite size of primary nanodiamond particles varies around 100 nm. Source nanodiamonds and fabricated nanodiamond film were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Preliminary results show that targets made of nanodiamonds are perspective in generating crystal-assisted radiation by the relativistic charged particles, such as parametric X-rays, diffracted transition radiation, diffracted Bremsstrahlung, etc

  7. Thin film soft X-ray absorption filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stattin, H.

    1992-11-01

    This report discusses the composition, reparation and performance of soft x-ray transmission filters for a water window soft x-ray microscope. Unbacked thin films of aluminum, silver and vanadium/aluminum were made by evaporation on a substrate from which they were released. Measured transmittances agree reasonably well with calculations. The report also includes some related theory and discussions about film preparation methods, film contamination and evaluation methods. 33 refs

  8. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  9. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier

  10. Infrared, radio, and x-ray observations of Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becklin, E.E.; Hawkins, F.J.; Mason, K.O.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Packman, D.; Sanford, P.W.; Schupler, B.; Stark, A.; Wynn-Williams, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    The x-ray source Cygnus X-3 has been interpreted as being a binary system on the basis of extensive x-ray observations of periodic variability. At radio wavelengths, the source displays erratic outbursts. Cyg x-3 has not been detected visually but at infrared wavelengths periodic variations in phase with the x-ray variations have been reported. Infrared, x-ray and radio observations of Cyg X-3 made during 1973 through 1973 October are presented. (U.S.)

  11. Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2003: Report of Work Conducted at the APS, January 2003-December 2003, Synchrotron x-ray diffraction at the APS, Sector 16 (HPCAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A F; Zaug, J M; Crowhurst, J C

    2005-01-01

    We present here the summary of the results of our studies using the APS synchrotron beamline IDB Sector 16 (HPCAT). Optical calibration of pressure sensors for high pressures and temperatures: The high-pressure ruby scale for static measurements is well established to at least 100 GPa (about 5% accuracy), however common use of this and other pressure scales at high temperature is clearly based upon unconfirmed assumptions. Namely that high temperature does not affect observed room temperature pressure derivatives. The establishment of a rigorous pressure scale along with the identification of appropriate pressure gauges (i.e. stable in the high P-T environment and easy to use) is important for securing the absolute accuracy of fundamental experimental science where results guide the development of our understanding of planetary sciences, geophysics, chemistry at extreme conditions, etc. X-ray diffraction in formic acid under high pressure: Formic acid (HCOOH) is common in the solar system; it is a potential component of the Galilean satellites. Despite this, formic acid has not been well-studied at high temperatures and pressures. A phase diagram of formic acid at planetary interior pressures and temperatures will add to the understanding of planetary formation and the potential for life on Europa. Formic acid (unlike most simple organic acids) forms low-temperature crystal structures characterized by infinite hydrogen-bonded chains of molecules. The behavior of these hydrogen bonds at high pressure is of great interest. Our current research fills this need

  12. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Anderson, S.; Mattigod, S.

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography

  13. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  14. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  15. Studies on production of metastable core-excited atoms by laser-produced x-rays. Final report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Young, J.F.

    1986-04-01

    The overall objective of the work on this program was to study methods for production of core-excited metastable atoms by laser-generated x-rays. We are interested in the spectroscopy of these levels, their autoionizing and radiative rates, and their metastability in the presence of hot electrons and ions. The concept of using x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma to excite large densities of energetic excited levels in atoms and ions has been thoroughly experimentally investigated using modest, 100 mJ, plasma-producing lasers. One of the objectives of this work was to verify that these techniques could be scaled up to higher energies, such as 20 J. Thus a major effort this year has been devoted to the design and construction of the high energy (20 J) 1064 nm plasma-forming laser system and the tunable probe/transfer laser

  16. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    sources that were previously unobtainable within realistic observation times e.g. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Standard photoelectric X-ray polarimeter designs are both quantum efficiency (QE) limited and challenging to calibrate due to diffusion of electron signal as it drifts through the gas. Drifting negative ions decreases diffusion to the thermal limit thereby decoupling sensitivity from drift distance and enabling larger detector areas that can be at the focus of larger diameter mirrors and single reflection concentrator optics. NITPCs also allow the selection of constituent gasses and pressures to be based on the optimization of modulation and QE rather than diffusion properties. This versatility enables a large improvement in sensitivity without driving cost and with only moderate increase to mass and power of the detector and/or instrument. Furthermore, the energy band of NGXP will be tunable to maximize the science return. Following the efforts of this proposal NGXP will be proposed as sounding rocket experiment and as a candidate instrument for future opportunities. The GSFC polarimeter group has demonstrated NITPCs for several detector concepts. This proposal leverages the previous effort and team expertise with goals to establish the NITPC as the baseline for narrow field observations of faint persistent sources and to improve the technology readiness of associated technologies such as stainless steel gas electron multipliers and finer readout pitch.

  17. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  18. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  19. X-rays and Neutrons: Essential Tools for Nanoscience Research. Report of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Workshop, June 16-18, 2005, Washington, D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-18

    structures: Left: Neutron diffraction profile of a monolayer butane film on magnesium oxide ( MgO ) nanocubes. (Copyright 2006 by the American Physical...bonding and catalyzed oxidation of CO on Au 8 clusters on MgO ,” Science 307(5708), 403– 407 (2005). doi:10.1126/science.1104168 X-rays and Neutrons...Understanding wetting phenomenon on nanostructured surfaces is crucial for enabling many emerging technologies, including nanofluidic , advanced lithographic

  20. X-ray appearance of subcutaneous gemstones as part of alternative/holistic medicine: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Jerri; Hallengren, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a case of a deceased man with numerous subcutaneous nodules identified as foreign bodies on radiographic films. The foreign bodies were gemstones inserted underneath the skin as a form of holistic medicine. The X-ray findings of this case and a review of the literature for similar subcutaneously implanted foreign bodies used in holistic, alternative, or folk medicine are presented. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.