WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously reported tb

  1. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  2. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  3. Host markers in Quantiferon supernatants differentiate active TB from latent TB infection: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzl Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon gamma release assays, including the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In Tube (QFT have been shown to be accurate in diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These assays however, do not discriminate between latent TB infection (LTBI and active TB disease. Methods We recruited twenty-three pulmonary TB patients and 34 household contacts from Cape Town, South Africa and performed the QFT test. To investigate the ability of new host markers to differentiate between LTBI and active TB, levels of 29 biomarkers in QFT supernatants were evaluated using a Luminex multiplex cytokine assay. Results Eight out of 29 biomarkers distinguished active TB from LTBI in a pilot study. Baseline levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, antigen stimulated levels of EGF, and the background corrected antigen stimulated levels of EGF and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1β were the most informative single markers for differentiation between TB disease and LTBI, with AUCs of 0.88, 0.84, 0.87, 0.90 and 0.79 respectively. The combination of EGF and MIP-1β predicted 96% of active TB cases and 92% of LTBIs. Combinations between EGF, sCD40L, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-1α also showed potential to differentiate between TB infection states. EGF, VEGF, TGF-α and sCD40L levels were higher in TB patients. Conclusion These preliminary data suggest that active TB may be accurately differentiated from LTBI utilizing adaptations of the commercial QFT test that includes measurement of EGF, sCD40L, MIP-1β, VEGF, TGF-α or IL-1α in supernatants from QFT assays. This approach holds promise for development as a rapid diagnostic test for active TB.

  4. First reported case of fulminant TB with progression of infection from lungs to the genitourinary region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Adzic-Vukicevic

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although tuberculosis (TB is a curable disease, it continues to be one of the leading infections associated with death in the world. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB occurs in approximately 10% of the total cases, presenting with lymph nodes, pleura, bone and genitourinary tract as the most common locations. Genitourinary tuberculosis, the second most common EPTB, is very difficult to diagnose unless there is a high index of suspicion. Isolated TB orchitis or prostatitis without clinical evidence of renal involvement is a rare entity among genitourinary tuberculosis. We presented the first reported case of TB prostatitis and orchitis associated with pulmonary TB and the presence of an acute massive caseous pneumonia in an immunocompetent man. Despite the anti-TB therapy, the patient presented a rapid progression of disease and deterioration of general conditions taking to death, which occurred four days after TB treatment had started. Disseminated TB is a relatively uncommon cause of acute massive caseous pneumonia; however, there should always be suspicion of the disease, since it is a potentially treatable cause. This rare case supports the assertion that TB should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of genitourinary tumors irrespective of evidence of active TB elsewhere in the body.

  5. Sharing the spotlight in Durban: A report from IAS TB2016 at AIDS2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Whitaker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is now recognized as the number one cause of death worldwide due to a single infectious pathogen and is the cause of death in one-third of people living with HIV worldwide. An inaugural pre-conference focused on TB (TB2016 was held at the International AIDS Society Conference AIDS2016. This report focuses on key messages from the TB2016 conference that are important for the medical, public health, activist, and scientific communities. Keywords: Tuberculosis, HIV, Epidemiology, Public health, Treatment, Prevention

  6. Understanding Market Size and Reporting Gaps for Paediatric TB in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan: Supporting Improved Treatment of Childhood TB in the Advent of New Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Renia; Gardiner, Elizabeth; Amanullah, Farhana; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Triasih, Rina; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Sismanidis, Charalambos

    2015-01-01

    We sought to understand gaps in reporting childhood TB cases among public and private sector health facilities (dubbed "non-NTP" facilities) outside the network of national TB control programmes, and the resulting impact of under-reporting on estimates of paediatric disease burden and market demand for new medicines. Exploratory assessments were carried out in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan, reaching a range of facility types in two selected areas of each country. Record reviews and interviews of healthcare providers were carried out to assess numbers of unreported paediatric TB cases, diagnostic pathways followed and treatment regimens prescribed. A total of 985 unreported diagnosed paediatric TB cases were identified over a three month period in 2013 in Indonesia from 64 facilities, 463 in Pakistan from 35 facilities and 24 in Nigeria from 20 facilities. These represent an absolute additional annualised yield to 2013 notifications reported to WHO of 15% for Indonesia, 2% for Nigeria and 7% for Pakistan. Only 12% of all facilities provided age and sex-disaggregated data. Findings highlight the challenges of confirming childhood TB. Diagnosis patterns in Nigeria highlight a very low suspicion for childhood TB. Providers note the need for paediatric medicines aligned to WHO recommendations. This study emphasises the impact of incomplete reporting on the estimation of disease burden and potential market size of paediatric TB medicines. Further studies on "hubs" (facilities treating large numbers of childhood TB cases) will improve our understanding of the epidemic, support introduction efforts for new treatments and better measure markets for new paediatric medicines.

  7. Accuracy of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube for diagnosing tuberculosis in a young pediatric population previously vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Genofre Vallada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of an interferongamma release assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a young pediatric population. Methods: 195 children previously vaccinated with BCG were evaluated, being 184 healthy individuals with no clinical or epidemiological evidence of mycobacterial infection, and 11 with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, according to clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each child and processed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The assay performance was evaluated by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. Results: In the group of 184 non-infected children, 130 (70.6% were under the age of four years (mean age of 35 months. In this group, 177 children (96.2% had negative test results, six (3.2% had indeterminate results, and one (0.5% had a positive result. In the group of 11 infected children, the mean age was 58.5 months, and two of them (18% had negative results. The ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.88 (95%CI 0.82-0.92; p<0.001, disclosing a predictive positive value of 81.8% for the test (95%CI 46.3-97.4. The assay sensitivity was 81.8% (95%CI 48.2-97.2 and the specificity was 98.8% (95%CI 96-99.8. Conclusions: In the present study, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube performance for diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection was appropriate in a young pediatric population.

  8. TB Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sputum can also be used to do a culture. TB blood test – a test that uses a blood sample to find out if you are infected with TB bacteria. The test measures the response to TB proteins when they are mixed with a small amount of blood. Examples of these TB blood tests include QuantiFERON ® -TB ...

  9. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing for TB Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adverse Events TB Treatment of Persons Living with HIV TB Treatment and Pregnancy TB Treatment for Children Drug-Resistant TB Research TB Epidemiologic Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study ...

  11. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bhargava, A

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  12. Patient reported delays in seeking treatment for Tuberculosis (TB among adult and pediatric TB patients and TB patients co-infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Paz-Soldan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n=43, within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n=11. Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of tuberculosis symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention.Conclusions: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level.

  13. Report on cascade energy relaxation from PVP to Tb3+:Bi2SiO5 nanophosphor through salicylic acid in composite polymeric film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Pushpa; Dwivedi, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The present article reports structural and spectroscopic properties of Tb:Bi2SiO5 nanophosphors dispersed in Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer film, in presence of Salicylic acid (SA) molecule, which acts as a sensitizer. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterizations were carried out using X-ray diffraction patterns, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared and Excitation and photoluminescence techniques. The mean crystallite size of Tb3+:Bi2SiO5 nanophosphor and Tb3+:Bi2SiO5 in Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer composite was estimated ∼22 nm and ∼28 nm, respectively. We have report atleast two times enhancement in Tb3+ ions emission intensity due to the efficient energy transfer from salicylic acid molecule to Tb ions. In addition to energy transfer from salicylic acid, the Polyvinylpyrrolidone polymeric host was also reported to serve as a sensitizer for SA molecule and Tb3+ ions through a cascade energy relaxation process while exciting with 248 nm photons. On 248 nm photon excitation, atleast five improvements in Tb3+ ion emission intensity are reported. Presence of SA molecule facilitates precise colour tuning as obvious from the CIE coordinates.

  14. Logic of Accounting: The Case of Reporting Previous Options in Norwegian Activation Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Janne

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the enactment of client resistance in Norwegian vocational rehabilitation encounters. More specific, a practice here called "reporting previous options" is analyzed by using the resources of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA) in five instances as doing some sort of accounting. In response to the…

  15. Erysipelothrix endocarditis with previous cutaneous lesion: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion P. Rocha

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first documented case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis in Latin America. The patient was a 51-years-old male, moderate alcoholic, with a previous history of aortic failure. He was used to fishing and cooking as a hobby and had his left hand wounded by a fish-bone. The disease began with erysipeloid form and developed to septicemia and endocarditis. He was treated with antibiotics and surgery for aortic valve replacement. There are only 46 cases of E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis reported to date. The authors wonder if several other cases might go unreported for lack of microbiological laboratorial diagnosis.

  16. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adverse Events TB Treatment of Persons Living with HIV TB Treatment and Pregnancy TB Treatment for Children Drug-Resistant TB Research TB Epidemiologic Studies Consortium Research Projects Publications TB Trials Consortium Study ...

  17. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: report of a case with previously undescribed histopathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, R A; Reasbeck, P

    1988-10-01

    A 41-yr-old multiparous woman presented with a discrete breast lump which proved histologically to be an example of granulomatous lobular mastitis. The clinical and histological features were similar to those noted in previous reports. Additional histological features in the present case were an intense mononuclear cell infiltration of lobular and ductal epithelium, associated with nuclear fragments morphologically suggestive of apoptosis. These appearances, which have not previously been described, are illustrated, together with the more classical features of the condition well demonstrated by the present case. The novel histological features noted here suggest that the development of granulomatous lobular mastitis may be at least in part immunologically mediated, and that the cellular infiltrates seen may be a manifestation of cell-mediated destruction of mammary epithelium.

  18. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION...... on pneumonia treatment, a PET-CT scan was performed, which showed a large multiloculated abscess in the liver. The abscess was drained using ultrasound guidance. Culture demonstrated Eikenella corrodens. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis. The patient was treated with antibiotics...... corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation...

  19. A previously unreported variant of the synostotic sagittal suture: Case report and review of salient literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison Budinich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sagittal synostosis is a rare congenital disease caused by the premature fusion of the sagittal suture. Craniosynostosis occurs for a variety of reasons, different for every case, and often the etiology is unclear but the anomaly can frequently be seen as part of Crouzon's or Apert's syndromes. Herein, we discuss a rare case of craniosynostosis where the patient presented with a, to our knowledge, a previously undescribed variant of sagittal synostosis. Case report: A 3-month-old female infant presented to a craniofacial clinic for a consultation regarding an abnormal head shape. Images of the skull were performed, demonstrating that the patient had craniosynostosis. The patient displayed no other significant symptoms besides abnormalities in head shape. The sagittal suture was found to extend into the occipital bone where it was synostotic. Conclusion: To our knowledge, a synostotic sagittal suture has not been reported that extended posteriorly it involve the occipital bone. Those who interpret imaging or operate on this part of the skull should consider such a variation. Keywords: Anatomy, Craniosynostosis, Skull, Malformation, Pediatrics

  20. "The Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, Cesar; Eichelberg, Katrin; Ramachandra, Lakshmi; Shea, Jaqueline; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Behar, Samuel; Ernst, Joel D; Porcelli, Steven A; Maeurer, Markus; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2017-06-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB. The workshop addressed early infection events, the impact of Mtb evolution on the development and maintenance of an adaptive immune response, and the factors that influence protection against and progression to active disease. Scientific gaps and areas of study to revitalize and accelerate TB vaccine design were discussed and prioritized. These included a comprehensive evaluation of innate and Mtb-specific adaptive immune responses in the lung at different stages of disease; determining the role of B cells and antibodies (Abs) during Mtb infection; development of better assays to measure Mtb burden following exposure, infection, during latency and after treatment, and approaches to improving current animal models to study Mtb immunogenicity, TB disease and transmission. Copyright © 2017.

  1. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) and infantile autism: Absence of previously reported point mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fon, E.A.; Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Autism is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome of unknown etiology. There is evidence that a deficiency in the enzyme adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL), essential for de novo purine biosynthesis, could be involved in the pathogenesis of certain cases. A point mutation in the ADSL gene, resulting in a predicted serine-to-proline substitution and conferring structural instability to the mutant enzyme, has been reported previously in 3 affected siblings. In order to determine the prevalence of the mutation, we PCR-amplified the exon spanning the site of this mutation from the genomic DNA of patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for autistic disorder. None of the 119 patients tested were found to have this mutation. Furthermore, on preliminary screening using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), no novel mutations were detected in the coding sequence of four ADSL exons, spanning approximately 50% of the cDNA. In light of these findings, it appears that mutations in the ADSL gene represent a distinctly uncommon cause of autism. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  2. [Association of atypical pulmonary TB, polyserositis, severe leukopenia and panniculitis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihălţan, F; Lupu, A; Ungureanu, D; Halic, G; Badea, C; Marcu, C

    2001-01-01

    Many reports have associated tuberculosis with haematological abnormalities. These reports suggest that severe pulmonary tuberculosis, if associated with reduced tissue cellular reaction, may cause blood discrasias. Anemia was present in 32 percent of patients. Leucopenia with neutropenia and lymphopenia was observed in 15 percent in patients with very severe clinical tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis was associated with significant reductions in absolute numbers of total T, T4 and B lymphocytes, but there were no significant differences in total T8 counts. T4 lymphopenia causes reversal of T4/T8 ratio. Also, many histopathologic diagnosis of panniculitis have been reported in tuberculosis patients--the incidence of panniculitis caused by tuberculosis was 8.2%. We present a case of secondary pulmonary tuberculosis with atypically Rx changes, associated with polyserositis and severe leucopenia, which debuted with a panniculitis.

  3. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  4. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  5. Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    In this podcast, Dr. Sundari Mase, Medical Team Lead in the Field Services and Evaluation Branch in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day and the 2014 theme.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  6. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (female football. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A case report: mixed thrombus formation in a previously sutured right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunfei, Ling; Dongxu, Li; Shuhua, Luo; Yabo, Wang; San, Deep; Changping, Gan; Ke, Lin; Qi, An

    2014-08-01

    We describe the case of a 19-year-old Chinese woman who nine months prior underwent repair of an atrial septal defect and came to our hospital with a right atrial mass attached to the anterior wall of the right atrium on transthoracic echocardiography. Pathologic examination revealed the mass was a mixed-type thrombosis with some unusual organization, which previously was not described in literature.

  8. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers: report of previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress over the course of the Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study is reported. The derivation of the study population, the gathering of health histories, the US Navy radiation protection program, and the determination of radiation exposures is described

  9. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative results.

  10. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative

  11. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus......, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new...

  12. Mycobacteria and TB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaufmann, S. H. E. (Stephan H. E.); Hahn, Helmut

    2003-01-01

    .... Scientists investigating the epidemiology, immunology and molecular biology of TB or engaged in vaccine and drug development as well as physicians and social workers treating TB patients will benefit...

  13. Alveolar nerve repositioning with rescue implants for management of previous treatment. A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amet, Edward M; Uehlein, Chris

    2013-12-01

    The goal of modern implant dentistry is to return patients to oral health in a rapid and predictable fashion, following a diagnostically driven treatment plan. If only a limited number of implants can be placed, or some fail and the prosthetic phase of implant dentistry is chosen to complete the patient's treatment, the final outcome may result in partial patient satisfaction and is commonly referred to as a "compromise." Previous All-on-4 implant treatment for the patient presented here resulted in a compromise, with an inadequate support system for the mandibular prosthesis and a maxillary complete denture with poor esthetics. The patient was unable to function adequately and also was disappointed with the resulting appearance. Correction of the compromised treatment consisted of bilateral inferior alveolar nerve elevation and repositioning without bone removal for lateral transposition, to gain room for rescue implants for a totally implant-supported and stabilized prosthesis. Treatment time to return the patient to satisfactory comfort, function, facial esthetics, and speech was approximately 2 weeks. The definitive mandibular prosthesis was designed for total implant support and stability with patient retrievability. Adequate space between the mandibular bar system and the soft tissue created a high water bridge effect for self-cleansing. Following a short interim mandibular healing period, the maxillary sinuses were bilaterally grafted to compensate for bone inadequacies and deficiencies for future maxillary implant reconstruction. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased Symptom Reporting in Young Athletes Based on History of Previous Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters. Findings suggest younger athletes with a history of multiple concussions may experience residual symptoms.

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of the Prostate: Case Report and Review of 54 Previously Published Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos P. Vandoros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive neoplasm that accounts for less than 0.1% of primary prostate malignancies. We present a patient with primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate and review 54 cases reported in the literature to discuss the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this uncommon tumor. Median survival was estimated at 17 months (95% C.I. 20.7–43.7 months and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 68%, 34%, and 26%, respectively. The only factors predictive of long-term survival were negative surgical margins and absence of metastatic disease at presentation. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for appropriate management of this dire entity.

  17. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 25 Weeks with Previous Vaginal Delivery: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa V. Kanagal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn occurs due to failure of complete development of one of the Mullerian ducts and incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture during first or second trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy and its rupture in a woman with prior vaginal delivery is difficult. It can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and in majority of cases it is detected after rupture. It requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of G2PlL1 with rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 25 weeks of gestation which was misdiagnosed as intrauterine pregnancy with fetal demise by ultrasound, and termination was attempted and the case was later referred to our hospital after the patient developed hemoperitoneum and shock with a diagnosis of rupture uterus. Laparotomy revealed rupture of right rudimentary horn pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Timely laparotomy, excision of the horn, and blood transfusion saved the patient.

  18. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously Had Carbamazepine Induced Pruritus - A Case Report -

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Min; Park, Yoo Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Moon, Dong Eon

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare but life-threatening skin reaction disease and carbamazepine is one of its most common causes. We report a case of SJS secondary to carbamazepine in a patient with previous pruritus due to carbamazepine which was given for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. We would like to caution all providers that carbamazepine readministration should be avoided in the patient with a previous history of SJS or adverse skin reaction. In addition, we strongly recommen...

  19. Management and treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in MDR-TB treatment in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010-2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010-2012. A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection-currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation.

  20. Combination of TB lymphadenitis and metastatic LAP in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhassan Talaiezadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB may present as pulmonary and extra-pulmonary. TB lymphadenitis is the most common presentation of extra-pulmonary TB. TB lymphadenitis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of different disorders such as metastatic lymphadenopathy. The reported patient was a 65-year-old lady with breast cancer and conglomerated and matted axillary lymphadenopathy who received chemotherapy. She presented with more extensive axillary LAP contrary to our expectation. Modified radical mastectomy was done and pathology analysis reported TB lymphadenitis associated with metastatic LAP. Under cover of anti-TB therapy adjuvant chemoradiation therapy was started. Accordingly, we recommend TB be ruled out in every patient who needs chemotherapy in the endemic region because chemotherapy may cause the extension of TB in the body.

  1. User experience analysis of e-TB Manager, a nationwide electronic tuberculosis recording and reporting system in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Konduri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has successfully implemented e-TB Manager nationwide as its mandatory national tuberculosis registry after first introducing it in 2009. Our objective was to perform an end-of-programme evaluation after formal handover of the registry administration to Ukraine's Centre for Disease Control in 2015. We conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional, anonymous, 18-point user experience survey, and stratified the registry's transaction statistics to demonstrate usability. Contrary to initial implementation experience, older users (aged >50 years, often with limited or no computer proficiency prior to using the registry, had significantly better user experience scores for at least six of the 12 measures compared to younger users (aged 18–29 years. Using the registry for >3 years was associated with significantly higher scores for having capacity, adequacy of training received and satisfaction with the registry. Of the 5.9 million transactions over a 4-year period, nine out of 24 oblasts (regions and Kiev city accounted for 62.5% of all transactions, and corresponded to 59% of Ukraine's tuberculosis burden. There were 437 unique active users in 486 rayons (districts of Ukraine, demonstrating extensive reach. Our key findings complement the World Health Organization and European Respiratory Society's agenda for action on digital health to help implement the End TB Strategy.

  2. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Tang, L; Zebis, M K

    2016-01-01

    with low KOOS subscale scores (Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P time-loss knee...... questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (... as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players...

  3. Lack of Cetuximab induced skin toxicity in a previously irradiated field: case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Mutation, amplification or dysregulation of the EGFR family leads to uncontrolled division and predisposes to cancer. Inhibiting the EGFR represents a form of targeted cancer therapy. Case report We report the case of 79 year old gentlemen with a history of skin cancer involving the left ear who had radiation and surgical excision. He had presented with recurrent lymph node in the left upper neck. We treated him with radiation therapy concurrently with Cetuximab. He developed a skin rash over the face and neck area two weeks after starting Cetuximab, which however spared the previously irradiated area. Conclusion The etiology underlying the sparing of the previously irradiated skin maybe due to either decrease in the population of EGFR expressing cells or decrease in the EGFR expression. We raised the question that "Is it justifiable to use EGFR inhibitors for patients having recurrence in the previously irradiated field?" We may need further research to answer this question which may guide the physicians in choosing appropriate drug in this scenario. PMID:20478052

  4. Questions and Answers about TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Introduction Testing and Treatment TB Disease Glossary Introduction Introduction What is TB? Why is TB still ... chest x-ray is made by exposing a film to x-rays that pass through the chest. ...

  5. TB in Captive Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-27

    Dr. Barry Kreiswirth, founding director of the Public Health Research Institute, TB Center, at Rutgers University, discusses TB in three captive elephants.  Created: 4/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2017.

  6. Lay beliefs of TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frich Jan C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about lay beliefs of etiology, transmission and treatment of TB, and lay perceptions of the relationship between TB and HIV is important for understanding patients' health seeking behavior and adherence to treatment. We conducted a study to explore lay beliefs about TB and TB/HIV co-infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Findings We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with 15 TB/HIV co-infected patients and 9 health professionals and focus group discussions with 14 co-infected patients in Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia. We found that a predominant lay belief was that TB was caused by exposure to cold. Excessive sun exposure, exposure to mud, smoking, alcohol, khat and inadequate food intake were also reported as causes for TB. Such beliefs initially led to self-treatment. The majority of patients were aware of an association between TB and HIV. Some reported that TB could transform into HIV, while others said that the body could be weakened by HIV and become more susceptible to illnesses such as TB. Some patients classified TB as either HIV-related or non-HIV-related, and weight loss was a hallmark for HIV-related TB. The majority of patients believed that people in the community knew that there was an association between TB and HIV, and some feared that this would predispose them to HIV-related stigma. Conclusion There is a need for culturally sensitive information and educational efforts to address misperceptions about TB and HIV. Health professionals should provide information about causes and treatment of TB and HIV to co-infected patients.

  7. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  8. Shunt malfunction causing acute neurological deterioration in 2 patients with previously asymptomatic Chiari malformation Type I. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert; Kalhorn, Stephen; Pacione, Donato; Weiner, Howard; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Harter, David

    2009-08-01

    Patients with symptomatic Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) typically exhibit a chronic, slowly progressive disease course with evolution of symptoms. However, some authors have reported acute neurological deterioration in the setting of CM-I and acquired Chiari malformations. Although brainstem dysfunction has been documented in patients with CM-II and hydrocephalus or shunt malfunction, to the authors' knowledge only 1 report describing ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunction causing neurological deterioration in a patient with CM-I exists. The authors report on their experience with the treatment of previously asymptomatic CM-I in 2 children who experienced quite different manifestations of acute neurological deterioration secondary to VP shunt malfunction. Presumably, VP shunt malfunction created a positive rostral pressure gradient across a stenotic foramen magnum, resulting in tetraparesis from foramen magnum syndrome in 1 patient and acute ataxia and cranial nerve deficits from syringobulbia in the other. Although urgent shunt revisions yielded partial recovery of neurological function in both patients, marked improvement occurred only after posterior fossa decompression.

  9. High-pressure polymorphs of TbVO4: A Raman and ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errandonea, D.; Manjón, F.J.; Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Panchal, V.; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Three phase transitions are induced in zircon-type TbVO4 at 6.7, 26.7, and 34.4 GPa. •The proposed structural sequence is zircon-scheelite-fergusonite-orthorhombic Cmca. •Scheelite phase is metaestable after decompression. •The equation of states for all phases is reported. •Compressibility is enhanced in the Cmca phase due to f-electron delocalization. -- Abstract: Raman measurements on TbVO 4 show the occurrence of three pressure-induced phase transitions. The first one, an irreversible transition from the zircon to the scheelite structure, occurs beyond 6.7 GPa. In addition, two reversible transformations take place at 26.7 and 34.4 GPa. The last transition was never reported before. The experimental findings are supported by structural and lattice-dynamics calculations that helped us to identify the post-scheelite phase as a monoclinic fergusonite structure. According to the calculations, the third transition involves a symmetry increase. An orthorhombic structure is proposed for the phase found above 34.4 GPa. The results have been compared with previous studies in TbVO 4 and discussed in comparison with related compounds. The calculated equations of state are reported for the different polymorphs of TbVO 4 . A compressibility increase is caused by the third transition. It is associated to a bond-strength decrease, which is related to a coordination increase and a delocalization of Tb f-electrons

  10. Placenta Percreta Invading Broad Ligament and Parametrium in a Woman with Two Previous Cesarean Sections: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Vahdat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of placenta accreta has dramatically increased due to increasing caesarean section rate all over the world. Placenta percreta is the most severe form of placenta accretes. It frequently results in maternal morbidity and mortality mainly caused by massive obstetric hemorrhage or emergency hysterectomy. Percreta invading into the broad ligament has rarely been previously reported. Case presenting. We presented a case of placenta percreta invading left broad ligament and parametrium in a woman with two previous cesarean sections, which led to massive intraoperative hemorrhage during hysterectomy and transient ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion. In cases of parametrial involvement, it would be more difficult to decide whether to remove placenta or leave it in site. In surgical removal neither local excision of placental bed and uterine repair nor traditional hysterectomy is adequate if parametrium invaded by placenta. We suggest delayed elective hysterectomy in such cases. So, pregnancy-induced pelvic congestion would be decreased, we can gather an expert team of gynecologists, urologists, and vascular surgeons, we could get plenty of blood products, and we may have the chance to administer methotrexate.

  11. [Double mutant alleles in the EXT1 gene not previously reported in a teenager with hereditary multiple exostoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Cozar, Mónica; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana; Asteggiano, Carla G; Martínez-Domenech, Gustavo; Bracho, Ana; Sánchez, Yanira; Stock, Frances; Delgado-Luengo, Wilmer; Zara-Chirinos, Carmen; Chacín, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary forms of multiple exostoses, now called EXT1/EXT2-CDG within Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, are the most common benign bone tumors in humans and clinical description consists of the formation of several cartilage-capped bone tumors, usually benign and localized in the juxta-epiphyseal region of long bones, although wide body dissemination in severe cases is not uncommon. Onset of the disease is variable ranging from 2-3 years up to 13-15 years with an estimated incidence ranging from 1/18,000 to 1/50,000 cases in European countries. We present a double mutant alleles in the EXT1 gene not previously reported in a teenager and her family with hereditary multiple exostoses.

  12. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: June 14, 2018 ...

  13. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  14. Culture and drug susceptibility testing among previously treated tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia J. Romero Mercado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern that threatens global progress toward effective TB control. The risk of MDR-TB is increased in patients who have received previous TB treatment. This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. Under the current system of TB culturing and DST, the majority of patients with previously treated TB do not undergo DST, and those who do often experience considerable delay in obtaining their results. The lack of DST and delay in receiving DST results leads to underestimation of the number of MDR-TB cases and hinders the timely initiation of MDR-TB treatment.

  15. Not just pretty pictures: Geographical Information Systems in TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is becoming a useful tool in disease control by health planners. However little is known about its potential in tuberculosis (TB) control. In 2000 the National TB Programme (NTP) in Malawi assessed its usefulness. Routinely collected case-finding data from the 3 previous years (1997 ...

  16. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  17. Tuberculosis Facts - TB Can Be Treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB Can Be Treated What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Page 1 of 2 TB Facts: TB ...

  18. Pushing the boundaries in liver graft utilisation in transplantation: Case report of a donor with previous bile duct injury repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Asma; Powell, James J; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a recognised treatment for extensive bile duct injuries with secondary biliary cirrhosis or recurring sepsis. However, there have been no reports of successful liver transplantation from a donor who sustained a previous bile duct injury. Here we discuss the case of a liver transplant from a 51-year-old brain dead donor who had suffered a Strasberg E1 bile duct injury and had undergone a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 24 years prior to donation. The liver was successfully recovered and transplanted into a 56-year-old male recipient with end stage liver disease consequent to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. The graft continues to function well 36 months post-transplant, with normal liver function tests and imaging revealing a patent hepaticojejunostomy. The potential associated vascular injuries should be identified during bench preparation whilst the management of biliary reconstruction at the time of transplant should follow the principles of biliary reconstruction in cases with biliary injuries, extending the hilar opening into the left duct. This case highlights the successful utilisation of a post bile duct injury repair liver, employing an experienced procurement team and careful bench assessment and reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Uses of tuberculosis mortality surveillance to identify programme errors and improve database reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, L; Guedes, R; Kritski, A; Spector, N; Lapa E Silva, J R; Braga, J U; Trajman, A

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, 848 persons died from tuberculosis (TB) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.4 per 100 000 population. No specific TB death surveillance actions are currently in place in Brazil. Two public general hospitals with large open emergency rooms in Rio de Janeiro City. To evaluate the contribution of TB death surveillance in detecting gaps in TB control. We conducted a survey of TB deaths from September 2005 to August 2006. Records of TB-related deaths and deaths due to undefined causes were investigated. Complementary data were gathered from the mortality and TB notification databases. Seventy-three TB-related deaths were investigated. Transmission hazards were identified among firefighters, health care workers and in-patients. Management errors included failure to isolate suspected cases, to confirm TB, to correct drug doses in underweight patients and to trace contacts. Following the survey, 36 cases that had not previously been notified were included in the national TB notification database and the outcome of 29 notified cases was corrected. TB mortality surveillance can contribute to TB monitoring and evaluation by detecting correctable and specific programme- and hospital-based care errors, and by improving the accuracy of TB database reporting. Specific local and programmatic interventions can be proposed as a result.

  20. A pilot study of an mHealth application for healthcare workers: poor uptake despite high reported acceptability at a rural South African community-based MDR-TB treatment program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisda H Chaiyachati

    Full Text Available As the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal addresses a growing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB epidemic by shifting care and treatment from trained specialty centers to community hospitals, delivering and monitoring MDR-TB therapy has presented new challenges. In particular, tracking and reporting adverse clinical events have been difficult for mobile healthcare workers (HCWs, trained health professionals who travel daily to patient homes to administer and monitor therapy. We designed and piloted a mobile phone application (Mobilize for mobile HCWs that electronically standardized the recording and tracking of MDR-TB patients on low-cost, functional phones.We assess the acceptability and feasibility of using Mobilize to record and submit adverse events forms weekly during the intensive phase of MDR-TB therapy and evaluate mobile HCW perceptions throughout the pilot period.All five mobile HCWs at one site were trained and provided with phones. Utilizing a mixed-methods evaluation, mobile HCWs' usage patterns were tracked electronically for seven months and analyzed. Qualitative focus groups and questionnaires were designed to understand the impact of mobile phone technology on the work environment.Mobile HCWs submitted nine of 33 (27% expected adverse events forms, conflicting with qualitative results in which mobile HCWs stated that Mobilize improved adverse events communication, helped their daily workflow, and could be successfully expanded to other health interventions. When presented with the conflict between their expressed views and actual practice, mobile HCWs cited forgetfulness and believed patients should take more responsibility for their own care.This pilot experience demonstrated poor uptake by HCWs despite positive responses to using mHealth. Though our results should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of mobile HCWs and MDR-TB patients in this study, we recommend carefully exploring the motivations

  1. A pilot study of an mHealth application for healthcare workers: poor uptake despite high reported acceptability at a rural South African community-based MDR-TB treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Krisda H; Loveday, Marian; Lorenz, Stephen; Lesh, Neal; Larkan, Lee-Megan; Cinti, Sandro; Friedland, Gerald H; Haberer, Jessica E

    2013-01-01

    As the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal addresses a growing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic by shifting care and treatment from trained specialty centers to community hospitals, delivering and monitoring MDR-TB therapy has presented new challenges. In particular, tracking and reporting adverse clinical events have been difficult for mobile healthcare workers (HCWs), trained health professionals who travel daily to patient homes to administer and monitor therapy. We designed and piloted a mobile phone application (Mobilize) for mobile HCWs that electronically standardized the recording and tracking of MDR-TB patients on low-cost, functional phones. We assess the acceptability and feasibility of using Mobilize to record and submit adverse events forms weekly during the intensive phase of MDR-TB therapy and evaluate mobile HCW perceptions throughout the pilot period. All five mobile HCWs at one site were trained and provided with phones. Utilizing a mixed-methods evaluation, mobile HCWs' usage patterns were tracked electronically for seven months and analyzed. Qualitative focus groups and questionnaires were designed to understand the impact of mobile phone technology on the work environment. Mobile HCWs submitted nine of 33 (27%) expected adverse events forms, conflicting with qualitative results in which mobile HCWs stated that Mobilize improved adverse events communication, helped their daily workflow, and could be successfully expanded to other health interventions. When presented with the conflict between their expressed views and actual practice, mobile HCWs cited forgetfulness and believed patients should take more responsibility for their own care. This pilot experience demonstrated poor uptake by HCWs despite positive responses to using mHealth. Though our results should be interpreted cautiously because of the small number of mobile HCWs and MDR-TB patients in this study, we recommend carefully exploring the motivations of HCWs and

  2. External cephalic version among women with a previous cesarean delivery: report on 36 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenhaim, Haim A; Varin, Jocelyne; Boucher, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Whether or not women with a previous cesarean section should be considered for an external cephalic version remains unclear. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between a history of previous cesarean section and outcomes of external cephalic version for pregnancies at 36 completed weeks of gestation or more. Data on obstetrical history and on external cephalic version outcomes was obtained from the C.H.U. Sainte-Justine External Cephalic Version Database. Baseline clinical characteristics were compared among women with and without a history of previous cesarean section. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the effect of previous cesarean section on success of external cephalic version while adjusting for parity, maternal body mass index, gestational age, estimated fetal weight, and amniotic fluid index. Over a 15-year period, 1425 external cephalic versions were attempted of which 36 (2.5%) were performed on women with a previous cesarean section. Although women with a history of previous cesarean section were more likely to be older and para >2 (38.93% vs. 15.0%), there were no difference in gestational age, estimated fetal weight, and amniotic fluid index. Women with a prior cesarean section had a success rate similar to women without [50.0% vs. 51.6%, adjusted OR: 1.31 (0.48-3.59)]. Women with a previous cesarean section who undergo an external cephalic version have similar success rates than do women without. Concern about procedural success in women with a previous cesarean section is unwarranted and should not deter attempting an external cephalic version.

  3. Case report: Inhaled foreign body mismanaged as TB, finally removed using a rigid bronchoscopy after 6 years of impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Rubena Lumaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body aspiration is an important cause of mortality in children aged less than three years. Foreign body (FB inhalation can pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, especially in longstanding cases and complications such as recurrent pneumonia, lung collapse and lung abscess may develop. We report a case of an 11-year old boy with foreign body impacted in his bronchus for six years, which was mistakenly managed as pulmonary tuberculosis. Radiological evidence confirmed the diagnosis and a rigid bronchoscopy was used to remove the metallic foreign body. The standard of care for the management of a FB in a bronchus is a rigid bronchoscopy; however flexible bronchoscopy can be used, especially in adults. A thorough history with radiological evidence are essential and sometimes, followed by a diagnostic bronchoscopy.

  4. Toward a Generation Free of Tuberculosis: TB Disease and Infection in Individuals of College Age in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N. S.; Flood-Bryzman, A.; Jeffries, C.; Scott, J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the magnitude of active TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI) in young adults of college age. Participants: Individuals who were aged 18-24 years in 2011 were used as a proxy for college students. Methods: Active TB cases reported to the 2011 US National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) were included. LTBI prevalence was…

  5. The Natural History of Juvenile or Subacute GM2 Gangliosidosis: 21 New Cases and Literature Review of 134 Previously Reported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegawa, Gustavo H. B.; Stockley, Tracy; Tropak, Michael; Banwell, Brenda; Blaser, Susan; Kok, Fernando; Giugliani, Roberto; Mahuran, Don; Clarke, Joe T. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by deficiency of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase resulting in GM2 ganglioside accumulation in brain. The purpose of this study was to delineate the natural history of the condition and identify genotype-phenotype correlations that might be helpful in predicting the course of the disease in individual patients. METHODS A cohort of 21 patients with juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, 15 with the Tay-Sachs variant and 6 with the Sandhoff variant, was studied prospectively in 2 centers. Our experience was compared with previously published reports on 134 patients. Information about clinical features, β-hexosaminidase enzyme activity, and mutation analysis was collected. RESULTS In our cohort of patients, the mean (±SD) age of onset of symptoms was 5.3 ± 4.1 years, with a mean follow-up time of 8.4 years. The most common symptoms at onset were gait disturbances (66.7%), incoordination (52.4%), speech problems (28.6%), and developmental delay (28.6%). The age of onset of gait disturbances was 7.1 ± 5.6 years. The mean time for progression to becoming wheelchair-bound was 6.2 ± 5.5 years. The mean age of onset of speech problems was 7.0 ± 5.6 years, with a mean time of progression to anarthria of 5.6 ± 5.3 years. Muscle wasting (10.6 ± 7.4 years), proximal weakness (11.1 ± 7.7 years), and incontinence of sphincters (14.6 ± 9.7 years) appeared later in the course of the disease. Psychiatric disturbances and neuropathy were more prevalent in patients with the Sandhoff variant than in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. However, dysphagia, sphincter incontinence, and sleep problems occurred earlier in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. Cerebellar atrophy was the most common finding on brain MRI (52.9%). The median survival time among the studied and reviewed patients was 14.5 years. The genotype-phenotype correlation revealed that in patients with the Tay-Sachs variant, the presence

  6. Interferon gamma release assays for the diagnosis of latent TB infection in HIV-infected individuals in a low TB burden country.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cheallaigh, Clíona Ní

    2013-01-01

    Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Two IGRAs are commercially available: the Quantiferon TB Gold In Tube (QFT-IT) and the T-SPOT.TB. There is debate as to which test to use in HIV+ individuals. Previous publications from high TB burden countries have raised concerns that the sensitivity of the QFT-IT assay, but not the T-SPOT.TB, may be impaired in HIV+ individuals with low CD4+ T-cell counts. We sought to compare the tests in a low TB burden setting.

  7. Analysis of over 10,000 Cases finds no association between previously reported candidate polymorphisms and ovarian cancer outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Kristin L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fogarty, Zachary C

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis...

  8. HIV screening among TB patients and co-trimoxazole preventive therapy for TB/HIV patients in Addis Ababa: facility based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegetu, Amenu Wesen; Dolamo, Bethabile Lovely

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative TB/HIV management is essential to ensure that HIV positive TB patients are identified and treated appropriately, and to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in HIV positive patients. The purpose of this study was to assess HIV case finding among TB patients and Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) for HIV/TB patients in Addis Ababa. A descriptive cross-sectional, facility-based survey was conducted between June and July 2011. Data was collected by interviewing 834 TB patients from ten health facilities in Addis Ababa. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to summarize and analyze findings. The proportion of TB patients who (self reported) were offered for HIV test, tested for HIV and tested HIV positive during their anti-TB treatment follow-up were; 87.4%, 69.4% and 20.2%; respectively. Eighty seven HIV positive patients were identified, who knew their status before diagnosed for the current TB disease, bringing the cumulative prevalence of HIV among TB patients to 24.5%. Hence, the proportion of TB patients who knew their HIV status becomes 79.9%. The study revealed that 43.6% of those newly identified HIV positives during anti-TB treatment follow-up were actually treated with CPT. However, the commutative proportion of HIV positive TB patients who were ever treated with CPT was 54.4%; both those treated before the current TB disease and during anti-TB treatment follow-up. HIV case finding among TB patients and provision of CPT for TB/HIV co-infected patients needs boosting. Hence, routine offering of HIV test and provision of CPT for PLHIV should be strengthened in-line with the national guidelines.

  9. Rib cage deformity during two-stage tissue expander breast reconstruction in patient with previous radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing two-stage breast reconstruction with tissue expander and a history of previous irradiation are predisposed to a various chest-wall deformations more than non-irradiated patients. If chest-wall depression with/without rib fracture is found intra-operatively, bigger implant should be used, with a subsequent radiologic evaluation. In the future, the development of a new, modified expander with a harder base could minimise such complications.

  10. A Case Report of Salmonella muenchen Enteritis Causing Rhabdomyolysis and Myocarditis in a Previously Healthy 26-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Will; Martell, Jon; Wilson, Joy S; Matsuura, Don T

    2017-04-01

    This case report examines an unusual presentation of a non-typhoidal Salmonella serovar with limited prevalence in the literature. This is the first case report to associate specifically the Salmonella muenchen serovar with rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis. This case report reviews the diagnostic criteria for myocarditis and explores the diagnostic dilemma of troponin elevation in the setting of rhabdomyolysis. It demonstrates that Salmonella muenchen has the ability to present in a broad range of individuals with complications extending beyond classical gastrointestinal symptoms. This report also concludes that diagnosis of the many possible complications from non-typhoidal Salmonella infections can be difficult due to patient comorbidities, variability in the severity of the illnesses, laboratory test limitations, and imaging limitations. When a patient presents with elevated troponins in the setting of rhabdomyolysis a careful workup should be done to evaluate for ischemic causes, myocarditis, or false elevation secondary to rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  12. Magnetic properties of TbTiGe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokes, K.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.; Gortenmulder, T.J.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties of the compound TbTiGe by means of neutron diffraction in the temperature range 1.7-310 K. We also report on magnetization measurements made at different temperatures and fields. The compound TbTiGe adopts the tetragonal CeFeSi-structure type and orders antiferromagnetically at T N =286 K. The structure is collinear antiferromagnetic in the whole temperature range below T N , with the magnetic moments aligned along the tetragonal c-axis. The uncommon shape of the temperature dependence of the magnetization observed in our sample is attributed to small amounts of the ferromagnetic low-temperature modification of TbTiGe

  13. 24 CFR 1710.558 - Previously accepted state filings-notice of revocation rights on property report cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will give the purchaser written notification of purchaser's default or breach of contract and the... purchaser loses rights and interest in the lot because of the purchaser's default or breach of contract... Report prior to signing a contract or agreement, you may cancel your contract or agreement by giving...

  14. Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caram, L. B.; Linefsky, J. P.; Read, K. M.; Murdoch, D. R.; Lalani, T.; Woods, C. W.; Reller, L. B.; Kanj, S. S.; Premru, M. M.; Ryan, S.; Al-Hegelan, M.; Donnio, P. Y.; Orezzi, C.; Paiva, M. G.; Tribouilloy, C.; Watkin, R.; Harris, O.; Eisen, D. P.; Corey, G. R.; Cabell, C. H.; Petti, C. A.; Gordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncion; Mestres, Carlos A.; Paré, Carlos; de la Maria, Cristina Garcia; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miró, José M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jiménez-Expósito, Maria Jesús; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falcó, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. We report the first two cases of endocarditis secondary to L. goodfellowii sp. nov. Both cases were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Review of the English literature revealed only two other cases of

  15. Case report of electronic cigarettes possibly associated with eosinophilic pneumonitis in a previously healthy active-duty sailor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Darshan; Latham, Emi

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a technology that has been touted as a safe and effective alternative to traditional cigarettes. There is, however, a paucity of literature showing the adverse outcomes of e-cigarettes and a correlation with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). To present a possible association between e-cigarettes and AEP. A 20-year-old previously healthy man was found to develop AEP after smoking an e-cigarette. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids and his symptoms improved. Though an alternative to traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes can have unpredictable and potentially serious adverse effects. More research needs to be conducted to determine their safety. If seeing a patient in the ED with pulmonary symptoms after use of e-cigarettes, AEP should be considered in the differential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Molecularly imprinted sensor based on Russian Matryoshka structured molecules for enhanced specific identification and double amplification in ultra-trace Tb3+ determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Yang, Bin; Pan, Hongcheng; Xu, Guobao

    2018-06-30

    The selective and sensitive detection of rare earth elements is thought to be difficult because the concentration of those elements in the sample is commonly at a low level and they normally have severe mutual interference which is caused by homologous chemical properties. In this study, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sensor was fabricated for highly sensitive and selective determination of ultra-trace Tb 3+ . The Tb 3+ -ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid complex (Tb-EDTA) as the template molecule was incorporated into mono-6-mercapto-β-cyclodextrin (mono-6-SH-β-CD) to form a Russian Matryoshka (RM)-structured molecule (CD/Tb-EDTA). Titanium isopropoxide was utilized in vapor sol-gel polymerization to construct MIP membrane. Moreover, the selectivity of the RM MIP sensor was remarkably enhanced by the "triple-selectivity" recognition of EDTA-to-Tb 3+ , β-CD-to-(Tb-EDTA), and 3D cavity-to-(CD/Tb-EDTA), while the sensitivity of the MIP sensor was significantly improved by ECL signal enhancement based on double amplification, in other words, the electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) between the ECL donor of CD/Tb-EDTA and the ECL acceptor of Ru(bpy) 3 2+ , and the ECL enhancement by the co-reactant of CD/Tb-EDTA on Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 . When the imprinted cavities were occupied by Tb-EDTA during rebinding, the host-guest inclusion structured complex was formed and the ECL intensities produced by the Ru(bpy) 3 Cl 2 ECL system increased with increasing concentration of Tb-EDTA. The proposed sensor was used for quantitative analysis of Tb 3+ with concentrations ranging from 8.00 × 10 -13 mol/L to 4.00 × 10 -9 mol/L and successfully applied to detect Tb 3+ in seawater samples. The detection limit of the sensor was found to be 3.90 × 10 -13 mol/L (DL = 3δ b /K), which is lower than previously reported values. Thus, the fabricated sensor is feasible for practical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. The effect of altered dosage of a mutant allele of Teosinte branched 1 (tb1-ref) on the root system of modern maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amelie C M; McClymont, Sarah A; Soliman, Sameh S M; Raizada, Manish N

    2014-02-14

    There was ancient human selection on the wild progenitor of modern maize, Balsas teosinte, for decreased shoot branching (tillering), in order to allow more nutrients to be diverted to grain. Mechanistically, the decline in shoot tillering has been associated with selection for increased expression of the major domestication gene Teosinte Branched 1 (Tb1) in shoot primordia. Therefore, TB1 has been defined as a repressor of shoot branching. It is known that plants respond to changes in shoot size by compensatory changes in root growth and architecture. However, it has not been reported whether altered TB1 expression affects any plant traits below ground. Previously, changes in dosage of a well-studied mutant allele of Tb1 in modern maize, called tb1-ref, from one to two copies, was shown to increase tillering. As a result, plants with two copies of the tb1-ref allele have a larger shoot biomass than heterozygotes. Here we used aeroponics to phenotype the effects of tb1-ref copy number on maize roots at macro-, meso- and micro scales of development. An increase in the tb1-ref copy number from one to two copies resulted in: (1) an increase in crown root number due to the cumulative initiation of crown roots from successive tillers; (2) higher density of first and second order lateral roots; and (3) reduced average lateral root length. The resulting increase in root system biomass in homozygous tb1-ref mutants balanced the increase in shoot biomass caused by enhanced tillering. These changes caused homozygous tb1-ref mutants of modern maize to more closely resemble its ancestor Balsas teosinte below ground. We conclude that a decrease in TB1 function in maize results in a larger root system, due to an increase in the number of crown roots and lateral roots. Given that decreased TB1 expression results in a more highly branched and larger shoot, the impact of TB1 below ground may be direct or indirect. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for whole

  18. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  19. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mezaine Hani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg′s spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger′s from the posterior chamber.

  20. Operational challenges in diagnosing multi-drug resistant TB and initiating treatment in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjit S Chadha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP, Andhra Pradesh, India. There is limited information on whether MDR-TB suspects are identified, undergo diagnostic assessment and are initiated on treatment according to the programme guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess i using the programme definition, the number and proportion of MDR-TB suspects in a large cohort of TB patients on first-line treatment under RNTCP ii the proportion of these MDR-TB suspects who underwent diagnosis for MDR-TB and iii the number and proportion of those diagnosed as MDR-TB who were successfully initiated on treatment. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis, by reviewing RNTCP records and reports, was conducted in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, among patients registered for first line treatment during October 2008 to December 2009. RESULTS: Among 23,999 TB patients registered for treatment there were 559 (2% MDR-TB suspects (according to programme definition of which 307 (55% underwent diagnosis and amongst these 169 (55% were found to be MDR-TB. Of the MDR-TB patients, 112 (66% were successfully initiated on treatment. Amongst those eligible for MDR-TB services, significant proportions are lost during the diagnostic and treatment initiation pathway due to a variety of operational challenges. The programme needs to urgently address these challenges for effective delivery and utilisation of the MDR-TB services.

  1. Cycloserine Induced Late Onset Psychosis and Ethambutol Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with MDR-TB Treatment in an Indian Patient- A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sadhana; Amberkar, Mohan Babu; Bhandarypanambur, Rajeshkrishna; Kamalkishore, Meenakumari; Janardhanan, Manju

    2015-02-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity inevitably accompany all treatment courses for drug-resistant TB. Our case underscores the importance of awareness regarding neuropsychiatric adverse reactions due to MDR-TB therapy and reversible nature of it. Cycloserine induced psychosis is most life threatening complication and sometimes could be fatal. A 42-year-old male on MDR-TB therapy got admitted for his persistent psychotic complaints like hallucinations, delusions and suicidal ideations, despite being treated with quetiapine/olanzapine. Eventually patient was rehabilitated, cycloserine was stopped and psychotic events regressed slowly. Other culprit drugs like ethambutol and levofloxacin causing psychosis was ruled out because there was no relapse of psychotic events despite being continued with these drugs. He also complained of tingling, numbness, swaying, pain and weakness. On examination, he had distal motor weakness in lower limbs, tandem gait positive, altered position sense, and tenderness over toes and positive Romberg's sign with ataxia. He was diagnosed to have drug induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. All these symptoms persisted after stopping cycloserine and patient continued to have neuropathy with ethambutol and ethionamide. Considering the nature of neuropathy which was mild, mixed sensorimotor and resolved completely after 2-3 weeks of stopping, it was more in favour of ethambutol. However, we could not rule out the possibility of ethionamide or (ethionamide + ethambutol) causing neuropathy or both could have accelerated the neurotoxic effects of cycloserine which remained elusive.

  2. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate

  3. High-pressure polymorphs of TbVO{sub 4}: A Raman and ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errandonea, D., E-mail: daniel.errandonea@uv.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, MALTA Consolider Team, Edificio de Investigación, C/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Manjón, F.J. [Instituto de Diseño para la Fabricación y Producción Automatizada, MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Muñoz, A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P. [Departamento de Física Fundamental II, Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnología, MALTA Consolider Team, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna 38205, Tenerife (Spain); Panchal, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada-ICMUV, Universidad de Valencia, MALTA Consolider Team, Edificio de Investigación, C/Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Royal College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Mira Road, Mumbai 401 107 (India); Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Three phase transitions are induced in zircon-type TbVO4 at 6.7, 26.7, and 34.4 GPa. •The proposed structural sequence is zircon-scheelite-fergusonite-orthorhombic Cmca. •Scheelite phase is metaestable after decompression. •The equation of states for all phases is reported. •Compressibility is enhanced in the Cmca phase due to f-electron delocalization. -- Abstract: Raman measurements on TbVO{sub 4} show the occurrence of three pressure-induced phase transitions. The first one, an irreversible transition from the zircon to the scheelite structure, occurs beyond 6.7 GPa. In addition, two reversible transformations take place at 26.7 and 34.4 GPa. The last transition was never reported before. The experimental findings are supported by structural and lattice-dynamics calculations that helped us to identify the post-scheelite phase as a monoclinic fergusonite structure. According to the calculations, the third transition involves a symmetry increase. An orthorhombic structure is proposed for the phase found above 34.4 GPa. The results have been compared with previous studies in TbVO{sub 4} and discussed in comparison with related compounds. The calculated equations of state are reported for the different polymorphs of TbVO{sub 4}. A compressibility increase is caused by the third transition. It is associated to a bond-strength decrease, which is related to a coordination increase and a delocalization of Tb f-electrons.

  4. A meta-analysis of drug resistant tuberculosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: how strongly associated with previous treatment and HIV co-infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru; Yizengaw, Desalegn

    2013-11-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the fight against tuberculosis (TB) has encountered a great challenge because of the emergence of drug resistant TB strains and the high prevalence of HIV infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the association of drug-resistant TB with anti-TB drug treatment history and HIV co-infection. After electronic based literature search in the databases of Medline, HINARI, EMBASE and the Cochrane library, article selection and data extraction were carried out. HIV co-infection and previous history of TB treatment were used as predictors for the occurrence of any anti-TB drug resistant or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). The risk ratios for each included study and for the pooled sample were computed using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were also done. The pooled analysis showed that the risk of developing drug-resistant TB to at least one anti-TB drug was about 3 times higher in individuals who had a previous history of anti-TB treatment than new TB cases. The risk of having MDR-TB in previously anti-TB treated TB cases was more than 5-fold higher than that of new TB cases. Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampicin was more than fivefold higher among the previously treated with anti-TB drugs. However, HIV infection was not associated with drug-resistant TB. There was a strong association of previous anti-TB treatment with MDR-TB. Primary treatment warrants special emphasis, and screening for anti-TB drugs sensitivity has to be strengthened.

  5. management of pulmonary tb in nurse-based cape town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    a recording and reporting system enabling assessment of the outcomes of each patient ... scopically at the regional laboratory. (NHLS) for .... auditing of aspects of clinical and resource management. ... and information systems. The TB nurs-.

  6. Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsi, Payam; Yousefzadeh, Amir; Najafizadeh, Katayoun; Droudinia, Atousa; Bayati, Rouzbeh; Marjani, Majid; Shafaghi, Shadi; Farokhzad, Banafsheh; Javanmard, Pedram; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G) test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD) in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA) in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9%) turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%), and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%). Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.

  7. Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Tabarsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6, culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10, and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9% turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%, and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%. Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.

  8. Unexpected finding of T-cell lymphoma in a previously healthy 16-year-old patient after a thorax trauma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Okholm-Hansen, Anna; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course and emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The differential diagnostic difficulties have previously been described in regard to pneumonia, but to the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case report to desc...... relevant to pediatricians, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and general practitioners....

  9. TB Risk Perceptions among Medical Residents at a Tertiary Care Center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta S. Pardeshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. Government tertiary health care center in India. Objective. To understand the perceptions of medical residents about their risk of developing TB in the workplace. Design. Cross-sectional study in which a semistructured questionnaire which included an open-ended question to assess their main concerns regarding TB in workplace was used to collect data. Results. Out of 305 resident doctors approached, 263 (94% completed a structured questionnaire and 200 of these responded to an open-ended question. Daily exposure to TB was reported by 141 (64% residents, 13 (5% reported a prior history of TB, and 175 (69% respondents were aware of TB infection control guidelines. A majority reported concerns about acquiring TB (78% and drug-resistant TB (88%. The key themes identified were concerns about developing drug-resistant TB (n=100; 50%; disease and its clinical consequences (n=39; 20%; social and professional consequences (n=37; 19%; exposure to TB patients (n=32; 16%; poor infection control measures (n=27; 14%; and high workload and its health consequences (n=16; 8%. Conclusion. Though many resident doctors were aware of TB infection control guidelines, only few expressed concern about lack of TB infection control measures. Doctors need to be convinced of the importance of these measures which should be implemented urgently.

  10. Patient satisfaction with HIV and TB treatment in a public programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal: evidence from patient-exit interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient satisfaction is a determinant of treatment uptake, adherence and retention, and an important health systems outcome. Queues, health worker-patient contact time, staff attitudes, and facility cleanliness may affect patient satisfaction. We quantified dimensions of patient satisfaction among HIV and TB patients in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and identified underlying satisfaction factors that explained the data. Methods We conducted patient-exit interviews with 300 HIV and 300 TB patients who were randomly selected using a two-stage cluster random sampling approach with primary sampling units (primary healthcare clinics) selected with probability-proportional-to-size sampling. We performed factor analysis to investigate underlying patient satisfaction factors. We compared the satisfaction with HIV and TB services and examined the relationships between patient satisfaction and patients’ socio-demographic characteristics in multivariable regression. Results Almost all patients (95% HIV, 97% TB) reported to be globally satisfied with the healthcare services received on the day of the interview. However, patient satisfaction with specific concrete aspects of the health services was substantially lower: 52% of HIV and 40% of TB patients agreed that some staff did not treat patients with sufficient respect (p = 0.02 for difference between the two patient groups); 65% of HIV and 40% of TB patients agreed that health worker queues were too long (p patient satisfaction variables could be reduced to a few underlying factors that align broadly with concepts previously identified in the literature as affecting access to healthcare. Increases in health systems resources for HIV and TB, but also improvements in facility maintenance, staff attitudes and communication, are likely to substantially improve HIV and TB patients’ satisfaction with the care they receive in public-sector treatment programmes in rural communities in South

  11. Thermomagnetically written domains in TbFeCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reim, W.; Weller, D.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristic features of thermomagnetically written domains in amorphous Tb x (Fe 90 Co 10 ) 100-x alloy thin films having different magnetic properties are reported. In particular, the writing process in materials with low Tb content chi ≤ 21 dominated by the demagnetizing field is compared to the bias field dominated process in Tb rich samples 22 ≤ chi ≤ 25. Domain wall movement over lateral dimensions of the bit size is found for Tb poor materials while for chi ≥ 22 domain boundaries are primarily determined by the area heated up to the Curie-temperature. The importance of mechanical stress on domain formation and irreversible changes of the storage medium due to overheating in the writing process are reported

  12. When students become patients: TB disease among medical undergraduates in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene-Mari van der Westhuizen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Medical students acquire latent tuberculosis (TB infection at a rate of 23 cases/100 person-years. The frequency and impact of occupational TB disease in this population are unknown. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015 at two medical schools in Cape Town. Individuals who had developed TB disease as undergraduate students were eligible to participate. Quantitative and qualitative data collected from the questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were analysed with descriptive statistics and a framework approach to identify emerging themes. Results. Twelve individuals (10 female reported a diagnosis of TB: pulmonary TB (n=6, pleural TB (n=3, TB lymphadenitis (n=2 and TB spine (n=1; 2/12 (17% had drug-resistant disease (DR-TB. Mean diagnostic delay post consultation was 8.1 weeks, with only 42% of initial diagnoses being correct. Most consulted private healthcare providers (general practitioners (n=7; pulmonologists (n=4, and nine underwent invasive procedures (bronchoscopy, pleural fluid aspiration and tissue biopsy. Substantial healthcare costs were incurred (mean ZAR25 000 for drug-sensitive TB, up to ZAR104 000 for DR-TB. Students struggled to obtain treatment, incurred high transport costs and missed academic time. Students with DR-TB interrupted their studies and experienced severe side-effects (hepatotoxicity, depression and permanent ototoxicity. Most participants cited poor TB infection-control practices at their training hospitals as a major risk factor for occupational TB. Conclusions. Undergraduate medical students in Cape Town are at high risk of occupationally acquired TB, with an unmet need for comprehensive occupational health services and support.

  13. Screening for TB by sputum culture in high-risk groups in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sidse Graff; Wrona Olsen, Nete; Seersholm, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: On seven occasions, from September 2012 through June 2014, we offered TB screening to all persons present at 11 locations where socially marginalised people gather in Copenhagen. Spot sputum samples from participants were examined by smear microscopy and culture. Genotype, nucleic acid......INTRODUCTION: Evidence on screening high-risk groups for TB by mobile X-ray in low-incidence countries is building, but knowledge on other possible screening methods is limited. In this retrospective study we report results from a community based programme screening for TB by spot sputum culture...... amplification test and chest X-ray were done if TB was found. RESULTS: Among 1075 participants, we identified 36 cases of TB. Twenty-four cases (66.7%) were identified at the first screening of each participant, that is, the prevalence of TB was 2233/100 000. Thirty-five (97%) of the TB cases were culture...

  14. Selective Release of anti–TB Drugs Complex from Smart Copolymeric Bioactive nano–carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arredondo–Peñaranda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Smart nano–copolymeric matrices have been employed to load and release anti tuberculosis (anti – TB drugs combinated complexes of Ethambutol (EMB, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampicin (RMP and Pyrazinamide (PZA. Copolymeric nanocarriers were synthesized using a microemulsion polymerization method previously reported. These nanocarriers can show selective swelling–collapse response under changes in local environments such a temperature, pH, solvent composition and electrical stimuli. The employ of these kinds of systems permits a controlled and selective delivery and release on specific human tissues. High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique was used to allow the detection of combinated mixtures of different active principles of anti–TB drugs using an acetonitrile mobile phase at 0.5 mL/min of flow rate whit a Spherisorb ODS2, C18 column. The results obtained suggest that the employ of smart nanohydrogels is a novel method in several tuberculosis therapies.

  15. Detectemos la TB. Tratemos la TB. Trabajemos juntos para eliminar la TB. (Find TB. Treat TB. Working together to eliminate TB.)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-26

    Este podcast trata sobre el Día Mundial de la Tuberculosis y el tema de los CDC para el año 2014.  Created: 2/26/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  16. Temporal trends in TB notification rates during ART scale-up in Cape Town: an ecological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Sabine; Boulle, Andrew; Caldwell, Judy; Pienaar, David; Wood, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces individual tuberculosis (TB) risk by two-thirds, the population-level impact remains uncertain. Cape Town reports high TB notification rates associated with endemic HIV. We examined population trends in TB notification rates during a 10-year period of

  17. The WHO's new End TB Strategy in the post-2015 era of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnroth, Knut; Raviglione, Mario

    2016-03-01

    The WHO's new End TB Strategy 2016-2035 has evolved from previous global strategies to respond to old and new challenges and take advantage of new opportunities. It frames the global fight against TB as a development, social justice and human rights issue, while re-emphasizing the public health and clinical fundaments of TB care and prevention. In this commentary, we outline how TB prevention, care and control will both benefit from and contribute to the achievement of the new Sustainable Development Goals that were recently adopted at the United Nations. © The author 2016. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  18. Anomalous magnetoelastic behaviour near morphotropic phase boundary in ferromagnetic Tb{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x}Co{sub 2} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murtaza, Adil; Yang, Sen, E-mail: yang.sen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhou, Chao; Chang, Tieyan; Chen, Kaiyun; Tian, Fanghua; Song, Xiaoping [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suchomel, Matthrew R.; Ren, Y. [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) involved ferromagnetic system Tb{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x}Co{sub 2} and reveal the corresponding structural and magnetoelastic properties of this system. With high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffractometry, the crystal structure of the TbCo{sub 2}-rich side is detected to be rhombohedral and that of NdCo{sub 2}-rich side is tetragonal below their respective Curie temperatures T{sub C}. The MPB composition Tb{sub 0.35}Nd{sub 0.65}Co{sub 2} corresponds to the coexistence of the rhombohedral phase (R-phase) and tetragonal phase (T-phase). Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb{sub 0.35}Nd{sub 0.65}Co{sub 2} shows minimum magnetization which can be understood as compensation of sublattice moments between the R-phase and the T-phase. Furthermore, magnetostriction of Tb{sub 1-x}Nd{sub x}Co{sub 2} decreases with increasing Nd concentration until x = 0.8 and then increases in the negative direction with further increasing Nd concentration; the optimum point for magnetoelastic properties lies towards the rhombohedral phase. Our work not only shows an anomalous type of ferromagnetic MPB but also provides an effective way to design functional materials.

  19. [Metatropic dysplasia in a girl with c.1811_1812delinsAT mutation in exon 11 of the TRPV4 gene not previously reported].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Matysiak-Scholze, Uta; Heinze, Jessica; Barrera, Albaro; Lacruz-Rengel, María Angelina; Bracho, Ana; Guerrero, Yudith

    2015-01-01

    Metatropic dysplasia is a skeletal disorder with clinical heterogeneity, characterized by craniofacial dysmorphy including frontal bossing and midface hypoplasia, short trunk,progressive kyphoscoliosis and shortened limbs. The TRPV4 gene is located on 12q24.11, coding a cation channel with nonselective permeability to calcium; it is expressed and involved in many physiological processes through responses to different stimuli. Over 50 mutations in TRPV4 have been described. We present a seven months old girl with heterozygous mutation c.1811_1812delinsAT; p.I604N in intron 11 not previously reported in the TRPV4 gene and with clinical findings compatible with metatropic dysplasia.

  20. Antiretroviral Treatment Scale-Up and Tuberculosis Mortality in High TB/HIV Burden Countries: An Econometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Isabel; Bendavid, Eran; Korenromp, Eline L

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in patients with active tuberculosis (TB), but the population-level relationship between ART coverage and TB mortality is untested. We estimated the reduction in population-level TB mortality that can be attributed to increasing ART coverage across 41 high HIV-TB burden countries. We compiled TB mortality trends between 1996 and 2011 from two sources: (1) national program-reported TB death notifications, adjusted for annual TB case detection rates, and (2) WHO TB mortality estimates. National coverage with ART, as proportion of HIV-infected people in need, was obtained from UNAIDS. We applied panel linear regressions controlling for HIV prevalence (5-year lagged), coverage of TB interventions (estimated by WHO and UNAIDS), gross domestic product per capita, health spending from domestic sources, urbanization, and country fixed effects. Models suggest that that increasing ART coverage was followed by reduced TB mortality, across multiple specifications. For death notifications at 2 to 5 years following a given ART scale-up, a 1% increase in ART coverage predicted 0.95% faster mortality rate decline (p = 0.002); resulting in 27% fewer TB deaths in 2011 alone than would have occurred without ART. Based on WHO death estimates, a 1% increase in ART predicted a 1.0% reduced TB death rate (peconometric analysis supports a substantial impact of ART on population-level TB mortality realized already within the first decade of ART scale-up, that is apparent despite variable-quality mortality data.

  1. New Record of Sillago sinica (Pisces: Sillaginidae in Korean Waters, and Re-identification of Sillago parvisquamis Previously Reported from Korea as S. sinica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Eun Bae

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A single specimen of the genus Sillago, collected from Gwangyang, Korea, in May 2009, is characterized by XI first dorsal fin spines, 3 or 4 rows of melanophore pattern along the second dorsal fin membrane, and a darkish posterior margin of the caudal fin. Our specimen was identified as Sillago sinica reported as a new species; this identification is confirmed by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences, which show that our specimen corresponds to S. sinica (d=0.000 and differs from the congeneric species Sillago parvisquamis (d=0.170. Comparisons of Korean specimens previously reported as S. parvisquamis with specimens of S. sinica show that the S. parvisquamis specimens are actually S. sinica. We propose the new Korean name “buk-bang-jeom-bo-ri-myeol” for S. sinica.

  2. TB and HIV co-infection: when to start antiretroviral therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... HIV and TB treatment in co-infected patients is a critical one. Previously, TB ... Indications for ART are based on an assessment of individual risk- benefit analysis of ..... An HIV test was positive, a lumbar puncture was acellular ...

  3. Treatment outcome of tb/hiv positive and negative smear positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In our previous study we found that half of the patients treated at the Nylon District Hospital tuberculosis (TB) treatment centre were seropositive. HIV does not only fuel the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide but it is also at least in part, responsible for the non-achievement of the 85% cure rate target.

  4. Prospective evaluation of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes following SBRT ± cetuximab for locally-recurrent, previously-irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, John A.; Heron, Dwight E.; Ferris, Robert L.; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Wegner, Rodney E.; Kalash, Ronny; Ohr, James; Kubicek, Greg J.; Burton, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a promising salvage strategy for unresectable, previously-irradiated recurrent squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (rSCCHN). Here-in, we report the first prospective evaluation of patient-reported quality-of-life (PR-QoL) following re-irradiation with SBRT ± cetuximab for rSCCHN. Materials and methods: From November 2004 to May 2011, 150 patients with unresectable, rSCCHN in a previously-irradiated field receiving >40 Gy were treated with SBRT to 40–50 Gy in 5 fractions ± concurrent cetuximab. PR-QoL was prospectively acquired using University of Washington Quality-of-Life Revised (UW-QoL-R). Results: Overall PR-QoL, health-related PR-QoL, and select domains commonly affected by re-irradiation progressively increase following an initial 1-month decline with statistically significant improvements noted in swallowing (p = 0.025), speech (p = 0.017), saliva (p = 0.041), activity (p = 0.032) and recreation (p = 0.039). Conclusions: Especially for patients surviving >1-year, improved tumor control associated with SBRT re-irradiation may ameliorate decreased PR-QoL resulting from rSCCHN. These improvements in PR-QoL transcend all measured domains in a validated PR-QoL assessment tool independent of age, use of cetuximab, tumor volume, and interval since prior irradiation.

  5. Fabrication and properties of highly luminescent materials from Tb(OH)3-SiO2 and Tb(OH)3-SiO2:Eu3+ nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thu Huong; Tran Kim Anh; Le Quoc Minh

    2009-01-01

    Luminescent nanomaterials with one-dimensional (1D) structures have attracted much attention due to their unique properties and potential applications in nanophotonics and nanobiophotonics. In this paper, we report a synthesis of terbium - hydroxide - at - silica Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 and Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 :Eu 3+ nanotubes. Terbium - hydroxide tubes were synthesized by soft template method. The size of the tubes can be controlled precisely and have outer diameters ranging from 80 to 120 nm, wall thickness of about 30 nm, and lengths ranging from 300 to 800 nm. To fabricate core/shell materials, the seed growth method is used. FESEM, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra of Tb(OH) 3 and Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 nanotubes were investigated. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of Tb(OH) 3 under 325 nm excitation consists of four main peaks at 488, 542, 582, and 618 nm. Furthermore, a preliminary suggestion for the mechanism of growth of the Tb(OH) 3 nanotubes using the soft - template synthesis technique has been proposed. The PL intensity from Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 or Tb(OH) 3 -SiO 2 :Eu 3+ nanotubes is much stronger than that of Tb(OH) 3 .

  6. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies. PMID:27781000

  7. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  8. HIV and intestinal parasites in adult TB patients in a teaching hospital in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassu, Afework; Mengistu, Getahun; Ayele, Belete; Diro, Ermias; Mekonnen, Firew; Ketema, Dereje; Moges, Feleke; Mesfin, Tsehay; Getachew, Assefa; Ergicho, Bahiru; Elias, Daniel; Wondmikun, Yared; Aseffa, Abraham; Ota, Fusao

    2007-10-01

    The level of HIV infection and intestinal parasitoses among TB patients was assessed in a hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 257 patients in Gondar, Ethiopia. In TB patients, our study reported co-infection with HIV (52.1%) and intestinal parasites (40.9%) The high prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasites indicates an increased morbidity inTB patients and emphasized the importance of continued HIV sero-surveillance, stool analysis and treatment.

  9. Luminescence and energy transfer mechanism in Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}-co-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystal rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahemen, I., E-mail: ahemior@gmail.com; Dejene, F. B. [University of the Free State-QwaQwa Campus, Department of Physics (South Africa)

    2017-01-15

    Nanocrystal rods of Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}-co-doped ZrO{sub 2} were synthesized using a simple chemical precipitation technique. Both ions were successfully doped into the Zr{sup 4+} ion site in a mixed structure containing both monoclinic and tetragonal phases. The Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} singly doped zirconia produced red and green luminescence which are characteristics of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The co-doped zirconia samples produced blue emission from defect states transitions in the host ZrO{sub 2}, red and green luminescence from dopant ions giving cool to warm white light emissions. The phosphors were efficiently excited by ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet/blue radiations giving white and red light, respectively. The decay lifetime was found to increase with increasing donor ion concentration contrary to conventional observations reported by previous researchers. Weak quadrupole–quatdrupole multipolar process was responsible for energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} (donor) ion to Eu{sup 3+} ion. No energy back-transfer from Eu{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ion was observed from the excitation spectra. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence shows the presence of defects at low temperature, but these defects vanished at room temperature and beyond. The Eu{sup 3+}/Tb{sup 3+}-co-doped ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystal rod is a potential phosphor for white light application using UV as an excitation source. Thermoluminescence measurements show that the inclusion of Tb{sup 3+} ion increases trap depths in the host zirconia.

  10. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  11. Pathway to care for drug resistant tuberculosis cases identified during a retrospective study conducted in high TB burden wards in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Mistry, Nerges

    2018-05-10

    Background: Mumbai is witnessing a rising incidence of all forms of drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Methods: A population-based, retrospective study was conducted between April and July 2014, in 15 high TB burden wards in Mumbai, to capture the patient pathways to TB care. A total of 23 DR-TB patients were identified and their pathways to access DR-TB care were recorded using semi-structured interviews. Results: The total DR-TB pathway time of new patients (who did not report any past episode of TB) (180 days; IQR 123,346) was found to be more than twice that of retreatment patients (who reported a past episode of TB) (69 days; IQR 42,128). Conclusions: The unacceptable delay for diagnosis and treatment of DR-TB in Mumbai advocates for consistent implementation of early screening of patients using rapid gene-based technologies.

  12. Deexcitation of superdeformed bands in the nucleus Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Appelbe, D; Beck, FA; Byrski, T; Cullen, D; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Stezowski, O; Twin, P; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this work is to get more informations about the decay-out of superdeformed bands. One of the best candidates in the mass A similar or equal to 150 region for that kind of research is the nucleus Tb-151. From previous works, it has been established that the first excited band goes lower in

  13. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis to the Orbit in a Coinfected HIV+ HBV+ Patient Previously Treated with Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma rarely metastasizes to the orbit. We report a 45-year-old male, HBV+, HIV+, with a past history of a liver transplant for ELSD (end-stage liver disease with hepatocellular carcinoma and recurrent HCC, who presented with proptosis and diplopia of the left eye. CT scans of the head revealed a large, irregular mass in the left orbit causing superior and lateral destruction of the orbital bone. Biopsy specimens of the orbital tumor showed features of metastatic foci of hepatocellular carcinoma. Only 16 other cases of HCC metastasis to the orbit have been described in literature, and this is the first case in a previously transplanted HIV+, HBV+ patient.

  14. Increased risk of default among previously treated tuberculosis cases in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, F M; Dunbar, R; Hesseling, A C; Enarson, D A; Fielding, K; Beyers, N

    2012-08-01

    To investigate, in two urban communities with high tuberculosis (TB) incidence and high rates of TB recurrence, whether a history of previous TB treatment is associated with treatment default. Retrospective cohort study of TB cases with an episode of treatment recorded in the clinic-based treatment registers between 2002 and 2007. Probabilistic record linkage was used to ascertain treatment history of TB cases back to 1996. Based on the outcome of their most recent previous treatment episode, previously treated cases were compared to new cases regarding their risk of treatment default. Previous treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95%CI 1.17-2.73), previous default (aOR 6.18, 95%CI 3.68-10.36) and previous failure (aOR 9.72, 95%CI 3.07-30.78) were each independently associated with treatment default (P default were male sex (P = 0.003) and age 19-39 years (P risk of treatment default, even after previous successful treatment. This finding is of particular importance in a setting where recurrent TB is very common. Adherence to treatment should be ensured in new and retreatment cases to increase cure rates and reduce transmission of TB in the community.

  15. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  16. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Rotator Cuff Deficiency: A Concise Follow-up, at a Minimum of 10 Years, of Previous Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R; Santoni, Brandon G; Clark, Rachel E; Frankle, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    We previously evaluated 94 patients (96 shoulders) who underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a central compressive screw with 5.0-mm peripheral locking screws for baseplate fixation and a center of rotation lateral to the glenoid as treatment for end-stage rotator cuff deficiency. The purpose of this study was to report updated results at a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Forty patients (42 shoulders) were available for clinical follow-up. In the patients available for study, implant survivorship, with the end point being revision for any reason, was 90.7%. Since our 5-year report, 2 patients underwent revision surgery; 1 patient sustained a periprosthetic fracture 7 years postoperatively and 1 patient had a dislocation because of chronic shoulder instability at 8 years postoperatively. At a minimum follow-up of 10 years, the patients continued to maintain their improved outcome scores and range of motion, which were comparable with earlier follow-up evaluations. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  17. Extensively Drug-Resistant TB

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-16

    Dr. Charlotte Kvasnovsky, a surgery resident and Ph.D. candidate in biostatistics, discusses various types of drug resistance in TB patients in South Africa.  Created: 12/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/16/2016.

  18. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  19. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  20. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massey Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB incidence state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas’ country of birth profiles. Methods TB notification data for the three year period 2006–2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. Results During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5–19

  1. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Peter D; Durrheim, David N; Stephens, Nicola; Christensen, Amanda

    2013-01-22

    The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local areas in an Australian state that have higher TB rates given the local areas' country of birth profiles. TB notification data for the three year period 2006-2008 were analysed by grouping the population into those from a high-incidence country-of-birth and the remainder. During the study period there were 1401 notified TB cases in the state of NSW. Of these TB cases 76.5% were born in a high-incidence country. The annualised TB notification rate for the high-incidence country-of-birth group was 61.2/100,000 population and for the remainder of the population was 1.8/100,000. Of the 152 Local Government Areas (LGA) in NSW, nine had higher and four had lower TB notification rates in their high-incidence country-of-birth populations when compared with the high-incidence country-of-birth population for the rest of NSW. The nine areas had a higher proportion of the population with a country of birth where TB notification rates are >100/100,000. Those notified with TB in the nine areas also had a shorter length of stay in Australia than the rest of the state. The areas with higher TB notification rates were all in the capital city, Sydney. Among LGAs with higher TB notification rates, four had higher rates in both people with a high-incidence country of birth and people not born in a high-incidence country. The age distribution of the HIC population was similar across all areas, and the highest differential in TB rates across areas was in the 5-19 years age group. Analysing local area TB rates and possible

  2. Measurement of 160Tb and 161Tb in nuclear forensics samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Davies, A.V.; Britton, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    160 Tb and 161 Tb are important radionuclides to measure when analysing a Nuclear Forensics sample. An analytical method for the measurement of both 160 Tb and 161 Tb was developed in this study. Terbium was separated and purified using exchange resin and TrisKem LN Resin. The purified fraction containing 160 Tb and 161 Tb was measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The counting efficiencies of 160 Tb and 161 Tb were determined using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method. The LSC count rate ratio, R160 Tb /R161 Tb , on the reference date was determined by sequential counting and calculated using a custom script based on their half-lives. (author)

  3. Prospective use of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor to screen TB co-infected with HIV patient among TB patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yudani Mardining Raras

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Plasma suPAR level of TB patients co-infected with HIV showed significantly difference from that of TB-AFB(+ patients suggested its potential to screen the TB/HIV among pulmonary TB-AFB(+ patients.

  4. Heightened vulnerability to MDR-TB epidemics after controlling drug-susceptible TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Bishai

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior infection with one strain TB has been linked with diminished likelihood of re-infection by a new strain. This paper attempts to determine the role of declining prevalence of drug-susceptible TB in enabling future epidemics of MDR-TB.A computer simulation of MDR-TB epidemics was developed using an agent-based model platform programmed in NetLogo (See http://mdr.tbtools.org/. Eighty-one scenarios were created, varying levels of treatment quality, diagnostic accuracy, microbial fitness cost, and the degree of immunogenicity elicited by drug-susceptible TB. Outcome measures were the number of independent MDR-TB cases per trial and the proportion of trials resulting in MDR-TB epidemics for a 500 year period after drug therapy for TB is introduced.MDR-TB epidemics propagated more extensively after TB prevalence had fallen. At a case detection rate of 75%, improving therapeutic compliance from 50% to 75% can reduce the probability of an epidemic from 45% to 15%. Paradoxically, improving the case-detection rate from 50% to 75% when compliance with DOT is constant at 75% increases the probability of MDR-TB epidemics from 3% to 45%.The ability of MDR-TB to spread depends on the prevalence of drug-susceptible TB. Immunologic protection conferred by exposure to drug-susceptible TB can be a crucial factor that prevents MDR-TB epidemics when TB treatment is poor. Any single population that successfully reduces its burden of drug-susceptible TB will have reduced herd immunity to externally or internally introduced strains of MDR-TB and can experience heightened vulnerability to an epidemic. Since countries with good TB control may be more vulnerable, their self interest dictates greater promotion of case detection and DOTS implementation in countries with poor control to control their risk of MDR-TB.

  5. Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Sandra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports.

  6. Characterization of Cladosporols from the Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399 and Configurational Revision of the Previously Reported Cladosporol Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Lei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Mándi, Attila; Antus, Sándor; Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-10-06

    Four new cladosporol derivatives, cladosporols F-I (1-4), the known cladosporol C (5), and its new epimer, cladosporol J (6), were isolated and identified from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399. Their structures were determined by detailed interpretation of NMR and MS data, and the absolute configurations were established on the basis of TDDFT-ECD and OR calculations. The configurational assignment of cladosporols F (1) and G (2) showed that the previously reported absolute configuration of cladosporol A and all the related cladosporols need to be revised from (4'R) to (4'S). Compounds 1-6 showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Vibrio harveyi with MIC values ranging from 4 to 128 μg/mL. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxicity against A549, Huh7, and LM3 cell lines with IC 50 values of 5.0, 1.0, and 4.1 μM, respectively, and compound 5 showed activity against H446 cell line with IC 50 value of 4.0 μM.

  7. Current integration of tuberculosis (TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Chehab

    Full Text Available SETTING: Public Health Facilities in South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the current integration of TB and HIV services in South Africa, 2011. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 49 randomly selected health facilities in South Africa. Trained interviewers administered a standardized questionnaire to one staff member responsible for TB and HIV in each facility on aspects of TB/HIV policy, integration and recording and reporting. We calculated and compared descriptive statistics by province and facility type. RESULTS: Of the 49 health facilities 35 (71% provided isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT and 35 (71% offered antiretroviral therapy (ART. Among assessed sites in February 2011, 2,512 patients were newly diagnosed with HIV infection, of whom 1,913 (76% were screened for TB symptoms, and 616 of 1,332 (46% of those screened negative for TB were initiated on IPT. Of 1,072 patients newly registered with TB in February 2011, 144 (13% were already on ART prior to Tb clinical diagnosis, and 451 (42% were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. Of those, 84 (19% were initiated on ART. Primary health clinics were less likely to offer ART compared to district hospitals or community health centers (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: As of February 2011, integration of TB and HIV services is taking place in public medical facilities in South Africa. Among these services, IPT in people living with HIV and ART in TB patients are the least available.

  8. Solution growth of Tb doped Gd_2O_3 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Pitale, S.; Desai, D.G.; Patra, G.D.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials of Gd_2O_3 have proven applications in medical imaging and cancer therapy due to the presence of element Gd. Also Gd_2O_3 films have been grown by vapor phase method as well as self assembly in solution and studied as a high-k dielectric and efficient luminescence material. Here, we report a method to obtain Tb doped Gd_2O_3 film by solution growth method followed by suitable heat treatment. Uniform films of Tb doped Gadolinium hydroxycarbonate have been deposited on fused quartz substrates kept inside a solution containing gadolinium nitrate, terbium nitrate and Urea maintained at 90°C. Gadolinium hydroxy-carbonate films are then treated at 800°C for 2 hour to obtain Tb doped cubic Gd_2O_3 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurement. The photoluminescence spectra display characteristic Tb emission at 544 nm when excited at 285 nm. The lifetime of Tb emission is found to be of the order of few microseconds. (author)

  9. A tuberculosis biomarker database: the key to novel TB diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Yerlikaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available New diagnostic innovations for tuberculosis (TB, including point-of-care solutions, are critical to reach the goals of the End TB Strategy. However, despite decades of research, numerous reports on new biomarker candidates, and significant investment, no well-performing, simple and rapid TB diagnostic test is yet available on the market, and the search for accurate, non-DNA biomarkers remains a priority. To help overcome this ‘biomarker pipeline problem’, FIND and partners are working on the development of a well-curated and user-friendly TB biomarker database. The web-based database will enable the dynamic tracking of evidence surrounding biomarker candidates in relation to target product profiles (TPPs for needed TB diagnostics. It will be able to accommodate raw datasets and facilitate the verification of promising biomarker candidates and the identification of novel biomarker combinations. As such, the database will simplify data and knowledge sharing, empower collaboration, help in the coordination of efforts and allocation of resources, streamline the verification and validation of biomarker candidates, and ultimately lead to an accelerated translation into clinically useful tools.

  10. Community referral for presumptive TB in Nigeria: a comparison of four models of active case finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adejumo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have been limited. Methods We compared four models of active case finding in three Nigerian states. Data on presumptive TB case referral by community workers (CWs, TB diagnoses among referred clients, active case finding model characteristics, and CWs compensation details for 2012 were obtained from implementers and CWs via interviews and log book review. Self-reported performance data were triangulated against routine surveillance data to assess concordance. Analysis focused on assessing the predictors of presumptive TB referral. Results CWs referred 4–22 % of presumptive TB clients tested, and 4–24 % of the total TB cases detected. The annual median referral per CW ranged widely among the models from 1 to 48 clients, with an overall average of 13.4 referrals per CW. The highest median referrals (48 per CW/yr and mean TB diagnoses (7.1/yr per CW (H =70.850, p < 0.001 was obtained by the model with training supervision, and $80/quarterly payments (Comprehensive Quotas-Oriented model. The model with irregularly supervised, trained, and compensated CWs contributed the least to TB case detection with a median of 13 referrals per CW/yr and mean of 0.53 TB diagnoses per CW/yr. Hours spent weekly on presumptive TB referral made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.514, p < 0.001 to explaining presumptive TB referral after controlling for other variables. Conclusion All community based TB case-finding projects studied referred a relative low number of symptomatic individuals. The study shows that incentivized referral, appropriate selection of CWs, supportive supervision, leveraged treatment support roles, and a

  11. TB control programmes: the challenges for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, T

    1996-11-01

    Governmental neglect of tuberculosis (TB), inadequately managed and inaccurately designed TB control programs, population growth, and the HIV epidemic account for the resurgence of TB in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization and the International Union against TB and Lung Disease have developed a TB control strategy that aims to reduce mortality, morbidity, and transmission of TB. It aims for an 85% cure rate among detected new cases of smear-positive TB and a 70% rate of detecting existing smear-positive TB cases. The strategy involves the provision of short-course chemotherapy (SCC) to all identified smear-positive TB cases through directly observed treatment (DOTS). SCC treatment regimens for smear-positive pulmonary TB recommended for sub-Saharan African countries are: initial phase = daily administration over 2 months of streptomycin, rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide; continuation phase = 3 doses over 4 months of isoniazid and rifampicin or daily administration of thiacetazone and isoniazid or of ethambutol and isoniazid. A TB control policy must be implemented to bring about effective TB control. The essential elements of this policy include political commitment, case detection through passive case-finding, SCC, a regular supply of essential drugs, and a monitoring and evaluation system. Political commitment involves establishing a National TB Control Program to be integrated into the existing health structure. Increased awareness of TB in the community and among health workers and a reference laboratory are needed to make case finding successful. A distribution and logistics system is needed to ensure uninterrupted intake of drugs throughout treatment. These regimens have been very successful and cost-effective but pose several disadvantages (e.g., heavy workload of recommended 3 sputum smear tests). A simplified approach involves 1 initial sputum smear for 6 months; 6-months, intermittent rifampicin-based therapy, 100% DOTS throughout

  12. Arrhythmias and sudden death among older children and young adults following tetralogy of Fallot repair in the current era: are previously reported risk factors still applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Swati; Kovach, Julie; Singh, Harinder; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Young adult patients (pts) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) remain at risk for arrhythmias (Ar) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on past studies with earlier pt subsets, Ar/SCD events were associated with right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures >60 mm Hg, outflow tract gradients >20 mm Hg, and QRS duration >180 ms. However, there are limited recent studies to evaluate these risk factors in the current patient generation. Patients with TOF followed over the past 50 years were grouped by presence of any arrhythmias (group 1), absence of arrhythmias (group 2), and presence of SCD or significant ventricular arrhythmias (group 3) and correlated with current pt age, gender, age at repair, repair types, echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram/Holter, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology findings. Of 109 pts, 52 were male aged 17-58 years. Of these, 59 (54%) had Ar, two of whom had SCD. These 59 pts were chronologically older at the time of analysis, with repair at an older age and wider QRS duration (78-240, mean 158 ms) when compared with those without Ar. However, there was no correlation with surgical era, surgical repair, gender, RV pressure >60 mm Hg, right ventricular outflow tract gradient >20 mm Hg, or RV end-diastolic volume on CMRI. Ar/SCD risk continues to correlate with repair age and advancing pt age. QRS duration is longer in these patients but at a shorter interval (mean 158 ms) and less RV pressure (mean 43 mm Hg) than previously reported. In the current TOF patient generation, neither surgical era, type of repair, RV outflow gradient nor RV volume correlate with Ar/SCD. Electrophysiologic testing to verify and identify arrhythmias remains clinically effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Structural analysis of eight novel and 112 previously reported missense mutations in the interactive FXI mutation database reveals new insight on FXI deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Rebecca E; Shiltagh, Nuha; Gomez, Keith; Mellars, Gillian; Cooper, Carolyn; Perry, David J; Tuddenham, Edward G; Perkins, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    Factor XI (FXI) functions in blood coagulation. FXI is composed of four apple (Ap) domains and a serine protease (SP) domain. Deficiency of FXI leads to an injury-related bleeding disorder, which is remarkable for the lack of correlation between bleeding symptoms and FXI coagulant activity (FXI:C). The number of mutations previously reported in our interactive web database (http://www.FactorXI.org) is now significantly increased to 183 through our new patient studies and from literature surveys. Eight novel missense mutations give a total of 120 throughout the FXI gene (F11). The most abundant defects in FXI are revealed to be those from low-protein plasma levels (Type I: CRM-) that originate from protein misfolding, rather than from functional defects (Type II: CRM+). A total of 70 Ap missense mutations were analysed using a consensus Ap domain structure generated from the FXI dimer crystal structure. This showed that all parts of the Ap domain were affected. The 47 SP missense mutations were also distributed throughout the SP domain structure. The periphery of the Ap beta-sheet structure is sensitive to structural perturbation caused by residue changes throughout the Ap domain, yet this beta-sheet is crucial for FXI dimer formation. Residues located at the Ap4:Ap4 interface in the dimer are much less directly involved. We conclude that the abundance of Type I defects in FXI results from the sensitivity of the Ap domain folding to residue changes within this, and discuss how structural knowledge of the mutations improves our understanding of FXI deficiencies.

  14. When students become patients: TB disease among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated ... of stigma will be reported in a separate article. ... help was 3.2 weeks (range 0 - 16 weeks, SD 4.6); the mean diagnostic ... students' health-seeking behaviour and delayed TB diagnosis:.

  15. The effects of Tb 3+ doping concentration on luminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BaF2 phosphor; crystal structure; luminescence properties; X-ray diffraction; concentration quenching. 1. Introduction ... reported that the particle size, shape, crystallinity, etc., sig- nificantly ... Figure 3 shows the excitation and emission spectra of sam- ple with 4 ... gies obtained earlier.9,10 The ground term of the Tb3+ ion is.

  16. EDITORIAL Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A South African Health Systems Trust report indicated that despite a global ... less financial resources performed better. ... Healthcare providers need to be better trained at our various nursing colleges and medical schools on how to manage TB, with regular and intense follow-up in-service training sessions. In addition ...

  17. Autopsy case of pulmonary aspergilloma. [After long chemotherapy for TB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    II, Yohei; Akizuki, S

    1973-01-01

    A 73-year-old female received anti-TB chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis for a long period and died from severe hemoptysis which suddenly developed after recovery from the disease. Autopsy showed a large aspergilloma in the upper lobe of the right lung. This case is reported along with a review of the literature on aspergillosis. (30 refs) (DLC)

  18. [CLINICAL UTILITY OF T-SPOT.TB ASSAY WITH T-Cell Xtend REAGENT FOR ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS DIAGNOSIS IN THE FIELD TEST AT OUR HOSPITAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Taguchi, Masato; Hyodo, Kentaro; Kanazawa, Jun; Miura, Yukiko; Takaku, Takio; Usui, Shingo; Hayashihara, Kenji; Saito, Takefumi

    2016-04-01

    T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT), an interferon-gamma release assay, has shown promise as a diagnostic tool for active tuberculosis (TB), and its use is expanding. Addition of the T-Cell Xtend (TCX) reagent may allow delayed processing, and this characteristic is important for using this test in the field. However, limited data is available on the usefulness of T-SPOT with TCX as a field test for diagnosing active TB. To investigate the clinical utility of T-SPOT with TCX and the risk factors for a false-negative result in patients with active TB. A total of 57 patients with active TB who underwent the T-SPOT test with TCX prior to treatment were enrolled between May 2013 and May 2015. One patient with an indeterminate result for T-SPOT was excluded; therefore, the data of 56 patients were eventually included in the final analysis. The basic characteristics and clinical findings were compared between the true-positive and false-negative T-SPOT groups. Of the 56 patients, 40 (71.4%), 13 (23.2%), 3 (5.4%) had true-positive, false-negative, and borderline T-SPOT results, respectively. This study did not reveal any significant risk factors for a false-negative T-SPOT result. In this clinical study, the proportion of patients with a false-negative result for T-SPOT with TCX for active TB was higher than that reported previously. Therefore, careful interpretation of a negative result for T-SPOT with TCX is necessary, regardless of the patient's background.

  19. Culture and Next-generation sequencing-based drug susceptibility testing unveil high levels of drug-resistant-TB in Djibouti: results from the first national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliani, Elisa; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Waberi, Yacine; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Falzon, Dennis; Dean, Anna; Zignol, Matteo; Supply, Philip; Abdoulkader, Mohamed Ali; Hassangue, Hawa; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-12-15

    Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa with a high TB incidence (378/100,000 in 2015). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and resistance to second-line agents have been previously identified in the country but the extent of the problem has yet to be quantified. A national survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of MDR-TB among a representative sample of TB patients. Sputum was tested using XpertMTB/RIF and samples positive for MTB and resistant to rifampicin underwent first line phenotypic susceptibility testing. The TB supranational reference laboratory in Milan, Italy, undertook external quality assurance, genotypic testing based on whole genome and targeted-deep sequencing and phylogenetic studies. 301 new and 66 previously treated TB cases were enrolled. MDR-TB was detected in 34 patients: 4.7% of new and 31% of previously treated cases. Resistance to pyrazinamide, aminoglycosides and capreomycin was detected in 68%, 18% and 29% of MDR-TB strains respectively, while resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Cluster analysis identified transmission of MDR-TB as a critical factor fostering drug resistance in the country. Levels of MDR-TB in Djibouti are among the highest on the African continent. High prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and second-line injectable agents have important implications for treatment regimens.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of TB – Its impact on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis control in China☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Results: In total, 238 bacteriologic confirmed pulmonary TB patients from DQ and 393 from GY diagnosed between 2008 and 2011 were recruited in the study. Of the 631 isolates, 220 (34.9% were resistant to at least one anti-TB drug, including 95 (15.1% simultaneously resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin or MDR, albeit with the similar distribution between DQ and GY (32/238 vs. 63/393; p, 0.378. The MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 35 isolates from DQ and 86 from GY exhibited 15 and 32 clustering patterns with four patterns shared between two counties. Compared with GY county, DQ had a significantly lower clustering proportion in MTB isolates susceptible to first-line drugs (25/167 vs. 46/198; p, 0.047 and total drug resistant TB isolates (12/71 vs. 44/149; p, 0.044, but a similar clustering proportion in MDR-TB isolates (8/32 vs. 18/63; p, 0.712. A significant higher clustering proportion was observed in the previously treated patients in both counties, but in the sputum smear-positive patients with cavitaries only in GY. Comparing the previously treated patients between the two counties, the proportion of MDR-TB and clustering proportion exhibited a similar distribution, while the average age of previously treated patients in DQ is significantly older than that in GY. Conclusions: A lower proportion of recent transmissions was observed in the county with long-term DOTS implementation. However, DOTS itself might not have worked enough on blocking the recent transmission of MDR-TB. This observation suggests the urgent needs of implementing the Stop-TB strategies; in particular, accelerating the use of rapid molecularbasedTBdiagnosisand drug susceptibility testing, providing active case findings in a high risk population of MDR-TB and enhancing infection control in high MDR-TB burden countries.

  1. Alternative medicine: an ethnographic study of how practitioners of Indian medical systems manage TB in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Andrew; Pai, Madhukar

    2016-03-01

    Mumbai is a hot spot for drug-resistant TB, and private practitioners trained in AYUSH systems (Ayurveda, yoga, Unani, Siddha and homeopathy) are major healthcare providers. It is important to understand how AYUSH practitioners manage patients with TB or presumptive TB. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 175 Mumbai slum-based practitioners holding degrees in Ayurveda, homeopathy and Unani. Most providers gave multiple interviews. We observed 10 providers in clinical interactions, documenting: clinical examinations, symptoms, history taking, prescriptions and diagnostic tests. No practitioners exclusively used his or her system of training. The practice of biomedicine is frequent, with practitioners often using biomedical disease categories and diagnostics. The use of homeopathy was rare (only 4% of consultations with homeopaths resulted in homeopathic remedies) and Ayurveda rarer (3% of consultations). For TB, all mentioned chest x-ray while 31 (17.7%) mentioned sputum smear as a TB test. One hundred and sixty-four practitioners (93.7%) reported referring TB patients to a public hospital or chest physician. Eleven practitioners (6.3%) reported treating patients with TB. Nine (5.1%) reported treating patients with drug-susceptible TB with at least one second-line drug. Important sources of health care in Mumbai's slums, AYUSH physicians frequently use biomedical therapies and most refer patients with TB to chest physicians or the public sector. They are integral to TB care and control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  3. High pressure behaviour of TbN: an X-ray diffraction and computational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.M.; Madsen, G.K.H.; Jorgensen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, we report an X-ray powder diffraction study of TbN up to an applied hydrostatic pressure of 43 GPa. TbN was found to be stable in the 131 (NaCl structure) within the examined pressure interval, and the zero pressure bulk modulus was determined to be 176(7) GPa. The electronic...... is greatly improved by introducing an orbital dependent U term into the energy-functional. The 4f electrons in TbN-B1 are atomic like and highly correlated, and ferro-magnetic TbN-B1 is found to be a magnetic half-metal. Calculations find the spindown f-electrons in a hypothetical TbN-B2 (CsCl) structure...

  4. Is Chemoprophylaxis for Child Contacts of Drug-Resistant TB Patients Beneficial? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Padmapriyadarsini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preventive therapy for child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients is poorly studied, and no consensus about the role and the rationale of chemoprophylaxis has been reached. Objective. To conduct systematic review with an aim to determine the effectiveness of TB preventive therapy in reducing the incidence of TB disease in pediatric contacts of MDR-TB patients. Methods. We conducted a literature search for randomized control trials, cohort studies, and case reports of chemoprophylaxis for pediatric contacts of MDR-TB patients in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Databases of Systematic Reviews, metaRegister of Controlled Trials, and other clinical registries through March 2017, using appropriate search strategy. In addition we searched abstracts from international conferences and references of published articles and reviews. Results. Of the 153 references assessed from various databases, seven studies were identified as relevant after adaption of eligibility criteria and assessed for systematic review. Of these, only two studies contributed data for the pooled meta-analysis. Conclusions. Though the available evidences suggest that the chemoprophylaxis for child contacts of MDR-TB patients is beneficial, data to support or reject preventive therapy is very limited. Further clinical research, in Tb endemic settings like India, needs to be performed to prove the beneficial effect of chemoprophylaxis for pediatric contacts of MDR-TB.

  5. State of affairs of tuberculosis in prison facilities: a systematic review of screening practices and recommendations for best TB control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie V S Vinkeles Melchers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prisoners are at high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB, causing morbidity and mortality. Prison facilities encounter many challenges in TB screening procedures and TB control. This review explores screening practices for detection of TB and describes limitations of TB control in prison facilities worldwide. METHODS: A systematic search of online databases (e.g., PubMed and Embase and conference abstracts was carried out. Research papers describing screening and diagnostic practices among prisoners were included. A total of 52 articles met the inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of TB prevalence in prison facilities by screening and diagnostic tools was performed. RESULTS: The most common screening tool was symptom questionnaires (63·5%, mostly reporting presence of cough. Microscopy of sputum with Ziehl-Neelsen staining and solid culture were the most frequently combined diagnostic methods (21·2%. Chest X-ray and tuberculin skin tests were used by 73·1% and 50%, respectively, as either a screening and/or diagnostic tool. Median TB prevalence among prisoners of all included studies was 1,913 cases of TB per 100,000 prisoners (interquartile range [IQR]: 332-3,517. The overall annual median TB incidence was 7·0 cases per 1000 person-years (IQR: 2·7-30·0. Major limitations for successful TB control were inaccuracy of diagnostic algorithms and the lack of adequate laboratory facilities reported by 61·5% of studies. The most frequent recommendation for improving TB control and case detection was to increase screening frequency (73·1%. DISCUSSION: TB screening algorithms differ by income area and should be adapted to local contexts. In order to control TB, prison facilities must improve laboratory capacity and frequent use of effective screening and diagnostic tools. Sustainable political will and funding are critical to achieve this.

  6. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  7. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne von Delft

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB, despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for.

  8. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  9. Promising therapy of XDR-TB/MDR-TB with thioridazine an inhibitor of bacterial efflux pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaral, L; Martins, M; Viveiros, M

    2008-01-01

    -TB) - a M. tuberculosis organism that is resistant to the most effective second line drugs available for the treatment of TB. This review provides detailed, significant evidence that supports the use of an old neuroleptic compound, thioridazine (TZ), for the management of MDR-TB and XDR-TB infections...... therapy predictably ineffective and death is inevitable, compassionate therapy with TZ should be contemplated. The risks are small and the rewards great....

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of private practitioners regarding tb-dots in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.; Fatmi, Z.; Ali, S.; Ahmed, S.; Ara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis is prevailing in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of private practitioners (PPs) regarding tuberculosis management have been reported only in urban areas of Pakistan. This survey was conducted for the first time in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. This survey was conducted in January 2007 at Thatta, a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. Study subjects were twenty-two allopathic qualified (MBBS) doctors of district Thatta, who were practicing in private setups for at least last one year. Before TB-DOTS training PPs had filled the KAP questionnaire regarding tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and management through DOTS. Survey data was analysed through SPSS version 11.05 software. On average, five TB suspects per month were seen by each PP. Only 14% of PPs advised sputum microscopy solely for pulmonary TB diagnosis, while 86% of PPs used different combination of tests (chest x-ray/sputum microscopy/ESR/tuberculin test) for TB diagnosis. Over 40% PPs did not prescribe TB treatment regimen according to TB-DOTS category. Majority PPs (85%) did not follow the treatment through sputum microscopy and instead relied on clinical improvement and x-ray clearance. Nearly 60% of TB patients at PPs clinic did not show compliance to the TB treatment and none of PPs were following the retrieval of default cases. A gross lack of PPs knowledge and right practice regarding TB diagnosis and management through DOTS was identified and needed to be addressed through providing DOTS training. (author)

  11. The Argonaute protein TbAGO1 contributes to large and mini-chromosome segregation and is required for control of RIME retroposons and RHS pseudogene-associated transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Dubief, Mickaël; Absalon, Sabrina; Menzer, Linda; Ngwabyt, Sandra; Ersfeld, Klaus; Bastin, Philippe

    2007-12-01

    The protist Trypanosoma brucei possesses a single Argonaute gene called TbAGO1 that is necessary for RNAi silencing. We previously showed that in strain 427, TbAGO1 knock-out leads to a slow growth phenotype and to chromosome segregation defects. Here we report that the slow growth phenotype is linked to defects in segregation of both large and mini-chromosome populations, with large chromosomes being the most affected. These phenotypes are completely reversed upon inducible re-expression of TbAGO1 fused to GFP, demonstrating their link with TbAGO1. Trypanosomes that do not express TbAGO1 show a general increase in the abundance of transcripts derived from the short retroposon RIME (Ribosomal Interspersed Mobile Element). Supplementary large RIME transcripts emerge in the absence of RNAi, a phenomenon coupled to the disappearance of short transcripts. These fluctuations are reversed by inducible expression of GFP::TbAGO1. Furthermore, we use a combination of Northern blots, RT-PCR and sequencing to reveal that RNAi controls expression of transcripts derived from RHS (Retrotransposon Hot Spot) pseudogenes (RHS genes with retro-element(s) integrated within their coding sequence). Absence of RNAi also leads to an increase of steady-state transcripts from regular RHS genes (those without retro-element), indicating a role for pseudogene in control of gene expression. However, analysis of retroposon abundance and arrangement in the genome of multiple clonal cell lines of TbAGO1-/- failed to reveal movement of mobile elements despite the increased amounts of retroposon transcripts.

  12. Stop TB in My Lifetime: A Call for a World Free of TB - World TB Day 2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses World TB Day, the 2013 slogan and theme.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/13/2012.

  13. The association between ARV and TB drug resistance on TB treatment outcome among Kazakh TB/HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Kathryn; Alaei, Kamiar; Alikeyeva, Elmira; Paynter, Christopher; Aringazina, Altyn; Alaei, Arash

    2018-02-26

    TB drug resistance poses a serious threat to the public health of Kazakhstan. This paper presents findings related to TB treatment outcome and drug resistant status among people coinfected with HIV and TB in Kazakhstan. Cohort study using data were provided by the Kazakhstan Ministry of Health's National Tuberculosis Program for 2014 and 2015. Chi-square and logistical regression were performed to understand factors associated with drug resistant TB status and TB treatment outcome. In bivariate analysis, drug resistant status was significantly associated with year of TB diagnosis (p=0.001) viral load (p=0.03). TB treatment outcome was significantly associated with age at diagnosis (p=01), ARV treatment (p <0.0001), and TB drug resistant status (p=0.02). In adjusted analysis, drug resistance was associated with increased odds of successful completion of treatment with successful result compared to treatment failure (OR 6.94, 95% CI: 1.39-34.44) CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that being drug resistant is associated with higher odds of completing treatment with successful outcome, even when controlling for receipt of ARV therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required.

  15. The High Burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a Large Zambian Prison: A Public Health Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M.; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R.; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B.; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Methods Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. Results A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Conclusion Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required. PMID

  16. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  17. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter and evaluation of previous pumping tests at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report, June 15, 1992--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C.; Neton, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.

  18. Previous ISD Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  19. Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TB Reference Laboratory Network, the National TB Surveillance System in the United States, the national reference laboratory of South Korea, and ... capacity in the U.S. and abroad; and Developing education, risk, and media communications ... – United States, 1993–2006 CDC. CDC’s Role in Preventing XDR ...

  20. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  1. Community-based MDR-TB care project improves treatment initiation in patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Pyae Phyo; Shewade, Hemant Deepak; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Thein, Saw; Si Thu, Aung; Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Aye, Nyein Nyein; Phyo, Aye Mon; Maung, Htet Myet Win; Soe, Kyaw Thu; Aung, Si Thu

    2018-01-01

    The Union in collaboration with national TB programme (NTP) started the community-based MDR-TB care (CBMDR-TBC) project in 33 townships of upper Myanmar to improve treatment initiation and treatment adherence. Patients with MDR-TB diagnosed/registered under NTP received support through the project staff, in addition to the routine domiciliary care provided by NTP staff. Each township had a project nurse exclusively for MDR-TB and 30 USD per month (max. for 4 months) were provided to the patient as a pre-treatment support. To assess whether CBMDR-TBC project's support improved treatment initiation. In this cohort study (involving record review) of all diagnosed MDR-TB between January 2015 and June 2016 in project townships, CBMDR-TBC status was categorized as "receiving support" if date of project initiation in patient's township was before the date of diagnosis and "not receiving support", if otherwise. Cox proportional hazards regression (censored on 31 Dec 2016) was done to identify predictors of treatment initiation. Of 456 patients, 57% initiated treatment: 64% and 56% among patients "receiving support (n = 208)" and "not receiving support (n = 228)" respectively (CBMDR-TBC status was not known in 20 (4%) patients due to missing diagnosis dates). Among those initiated on treatment (n = 261), median (IQR) time to initiate treatment was 38 (20, 76) days: 31 (18, 50) among patients "receiving support" and 50 (26,101) among patients "not receiving support". After adjusting other potential confounders (age, sex, region, HIV, past history of TB treatment), patients "receiving support" had 80% higher chance of initiating treatment [aHR (0.95 CI): 1.8 (1.3, 2.3)] when compared to patients "not receiving support". In addition, age 15-54 years, previous history of TB and being HIV negative were independent predictors of treatment initiation. Receiving support under CBMDR-TBC project improved treatment initiation: it not only improved the proportion initiated but also

  2. Mortality among MDR-TB cases: comparison with drug-susceptible tuberculosis and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available An increase in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB cases is evident worldwide. Its management implies a complex treatment, high costs, more toxic anti-tuberculosis drug use, longer treatment time and increased treatment failure and mortality. The aims of this study were to compare mortality between MDR and drug-susceptible cases of tuberculosis, and to determine risk factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases.A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from clinical records of the National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. In the first objective, MDR-TB, compared to drug-susceptible cases, was the main exposure variable and time to death, censored at 180 days, the outcome of interest. For the second objective, different variables obtained from clinical records were assessed as potential risk factors for death among MDR-TB cases. Cox regression analysis was used to determine hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A total of 1,232 patients were analyzed: mean age 30.9 ±14.0 years, 60.0% were males. 61 patients (5.0% died during treatment, whereas the MDR-TB prevalence was 19.2%. MDR-TB increased the risk of death during treatment (HR = 7.5; IC95%: 4.1-13.4 when compared to presumed drug-susceptible cases after controlling for potential confounders. Education level (p = 0.01, previous TB episodes (p<0.001, diabetes history (p<0.001 and HIV infection (p = 0.04 were factors associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases.MDR-TB is associated with an increased risk of death during treatment. Lower education, greater number of previous TB episodes, diabetes history, and HIV infection were independently associated with mortality among MDR-TB cases. New strategies for appropriate MDR-TB detection and management should be implemented, including drug sensitivity tests, diabetes and HIV screening, as well as guarantee for a complete adherence to therapy.

  3. Two case reports: Carcinoma of the cervix and carcinoma of the endometrium treated with radiotherapy after previous irradiation for benign uterine bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, C. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1998-08-01

    In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, low doses of radiotherapy were used to treat benign uterine bleeding. The cases of two women who received this form of therapy and later developed gynaecological malignancies and had high-dose pelvic radiotherapy are presented. A 76-year-old woman with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage-II B squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix received external beam radiotherapy and intra-uterine brachytherapy and a 77-year-old woman with a FIGO stage-I B endometrial adenocarcinoma received adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Both women had a significant past history of low-dose-rate intra-uterine irradiation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Therefore the theoretical question of carcinogenesis was raised, and also the practical questions of what dose had previously been given and what further dose could be safely given with regard to normal tissue tolerance. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs.

  4. Two case reports: Carcinoma of the cervix and carcinoma of the endometrium treated with radiotherapy after previous irradiation for benign uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.

    1998-01-01

    In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, low doses of radiotherapy were used to treat benign uterine bleeding. The cases of two women who received this form of therapy and later developed gynaecological malignancies and had high-dose pelvic radiotherapy are presented. A 76-year-old woman with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage-II B squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix received external beam radiotherapy and intra-uterine brachytherapy and a 77-year-old woman with a FIGO stage-I B endometrial adenocarcinoma received adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Both women had a significant past history of low-dose-rate intra-uterine irradiation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Therefore the theoretical question of carcinogenesis was raised, and also the practical questions of what dose had previously been given and what further dose could be safely given with regard to normal tissue tolerance. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Understanding social context on TB cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, Y.; Wati, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) nowadays still becomes one of the world’s deadliest communicable disease. More than half were in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions, including Indonesia. As developing country, Indonesia remains classic problems in overcoming TB, that is discontinuation on treatment. Most of discontinuation on treatment among TB patients are affected by diagnostic delay that caused by patient delay. These phenomena occur in many areas, rural to suburb, coastal to plantation, and so on, and they are related with social context among community that could be social capital for each community to deal with TB. Jember as one of county in East Java is known as plantation area. It also has a high prevalence of TB. This study focused on understanding about social context among community, especially on plantation area. This cross-sectional study involved in three districts of Jember, those are Tanggul, Pakusari, and Kalisat. The data were obtained directly from the TB patients, local community, and Primary Health Care (PHC) where the patients recorded. Spatial analysis and social network analysis (SNA) were applied to obtain health seeking behavior pattern among the TB patients coincide the community. Most of TB patients had already chosen health professionals to lead the treatment, although some of them remained to choose self-medication. Meanwhile, SNA showed that religious leader was considered as main part of countermeasures of TB. But they didn’t ever become central figures. So it can be concluded that there are other parts among community who can contribute due to combatting on TB.

  6. HIV/TB co-infection:perspectives of TB patients and providers on the integrated HIV/TB pilot program in Tamilnadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Mahalakshmi

    2009-01-01

    The WHO recommends routine HIV testing among TB patients as a key strategy to combat the dual HIV/TB epidemic. India has integrated its HIV and TB control programs and is offering provider initiated HIV testing for all TB patients since 2007. Using a mixed methods approach, this study aims to understand the perspectives of TB patients and providers on the integrated HIV/TB pilot program in Tamilnadu, India. A survey conducted by the Tuberculosis Research Center, India on 300 TB patients is th...

  7. The use of porcine small intestinal submucosa mesh (SURGISIS as a pelvic sling in a man and a woman with previous pelvic surgery: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sahaf Osama

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Closing the pelvic peritoneum to prevent the small bowel dropping into the pelvis after surgery for locally recurrent rectal cancer is important to prevent adhesions deep in the pelvis or complications of adjuvant radiotherapy. Achieving this could be difficult because sufficient native tissue is unavailable; we report on the use of small intestine submucosa extra-cellular matrix mesh in the obliteration of the pelvic brim. Case presentation We describe two cases in which submucosa extra-cellular matrix mesh was used to obliterate the pelvic brim following resection of a recurrent rectal tumour; the first patient, a 78-year-old Caucasian man, presented with small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions to a recurrent rectal tumour. The second patient, an 84-year-old Caucasian woman, presented with vaginal discharge caused by an entero-vaginal fistula due to a recurrent rectal tumour. Conclusion We report on the use of submucosa extra-cellular matrix mesh as a pelvic sling in cases where primary closure of the pelvic peritoneum is unfeasible. Its use had no infective complications and added minimal morbidity to the postoperative period. This is an original case report that would be of interest to general and colorectal surgeons.

  8. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Tuberculosis (TB) Menu Tuberculosis Data and statistics Regional Framework Resources Meetings and events Global tuberculosis report 2017 WHO has published a global TB ...

  9. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Homozygous loss of function BRCA1 variant causing a Fanconi-anemia-like phenotype, a clinical report and review of previous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Bruna L; Homma, Thais K; Funari, Mariana F A; Lerario, Antônio M; Leal, Aline M; Velloso, Elvira D R P; Malaquias, Alexsandra C; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2018-03-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare and heterogeneous genetic syndrome. It is associated with short stature, bone marrow failure, high predisposition to cancer, microcephaly and congenital malformation. Many genes have been associated with FA. Previously, two adult patients with biallelic pathogenic variant in Breast Cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) had been identified in Fanconi Anemia-like condition. The proband was a 2.5 year-old girl with severe short stature, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Her parents were third degree cousins. Routine screening tests for short stature was normal. We conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) of the proband and used an analysis pipeline to identify rare nonsynonymous genetic variants that cause short stature. We identified a homozygous loss-of-function BRCA1 mutation (c.2709T > A; p. Cys903*), which promotes the loss of critical domains of the protein. Cytogenetic study with DEB showed an increased chromosomal breakage. We screened heterozygous parents of the index case for cancer and we detected, in her mother, a metastatic adenocarcinoma in an axillar lymph node with probable primary site in the breast. It is possible to consolidate the FA-like phenotype associated with biallelic loss-of-function BRCA1, characterized by microcephaly, short stature, developmental delay, dysmorphic face features and cancer predisposition. In our case, the WES allowed to establish the genetic cause of short stature in the context of a chromosome instability syndrome. An identification of BRCA1 mutations in our patient allowed precise genetic counseling and also triggered cancer screening for the patient and her family members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Feline leprosy due to Candidatus 'Mycobacterium lepraefelis': Further clinical and molecular characterisation of eight previously reported cases and an additional 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carolyn R; Malik, Richard; Globan, Maria; Reppas, George; McCowan, Christina; Fyfe, Janet A

    2017-09-01

    This paper, the last in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to the previously unnamed species, Candidatus 'Mycobacterium lepraefelis', a close relative of the human pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M lepraefelis' infection. A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies. Thirty-eight cats were definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M lepraefelis' infection. Typically, cats tended to be middle-aged or older when first infected, with a male predilection. Affected cats typically had widespread cutaneous lesions, in some cases after initially localised disease. Advanced cases were often systemically unwell. All cats had outdoor access. The histological picture was lepromatous in the majority of patients, although two cases had tuberculoid disease. In one case that underwent necropsy, lesions were evident in the liver, spleen and lungs. Treatment was varied, although most cats received a combination of oral clarithromycin and rifampicin. Prognosis for recovery was variable, but typically poor. Candidatus 'M lepraefelis' typically causes high bacterial index (lepromatous) feline leprosy that in some cases progresses to systemic mycobacteriosis. The disease has a variable clinical course and prognosis. Many cases either died or were euthanased due to the infection. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals a heterogeneous picture and further analysis of draft genome sequencing may give clues to the taxonomy and epidemiology of this organism. Prospective treatment trials and

  12. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) syndrome previously diagnosed as Seckel syndrome: report of a novel mutation of the PCNT gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piane, Maria; Della Monica, Matteo; Piatelli, Gianluca; Lulli, Patrizia; Lonardo, Fortunato; Chessa, Luciana; Scarano, Gioacchino

    2009-11-01

    We report on a 3-year-old boy with prenatal onset of proportionate dwarfism, postnatal severe microcephaly, high forehead with receded hairline, sparse scalp hair, beaked nose, mild retrognathia and hypotonia diagnosed at birth as Seckel syndrome. At age 3 years, he became paralyzed due to a cerebrovascular malformation. Based on the clinical and radiological features showing evidence of skeletal dysplasia, the diagnosis was revised to Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) syndrome. Western blot analysis of the patient's lymphoblastoid cell line lysate showed the absence of the protein pericentrin. Subsequent molecular analysis identified a novel homozygous single base insertion (c.1527_1528insA) in exon 10 of the PCNT gene, which leads to a frameshift (Treo510fs) and to premature protein truncation. PCNT mutations must be considered diagnostic of MOPD II syndrome. A possible role of pericentrin in the development of cerebral vessels is suggested. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Radiation port cutaneous metastases: Reports of two patients whose recurrent visceral cancers presented as skin lesions at the site of previous radiation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Spencer Hoyt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is associated with a variety of complications, including the development of primary skin cancers in the radiated region. However, it is rare for patients with visceral cancers who are treated with radiation therapy to subsequently develop cutaneous metastasis within the radiation port. We describe two patients with internal malignancies who developed cutaneous metastases within their radiation ports following radiotherapy. In addition, we used PubMed to perform an extensive literature review and identify additional reports of cutaneous metastasis within a radiation port. We excluded patients who developed melanoma or primary skin cancers in the radiation port. We also excluded patients with non-solid organ malignancies. Herein, we summarize the characteristics of 23 additional patients who experienced radiation port cutaneous metastases and explore possible mechanisms for the occurrence of radiation port cutaneous metastases.

  14. Late type III endoleak after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair and previous infrarenal stent graft implantation - a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Jerzy; Macioch, Waldemar; Chudziński, Witold; Gałązka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) effectively improved the results of thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. TEVAR is a less invasive procedure that can be performed under local anesthesia with shorter hospital stay. The perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are lower for endovascular than open repair, but the rate of secondary interventions is higher for TEVAR. We report a case of an elderly man with synchronous abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms. A type III dangerous endoleak was recognized 3 years after TEVAR. It was successfully repaired during an endovascular procedure. There were no new endoleaks after 12 months of follow-up. TEVAR may be the only option of treatment for risky and elderly patients. However, postoperative monitoring is necessary to exclude different types of endoleaks. Most of them undergo effective endovascular repair.

  15. Social, economic, and psychological impacts of MDR-TB treatment in Tijuana, Mexico: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M D; Quezada, L; Bhat, P; Moser, K; Smith, J; Perez, H; Laniado-Laborin, R; Estrada-Guzman, J; Rodwell, T C

    2013-07-01

    The State of Baja California, Mexico, had the highest prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Mexico in 2009. To understand the socio-economic burden of MDR-TB disease and its treatment on patients in Tijuana and Mexicali, Mexico. From July to November 2009, qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 patients enrolled in a US-Mexico binational MDR-TB treatment program, Puentes de Esperanza (Bridges of Hope), which was designed to support MDR-TB patients. In-depth interviews were coded to identify major themes in patient experiences of MDR-TB diagnosis and care. While some patients were able to maintain their pre-MDR-TB lives to a limited extent, most patients reported losing their sense of identity due to their inability to work, social isolation, and stigmatization from family and friends. The majority of participants expressed appreciation for Puentes' role in 'saving their lives'. Being diagnosed with MDR-TB and undergoing treatment imposes significant psychological, social and economic stress on patients. Strong social support elements within Puentes helped alleviate these burdens. Improvements to the program might include peer-support groups for patients undergoing treatment and transitioning back into the community after treatment.

  16. Perception of stigma towards TB among patients on DOTS & patients attending general OPD in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Tanu; Kumar, D Arun; Sharma, Nandini; Saha, Renuka; Krishnamurthy, Laxmi; Singh, S V; Ingle, G K

    2014-01-01

    In India, Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health problem. One of the key reasons for it is the stigma associated with the disease which affects the treatment seeking behaviour and hence the outcome. To assess the perceived and enacted stigma among TB patients and perceptions of other patients related to TB in Central Delhi. A cross-sectional study conducted in urban field practice area of a medical college of Delhi, using a pre-designed questionnaire containing items for assessment of stigma being faced by a TB patient in family, social life and workplace. It also contained questions pertaining to reaction of patients from general OPD to a family member who develops TB. A total of 100 patients on DOTS and 200 patients from general OPD were interviewed. There were 21 patients who reported to have delayed treatment seeking due to stigma. Nearly one third patients (n=34; 34%) noted negative changes in the behaviour of their family members towards them while 40% were isolated on being diagnosed with the disease. Out of the 36 employed TB patients, 65.5% (n=23) experienced negative change in the behaviour of their colleagues. In general OPD patients, significantly higher proportion of female patients said that they would not disclose the disease status of a family member suffering from TB to their neighbours (pstigma like delayed treatment seeking.

  17. Resolution of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) by correcting a lateral head translation posture following previous failed traditional chiropractic therapy: a CBP® case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Jason O; Oakley, Paul A; Moore, Robert R; Ruggeroli, Edward P; Harrison, Deed E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP ® technique mirror image ® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the 'regional interdependence' model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.

  18. HGV&TB: a comprehensive online resource on human genes and genetic variants associated with tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sahajpal, Ruchika; Kandoi, Gaurav; Dhiman, Heena; Raj, Sweety; Scaria, Vinod; Bhartiya, Deeksha; Hasija, Yasha

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by fastidious pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB has emerged as one of the major causes of mortality in the developing world. Role of host genetic factors that modulate disease susceptibility have not been studied widely. Recent studies have reported few genetic loci that provide impetus to this area of research. The availability of tools has enabled genome-wide scans for disease susceptibility loci associated with infectious dis...

  19. Local level epidemiological analysis of TB in people from a high incidence country of birth

    OpenAIRE

    Massey Peter D; Durrheim David N; Stephens Nicola; Christensen Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The setting for this analysis is the low tuberculosis (TB) incidence state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Local level analysis of TB epidemiology in people from high incidence countries-of-birth (HIC) in a low incidence setting has not been conducted in Australia and has not been widely reported. Local level analysis could inform measures such as active case finding and targeted earlier diagnosis. The aim of this study was to use a novel approach to identify local ar...

  20. Is TB Testing Associated With Increased Blood Interferon-Gamma Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aideen E. Kennedy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland reports a relatively low prevalence of Johne’s disease (JD compared to international counterparts. Postulated reasons for this include a lower average herd size and a grass-based production system. Ireland also engages in high levels of bovine tuberculosis (bTB testing. As interferon-gamma (IFN-γ is believed to play a key role in protecting against JD, it is our hypothesis that administration of purified protein derivative (PPD, as part of the bTB test, is associated with a systemic increase in IFN-γ production, which may potentially limit clinical progression of the disease. We studied 265 cows (202 Friesian and 63 “Non-Friesian,” e.g., JerseyX, Norwegian Red to assess IFN-γ levels and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP antibody response before and after the bTB test. As part of the compulsory annual bTB test, avian and bovine PPD were administered at two separate cervical sites. To assess IFN-γ production, blood samples were taken before and 72 h after PPD administration. MAP antibody response was assessed before and 10 days post-PPD administration. A significant increase in MAP antibody response was identified post-bTB compared to pre-bTB response (p < 0.001. Additionally, IFN-γ production significantly increased at the post-bTB time point (p < 0.001 compared to the pre-bTB test readings. This may indicate a beneficial effect of bTB testing in controlling JD.

  1. Analogues of the Frog-skin Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin 1Tb Exhibit a Wider Spectrum of Activity and a Stronger Antibiofilm Potential as Compared to the Parental Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Lucia; Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Maccari, Giuseppe; Esin, Semih; Batoni, Giovanna

    2017-04-01

    The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogues against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogues, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analogue designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies. Both TB analogues displayed a faster and stronger bactericidal activity than the parental peptide, especially against Gram-negative bacteria in planktonic form. Differently from the parental peptide, TB_KKG6A and TB_L1FK were able to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms by more than 50% at 12 μM, while only TB_KKG6A prevented the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms at 24 μM. A marked antibiofilm activity against preformed biofilms of both bacterial species was observed for the two TB analogues when used in combination with EDTA. Analysis of synergism at the cellular level suggested that the antibiofilm activity exerted by the peptide-EDTA combinations against mature biofilms might be due mainly to a disaggregating effect on the extracellular matrix in the case of S. aureus, and to a direct activity on biofilm-embedded cells in the case of P. aeruginosa. Both analogues displayed a low hemolytic effect at the active concentrations and, overall, TB_L1FK resulted less cytotoxic towards mammalian cells. Collectively, the results obtained demonstrated that subtle changes in the primary sequence of TB may provide TB analogues that, used alone or in combination with adjuvant molecules such as EDTA, exhibit promising features against both planktonic and biofilm cells of medically relevant

  2. Magnetic properties of ball-milled TbFe2 and TbFe2B

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    1. Introduction. The RFe2 (R = rare earth) Laves phase compounds are known to possess large cubic anisotropy (Clark et al 1972) and highest Curie temperature (TC) of all RT2 compounds. (T = transition metal). RFe2 ... TbFe2 and TbFe2B were prepared by arc melting the high pure elements (Tb and B, 99⋅9% purity; Fe, ...

  3. Comparing yield and relative costs of WHO TB screening algorithms in selected risk groups among people aged 65 years and over in China, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canyou Zhang

    Full Text Available To calculate the yield and cost per diagnosed tuberculosis (TB case for three World Health Organization screening algorithms and one using the Chinese National TB program (NTP TB suspect definitions, using data from a TB prevalence survey of people aged 65 years and over in China, 2013.This was an analytic study using data from the above survey. Risk groups were defined and the prevalence of new TB cases in each group calculated. Costs of each screening component were used to give indicative costs per case detected. Yield, number needed to screen (NNS and cost per case were used to assess the algorithms.The prevalence survey identified 172 new TB cases in 34,250 participants. Prevalence varied greatly in different groups, from 131/100,000 to 4651/ 100,000. Two groups were chosen to compare the algorithms. The medium-risk group (living in a rural area: men, or previous TB case, or close contact or a BMI <18.5, or tobacco user had appreciably higher cost per case (USD 221, 298 and 963 in the three algorithms than the high-risk group (all previous TB cases, all close contacts. (USD 72, 108 and 309 but detected two to four times more TB cases in the population. Using a Chest x-ray as the initial screening tool in the medium risk group cost the most (USD 963, and detected 67% of all the new cases. Using the NTP definition of TB suspects made little difference.To "End TB", many more TB cases have to be identified. Screening only the highest risk groups identified under 14% of the undetected cases,. To "End TB", medium risk groups will need to be screened. Using a CXR for initial screening results in a much higher yield, at what should be an acceptable cost.

  4. A deadly combination of AIDS, TB and cardiac tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Ramesh

    2013-05-22

    Immunocompromised status in AIDS makes differential diagnosis of any symptom very difficult for a clinician. Sharp clinical judgement and plenty of investigations may be needed to reach the diagnosis, as in this case. We hereby present a case of AIDS and active tuberculosis (TB) under treatment. The patient developed acute onset multifocal neurological symptoms following an episode of fever and diarrhoea. The MRI scan revealed numerous large cerebral infarcts. On investigations to evaluate brain infarcts, we made a diagnosis of left atrial cardiac tumour. Association of cardiac tumours with AIDS has only been rarely reported. It is uncertain if these can be opportunistic tumours in AIDS. The patient successfully came out of this deadly combination of diseases, viz AIDS, TB and large brain infarcts due to atrial tumour; with almost complete recovery.

  5. Providing an address for delivery of nanoencapsulated TB drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemmer, Yolandy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available compliance and drug resistance pose a great challenge to TB treatment programs worldwide. To improve the current inadequate therapeutic management of TB, a polymeric anti-TB nanodrug delivery system, for anti-TB drugs, was developed that could enable entry...

  6. HIV-Associated TB: Facts 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 . Around 75% of these people live in sub-Saharan Africa.  TB is the leading cause of death among ... adopted by policy makers and implemented by all health facilities offering HIV care services.  The number of ...

  7. Neutron diffraction and low temperature magnetization study of Tb0.8Y0.2MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Keka R.; Mukadam, M.; Yusuf, S.M.; Shukla, R.; Tyagi, A.K.; Kaushik, S.D.; Siruguri, V.

    2012-01-01

    Multiferroic materials possess mutually correlated magnetic and electric order parameters which are suitable for device applications but scarcity of such materials and the separation of magnetic and electric ordering temperatures are a major hindrance in technological applications. TbMnO 3 is one of the material which is reported to have higher magnetoelectric coupling. Structurally, TbMnO 3 crystallizes in orthorhombically distorted perovskite structure (space group Pbnm). For TbMnO 3 , several reports are available in the literature which further modify the magnetoelectric coupling by selective doping or reducing the particle size to nano dimensions, or preparing thin films. Here, we study the effect of Y doping at Tb site in nanoparticle form in terms of crystal structure and magnetic properties. Nanoparticles of Tb 0.8 Y 0.2 MnO 3 were synthesized using the gel combustion technique. Crystal structure of this sample is studied at 300 K using neutron diffraction

  8. Thermally stimulated properties in ZnSe:Tb and ZnSe:(Mn, Tb) phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, S. P.; Lakshmi Mishra, Kshama

    2018-02-01

    Thermoluminescence studies were performed of ZnSe:Tb and ZnSe:(Mn, Tb) phosphors. A method of preparation for ZnSe phosphors doped with Tb and (Mn, Tb) has been discussed. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of these phosphors have been studied from 100 to 370 K temperature after exciting by UV radiation (365 nm) at three uniform heating rates 0.4, 0.6 and 0.9 K/s. The trapping parameters like trap depth, lifetime of electrons and capture cross-section have also been determined using various methods.

  9. Immunomodulation by vitamin D: implications for TB

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Rene F; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    TB remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Low vitamin D status has been linked to increased risk of TB and other immune disorders. These observations suggest a role for vitamin D as a modulator of normal human immune function. This article will detail the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D regulates the immune system and how vitamin D insufficiency may lead to immune dysregulation. The importance of vitamin D bioavailability as a mechanism for defining the ...

  10. Structural properties of the geometrically frustrated pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang-Wook; Gardner, Jason S.; Booth, Corwin H.

    2004-01-01

    Although materials that exhibit nearest-neighbor-only antiferromagnetic interactions and geometrical frustration theoretically should not magnetically order in the absence of disorder, few such systems have been observed experimentally. One such system appears to be the pyrochlore Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 . However, previous structural studies indicated that Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 is an imperfect pyrochlore. To clarify the situation, we performed neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on samples that were prepared identically to those that show no magnetic order. The NPD measurements show that the long-range structure of Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 is well ordered with no structural transitions between 4.5 and 600 K. In particular, mean-squared displacements (u 2 's) for each site follow a Debye model with no offsets. No evidence for Tb/Ti site interchange was observed within an upper limit of 2%. Likewise, no excess or deficiency in the oxygen stoichiometry was observed, within an upper limit of 2% of the nominal pyrochlore value. Tb L III and Ti K-edge XAFS measurements from 20-300 K similarly indicate a well-ordered local structure. Other aspects of the structure are considered. We conclude that Tb 2 Ti 2 O 7 has, within experimental error, an ideal, disorder-free pyrochlore lattice, thereby allowing the system to remain in a dynamic, frustrated spin state to the lowest observed temperatures

  11. Use of bactec 460 TB system in the diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate, the efficacy of BACTEC 460 TB system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India. Methods : We compared 12,726 clinical specimens using BACTEC 460 TB system and conventional method for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis over a period of six years. Result: The overall recovery rate was 39% by BACTEC technique and 29% using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ medium. An average detection time for B actec0 460 TB system was found to be 13.3 days and 15.3 days as against 31.2 days and 35.3 days by LJ method for respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens respectively. The average reporting time for drug susceptibility results ranged from 6-10 days for the BACTEC 460 TB system. Conclusions: The BACTEC system is a good system for level II laboratories, especially in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary and smear negative tuberculosis.

  12. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. Keywords: Oral hygiene, Pregnancy, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  13. Femoral Component Revision with Use of Impaction Bone-Grafting and a Cemented Polished Stem: A Concise Follow-up, at Fifteen to Twenty Years, of a Previous Report*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Stroet, M.A.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported our results for thirty-three consecutive femoral component revisions with impaction bone-grafting, performed with the X-change femoral revision system and a cemented polished Exeter stem, at a minimum of eight years of follow-up. The present updated study shows the results

  14. Adverse Events among HIV/MDR-TB Co-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral and Second Line Anti-TB Treatment in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaakidis, Petros; Varghese, Bhanumati; Mansoor, Homa; Cox, Helen S.; Ladomirska, Joanna; Saranchuk, Peter; Da Silva, Esdras; Khan, Samsuddin; Paryani, Roma; Udwadia, Zarir; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Reid, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background Significant adverse events (AE) have been reported in patients receiving medications for multidrug- and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB & XDR-TB). However, there is little prospective data on AE in MDR- or XDR-TB/HIV co-infected patients on antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in programmatic settings. Methods Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is supporting a community-based treatment program for drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in a slum setting in Mumbai, India since 2007. Patients are being treated for both diseases and the management of AE is done on an outpatient basis whenever possible. Prospective data were analysed to determine the occurrence and nature of AE. Results Between May 2007 and September 2011, 67 HIV/MDR-TB co-infected patients were being treated with anti-TB treatment and ART; 43.3% were female, median age was 35.5 years (Interquartile Range: 30.5–42) and the median duration of anti-TB treatment was 10 months (range 0.5–30). Overall, AE were common in this cohort: 71%, 63% and 40% of patients experienced one or more mild, moderate or severe AE, respectively. However, they were rarely life-threatening or debilitating. AE occurring most frequently included gastrointestinal symptoms (45% of patients), peripheral neuropathy (38%), hypothyroidism (32%), psychiatric symptoms (29%) and hypokalaemia (23%). Eleven patients were hospitalized for AE and one or more suspect drugs had to be permanently discontinued in 27 (40%). No AE led to indefinite suspension of an entire MDR-TB or ART regimen. Conclusions AE occurred frequently in this Mumbai HIV/MDR-TB cohort but not more frequently than in non-HIV patients on similar anti-TB treatment. Most AE can be successfully managed on an outpatient basis through a community-based treatment program, even in a resource-limited setting. Concerns about severe AE in the management of co-infected patients are justified, however, they should not cause delays

  15. Comparative Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention Effectiveness in Children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccines from Different Sources, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Background Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. Methods/Findings We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Limitations Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. Conclusions/Significance All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by

  16. Comparative tuberculosis (TB prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Favorov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. METHODS/FINDINGS: We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan, the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. LIMITATIONS: Potential limitations included considerations that 1 the methodology used was retrospective, 2 multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3 most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4 small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness

  17. Comparative tuberculosis (TB) prevention effectiveness in children of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines from different sources, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorov, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Tursunbayeva, Aigul; Aitmagambetova, Indira; Kilgore, Paul; Ismailov, Shakhimurat; Chorba, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Except during a 1-year period when BCG vaccine was not routinely administered, annual coverage of infants with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in Kazakhstan since 2002 has exceeded 95%. BCG preparations from different sources (Japan, Serbia, and Russia) or none were used exclusively in comparable 7-month time-frames, September through March, in 4 successive years beginning in 2002. Our objective was to assess relative effectiveness of BCG immunization. We compared outcomes of birth cohorts from the 4 time-frames retrospectively. Three cohorts received vaccine from one of three manufacturers exclusively, and one cohort was not vaccinated. Cohorts were followed for 3 years for notifications of clinical TB and of culture-confirmed TB, and for 21 months for TB meningitis notifications. Prevention effectiveness based on relative risk of TB incidence was calculated for each vaccinated cohort compared to the non-vaccinated cohort. Although there were differences in prevention effectiveness observed among the three BCG vaccines, all were protective. The Japanese vaccine (currently used in Kazakhstan), the Serbian vaccine, and the Russian vaccine respectively were 69%, 43%, and 22% effective with respect to clinical TB notifications, and 92%, 82%, and 51% effective with respect to culture confirmed TB. All three vaccines were >70% effective with respect to TB meningitis. Potential limitations included considerations that 1) the methodology used was retrospective, 2) multiple risk factors could have varied between cohorts and affected prevention effectiveness measures, 3) most cases were clinically diagnosed, and TB culture-positive case numbers and TB meningitis case numbers were sparse, and 4) small variations in reported population TB burden could have affected relative risk of exposure for cohorts. All three BCG vaccines evaluated were protective against TB, and prevention effectiveness varied by manufacturer. When setting national immunization policy, consideration

  18. Synthesis, structural, thermal and optical studies of rare earth coordinated complex: Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Dwivedi, Y. [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in [Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} RE coordinated complex of Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen in crystalline phases were synthesized. {yields} Enhancement in luminescence of Tb{sup 3+} was observed in complex on 355 nm excitation. {yields} Fluorescence enhancement is due to the efficient energy transfer from Sal to Tb{sup 3+}. {yields} An observed increase in lifetime of Tb{sup 3+} is due to encapsulation in Sal/Phen network. {yields} The present system is a deserving candidate for LSC when coupled with solar cells. - Abstract: Complexes of salicylic acid (Sal) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) were synthesized coordinated with terbium ion (Tb{sup 3+}) in crystalline phases. The structural characterizations of the lanthanide complex were made using FT-IR, NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) and XRD techniques. These measurements confirm the formation of Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen complex structure. The thermal aspects of the complex were examined using DTA and TGA techniques. An enhancement in luminescence intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ion bands were observed in Tb(Sal){sub 3}Phen complex as compared to TbCl{sub 3} crystals on 355 nm laser excitation. Enhancement is reported due to the efficient energy transfer process from Sal to Tb{sup 3+} ions. This is also confirmed by the time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy with increase in lifetime of Tb{sup 3+} ions due to encapsulation in Sal/Phen network. Our system in itself can be a deserving candidate for luminescent solar collector material when coupled with solar cells.

  19. Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-adherence to anti-TB drugs among TB/HIV co-infected patients in Mbarara Hospital ... and its associated factors have not been studied in these patients in Uganda. ... Methods: A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative data ...

  20. tb diagnostics challenges of tb diagnosis and treatment in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-01

    Jun 1, 2007 ... 45 currently provides treatment to 3 000 patients. Eighty-nine per cent of those accessing ART have symptomatic HIV disease. (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) with a median CD4 cell count of. 95 cells/µl. More than 50% have a history of prior completed. TB treatment, 15% are on current TB treatment, 11% are.

  1. Integration of TB and ART services fails to improve TB treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median CD4+ count of HIV-positive patients was 152 cells/μl (interquartile range (IQR) 71 - 277) for integrated facilities and 148 cells/μl (IQR 67 - 260) for single-service facilities. There was no statistical difference in the TB treatment outcome profile between integrated and single-service facilities for all TB patients (p=0.

  2. Purity-activity relationships of natural products: the case of anti-TB active ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Chadwick, Lucas R; Lankin, David C; Zhang, Fangqiu; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

    2008-10-01

    The present study explores the variability of biological responses from the perspective of sample purity and introduces the concept of purity-activity relationships (PARs) in natural product research. The abundant plant triterpene ursolic acid (1) was selected as an exemplary natural product due to the overwhelming number yet inconsistent nature of its approximate 120 reported biological activities, which include anti-TB potential. Nine different samples of ursolic acid with purity certifications were obtained, and their purity was independently assessed by means of quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR). Biological evaluation consisted of determining MICs against two strains of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IC50 values in Vero cells. Ab initio structure elucidation provided unequivocal structural confirmation and included an extensive 1H NMR spin system analysis, determination of nearly all J couplings and the complete NOE pattern, and led to the revision of earlier reports. As a net result, a sigmoid PAR profile of 1 was obtained, demonstrating the inverse correlation of purity and anti-TB bioactivity. The results imply that synergistic effects of 1 and its varying impurities are the likely cause of previously reported antimycobacterial potential. Generating PARs is a powerful extension of the routinely performed quantitative correlation of structure and activity ([Q]SAR). Advanced by the use of primary analytical methods such as qHNMR, PARs enable the elucidation of cases like 1 when increasing purity voids biological activity. This underlines the potential of PARs as a tool in drug discovery and synergy research and accentuates the need to routinely combine biological testing with purity assessment.

  3. Risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in a tertiary armed force referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demile, Biresaw; Zenebu, Amare; Shewaye, Haile; Xia, Siqing; Guadie, Awoke

    2018-05-31

    Ethiopia is one of the world health organization defined higher tuberculosis (TB) burden countries where the disease remains a massive public health threat. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using all armed force and civilian TB attendants in a tertiary level armed force hospital, where data for MDR-TB are previously unpublished. Cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in a tertiary level Armed Force Referral and Teaching Hospital (AFRTH), Ethiopia. Armed force members (n = 251) and civilians (n = 130) which has been undergone TB diagnosis at AFRTH were included. All the specimens collected were subjected to microscopic smear observation, culture growth and drug susceptibility testing. Data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences following binary logistic regression and Chi-square. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Among 381 TB patients, 355 (93.2%) new and 26 (6.8%) retreatment cases were identified. Culture and smear positive TB cases were identified in 297 (77.9%) and 252 (66.1%) patients, respectively. The overall prevalence of MDR-TB in AFRTH was found 1.8% (1.3% for armed force members and 0.5% for civilian patients) all of which were previously TB treated cases. The entire treatment success rates were 92.6% achieved highest in the armed force (active and pension) than the civilian patients. The failure and dead cases were also found 2.5 and 4.6%, respectively. Using bivariate analysis, category of attendants and TB contact history were strong predictors of MDR-TB in armed force and civilian patients. Moreover, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection also identified a significant (OR = 14.6; 95% CI = 2.3-92.1; p = 0.004) predicting factor for MDR-TB in armed force members. However, sex, age and body mass index were not associated factor for MDR-TB. In AFRTH, lower prevalence of

  4. Risk factors for MDR and XDR-TB in a tertiary referral hospital in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: India has a high burden of drug resistant TB, although there are few data on XDR-TB. Although XDR-TB has existed previously in India, the definition has not been widely applied, and surveillance using second line drug susceptibility testing has not been performed. Our objective was to analyze clinical and demographic risk factors associated with isolation of MDR and XDR TB as compared to susceptible controls, at a tertiary center. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Retrospective chart review based on positive cultures isolated in a high volume mycobacteriology laboratory between 2002 and 2007. 47 XDR, 30 MDR and 117 susceptible controls were examined. Drug resistant cases were less likely to be extrapulmonary, and had received more previous treatment regimens. Significant risk factors for XDR-TB included residence outside the local state (OR 7.43, 3.07-18.0 and care costs subsidized (OR 0.23, 0.097-0.54 in bivariate analysis and previous use of a fluoroquinolone and injectable agent (other than streptomycin (OR 7.00, 95% C.I. 1.14-43.03 and an initial treatment regimen which did not follow national guidelines (OR 5.68, 1.24-25.96 in multivariate analysis. Cavitation and HIV did not influence drug resistance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is significant selection bias in the sample available. Selection pressure from previous treatment and an inadequate initial regimen increases risk of drug resistance. Local patients and those requiring financial subsidies may be at lower risk of XDR-TB.

  5. The implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV clinics: the experience from the TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durovni, Betina; Cavalcante, Solange C; Saraceni, Valeria; Vellozo, Vitoria; Israel, Giselle; King, Bonnie S; Cohn, Silvia; Efron, Anne; Pacheco, Antonio G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Chaisson, Richard E; Golub, Jonathan E

    2010-11-01

    The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) study was launched in September 2005 to assess the impact of integrated tuberculosis (TB) and HIV treatment strategies in 29 HIV clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. THRio is a cluster-randomized trial (CRT) to determine whether routine screening for and treatment of latent TB in HIV clinic patients with access to antiretroviral therapy will reduce TB incidence at the clinic level. THRio is part of the Consortium to Respond Effectively to AIDS/TB Epidemic that is implementing research studies to assess the impact of bold, new public health paradigms for controlling the AIDS/TB epidemic. Twenty-nine public primary HIV clinics were randomly assigned a date to begin implementing TB screening procedures and provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for TB/HIV coinfected patients. Final analysis of the CRT is expected in 2011. Starting at date of tuberculin skin test (TST)/IPT implementation at each clinic through August 2010, 1670 HIV-infected patients initiated IPT, of which 215 are still receiving treatment. Of the remaining 1455 patients, 1230 (85%) completed therapy and only 20 (1.2%) patients initiating IPT reported adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of therapy. IPT completion was higher among HIV-infected patients receiving HAART (87%) than those not yet receiving HAART (79%, P effort requires a package of activities including training, advocacy and reorganization of services.

  6. The role of antiretroviral therapy in reducing TB incidence and mortality in high HIV-TB burden countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Harries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, all countries have committed to end the tuberculosis (TB epidemic by 2030, defined as dramatic reductions in TB incidence and mortality combined with zero TB-induced catastrophic costs for families. This paper explores how antiretroviral therapy (ART in high HIV-TB burden countries may help in reducing TB incidence and mortality and thus contribute to the ambitious goal of ending TB. ART in people living with HIV has a potent TB preventive effect, with this being most apparent in those with the most advanced immunodeficiency. Early ART also significantly reduces the risk of TB, and with new World Health Organization guidance released in 2015 about initiating ART in all persons living with HIV irrespective of CD4 count, there is the potential for enormous benefit at the population level. Already, several countries with high HIVTB burdens have seen dramatic declines in TB case notification rates since ART scale up started in 2004. In patients already diagnosed with HIV-associated TB, mortality can be significantly decreased by ART, especially if started within 2–8 weeks of anti-TB treatment. The benefits of ART on TB incidence and TB mortality can be further augmented respectively by the addition of isoniazid preventive therapy and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy. These interventions must be effectively implemented and scaled up in order to end the TB epidemic by 2030.

  7. Multi-quasiparticle excitations in 145Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yong; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu; Liu Minliang; Guo Yingxiang; Lei Xiangguo; Kusakari, H.; Sugawara, M.

    2004-01-01

    High-spin states in 145 Tb have been populated using the 118 Sn( 32 S, 1p4n) reaction at a beam energy of 165 MeV. The level scheme of 145 Tb has been established for the first time. The level scheme shows characteristics of spherical or slightly oblate nucleus. Based on the systematic trends of the level structure in the neighboring N=80 isotones, the level structure in 145 Tb below 2 MeV excitation is well explained by coupling an h 11/2 valence proton to the even-even 144 Gd core. Above 2 MeV excitation, most of the yrast levels are interpreted with multi-quasiparticle shell-model configurations. (authors)

  8. Empirical evidence for synchrony in the evolution of TB cases and HIV+ contacts among the San Francisco homeless.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Mohtashemi

    Full Text Available The re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB in the mid-1980s in many parts of the world, including the United States, is often attributed to the emergence and rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Although it is well established that TB transmission is particularly amplified in populations with high HIV prevalence, the epidemiology of interaction between TB and HIV is not well understood. This is partly due to the scarcity of HIV-related data, a consequence of the voluntary nature of HIV status reporting and testing, and partly due to current practices of screening high risk populations through separate surveillance programs for HIV and TB. The San Francisco Department of Public Health, TB Control Program, has been conducting active surveillance among the San Francisco high-risk populations since the early 1990s. We present extensive TB surveillance data on HIV and TB infection among the San Francisco homeless to investigate the association between the TB cases and their HIV+ contacts. We applied wavelet coherence and phase analyses to the TB surveillance data from January 1993 through December 2005, to establish and quantify statistical association and synchrony in the highly non-stationary and ostensibly non-periodic waves of TB cases and their HIV+ contacts in San Francisco. When stratified by homelessness, we found that the evolution of TB cases and their HIV+ contacts is highly coherent over time and locked in phase at a specific periodic scale among the San Francisco homeless, but no significant association was observed for the non-homeless. This study confirms the hypothesis that the dynamics of HIV and TB are significantly intertwined and that HIV is likely a key factor in the sustenance of TB transmission among the San Francisco homeless. The findings of this study underscore the importance of contact tracing in detection of HIV+ individuals that may otherwise remain undetected, and

  9. Diagnostic accuracy, incremental yield and prognostic value of Determine TB-LAM for routine diagnostic testing for tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients requiring acute hospital admission in South Africa: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Stephen D; Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Burton, Rosie; Schutz, Charlotte; Boulle, Andrew; Vogt, Monica; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Nicol, Mark P; Meintjes, Graeme

    2017-03-21

    We previously reported that one-third of HIV-positive adults requiring medical admission to a South African district hospital had laboratory-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) and that almost two-thirds of cases could be rapidly diagnosed using Xpert MTB/RIF-testing of concentrated urine samples obtained on the first day of admission. Implementation of urine-based, routine, point-of-care TB screening is an attractive intervention that might be facilitated by use of a simple, low-cost diagnostic tool, such as the Determine TB-LAM lateral-flow rapid test for HIV-associated TB. Sputum, urine and blood samples were systematically obtained from unselected HIV-positive adults within 24 hours of admission to a South African township hospital. Additional clinical samples were obtained during hospitalization as clinically indicated. TB was defined by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in any sample using Xpert MTB/RIF or liquid culture. The diagnostic yield, accuracy and prognostic value of urine-lipoarabinomannan (LAM) testing were determined, but urine-LAM results did not inform treatment decisions. Consecutive HIV-positive adult acute medical admissions not already receiving TB treatment (n = 427) were enrolled regardless of clinical presentation or symptoms. TB was diagnosed in 139 patients (TB prevalence 32.6%; median CD4 count 80 cells/μL). In the first 24 hours of admission, sputum (spot and/or induced) samples were obtained from 37.0% of patients and urine samples from 99.5% of patients (P < 0.001). The diagnostic yields from these specimens were 19.4% (n = 27/139) for sputum-microscopy, 26.6% (n = 37/139) for sputum-Xpert, 38.1% (n = 53/139) for urine-LAM and 52.5% (n = 73/139) for sputum-Xpert/urine-LAM combined (P < 0.01). Corresponding yields among patients with CD4 counts <100 cells/μL were 18.9%, 24.3%, 55.4% and 63.5%, respectively (P < 0.01). The diagnostic yield of urine-LAM was unrelated to respiratory symptoms, and

  10. TB case detection in Tajikistan – analysis of existing obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Korobitsyn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tajikistan National TB Control ProgramObjective: (1 To identify the main obstacles to increasing TB Detection in Tajikistan. (2 To identify interventions that improve TB detection.Methods: Review of the available original research data, health normative base, health systems performance and national economic data, following WHO framework for detection of TB cases, which is based on three scenarios of why incident cases of TB may not be notified.Results: Data analysis revealed that some aspects of TB case detection are more problematic than others and that there are gaps in the knowledge of specific obstacles to TB case detection. The phenomenon of “initial default” in Tajikistan has been documented; however, it needs to be studied further. The laboratory services detect infectious TB cases effectively; however, referrals of appropriate suspects for TB diagnosis may lag behind. The knowledge about TB in the general population has improved. Yet, the problem of TB related stigma persists, thus being an obstacle for effective TB detection. High economic cost of health services driven by under-the-table payments was identified as another barrier for access to health services.Conclusion: Health system strengthening should become a primary intervention to improve case detection in Tajikistan. More research on reasons contributing to the failure to register TB cases, as well as factors underlying stigma is needed.

  11. Second proton and neutron alignments in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D.J.; Allen, J.L.; Brown, T.B.; Kondev, F.G.; Pfohl, J.; Riley, M.A.; Fischer, S.M.; Janssens, R.V.; Nisius, D.T.; Fallon, P.; Ma, W.C.; Simpson, J.

    1999-01-01

    High-spin states in the doubly-odd nuclei 154,156 Tb have been populated in two separate experiments using the 36 S+ 124 Sn reaction at different beam energies (160 and 175 MeV). The yrast structures of both nuclei were extended to much higher spin (I≤48ℎ) than previously known and several quasiparticle alignments have been identified. These include the second neutron alignment and a clear delineation of the second proton crossing in 156 Tb. Systematics of these crossings for odd-Z nuclei and comparisons with results of cranked shell model calculations are discussed. thinsp copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Multicolor light emitters based on energy exchange between Tb and Eu ions co-doped into ultrasmall β-NaYF 4 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Podhorodecki, Artur P.

    2012-01-01

    Multicolor emission is reported from ultrasmall (<10 nm) β-NaYF4:Eu,Tb nanocrystals depending on the excitation wavelengths or emission detection delay time. Detailed optical investigations of three samples (NaYF4:Eu, NaYF4:Tb and NaYF4:Eu,Tb) obtained by a co-thermolysis method have been carried out. Photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and emission decay time obtained at different excitation wavelengths have been measured. Excitation mechanisms of Eu and Tb ions have been explained based on the experimental results and calculations using Judd-Ofelt theory. It has been shown that efficient energy transfer from Tb to Eu ions accounts for the efficient red emission of NaYF4:Tb,Eu nanocrystals. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  13. PROFIL PENDERITA TB PARU KLINIS YANG TIDAK BEROBAT DI PELAYANAN KESEHATAN, DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurendro Putro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Further analysis of the results of health research foundation in 2010 in this report on the profile penderira clinical pulmonary TB disease is not treated in the health service. The data analyzed is the result of basic health research in clinical pulmonary TB patients who do not seek treatment in health care. Methods: This analysis is the deepening of research on the basic health questionnaire B18 RKD1 ORT question by finding that respondent characteristics of age, gender, education level and job type, and location of residen ce and social situation eskonomi. It is also seen in disease prevention behavior Pulmonary TB and state family room and bedroom sufferers. Results: Having done the analysis, there are 4966 clinical pulmonary TB patients and who do not seek treatment at health care as many as 2842 patients (57.7%. So th at the data analyzed is as much as 2842 people. From the test results of Chi sqaure analysis variables associated with pulmonary TB prevention behaviors are age (p = 0.001, education level (p = 0.001, occupation (p = 0.001, residence ofrespondents (p = 0.001, socioeconomic (p = 0.001, and housing conditions (p = 0.001. Conclusions: Health workers are health care workers provide counseling on the importance of treatment for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis clinical and laboratory examinations do know the existence of BTA +. Also expected clinical pulmonary TB patients do not spit everywhere. Key words: profile, clinic TB case, don't therapy in health services ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Analisis lanjut hasil riset kesehatan dasar 201 0 dalam laporan ini tentang profil penderira penyakit TB Paru klinis yang tidak berobat di pelayanan kesehatan. Data yang dianalisis merupakan hasil dari riset kesehatan dasar pada penderita TB Paru klinis yang tidak berobat di pelayanan kesehatan. Metode: Analisis ini merupakan pendalaman dari hasil riset kesehatan dasar pada kuesioner RKD 1 O. RT pertanyaan B 18 dengan

  14. Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strauss Ronald P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive approach towards disease control that addresses social factors including stigma is now advocated. Patients with TB report fears of isolation and rejection that may lead to delays in seeking care and could affect treatment adherence. Qualitative studies have identified socio-demographic, TB knowledge, and clinical determinants of TB stigma, but only one prior study has quantified these associations using formally developed and validated stigma scales. The purpose of this study was to measure TB stigma and identify factors associated with TB stigma among patients and healthy community members. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in southern Thailand among two different groups of participants: 480 patients with TB and 300 healthy community members. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, TB knowledge, and clinical factors. Scales measuring perceived TB stigma, experienced/felt TB stigma, and perceived AIDS stigma were administered to patients with TB. Community members responded to a community TB stigma and community AIDS stigma scale, which contained the same items as the perceived stigma scales given to patients. Stigma scores could range from zero to 30, 33, or 36 depending on the scale. Three separate multivariable linear regressions were performed among patients with TB (perceived and experience/felt stigma and community members (community stigma to determine which factors were associated with higher mean TB stigma scores. Results Only low level of education, belief that TB increases the chance of getting AIDS, and AIDS stigma were associated with higher TB stigma scores in all three analyses. Co-infection with HIV was associated with higher TB stigma among patients. All differences in mean stigma scores between index and referent levels of each factor were less than two points, except for

  15. Tuberculosis: The Connection between TB and HIV (the AIDS Virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  16. Patient satisfaction with TB care clinical consultations in Kampala: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on treatment outcome. Keywords: Patient satisfaction, TB care clinical consultations, cross sectional study. ... Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global ... Measurement of outcome: Variables considered were; how long the ... Key: ART= Antiretroviral Therapy. Characteristic. Parameter n (%). Sex. Female.

  17. Tuberculosis: Learn the Signs and Symptoms of TB Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms and Risk Factors Language: English ( ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that ...

  18. HIV screening among newly diagnosed TB patients: a cross sectional study in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Suzanne; Mejía, Fernando; Rojas, Marlene; Seas, Carlos; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Otero, Larissa

    2018-03-20

    Since 2006, the Peruvian National TB program (NTP) recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all tuberculosis (TB) patients. Responding to the differential burden of both diseases in Peru, TB is managed in peripheral health facilities while HIV is managed in referral centers. This study aims to determine the coverage of HIV screening among TB patients and the characteristics of persons not screened. From March 2010 to December 2011 we enrolled new smear-positive pulmonary TB adults in 34 health facilities in a district in Lima. NTP staff offered VCT to all TB patients. Patients with an HIV positive result were referred for confirmation tests and management. We interviewed patients to collect their demographic and clinical characteristics and registered if patients opted in or out of the screening. Of the 1295 enrolled TB patients, nine had a known HIV diagnosis. Of the remaining, 76.1% (979) were screened for HIV. Among the 23.9% (307) not screened, 38.4% (118) opted out of the screening. TB patients at one of the health care facilities of the higher areas of the district (OR = 3.38, CI 95% 2.17-5.28 for the highest area and OR = 2.82, CI 95% 1.78-4.49 for the high area) as well as those reporting illegal drug consumption (OR = 1.65, CI 95% 1.15-2.37) were more likely not to be screened. Twenty-four were HIV positive (1.9% of all patients 1295, or 2.4% of those screened). Of 15 patients diagnosed with HIV during the TB episode, ten were enrolled in an HIV program. The median time between the result of the HIV screening and the first consultation at the HIV program was 82 days (IQR, 32-414). The median time between the result of the HIV screening and antiretroviral initiation was 148.5 days (IQR 32-500). An acceptable proportion of TB patients were screened for HIV in Lima. Referral systems of HIV positive patients should be strengthened for timely ART initiation.

  19. Reversal of the sign of giant magnetoresistance upon boron filling in RPd{sub 3} compounds (R=Tb,Er)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Abhishek [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-700098 (India); Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R, E-mail: abhishek.phy@gmail.co, E-mail: chandan.mazumar@saha.ac.i, E-mail: r.ranganathan@saha.ac.i [Experimental Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2010-01-01

    We report the study of magnetic and transport properties of binary intermetallic compounds RPd{sub 3} (R: Tb and Er) and boron-filled perovskite compounds RPd{sub 3}B. Our results suggest that the magnetic and transport behavior of boron-filled compositions is substantially different compared to that of undoped compounds. For example, TbPd{sub 3} and ErPd{sub 3} exhibit negative magnetoresistance, while boron-filled TbPd{sub 3}B and ErPd{sub 3}B shows positive magnetoresistance. In addition, our results also suggest that there exists a strong correlation between magnetic and electrical-transport behavior of these systems.

  20. Comparison of PPD test in household contacts of smear-positive and -negative tuberculosis (TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Azarkar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The most important way to prevent TB is omission of the disease transmission sources (TB patients by anti-TB treatment. Extensive studies are needed to ensure that contacts of patients with pulmonary TB are identified and appropriately screened.

  1. Exploring workplace TB interventions with foreign-born Latino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E; Keller, Brenna M; Flynn, Michael A

    2018-05-15

    Persons born outside the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with tuberculosis disease (TB) than native-born individuals. Foreign-born Latinos at risk of TB may be difficult to reach with public health interventions due to cultural and institutional barriers. Workplaces employing large concentrations of foreign-born Latinos may be useful locations for TB interventions targeting this high-risk population. This study used a two-phase approach to investigate the feasibility of workplace TB interventions. The first phase investigated employer knowledge of TB and receptiveness to allowing TB interventions in their businesses through 5 structured interviews. The second phase investigated foreign-born workers' knowledge of TB and their receptiveness to receiving TB interventions in their places of employment through 12 focus groups stratified by gender and education. Phase 1: Only 1 of the 5 employers interviewed had a high level of knowledge about TB, and three had no knowledge other than that TB was a disease that involved coughing. They were receptive to workplace TB interventions, but were concerned about lost productivity and customers finding out if an employee had TB. Phase 2: There was no observed differences in responses between gender and between the bottom two education groups, so the final analysis took place between a gender-combined lower education group and higher education group. The higher education group tended to have knowledge that was more accurate and to view TB as a disease associated with poverty. The lower education group tended to have more misconceptions about TB and more often expressed concern that their employers would not support worksite interventions. The results from both phases indicate that more TB education is needed among both foreign-born Latino workers and their employers. Obstacles to implementing workplace TB interventions include knowledge, potential productivity loss, employer liability, and perceived customer response

  2. Diagnosis of active TB using aptamers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khati, M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of the disease. We have shown in a proof-of-concept case-controlled study that the aptamer-based diagnostic tool was able to accurately detect all cases of active TB from sputum samples of patients, including smear-negative culture positive and samples from...

  3. CTAB assisted hydrothermal preparation of YPO4:Tb3+ with controlled morphology, structure and enhanced photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Hua; Du, Ying; Zhao, Min; Sun, Kening; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple and convenient method toward fabrication of YPO 4 :Tb 3+ with controlled structures and morphologies was proposed. • The crucial role of CTAB during the fabrication process that acts as complexing reagent and inducing agent and the mechanism was discussed. • The addition of CTAB enhances the green emission in YPO 4 :Tb phosphors. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report a simple and convenient method toward fabrication of YPO 4 :Tb 3+ with controlled structures, morphologies and enhanced luminescent properties. By simply controlling the amount of the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) during the hydrothermal process, tetragonal YPO 4 :Tb 3+ and hexagonal YPO 4 ·0.8H 2 O:Tb 3+ with nanoparticle and olive-like nanoparticle can be obtained, respectively. Meanwhile, we find that the structures and morphologies can affect their luminescent properties obviously and the intensity of the samples with hexagonal phase is evidently higher than that with tetragonal phase. The variation of crystal structures, morphologies of the samples are ascribed to the crucial role of CTAB during the fabrication process that acts as complexing reagent and inducing agent and the mechanism was also discussed. We believe the method reported here will open a novel approach to rare earth phosphates with multiple structures

  4. High rates of ofloxacin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis among both new and previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, N; Kumar, Vanaja; Balaji, S; Prabuseenivasan, S; Radhakrishnan, R; Sekar, Gomathi; Chandrasekaran, V; Kannan, T; Thomas, Aleyamma; Arunagiri, S; Dewan, Puneet; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Periodic drug resistance surveillance provides useful information on trends of drug resistance and effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control measures. The present study determines the prevalence of drug resistance among new sputum smear positive (NSP) and previously treated (PT) pulmonary TB patients, diagnosed at public sector designated microscopy centers (DMCs) in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. In this single-stage cluster-sampling prevalence survey, 70 of 700 DMCs were randomly selected using a probability-proportional to size method. A cluster size of 24 for NSP and a varying size of 0 to 99 for PT cases were fixed for each selected DMC. Culture and drug susceptibility testing was done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium using the economic variant of proportion sensitivity test for isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ofloxacin (OFX) and kanamycin (KAN). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status was collected from patient records. From June 2011 to August 2012, 1524 NSP and 901 PT patients were enrolled. Any RMP resistance and any INH resistance were observed in 2.6% and 15.1%, and in 10.4% and 30% respectively in NSP and PT cases. Among PT patients, multi drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) was highest in the treatment failure (35%) group, followed by relapse (13%) and treatment after default (10%) groups. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB) was seen in 4.3% of MDR-TB cases. Any OFX resistance was seen in 10.4% of NSP, 13.9% of PT and 29% of PT MDR-TB patients. The HIV status of the patient had no impact on drug resistance levels. RMP resistance was present in 2.6% of new and 15.1% of previously treated patients in Tamil Nadu. Rates of OFX resistance were high among NSP and PT patients, especially among those with MDR-TB, a matter of concern for development of new treatment regimens for TB.

  5. Predictors of tuberculosis (TB) and antiretroviral (ARV) medication non-adherence in public primary care patients in South Africa: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pamela; Peltzer, Karl; Louw, Julia; Matseke, Gladys; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-04-26

    Despite the downward trend in the absolute number of tuberculosis (TB) cases since 2006 and the fall in the incidence rates since 2001, the burden of disease caused by TB remains a global health challenge. The co-infection between TB and HIV adds to this disease burden. TB is completely curable through the intake of a strict anti-TB drug treatment regimen which requires an extremely high and consistent level of adherence.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with adherence to anti-TB and HIV treatment drugs. A cross-sectional survey method was used. Three study districts (14 primary health care facilities in each) were selected on the basis of the highest TB caseload per clinic. All new TB and new TB retreatment patients were consecutively screened within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample comprised of 3107 TB patients who had been on treatment for at least three weeks and a sub-sample of the total sample were on both anti-TB treatment and anti-retro-viral therapy(ART) (N = 757). Data collection tools included: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire; a Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder (PTSD) Screen; a Psychological Distress Scale; the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT); and self-report measures of tobacco use, perceived health status and adherence to anti-TB drugs and ART. The majority of the participants (N = 3107) were new TB cases with a 55.9% HIV co-infection rate in this adult male and female sample 18 years and older. Significant predictors of non-adherence common to both anti-TB drugs and to dual therapy (ART and anti-TB drugs) included poverty, having one or more co-morbid health condition, being a high risk for alcohol mis-use and a partner who is HIV positive. An additional predictor for non-adherence to anti-TB drugs was tobacco use. A comprehensive treatment programme addressing poverty, alcohol mis-use, tobacco use and psycho-social counseling is indicated for TB patients (with and without HIV

  6. Antiretroviral treatment uptake in patients with HIV- associated TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ART results in a 64 - 95% reduction in mortality risk 5 and is an essential component of care. How soon to start. ART after TB treatment initiation has become clearer from randomised controlled trials. These show that integration of ART and TB treatment in all HIV-associated TB patients regardless of CD4 count significantly.

  7. Assessment of the Diagnostic Potential of Clinotech TB Screen Test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinotech TB Screen test, a 3rd generation multi-antigen rapid chromatographic immunoassay for detection of IgG antibodies in serum against recombinant protein antigens 38kDa, 16kDa and 6kDa, was assessed for its diagnostic potential for diagnosis of active pulmonary TB in routine TB control programme in Abia ...

  8. Antiretroviral treatment uptake in patients with HIV associated TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Delivery of integrated care for patients with HIV-associated TB is challenging. We assessed the uptake and timing of antiretroviral treatment (ART) among eligible patients attending a primary care service with co-located ART and TB clinics. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, all HIV-associated TB patients ...

  9. Magnetic structure of RPdSn (R=Tb, Ho) single crystal compounds under strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Nakamoto, G.; Tsutaoka, T.; Kawano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Rare earth compounds RTX, where R stands for rare earth elements, T for Ni, Pd or Rh, and X for Sn or Ge, crystallize to a rhombic ε-TiNiSi structure. Only rare earth elements R contribute to magnetic properties since T and X atoms are nonmagnetic. The competition between RKKY indirect interaction and large magnetic anisotropy generates many complicated magnetic phases. At a low temperature phase, complicated magnetisms such as meta-magnetism were observed in magnetization curves with many steps. In previous experiments dealing with RPdSn where R means Tb or Ho, some characteristics of magnetic properties of these compounds were deduced from magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction without external magnetic field. In this report, the change of magnetic scattering of neutron diffraction was studied under external magnetic fields in order to reveal the mechanism of the phase transformations of the compounds. The difference between TbPdSn and HoPdSn compounds was observed in magnetic field dependence of the wave vectors of the magnetic scattering. Two independent wave vectors in magnetic scattering existed in HoPdSn compound. (Y. Kazumata)

  10. Surveillance, Evaluation of Programmatic Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT at DR-TB Centre, NITRD, New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Padda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: PMDT was launched in 2007 in our country but drug resistant TB remains to be a public health problem. Effective surveillance is the backbone for success of any programme and true stands for PMDT. Aim & Objectives: To identify the strengths and constraints of the surveillance evaluation system. Material & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2015 at DR-TB Centre of NITRD, New Delhi which caters to a population of 29 lacs. PMDT surveillance system was evaluated using attributes like simplicity, data quality, acceptability, positive predictive value, representativeness and timeliness defined by CDC, USA guidelines. Relevant information was collected using data abstraction form and interview with stakeholders. Data was analysed using EpiInfo 07 version. Results: Nodal officer and District TB officer are responsible for surveillance system activities of PMDT at DR-TB centre and district level, respectively. All the reports (100% were submitted on time and all the districts were reporting to DR-TB centre. 75% of TB-HIV coordinators found reporting formats to be simple but all the quarterly reports were found to be complete. Data quality was not found to be optimal. Conclusion: Private sector needs to be taken on board as they have no to minimal involvement in PMDT. For data quality improvement time to time training of medical officers and health workers should be organized.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure, optical and thermal properties of lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förg, Katharina; Höppe, Henning A

    2015-11-28

    Lanthanide hydrogen-polyphosphates Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) were synthesised as colourless (Ln = Tb, Dy) and light pink (Ln = Ho) crystalline powders by reaction of Tb4O7/Dy2O3/Ho2O3 with H3PO3 at 380 °C. All compounds crystallise isotypically (P2(1)/c (no. 14), Z = 4, a(Tb) = 1368.24(4) pm, b(Tb) = 710.42(2) pm, c(Tb) = 965.79(3) pm, β(Tb) = 101.200(1)°, 3112 data, 160 parameters, wR2 = 0.062, a(Ho) = 1363.34(5) pm, b(Ho) = 709.24(3) pm, c(Ho) = 959.07(4) pm, β(Ho) = 101.055(1)°, 1607 data, 158 parameters, wR2 = 0.058). The crystal structure comprises two different infinite helical chains of corner-sharing phosphate tetrahedra. In-between these chains the lanthanide ions are located, coordinated by seven oxygen atoms belonging to four different polyphosphate chains. Vibrational, UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of Ln[H(PO3)4] (Ln = Tb, Dy, Ho) as well as Dy[H(PO3)4]:Ln (Ln = Ce, Eu) and the magnetic and thermal behaviour of Tb[H(PO3)4] are reported.

  12. TIME Impact - a new user-friendly tuberculosis (TB) model to inform TB policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, R M G J; Lalli, M; Sumner, T; Hamilton, M; Pedrazzoli, D; Bonsu, F; Hippner, P; Pillay, Y; Kimerling, M; Ahmedov, S; Pretorius, C; White, R G

    2016-03-24

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, predominantly affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where resources are limited. As such, countries need to be able to choose the most efficient interventions for their respective setting. Mathematical models can be valuable tools to inform rational policy decisions and improve resource allocation, but are often unavailable or inaccessible for LMICs, particularly in TB. We developed TIME Impact, a user-friendly TB model that enables local capacity building and strengthens country-specific policy discussions to inform support funding applications at the (sub-)national level (e.g. Ministry of Finance) or to international donors (e.g. the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria).TIME Impact is an epidemiological transmission model nested in TIME, a set of TB modelling tools available for free download within the widely-used Spectrum software. The TIME Impact model reflects key aspects of the natural history of TB, with additional structure for HIV/ART, drug resistance, treatment history and age. TIME Impact enables national TB programmes (NTPs) and other TB policymakers to better understand their own TB epidemic, plan their response, apply for funding and evaluate the implementation of the response.The explicit aim of TIME Impact's user-friendly interface is to enable training of local and international TB experts towards independent use. During application of TIME Impact, close involvement of the NTPs and other local partners also builds critical understanding of the modelling methods, assumptions and limitations inherent to modelling. This is essential to generate broad country-level ownership of the modelling data inputs and results. In turn, it stimulates discussions and a review of the current evidence and assumptions, strengthening the decision-making process in general.TIME Impact has been effectively applied in a variety of settings. In South Africa, it

  13. Obstructive lung disease as a complication in post pulmonary TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, A. P.; Pandia, P.; Eyanoer, P.; Tina, D.; Pratama, R.; Fresia, A.; Tamara; Silvanna

    2018-03-01

    The case of post TB is a problem that arises in the community. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can affect lung function. Therefore, we evaluated impaired pulmonary function in subjects with diagnosed prior pulmonary TB. A Case Series study, pulmonary function test was performed in subjects with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis; aged ≥18 years were included. Exclusion criteria was a subject who had asthma, obesity, abnormal thorax and smoking history. We measured FEV1 and FVC to evaluate pulmonary function. Airflow obstruction was FEV1/FVC%pulmonary TB, 5 subjects (23%) had airflow obstruction with FEV1/FVC% value pulmonary TB.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the tripod-kagome-lattice family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Z. L.; Trinh, J.; Lee, M.; Choi, E. S.; Li, K.; Hu, Y. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Blanc, N.; Ramirez, A. P.; Zhou, H. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the structural and magnetic properties of two branches of the rare-earth tripod-kagome-lattice (TKL) family A2R3Sb3O14 (A = Mg, Zn; R = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb; here, we use abbreviation A-R, as in MgPr for Mg2Pr3Sb3O14 ), which complements our previously reported work on MgDy, MgGd, and MgEr [Z. L. Dun et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 157201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.157201]. The present susceptibility (χdc, χac) and specific-heat measurements reveal various magnetic ground states, including the nonmagnetic singlet state for MgPr, ZnPr; long-range orderings (LROs) for MgGd, ZnGd, MgNd, ZnNd, and MgYb; a long-range magnetic charge ordered state for MgDy, ZnDy, and potentially for MgHo; possible spin-glass states for ZnEr, ZnHo; the absence of spin ordering down to 80 mK for MgEr, MgTb, ZnTb, and ZnYb compounds. The ground states observed here bear both similarities as well as striking differences from the states found in the parent pyrochlore systems. In particular, while the TKLs display a greater tendency towards LRO, the lack of LRO in MgHo, MgTb, and ZnTb can be viewed from the standpoint of a balance among spin-spin interactions, anisotropies, and non-Kramers nature of single-ion state. While substituting Zn for Mg changes the chemical pressure, and subtly modifies the interaction energies for compounds with larger R ions, this substitution introduces structural disorder and modifies the ground states for compounds with smaller R ions (Ho, Er, Yb).

  15. Trèlat's beads as oral manifestations in patients with HIV/TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Magdalena Giovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Koch's bacillus. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and TB has reached a significant importance as a public health problem and this association has been recognized as the most significant event that changed “the balance between man and Koch's bacillus” in the last century, and has a large contribution to the risk for disease spreading. Tuberculosis has two main standard categories of clinical manifestations: primary and secondary. Primary TB is responsible for the initial infection with lungs being the involved organ. Oral lesions are observed as a secondary TB clinical manifestation with most frequent sites being hard and soft palate, tongue, lips, gums, tonsils, and salivary glands. A case of classical TB lesions in the oral cavity is reported, and the importance of a correct diagnosis through careful history taking is emphasized. Treatment selection needs to be done assertively, with great determination and building a link between patient and treatment protocol, in order to promote patient's adherence.

  16. Missed Opportunities for TB Investigation in Primary Care Clinics in South Africa: Experience from the XTEND Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet N Chihota

    Full Text Available 40 primary health clinics (PHCs in four provinces in South Africa, June 2012 -February 2013.To determine whether health care worker (HCW practice in investigating people with TB symptoms was altered when the initial test for TB was changed from smear microscopy to Xpert MTB/RIF.Cross-sectional substudy at clinics participating in a pragmatic cluster randomised trial, Xpert for TB: Evaluating a New Diagnostic "XTEND", which evaluated the effect of Xpert MTB/RIF implementation in South Africa.Consecutive adults exiting PHCs reporting at least one TB symptom (defined as any of cough, weight loss, night sweats and fever were enrolled. The main outcome was the proportion who self-reported having sputum requested by HCW during the clinic encounter just completed.3604 adults exiting PHCs (1676 in Xpert arm, 1928 in microscopy arm were enrolled (median age 38 years, 71.4% female, 38.8% reported being HIV-positive, 70% reported cough. For 1267 participants (35.2% the main reason for attending the clinic was TB symptom(s. Overall 2130/3604 (59.1% said they reported their symptom(s to HCW. 22.7% (818/3604 reported having been asked to give sputum for TB investigation. Though participants in the Xpert vs. microscopy arm were more likely to have sputum requested by HCW, this was not significantly different: overall (26.0% [436/1676] vs 19.8% [382/1928]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.31, [95% CI 0.78-2.20] and when restricted to those presenting at clinics due to symptoms (49.1% [260/530] vs 29.9% [220/737]; aPR 1.38 [0.89-2.13] and those reporting being HIV-positive (29.4% [190/647] vs 20.8% [156/749]; aPR 1.38[0.88-2.16]. Those attending clinic due to TB symptoms, were more likely to have sputum requested if they had increasing number of symptoms; longer duration of cough, unintentional weight loss and night sweats and if they reported symptoms to HCW.A large proportion of people exiting PHCs reporting TB symptoms did not get tested. Implementation of

  17. HIV risk perception and testing behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM) reporting potential transmission risks in the previous 12 months from a large online sample of MSM living in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ulrich; Gassowski, Martyna; Drewes, Jochen

    2016-10-22

    HIV testing and serostatus awareness are essential to implement biomedical strategies (treatment as prevention; oral chemoprophylaxis), and for effective serostatus-based behaviours (HIV serosorting; strategic positioning). The analysis focuses on the associations between reported sexual risks, the perceived risk for HIV infection, and HIV testing behaviour in order to identify the most relevant barriers for HIV test uptake among MSM living in Germany. MSM were recruited to a nationwide anonymous online-survey in 2013 on MSM social networking/dating sites. Questions covered testing behaviours, reasons for testing decisions, and HIV risk perception (5-point scale). Additional questions addressed arguments in favour of home/ home collection testing (HT). Using descriptive statistics and logistic regression we compared men reporting recent HIV testing (RT; previous 12 month) with men never tested (NT) in a subsample not previously diagnosed with HIV and reporting ≥2 episodes of condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a non-steady partner of unknown HIV serostatus in the previous 12 months. The subsample consisted of 775 RT (13 % of RT) and 396 NT (7 % of NT). The number of CLAI episodes in the last 12 months with non-steady partners of unknown HIV status did not differ significantly between the groups, but RT reported significantly higher numbers of partners (>5 AI partners: 65 vs. 44 %). While perceived risks regarding last AI were comparable between the groups, 49vs. 30 % NT were risks (67 %) and routine testing (49 %) were the most common testing reasons for RT, while the strong belief not to be infected (59 %) and various worries (41 %) and fears of testing positive (35 %) were predominant reasons of NT. Greater anonymity (aOR 3.2; 2.4-4.4), less embarrassment, (aOR 2.8; 1.9-4.1), and avoiding discussions on sexual behaviour (aOR 1.6; 1.1-2.2) were emphasized in favour of HT by NT. Perceived partner knowledge and reasons reflecting perceived gay- and

  18. Successful adalimumab treatment of a psoriasis vulgaris patient with hemodialysis for renal failure: A case report and a review of the previous reports on biologic treatments for psoriasis patients with hemodialysis for renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Toshiya; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Shimada-Omori, Ryoko; Nasu-Tamabuchi, Mei; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of biologic treatments have been established in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but there are few reports on biologic therapy for patients with psoriasis complicated by end-stage renal failure on hemodialysis (HD). In this report, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of adalimumab for patients with severe psoriasis on HD. A 46-year-old Japanese man with a 14-year history of psoriasis was referred to our clinic in September 2009. He had developed hypertension and renal failure during a 7-year history of cyclosporin treatment. With the infliximab treatment, he achieved 75% improvement of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score within 3 months from the PASI of 42.3 before the treatment. However, his renal failure gradually deteriorated, and HD was initiated at 1 year after the introduction of infliximab. Because of hydration during the i.v. injection of infliximab, he developed pulmonary edema with every infliximab treatment after starting HD. We switched to ustekinumab treatment, but his psoriasis was not improved. Then, we switched to adalimumab and achieved a PASI-100 response within 2 months. The patient received adalimumab treatment for more than a year without any adverse effects. In addition to our case, five articles reported cases of psoriasis patients with renal failure on HD who were treated with biologics. The psoriatic lesions were improved by biologics in these cases, and no severe adverse effects on the renal function were reported. Thus, biologics are a reasonable treatment option for patients with severe psoriasis with renal failure on HD. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Risk factors for inadequate TB case finding in Rural Western Kenya: a comparison of actively and passively identified TB patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Van't Hoog

    Full Text Available The findings of a prevalence survey conducted in western Kenya, in a population with 14.9% HIV prevalence suggested inadequate case finding. We found a high burden of infectious and largely undiagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB, that a quarter of the prevalent cases had not yet sought care, and a low case detection rate.We aimed to identify factors associated with inadequate case finding among adults with PTB in this population by comparing characteristics of 194 PTB patients diagnosed in a health facility after self-report, i.e., through passive case detection, with 88 patients identified through active case detection during the prevalence survey. We examined associations between method of case detection and patient characteristics, including HIV-status, socio-demographic variables and disease severity in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses.HIV-infection was associated with faster passive case detection in univariable analysis (crude OR 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.0-5.9, but in multivariable logistic regression this was largely explained by the presence of cough, illness and clinically diagnosed smear-negative TB (adjusted OR (aOR HIV 1.8, 95% CI 0.85-3.7. Among the HIV-uninfected passive case detection was less successful in older patients aOR 0.76, 95%CI 0.60-0.97 per 10 years increase, and women (aOR 0.27, 95%CI 0.10-0.73. Reported current or past alcohol use reduced passive case detection in both groups (0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.79. Among smear-positive patients median durations of cough were 4.0 and 6.9 months in HIV-infected and uninfected patients, respectively.HIV-uninfected patients with infectious TB who were older, female, relatively less ill, or had a cough of a shorter duration were less likely found through passive case detection. In addition to intensified case finding in HIV-infected persons, increasing the suspicion of TB among HIV-uninfected women and the elderly are needed to improve TB case

  20. Technology and tuberculosis control: the OUT-TB Web experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Jennifer L; Alexander, David C; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Furness, Colin; Rea, Elizabeth; Stuart, Rebecca; Lechner, Julia; Varia, Monali; McLean, Jennifer; Jamieson, Frances B

    2017-04-01

    Develop a tool to disseminate integrated laboratory, clinical, and demographic case data necessary for improved contact tracing and outbreak detection of tuberculosis (TB). In 2007, the Public Health Ontario Laboratories implemented a universal genotyping program to monitor the spread of TB strains within Ontario. Ontario Universal Typing of TB (OUT-TB) Web utilizes geographic information system (GIS) technology with a relational database platform, allowing TB control staff to visualize genotyping matches and microbiological data within the context of relevant epidemiological and demographic data. OUT-TB Web is currently available to the 8 health units responsible for >85% of Ontario's TB cases and is a valuable tool for TB case investigation. Users identified key features to implement for application enhancements, including an e-mail alert function, customizable heat maps for visualizing TB and drug-resistant cases, socioeconomic map layers, a dashboard providing TB surveillance metrics, and a feature for animating the geographic spread of strains over time. OUT-TB Web has proven to be an award-winning application and a useful tool. Developed and enhanced using regular user feedback, future versions will include additional data sources, enhanced map and line-list filter capabilities, and development of a mobile app. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Genome sequencing and annotation of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB PR10 strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zakihalani A. Halim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report the draft genome sequence and annotation of a multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain PR10 (MDR-TB PR10 isolated from a patient diagnosed with tuberculosis. The size of the draft genome MDR-TB PR10 is 4.34 Mbp with 65.6% of G + C content and consists of 4637 predicted genes. The determinants were categorized by RAST into 400 subsystems with 4286 coding sequences and 50 RNAs. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number CP010968. Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Genome, MDR, Extrapulmonary

  2. Neutron diffraction studies on GdB{sub 6} and TbB{sub 6} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, S.E.; Amara, M.; Galera, R.M.; Givord, F.; Granovsky, S.; Isnard, O.; Beneu, B

    2004-07-15

    We report here the first powder neutron diffraction study of GdB{sub 6} and TbB{sub 6}. GdB{sub 6} and TbB{sub 6} order antiferromagnetically at 15 and 21 K, respectively. In both compounds the transition at T{sub N} is of the first order. Moreover GdB{sub 6} presents a second spontaneous magnetic transition at T{sup *}=8 K. The present study shows that, in both compounds, the magnetic propagation vectors belong to the <((1)/(4)) ((1)/(4)) ((1)/(2))> star and that the direction of the magnetic moment is perpendicular to the ((1)/(2)) component of the wave-vector in GdB{sub 6}, while in TbB{sub 6} the moment is parallel to it. The deduced low-temperature values of the magnetic moments agree with those of the respective rare-earth trivalent ions.

  3. Neutron diffraction studies on GdB6 and TbB6 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, S.E.; Amara, M.; Galera, R.M.; Givord, F.; Granovsky, S.; Isnard, O.; Beneu, B.

    2004-01-01

    We report here the first powder neutron diffraction study of GdB 6 and TbB 6 . GdB 6 and TbB 6 order antiferromagnetically at 15 and 21 K, respectively. In both compounds the transition at T N is of the first order. Moreover GdB 6 presents a second spontaneous magnetic transition at T * =8 K. The present study shows that, in both compounds, the magnetic propagation vectors belong to the star and that the direction of the magnetic moment is perpendicular to the ((1)/(2)) component of the wave-vector in GdB 6 , while in TbB 6 the moment is parallel to it. The deduced low-temperature values of the magnetic moments agree with those of the respective rare-earth trivalent ions

  4. Magnetic properties of multiferroic TbMnO{sub 3} doped with Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, F. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km. 107.5 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Escudero, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. Postal 70-360, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Heiras, J.

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties of polycrystalline Tb{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}MnO{sub 3} with x=0.05 and 0.1 is reported. Samples were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method producing single phase compounds. Rietveld refinements indicate that Al substitutes Tb in the structure. Samples were highly porous with grain sizes up to {proportional_to}10 {mu}m. The magnetic measurements show a magnetic ordering, starting from antiferromagnetism, for the undoped sample, to a weak ferromagnetic phase coexisting with the antiferromagnetic phase for the two x values. The magnetic ordering is attributed to two different contributions of Mn and Tb sublattices. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Structural properties of the geometrically frustrated pyrochlore Tb2Ti2O7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang-Wook; Gardner, Jason S.; Booth, Corwin H.

    2004-06-14

    Although materials that exhibit nearest-neighbor-only antiferromagnetic interactions and geometrical frustration theoretically should not magnetically order in the absence of disorder, few such systems have been observed experimentally. One such system appears to be the pyrochlore Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. However, previous structural studies indicated that Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} is an imperfect pyrochlore. To clarify the situation, we performed neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on samples that were prepared identically to those that show no magnetic order. The NPD measurements show that the long-range structure of Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} is well ordered with no structural transitions between 4.5 and 600 K. In particular, mean-squared displacements (u{sup 2}'s) for each site follow a Debye model with no offsets. No evidence for Tb/Ti site interchange was observed within an upper limit of 2%. Likewise, no excess or deficiency in the oxygen stoichiometry was observed, within an upper limit of 2% of the nominal pyrochlore value. Tb L{sub III} and Ti K-edge XAFS measurements from 20-300 K similarly indicate a well-ordered local structure. Other aspects of the structure are considered. We conclude that Tb{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} has, within experimental error, an ideal, disorder-free pyrochlore lattice, thereby allowing the system to remain in a dynamic, frustrated spin state to the lowest observed temperatures.

  6. TB Anywhere Is TB Everywhere: The Intersection of U.S. Immigration Enforcement Policy and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    30 2. Tuberculosis in Mexico ................................................................32 3. Tuberculosis in El Salvador...Controlling Tuberculosis along the US- Mexico Border,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no. RR1 (2001): 1–2, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ preview/mmwrhtml...Achkar et al., “Differences in Clinical Presentation among Persons with Pulmonary Tuberculosis : A Comparison of Documented and Undocumented Foreign

  7. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange interactions, effective single-ion anisotropy and magnetoelastic contributions. The parameters of this Hamiltonian were determined by fitting the theoretical results for the spin wave dispersion and energy gap as a function of temperature and magnetic field to existing...... data on Tb. The conduction-electron polarization at zero field and temperature is (0.33+or-0.05) mu B/ion, and the susceptibility is greater than the Pauli susceptibility calculated from the band-structure....

  8. Radiorespirometry in TB diagnosis and drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray Mukti, K.; Kulkarni, Savita; Rajan, M.G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major health problem worldwide and especially in India with 1.9 million new cases and 0.35 million deaths per year. Early and rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is mandatory for controlling the transmission of the disease. Conventional test like sputum AFB is not sensitive and gold standard culture test is time consuming. Our laboratory has standardized a Radiorespirometry technique for primary diagnosis which offers advantage of both less turnaround time and sensitivity. Radiorespirometry is a true radiotracer technique that detects the presence of live microorganism in a biological sample. In this method, bacteria (or clinical sample) is inoculated into a medium supplemented with radiolabelled ( 14 C) carbon compounds. Only metabolically active organism present in the sample will metabolize the carbon source and produce radiolabelled carbon dioxide ( 14 CO 2 ) . This 14 CO 2 can be efficiently trapped in an alkaline-scintillant matrix and counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The whole thing is suitably assembled in a regular scintillation vial. We used radiorespirometry in a retrospective study using culture positive sputum samples (which was detected positive by culture in 3-8 weeks time) and it detected presence of TB bacilli in 1 to 3 weeks. Further, series of Phenyl acrylamide derivatives synthesized against RecA of mycobacteria were evaluated for anti-TB properties using radiorespirometry. More than 90% of the compounds exhibited anti-TB properties with MIC 3.25 to 25 μg/ml. Structure activity relationship of these compound was studied to understand the anti-TB pharmacophores. Interesting results obtained using radiorespirometry will be discussed. (author)

  9. Household HIV Testing Uptake among Contacts of TB Patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavindhran Velen

    Full Text Available In high HIV prevalence settings, offering HIV testing may be a reasonable part of contact tracing of index tuberculosis (TB patients. We evaluated the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT among household contacts of index TB patients and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons linked into care as part of a household TB contact tracing study.We recruited index TB patients at public health clinics in two South African provinces to obtain consent for household contact tracing. During scheduled household visits we offered TB symptom screening to all household members and HCT to individuals ≥14years of age. Factors associated with HCT uptake were investigated using a random effects logistic regression model.Out of 1,887 listed household members ≥14 years old, 984 (52% were available during a household visit and offered HCT of which 108 (11% self-reported being HIV infected and did not undergo HCT. Of the remaining 876, a total of 304 agreed to HCT (35%; 26 (8.6% were newly diagnosed as HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with uptake of HCT were prior testing (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3 and another member in the household testing (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4. Within 3 months of testing HIV-positive, 35% reported initiating HIV care.HCT as a component of household TB contact tracing reached individuals without prior HIV testing, however uptake of HIV testing was poor. Strategies to improve HIV testing in household contacts should be evaluated.

  10. South African plants as a source of drugs to treat infectious diseases - TB, malaria and HIV.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) established a database of 566 plant taxa that are reportedly used for the treatment of TB and 623 taxa associated with malaria and/or fever. A process of prioritization using selection criteria led...

  11. Accelerated approach of discovering plant derived drug leads for treatment of TB

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available dedicated and comprehensive plant electronic database of a total of 566 plants that are reportedly used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The extracts of these plants are part of the CSIR database of extracts. TB drug lead research is ongoing, and active...

  12. Magnetostriction of Tb-Dy-Fe crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Wu; Okane, T.; Umeda, T.

    1998-01-01

    left angle 111 right angle -oriented twin free Tb-Dy-Fe single crystals, left angle 112 right angle - and left angle 110 right angle -oriented twinned ''single'' Tb-Dy-Fe crystals were prepared using floating zone melting crystal growth methods. Magnetostrictive performances of the crystals were investigated. Better low-field properties were observed in the left angle 110 right angle twinned crystals than in the left angle 112 right angle crystals. The highest properties were achieved in the left angle 111 right angle twin free single crystals. Even though there were still oxidized particles in the present left angle 111 right angle single crystals, a large magnetostrictive jump of 1700 ppm and a very low saturation magnetic field of 500 Oe were obtained. To understand magnetization and magnetostriction of different Tb-Dy-Fe crystals, theoretical modeling was carried out based on a simplified domain rotation model. Magnetization moment rotation paths of different domains were simulated and hence the resultant magnetostriction was obtained, which could adequately account for the experimental results of different crystals. The limitation of the domain rotation model was also discussed. (orig.)

  13. The Relationship Between Education, Job, and Family Income with TB Medication Dropouts in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  TB treatment dropout is one causes of treatment failure, which could increase drug resistant cases. Drug resistant cases of TB were reported by the Ministry of Health of East Timor in 2008 (3 cases, 2009 (3 cases, and in 2010 (6 cases. With drug resistant emerging, TB will require longer treatment time. According to the WHO report (2013 the results of pulmonary tuberculosis BTA (+ treatment were reported: Year 2010 the number of failure of treatment was (0.53%; Died of TB (3.53%; Drop out of treatment (4.05%; Outmigration (3.98%; In 2011 cases of treatment failure (0.50% Died of TB (3.36%; Drop out of treatment (3.36%; Outmigration (1.92%; In 2012 cases of treatment failure (1.03%; Died of TB (3.49% Drop out of treatment (4.59% and migration, (2.26%. According to the National Statistics Directorate (NSD in 2011, that the East Timorese people still live mostly 70.4% in the rural areas. While access to health services remains a challenge, since the people of Timor Leste proclaimed the restoration of its independence. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables of education, family income, and job with cases of TB medication discontinuation. Methods: This study was conducted using descriptive correlation method. The sample was determined by Ridwan & Akdon (2010 formula. The total of samples was 100 people who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and selected randomly. This research was conducted in District Manatuto and Liquica Timor-Leste on March 28, 2015. Results: The correlation test showed a strong positive relationship level if r = 0.51 until +1. Analysis of significance value of r xy = 0.671 and p = 0.000 indicates that there is a significant relationship between the variables of education, job and income with variable discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Based on the results of research and data analysis, it can be concluded that the results of this study are as

  14. Simulation of the magnetocaloric effect in Tb nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, Dory Hélio A. L., E-mail: doryh@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental (DFTE), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal-RN (Brazil); Mello, Vamberto D. [Departamento de Física,Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte (UERN), Mossoró-RN (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Manoel S. [Escola de Ciência e Tecnologia (ECT), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2014-03-31

    Rare-earth (RE) metals have different magnetic structures resulting from the competition between the crystal-field and exchange interactions. When a magnetic field is applied it creates a third interaction and the magnetic structures are more complicated. In thin films, it is expected that even the magnetic arrangement itself can be strongly modified. Rare-earth helimagnets such as Terbium (Tb), Holmium (Ho) and Dysprosium (Dy) represent the best candidates to evidence such finite-size effects. This finite-size effect is caused by the reduced number of atoms in the direction perpendicular to the film plane that leads to a decrease of the total magnetic exchange energy. We report this contribution to the investigation of magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of thin Terbium films in the helimagnetic temperature range, from T{sub C} = 219 K to T{sub N} = 231 K, for external fields of the order of 1 kOe. We find that for strong fields, H = 50 kOe, the adiabatic temperature change ΔT near the Néel temperature is around 15 K for any thickness of Tb films. However large thickness effects are found for small values of the magnetic field. For field strength of the order of a few kOe, the thermocaloric efficiency increases significantly for ultrathin (nanomagnetic) films.

  15. Research training needs in Peruvian national TB/HIV programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Elsa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports of research training needs assessments and research training programs. In an effort to expand this nascent field of study and to bridge the gap between research and practice, we sought to systematically assess the research training needs of health care professionals working at Peruvian governmental institutions leading HIV and tuberculosis (TB control and among senior stakeholders in the field. Methods Six institutional workshops were conducted with the participation of 161 mid-level health professionals from agencies involved in national HIV and TB control. At each workshop informants completed a structured questionnaire and participated in small and large group discussions. Additional data and institutional commitment was obtained through in-depth interviews from 32 senior managers and researchers from the Ministry of Health, academia and NGOs. Results Participants exhibited an overwhelming receptivity for additional research training, observing a gap between current levels of research training and their perceived importance. Specialized skills in obtaining funding, developing research protocols, particularly in operational, behavioral and prevention research were considered in greatest need. Beyond research training, participants identified broader social, economic and political factors as influential in infectious disease control. Conclusions The needs assessment suggests that future training should focus on operational research techniques, rather than on clinical skill building or program implementation only. Strengthening health systems not only requires additional research training, but also adequate financial resources to implement research findings.

  16. Research training needs in Peruvian national TB/HIV programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patricia J; Cotrina, Armando; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Elsa; Buffardi, Anne L

    2010-09-28

    There are few published reports of research training needs assessments and research training programs. In an effort to expand this nascent field of study and to bridge the gap between research and practice, we sought to systematically assess the research training needs of health care professionals working at Peruvian governmental institutions leading HIV and tuberculosis (TB) control and among senior stakeholders in the field. Six institutional workshops were conducted with the participation of 161 mid-level health professionals from agencies involved in national HIV and TB control. At each workshop informants completed a structured questionnaire and participated in small and large group discussions. Additional data and institutional commitment was obtained through in-depth interviews from 32 senior managers and researchers from the Ministry of Health, academia and NGOs. Participants exhibited an overwhelming receptivity for additional research training, observing a gap between current levels of research training and their perceived importance. Specialized skills in obtaining funding, developing research protocols, particularly in operational, behavioral and prevention research were considered in greatest need. Beyond research training, participants identified broader social, economic and political factors as influential in infectious disease control. The needs assessment suggests that future training should focus on operational research techniques, rather than on clinical skill building or program implementation only. Strengthening health systems not only requires additional research training, but also adequate financial resources to implement research findings.

  17. Research training needs in Peruvian national TB/HIV programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few published reports of research training needs assessments and research training programs. In an effort to expand this nascent field of study and to bridge the gap between research and practice, we sought to systematically assess the research training needs of health care professionals working at Peruvian governmental institutions leading HIV and tuberculosis (TB) control and among senior stakeholders in the field. Methods Six institutional workshops were conducted with the participation of 161 mid-level health professionals from agencies involved in national HIV and TB control. At each workshop informants completed a structured questionnaire and participated in small and large group discussions. Additional data and institutional commitment was obtained through in-depth interviews from 32 senior managers and researchers from the Ministry of Health, academia and NGOs. Results Participants exhibited an overwhelming receptivity for additional research training, observing a gap between current levels of research training and their perceived importance. Specialized skills in obtaining funding, developing research protocols, particularly in operational, behavioral and prevention research were considered in greatest need. Beyond research training, participants identified broader social, economic and political factors as influential in infectious disease control. Conclusions The needs assessment suggests that future training should focus on operational research techniques, rather than on clinical skill building or program implementation only. Strengthening health systems not only requires additional research training, but also adequate financial resources to implement research findings. PMID:20875140

  18. Colworth prize lecture 2016: exploiting new biological targets from a whole-cell phenotypic screening campaign for TB drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Patrick Joseph; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2017-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the aetiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) and is the leading bacterial cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. One third of the world's population is infected with TB, and in conjunction with HIV represents a serious problem that urgently needs addressing. TB is a disease of poverty and mostly affects young adults in their productive years, primarily in the developing world. The most recent report from the World Health Organisation states that 8 million new cases of TB were reported and that ~1.5 million people died from TB. The efficacy of treatment is threatened by the emergence of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. It can be argued that, globally, M. tuberculosis is the single most important infectious agent affecting mankind. Our research aims to establish an academic-industrial partnership with the goal of discovering new drug targets and hit-to-lead new chemical entities for TB drug discovery.

  19. HIV risk perception and testing behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM reporting potential transmission risks in the previous 12 months from a large online sample of MSM living in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Marcus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing and serostatus awareness are essential to implement biomedical strategies (treatment as prevention; oral chemoprophylaxis, and for effective serostatus-based behaviours (HIV serosorting; strategic positioning. The analysis focuses on the associations between reported sexual risks, the perceived risk for HIV infection, and HIV testing behaviour in order to identify the most relevant barriers for HIV test uptake among MSM living in Germany. Methods MSM were recruited to a nationwide anonymous online-survey in 2013 on MSM social networking/dating sites. Questions covered testing behaviours, reasons for testing decisions, and HIV risk perception (5-point scale. Additional questions addressed arguments in favour of home/ home collection testing (HT. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regression we compared men reporting recent HIV testing (RT; previous 12 month with men never tested (NT in a subsample not previously diagnosed with HIV and reporting ≥2 episodes of condomless anal intercourse (CLAI with a non-steady partner of unknown HIV serostatus in the previous 12 months. Results The subsample consisted of 775 RT (13 % of RT and 396 NT (7 % of NT. The number of CLAI episodes in the last 12 months with non-steady partners of unknown HIV status did not differ significantly between the groups, but RT reported significantly higher numbers of partners (>5 AI partners: 65 vs. 44 %. While perceived risks regarding last AI were comparable between the groups, 49vs. 30 % NT were <30 years, lived more often in towns/villages <100,000 residents (60 vs. 39 %, were less out-particularly towards care providers-about being attracted to men (aOR 10.1; 6.9–14.8, more often identified as bisexual (aOR 3.5; 2.5–4.8, and reported lower testing intentions (aOR 0.08; 0.06–0.11. Perceived risks (67 % and routine testing (49 % were the most common testing reasons for RT, while the strong belief not to be infected

  20. TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboru, Berthollet Bwira; Ogwang, Brenda A; Namegabe, Edmond Ntabe; Mbasa, Ndemo; Kabunga, Deka Kambale; Karafuli, Kambale

    2013-09-01

    HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB) are major contributors to the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The two diseases have been described as a harmful synergy as they are biologically and epidemiologically linked. Control of TB/HIV co-infection is an integral and most challenging part of both national TB and national HIV control programmes, especially in contexts of instability where health systems are suffering from political and social strife. This study aimed at assessing the provision of HIV/TB co-infection services in health facilities in the conflict-ridden region of Goma in Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional survey of health facilities that provide either HIV or TB services or both was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data which was analysed using descriptive statistics. Eighty facilities were identified, of which 64 facilities were publicly owned. TB care was more available than HIV care (in 61% vs. 9% of facilities). Twenty-three facilities (29%) offered services to co-infected patients. TB/HIV co-infection rates among patients were unknown in 82% of the facilities. Only 19 facilities (24%) reported some coordination with and support from concerned diseases' control programmes. HIV and TB services are largely fragmented, indicating imbalances and poor coordination by disease control programmes. HIV and TB control appear not to be the focus of health interventions in this crisis affected region, despite the high risks of TB and HIV infection in the setting. Comprehensive public health response to this setting calls for reforms that promote joint TB/HIV co-infection control, including improved leadership by the HIV programmes that accuse weaknesses in this conflict-ridden region.

  1. TB/HIV Co-Infection Care in Conflict-Affected Settings: A Mapping of Health Facilities in the Goma Area, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berthollet Bwira Kaboru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis (TB are major contributors to the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa. The two diseases have been described as a harmful synergy as they are biologically and epidemiologically linked. Control of TB/HIV co-infection is an integral and most challenging part of both national TB and national HIV control programmes, especially in contexts of instability where health systems are suffering from political and social strife. This study aimed at assessing the provision of HIV/TB co-infection services in health facilities in the conflict-ridden region of Goma in Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods A cross-sectional survey of health facilities that provide either HIV or TB services or both was carried out. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data which was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Eighty facilities were identified, of which 64 facilities were publicly owned. TB care was more available than HIV care (in 61% vs. 9% of facilities. Twenty-three facilities (29% offered services to co-infected patients. TB/HIV co-infection rates among patients were unknown in 82% of the facilities. Only 19 facilities (24% reported some coordination with and support from concerned diseases’ control programmes. HIV and TB services are largely fragmented, indicating imbalances and poor coordination by disease control programmes. Conclusion HIV and TB control appear not to be the focus of health interventions in this crisis affected region, despite the high risks of TB and HIV infection in the setting. Comprehensive public health response to this setting calls for reforms that promote joint TB/HIV co-infection control, including improved leadership by the HIV programmes that accuse weaknesses in this conflict-ridden region.

  2. Optimization of TB/HIV co-treatment in Ethiopian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Degu, Wondwossen Amogne

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection act with deadly synergy. HIV is the most important risk factor for latent TB reactivation and active TB progression following exposure or reinfection while TB accelerates HIV progression. TB is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. Anti-TB therapy (ATT) must precede initiation of combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART), TB being the most immediate threat. Undoubtedly cART benefits; however, important clinical ...

  3. Psychiatric disorders in patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB in Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Supriyanto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis has become a chronic debilitating disease in developing countries, particularly after the emergence of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Second line treatments for the disease which were subsequently developed were associated with psychiatric disorders among patients. Psychiatric disorder can either be induced by treatment regiments or psychosocial factors. Cycloserine administration is frequently reported to be associated with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of psychiatric disorders among MDR-TB patients in Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Methods: In this descriptive study, we studied medical records of MDR-TB patients admitted for MDR-TB treatments to Sardjito Hospital from January 2014 to July 2016 and screened for psychiatric disorders. Results: We found that 32.8% of the patients had psychiatric disorders, some of which had multiple psychiatric diagnoses (14.1%. The diagnoses were medication induced delirium, substance/medication induced psychotic disorder, substance/medication use depressive disorder, depressive type schizoaffective disorder, bipolar I disorder current episode severe manic with psychotic features, mild depression, moderate depression, major depression without psychotic features, major depression with psychotic features, adjustment disorders with mixed anxiety and depressed mood, adjustment disorder with anxiety, acute stress disorder, and insomnia. Psychiatric disorders were significantly associated with cycloserine dose and sex. Psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with sex and level of education. Conclusion: The presence of psychiatric disorders might disturb MDR-TB treatment resulting in poor outcomes. Precaution and prompt managements are required for psychiatric disorders in patients receiving MDR-TB treatment regiments.

  4. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR- TB) Compared with Non-MDR-TB Infections in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Omar Salad; Hasan, Habsah; Abdullah, Sarimah; Mat Jeab, Mat Zuki; Ba, Zilfalil; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2016-07-01

    Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014. A total of 314 subjects were studied, including 105 MDR-TB cases and 209 non-MDR-TB. After TB treatment, 24.8% of the MDR-TB patients and 17.7% of non MDR TB relapsed; 17.1% of the MDR-TB patients and 16.3% of non MDR TB defaulted from TB treatment. A significant difference seen in treatment success rate 17.1% for MDR-TB; 63.1% for non MDR TB (P history of TB treatment, and presence of HIV infection.

  5. Initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients at a referral hospital in Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Darshan; Kaushik, Rajeev M; Kaushik, Reshma; Rawat, Jagdish; Kakkar, Rajesh

    2013-09-01

    Initial default is a serious issue which can enhance the transmission of TB. We determined the magnitude of and the causative factors for initial default among sputum-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. In this prospective study, 2310 patients attending a referral hospital in Uttarakhand state, north India, with presumptive TB were investigated and 555 patients with sputum-positive PTB were followed-up for initiation of anti-TB treatment (ATT) during 2010-2012. The patients not confirmed as having started ATT were considered initial defaulters. Initial default was seen in 120 (21.6%) patients comprising 22 (18.3%) defaulters during diagnosis and 98 (81.6%) defaulters after referral for directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS). The initial default rate was significantly higher among patients from rural areas than urban areas, illiterate patients than literate patients and smokeless tobacco-users than non-users (pdefault among patients referred for DOTS were limited trust in DOTS (n = 44, 44.8%), adverse effects of previous ATT (n = 41, 41.8%), dissatisfaction with health services (n = 38, 38.7%), local deaths while taking DOTS (n = 28, 28.5%), advice by others against DOTS (n = 25, 25.5%), disbelief in the diagnosis (n = 18, 18.3%) and patient death before starting treatment (n = 4, 4.0%). A high initial default rate was seen among patients with PTB. There is an urgent need to promote public awareness to lower the initial default rate.

  6. Tuberculosis report among injection drug users and their partners in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, S; El-Bassel, N; Aifah, A; Terlikbayeva, A; Zhumadilov, Z; Berikkhanova, K; Darisheva, M; Gilbert, L; Schluger, N; Galea, S

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to global public health. Kazakhstan has the second highest percentage of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases among incident tuberculosis cases in the world (WHO 2013). A high burden of MDR-TB suggests TB prevention, control, and treatment programs are failing. This study provides an epidemiologic profile of TB among injection drug users (IDUs), a high-risk and chronically underserved population, in Kazakhstan. Cross-sectional study. The authors studied the characteristics and risk environment of IDUs with self-reported previous active TB and their primary sexual partners in Almaty, Kazakhstan. 728 individuals (364 couples) participated in a couple-based study in 2009. 16.75% of participants reported at least one positive TB test (x-ray) in their lifetime. In a multivariable logistic regression adjusting for couple-based sampling, persons with positive TB test were significantly more likely to be older (odds ratio (OR) 7.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73, 30.43), male (OR 5.53, 95% CI: 2.74, 11.16), have a shorter duration of injection drug use (OR 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.65), have received high social support from their significant other (OR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.40) and more likely (non-significantly) to have been incarcerated (OR 7.03, 95% CI: 0.64, 77.30). Older men with a history of incarceration and recent injection drug use were more likely to have positive TB test in Kazakhstan. Social network support, while potentially positive for many aspects of population health, may increase risk of TB among IDUs in this context. Public health policies that target high-risk populations and their at-risk networks may be necessary to stem the rise of MDR-TB in Central Asia. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Luminescence properties of LiSr2Y1-xLnxO4 (Ln=Eu,Tb,Tm) (0≤x≤1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, S.; Suzuyama, Y.; Yamane, H.; Shimada, M.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations of the luminescence properties of LiSr 2 Y 1-x Eu x O 4 , LiSr 2 Y 1-x Tb x O 4 and LiSr 2 Y 1-x Tm x O 4 (0≤x≤1) at room temperature are reported. These samples were synthesized by a solid state reaction. The excitation spectra of Tb 3+ emission in LiSr 2 Y 1-x Tb x O 4 (0≤x≤1) consist of broad bands corresponding to a transition between the 4f 8 and 4f 7 5d 1 states of Tb 3+ . The maximum intensity is situated at about 318 nm. This is at a much longer wavelength than those of other Tb 3+ doped phosphors. This is explained by a large offset of the adiabatic potential curve of the 4f 7 5d 1 state. (orig.)

  8. Structure of molten TbCl sub 3 measured by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, R A; Barnes, A C; Cuello, G J

    2002-01-01

    The total structure factor of molten TbCl sub 3 at 617 deg. C was measured by using neutron diffraction. The data are in agreement with results from previous experimental work but the use of a diffractometer having an extended reciprocal-space measurement window leads to improved resolution in real space. Significant discrepancies with the results obtained from recent molecular dynamics simulations carried out using a polarizable ion model, in which the interaction potentials were optimized to enhance agreement with previous diffraction data, are thereby highlighted. It is hence shown that there is considerable scope for the development of this model for TbCl sub 3 and for other trivalent metal halide systems spanning a wide range of ion size ratios. (letter to the editor)

  9. Theoretical investigations on magnetocaloric effect in Er{sub 1−y}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2} series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.O., E-mail: paula.ribeiro@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Alho, B.P.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P.; Sousa, V.S.R. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CNPEM, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de; Ranke, P.J. von [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2015-04-01

    We report on the magnetic and magnetocaloric effect calculations in rare earth Er{sub 1−y}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2} compounds (y=0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.00). Our model Hamiltonian has contributions of the crystalline electrical field anisotropy in both Er and Tb magnetic sublattices, disorder in exchange interactions among Er–Er, Tb–Tb and Er–Tb magnetic ions and the Zeeman effect. The magnetization, the isothermal entropy change (ΔS{sub T}) and the adiabatic temperature change (ΔT{sub ad}) dependence on temperature were simulated and, compared with the experimental data available. - Highlights: • Modeling Er{sub (1−y)}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2} intermetallic compounds. • Magnetic entropy changes in Er{sub (1−y)}Tb{sub y}Al{sub 2}. • Adiabatic temperature changes in Er{sub 0.75}Tb{sub 0.25}Al{sub 2} and Er{sub 0.65}Tb{sub 0.35}Al{sub 2} compounds.

  10. Complex magnetic properties and large magnetocaloric effects in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Complicated magnetic phase transitions and Large magnetocaloric effects (MCEs in RCoGe (R=Tb, Dy compounds have been reported in this paper. Results show that the TbCoGe compounds have a magnetic phase transition from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic (AFM-PM at TN∼16 K, which is close to the value reported by neutron diffraction. The DyCoGe compound undergoes complicated phase changes from 2 K up to 300 K. The peak at 10 K displays a phase transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (AFM-FM. In particular, a significant ferromagnetic to paramagnetic (FM-PM phase transition was found at the temperature as high as 175 K and the cusp becomes more abrupt with the magnetic field increasing from 0.01 T to 0.1 T. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change of TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds achieve 14.5 J/kg K and 11.5 J/kg K respectively for a field change of 0-5 T. Additionally, the correspondingly considerable refrigerant capacity value of 260 J/kg and 242 J/kg are also obtained respectively, suggesting that both TbCoGe and DyCoGe compounds could be considered as good candidates for low temperature magnetic refrigerant.

  11. ANALISIS HUBUNGAN PENGGUNAAN OBAT FDC/KOMBIPAK PADA PENDERITA YANG DI DIAGNOSIS TB PARU BERDASARKAN KARAKTERISTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharmiati Suharmiati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis was an infectious disease and remains a public health problem in the world, including Indonesia. Based on the WHO report in 2009, Indonesia was included into the group of high-burden countries, ranks third after India and China. Indonesia in 1993/1994 began using alloys Anti Tuberculosis (TB called Kombipak. Although this alloy has a high effectiveness in the treatment of pulmonary TB smear positive but low recovery rates for allegedly due to low adherence to medical treatment regularly and the number of drugs taken too much. Therefore created a new drug which has basically the same alloy with Kombipak/the FOG (Fixed Dose Combination which can reduce the risk of compliance in treatment and Multi Drug Resistance. Due to the TB treatment. Methods: this study analyzed the use of drugs Kombipak/FDC in patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the characteristics. This research is a secondary data analysis of Health Survey Research Association (Riskesdas in 2010 in the form of a structured questionnaire is a questionnaire for households and a questionnaire to individuals aged 15 years and over. Data analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis using chi square and biner logistic regression. Results: This study found 1278 TB patients who TB diagnosis in the past 12 months from total sample of 177.926 people. The results showed pulmonary tuberculosis patients who get Kombipak/FDC was 83, 1% and most of the respondents treated in the health centers. TB patient who got treatment completed for 6 months or more was 55,8% and mostly treated in government hospitals or health centers. The results showed that low education TB patients had a tendency to use kombipak/FDC for > 6 months 0.659 times compared to those having higher education (p < 0.05. In conclusion, there was a significant correlation between the use Kombipak/FDC for > 6 months with the education level of respondents. It is suggested the active roleof health

  12. Prominent blue emission through Tb3+ doped La2O3 nano-phosphors for white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Singh, Rajan Kr; Srivastava, Amit; Mishra, S. K.; Singh, Jai

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we report the tunable luminescence emission of Tb3+ doped La2O3 nanophosphors synthesized by a facile and effective Polyol method. The structural and surface morphological studies have been carried out by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The XRD studies elucidate the proper phase formation and the results emanate from Raman spectroscopy of the as synthesized nanophosphor affirms it. The optical properties of the as fabricated nanoparticles have been investigated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL spectroscopy shows the occurrence of excitation peaks at 305, 350 and 375 nm for 543 nm emissions, correspond to transition 5D4 →7F5. Emission spectra with 305 nm excitation exhibits characteristic emission peaks of Tb3+ion at 472, 487, 543 and 580 nm. The intensity of emission increases with Tb3+ concentration and is most prominent for 7 at% Tb3+ ion. The characteristic emissions of Tb3+ ion owes to the transition in which intensities of blue and green emission are prominent. The dominant intensity has been found for 472 nm (for blue emission). Commission international d 'Eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates have found in the light blue to green region. The research work provides a new interesting insight dealing with tunable properties with Tb3+ doping in La2O3 nanophosphors, to be useful for display devices, solar cells, LEDs and optoelectronic devices.

  13. "When Treatment Is More Challenging than the Disease": A Qualitative Study of MDR-TB Patient Retention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpita S Shringarpure

    Full Text Available One-fifth of the patients on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment at the Drug-Resistant-TB (DR-TB Site in Gujarat are lost-to-follow-up(LFU.To understand patients' and providers' perspectives on reasons for LFU and their suggestions to improve retention-in-care.Qualitative study conducted between December 2013-March 2014, including in-depth interviews with LFU patients and DOT-providers, and a focus group discussion with DR-TB site supervisors. A thematic-network analysis approach was utilised.Three sub-themes emerged: (i Struggle with prolonged treatment; (ii Strive against stigma and toward support; (iii Divergent perceptions and practices. Daily injections, pill burden, DOT, migratory work, social problems, prior TB treatment, and adverse drugs effects were reported as major barriers to treatment adherence and retention-in-care by patients and providers. Some providers felt that despite their best efforts, LFU patients remain. Patient movements between private practitioners and traditional healers further influenced LFU.The study points to a need for repeated patient counselling and education, improved co-ordination between various tiers of providers engaged in DR-TB care, collaboration between the public, private and traditional practitioners, and promotion of social and economic support to help patients adhere to MDR-TB treatment and avoid LFU.

  14. Ce decay curves in Ce, Tb co-doped LaF3 and the energy transfer mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, R.E.; Swart, H.C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Seed Ahmed, H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Energy transfer phenomena can play an important role in the development of luminescent materials, and hosts co-doped with Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ ions continue to be actively studied. Several recent reports on Ce, Tb co-doped phosphors suggest different mechanisms for the energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ ions and further study is required to reach consensus on the mechanism or to understand why different mechanisms dominate in different hosts. A more direct method of analysis is proposed to distinguish between the different types of multipole energy transfer mechanisms. When applied to Ce, Tb co-doped LaF 3 , the experimental data shows a poor match to any of these models but is consistent with energy transfer through the exchange mechanism. The decay curves of Ce emission in Ce, Tb co-doped LaF 3 were also studied to obtain further insight on the energy transfer mechanism. Although the decrease in lifetime with increasing Tb concentration shows that energy transfer occurs through a non-radiative mechanism, the form of the decay curves does not correspond to what is expected for energy transfer via multipole interactions.

  15. Chest Radiographs for Pediatric TB Diagnosis: Interrater Agreement and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaguthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chest radiograph (CXR is considered a key diagnostic tool for pediatric tuberculosis (TB in clinical management and endpoint determination in TB vaccine trials. We set out to compare interrater agreement for TB diagnosis in western Kenya. A pediatric pulmonologist and radiologist (experts, a medical officer (M.O, and four clinical officers (C.Os with basic training in pediatric CXR reading blindly assessed CXRs of infants who were TB suspects in a cohort study. C.Os had access to clinical findings for patient management. Weighted kappa scores summarized interrater agreement on lymphadenopathy and abnormalities consistent with TB. Sensitivity and specificity of raters were determined using microbiologically confirmed TB as the gold standard (n=8. A total of 691 radiographs were reviewed. Agreement on abnormalities consistent with TB was poor; k=0.14 (95% CI: 0.10–0.18 and on lymphadenopathy moderate k=0.26 (95% CI: 0.18–0.36. M.O [75% (95% CI: 34.9%–96.8%] and C.Os [63% (95% CI: 24.5%–91.5%] had high sensitivity for culture confirmed TB. TB vaccine trials utilizing expert agreement on CXR as a nonmicrobiologically confirmed endpoint will have reduced specificity and will underestimate vaccine efficacy. C.Os detected many of the bacteriologically confirmed cases; however, this must be interpreted cautiously as they were unblinded to clinical features.

  16. Fixed Dose Combination for TB treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, a third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis. The disease is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths each year and over 8 million were developing active diseases. Moreover, according to WHO (2000, tuberculosis deaths are estimated to increase to 35 million between 2000-2020. The majority of tuberculosis patients worldwide are still treated with single drugs, or with 2-drug fixed-dose combinations (FDCs. To improve tuberculosis treatment, 2- and 3-drug FDCs were recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as part of the DOTS strategy. Since 1999 a 4-drug FDC was included on the WHO Model List of Essential Drugs. Today, FDCs are important tools to further improve the quality of care for people with TB, and accelerate DOTS expansion to reach the global TB control targets. Fixed dose combination TB drugs could simplifies both treatment and management of drug supply, and may prevent the emergence of drug resistance .Prevention of drug resistance is just one of the potential benefits of the use of FDCs. FDCs simplify administration of drugs by reducing the number of pills a patient takes each day and decreasing the risk of incorrect prescriptions. Most tuberculosis patients need only take 3–4 FDCs tablets per day during the intensive phase of treatment, instead of the 15–16 tablets per day that is common with single-drug formulations It is much simpler to explain to patients that they need to take four tablets of the same type and colour, rather than a mixture of tablets of different shapes, colours and sizes. Also, the chance of taking an incomplete combination of drugs is eliminated, since the four essential drugs are combined into one tablet. FDCs are also simpler for care-givers as they minimize the risk of confusion. Finally, drug procurement, in all its components (stock management, shipping, distribution, is simplified by FDCs. Adverse reactions to drugs are not more

  17. First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolabi, Dissou; Sanoussi, N'Dira; Codo, Sergio; Sogbo, Fréderic; Wachinou, Prudence; Massou, Faridath; Kehinde, Aderemi; Anagonou, Séverin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular studies on tuberculosis (TB) are rare in low-resource countries like Benin, where data on molecular study on previously treated TB cases is unavailable. From January to December 2014, all smear- and culture-positive previously treated pulmonary TB patients from all TB clinics were systematically recruited. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping were performed on all isolates. Of the 100 patients recruited, 71 (71.0%) were relapse cases and 24 (24.0%) were failure cases, while 5 (5.0%) were default cases. Resistance rate to any first-line drug was 40.0%, while 12.0% of strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR) and no strain was extensively drug-resistant (XDR). A total of 40 distinct spoligotypes were found to be corresponding to a genotypic diversity of 40.0%. ST61 was the most predominant spoligotype with prevalence of 33.0%. In all, 31 single spoligotypes and nine clusters were observed with 2 to 33 strains per cluster giving a clustering rate of 69.0%. Euro-American (Lineage 4) was the most prevalent lineage (74.0%) and Lineage 2 was associated with resistance to streptomycin. This first insight into genetic diversity of previously treated pulmonary TB patients in Benin showed a relatively high genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis .

  18. First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dissou Affolabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Molecular studies on tuberculosis (TB are rare in low-resource countries like Benin, where data on molecular study on previously treated TB cases is unavailable. Materials and Methods. From January to December 2014, all smear- and culture-positive previously treated pulmonary TB patients from all TB clinics were systematically recruited. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping were performed on all isolates. Results. Of the 100 patients recruited, 71 (71.0% were relapse cases and 24 (24.0% were failure cases, while 5 (5.0% were default cases. Resistance rate to any first-line drug was 40.0%, while 12.0% of strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR and no strain was extensively drug-resistant (XDR. A total of 40 distinct spoligotypes were found to be corresponding to a genotypic diversity of 40.0%. ST61 was the most predominant spoligotype with prevalence of 33.0%. In all, 31 single spoligotypes and nine clusters were observed with 2 to 33 strains per cluster giving a clustering rate of 69.0%. Euro-American (Lineage 4 was the most prevalent lineage (74.0% and Lineage 2 was associated with resistance to streptomycin. Conclusion. This first insight into genetic diversity of previously treated pulmonary TB patients in Benin showed a relatively high genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  19. One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaofen; Cao, Rui; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Li, Chaojun; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III) was investigated using some biophysical and biochemical methods. Firstly, it was found that a large amount of Tb(III) can be distributed on the cell wall, that some Tb(III) can enter into the horseradish cell, indicating that peroxidase was mainly distributed on cell wall, and thus that Tb(III) would interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the plant. In addition, peroxidase bioactivity was decreased in the presence of Tb(III). Secondly, a new peroxidase-containing Tb(III) complex (Tb-HRP) was obtained from horseradish after treatment with Tb(III); the molecular mass of Tb-HRP is near 44 kDa and the pI is about 8.80. Thirdly, the electrocatalytic activity of Tb-HRP is much lower than that of HRP obtained from horseradish without treatment with Tb(III). The decrease in the activity of Tb-HRP is due to the destruction (unfolding) of the conformation in Tb-HRP. The planarity of the heme active center in the Tb-HRP molecule was increased and the extent of exposure of Fe(III) in heme was decreased, leading to inhibition of the electron transfer. The microstructure change in Tb-HRP might be the result of the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish.

  20. TextTB: A Mixed Method Pilot Study Evaluating Acceptance, Feasibility, and Exploring Initial Efficacy of a Text Messaging Intervention to Support TB Treatment Adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Iribarren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess a text messaging intervention to promote tuberculosis (TB treatment adherence. Methods. A mixed-methods pilot study was conducted within a public pulmonary-specialized hospital in Argentina. Patients newly diagnosed with TB who were 18 or older, and had mobile phone access were recruited and randomized to usual care plus either medication calendar (n=19 or text messaging intervention (n=18 for the first two months of treatment. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability; secondary outcomes explored initial efficacy. Results. Feasibility was evidenced by high access to mobile phones, familiarity with texting, most phones limited to basic features, a low rate of participant refusal, and many describing suboptimal TB understanding. Acceptability was evidenced by participants indicating feeling cared for, supported, responsible for their treatment, and many self-reporting adherence without a reminder. Participants in the texting group self-reported adherence on average 77% of the days whereas only 53% in calendar group returned diaries. Exploring initial efficacy, microscopy testing was low and treatment outcomes were similar in both groups. Conclusion. The texting intervention was well accepted and feasible with greater reporting of adherence using text messaging than the diary. Further evaluation of the texting intervention is warranted.

  1. Validation of previously reported predictors for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, a post hoc analysis from a Phase III randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit; Kitpanit, Sarin; Prayongrat, Anussara; Kannarunimit, Danita; Netsawang, Buntipa; Chakkabat, Chakkapong

    2018-05-10

    This study aimed to validate previously reported dosimetric parameters, including thyroid volume, mean dose, and percentage thyroid volume, receiving at least 40, 45 and 50 Gy (V40, V45 and V50), absolute thyroid volume spared (VS) from 45, 50 and 60 Gy (VS45, VS50 and VS60), and clinical factors affecting the development of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RHT). A post hoc analysis was performed in 178 euthyroid nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients from a Phase III study comparing sequential versus simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy. RHT was determined by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with or without reduced free thyroxin, regardless of symptoms. The median follow-up time was 42.5 months. The 1-, 2- and 3-year freedom from RHT rates were 78.4%, 56.4% and 43.4%, respectively. The median latency period was 21 months. The thyroid gland received a median mean dose of 53.5 Gy. Female gender, smaller thyroid volume, higher pretreatment TSH level (≥1.55 μU/ml) and VS60 treatment planning.

  2. Unusual Critical Behavior of the Diluted Uniaxial Dipolar Ferromagnet LiTb0.3Y0.7F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiden, P.; Seiden, J.; Laursen, Ib

    1980-01-01

    The experimental critical behavior of the susceptibility of LiTb0.3Y0.7F4 is described by the power law χ=Γ[(T-Tc) / Tc]-γ with Tc=0.520±0.003 K and γ=1.80±0.04. This behavior is dramatically different from that previously observed in LiTbF4 and is evidence of a departure from marginal...

  3. Supporting clinical management of the difficult-to-treat TB cases: the ERS-WHO TB Consilium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia D’Ambrosio

    2015-03-01

    The primary objective of the ERS/WHO TB Consilium is to provide clinical consultation for drug-resistant TB and other difficult-to-treat TB cases, including co-infection with HIV and paediatric cases. Through technical guidance to clinicians managing complex TB cases, the main contribution and outcome of the initiative will be a public health response aimed at achieving correct treatment of affected patients and preventing further development of drug resistance. The Consilum's secondary objective is to ensure monitoring and evaluation of clinical practices on the ground (diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

  4. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  5. Patients direct costs to undergo TB diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cuevas, Rachel M Anderson; Lawson, Lovett; Al-Sonboli, Najla; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Arbide, Isabel; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Nnamdi, Emenyonu E; Aseffa, Abraham; Yassin, Mohammed A; Abdurrahman, Saddiq T; Obasanya, Joshua; Olanrewaju, Oladimeji; Datiko, Daniel; Theobald, Sally J; Ramsay, Andrew; Squire, S Bertel; Cuevas, Luis E

    2016-03-24

    A major impediment to the treatment of TB is a diagnostic process that requires multiple visits. Descriptions of patient costs associated with diagnosis use different protocols and are not comparable. We aimed to describe the direct costs incurred by adults attending TB diagnostic centres in four countries and factors associated with expenditure for diagnosis. Surveys of 2225 adults attending smear-microscopy centres in Nigeria, Nepal, Ethiopia and Yemen. Adults >18 years with cough >2 weeks were enrolled prospectively. Direct costs were quantified using structured questionnaires. Patients with costs >75(th) quartile were considered to have high expenditure (cases) and compared with patients with costs <75(th) quartile to identify factors associated with high expenditure. The most significant expenses were due to clinic fees and transport. Most participants attended the centres with companions. High expenditure was associated with attending with company, residing in rural areas/other towns and illiteracy. The costs incurred by patients are substantial and share common patterns across countries. Removing user fees, transparent charging policies and reimbursing clinic expenses would reduce the poverty-inducing effects of direct diagnostic costs. In locations with limited resources, support could be prioritised for those most at risk of high expenditure; those who are illiterate, attend the service with company and rural residents.

  6. Steps on a journey to TB control in Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional, mixed methods pre-post evaluation of a local language DVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Peter D; Asugeni, Rowena; Wakageni, John; Kekeubata, Esau; Maena'aadi, John; Laete'esafi, John; Waneagea, Jackson; Asugeni, Vunivesi; MacLaren, David; Speare, Richard

    2015-02-03

    In Solomon Islands many people with Tuberculosis (TB) have challenges in accessing services because of socio-cultural, geographic and health service reasons, resulting in delays in TB treatment and low detection rates. The purpose of this project was to (i) develop a local language audio-visual resource (DVD) about TB (ii) share this resource with people in remote villages and (iii) evaluate the process and outcomes. The project involved the development and evaluation of a DVD in local Kwaio language. The DVD included five short videos based on the Australian Respiratory Council TB Education Flipchart. The DVD also included short videos of: traditional music/chanting (ai'imae); drama that presented an allegory of TB; and a short documentary on the redevelopment of the local TB Ward. A mixed-methods approach evaluated changes in TB knowledge and investigated the impact of the DVD. The DVD was recorded and produced in March-June 2013 and screened in 41 villages and hamlets. The pre-post DVD survey was completed by 64% (255/400) of people who viewed the DVD in the villages. Pre-DVD survey responses showed a moderate to high knowledge about TB signs, symptoms and treatment but 76/255 (30%) stated TB was caused by sorcery and 85/255 (33%) incorrectly stated that TB medication should be stopped when a patient feels better. The post-DVD survey showed a significant increase in people in coastal villages reporting (i) a 3-week cough would trigger a medical assessment and (ii) TB is mainly spread through the air. Statements that TB is not caused by sorcery increased post-DVD in both coastal and mountain villages, however belief in sorcery in mountain villages remained high at 20/70 (29%). The local DVD resource was developed within local cultural understandings and oral traditions of Kwaio people. Using modern but accessible DVD technology generated a lot of interest about the disease and the stories. The project evaluation indicates that current delays in seeking treatment

  7. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  8. A novel magneto-optical crystal Yb:TbVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianchao; Tu, Heng; Hu, Zhanggui

    2018-04-01

    Highly transparent Yb:TbVO4 single crystal with dimensions of Ø27 × 41 mm3 alomost without scattering defects has been successfully grown by Czochralski technique. The spectra, thermal properties and laser-induced damage threshold were investigated in detailed. The Faraday rotation (FR) measurement was carried out by means of extinction method. The Verdet constant comes up to 80 rad m-1 T-1 at 1064 nm, significantly larger than TbVO4 (58 rad m-1 T-1) and TGG (40 rad m-1 T-1) reported. Meanwhile, the as-grown crystal presents lower absorption coefficient and higher magneto-optical figure of merit at measured wavelength in comparison with TGG. Moreover, the crystal exhibits a substantially improved extinction ratio (42 dB) in contrast with TbVO4 (29 dB), and exceeds the highest value of TGG (40 dB). These advantages make Yb:TbVO4 a highly promising magneto-optical material candidate for optical isolators in the visible-near infrared region.

  9. Peripheral neuropathy in a diabetic child treated with linezolid for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Aravind; du Cros, Philipp; Seddon, James A; Mirgayosieva, Shamsiya; Asladdin, Rajabov; Dusmatova, Zulfiya

    2017-06-12

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB with additional resistance to injectable agents or fluoroquinolones are challenging to treat due to lack of available, effective drugs. Linezolid is one of the few drugs that has shown promise in treating these conditions. Long-term linezolid use is associated with toxicities such as peripheral and optic neuropathies. Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially when uncontrolled, can also result in peripheral neuropathy. The global burden of DM is increasing, and DM has been associated with a three-fold increased risk of developing TB disease. TB and DM can be a challenging combination to treat. DM can inhibit the host immune response to tuberculosis infection; and TB and some anti-TB drugs can worsen glycaemic control. A child experiencing neuropathy that is a possible complication of both DM and linezolid used to treat TB has not been reported previously. We report peripheral neuropathy in a 15-year-old boy with type 1 DM, diagnosed with MDR-TB and additional resistance to injectable TB medications. The boy was treated with a linezolid-based regimen, but after 8 months developed peripheral neuropathy. It was unclear whether the neuropathy was caused by the DM or the linezolid therapy. He had clinical improvement following cessation of linezolid and was declared cured following 21 months of treatment. Following completion of treatment, nerve conduction studies demonstrated significant improvement in neuropathy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of peripheral neuropathy reported in a diabetic child on long-term linezolid therapy for tuberculosis. This case study underlines the importance of stringent follow-up for side effects of linezolid, especially when associated with co-morbidity such as DM that increases the chances of adverse effects. The presence of both DM and TB should alert a physician to strive for optimal glycaemic control to minimize the risk of

  10. The Characteristics of TB Epidemic and TB/HIV Co-Infection Epidemic: A 2007-2013 Retrospective Study in Urumqi, Xinjiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to find out epidemiologic characteristic of tuberculosis (TB cases, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive cases among TB patients (TB/HIV co-infection through demographic, temporal, and spatial study in Urumqi.Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied to identify the epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic. All addresses of each TB case, TB/HIV co-infection case, and administrative street were transformed into geographical coordinate. Subsequently, the geocoded address for 82 streets was transformed into a dot map used as the basis of spatial datasets. In addition, the paper also used quantile map and the spatial scan statistic in order to identify the spatial distribution and spatial clusters of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic.There was a declining trend of the notification rates of TB epidemic from 2007 to 2009, as well as a rising trend from 2010 to 2013. However, the notification rates of TB/HIV co-infection epidemic showed a rising trend from 2007 to 2010, and a declining trend from 2011 to 2013. Moreover, a significant share of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic happened between the age of 15 to 45 years old, indicating an increase in risk of TB and TB/HIV infection. It is worth noting that the risk of HIV infection for male TB patients was 2.947 times (95% CI [2.178, 3.988] than that of female patients. Han ethnicity and Uygur ethnicity in urban region accounted for a large proportion of total TB and TB/HIV co-infection cases. Most of the TB cases of minorities in Urumqi showed a statistically significant increase in risk of HIV infection than Han ethnicity in Urumqi. In addition, the spatial distribution of TB epidemic and TB/HIV co-infection epidemic was highly skewed. Most of the local clusters were located in urban area and rural-urban continuum where showed an increase in risk of TB and TB

  11. Paediatric TB/HIV co-infection – 'an uncompromising duet that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-01

    Oct 1, 2011 ... tuberculosis (TB) in 2009, childhood TB accounted for 11% (884 000 cases).1 ... reduction in incident TB in ART-treated children compared with ..... Obesity is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage but its effect on.

  12. Prevalence and management out comes of anti TB drugs induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: All TB patients admitted in the Hospital during the study period are the source of population, the study groups were been selected by detecting the possible confounding factors for jaundice. Base line LFT before anti TB initiation was determined before developed jaundice. Those patients, whom the ...

  13. 46 CFR 31.20-1 - Waters-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waters-TB/ALL. 31.20-1 Section 31.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Waters Operated Over § 31.20-1 Waters—TB/ALL. The certificate of inspection shall show the waters over which the tank vessel...

  14. EVALUATION OF DTECII AND IIEXAGO 1 TB KJTS USED FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    of TB infection and the risk of TB if infection has occurred (ATS-CDC, 1990) or as a dependent on the population being tested (ATS-CDC, 1994; Bass, 1993). ... environment, a cut off point of ;::: l 5mm is positive (ATS-CDC, 1994). Although tuberculin testing is the standard method for screening asymptomatic populations for ...

  15. Antiferromagnetism in a 20% Ho-80% Tb alloy single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente

    1968-01-01

    20% Ho-80% Tb exhibits two magnetic phases, similar to those of Tb. The spiral turn angle varies from 31.1° to 21.4°. A minimum effective spin for the occurrence of stable simple ferromagnetic structure at low temperatures is predicted....

  16. The social determinants of tuberculosis and their association with TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress made in TB control through the implementation of the DOTS strategy, has been retarded by factors such as poverty, the HIV pandemic and the advent of multidrug resistant tuberculosis. There is currently an increasing shift in TB control ...

  17. 8__Aisha_Detection ofMDR-TB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Among the MDR-TB cases rifampicin resistance was associated with rpoB WT gene and rpoB MUT gene in 100% and 62% of the ... diagnosis of TB patients, and proper treatment and management of the infected cases to minimize the spread and ..... in an amino acid change and concluded that this is one of the reasons ...

  18. HIV/TB CO-INFECTION:THE CHALLENGES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... latent MTB infection to active TB disease, in which the annual risk of developing TB disease from MTB ... fresh air ventilation; exposure of highly vulnerable individuals; and reduced efficacy or failure of .... Consequently, some patients may develop acute renal failure or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-45 - Ocean-TB/O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean-TB/O. 30.10-45 Section 30.10-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-45 Ocean—TB/O. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or...

  20. Challenges of TB diagnosis and treatment in South Africa | Wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that 2 billion of the world\\'s population are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with a resultant 8 - 9 million cases of active tuberculosis (TB) and 1.6 million deaths annually.1 The tools used for diagnosis of TB have remained largely unchanged since the 1880s when sputum microscopy, Mtb ...

  1. A comparison of liquid and solid culture for determining relapse and durable cure in phase III TB trials for new regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick P J; Mendel, Carl M; Nunn, Andrew J; McHugh, Timothy D; Crook, Angela M; Hunt, Robert; Bateson, Anna; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2017-11-24

    Tuberculosis kills more people than any other infectious disease, and new regimens are essential. The primary endpoint for confirmatory phase III trials for new regimens is a composite outcome that includes bacteriological treatment failure and relapse. Culture methodology is critical to the primary trial outcome. Patients in clinical trials can have positive cultures after treatment ends that may not necessarily indicate relapse, which was ascribed previously to laboratory cross-contamination or breakdown of old lesions. Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was the previous standard in clinical trials, but almost all current and future trials will use the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system due to its simplicity and consistency of use, which will affect phase III trial results. LJ was used for the definition of the primary endpoint in the REMoxTB trial, but every culture was also inoculated in parallel into the MGIT system. The data from this trial, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to investigate and compare the incidence of false 'isolated positives' in liquid and solid media and their potential impact on the primary efficacy results. All post-treatment positive cultures were reviewed in the REMoxTB clinical trial. Logistic regression models were used to model the incidence of isolated positive cultures on MGIT and LJ. A total of 12,209 sputum samples were available from 1652 patients; cultures were more often positive on MGIT than LJ. In 1322 patients with a favourable trial outcome, 126 (9.5%) had cultures that were positive in MGIT compared to 34 (2.6%) patients with positive cultures on LJ. Among patients with a favourable outcome, the incidence of isolated positives on MGIT differed by study laboratory (p cultures in some patients even after adjusting for laboratory, p cultures, positive MGIT cultures were more likely to be associated with higher grade TB symptoms reported within 7 days either side of sputum collection in patients with an

  2. Depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use are prevalent and correlate with stigma among TB-HIV patients in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Larson, E; Hirsch-Moverman, Y; Saito, S; Frederix, K; Pitt, B; Maama-Maime, L; Howard, A A

    2017-11-01

    Limited data exist on the prevalence and correlates, including stigma, of mental health conditions, including depressive symptoms and alcohol use, among patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, despite their negative impact on health outcomes. To assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use among TB-HIV patients in the Start TB patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) study. START, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial, evaluated a combination intervention package vs. standard of care (SOC) to improve treatment outcomes in TB-HIV co-infected patients in Lesotho. Moderate/severe depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use were measured using baseline questionnaire data collected from April 2013 to March 2015. Demographic, psychosocial, and TB- and HIV-related knowledge and attitudes, including stigma, were assessed for association with both conditions using generalized linear mixed models. Among 371 participants, 29.8% reported moderate/severe depressive symptoms, and 24.7% reported hazardous/harmful alcohol use; 7% reported both. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with less education, more difficulty understanding written medical information, non-disclosure of TB, greater TB stigma, and the SOC study arm. Hazardous/harmful alcohol use was significantly associated with male sex, as well as greater TB and external HIV stigma. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and hazardous/harmful alcohol use were high, suggesting a need for routine screening for, and treatment of, mental health disorders in TB-HIV patients.

  3. Superdeformation studies in {sup 150}Tb and {sup 153}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others

    1995-08-01

    There are now over 40 superdeformed (SD) bands known in the A {approximately} 150 region and in most cases the properties of these bands are understood in terms of single-particle excitations in the absence of pairing. By continuing the search for new SD bands we hope to gain insight into (1) the ordering of the proton and neutron orbitals near the Fermi surface in the SD well, (2) the effects that the alignment of those orbitals has on the moments of inertia, and (3) the collective excitations in the SD well. For {sup 150}Tb, which is one proton and one neutron away from the SD doubly-magic nucleus {sup 152}Dy, it should be possible to study SD bands based on both proton and neutron hole excitations. By adding one proton to the {sup 152}Dy nucleus (i.e. {sup 153}Ho) proton excitations above the Z = 66 shell gap can be studied. These excitations are important as calculations suggested that the proton intruder orbital N = 7 might become occupied. Interactions between this orbital and a N = 5 level may result in softness towards octupole vibrations. High spin states in {sup 150}Th and {sup 153}Ho were populated using the {sup 124}Sn({sup 31}P,5n) and {sup 120}Sn({sup 37}Cl,4n) reactions, respectively. In both cases the early implementation phase of Gammasphere was used to detect the decay gamma rays and over 1 x 10{sup 9} triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. In {sup 150}Tb, the data analysis is complete and two new SD bands were identified. The fact that Im{sup (2)} moments of inertia are sensitive to the specific high-N intruder content of the SD bands was used to suggest configurations for the two new bands. A paper reporting these results is being prepared. For {sup 153}Ho, data analysis is still in its early stages.

  4. Investigation on the magnetocaloric effect in TbN compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P.; Alho, B.P.; Ribeiro, P.O. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais (DIMAT), Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Caldas, A.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    One of the biggest challenges in materials science is to understand the microscopic mechanisms responsible in storage and release material entropy. TbN compound, which presents non-degeneracy in ground state, was studied and the calculated magnetocaloric effect is in good agreement with the recent experimental data. Also inverse magnetocaloric effect and spin reorientation transition were predicted in TbN. The theoretical investigations were carried out using a Hamiltonian, which includes the crystalline electrical field, Zeeman and exchange interactions. - Highlights: • Theoretical description of the magnetocaloric effect in TbN. • Influence of the crystalline electrical field anisotropy on TbN. • Predictions of inverse and anomalous magnetocaloric effect in TbN.

  5. The candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, induces highly durable Th1 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tameris

    Full Text Available Vaccination against tuberculosis (TB should provide long-term protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb. The current TB vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, protects against disseminated childhood TB, but protection against lung TB in adolescents and adults is variable and mostly poor. One potential reason for the limited durability of protection may be waning of immunity through gradual attrition of BCG-induced T cells. We determined if a MVA85A viral-vector boost could enhance the durability of mycobacteria-specific T cell responses above those induced by BCG alone.We describe a long-term follow-up study of persons previously vaccinated with MVA85A. We performed a medical history and clinical examination, a tuberculin skin test and measured vaccine-specific T cell responses in persons previously enrolled as adults, adolescents, children or infants into three different Phase II trials, between 2005 and 2011.Of 252 potential participants, 183 (72.6% consented and completed the study visit. Vaccine-induced Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell responses were remarkably persistent in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults, adolescents, children and infants, up to 6 years after MVA85A vaccination. Specific CD4+ T cells expressed surface markers consistent with either CD45RA-CCR7+ central memory or CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory T cells. Similarly durable Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detected in HIV-infected persons who were on successful antiretroviral therapy when MVA85A was administered. By contrast, Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies in untreated MVA85A-vaccinated HIV-infected persons were mostly undetectable 3-5 years after vaccination.MVA85A induces remarkably durable T cell responses in immunocompetent persons. However, results from a recent phase IIb trial of MVA85A, conducted in infants from the same geographic area and study population, showed no vaccine efficacy, suggesting that these durable T cell responses do not

  6. Growth and characterization of air annealing Tb-doped YAG:Ce single crystal for white-light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Maogao [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Xiang, Weidong, E-mail: xiangweidong001@126.com [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Liang, Xiaojuan [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Zhong, Jiasong; Chen, Daqin [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Huang, Jun; Gu, Guorui; Yang, Cheng; Xiang, Run [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2015-08-05

    Highlights: • We report preparation of transparent Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal by Czochralski method. • The effect of annealing on Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal had been investigated. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal after annealing exhibited better optical performance. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal could be used as an ideal candidate for WLED. - Abstract: We report the preparation of transparent Ce and Tb co-doped Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} single crystal by the Czochralski method. The characterization of the resulting single crystal was accomplished by using X-ray powder diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption peak of the single crystal at about 460 nm has been obtained from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometer and their intensity is changed with different annealing condition. Its optical properties also have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometer. What’s more, its photoelectric parameters were studied by LED fast spectrometer. The constructed single crystal based white-light-emitting diode exhibits a high luminous efficiency of 140.89 lm/W, and a correlated color temperature of 4176 K as well as a color rendering index of 56.7, which reveal the prominent feasibility of the present single crystal material in white-light-emitting diode application.

  7. Growth and characterization of air annealing Tb-doped YAG:Ce single crystal for white-light-emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Maogao; Xiang, Weidong; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhong, Jiasong; Chen, Daqin; Huang, Jun; Gu, Guorui; Yang, Cheng; Xiang, Run

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We report preparation of transparent Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal by Czochralski method. • The effect of annealing on Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal had been investigated. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal after annealing exhibited better optical performance. • The Ce,Tb:YAG single crystal could be used as an ideal candidate for WLED. - Abstract: We report the preparation of transparent Ce and Tb co-doped Y 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystal by the Czochralski method. The characterization of the resulting single crystal was accomplished by using X-ray powder diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Absorption peak of the single crystal at about 460 nm has been obtained from ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrometer and their intensity is changed with different annealing condition. Its optical properties also have been investigated using fluorescence spectrometer. What’s more, its photoelectric parameters were studied by LED fast spectrometer. The constructed single crystal based white-light-emitting diode exhibits a high luminous efficiency of 140.89 lm/W, and a correlated color temperature of 4176 K as well as a color rendering index of 56.7, which reveal the prominent feasibility of the present single crystal material in white-light-emitting diode application

  8. TbPIF5 is a Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial DNA helicase involved in processing of minicircle Okazaki fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiyu Liu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei's mitochondrial genome, kinetoplast DNA (kDNA, is a giant network of catenated DNA rings. The network consists of a few thousand 1 kb minicircles and several dozen 23 kb maxicircles. Here we report that TbPIF5, one of T. brucei's six mitochondrial proteins related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial DNA helicase ScPIF1, is involved in minicircle lagging strand synthesis. Like its yeast homolog, TbPIF5 is a 5' to 3' DNA helicase. Together with other enzymes thought to be involved in Okazaki fragment processing, TbPIF5 localizes in vivo to the antipodal sites flanking the kDNA. Minicircles in wild type cells replicate unidirectionally as theta-structures and are unusual in that Okazaki fragments are not joined until after the progeny minicircles have segregated. We now report that overexpression of TbPIF5 causes premature removal of RNA primers and joining of Okazaki fragments on theta structures. Further elongation of the lagging strand is blocked, but the leading strand is completed and the minicircle progeny, one with a truncated H strand (ranging from 0.1 to 1 kb, are segregated. The minicircles with a truncated H strand electrophorese on an agarose gel as a smear. This replication defect is associated with kinetoplast shrinkage and eventual slowing of cell growth. We propose that TbPIF5 unwinds RNA primers after lagging strand synthesis, thus facilitating processing of Okazaki fragments.

  9. Application Values of T-SPOT.TB in Clinical Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Ou, Qinfang; Zheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the application value of tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Fifty one patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted to Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China from June 2015 to June 2017 were selected as the TB group, and 40 patients without tuberculosis admitted in the same period were randomly selected as the non-TB group. Patients in the two groups received T-SPOT.TB, TB antibody (TB-Ab) test and mycobacterium TB deoxyribonucleic acid (TB-DNA) test, and the results were compared. Comparisons of the sensitivity of the three methods showed that the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples, and that of TB-Ab was the lowest. The specificity of TB-Ab was the highest, followed by T-SPOT.TB, and that of TB-DNA from sputum samples was the lowest. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB (0.896) was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples (0.772), and that of sputum smears (0.698) was the lowest. T-SPOT.TB can quickly and accurately determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, and it is a non-invasive examination, which can further assist in the diagnosis and guide the treatment.

  10. Barriers to completing TB diagnosis in Yemen: services should respond to patients' needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel M; Al-Sonboli, Najla; Al-Aghbari, Nasher; Yassin, Mohammed A; Cuevas, Luis E; Theobald, Sally J

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is a prerequisite for accessing specific treatment, yet one third of estimated new cases are missed worldwide by National Programmes. This study investigated economic, geographical, socio-cultural and health system factors hindering adults' attendance and completion of the TB diagnostic process in Yemen, to inform interventions designed to improve patient access to services. The study employed a mixed methods design comprising a cross-sectional survey and In-Depth-Interviews (IDIs) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among patients abandoning the diagnosis or registering for treatment. Adults with cough of ≥ 2 weeks attending a large governmental referral centre in Sana'a, Yemen, between 2009 and 2010, were eligible to participate. 497 and 446 (89.7%) participants were surveyed the first and second day of attending the services and 48 IDIs and 12 FGDs were also conducted. The majority of patients were disadvantaged and had poor literacy (61% illiterate), had travelled from rural areas (47%) and attended with companions (84%). Key barriers for attendance identified were clinic and transport costs (augmented by companions), distance from home, a preference for private services, strong social stigma and a lack of understanding of the diagnostic process. There were discrepancies between patient- and doctor-reported diagnosis and 46% of patients were unaware that TB treatment is free. Females faced more difficulties to attend than men. The laboratory practice of providing first-day negative smear results and making referrals to the private sector also discouraged patients from returning. Strategies to bring TB diagnostic services closer to communities and address the multiple barriers patients face to attend, will be important to increase access to TB diagnosis and care.

  11. Association between smoking, tuberculosis and diabetes-TB: an analysis on Indian TB patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Bhardwaj

    2018-03-01

    400 (100 P value Non Smoker 20 (10.5 170 (89.5 190 (100 0.03 Current 17 (12.5 119 (87.5 136 (100 Ex -Smoker 17 (33.0 57 (77.0 74 (100 Median duration of smoking (IQR in years 20 (30 0.5 (25 3 (65 0.03 [Prevalence of Smoking with TB DM

  12. AtriplaR/anti-TB combination in TB/HIV patients. Drug in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semvua Hadija H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-administration of anti-tuberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and several antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction. Method Pubmed and Google search following the key words tuberculosis, HIV, emtricitabine, tenofovir efavirenz, interaction were used to find relevant information on each drug of the fixed dose combination AtriplaR Results Information on generic name, trade name, pharmacokinetic parameter, metabolism and the pharmacokinetic interaction with Anti-TB drugs of emtricitabine, tenofovir, and efavirenz was obtained. Conclusion Fixed dose combination of emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz (ATRIPLAR which has been approved by Food and Drug Administration shows promising results as far as safety and efficacy is concerned in TB/HIV co-infection patients, hence can be considered effective and safe antiretroviral drug in TB/HIV management for adult and children above 3 years of age.

  13. E-health systems for management of MDR-TB in resource-poor environments: a decade of experience and recommendations for future work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Hamish S F; Habib, Ali; Goodrich, Mark; Thomas, David; Blaya, Joaquin A; Fils-Aime, Joseph Reginald; Jazayeri, Darius; Seaton, Michael; Khan, Aamir J; Choi, Sharon S; Kerrison, Foster; Falzon, Dennis; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-01-01

    Multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) is a complex infectious disease that is a growing threat to global health. It requires lengthy treatment with multiple drugs and specialized laboratory testing. To effectively scale up treatment to thousands of patients requires good information systems to support clinical care, reporting, drug forecasting, supply chain management and monitoring. Over the last decade we have developed the PIH-EMR electronic medical record system, and subsequently OpenMRS-TB, to support the treatment of MDR-TB in Peru, Haiti, Pakistan, and other resource-poor environments. We describe here the experience with implementing these systems and evaluating many aspects of their performance, and review other systems for MDR-TB management. We recommend a new approach to information systems to address the barriers to scale up MDR-TB treatment, particularly access to the appropriate drugs and lab data. We propose moving away from fragmented, vertical systems to focus on common platforms, addressing all stages of TB care, support for open data standards and interoperability, care for a wide range of diseases including HIV, integration with mHealth applications, and ability to function in resource-poor environments.

  14. Integration of childhood TB into guidelines for the management of acute malnutrition in high burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, L N; Detjen, A K

    2017-06-21

    Introduction: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) and undernutrition are major global public health challenges. In 2015, although an estimated 1 million children aged malnutrition from 17 high TB burden countries were reviewed to gather information on TB symptom screening, exposure history, and treatment. Results: Seven (41%) countries recommend routine TB screening among children with acute malnutrition, and six (35%) recommend obtaining a TB exposure history. Conclusion: TB screening is not consistently included in guidelines for acute malnutrition in high TB burden countries. Routine TB risk assessment, especially history of TB exposure, among acutely malnourished children, combined with improved linkages with TB services, would help increase TB case finding and could impact outcomes. Operational research on how best to integrate services at different levels of the health care system is needed.

  15. Predictors of Prolonged TB Treatment in a Dutch Outpatient Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya

    Full Text Available Standard treatment duration for drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB treatment is 6 months. Treatment duration is often extended-and for various different reasons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to assess risk factors associated with extended TB treatment.A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data including demographic, clinical, radiological and microbiological information from the Netherlands TB Register (NTR of 90 patients with smear and culture positive pulmonary TB of the region Haaglanden, The Netherlands, was eligible for analysis.Treatment was extended to ≥ 200 days by 46 (51% patients. Extended TB treatment was associated with a higher frequency of symptoms, presumed to be due to adverse drug reactions (ADR; OR 2.39 95% CI: 1.01-5.69, drug-induced liver injury (DILI (OR: 13.51; 95% CI: 1.66-109.82 and longer than 2 month smear and culture conversion rate (OR: 11.00; 95% CI: 1.24-97.96 and OR: 8.56; 95% CI: 1.53-47.96. In the multivariable logistic analysis, development of DILI emerged as the single statistically strong risk factor necessitating extension of TB treatment.This finding will need further confirmation in a prospective study, exploring the possible mutual role of pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic determinants of DILI among TB patients.

  16. Immigrants and health system challenges to TB control in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fochsen Grethe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past three decades, Oman has made significant progress in controlling TB within it's borders. However, the national TB control program elimination target has yet to be reached. This study aims to explore the perceived roles played by the immigrant population and the private health sector in relation to TB control in Oman. Methods We conducted seventeen interviews with different health care providers. The verbatim transcripts were processed using content analysis. Results Three main themes emerged. Firstly the threat of repatriation faced by underprivileged expatriates, secondly the criticized and forgotten private health sector as a key player and thirdly the user and provider barriers faced by Omani patients in the Omani public health system. Conclusions The study has identified some of the challenges and barriers to TB control in Oman. These challenges are mainly related to unintended negative consequences arising from the current repatriation policy of immigrants and to and the lack of involvement of the private sector in TB control. TB control strategies designed to address these challenges are needed, for Oman to reach its TB elimination targets.

  17. Integration of HIV and TB services results in improved TB treatment outcomes and earlier prioritized ART initiation in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Sabine M; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M A; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to evaluate associated TB and HIV treatment outcomes. Routinely collected clinical, pharmacy, and laboratory data were merged with TB clinic data for patients initiating TB treatment in 2009 and with TB register data for patients in 2007. TB treatment outcomes and (timing of) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in ART-naive patients [overall and stratified by CD4+ T cell (CD4) count] in 2007 and 2009 were compared. Nosocomial transmission rates could not be assessed. Three hundred forty-six patients were initiated on TB treatment in 2007 and 366 in 2009. Median CD4 counts at TB diagnosis did not differ. TB treatment cure or completion increased from 62% to 68%, death or default decreased from 33% to 25% (P ART-naive TB patients were initiated on ART in 2009 versus 2007 (57% and 66%, P = 0.031), but this decrease was only in patients with CD4 counts >250 cells per cubic millimeter (19% vs. 48%, P = 0.003). More patients were started on ART during TB treatment (94% vs. 78%, P ART initiation. This supports rollout of a fully integrated TB/HIV service delivery model throughout high-prevalence TB and HIV settings.

  18. Antigen-Specific Interferon-Gamma Responses and Innate Cytokine Balance in TB-IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ceulemans, Ann; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of IFNγ responses to recall and TB-antigens and explored in vitro innate cytokine production in TB-IRIS patients. Methods In a prospective cohort study of HIV-TB co-infected patients treated for TB before ART initiation, we compared 18 patients who developed TB-IRIS with 18 non-IRIS controls matched for age, sex and CD4 count. We analyzed IFNγ ELISpot responses to CMV, influenza, TB and LPS before ART and during TB-IRIS. CMV and LPS stimulated ELISpot supernatants were subsequently evaluated for production of IL-12p70, IL-6, TNFα and IL-10 by Luminex. Results Before ART, all responses were similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. During TB-IRIS, IFNγ responses to TB and influenza antigens were comparable between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls, but responses to CMV and LPS remained significantly lower in TB-IRIS patients. Production of innate cytokines was similar between TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls. However, upon LPS stimulation, IL-6/IL-10 and TNFα/IL-10 ratios were increased in TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. Conclusion TB-IRIS patients did not display excessive IFNγ responses to TB-antigens. In contrast, the reconstitution of CMV and LPS responses was delayed in the TB-IRIS group. For LPS, this was linked with a pro-inflammatory shift in the innate cytokine balance. These data are in support of a prominent role of the innate immune system in TB-IRIS. PMID:25415590

  19. High variability of TB, HIV, hepatitis C treatment and opioid substitution therapy among prisoners in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jana; Schmidt, Daniel; Kollan, Christian; Lehmann, Marc; Bremer, Viviane; Zimmermann, Ruth

    2017-10-25

    In Germany, medical care of prisoners is completely separated from extramural health care. The extent and quality of medical care among prisoners in Germany are therefore largely unknown. We performed a secondary data analysis of pharmacy sales data for tuberculosis (TB), HIV, hepatitis C (HCV) and opioid substitution treatment (OST) delivered to prisons in 11 federal states (FS) in Germany between 01/2012 and 03/2013. The aims of this study were to assess (i) the treatment availability for the selected diseases and OST in German prisons, (ii) the proportion of prisoners treated per FS and overall for TB, HIV, HCV and OST during the study period. Substances unique to or typically used for the treatment of each disease were defined as marker substances with defined daily doses (DDD). For each marker substance we assessed the cumulative number of DDD, the average daily number of DDD (DDD d ) and average treatment prevalence per day in percent (adTP). Accordingly, the DDD d represents one person treated per day and the adTP means the proportion of prisoners treated per day. We compared the adTP of the diseases with previously measured prevalences. We obtained data from pharmacies supplying prisons in 11 of 16 German FS. Of the included prisons, 41% were supplied with medicines for TB, 71% for HIV and 58% for HCV and OST. Twice as many delivered marker substances for TB were indicated for the continuation phase and chemoprevention than the intensive phase. The HIV adTP ranged from 0.06% to 0.94%, HCV adTP ranged from 0.03% to 0.59% and OST adTP ranged from 0% to 7.90%. The overall adTP for the respective treatment was 0.39% for HIV, 0.12% for HCV and 2.18% for OST. According to our findings treatment rates for TB were consistent with the expected TB prevalence, at least in Berlin. HIV treatment seems to be offered to an adequate proportion of estimated infected prisoners. In contrast, the HCV treatment prevalence was low. High variation among FS in provision of all

  20. Synthesis and cathodoluminescent properties of Y2SiO5:Tb3+ phosphors prepared from uniform precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Deyong; Yang Sen; Wang Jieqiong; Zheng Aqun; Song Xiaoping; Yu Demei

    2012-01-01

    The luminescent properties of phosphors are sensitive to the size of phosphor particles. The commercial Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb 3+ phosphors usually show relatively larger particle size (5–10 μm) due to the irregular morphology of rare earth oxide precursor and thus degrade the luminescent properties. In this paper, we report the Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb 3+ phosphors synthesized from the uniform Tb-doped Y 2 O 3 precursor by a homogeneous precipitation method. Compared with the commercial phosphors, the obtained Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb 3+ phosphors manifest the uniform morphology with much smaller particles distributing from 0.8 μm to 1.9 μm. Consequently, the cathodoluminescent intensity under low excitation voltage (1–5 kV) was increased, demonstrating a strong green emission with a dominant wavelength of 545 nm. Our results indicate an effective way to develop the high-quality phosphors for field emission display. - Highlights: ► The Y 2 SiO 5 :Tb 3+ phosphors are synthesized by a homogeneous precipitation method. ► They manifest the uniform morphology with much smaller particles than commercial one. ► The corresponding cathodoluminescent intensity of green emission is greatly enhanced. ► Our results indicate an effective way to develop the high-quality phosphors for FED.

  1. Construction of Tb3+ PVC-MembraneElectrode Based on N,N’-Bis(pyrrolylmethylene-2-aminobenzylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report as new Tb3+-PVC membrane sensor based on N,N’-bis(pyrrolylmethylene- 2-aminobenzylamine (PMA as a suitable ion carrier. Poly vinylchloride (PVC-based membrane composed of PMA with oleic acid (OA as anionic additives and acetophenone (AP as plasticizing solvent mediators. The Tb3+ sensor exhibits a Nernstian slope of 19.7±0.4 mV per decade over the concentration range of 1.0×10-5 to 1.0×10-2 M and a detection limit of 4.6×10-6 M of Tb3+ ions. The potentiometric response of the sensor is independent of the solution pH in the range of 2.9–8.1. It has a very short response time, in the whole concentration range (∼5 s. The recommended sensor revealed comparatively good selectivity with respect to most alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and heavy metal ions. It was successfully employed as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Tb(III ions with EDTA. The electrode was also employed for the determination of the fluoride ion in two mouth wash preparations and the determination of Tb3+ ions concentration in mixtures of three different ions.

  2. Factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based HIV testing services in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Sloot, Rosa; Draper, Heather R; Naidoo, Pren; Burger, Ronelle; Beyers, Nulda

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV and/or TB is not sufficient; linkage to care and treatment is conditional to reduce the burden of disease. This study aimed to determine factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based services in Cape Town, South Africa. This retrospective cohort study utilized routinely collected data from clients who utilized stand-alone (fixed site not attached to a health facility) and mobile HIV testing services in eight communities in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan district, between January 2008 and June 2012. Clients were included in the analysis if they were ≥12 years and had a known HIV status. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to assess the association between determinants (sex, age, HIV testing service and co-infection status) and self-reported linkage to HIV care and/or TB treatment. Linkage to HIV care was 3 738/5 929 (63.1%). Linkage to HIV care was associated with the type of HIV testing service. Clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services had a significantly reduced odds of linking to HIV care (aOR 0.7 (CI 95%: 0.6-0.8), p<0.001. Linkage to TB treatment was 210/275 (76.4%). Linkage to TB treatment was not associated with sex and service type, but was associated with age. Clients in older age groups were less likely to link to TB treatment compared to clients in the age group 12-24 years (all, p-value<0.05). A large proportion of clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services did not link to care. Almost a quarter of clients diagnosed with TB did not link to treatment. Integrated community-based HIV and TB testing services are efficient in diagnosing HIV and TB, but strategies to improve linkage to care are required to control these epidemics.

  3. Effect of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime of Tb3+-doped hydroxyapatite (Tb-HA nanocrystallines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite luminescent nanocrystallines doped with 6 mol.% Tb3+ (Tb-HA were prepared via chemical deposition method and calcined at different temperature, and the effects of calcinations temperature on the luminescence intensity and fluorescent lifetime were studied. TEM image of Tb-HA revealed that the shape of nanocrystallines changed from needle-like to short rod-like and sphere-like with the increase of calcinations temperature; while the particles sizes decreased from 190 nm to 110 nm. The crystallinity degree increased. The typical emission peaks attributed to Tb3+ ions were observed in emission spectra of 6 mol.% Tb-HA under 378 nm excitation. The luminescent intensity of Tb-HA, which showed the fluorescence quenching, firstly enhanced and then decreased at 700 °C; while the fluorescent lifetime increased firstly and then decreased after 600 °C. Furthermore, the ratio of intensity between 545 nm and 490 nm corresponding to electric-dipole and magnetic-dipole transition (IR: IO increases firstly and then decreases, which revealed that the proportion of substitute type and site of Ca2+ ions by Tb3+ ions were helpful to realize the substitute process and functional structure design.

  4. Immune TB Antibody Phage Display Library as a Tool To Study B Cell Immunity in TB Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidon, Nurul Hamizah; Suraiya, Siti; Sarmiento, Maria E; Acosta, Armando; Norazmi, Mohd Nor; Lim, Theam Soon

    2018-03-01

    B cells and in particular antibodies has always played second fiddle to cellular immunity in regard to tuberculosis (TB). However, recent studies has helped position humoral immunity especially antibodies back into the foray in relation to TB immunity. Therefore, the ability to correlate the natural antibody responses of infected individuals toward TB antigens would help strengthen this concept. Phage display is an intriguing approach that can be utilized to study antibody-mediated responses against a particular infection via harvesting the B cell repertoire from infected individuals. The development of disease-specific antibody libraries or immune libraries is useful to better understand antibody-mediated immune responses against specific disease antigens. This study describes the generation of an immune single-chain variable fragment (scFv) library derived from TB-infected individuals. The immune library with an estimated diversity of 10 9 independent clones was then applied for the identification of monoclonal antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis α-crystalline as a model antigen. Biopanning of the library isolated three monoclonal antibodies with unique gene usage. This strengthens the role of antibodies in TB immunity in addition to the role played by cellular immunity. The developed library can be applied against other TB antigens and aid antibody-derived TB immunity studies in the future.

  5. Spatial overlap links seemingly unconnected genotype-matched TB cases in rural Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Maeda, Midori; Emperador, Devy M.; Wandera, Bonnie; Mugagga, Olive; Crandall, John; Janes, Michael; Marquez, Carina; Kamya, Moses R.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Havlir, Diane V.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Incomplete understanding of TB transmission dynamics in high HIV prevalence settings remains an obstacle for prevention. Understanding where transmission occurs could provide a platform for case finding and interrupting transmission. Methods From 2012–2015, we sought to recruit all adults starting TB treatment in a Ugandan community. Participants underwent household (HH) contact investigation, and provided names of social contacts, sites of work, healthcare and socializing, and two sputum samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive specimens underwent 24-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. We sought to identify epidemiologic links between genotype-matched cases by analyzing social networks and mapping locations where cases reported spending ≥12 hours over the one-month pre-treatment. Sites of spatial overlap (≤100m) between genotype-matched cases were considered potential transmission sites. We analyzed social networks stratified by genotype clustering status, with cases linked by shared locations, and compared network density by location type between clustered vs. non-clustered cases. Results Of 173 adults with TB, 131 (76%) were enrolled, 108 provided sputum, and 84/131 (78%) were MTB culture-positive: 52% (66/131) tested HIV-positive. Of 118 adult HH contacts, 105 (89%) were screened and 3 (2.5%) diagnosed with active TB. Overall, 33 TB cases (39%) belonged to 15 distinct MTB genotype-matched clusters. Within each cluster, no cases shared a HH or reported shared non-HH contacts. In 6/15 (40%) clusters, potential epidemiologic links were identified by spatial overlap at specific locations: 5/6 involved health care settings. Genotype-clustered TB social networks had significantly greater network density based on shared clinics (p<0.001) and decreased density based on shared marketplaces (p<0.001), compared to non-clustered networks. Conclusions In this molecular epidemiologic study, links between MTB genotype-matched cases were only

  6. Optical investigation of Tb3+-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals prepared by Pechini-type sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, M.; Massari, A.; Boffelli, M.; Gonella, F.; Riello, P.; Cristofori, D.; Riccò, R.; Enrichi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report an optical study of Tb 3+ -doped Y 2 O 3 nanocrystals synthesized by Pechini-type sol–gel method. The particles are investigated in terms of size and morphology by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. It is shown how the simple Pechini method allows for the growth of monocrystalline nanoparticles with a volume-weighted average size of about 30 nm. The optical properties of Tb 3+ in the host lattice are studied in terms of PL, PLE, and lifetimes. Moreover, a correlation between the type of decay curves, the emission and excitation bands' shapes, and the site location of the emitting Tb 3+ in the host material Y 2 O 3 is proposed.

  7. Synthesis and functionalization of biocompatible Tb:CePO{sub 4} nanophosphors with spindle-like shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Liviano, Sonia; Aparicio, Francisco J.; Becerro, Ana I. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US) (Spain); Garcia-Sevillano, Jorge; Cantelar, Eugenio [C-04. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Dpto. Fisica de Materiales (Spain); Rivera, Sara; Hernandez, Yulan; Fuente, Jesus M. de la [Universidad de Zaragoza, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (Spain); Ocana, Manuel, E-mail: mjurado@icmse.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-US) (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    Monoclinic Tb:CePO{sub 4} nanophosphors with a spindle-like morphology and tailored size (in the nanometer and micrometer range) have been prepared through a very simple procedure, which consists of aging, at low temperature (120 Degree-Sign C), ethylene glycol solutions containing only cerium and terbium acetylacetonates and phosphoric acid, not requiring the addition of surfactants or capping agents. The influence of the heating mode (conventional convection oven or microwave oven) and the Tb doping level on the luminescent, structural and morphological features of the precipitated nanoparticles have also been analyzed. This study showed that microwave-assisted heating resulted in an important beneficial effect on the luminescent properties of these nanophosphors. Finally, a procedure for the functionalization of the Tb:CePO{sub 4} nanoparticles with aspartic-dextran is also reported. The functionalized nanospindles presented negligible toxicity for Verocells, which along with theirs excellent luminescent properties, make them suitable for biomedical applications.

  8. Accelerating TB notification from the private health sector in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Debashish; Chopra, Kamal; Khanna, Ashwani; Babbar, Neeti; Padmini, T J

    2016-01-01

    In India, almost half of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) seek care in the private sector as the first point of care. The national programme is unable to support such TB patients and facilitate effective treatment, as there is no information on TB and Multi or Extensively Drug Resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) diagnosis and treatment in private sector. To improve this situation, Government of India declared TB a notifiable disease for establishing TB surveillance system, to extend supportive mechanism for TB treatment adherence and standardised practices in the private sector. But TB notification from the private sector is a challenge and still a lot needs to be done to accelerate TB notification. Delhi State TB Control Programme had taken initiatives for improving notification of TB cases from the private sector in 2014. Key steps taken were to constitute a state level TB notification committee to oversee the progress of TB notification efforts in the state and direct 'one to one' sensitisation of private practitioners (PPs) (in single PP's clinic, corporate hospitals and laboratories) by the state notification teams with the help of available tools for sensitising the PP on TB notification - TB Notification Government Order, Guidance Tool for TB Notification and Standards of TB Care in India. As a result of focussed state level interventions, without much external support, there was an accelerated notification of TB cases from the private sector. TB notification cases from the private sector rose from 341 (in 2013) to 4049 (by the end of March 2015). Active state level initiatives have led to increase in TB case notification. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of structure with Fe layer thickness in low dimensional Fe/Tb multilayered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, V.G.; Aylesworth, K.D.; Elam, W.T.; Koon, N.C.; Coehoorn, R.; Hoving, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the atomic structure of a series of low-dimensional Fe/Tb multilayered structures which has been explored using a conversion-electron, extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. A structural transition from a close-packed amorphous structure to a body-centered crystalline structure is detected to occur over an Fe layer thickness range of 12.5 Angstrom to 15.0 Angstrom (Tb thickness is held constant at 4.5 Angstrom). Magnetic properties, specifically, magnetization, anisotropy field, and Kerr rotation angle, are measured and found to change significantly in response to this transition. Exploitation of the polarization properties of synchrotron radiation allowed for the description of the atomic structure both perpendicular and parallel to the sample plane

  10. Insights on the origin of the Tb_5Ge_4 magnetocaloric effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo, J.H.; Barbosa, M.B.; Pires, A.L.; Costa, R.M.; Teixeira, J.G.V.; Silva, J.; Algarabel, P.A.; Magen, C.; Morellon, L.; Amaral, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    In this report the magnetic, atomic structures and spin-lattice coupling have been thoroughly studied through high magnetic field magnetometry, Synchrotron X-ray diffraction under applied magnetic field and magnetostriction measurements in the Tb_5Ge_4 compounds. A field induced phase transition from an antiferromagnetic towards a ferromagnetic ordering was confirmed but with absence of structural transformation. This absence has been confirmed experimentally through synchrotron x-ray diffraction under applied field (up to 30 T). Moreover, this absence was explained via a thermodynamic free energy model: first principles calculations determined a large energy gap (ΔE=0.65 eV) between the two possible structures, O(I) and O(II). From magnetic and structural properties, a H-T phase diagram has been proposed for Tb_5Ge_4. Finally it was observed a large magnetostriction (up to 600 ppm) induced by ∆H=7 T.

  11. Antigen-Specific Interferon-Gamma Responses and Innate Cytokine Balance in TB-IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ceulemans, Ann; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc; Loembé, Marguerite Massinga; Mayanja, Harriet; Mascart, Francoise; van den Bergh, Rafael; Locht, Camille; Reiss, Peter; Cobelens, Frank; Ondoa, Pascale; Pakker, Nadine; Mugerwa, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains a poorly understood complication in HIV-TB patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS could be associated with an exaggerated immune response to TB-antigens. We compared the recovery of

  12. Magnetic properties of the Tb4 + ion in Li2TbF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, M.; El-Ghozzi, M.; Avignant, D.; Ferey, G.

    1993-05-01

    Both oxygen and fluorine have a partiality towards the stabilization of high oxidation states of rare earths such as Ce, Pr, and Tb. During the study of the MF-M'F4 (M=alkaline metal; M' rare ion) the compound Li2TbF6 was found to constitute the only representative obtained under ambient pressure of a structural type, namely α-Li2ZrF6, known until now only through the high pressure form. Magnetic measurements were carried out over the 1.4-300 K temperature range in continuous magnetic fields up to 20 T produced by a Bitter magnet. At low temperature and in H higher than 15 T, the magnetization M was observed to be field independent and very close to the calculated Tb4+ free ion value, i.e., 7μB; on the other hand, the data do not present any departure from the Brillouin function of the pure 8S7/2 state. The reciprocal magnetic susceptibility obeys a Curie-Weiss law leading to an effective moment of 7.86μB. A very unusual behavior of the terbium ion which presents a 4+ oxidation state is concluded: to the best of our knowledge, it is the first observation of this form. The so-found spherical 4f7 electronic configuration is the most compatible with the high coordination number of eight. Finally, the discussion within the series Li2MIVF6 compounds to understand the influence of both electronic configuration and size effects is presented.

  13. Dextran solution optical activity in Tb (III) ion presence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, Sandra S.; Rodrigues, J.F.; Faljoni-Alario, A.

    1984-01-01

    Optical activity studies of aqueous solutions of dextrana in presence of Tb (III) or without it shows the complex with the hidroxyl groups of C 2 and C 3 of monomeric unit participation is formed. (L.M.J.) [pt

  14. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.

  15. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  16. Luminescence properties of Tb implanted ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, A.; Kibar, R.; Selvi, S.; Townsend, P.D.; Can, N.

    2009-01-01

    ZnO [0 0 0 1] crystals were irradiated at room temperature with Tb + ions of 400 keV with fluences from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 cm -2 . The implanted layer was examined by several methods, including radioluminescence (RL), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and optical spectroscopy. The optical extinction spectra were simulated using Mie scattering theory. Absorption spectra predicted by Mie theory for particles of decreasing diameter were compared with those obtained experimentally. Some qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental data was achieved. It was also shown that the intensities of the characteristic green emission bands associated with Tb produced by 5 D 4 → 7 F j=5,4 transitions have increased about 8 times after annealing. Optical spectroscopy and radioluminescence data have revealed that the ion implantation is a promising tool for synthesizing Tb nanoparticles in the ZnO surface. The Tb nanoparticles exhibit a rather weak plasma resonance.

  17. 46 CFR 32.75-1 - Application-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Wood Hull Tank Vessels Constructed Prior to November 10, 1936 § 32.75-1 Application—TB/ALL. All wood hull tank vessels, the construction or conversion of which was started prior to...

  18. TB and HIV Therapeutics: Pharmacology Research Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E. Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients with HIV in trials of TB drugs early in development enhances the knowledge gained from the trials and will ensure that promising new tuberculosis treatments are available to patients with HIV as early as possible. In this review, we summarize current and planned pharmacokinetic and drug interaction studies involving investigational and licensed tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals and suggest priorities for tuberculosis-HIV pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and drug-drug interaction studies for the future. Priority studies for children and pregnant women with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection are briefly discussed.

  19. HUBUNGAN FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN RUMAH DENGAN PENULARAN TB PARU KONTAK SERUMAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Musadad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Factor Relation of House With Infection of TB Paru through Housing Contact.Tuberculosis of the Lung (Lung TB still become health problem for world, including Indonesia in the third sequence after India And China. If cannot overcome each and everyone with Active Lung TB with mean infection 10-15 people/year. This research aim to know environmental factor relation of house with infection of Lung TB through contact house. The research population consist of entire household which inside there is 1 (one or more patient of Adult Lung TB with the result of positive bacteria inspection by public health center in 2002, while as sample is entire household which inside there is 1 (one or more patient of Adult Lung TB and have under 5 years baby. Inclusion criteria is patient of Lung TB paru noted by public health center and reside in region of Tangerang District in 2002. The collection of data was conducted with interview using questionnaire, enviromental perception, and tuberculine test. Uji Tuberculin test done by Mantoux (inoculation intracutane for 5 years baby use PPD RT 23 strength 2 TU with tuberkulin 1 cc needle with number 26. Criteria of Lung TB infection if diameter transversal from period that happened as a result of tuberculine test >10 mm and have clinical history of such as coughing more than 3 weeks, pain and recuring or old fever without clear cause, body weight descend or not go up in 1 month; moon without clear cause, or have specific clinical symptom. Result showed that from 254 households there are 33 (13.0% occurence of infection Lung TB. Environmental factor of house which deal with infection TB as an entry of the indoor direct sunlight with value OR=3,50; CI 95% 1,19-10,34 (p=0,015. The conclusion stated that direct sunlight play important role for infection of Lung TB in the same house.Keywords: Tuberculosis, infection through housing ccontact, tuberculine test, sunlight

  20. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  1. Systematic review on tuberculosis transmission on aircraft and update of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control risk assessment guidelines for tuberculosis transmitted on aircraft (RAGIDA-TB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Saara M; Payne Hallström, Lara; Jansen, Niesje; Helbling, Peter; Abubakar, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    As a setting for potential tuberculosis (TB) transmission and contact tracing, aircraft pose specific challenges. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to support the related-risk assessment and contact-tracing efforts. In this study evidence of TB transmission on aircraft was identified to update the Risk Assessment Guidelines for TB Transmitted on Aircraft (RAGIDA-TB) of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Electronic searches were undertaken from Medline (Pubmed), Embase and Cochrane Library until 19 July 2013. Eligible records were identified by a two-stage screening process and data on flight and index case characteristics as well as contact tracing strategies extracted. The systematic literature review retrieved 21 records. Ten of these records were available only after the previous version of the RAGIDA guidelines (2009) and World Health Organization guidelines on TB and air travel (2008) were published. Seven of the 21 records presented some evidence of possible in-flight transmission, but only one record provided substantial evidence of TB transmission on an aircraft. The data indicate that overall risk of TB transmission on aircraft is very low. The updated ECDC guidelines for TB transmission on aircraft have global implications due to inevitable need for international collaboration in contract tracing and risk assessment.

  2. Crystal growth of Sm0.3Tb0.7FeO3 and spin reorientation transition in Sm1−xTbxFeO3 orthoferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Anhua; Wang, Bo; Zhao, Xiangyang; Xie, Tao; Man, Peiwen; Su, Liangbi; Kalashnikova, A.M.; Pisarev, R.V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystal was successfully grown by optical floating zone method. Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 samples with a-, b-, and c-orientation were manufactured by means of Laue photograph. Magnetic properties of Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystals are studied over a wide temperature range from 2 to 400 K. Spin reorientation transition from Γ 2 to Γ 4 are observed by means of the temperature dependence of magnetization It indicated the reorientation transition temperature of Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 single crystals is lowered with the contents of Tb contents rising based on this work and our previous works, thus the spin reorientation transition temperature can be adjusted through changing the compound in orthoferrites materials, which means that we can get orthoferrites single crystals with high magnetism property in various temperature through material design. - Highlights: • Sm 0.3 Tb 0.7 FeO 3 single crystals with various compounds were successfully grown by optical floating zone method. • The relation between SRT temperature and composition in Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 orthoferrite was indicated. • The spin reorientation transition temperature of Sm 1−x Tb x FeO 3 single crystals can be adjusted through changing the compound in orthoferrites materials.

  3. Magnetic and crystallographic properties of TbCo4B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, E.N.; Dubman, M.; Ettedgui, H.; Shaked, H.; Melamud, M.; Keller, L.; Avdeev, M.

    2006-01-01

    The compound TbCo 4 B was studied using measurements of AC magnetic susceptibility, magnetization and neutron powder diffraction. It is found that this compound orders at T C ∼450 K. Each of the two Tb and two Co sublattices orders ferromagnetically. The coupling is ferromagnetic within each pair and ferrimagnetic between pairs. A compensation point at ∼300 K and a spin reorientation between 400 and 430 K were found

  4. Health Inequities and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, TB, and STDs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-15

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), discusses health inequities in the United States and how NCHHSTP research, policies, and programs can address them.  Created: 9/15/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 9/15/2010.

  5. In vivo radiochemical properties of Tb-149: A new radiolanthanide for targeted cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Beyer, G.J.; Morel, C.H.; Aleksandrova, Y.; Jahn, S.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: 149 Tb (4.15 h) decays by the emission of both 3.9 MeV alpha particles (17% branching) and positrons (4% branch), and uniquely combines both therapeutic and PET diagnostic properties. In this paper we report the production route, systemic studies of radio-lanthanides with ethylenediaminetetra methylene phosphonate (EDTMP) ligand, and the first 149 Tb phantom studies using PET. The radio-lanthanides used in this study were produced at the ISOLDE (isotope separator on-line) facility at CERN. They are produced carrier free, isotopically and chemically separated (isobaric separation using cation exchange chromatography) in a form suitable for protein labelling. Batches up to 20 mCi of 1 4 9T b are available. We have established relationships between biokinetics, EDTMP concentration, and the ionic radius of the radiolanthanide used. The tumour to liver ratio in mice reaches a maximum value at 1 mM 10 mM and decreases from 10 by almost two decades according to the ionic radius of the lanthanide. For Tb, a tumour to liver ratio of 5 can be obtained, similar to Gd. No significant differences in the uptake in bone for all lanthanides in the EDTMP system were observed. A fast blood clearance allows clear bone images to be obtained via PET at 60-90 min post-injection, as shown with rabbits using 142 Sm-EDTMP. The first phantom PET studies with 149 Tb are also reported. We conclude that the fast biokinetics and the alpha decay mode open up new possibilities for a more efficient endo-radionuclide therapy using EDTMP. The high purity of the 149T b (isotopically separated and carrier free) produced in this way makes it very suitable for the labelling of octretides

  6. Rare earths (Ce, Eu, Tb) doped Y2Si2O7 phosphors for white LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolnicki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline yttrium pyrosilicate Y 2 Si 2 O 7 (YPS) singly, doubly or triply doped with Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ was obtained by the reaction of nanostructured Y 2 O 3 :Ln 3+ and colloidal SiO 2 at high temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of a single phase of α-YPS at 1200 °C. Two series of YPS samples doped with Eu 3+ or Eu 3+ /Tb 3+ were obtained by applying the reducing atmosphere (75%N 2 +25%H 2 ) at different temperatures. The luminescence and excitation spectra are reported. The singly Eu 3+ doped YPS emit from both Eu 3+ and Eu 2+ ions, with the spectral position and width of the Eu 2+ emission different in both series. The presence of Eu 2+ in the samples was confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. A broadband emission of Eu 2+ (380–650 nm), combined with the red emission of Eu 3+ is perceived by the naked eye as white light. Co-doping of YPS:Eu 3+ with Tb 3+ results in enhancement of the green component of the emission, and well-balanced white luminescence. The colour of this emission is tunable, and it is possible to get Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of (0.327, 0.327), colour-rendering index (CRI) of 85, and quantum efficiency (QE) of 71%. These phosphors are efficiently excited in the wavelength range of 300–420 nm, which perfectly matches a near UV-emitting InGaN chip. It was shown that for triply (Ce 3+ , Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ) doped samples the three emissions from the particular activators can be generated using one excitation wavelength. The white light resulting from the superposition of the blue (Ce 3+ ), green (Tb 3+ ) and red (Eu 3+ ) emissions can be obtained by varying the concentration of the active ions and the treating atmosphere, i.e. reducing or oxidising. Eu 2+ was not detected in the triply doped samples, and hence line emissions mostly exhibit CRI values equal to or below 30. - Highlights: ► Nanocrystalline Y 2 Si 2 O 7 was obtained by the

  7. Magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Habu, K.; Sato, N.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetization of the films. Ferrimagnetic coupling between Tb and Fe through the interface was explicitly observed up to about 9-A Tb and 10-A Fe layers. Films with thinner Tb and Fe layers than these thicknesses are composed of only ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe regions. Films with thicker layers of Tb and Fe are composed of ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe, ferromagnetic Fe, ferromagnetic Tb, and/or magnetically compensated Tb regions. The Tb-Fe films exhibit various temperature dependencies of the magnetization corresponding to these magnetic structures

  8. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E.; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-01-01

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures

  9. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E., E-mail: stephen.russek@nist.gov; Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Geiss, Roy H. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Arenholz, Elke [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  10. On the role of the ground state Tb(3)/acetylacetone complex in sensitized emission of Tb(3) in ethanol solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, S.; Elbanowski, M.; Marciniak, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Tb(3)-acetylacetone system in ethanol solution has been studied by spectroscopic methods. The formation of a Tb(3)/acetylacetone (1:1) complex in the ground state has been proved and its stability constant determined, K = (0,97 ± 0,06).10 4 dm 3 mol -1 . The role of this complex in the spectrofluorimetric determination of Ln(3) ions in the presence of acetylacetone has been discussed. (Authors)

  11. Studies on the decay of 160Tb to levels in 160Dy by Ge (Li)-Ge(Li)-coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.; Mekamer, M.

    1981-01-01

    This work concerned with the study of the energy levels and the properties of gamma-ray transitions in 160 Dy resulting from the B-decay of the parent radioactive isotope 160 Tb (72 d.). These studies have been done by means of, single and gamma-gamma coincidence measurements. Log(ft). Internal Conversion Coefficient (ICC) values and the branching ratios have been calculated. The construction and testes of the Ge(Li)-Ge(Li) gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer are presented. In addition to the previously reported transitions in three new transitions of energies 203, 420 and 1048 keV have been observed for the first time. The energy level at 1288.60 keV is confirmed, due to the presence of the 246 keV and 1005 keV gamma-ray transitions in the singles and gamma-gamma coincidence spectra. Furthermore the B-intensity feeding this level was calculated for the first time to be 0.08%. The log(ft) values of the energy level at 1288.6 keV was calculated for the first time to be 10.79. The energy level diagram of 160 Dy as summerised in the present work consists of 12 excited states, the levels at 581(6 + ) and 1391 keV reported by some authors were not encluded, since no transitions populated or depopulated these levels could be observed

  12. Family of defect-dicubane Ni4Ln2 (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and Ni4Y2 complexes: rare Tb(III) and Ho(III) examples showing SMM behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lang; Wu, Jianfeng; Ke, Hongshan; Tang, Jinkui

    2014-04-07

    Reactions of Ln(III) perchlorate (Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho), NiCl2·6H2O, and a polydentate Schiff base resulted in the assembly of novel isostructural hexanuclear Ni4Ln2 complexes [Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), Dy (3), Ho (4)] with an unprecedented 3d-4f metal topology consisting of two defect-dicubane units. The corresponding Ni4Y2 (5) complex containing diamagnetic Y(III) atoms was also isolated to assist the magnetic studies. Interestingly, complexes 2 and 3 exhibit SMM characteristics and 4 shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. The absence of frequency-dependent in-phase and out-of-phase signals for the Ni-Y species suggests that the Ln ions' contribution to the slow relaxation must be effectual as previously observed in other Ni-Dy samples. However, the observation of χ″ signals with zero dc field for the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho derivatives is notable. Indeed, this is the first time that such a behavior is observed in the Ni-Tb and Ni-Ho complexes.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF MDR - TB/TB ON SOCIAL, FUNCTIONAL AND ECONOMIC WELL BEING OF PATIENTS – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT : Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with social stigma attached to it. Various problems which are social and economic in nature are faced by TB patient. Therefore , it is essential to explore the overall effect of MDR - TB/TB on health and patients perception of Well - being. AIMS : To Document the effect of MDR - TB/TB on social , functional and economic well - being of patients. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : A Cross - sectional study , Conveniently Recruited 68 MDR - TB Patients and 136 non - MDR - TB Patients (from Rural as well as urban Area of Surat District diagnosed by CBNAAT were interviewed for investigating the effect of Tuberculosis. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A pre - tested standardized semi - structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected about socio - demographic profile of patients and interpreted in table. Data about effect of MDR - TB/TB was collected on Likert Scale and Frequency was calculated and Data wa s plotted on multiple bar charts. RESULTS : As compared to healthy status in the past , 93% MDR - TB and 82% TB patients have decreased ability to do work , about half of MDR - TB Patients and TB Patients have detiorated relations with family members , 67% of stud y participants have developed disharmonious relations with neighbor’s , 55% of Study participants have decreased income , 88% of study participants have decreased performance in day to day activities and 78% of study participants have faced discordial and di srespectful behavior from co - workers. CONCLUSION : Working ability more detiorated in MDR - TB patients while rest of the effect on social , functional and economic well - being is same in both TB and Multi Drug Resistant TB patients. This study emphasizes very clearly that social stigma still persist in community about Tuberculosis which needs to be eliminated in community by behavior change communication by health workers at all levels of health care.

  14. Structural and magnetic Properties of TbZn-substituted calcium barium M-type nano-structured hexa-ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Hasan M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Islam, M.U., E-mail: dr.misbahulislam@bzu.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Xu, Yongbing [Department of Electronics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Nanjing–York International Centre of Spintronics and Nano-Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Asif Iqbal, M. [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); National University of Science and Technology, College of E and ME, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, Irshad [Department of Physics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Tb–Zn substituted Ca{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} samples exhibit single magnetoplumbite phase. • Lattice parameters a and c have increasing values. • Coercivity can be tuned at lower substitution level • Crystallites size was found in the range 18–25 nm by TEM and by Scherrer formula. • These hexa-ferrites are suitable for microwave devices and magnetic recording media. -- Abstract: Effect of TbZn substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5−x}Tb{sub x}Zn{sub y}Fe{sub 12−y}O{sub 19}, (x = 0.00–0.10; y = 0.00–1.00) ferrites prepared by sol–gel auto combustion is reported. The synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Vibrating Sample magnetometery. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed single phase M-type hexa-ferrite structure. The lattice parameters were found to increase as TbZn contents increases, which is attributed to the ionic sizes of the implicated cations. The TbZn seems to be completely soluble in the lattice. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy shows that the grain size decreases with increase of TbZn substitution. The coercivity values (1277–2025 Oe) of all samples lies in the range of M-type hexa-ferrite and indicate that an increase of anisotropy was achieved by substitution of TbZn, while the size of nanoparticles was drastically reduced between 18 and 25 nm. The increased anisotropy and fine particle size are useful for many applications, such as improving signal noise ratio of recording devices.

  15. New target prediction and visualization tools incorporating open source molecular fingerprints for TB Mobile 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex M; Sarker, Malabika; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We recently developed a freely available mobile app (TB Mobile) for both iOS and Android platforms that displays Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) active molecule structures and their targets with links to associated data. The app was developed to make target information available to as large an audience as possible. We now report a major update of the iOS version of the app. This includes enhancements that use an implementation of ECFP_6 fingerprints that we have made open source. Using these fingerprints, the user can propose compounds with possible anti-TB activity, and view the compounds within a cluster landscape. Proposed compounds can also be compared to existing target data, using a näive Bayesian scoring system to rank probable targets. We have curated an additional 60 new compounds and their targets for Mtb and added these to the original set of 745 compounds. We have also curated 20 further compounds (many without targets in TB Mobile) to evaluate this version of the app with 805 compounds and associated targets. TB Mobile can now manage a small collection of compounds that can be imported from external sources, or exported by various means such as email or app-to-app inter-process communication. This means that TB Mobile can be used as a node within a growing ecosystem of mobile apps for cheminformatics. It can also cluster compounds and use internal algorithms to help identify potential targets based on molecular similarity. TB Mobile represents a valuable dataset, data-visualization aid and target prediction tool.

  16. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements. Progress report, January 1, 1984-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huray, P.G.; Nave, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties of dhcp californium-249 metal indicated the presence of three regions of differing magnetic character. Additional measurements are also reported. Magnetic moments and valence states of terbium in TbF 3 , BaTbO 3 , and TbO 1 8 are discussed. Progress on high-field operation of the micro-magnetic susceptometer is reported

  17. Magnetic and magneto-elastic properties of a single crystal of TbB{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granovsky, S.A.; Amara, M.; Galera, R.M. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, Grenoble (France); Kunii, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan)

    2001-07-23

    The magnetic and magneto-elastic properties of a single crystal of TbB{sub 6} are studied. In the ordered range metamagnetic behaviours are observed and complex phase diagrams are determined for magnetic fields along fourfold and threefold directions. In the paramagnetic phase the third-order magnetic susceptibilities and the parastriction curves show anisotropic behaviour which could be accounted for by crystalline electric field (CEF) effects. A set of CEF parameters is proposed on the basis of the analysis of the experimental magnetic and quadrupolar susceptibilities. Though non-negligible, the deduced quadrupolar couplings are weak in comparison with those previously determined in PrB{sub 6}. (author)

  18. Semi-Semantic Annotation: A guideline for the URDU.KON-TB treebank POS annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser ABBAS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work elaborates the semi-semantic part of speech annotation guidelines for the URDU.KON-TB treebank: an annotated corpus. A hierarchical annotation scheme was designed to label the part of speech and then applied on the corpus. This raw corpus was collected from the Urdu Wikipedia and the Jang newspaper and then annotated with the proposed semi-semantic part of speech labels. The corpus contains text of local & international news, social stories, sports, culture, finance, religion, traveling, etc. This exercise finally contributed a part of speech annotation to the URDU.KON-TB treebank. Twenty-two main part of speech categories are divided into subcategories, which conclude the morphological, and semantical information encoded in it. This article reports the annotation guidelines in major; however, it also briefs the development of the URDU.KON-TB treebank, which includes the raw corpus collection, designing & employment of annotation scheme and finally, its statistical evaluation and results. The guidelines presented as follows, will be useful for linguistic community to annotate the sentences not only for the national language Urdu but for the other indigenous languages like Punjab, Sindhi, Pashto, etc., as well.

  19. Tracking and Treating Mobile Populations. The TB Net System. Migrant Clinicians Network Monograph Series. = El Sistema de Red para la TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migrant Clinicians Network, Inc., Austin, TX.

    A comprehensive tracking and referral network that helps provide continuity of care for mobile populations with active tuberculosis (TB) or TB infection is considered essential for effective treatment of TB. However, the interstate referral system that exists between state health departments has been highly inefficient for serving migrant…

  20. Synthesis and characterization of pure and Tb/Cu doped Alq3 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S.; Khan, Zishan H.; Alharbi, Najlaa D.

    2013-01-01

    Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3 ) is an organic semiconductor molecule, widely used in optoelectronic devices. In this work we report on fabricating different nanostructures of Alq 3 and characterize them using different techniques. Nanostructured films of Alq 3 were grown using the physical vapor condensation and thermal-vapor transport methods. The as synthesized films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and absorption spectra. Nanoparticles and nanorods/nanowires are observed in the synthesized films. Tb and Cu doped Alq 3 films were also produced and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) properties. When the original powder sample of Alq 3 was excited by 378 nm, one broad PL emission band is observed at around 515 nm. The pure nanoparticles film shows similar band with a drastic increase in the intensity by a factor of 2. This has been attributed to the large specific surface area, which might has increased the absorption and then the quantum yields. The Tb and Cu doped films show also similar band with a slight shift in the peak position to the blue region, but with further enhancement in the peak intensity, particularly that of Cu. The PL intensity of Cu doped sample is around 1.5 times stronger than that of the pure Alq 3 nanoparticles. This remarkable result on obtaining highly luminescent nanomaterial based on Cu doped Alq 3 nanoparticles film might be useful for future organic light emitting diode display devices. -- Highlights: • Films of Alq 3 nanostructures were grown using different methods. • The PL intensity of Alq 3 in its nanostructure form is enhanced by a factor of 2. • This enhancement is attributed to the large specific surface area of the nanostructures. • Films of Alq 3 nanoparticles doped with Tb and Cu showed further PL enhancement. • The Tb and Cu ions could contribute to the PL intensity of the green band of Alq3

  1. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Dave

    Full Text Available Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out.Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91% were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113 TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50 after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV were higher among INH-resistant patients (39% as compared to INH-sensitive (29%.Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed

  2. Fabrication and characterization of Gd2O2SO4:Tb3+ phosphors by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritman, I.; Yildirim, S.; Kisa, A.; Guleryuz, L. F.; Yurddaskal, M.; Dikici, T.; Celik, E.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the innovative approaches of the scintillation materials to be used in the digital portal imaging systems in the radiotherapy applications is to research the GOS material production that has been activated with the rare earth elements (RE), to produce the scintillation detectors that have a rapid imaging process with a lesser radiation and higher image quality from these materials and to apply the radiographic imaging systems. The GOS: Tb3+ showed high emission peak and high x-ray absorption properties which have been determined for application to mammography and dental radiography. In this study, Gd2O2SO4:Tb3+ phosphors were fabricated by the sol-gel method that is a unique technique and not previously applied. Besides, the structural characterization of GOS: Tb3+ has been investigated. The strongest emission peak located at 549 nm under 312 nm UV light excitation was appeared on the GOS: Tb3+ phosphor particles. The characterization processing optimized by using FTIR, DTA-TG, XRD, XPS, SEM and the luminescence spectroscopy.

  3. Optical properties and energy transfer behavior from Tb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions in co-doped zinc strontium phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Xiaoluan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xing Zhongwen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Yinyao; Xu Weina; Yang Yunxia [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen Guorong, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We choose Tb{sup 3+} as the sensitizer to enhance the emission of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZSP glasses. {yields} We make a serious of characterization on the optical properties of the glasses. {yields} Tb{sup 3+} can transfer its energy to the neighbor Mn{sup 2+} during excitation process. {yields} The energy transfer mechanism is dipolar-quadrupole interaction in phosphate glasses. {yields} Meanwhile, this process is taken by two modes: cross-relaxation and resonant transfer. - Abstract: In this paper, we report optical properties and energy transfer behavior between Tb and Mn in zinc strontium phosphate glasses. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra indicate a stronger hyperfine interaction of Mn{sup 2+}-Mn{sup 2+} pairs with higher MnO concentrations. The co-existence of Tb{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions in glasses is clearly evident in the transmittance spectra. Emission spectra show an obvious energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions in glasses. Based on Dexter's energy transfer formula and Reisfeld's approximation, the energy transfer mechanism was postulated to proceed via a dipolar-quadrupole interaction. The energy transfer carries out with resonant and cross-relaxation transfer modes with the understanding of Tb{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} energy level diagrams. The decreasing in mean-duration time ({tau}{sub mean}) of Tb{sup 3+} ions obtained from the decay curves make a further evidence of energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions in glasses.

  4. Definition of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs in patients with multidrugresistant tuberculosis and TB with extremely drug resistant depending on the case of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryzhanovsky D.G.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the profile of drug resistance to the main (I line and reserve (II line antituberculosis drugs in patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis, depending of the case of the disease. According to the randomized retrospective research 200 patients with MDR and XDR tuberculosis, who received treatment in the clinic of hospital Municipal institution «Dnipropetrovsk rigional clinical association «Phthisiology» Dnipropetrovsk regional Council» during the period 2010 – 2012 were involved. Data about patients contained the data on a case of the disease and the results of the test of drug sensitivity to MBT. XDR – TB was revealed in 7.5% of patients with MDR tuberculosis. In patients with MDR tuberculosis as compared with patients with XDR tuberculosis «new cases» were diagnosed in 19.5% against 18.5% (p <0.05. In patients with MDR tuberculosis and with XDR tuberculosis resistance to the antituberculosis drug more commonly developed to S - 88.5%, E - 55% and Z - 24%. The presence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB prevails in patients, who underwent previous courses of treatment with anti-TB drugs in case history as compared with patients with «new cases» of treatment. The development of resistance to anti-TB drugs depends on the availability of these drugs in the previous treatment regimens.

  5. A case report of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy left-side gastropexy to resolve a recurrent gastric dilatation in a dog previously treated with right-side gastropexy for gastric dilatation volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Giuseppe; Cinti, Filippo; Pietra, Marco; Capitani, Ombretta; Valentini, Simona

    2014-12-01

    A 6-year-old, large-breed, female dog was evaluated for gastric dilatation (GD). The dog was affected by GD volvulus, which had been surgically treated with gastric derotation and right incisional gastropexy. Recurrence of GD appeared 36 hours after surgery. The dilatation was immediately treated with an orogastric probe but still recurred 4 times. Therefore, a left-side gastropexy by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed to prevent intermittent GD. After PEG tube placement, the patient recovered rapidly without side effects. Several techniques of gastropexy have been described as a prophylactic method for gastric dilatation volvulus, but to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of left-sided PEG gastropexy performed in a case of canine GD recurrence after an incisional right gastropexy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of MDR-TB in HIV co-infected patients in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, A M W; Schultze, A; Miller, R F

    2018-01-01

    below the target of 90%, reflecting the challenging patient population and the environment in which health care is provided. Urgent improvement of management of patients with TB/HIV in EE, in particular for those with MDR-TB, is needed and includes widespread access to rapid TB diagnostics, better......OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral...... access to and use of second-line TB drugs, timely ART initiation with viral load monitoring, and integration of TB/HIV care....

  7. Energy transfer mechanism between Ce and Tb ions in sol–gel synthesized YSO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriu, Daniele; Stagi, Luigi; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo; Ricci, Pier Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Tb and Ce in Rare Earth Doped crystalline oxides largely depend on their relative concentrations: by increasing the dopant concentration, the luminescence profile changes from blue to green because of the energy transfer among centers. The kinetic properties of the luminescence of optically excited Terbium–Cerium co-doped Y_2SiO_5 sol–gel synthesized crystal powders have been investigated as a function of the Tb dopant concentration (Ce content fixed at 1% atomic). The interaction among different Tb emitting centers and their relation with Ce centers was explained within the Inokuti-Hirayama model for a dipole–dipole energy transfer mechanism in the low-middle Tb concentration range whilst the Forster–Dexter model was applied in the middle-high Tb concentration range. The kinetic model allows elucidating the role of sensitizer and activator ion as a function of Tb concentration, successfully estimating the energy transfer mechanism efficiency and calculating the critical Tb concentration. - Highlights: • The kinetic properties of Ce, Tb recombination in YSO matrix were studied. • The Inokuti-Hirayama and Forster–Dexter models were applied. • At high Tb content, the Ce to Tb energy transfer acts through the dipole−quadrupole. • At low Tb content, the Ce to Tb energy transfer acts through the dipole−dipole. • The presence of Ce reduces the critical Tb concentration (at low Tb content).

  8. Energy transfer mechanism between Ce and Tb ions in sol–gel synthesized YSO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriu, Daniele; Stagi, Luigi; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo; Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it

    2016-03-01

    The luminescence properties of Tb and Ce in Rare Earth Doped crystalline oxides largely depend on their relative concentrations: by increasing the dopant concentration, the luminescence profile changes from blue to green because of the energy transfer among centers. The kinetic properties of the luminescence of optically excited Terbium–Cerium co-doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} sol–gel synthesized crystal powders have been investigated as a function of the Tb dopant concentration (Ce content fixed at 1% atomic). The interaction among different Tb emitting centers and their relation with Ce centers was explained within the Inokuti-Hirayama model for a dipole–dipole energy transfer mechanism in the low-middle Tb concentration range whilst the Forster–Dexter model was applied in the middle-high Tb concentration range. The kinetic model allows elucidating the role of sensitizer and activator ion as a function of Tb concentration, successfully estimating the energy transfer mechanism efficiency and calculating the critical Tb concentration. - Highlights: • The kinetic properties of Ce, Tb recombination in YSO matrix were studied. • The Inokuti-Hirayama and Forster–Dexter models were applied. • At high Tb content, the Ce to Tb energy transfer acts through the dipole−quadrupole. • At low Tb content, the Ce to Tb energy transfer acts through the dipole−dipole. • The presence of Ce reduces the critical Tb concentration (at low Tb content).

  9. Litigation as TB Rights Advocacy: A New Delhi Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Kerry

    2016-06-01

    One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies.

  10. EXAFS study of Tb-doped silica xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, F.; Monti, F.; Kuzmin, A.; Dalmaso, A.; Pasqualini, D.

    1999-01-01

    The modification of the local environment of Tb 3+ ions in optically active silica xerogels as a function of concentration (from 400 ppm to 40000 ppm) and thermal treatment (which induces densification) was studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Tb L 3 edge. Quantitative analysis of the first Tb-O coordination shell was performed using the experimental signal from Tb 3+ ions in water solution as a reference. The radial distribution functions (RDF) of the non-thermally treated (NT) gels are characterised by a nearly gaussian shape, as for the reference sample. On the contrary, the RDF of the densified gels (T) are asymmetric having the main peak at a shorter distance, with a reduced coordination number (N=4-5) and a secondary peak, with N=1-2, at a longer distance. The local environment of Tb in the low concentration sample (400 ppm) is different from that at higher concentrations, both in the NT- and in the T-gels. (au)

  11. EXAFS study of Tb-doped silica xerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, F. [CeFsa - Centro CNR-ITC de Fisica degli Stati Aggregati, Povo (Italy); Monti, F. [Univ. de Verona, Facolta di Scienze (Italy); Kuzmin, A. [Inst. of Solid State Physics, Riga (Latvia); Dalmaso, A.; Pasqualini, D. [Univ. di Trento, INFM - Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    The modification of the local environment of Tb{sup 3+} ions in optically active silica xerogels as a function of concentration (from 400 ppm to 40000 ppm) and thermal treatment (which induces densification) was studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Tb L{sub 3} edge. Quantitative analysis of the first Tb-O coordination shell was performed using the experimental signal from Tb{sup 3+} ions in water solution as a reference. The radial distribution functions (RDF) of the non-thermally treated (NT) gels are characterised by a nearly gaussian shape, as for the reference sample. On the contrary, the RDF of the densified gels (T) are asymmetric having the main peak at a shorter distance, with a reduced coordination number (N=4-5) and a secondary peak, with N=1-2, at a longer distance. The local environment of Tb in the low concentration sample (400 ppm) is different from that at higher concentrations, both in the NT- and in the T-gels. (au) 15 refs.

  12. EXAFS study of Tb-doped silica xerogels

    CERN Document Server

    Rocca, F; Kuzmin, A; Dalmaso, A; Pasqualini, D

    1999-01-01

    The modification of the local environment of Tb/sup 3+/ ions in optically active silica xerogels as a function of concentration (from 400 ppm to 40000 ppm) and thermal treatment (which induces densification) was studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Tb L/sub 3/ edge. Quantitative analysis of the first Tb-O coordination shell was performed using the experimental signal from Tb/sup 3+/ ions in water solution as a reference. The radial distribution functions (RDF) of the non-thermally treated (NT) gels are characterized by a nearly Gaussian shape, as for the reference sample. On the contrary, the RDF of the densified gels (T) are asymmetric having the main peak at a shorter distance, with a reduced coordination number (N=4-5) and a secondary peak, with N=1-2, at a longer distance. The local environment of Tb in the low concentration sample (400 ppm) is different from that at higher concentrations, both in the NT- and in the T-gels. (15 refs).

  13. Magnetic Interactions in Tb and Tb-10% Ho from Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1968-01-01

    The magnon dispersion relations and lifetimes have been measured in Tb and a Tb‐10% Ho alloy by inelastic neutron scattering, in regions of both ferromagnetic and spiral ordering. In the ferromagnetic phase, the magnon energy is generally finite at zero wavevector and rises quadratically at low q....... The magnon energies scale approximately with the magnetization. In the spiral phase the magnon energy rises linearly from zero at low q. The Fourier‐transformed exchange parameter J(q) has pronounced peaks in the c direction, which are ascribed to transitions between states close to the Fermi surface....... These peaks are less pronounced in the ferromagnetic phase. The primary mechanism limiting the magnon lifetimes appears to be interaction with the conduction electrons. In the alloy, the lifetime for magnons propagating in the c direction in the ferromagnetic phase falls abruptly at about q  =  0.35 Å−1...

  14. Áreas de vulnerabilidade para co-infecção HIV-aids/TB em Ribeirão Preto, SP Áreas de vulnerabilidad para coinfección VIH-sida/TB en Ribeirao Preto, Sureste de Brasil Areas of vulnerability to HIV/TB co-infection in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Firmino Brunello

    2011-06-01

    ógico realizado por medio del georeferenciamiento de los casos nuevos de VIH/TB notificados en Ribeirao Preto, Sureste de Brasil, en 2006. Los datos fueron obtenidos del sistema de información estatal paulista de notificación de TB. Los casos nuevos de coinfección VIH/TB fueron analizados conforme características sociodemográficas y clínicas y, posteriormente, georeferenciados en la base cartográfica del municipio según dirección residencial. Los sectores del municipio fueron categorizados en tres niveles socioeconómicos: inferior, intermedio y superior, con base en el análisis de componentes principales de las variables del censo demográfico de 2000 (renta, instrucción y porcentaje de domicilios con cinco o más moradores. Fue calculada la incidencia de la coinfección VIH/TB para cada nivel socioeconómico. RESULTADOS: La coinfección VIH/TB afectó más adultos del sexo masculino en edad económicamente activa y la forma pulmonar de la TB fue la más común. La distribución espacial mostró que las incidencias en las áreas con niveles socioeconómicos intermedios e inferiores (8,3 y 11,5 casos por 100 mil habitantes, respectivamente, fueron superiores a (4,8 casos por 100 mil habitantes las del nivel socioeconómico superior. CONCLUSIONES: La tasa de incidencia de coinfección HIV/TB analizada por niveles socioeconómicos mostró patrón espacial de distribución no homogéneo y presentó valores más altos en áreas de mayor vulnerabilidad social. El estudio diagnosticó áreas geográficas prioritarias para el control de la coinfección la tecnología del sistema de información geográfica puede ser empleada en la planificación de las acciones en salud por los gestores municipales.OBJECTIVE: To identify areas of vulnerability to new cases of HIV/tuberculosis (TB co-infection. METHODS: An ecological descriptive study was conducted by georeferencing new HIV/TB cases reported in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. Data were obtained from

  15. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  16. State of affairs of tuberculosis in prison facilities: a systematic review of screening practices and recommendations for best TB control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Elsland, Sabine L.; Lange, Joep M. A.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; van den Hombergh, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Prisoners are at high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), causing morbidity and mortality. Prison facilities encounter many challenges in TB screening procedures and TB control. This review explores screening practices for detection of TB and describes limitations of TB control in prison

  17. Under-reporting of tuberculosis in Praia, Cape Verde, from 2006 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado da Luz, E; Braga, J U

    2018-03-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the under-reporting rate for tuberculosis (TB) in Cape Verde between 2006 and 2012 was 49%. However, the WHO recognises the challenges associated with this estimation process and recommends implementing other methods, such as record linkage, to combat TB under-reporting. To estimate and analyse under-reporting of cases by TB surveillance health units and to evaluate TB cases retrieved from other TB diagnostic sources in Praia, Cape Verde, from 2006 to 2012. This cross-sectional study evaluated under-reporting using the following data: 1) the under-reporting index from TB reporting health units (RHUs), where the number of validated TB cases from RHUs was compared with data from the National Programme for the Fight against Tuberculosis and Leprosy (NPFTL); and 2) the under-reporting index among overall data sources, or a comparison of the number of all validated TB cases from all sources with NPFTL data. The TB under-reporting rate was 40% in Praia during the study period, and results were influenced by laboratory findings. The TB under-reporting rate was very similar to the rate estimated by the WHO. TB surveillance must be improved to reduce under-reporting.

  18. Difference in TB10.4 T-cell epitope recognition following immunization with recombinant TB10.4, BCG or infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Grandal, Michael V; Poulsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    vaccine Ag, TB10.4, in a recombinant form, or when expressed by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), or by the current anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. We showed that BCG and M.tb induced a similar CD4(+) T-cell specific TB10.4 epitope-pattern, which differed completely from...... that induced by recombinant TB10.4. This difference was not due to post-translational modifications of TB10.4 or because TB10.4 is secreted from BCG and M.tb as a complex with Rv0287. In addition, BCG and TB10.4/CAF01 were both taken up by DC and macrophages in vivo, and in vitro uptake experiments revealed...... that both TB10.4 and BCG were transported to Lamp(+)-compartments. BCG and TB10.4 however, were directed to different types of Lamp(+)-compartments in the same APC, which may lead to different epitope recognition patterns. In conclusion, we show that different vectors can induce completely different...

  19. Preparation and characterization of Tb3+ and Tb(sal)3.nH2O doped PC:PMMA blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Y.; Singh, A.K.; Prakash, Rajiv; Rai, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tb doped polycarbonate:poly(methyl methacrylate) (Tb-PC:PMMA) blend was prepared with varying proportions of PC and PMMA. Thermal and spectroscopic properties of the doped polymer have been investigated employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) absorption and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) techniques. PC:PMMA blend (with 10 wt% PC and 90 wt% PMMA) shows better miscibility. Optical properties of the dopant Tb 3+ ions have been investigated using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excited by 355 nm radiation. It is seen that luminescence intensity of Tb 3+ ion depends on PC:PMMA ratio and on Tb 3+ ion concentration. Concentration quenching is seen for TbCl 3 .6H 2 O concentration larger than 4 wt%. Addition of salicylic acid to the polymer blend increases the luminescence from Tb 3+ ions. Luminescence decay curve analysis affirms the non-radiative energy transfer from salicylic acid to Tb 3+ ions, which is identified as the reason behind this enhancement. - Highlights: → Blend formation is confirmed at PC/90PMMA, using FTIR and DSC techniques. → Absorption and bandgap studies of blend and parent components were studied. → Optical properties of Tb and Tb(sal) 3 .nH 2 O complex have been studied in PC/PMMA blend. → Luminescence decay curves confirm non-radiative energy transfer from Sal to Tb 3+ ions.

  20. KEMANDIRIAN MASYARAKAT DALAM PERILAKU PENCEGAHAN PENULARAN PENYAKIT TB PARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Prevention of tuberculosis, particularly pulmonary tuberculosis in lndonesia was started in 1969, but the number of pulmonary TB patients is increasing. Methods:Ethnographic qualitative study aims to assess the independence of the community effort in preventing pulmonary TB disease transmission. Methods: of data collection participatory observation, in-depth interviews with informants pulmonary TB patients and families. Research sites in the city of Pariaman, West Lombok district and the district Rote Ndao NTT. Results:The analysis of four independent indicators of the knowledge society is stilllow considering that most of the informants consider pulmonary TB disease as a hereditary disease, and infectious diseases as the people in the district Hossa Rote Ndao. Illness perceptions of people in the city of Pariaman, pulmonary TB disease as a disease because "ismeken", due to use-for others who are not happy ln the town of West Lombok fear of stigma, shame as people with TB, so there are many people who call it the perception of illness as a disease of old cough, dry cough of 40 days, and asthma. Confidence/trust society still depends on health workers, yet there are cadres who provide direct counseling on prevention of transmission. Capability community is lacking, people still believe in the health care workers to provide counseling. Selection of the PMO staff (Supervisors taking medication were not appropriate to the social structures that exist in society Lobar districts with 'sasak' social structure, then the host teacher, 'Kyai' can be as social support surrounding communities. 'Kyai' expected to affect the mindset of people, motivate people to air PHBs. Rote Ndao district as a social support from church leaders as well as the city of Pariaman, a descendant of the king, can motivate people. Participatory community by providing prevention counseling in a variety of pulmonary TB disease or group of containers carried on a

  1. CD4 cell count recovery in HIV/TB co-infected patients versus TB uninfected HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchu A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is lack of data comparing the improvement in CD4 count following antitubercular (ATT and antiretroviral therapy (ART in patients presenting with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Tuberculosis (HIV/TB dual infection compared with CD4 matched cohort of TB uninfected HIV patients initiated on ART. We sought to test the hypothesis; TB additionally contributes to reduction in CD4 count in HIV/TB co-infected patients and this would result in greater improvement in count following treatment compared with CD4 matched TB uninfected individuals. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective cohort study design we studied the change in CD4 cell counts in two groups of patients - those with CD4 cell count >100 cells / mm 3 (Group 1 and <100/mm 3 (Group 2 at presentation. In each group the change in CD4 cell count in dually infected patients following six-month ATT and ART was compared to cohorts of CD4 matched TB uninfected patients initiated on ART. Results: In Group 1 (52 patients dually infected subjects′ CD4 count improved from 150 cells/ mm 3 to 345 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001. In the control TB uninfected patients, the change was from 159 cells/mm 3 to 317 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001. Additional improvement in dually infected patients compared to the control group was not statistically significant (P=0.24. In Group 2 (65 patients dually infected subjects count improved from 49 cells/mm3 to 249 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001 where as in control TB uninfected patients improvement was from 50 cells/ mm 3 to 205 cells/mm 3 (P=0.001, there being statistically significant additional improvement in dually infected subjects (P=0.01. Conclusion: Greater increment in CD4 counts with ATT and ART in dually infected patients suggests that TB additionally influences the reduction of CD4 counts in HIV patients.

  2. Quality of life with palbociclib plus fulvestrant in previously treated hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: patient-reported outcomes from the PALOMA-3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, N; Iyer, S; Turner, N; Cristofanilli, M; Ro, J; André, F; Loi, S; Verma, S; Iwata, H; Bhattacharyya, H; Puyana Theall, K; Bartlett, C H; Loibl, S

    2016-06-01

    In the PALOMA-3 study, palbociclib plus fulvestrant demonstrated improved progression-free survival compared with fulvestrant plus placebo in hormone receptor-positive, HER2- endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This analysis compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between the two treatment groups. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to receive palbociclib 125 mg/day orally for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off (n = 347) plus fulvestrant (500 mg i.m. per standard of care) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174). PROs were assessed on day 1 of cycles 1-4 and of every other subsequent cycle starting with cycle 6 using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and its breast cancer module, QLQ-BR23. High scores (range 0-100) could indicate better functioning/quality of life (QoL) or worse symptom severity. Repeated-measures mixed-effect analyses were carried out to compare on-treatment overall scores and changes from baseline between treatment groups while controlling for baseline. Between-group comparisons of time to deterioration in global QoL and pain were made using an unstratified log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Questionnaire completion rates were high at baseline and during treatment (from baseline to cycle 14, ≥95.8% in each group completed ≥1 question on the EORTC QLQ-C30). On treatment, estimated overall global QoL scores significantly favored the palbociclib plus fulvestrant group [66.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.5-67.7 versus 63.0, 95% CI 60.6-65.3; P = 0.0313]. Significantly greater improvement from baseline in pain was also observed in this group (-3.3, 95% CI -5.1 to -1.5 versus 2.0, 95% CI -0.6 to 4.6; P = 0.0011). No significant differences were observed for other QLQ-BR23 functioning domains, breast or arm symptoms. Treatment with palbociclib plus fulvestrant significantly delayed deterioration in global QoL (P < 0.025) and pain (P < 0.001) compared with fulvestrant alone. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant allowed patients to maintain good Qo

  3. Fusion cross sections measurement for 6Li + 159Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, M.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Kshetri, R.; Roy, Subinit; Basu, P.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Ray, M.; Parkar, V.; Santra, S.; Kailas, S.; Palit, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of projectile breakup threshold energy on fusion in mass region around A∼170, we have carried out a systematic investigation of the fusion (both CF and ICF) cross sections for the systems 11 B, 10 B + 159 Tb and 7 Li + 159 Tb at energies near and close to the barrier where 11 B was considered to be a strongly bound nucleus. The nucleus 10 B has a α-separation energy of 4.5 MeV. The measurements show that the extent of suppression of CF cross sections is correlated with the α-separation energies of the projectiles. As a further continuation of this work, we have recently carried out fusion excitation function measurement for the system 6 Li + 159 Tb (Coulomb barrier 27 MeV) at energies near and close to the barrier

  4. Inhibition of placenta growth factor with TB-403

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Sengeløv, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is clinical evidence that therapies targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway are effective in delaying cancer progression. However, tumors may be either intrinsically resistant or evolve resistance to such therapies. Hence, there is a need for new therapies...... targeting angiogenesis. AREAS COVERED: The data are obtained by searching in the PubMed database. The search terms used included antiangiogenic therapy, TB-403 (RO5323441), placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFR-1 (Flt-1). We review preclinical data concerning the function and inhibition of Pl......GF and summarize data on expression of PlGF in cancer patients. Data from early-phase clinical trials of TB-403 (RO5323441), a monoclonal antibody inhibiting PlGF, are discussed. Future development strategies, therapeutic potentials and limitations of TB-403 are further evaluated. EXPERT OPINION: There are some...

  5. Pharmacogenetic & pharmacokinetic biomarker for efavirenz based ARV and rifampicin based anti-TB drug induced liver injury in TB-HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Implication of pharmacogenetic variations and efavirenz pharmacokinetics in concomitant efavirenz based antiviral therapy and anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI has not been yet studied. We performed a prospective case-control association study to identify the incidence, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic and biochemical predictors for anti-tubercular and antiretroviral drugs induced liver injury (DILI in HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infected patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Newly diagnosed treatment naïve TB-HIV co-infected patients (n = 353 were enrolled to receive efavirenz based ART and rifampicin based anti-TB therapy, and assessed clinically and biochemically for DILI up to 56 weeks. Quantification of plasma efavirenz and 8-hydroxyefaviernz levels and genotyping for NAT2, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, UGT2B7 and SLCO1B1 genes were done. The incidence of DILI and identification of predictors was evaluated using survival analysis and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. The incidence of DILI was 30.0%, or 14.5 per 1000 person-week, and that of severe was 18.4%, or 7.49 per 1000 person-week. A statistically significant association of DILI with being of the female sex (p = 0.001, higher plasma efavirenz level (p = 0.009, efavirenz/8-hydroxyefavirenz ratio (p = 0.036, baseline AST (p = 0.022, ALT (p = 0.014, lower hemoglobin (p = 0.008, and serum albumin (p = 0.007, NAT2 slow-acetylator genotype (p = 0.039 and ABCB1 3435TT genotype (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: We report high incidence of anti-tubercular and antiretroviral DILI in Ethiopian patients. Between patient variability in systemic efavirenz exposure and pharmacogenetic variations in NAT2, CYP2B6 and ABCB1 genes determines susceptibility to DILI in TB-HIV co-infected patients. Close monitoring of plasma efavirenz level and liver enzymes during early therapy and/or genotyping practice in HIV clinics is recommended for early identification

  6. TB-IRIS and remodelling of the T cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB: the CAPRI T (ANRS-12614) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, V.; Pean, P.; Jasenosky, L.D.; Madec, Y.; Laureillard, D.; Sok, T.; Sath, S.; Borand, L.; Marcy, O.; Chan, S.; Tsitsikov, E.; Delfraissy, J.-F.; Blanc, F.-X.; Goldfeld, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods We prospectively evaluated T cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB from the CAMELIA randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS to findings from patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and viral load. Post-ART initiation, EM CD4+ and Fas+ EM CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory (CM) CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, EM/CM CD4+ T cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions A distinct pattern of pre-ART T cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T cell memory compartment towards an EM-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre- and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. PMID:25486415

  7. MDR-TB Outbreak among HIV-Negative Tunisian Patients followed during 11 Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Dekhil

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB outbreaks that evolve, from the outset, in a context strictly negative for HIV infection deserve special consideration since they reflect the true intrinsic epidemic potential of the causative strain. To our knowledge, the long-term evolution of such exceptional outbreaks and the treatment outcomes for the involved patients has never been reported hitherto. Here we provide a thorough description, over an 11-year period, of an MDR-TB outbreak that emerged and expanded in an HIV-negative context, Northern Tunisia.From October 2001 to June 2011, the MDR-TB outbreak involved 48 HIV-negative individuals that are mainly young (mean age 31.09 yrs; 89.6% male and noninstitutionalized. Drug susceptibility testing coupled to mutational analysis revealed that initial transmission involved an isolate that was simultaneously resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin. The causative Haarlem3-ST50 outbreak strain expanded mainly as an 11-banded IS6110 RFLP profile (77.1%, from which a 12-banded subclone evolved. After undergoing a 2-year treatment with second-line drugs, 22 (45.8% patients were cured and 3 (6.2% completed treatment, thus yielding an overall treatment success rate of 52.1%. Among the patients that experienced unfavorable treatment outcomes, 10 (20.8% failed treatment, 3 (6.2% were lost to follow-up, 5 (10.4% died, and 5 (10.4% could not be evaluated. Poor adherence to treatment was found to be the main independent predictor of unfavorable outcomes (HR: 9.15; 95% CI 1.72-48.73; P = 0.014. Intriguingly, the evolved 12-banded subclone proved significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes (HR: 4.90; 95% CI 1.04-23.04, P = 0.044. High rate of fatality and relapse was further demonstrated at the long-term, since 70% of those whose treatment failed have died, and 24% among those deemed successfully treated have relapsed.Taken together, the data obtained in this study indicate that MDR-TB

  8. A comparative study on the luminescence properties of Ce3+/Tb3+ doped Gd-based host nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Charushila Vasant; Rani, Barkha; Sahu, Niroj Kumar

    2018-04-01

    A comparative study on the crystal phases and their respective luminescence behaviour of Gd3+ based host materials such as GdPO4, GdF3, GdVO4 and Gd2O3 sensitized with 7at.% Ce3+ and activated with 5 at.% Tb3+ have been reported. The nanomaterials were prepared by polyol method using ethylene glycol as solvent and found to have different crystal structures such as monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal and cubic phase. Clear characteristics emission from Tb3+ has been observed in all the samples when excited in the absorption wavelength of Ce3+ and Gd3+ (˜280 nm). Among all the above materials, intense emission of Tb3+ is found in GdPO4 followed by GdF3, Gd2O3 and GdVO4 respectively. The Tb3+ emission is strongly influenced by the energy transfer process and crystal structure of the host materials and hence this study will be important for choosing suitable materials for display devices and biomedical applications.

  9. Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: T.SPOT.TB versus Tuberculin Skin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Mar Arenas Miras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE reported increased incidence of tuberculosis. The tuberculin skin test (TST is the technique of choice to detect latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI but has several limitations. Objectives. We compared TST and the newer T.SPOT.TB test to diagnose LTBI in SLE patients. Methods. In this observational cohort study conducted between August 2009 and February 2012, we recruited 92 patients from those attending the SLE clinic of our university hospital. Data recorded were epidemiological and sociodemographic characteristics. Laboratory analyses included TST and T.SPOT.TB tests. Results. Of the patients studied, 92% were women with an average age of 42.7 years. Overall, the degree of correlation between the two tests was low (Kappa index = 0.324 but was better in patients not receiving corticosteroids (CTC/immunosuppressive (IS therapy (Kappa = 0.436 and in those receiving hydroxychloroquine (Kappa = 0.473. While TST results were adversely affected by those receiving CTC and/or IS drugs (P=0.021, the T.SPOT.TB results were not. Conclusion. Although the TST test remains a useful tool for diagnosing LTBI in SLE patients, the T.SPOT.TB test is perhaps better employed when the patient is receiving CTC and/or IS drugs.

  10. Reaching out to take on TB in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A J; Granat, Simo M

    2014-01-01

    Among the many challenges facing populations disrupted by complex emergencies, personal security and food security rank much higher than access to healthcare. However, over time health needs assume increasing importance. Many complex crises occur in settings where the background incidence of TB is already high; social and economic conditions in crises are then highly conducive to amplification of the existing TB problem. Innovative approaches to delivery of diagnostic and treatment services, transition planning and integration with other healthcare providers and services are vital. In the extremely challenging environment of Somalia, multiple partners are making headway though collaboration and innovation.

  11. Analysis of the fourth spectrum of terbium (Tb IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, N.; Sugar, J.

    1976-01-01

    The low-energy level structure of Tb 3+ has been derived from spectra obtained with a sliding spark light source. The 7 F ground term of the 4f 8 configuration was found as well as all levels of the configurations 4f 7 5d, 6s, and 6p built on the 8 S 7 / 2 core state of 4f 7 . Of the possible 51 lines connecting these levels, 48 were observed. Optimized radial parameters are given for the observed configurations. A value for the ionization energy of 39.37(0.10) eV is derived for Tb 3+

  12. Optimal treatment interruptions control of TB transmission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Jonner; Suparwati, Titik; Kawuwung, Westy B.

    2018-03-01

    A tuberculosis model which incorporates treatment interruptions of infectives is established. Optimal control of individuals infected with active TB is given in the model. It is obtained that the control reproduction numbers is smaller than the reproduction number, this means treatment controls could optimize the decrease in the spread of active TB. For this model, controls on treatment of infection individuals to reduce the actively infected individual populations, by application the Pontryagins Maximum Principle for optimal control. The result further emphasized the importance of controlling disease relapse in reducing the number of actively infected and treatment interruptions individuals with tuberculosis.

  13. Random anisotropy studies in amorphous Co-Tb ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanain, N.; Berrada, A.; Lassri, H.; Krishnan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Amorphous Co 1-x Tb x ribbons with x=0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 have been prepared by melt spinning technique. Magnetization measurements were carried out at 4.2 K, under magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The Co moment is found to be very small and the Tb moment is 7.15μ B at 4.2 K, which indicates a speromagnetic spin structure. Using Chudnovsky's theory we have extracted some fundamental magnetic parameters. ((orig.))

  14. Random anisotropy studies in amorphous CoTb ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanain, N.; Berrada, A.; Lassri, H.; Krishnan, R.

    1995-02-01

    Amorphous Co 1- xTb x ribbons with x = 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 have been prepared by melt spinning technique. Magnetization measurements were carried out at 4.2 K, under magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The Co moment is found to be very small and the Tb moment is 7.15 μB at 4.2 K, which indicates a speromagnetic spin structure. Using Chudnovsky's theory we have extracted some fundamental magnetic parameters.

  15. Decay out of superdeformed bands in Tb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrache, C.M.; Beck, F.A.; Flibotte, S.; France, G. de; Theisen, C.; Vivien, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Excited states in the 150,151,152 Tb isotopes have been investigated using the 130 Te( 27 Al, xn) reaction and the EUROGAM array. The theoretical interpretation of the level schemes has been performed in the framework of the deformed independent particle model. The feeding patterns of the normal-deformed states by the superdeformed bands in 150,151 Tb istopes have also been established. The results indicate that the decay-out mechanism of the bands is not of purely statistical nature, but depends on the configurations of both normal- and superdeformed states. (orig.)

  16. Divergent Small Tim Homologues Are Associated with TbTim17 and Critical for the Biogenesis of TbTim17 Protein Complexes in Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph T.; Singha, Ujjal K.; Misra, Smita

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small Tim proteins belong to a group of mitochondrial intermembrane space chaperones that aid in the import of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins with internal targeting signals. Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, possesses multiple small Tim proteins that include homologues of T. brucei Tim9 (TbTim9) and Tim10 (TbTim10) and a unique small Tim that shares homology with both Tim8 and Tim13 (TbTim8/13). Here, we found that these three small TbTims are expressed as soluble mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis showed that the small TbTims stably associated with each other and with TbTim17, the major component of the mitochondrial inner membrane translocase in T. brucei. Yeast two-hybrid analysis indicated direct interactions among the small TbTims; however, their interaction patterns appeared to be different from those of their counterparts in yeast and humans. Knockdown of the small TbTims reduced cell growth and decreased the steady-state level of TbTim17 and T. brucei ADP/ATP carrier (TbAAC), two polytopic mitochondrial inner membrane proteins. Knockdown of small TbTims also reduced the matured complexes of TbTim17 in mitochondria. Depletion of any of the small TbTims reduced TbTim17 import moderately but greatly hampered the stability of the TbTim17 complexes in T. brucei. Altogether, our results revealed that TbTim9, TbTim10, and TbTim8/13 interact with each other, associate with TbTim17, and play a crucial role in the integrity and maintenance of the levels of TbTim17 complexes. IMPORTANCE Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. The parasite’s mitochondrion represents a useful source for potential chemotherapeutic targets. Similarly to yeast and humans, mitochondrial functions depend on the import of proteins that are encoded in the nucleus and made in the cytosol. Even though the machinery involved in this

  17. Oxidative Stress Markers in Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan Haribhau; Mukherjee, Sandeepan R; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Dandekar, Sucheta P

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort. The current prospective study was conducted in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Maharashtra, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples from 50 patients each suffering from active TB and HIV-TB co-infection were collected from Seth G.S.Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai and Group of Tuberculosis Hospital, Sewree Mumbai. Samples were processed and the experiments were carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Haffkine Institute. Samples from 50 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum was assessed for pro-oxidant markers such as Nitric Oxide (NO), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), superoxide anion. Antioxidant markers such as catalase and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were assessed. Total serum protein, was also assessed. Among the pro-oxidants, serum NO levels were decreased in TB group while no change was seen in HIV-TB group. TBARS and CRP levels showed significant increase in both groups; superoxide anion increased significantly in HIV-TB group. Catalase levels showed decreased activities in TB group. SOD activity significantly increased in HIV-TB but not in TB group. The total serum proteins were significantly increased in HIV-TB and TB groups. The values of Control cohort were with the normal reference ranges. In the present study, we found the presence of oxidative stress to be profound in the TB and HIV-TB co-infection population.

  18. Usefulness of the mycobacterium tuberculosis direct assay in early diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hui-Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ detection of living mycobacterium TB rRNA by the mycobacterium TB direct assay (MTD and its clinical significance in the early diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. Eighty-six patients were recruited from the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from June to November in 2010, having been diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB, including tuberculous peritonitis (n=22, lymphatic TB (n=21, tuberculous meningitis (n=15, HIV-associated TB (n=13, nephroTB (n=9, spinal TB (n=2, cutaneous TB (n=13, parotid TB (n=1, chest wall TB (n=1, intestinal TB (n=1. One hundred and five extrapulmonary specimens, including CSF, puncture fluid, drainage, pleural fluid, urine, secretion, ascites, lymphatic tissue and marrow were collected from the patients. The samples were examined using acid-fast stain, solid culture, liquid culture and MTD in parallel. In MTD, the target segments of MTB rRNA in either cultures or clinical specimens were amplified prior to being qualitatively detected with the hybridization protection assay (HPA. The sensitivities of MTD and acid-fast staining in liquid and solid cultures were 48.6%, 41.9%, 20.0% and 14.3%, respectively. MTD sensitivity was higher than that of the others and its specificity was 100%. We concluded that MTD rRNA detection is an effective, rapid, convenient, sensitive and reliable method for the early diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.

  19. The isothermal section at 500 deg. C of the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.Q.; Jian, Y.X.; Ao, W.Q.; Zhuang, Y.H.; He, W.

    2006-01-01

    Phase equilibria in the Gd-Tb-Ga ternary system at 500 deg. C were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The binary compounds, Gd 5 Ga 3 , Gd 3 Ga 2 , GdGa, GdGa 2 , Tb 5 Ga 3 , TbGa, TbGa 2 and TbGa 3 have been confirmed at 500 deg. C. No ternary compound was found in this system. The isothermal section of this system at 500 deg. C was constructed. It is composed of 7 single-phase regions, 8 two-phase regions and 2 three-phase regions. Four ternary continuous solid solutions (Gd, Tb), (Gd, Tb) 5 Ga 3 , (Gd, Tb)Ga, (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 were formed in this isothermal section. The maximum solid solubilities of Ga in (Gd, Tb) at 500 deg. C is 5.0 at.%. The homogeneity range of (Gd, Tb)Ga 2 is from 20 to 33.3 at.% Ga in Gd-Ga side but limited in Tb-Ga side. The solid solubilities of Ga in the other phases cannot be detected. The Curie temperatures of the Gd 0.6 Tb 0.4-x Ga x alloys increase from 270 to 298 K as x increases from 0 to 0.03

  20. Trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in referral hospitals in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis is one of major current challenges to global public health. The transmission of resistant strains is increasing as a burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB patients in extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB cases in India. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study trends of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance pattern in new cases and previously treated cases of EPTB in referral hospitals in northern India. Study Design and Setting: A prospectively observational study and referral medical institutions in northern India. Materials and Methods: All EPTB specimens were processed for Ziehl Neelsen staining, BACTEC culture and BACTEC NAP test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. All M. tuberculosis complex isolates were performed for radiometric-based drug susceptibility pattern against streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol using the 1% proportion method. Results: We found that 165/756 (20.5% isolates were identified as M. tuberculosis complex by the NAP test. We observed that 39.9% were resistant to first-line antitubercular drugs. The resistance rate was higher in previously treated patients: H (30.3%, R (16.3%, E (15.7% and S (16.3%. MDR-TB was observed in 13.4%, but, in new cases, this was 11.4% and 19.1% of the previously treated patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: MDR-TB is gradually increased in EPTB cases and predominant resistance to previous treated cases of EPTB. The molecular drug sensitivity test (DST method can be an early decision for chemotherapy in MDR-TB patients. The International Standards of TB Care need to be used by the RNTCP and professional medical associations as a tool to improve TB care in the country.

  1. Caring for the carer: a systematic review of pure technology-based cognitive behavioral therapy (TB-CBT) interventions for dementia carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer L; Dawkins, Sarah; Quinn, Michael G; Sanderson, Kristy; Elliott, Kate-Ellen J; Stirling, Christine; Schüz, Ben; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Face-to-face delivery of CBT is not always optimal or practical for informal dementia carers (DCs). Technology-based formats of CBT delivery (TB-CBT) have been developed with the aim to improve client engagement and accessibility, and lower delivery costs, and offers potential benefits for DCs. However, research of TB-CBT for DCs has maintained heavy reliance on therapist involvement. The efficacy of pure TB-CBT interventions for DCs is not currently established Methods: A systematic review of trials of pure TB-CBT intervention for DCs from 1995 was conducted. PsycINFO, Cochrane Reviews, Scopus and MedLine databases were searched using key terms related to CBT, carers and dementia. Four hundred and forty two articles were identified, and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied; studies were only retained if quantitative data was available, and there was no active therapist contact. Four articles were retained; two randomized and two waitlist control trials. Methodological and reporting quality was assessed. Meta-analyses were conducted for the outcome measures of caregiver depression. Meta-analysis revealed small significant post-intervention effects of pure TB-CBT interventions for depression; equivalent to face-to-face interventions. However, there is no evidence regarding long-term efficacy of pure TB-CBT for DCs. The systematic review further identified critical methodological and reporting shortcomings pertaining to these trials Conclusions: Pure TB-CBT interventions may offer a convenient, economical method for delivering psychological interventions to DCs. Future research needs to investigate their long-term efficacy, and consider potential moderating and mediating factors underpinning the mechanisms of effect of these programs. This will help to provide more targeted interventions to this underserviced population.

  2. Multimodal emissions from Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate glass: Upconversion, downshifting and quantum cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadur, A.; Yadav, R.S.; Yadav, R.V.; Rai, S.B., E-mail: sbrai49@yahoo.co.in

    2017-02-15

    This paper reports the optical properties of Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method. The absorption spectrum of the Yb{sup 3+} doped LB glass contains intense NIR band centered at 976 nm due to {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}→{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transition. The emission spectra of the prepared glasses have been monitored on excitation with 266, 355 and 976 nm. The Yb{sup 3+} doped glass emits a broad NIR band centered at 976 nm whereas the Tb{sup 3+} doped glass gives off visible bands on excitations with 266 and 355 nm. When the Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions are co-doped together, the emission intensity in the visible region decreases whereas it increases in the NIR region significantly. The increase in the emission intensity in the NIR region is due to efficient cooperative energy transfer (CET) from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. The quantum cutting efficiency for Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped glass has been calculated and compared for 266 and 355 nm excitations. The quantum cutting efficiency is larger for 355 nm excitation (137%). The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass also emits upconverted visible bands on excitation with 976 nm. The mechanisms involved in the energy transfer have been discussed using schematic energy level diagram. The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may be used in the optical devices and in solar cell for solar spectral conversion and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Graphical abstract: The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped lithium borate (LB) glass prepared by melt quench method emits upconverted visible emissions through upconversion CET from Yb{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+} ions and quantum cutting emissions through downconversion CET from Tb{sup 3+} to Yb{sup 3+} ions. Therefore, the Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} co-doped LB glass may find applications in optical devices and solar cell and behaves as a multi-modal photo-luminescent material. - Highlights: • The Tb{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3

  3. Direct two-photon excitation of Sm3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Tb.DOTA-, and Tb.propargylDO3A in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thomas Just; Blackburn, Octavia A.; Tropiano, Manuel; Faulkner, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    We have observed direct two-photon excitation of samarium, europium and terbium ions in solution upon near IR excitation using a tuneable pulsed light source, and have also studied two-photon processes in a pair of related terbium complexes, namely [Tb.DOTA]- and Tb.propargylDO3A. Direct two-photon excitation of lanthanides is observed in simple systems in the absence of sensitizing chromophores. Where even simple chromophores such as a triple bond are present in the complex, then single and two-photon excitation of chromophore excited states competes with direct two-photon excitation of the ions and is the dominant pathway for sensitizing formation of the lanthanide excited state.

  4. A study of luminescence from Eu"3"+, Ce"3"+, Tb"3"+ and Ce"3"+/Tb"3"+ in new potassium gadolinium phosphate K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fangui; Zhang, Hongzhi; Chen, Cuili; Kim, Sun Il; Seo, Hyo Jin; Zhang, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    New potassium gadolinium phosphate [K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6] doped with Eu"3"+, Ce"3"+, Tb"3"+ and co-doped with Ce"3"+ and Tb"3"+ phosphors were prepared by high temperature solid state synthesis. Phase purity of the powders was checked by X-ray powder diffraction. Luminescence and excitation spectra of samples were reported. In particular, the interaction mechanism between Eu"3"+ ions was investigated in terms of the Inokuti–Hirayama model; it was found that the interactions between Eu"3"+ can be assigned to dipole–dipole interaction. K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6:Eu"3"+ could act as a candidate for solid state lighting due to its strong absorption band in the near-UV region (350–400 nm). The energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Tb"3"+ was confirmed and the mechanism was studied using Dexter's theory; it is concluded that electric dipole–dipole interaction predominates in the energy transfer process from Ce"3"+ to Tb"3"+ in the K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6 host. The energy transfer efficiency and critical distance were also investigated. - Highlights: • Optical properties of K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6:RE"3"+ are investigated for the first time. • The interaction mechanism between Eu"3"+ ions is attributed to dipole–dipole type. • K_3Eu_5(PO_4)_6 is a candidate phosphor for application to solid state lighting. • There exists an efficient energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Tb"3"+ (η is up to 95%). • The mechanism of energy transfer process is electric dipole–dipole interaction.

  5. Superdeformed bands in /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb: Evidence for the influence of high-N intruder states at large deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallon, P.; Alderson, A.; Bentley, M.A.; Bruce, A.M.; Forsyth, P.D.; Howe, D.; Roberts, J.W.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Twin, P.J.; Beck, F.A.

    1989-02-16

    Rotational bands, characteristic of a superdeformed prolate shape (epsilon approx. = 0.6) and extending to above spin 60 Planck constant, have been observed in both /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb. The magnitudes of the moments of inertia I/sup (2)/ were found to vary with frequency and the variation greatly exceeded that seen in /sup 148,149/Gd and /sup 151,152/Dy. The differences in the I/sup (2)/'s are attributed to the occupation of particular high-N orbitals. Moreover, contrary to the previous examples the bands in both /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb de-excited at a much higher rotational frequency of Planck constant..omega.. approx. = 0.4 MeV and this may indicate that the pair gap extends to higher frequencies in /sup 150/Gd and /sup 151/Tb.

  6. Investigation of luminescence properties in SiO2: Tb, Yb upconversion inverse opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhengwen; Yan Dong; Song Zhiguo; Zhou Dacheng; Yu Xue; Yang Yong; Yin Zhaoyi; Yan Lei; Wang Rongfei; Wu Hangjun; Qiu Jianbei

    2012-01-01

    The SiO 2 : Tb, Yb inverse opals with photonic band gap at 465 or 543 nm were prepared, and an effect of photonic band gap on upconversion spontaneous emission from Tb 3+ was investigated. The results show that the photonic band gap has a significant influence on the upconversion emission of the SiO 2 : Tb, Yb inverse opals. The upconversion luminescence of the Tb 3+ ions is suppressed in the inverse opal compared with the luminescence of that of the reference sample. - Highlights: ► Upconversion emission from Tb 3+ was observed in the SiO 2 : Tb, Yb inverse opal. ► UC emission of Tb 3+ was modulated by controlling the structure of inverse opal. ► UC emission of Tb 3+ was depressed in the inverse opal.

  7. What are the reasons for patients not adhering to their anti-TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... patients started their anti-TB treatment, according to the known factors that influence TB adherence. The patients .... Inadequate relationship between health care provider and patient ..... on the Internet] [cited 2009 Jan. 12].

  8. Molecular detection of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (mdr-tb) in mdr-tb patients' attendant in north western pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, T.; Hayat, A.; Shah, Z.; Hayat, A.; Khan, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the drugs susceptibility pattern of mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB) in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients' attendants in North Western, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Peshawar Tuberculosis Research Laboratory (PTRL), Provincial TB Control Program Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, (KP) from August 2013 to March 2014. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study in which four hundred and eighty sputum samples from MDR-TB patients' attendants were processed for the detection of M.TB through Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Lowenstein-Jensen, BACTEC MGIT-960 culture and line probe assay. Results: Out of 480 samples, 06 (2.1%) were found positive for M.TB through Ziehl-Neelsen staining while 10 (2.8%) were positive through LJ and BACTEC MGIT-960 culture. The 10 positive samples were further subjected to drugs susceptibility testing and line probes assay test to find out rifampicin, isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol resistant and it was found that 6 M.TB isolates were resistant while 4 were sensitive to rifampicin and isoniazid. Among the 6 resistant M.TB strains, 4 showed mutation in rpoB gene at 531, 516 and 526 codons. Conclusion: Majority of MDR-TB patients' attendants had drug-resistant tuberculosis and the rate of drug susceptible TB was low. (author)

  9. Utility of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in diagnosing tuberculosis and predicting mortality with and without HIV: prospective TB cohort from the Thailand Big City TB Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanpimolkul, Gompol; Kawkitinarong, Kamon; Manosuthi, Weerawat; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Gatechompol, Sivaporn; Ohata, Pirapon June; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Iampornsin, Thatri; Katerattanakul, Pairaj; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the applicability and accuracy of the urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test in tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infected patients and HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB. Frozen urine samples obtained at baseline from patients in the TB research cohort with proven culture-positive TB were selected for blinded urine LAM testing. One hundred and nine patients were categorized into four groups: (1) HIV-positive patients with TB; (2) HIV-negative patients with disseminated TB; (3) HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with TB; and (4) patients with diseases other than TB. The sensitivity of urine LAM testing for culture-positive TB, specificity of urine LAM testing for patients without TB, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. The sensitivity of the urine LAM test in group 1 patients with a CD4 T-cell count of >100, ≤100, and ≤50 cells/mm 3 was 38.5%, 40.6%, and 45%, respectively. The specificity and PPV of the urine LAM test were >80%. The sensitivity of the test was 20% in group 2 and 12.5% in group 3, and the specificity and PPV were 100% for both groups. A positive urine LAM test result was significantly associated with death. This promising diagnostic tool could increase the yield of TB diagnosis and may predict the mortality rate of TB infection, particularly in TB/HIV co-infected patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) an

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin FAYYAZI; Ali KHAJEH; Hosein ESFAHANI

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  11. [The clinical application of quantiferon TB-2G: its usefulness and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeki; Nagai, Hideaki

    2011-02-01

    QuantiFERON TB-2G (QFT) is widely used in clinical settings for the identification of tuberculosis infection because of its high level of utility. It is well known that QFT stimulates peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro by means of M. tuberculosis-specific protein, and that infection is identified by measuring the interferon-gamma released. Interpretation of QFT results is therefore difficult in immunosuppressed subjects in whom the function of immunocompetent cells, including lymphocytes, is suppressed, making it difficult for them to produce interferon-gamma. There is a high incidence of tuberculosis among hemodialysis patients. It has been conjectured that the use of powerful immunosuppressive agents following kidney transplantation results in a high risk of tuberculosis. How QFT results change immediately following kidney transplantation is an extremely interesting question. In recent years, an increasing number of institutions have been using TNF-alpha inhibitors to treat rheumatoid arthritis patients. Is QTF useful for identifying whether patients have latent tuberculosis infection before the administration of anti-TNF antibodies? In particular, many rheumatoid arthritis patients may have been given methotrexate or glucocorticoids, which suppress the immune system, prior to the administration of TNF-alpha inhibitors, possibly making it difficult to interpret the QFT results. We must be aware of this limitation when performing QFT on immunosuppressed patients. It is also important that we understand the clinical parameters influencing QFT results (such as lymphocyte counts). The morbidity rate of tuberculosis is high among healthcare workers, particularly nurses. A number of studies have reported that QFT is useful in hospital infection control for tuberculosis, but the effectiveness of QFT for monitoring the health of healthcare workers is still not fully understood. In this symposium, we will debate how far QFT can be used and the extent of its usefulness

  12. A model of population dynamics of TB in a prison system and application to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Witbooi, Peter; Vyambwera, Sibaliwe Maku

    2017-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) continues to spread in South African prisons in particular, as prisons are over-capacitated and have poor ventilation. The awaiting trial detainees are not screened on admission and are at high risk of getting infected with TB. Results We propose a compartmental model to describe the population dynamics of TB disease in prisons. Our model considers the inflow of susceptible, exposed and TB infectives into the prison population. Removal of individuals out of the pr...

  13. Tb3+ and Eu3+ luminescence in imidazolium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Todd; Goldey, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence properties of Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ dissolved in ionic liquids are studied. Solutes in this study include simple lanthanide compounds (e.g., EuBr 3 , TbCl 3 ) and lanthanide complexes (e.g., Eu(dpa) 3 3- where dpa = 2,6 pyridine dicarboxylate dianion) dissolved in a 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide(BMIBr)/water mixture. Emission, excitation, and time-resolved emission measurements are utilized to characterize the spectroscopic properties. It is well established in the literature that the solubility and spectroscopic properties of lanthanides in ionic liquids are highly dependent upon environmental factors including purity, and water content [K. Binnemans, Chemical Reviews (2007); I. Billard, S. Mekki, C. Gaillard, P. Hesemann, C. Mariet, G. Moutiers, A. Labet, J.-C.G. Buenzli, European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 6 (2004) 1190-1197; S. Samikkanu, K. Mellem, M. Berry, P.S. May, Inorganic Chemistry 46 (2007) 7121-7128]. The water in this ionic liquid system acts as a co-solvent to facilitate solubility of Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ compounds. The observed spectroscopic properties of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ salts are expectedly impacted by the high water content, but unexpectedly impacted by the BMIBr ionic liquid. However, the spectroscopy of Eu(dpa) 3 3- is unaffected by the presence of BMIBr.

  14. EDITORIAL South Africa and national TB control: Are we making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accounting for 7.2% of deaths, followed by diabetes mellitus with 5.4% of deaths. Although tuberculosis has maintained its position ... and indirect costs before, during, and after a TB diagnosis. The largest costs these patients incur are for hospitalization, medication, transportation, and treatment or care in the private sector.

  15. Design of a 1 Tb/s superchannel coherent receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar, D.S.; Maher, R.; Lavery, D.; Koike-Akino, T.; Pajovic, M.; Alvarado, A.; Paskov, M.; Kojima, K.; Parsons, K.; Thomsen, B.C.; Savory, S.J.; Bayvel, P.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design of a trained and pilot-aided digital coherent receiver, capable of detecting a 1 Tb/s superchannel with a single optical front-end. Algorithms for receiver training are described, which calculate the equalizer coefficients, subchannel SNRs, and centroids of the transmitted

  16. RESEARCH Diagnosing Xpert MTB/RIF-negative TB: Impact and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Economics and Epidemiology Research O ce, Department of Internal ... have a positive culture result, accounting for only 10% of all TB ... information and patient follow-up systems, results may only reach ..... Raviglione M, Zumla A, Marais B, Horton R, Motsoaledi A. A sustainable agenda for tuberculosis control.

  17. Spin dynamics in Tb studied by critical neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, O. W.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1971-01-01

    The inelasticity of the critical neutron scattering in Tb was measured at and above the Neel temperature. In the hydrodynamic region the line width Gamma (q=0, kappa 1)=C kappa z1, with z=1.4+or-0.1 and c=4.3+or-0.3 meVAAz. This result deviates from the conventional theory, which predicts...

  18. Predicting Efficient Antenna Ligands for Tb(III) Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Amanda P.S.; Xu, Jide; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-06

    A series of highly luminescent Tb(III) complexes of para-substituted 2-hydroxyisophthalamide ligands (5LI-IAM-X) has been prepared (X = H, CH{sub 3}, (C=O)NHCH{sub 3}, SO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}, OCH{sub 3}, F, Cl, Br) to probe the effect of substituting the isophthalamide ring on ligand and Tb(III) emission in order to establish a method for predicting the effects of chromophore modification on Tb(III) luminescence. The energies of the ligand singlet and triplet excited states are found to increase linearly with the {pi}-withdrawing ability of the substituent. The experimental results are supported by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations performed on model systems, which predict ligand singlet and triplet energies within {approx}5% of the experimental values. The quantum yield ({Phi}) values of the Tb(III) complex increases with the triplet energy of the ligand, which is in part due to the decreased non-radiative deactivation caused by thermal repopulation of the triplet. Together, the experimental and theoretical results serve as a predictive tool that can be used to guide the synthesis of ligands used to sensitize lanthanide luminescence.

  19. H+ searches in ATLAS (II): H+ to tb

    CERN Document Server

    Mir, Lluisa-Maria; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A search for charged Higgs bosons heavier than the top quark and decaying via to tb is presented. The analysis uses 13.2 ifb of pp collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The production of a charged Higgs boson in association with a top quark and a bottom quark, pp to tbH+-, is explored in the mass range 300 to 1000 GeV using multi-jet final states with one electron or muon from the top-quark decay. Events are categorised according to the multiplicity of jets and b-tagged jets. Multivariate techniques are used to discriminate between signal and background events. No significant excess above the background-only hypothesis is observed and upper limits are set on the tbH+- production cross section times the branching fraction BR(H+- to tb), together with their interpretation in benchmark scenarios of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  20. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health chal- lenge, with an estimated 1.4 .... completed treatment and who is smear negative at the end of 6th or 7th month of treat- ..... the course of management of the dual disease entity. Conclusion. This study ...

  1. Five years retrospective cohort analysis of treatment outcomes of TB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess treatment ...

  2. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  3. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future

  4. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm.4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8 pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2 of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4 who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9, with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment.Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising

  5. Microstructural and photoluminescence properties of sol–gel derived Tb3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Un-doped and Tb(Sup3+) doped ZnO nanocrystals with different concentrations of Tb(Sup3+) were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. The successful incorporation of Tb(sup3+) ions...

  6. RESEARCH Improving access and quality of care in a TB control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or treatment. Improving access and quality of care in a. TB control programme. Vera Scott, Virginia Azevedo, Judy Caldwell. Objectives. To use a quality improvement approach to improve access to and quality of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and care in. Cape Town. Methods. Five HIV/AIDS/sexually transmitted infections/TB.

  7. A review of the literature on the economics of vaccination against TB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.A.; Vu, H.D.; Rozenbaum, M.H.; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Postma, M.J.

    The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1921 and remains the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of TB worldwide. Despite its extensive use, the BCG vaccine lacks the ability to fully control the TB-endemic and -pandemic situations. The BCG vaccine is most effective in preventing pediatric TB, in

  8. The progression of tb diagnosis in the hiv era: from microscopes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smear-negative pulmonary TB, hospitalised. HIV-infected patients with advanced and disseminated disease, young children and patients with extrapulmonary forms of TB, clinical case definitions and algorithms can be beneficial for guiding the empiric use of anti-TB treatment. Multiple clinical case definitions and algorithms ...

  9. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J; Kizito, W; Njoroge, A; Wambua, N; Nganga, L; Mburu, M; Mansoer, J; Marum, L; Phillips, E; Chakaya, J; De Cock, K M

    2008-03-01

    Integrated tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in a resource-constrained setting. Pilot provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) for TB patients and suspects. Through partnerships, resources were mobilised to establish and support services. After community sensitisation and staff training, PITC was introduced to TB patients and then to TB suspects from December 2003 to December 2005. Of 5457 TB suspects who received PITC, 89% underwent HIV testing. Although not statistically significant, TB suspects with TB disease had an HIV prevalence of 61% compared to 63% for those without. Of the 614 suspects who declined HIV testing, 402 (65%) had TB disease. Of 2283 patients referred for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 1951 (86%) were enrolled, and of 1727 patients assessed for antiretroviral treatment (ART), 1618 (94%) were eligible and 1441 (83%) started treatment. PITC represents a paradigm shift and is feasible and acceptable to TB patients and TB suspects. Clear directives are nevertheless required to change practice. When offered to TB suspects, PITC identifies large numbers of persons requiring HIV care. Community sensitisation, staff training, multitasking and access to HIV care contributed to a high acceptance of HIV testing. Kenya is using this experience to inform national response and advocate wide PITC implementation in settings faced with the TB-HIV epidemic.

  10. TB truths : Patients’ experience with tuberculosis and healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    TB remains one of the most alarming global health threats of this age. Despite the often available TB medication for free, rates are not being significantly reduced or in some areas even going up. TB epidemiology have become more complex, due to the HIV epidemic and development of drug-resistance.

  11. The time delay of patients presenting with symptoms of TB at TC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem in South Africa. The early detection and treatment of TB cases are essential. The impression of senior staff working at the TC Newman Community Health Centre (TCN), Paarl was that there often is an unnecessary time delay between the presentation of TB symptoms and the ...

  12. Active Sputum Monitoring Detects Substantial Rate of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in an HIV-Infected Population in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Shaheen; Shaw, Pamela A.; Sangweni, Phumelele; Malan, Lizette; Ntshani, Ella; Mathibedi, Monkwe Jethro; Stubbs, Nomso; Metcalf, Julia A; Eckes, Risa; Masur, Henry; Komati, Stephanus

    2010-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection with HIV is a substantial problem in South Africa. There has been a presumption that drug resistant strains of TB are common in South Africa, but few studies have documented this impression. Methods In Phidisa, a joint observational and randomized HIV treatment study for South African National Defence Force members and dependents, an initiative obtained microbiologic TB testing in subjects who appeared to be at high risk. We report results for HIV-infected subjects. Results TB was identified by culture in 116/584 (19.9%) of patients selected for sputum examination on the basis of suggestive symptoms. Smear was an insensitive technique for confirming the diagnosis: only 33% of culture-positive patients were identified by smear, with a 0.2% false positive rate. Of the 107 culture-positive individuals with susceptibility testing, 22 (20.6%) were identified to be MDR and 4 (3.7%) became extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR) while under observation. Culture-positive cases with a history of TB treatment had more than twice the rate of MDR than those without, 27.1% vs. 11.9% (p=0.05). Conclusions TB is common in this cohort of HIV-infected patients. Smear was not a sensitive technique for identifying culture-positive cases in this health system. Drug susceptibility testing is essential to proper patient management because MDR was present in 20.6% of culture-positive patients. Better management strategies are needed to reduce the development of MDR-TB since so many such patients had received prior antituberculous therapy that was presumably not curative. PMID:20196651

  13. Study on mechanism controlling {sup 5}D{sub 3}/{sup 5}D{sub 4}emissions of Tb{sup 3+} in glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Siyuan; Mao, Jiayi; Li, Xinxi; Li, Lei; Zeng, Huidan; Chen, Guorong, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Tb{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-BaO glasses are prepared by melting quenching method and their unique photoluminescent properties for the UV excitation are studied by using emission/excitation spectra and decay curves. Glasses in the composition (mol%) of 60SiO{sub 2}-xZnO-(40-x)BaO-0.2Tb{sup 3+}(x=30, 20, 10) show the strongest emission peaking at 436 nm which is different from majority of other reported work. Lower content of the free OH groups mainly contribute to this phenomenon due to the decreased probability of the multi-phonon aided non-radiative relaxation process from {sup 5}D{sub 3} to {sup 5}D{sub 4} energy levels of Tb{sup 3+} ions. The Tb{sup 3+} concentration also affects the {sup 5}D{sub 3}/{sup 5}D{sub 4} emissions as a result of the cross-relaxation effect on two nearby Tb{sup 3+} ions ({sup 5}D{sub 3}-{sup 5}D{sub 4}⇒{sup 7}F{sub 6}-{sup 7}F{sub 0}). Moreover, by adjusting Tb{sup 3+} concentration and/or ZnO/BaO concentration ratio of the host glass we obtained the adjustable emission with the required CIE chromaticity from blue to green, suggesting that the present Tb{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}-ZnO-BaO glasses are potential as blue/green dual-color luminescent materials for different applications.

  14. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  15. Luminescence and Tb3+-Ce3+-Eu3+ ion energy transfer in single-crystalline films of Tb3Al5O12:Ce,Eu garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorenko, Y.; Gorbenko, V.; Voznyak, T.; Batentschuk, M.; Osvet, A.; Winnacker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is devoted to investigation of the processes of excitation energy transfer between the host cations (Tb 3+ ions) and the activators (Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ ions) in single-crystalline films of Tb 3 Al 5 O 12 :Ce,Eu (TbAG:Ce,Eu) garnet which is considered as a promising luminescent material for the conversion of LED's radiation. The cascade process of excitation energy transfer is shown to be realized in TbAG:Ce,Eu: (i) from Tb 3+ ions to Ce 3+ and Eu 3+ ions; (ii) from Ce 3+ ions to Eu 3+ ions by means of dipole-dipole interaction and through Tb 3+ ion sublattice

  16. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2} in C15- laves phase: Spin-polarized DFT+U approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshak, A.H., E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [New Technologies - Research Centre, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, Pilsen 306 14 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Kangar, Perlis 01007 (Malaysia)

    2017-01-15

    Thermoelectric properties of materials are intimately related to their electronic band structure. Combining first- and second-principles calculations, we have obtained the transport properties for the spin-up and spin-down electrons of the laves phase TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2} compounds. The unique band structure feature and the density of states at Fermi level (E{sub F}) promote the E{sub F} to a point where carriers are in energetic proximity to these features. The non-zero density of states at E{sub F} for the spin-up (↑) and spin-down (↓) electrons leads to unusual transport properties because both the (↑) and (↓) densities contributes to the states at E{sub F}. The parabolic bands in the vicinity of E{sub F} enhance the carriers mobility and hence the transport properties of TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2}. Calculations show that the spin-up/down transport coefficients are temperature-dependent. It has been found that TbCo{sub 2} possess larger Seebeck coefficient than that of TbFe{sub 2} and hence the power factor. The calculated Seebeck coefficient of TbCo{sub 2} agree well with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • The transport properties of TbFe{sub 2} and TbCo{sub 2} are obtained. • The non-zero density of states at E{sub F} leads to unusual transport properties. • Spin-up/down transport coefficients are temperature-dependent. • The calculated Seebeck coefficient of TbCo{sub 2} agree with the experimental data. • TbCo{sub 2} possesses larger Seebeck coefficient than that of TbFe{sub 2}.

  18. Novel room temperature ionic liquid for fluorescence enhancement of Eu3+ and Tb3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyamala Devi, V.; Maji, S.; Viswanathan, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    The newly prepared ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium benzoate, ([bmim][BA]), was found to enhance the fluorescence of Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ . The fluorescence enhancement resulted from a sensitization of the lanthanide fluorescence by the benzoate anion of the ionic liquid, [bmim][BA], and a reduction in the non-radiative channels in the non-aqueous environment provided by the ionic liquid. However, the fluorescence enhancement of the lanthanides in the ionic liquid was limited due to the operation of the inner filter effect, which resulted from the strong absorption of the benzoate. The inner filter effect was minimized by observing the Eu 3+ fluorescence using a front face geometry and also by diluting the lanthanide-[bmim][BA] system, using another ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][Tf 2 N]), as a solvent. In the case of Tb 3+ , the emission from the lanthanide was masked by the strong emission from the ionic liquid in the region 450-580 nm. The long lived Tb 3+ emission was therefore observed using delayed gated detection, where an appropriate delay was used to discriminate against the short lived emission from the ionic liquid. The large fluorescence enhancement due to ligand sensitized fluorescence observed with [bmim][BA] diluted in [bmim][Tf 2 N], leads to nanomolar detection of the lanthanides. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of an ionic liquid being employed for ligand sensitized fluorescence enhancement of lanthanides. - Research highlights: →The use of an ionic liquid to enhance the fluorescence of lanthanides, Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ is discussed in this paper. → This study represents the first report of the use of a tailored ionic liquid for the purposes of fluorescence enhancement. → The fluorescence enhancement is achieved both a process of ligand sensitization, as well as reducing the non-radiative decay channels. → The first point is achieved by the use of an anion capable

  19. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  20. Does the integration of TB medical services in the general hospital improve the quality of TB care? Evidence from a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Yin, Jia; Yin, Xiao; Zou, Guanyang; Liang, Mingli; Zhong, Jieming; Walley, John; Wei, Xiaolin

    2013-06-01

    Moving the clinical services from tuberculosis (TB) dispensary to the integrated county hospital (called integrated approach) has been practiced in China; however, it is unknown the quality of TB care in the integrated approach and in the dispensary approach. A total of 202 new TB patients were investigated using structured questionnaires in three counties implementing the integrated approach and one county implementing the dispensary approach. The quality of TB care is measured based on success rate of treatment, medical expenditure, health system delay and second-line drug use. The integrated approach showed a high success treatment rate. The medical expenditure in the integrated approach was USD 432, significantly lower than that in the dispensary approach (Z = -5.771, P < 0.001). The integrated approach had a shorter health system delay (5 days) than the dispensary approach (32 days). Twenty-six percent of patients in integrated hospitals were prescribed with second-line TB drugs, significantly lower than that in the TB dispensary (47%, χ(2) = 7.452, P = 0.006). However, the medical expenditure, use of second-line anti-TB drug and liver-protection drugs indeed varied greatly across the three integrated hospitals. The integrated approach showed better quality of TB care, but the performance of the integrated hospitals varied greatly. A method to standardize TB treatment and management of this approach is urgent.

  1. Thermoluminescence properties of Yb-Tb-doped SiO2 optical fiber subject to 6 and 10 MV photon irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahini, M. H.; Wagiran, H.; Hossain, I.; Saeed, M. A.; Ali, H.

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports thermoluminescence characteristics of thermoluminescence dosimetry 100 chips and Yb-Tb-doped optical fibers irradiated with 6 and 10 MV photons. Thermoluminescence response of both dosimeters increases over a wide photon dose range from 0.5 to 4 Gy. Yb-Tb-doped optical fibers demonstrate useful thermoluminescence properties and represent a good candidate for thermoluminescence dosimetry application with ionizing radiation. The results of this fiber have been compared with those of commercially available standard thermoluminescence dosimetry-100 media. Commercially available Yb-Tb-doped optical fibers and said standard media are found to yield a linear relationship between dose- and thermoluminescence signal, although Yb-Tb-doped optical fibers provide only 10 % of the sensitivity of thermoluminescence dosimetry-100. With better thermoluminescence characteristics such as small size (125 μm diameter), high flexibility, easy of handling and low cost, as compared to other thermoluminescence materials, indicate that commercial Yb-Tb-doped optical fiber is a promising thermoluminescence material for variety of applications.

  2. Heat flux measurements of Tb{sub 3}M series (M=Co, Rh and Ru): Specific heat and magnetocaloric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, J.C.B., E-mail: jolmiui@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Lombardi, G.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Reis, R.D. dos [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Freitas, H.E.; Cardoso, L.P.; Mansanares, A.M.; Gandra, F.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP 13083-859 (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    We report on the magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the Tb{sub 3}M series, with M=Co, Rh and Ru, obtained using a heat flux technique. The specific heat of Tb{sub 3}Co and Tb{sub 3}Rh are very similar, with a first order type transition occurring around 6 K below the magnetic ordering temperature without any corresponding feature on the magnetization. The slightly enhanced electronic specific heat, the Debye temperature around 150 K and the presence of the magnetic specific heat well above the ordering temperature are also characteristic of many other compounds of the R{sub 3}M family (R=Rare Earth). The specific heat for Tb{sub 3}Ru, however, presents two peaks at 37 K and 74 K. The magnetization shows that below the first peak the system presents an antiferromagnetic behavior and is paramagnetic above 74 K. We obtained a magnetocaloric effect for M=Co and Rh, −∆S=12 J/kg K, but for Tb{sub 3}Ru it is less than 3 J/kg K (μ{sub 0}∆H=5 T). We believe that the experimental results show that the MCE is directly related with the process of hybridization of the (R)5d-(M)d electrons that occurs in the R{sub 3}M materials.

  3. Theoretical investigations on the magnetocaloric and barocaloric effects in Tb{sub y}Gd{sub (1−y)}Al{sub 2} series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, P.O.; Alho, B.P.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Nóbrega, E.P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A.Magnus G. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP, 12231-280 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia – INMETRO, 25250-020 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Caldas, A.; Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► Anisotropic magnetocaloric effect in in Tb{sub 0.4}Gd{sub 0.6}Al{sub 2}. ► Prediction of barocaloric effect in Tb{sub 0.4}Gd{sub 0.6}Al{sub 2}. ►An optimal hybrid magnetocaloric material using Tb{sub y}Gd{sub (1-y)}Al{sub 2} compounds. -- Abstract: We report the calculations on the magnetocaloric and barocaloric effects in ferromagnetic series Tb{sub y}Gd{sub (1−y)}Al{sub 2}. Our model includes the crystalline electrical field interaction, exchange interactions among Tb–Tb, Gd–Gd and Tb–Gd magnetic ions and the Zeeman effect for an anisotropic system. The lattice and electronic entropies were included in adiabatic processes. The magnetocaloric effect calculated for magnetic field changes along the easy magnetic direction 〈1 1 1〉 is in good agreement with the experimental data. Calculation along the hard magnetization direction 〈0 0 1〉 predicts anomalous magnetocaloric effect, which was ascribed to the spin reorientation processes. From the available experimental data of Curie temperature dependence on pressure, the exchange model parameters were scaled and the barocaloric effect was calculated.

  4. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  5. Search for and study of linking transitions between super- and normal deformed wells in the {sup 151}Tb nucleus; Recherche et etude de transitions de liaison entre les puits super- et normalement deformes dans le noyau {sup 151}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, J

    2003-12-01

    While the superdeformation phenomenon has been observed many times in different mass regions, the excitation energy and angular momentum are not known for most of the superdeformed bands, mainly in the A {approx} 150 mass region. We have thus undertaken the search for and study of linking transitions between super and normal deformed potential wells in the Tb{sup 151} nucleus with the EUROBALL-IV spectrometer based at the subatomic research institute of Strasbourg. This nucleus presents the peculiarity of having an excited superdeformed band identical to the yrast one of Dy{sup 152}, which has recently been linked to normal deformed states. As the Dy{sup 152} nucleus exhibits a shape coexistence in the first potential well, we have also searched for collective rotational bands with prolate but moderate shape, coexisting with the oblate structure of Tb{sup 151}. The discovery of new superdeformed bands in the Tb{sup 151,152} isotopes, the extension to lower and higher spins of the previously known bands, and mean field calculations with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential have contributed to improve our knowledge as well as raise new questions on the orbitals configuration assignments of these bands. (author)

  6. Access to and affordability of healthcare for TB patients in China: issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenglan; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Hong; Chin, Daniel P

    2016-01-29

    This paper introduces the background, aim and objectives of the project entitled "China-the Gates Foundation Collaboration on TB Control in China" that has been underway for many years. It also summarizes the key findings of the nine papers included in this special issue, which used data from the baseline survey of Phase II of the project. Data were collected from the survey of TB and MDR-TB patients, from designated hospitals, health insurance agencies and the routine health information systems, as well as key informant interviews and focus group discussions with relevant key stakeholders. Key issues discussed in this series of papers include the uses of TB services and anti-TB medicines and their determining factors related to socio-economic and health systems development; expenditures on TB care and the financial burden incurred on TB patients; and the impact of health insurance schemes implemented in China on financial protection.

  7. Optical investigation of Tb{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, M., E-mail: m.back@hotmail.it; Massari, A.; Boffelli, M.; Gonella, F.; Riello, P.; Cristofori, D. [Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia and INSTM, Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi (Italy); Ricco, R.; Enrichi, F., E-mail: enrichi@civen.org [CIVEN (Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie) (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    We report an optical study of Tb{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals synthesized by Pechini-type sol-gel method. The particles are investigated in terms of size and morphology by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. It is shown how the simple Pechini method allows for the growth of monocrystalline nanoparticles with a volume-weighted average size of about 30 nm. The optical properties of Tb{sup 3+} in the host lattice are studied in terms of PL, PLE, and lifetimes. Moreover, a correlation between the type of decay curves, the emission and excitation bands' shapes, and the site location of the emitting Tb{sup 3+} in the host material Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is proposed.

  8. Search for and study of linking transitions between super- and normal deformed wells in the 151Tb nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, J.

    2003-12-01

    While the superdeformation phenomenon has been observed many times in different mass regions, the excitation energy and angular momentum are not known for most of the superdeformed bands, mainly in the A ∼ 150 mass region. We have thus undertaken the search for and study of linking transitions between super and normal deformed potential wells in the Tb 151 nucleus with the EUROBALL-IV spectrometer based at the subatomic research institute of Strasbourg. This nucleus presents the peculiarity of having an excited superdeformed band identical to the yrast one of Dy 152 , which has recently been linked to normal deformed states. As the Dy 152 nucleus exhibits a shape coexistence in the first potential well, we have also searched for collective rotational bands with prolate but moderate shape, coexisting with the oblate structure of Tb 151 . The discovery of new superdeformed bands in the Tb 151,152 isotopes, the extension to lower and higher spins of the previously known bands, and mean field calculations with a deformed Woods-Saxon potential have contributed to improve our knowledge as well as raise new questions on the orbitals configuration assignments of these bands. (author)

  9. Community-based directly observed treatment for TB patients to improve HIV services: a cross-sectional study in a South African province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Embry M; Kigozi, N Gladys; Heunis, J Christo

    2018-04-07

    There is uncertainty about how directly observed treatment (DOT) support for tuberculosis (TB) can be delivered most effectively and how DOT support can simultaneously be used to strengthen human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control among TB patients. This study describes how DOT support by community health workers (CHWs) was used in four municipalities in the Free State province - a high TB/HIV burden, poorly-resourced setting - to provide HIV outreach, referrals, and health education for TB patients. The study was part of a larger cross-sectional study of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among 1101 randomly-selected TB patients registered at 40 primary health care (PHC) facilities (clinics and community health centres) across small town/rural and large town/urban settings. Univariate analysis of percentages, chi-square tests and t-tests for difference in means were used to describe differences between the types of TB treatment support and patient characteristics, as well as the types of - and patient satisfaction with - HIV information and referrals received from various types of treatment supporters including home-based DOT supporters, clinic-based DOT supporters or support from family/friends/employers. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of not having receiving home-based DOT and of never having received HIV counselling. The independent variables include poverty-related health and socio-economic risk factors for poor outcomes. Statistical significance is shown using a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 p-value. Despite the fact that DOT support for all TB patients was the goal of South African health policy at the time (2012), most TB patients were not receiving formal DOT support. Only 155 (14.1%) were receiving home-based DOT, while 114 (10.4%) received clinic-based DOT. TB patients receiving home-based DOT reported higher rates of HIV counselling than other patients. Public health providers should train DOT

  10. Synthesis and characterization of pure and Tb/Cu doped Alq{sub 3} nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, Numan, E-mail: nsalah@kau.edu.sa [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Habib, Sami S. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zishan H. [Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia, Islamia (Central University), New Delhi 110025 (India); Alharbi, Najlaa D. [Center of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-15

    Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq{sub 3}) is an organic semiconductor molecule, widely used in optoelectronic devices. In this work we report on fabricating different nanostructures of Alq{sub 3} and characterize them using different techniques. Nanostructured films of Alq{sub 3} were grown using the physical vapor condensation and thermal-vapor transport methods. The as synthesized films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy and absorption spectra. Nanoparticles and nanorods/nanowires are observed in the synthesized films. Tb and Cu doped Alq{sub 3} films were also produced and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) properties. When the original powder sample of Alq{sub 3} was excited by 378 nm, one broad PL emission band is observed at around 515 nm. The pure nanoparticles film shows similar band with a drastic increase in the intensity by a factor of 2. This has been attributed to the large specific surface area, which might has increased the absorption and then the quantum yields. The Tb and Cu doped films show also similar band with a slight shift in the peak position to the blue region, but with further enhancement in the peak intensity, particularly that of Cu. The PL intensity of Cu doped sample is around 1.5 times stronger than that of the pure Alq{sub 3} nanoparticles. This remarkable result on obtaining highly luminescent nanomaterial based on Cu doped Alq{sub 3} nanoparticles film might be useful for future organic light emitting diode display devices. -- Highlights: • Films of Alq{sub 3} nanostructures were grown using different methods. • The PL intensity of Alq{sub 3} in its nanostructure form is enhanced by a factor of 2. • This enhancement is attributed to the large specific surface area of the nanostructures. • Films of Alq{sub 3} nanoparticles doped with Tb and Cu showed further PL enhancement. • The Tb and Cu ions could contribute to the PL intensity of the green

  11. Synchrotron diffraction characterization of nanostructured KY3F10:Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Rodrigo U.; Teixeira, Maria I.; Ranieri, Izilda M.; Martinez, Luis G.; Linhares, Horacio M.S.M.D.; Turrillas, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured rare-earth fluorides materials are being intensively studied recently due to their potential applications in high-dose dosimetry. Particularly, nanostructured Tb-doped KY 3 F 10 has shown satisfactory results to be used in this area. In the present work, the structure and microstructure of KY 3 F 10 :Tb was investigated by means of X-ray synchrotron diffraction. One of the samples was analyzed as synthesized and another after a heat treatment. Rietveld refinement of synchrotron diffraction data was applied to obtain cell parameters, atomic positions and atomic displacement factors and the results were compared to values found in literature. X-ray line profile analysis methods were applied to determine mean crystallite sizes and their distribution. (author)

  12. Advocacy, partnership and political commitment for TB vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C

    2016-08-01

    The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. The Deep-Sea Polyextremophile Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21 Rough-Type LPS: Structure and Inhibitory Activity towards Toxic LPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Flaviana; Palmigiano, Angelo; Paciello, Ida; Pallach, Mateusz; Garozzo, Domenico; Bernardini, Maria-Lina; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M.; Molinaro, Antonio; Silipo, Alba

    2017-01-01

    The structural characterization of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from extremophiles has important implications in several biomedical and therapeutic applications. The polyextremophile Gram-negative bacterium Halobacteroides lacunaris TB21, isolated from one of the most extreme habitats on our planet, the deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basin Thetis, represents a fascinating microorganism to investigate in terms of its LPS component. Here we report the elucidation of the full structure of the R-type LPS isolated from H. lacunaris TB21 that was attained through a multi-technique approach comprising chemical analyses, NMR spectroscopy, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cellular immunology studies were executed on the pure R-LPS revealing a very interesting effect on human innate immunity as an inhibitor of the toxic Escherichia coli LPS. PMID:28653982

  14. Evaluation of three refurbished Guralp CMG-3TB seismometers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The overall objective of testing the Guralp CMG-3TB refurbished seismometers is to determine whether or not the refurbished sensors exhibit better data quality and require less maintenance when deployed than the original Guralp CMG-3TBs. SNL will test these 3 refurbished Guralps to verify performance specifications. The specifications that will be evaluated are sensitivity, bandwidth, self-noise, output impedance, clip-level, dynamic range over application passband, verify mathematical response and calibration response parameters for amplitude and phase.

  15. A deadly combination of AIDS, TB and cardiac tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Immunocompromised status in AIDS makes differential diagnosis of any symptom very difficult for a clinician. Sharp clinical judgement and plenty of investigations may be needed to reach the diagnosis, as in this case. We hereby present a case of AIDS and active tuberculosis (TB) under treatment. The patient developed acute onset multifocal neurological symptoms following an episode of fever and diarrhoea. The MRI scan revealed numerous large cerebral infarcts. On investigations to evaluate br...

  16. Index-TB Guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Ryan, H.; Khaparde, Sunil; Sachdeva, K. S.; Singh, Achintya D.; Mohan, Alladi; Sarin, Rohit; Paramasivan, C N; Kumar, Prahlad; Nischal, Neeraj; Khatiwada, Saurav; Garner, Paul; Tharyan, Prathap

    2017-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i) use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii) use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii) duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research. PMID:28862176

  17. Index-TB guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research.

  18. Major Challenges in Clinical Management of TB/HIV Coinfected Patients in Eastern Europe Compared with Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efsen, Anne Marie W; Schultze, Anna; Post, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Rates of TB/HIV coinfection and multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB are increasing in Eastern Europe (EE). We aimed to study clinical characteristics, factors associated with MDR-TB and predicted activity of empiric anti-TB treatment at time of TB diagnosis among TB/HIV coinfected patients......% of participants in EE compared with 90-96% in other regions (pmanagement of TB/HIV patients in EE requires...... better access to TB diagnostics including DSTs, empiric anti-TB therapy directed at both susceptible and MDR-TB, and more widespread use of cART....

  19. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of GdBO3:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb) nanofibers by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hongzhi; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Ying; Gu, Yipeng; Zhou, Jing; Yang, Hang; Feng, Guanlin; Li, Liang; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Xu, Dapeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GdBO 3 :Ln 3+ nanofibers were synthesized successfully by electrospinning. ► The samples have the average diameter of 150 nm and the flexible morphology. ► The GdBO 3 : Eu 3+ nanofibers have the stronger orange emission. ► The luminescence properties are different from the reported bulk material. ► We describe the energy transform process of GdBO 3 :Ln 3+ system. - Abstract: GdBO 3 :Ln 3+ (Ln = Eu, Tb) nanofibers were synthesized using electrospinning combined with heat treatment. The synthesized nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses, and photoluminescence. The experimental results show that the flexible synthesized nanofibers have an average diameter of approximately 150 nm. The nanofibers consist of crystalline grains with diameters of about 40 nm and have a vaterite-type structure of GdBO 3 . The GdBO 3 :Eu 3+ nanofibers exhibit strong orange and weak red emissions with a low ratio of red to orange emission intensities, which is different from those of the reported bulk materials and nanoparticles. The luminescence properties of the synthesized GdBO 3 :Tb 3+ nanofibers are essentially consistent with those of the synthesized GdBO 3 :Tb 3+ powders by solid-state reaction.

  20. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  1. PolyTB: A genomic variation map for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    KAUST Repository

    Coll, Francesc

    2014-02-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the second major cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Recent advances in DNA sequencing are leading to the ability to generate whole genome information in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The identification of informative genetic variants such as phylogenetic markers and those associated with drug resistance or virulence will help barcode Mtb in the context of epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical studies. Mtb genomic datasets are increasingly available as raw sequences, which are potentially difficult and computer intensive to process, and compare across studies. Here we have processed the raw sequence data (>1500 isolates, eight studies) to compile a catalogue of SNPs (n = 74,039, 63% non-synonymous, 51.1% in more than one isolate, i.e. non-private), small indels (n = 4810) and larger structural variants (n = 800). We have developed the PolyTB web-based tool (http://pathogenseq.lshtm.ac.uk/polytb) to visualise the resulting variation and important meta-data (e.g. in silico inferred strain-types, location) within geographical map and phylogenetic views. This resource will allow researchers to identify polymorphisms within candidate genes of interest, as well as examine the genomic diversity and distribution of strains. PolyTB source code is freely available to researchers wishing to develop similar tools for their pathogen of interest. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV-associated TB syndemic: A growing clinical challenge worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Theresa Montales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of tuberculosis (TB with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS over the past several years has become an emerging syndemic. Approximately 10% of people living with HIV (PLHIV with latent TB infection will develop active TB disease each year. In this review, we highlight that this phenomenon is not limited to high endemic regions like Afro-Asian nations, but globalization/migration is causing increased case detection even in developed nations such as the United States (US. Active screening should be performed for tuberculosis in PLHIV. A high degree of clinical suspicion for tuberculosis is warranted in PLHIV presenting with fever, cough and unintentional weight loss. HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB coinfection is often paucibacillary, precluding diagnosis by conventional diagnostics and/or smear-microscopy/culture. Improved detection of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis is now possible by incorporation of the GeneXPERT MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid Inc, Sunnyvale, USA. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends instituting immediate therapy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in conjunction with ongoing or newly introduced antiretroviral therapy (ART. Vigilance is required to detect drug-induced organ injuries, and early-treatment induced immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS. Collaborating MTB and HIV activities in concentrated HIV epidemic settings should become a high public health priority.

  3. Magnetoelastic coupling in TbFe2 (110) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciria, M.; Arnaudas, J.I.; Dufour, C.; Oderno, V.; Dumesnil, K.; del Moral, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have determined the rhombohedral magnetoelastic stress of a Laves phase TbFe 2 (110) single-crystal film, grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The film thickness was 1300 Angstrom. The magnetoelastic stress was directly measured by using a low-temperature cantilever capacitive method, between 300 and 10 K. The isotherms clearly display the coercive field but, unlike bulk alloy behavior, do not saturate even at the maximum field of 12 T. The determined rhombohedral magnetoelastic parameter of the film is B ε,2 =-0.43 GPa, at 0 K and 12 T, which is 0.67 times the value for bulk TbFe 2 . B ε,2 follows a power m 3 of the reduced magnetization m, indicating a single-ion volume origin for the rhombohedral magnetoelastic stress of this film. Measurements performed in a 300 Angstrom TbFe 2 (110) film deposited onto a YFe 2 buffer show that the coercive field is drastically lowered and that the magnetoelastic distortion is negligible. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  5. Slow magnetic relaxation and single-molecule toroidal behaviour in a family of heptanuclear {Cr"I"I"ILn"I"I"I_6} (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignesh, Kuduva R. [IITB-Monash Research Academy, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Langley, Stuart K. [School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Swain, Abinash; Rajaraman, Gopalan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Damjanovic, Marko; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang [Institute Neel, CNRS, Universite Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    The synthesis, magnetic properties, and theoretical studies of three heterometallic {Cr"I"I"ILn"I"I"I_6} (Ln=Tb, Ho, Er) complexes, each containing a metal topology consisting of two Ln{sub 3} triangles connected via a Cr{sup III} linker, are reported. The {CrTb_6} and {CrEr_6} analogues display slow relaxation of magnetization in a 3000 Oe static magnetic field. Single-crystal measurements reveal opening up of the hysteresis loop for {CrTb_6} and {CrHo_6} molecules at low temperatures. Ab initio calculations predict toroidal magnetic moments in the two Ln{sub 3} triangles, which are found to couple, stabilizing a con-rotating ferrotoroidal ground state in Tb and Ho examples and extend the possibility of observing toroidal behaviour in non Dy{sup III} complexes for the first time. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Insights on the origin of the Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belo, J.H.; Barbosa, M.B. [IFIMUP and IN-Institue of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Pires, A.L. [CFNUL - Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, R.M.; Teixeira, J.G.V.; Silva, J. [IFIMUP and IN-Institue of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Algarabel, P.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamente de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Magen, C. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón-ARAID, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamente de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Morellon, L. [Departamente de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Amaral, J.S. [IFIMUP and IN-Institue of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre. 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); and others

    2017-05-15

    In this report the magnetic, atomic structures and spin-lattice coupling have been thoroughly studied through high magnetic field magnetometry, Synchrotron X-ray diffraction under applied magnetic field and magnetostriction measurements in the Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} compounds. A field induced phase transition from an antiferromagnetic towards a ferromagnetic ordering was confirmed but with absence of structural transformation. This absence has been confirmed experimentally through synchrotron x-ray diffraction under applied field (up to 30 T). Moreover, this absence was explained via a thermodynamic free energy model: first principles calculations determined a large energy gap (ΔE=0.65 eV) between the two possible structures, O(I) and O(II). From magnetic and structural properties, a H-T phase diagram has been proposed for Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}. Finally it was observed a large magnetostriction (up to 600 ppm) induced by ∆H=7 T.

  7. Pump-induced refractive index changes in Tb{sup 3+} doped glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, T.A.; Santos, J.F.M. dos; Auad, Y.M; Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Astrath, N.G.C; Baesso, M.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR (Brazil); Catunda, T., E-mail: tomaz@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    It now well known in laser materials, that a refractive index change appears when the active ions are pumped from ground to excited state due to the polarizability difference between ground and excited states (metastable). In this paper this effect was investigated in Tb{sup 3+} doped glasses: calcium alumino phosphate (CAP), low-silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCAS) and calcium aluminosilicate (CAS). The measurements were performed using the time resolved Z-scan technique, with an Ar{sup +} laser at 488 nm, close to the resonance of {sup 7}F{sub 6}→{sup 5}D{sub 4} absorption line, where {sup 5}D{sub 4} is a metastable state. We obtained for low-silica calcium aluminosilicate glass Δα{sub p}~10{sup −24} cm{sup 3} which is the highest value ever reported for a RE doped material. - Highlights: • Time resolved Z-scan measurements in 3 different Tb{sup 3+} doped glass. • Very high polarizability difference (Δα{sub p}), typically 1 order of magnitude higher than other rare earth ions. • Observations of higher order nonlinearities, such as-third, fifth and senventh order effects.

  8. Growth, Faraday and inverse Faraday characteristics of Tb2Ti2O7 crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feiyun; Sun, Yilin; Yang, Xiongsheng; Chen, Xin; Zhao, Bin; Zhuang, Naifeng; Chen, Jianzhong

    2016-03-21

    Tb2Ti2O7 (TTO) single crystal with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 16 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. Rietveld structure refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) data confirms that the compound crystallizes in the cubic system with pyrochlore structure. Transmission spectra, Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra, Faraday and inverse Faraday characteristics of TTO crystal have been measured and analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that TTO crystal has high transmittance at 700-1400 nm waveband and a larger Verdat constant than that of TGG reported. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra showed that the 4f→4f transitions of Tb3+ have significant contributions to the magneto-optical activity (MOA). In the time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, the rotation signals of the probe beam based on the inverse Faraday effect in magneto-optical crystal were observed at zero time delay, the full width at half maximum of the rotation and ellipticity signals can be as fast as ~500 fs, which indicates that TTO crystal can be a promising material for ultrafast all-optical magnetic switching.

  9. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  10. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  11. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  12. Impact of ART on TB case fatality stratified by CD4 count for HIV-positive TB patients in Cape Town, South Africa (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Richard; Caldwell, Judy; Middelkoop, Keren; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Wood, Robin

    2014-08-15

    To identify determinants of tuberculosis (TB) case fatality including the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) at different CD4 thresholds for HIV-positive adult and adolescent TB patients. Through a retrospective analysis of the electronic TB database, we identified the HIV status of newly registered patients aged ≥15 years. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the risk factors for TB case fatality in these patients. In 2009, 2010, and 2011, 25,841, 26,104, and 25,554 newly registered adult TB patients were treated in primary health care clinics in Cape Town, of whom 49.7%, 50.4%, and 50.9% were HIV positive. ART uptake increased over 3 years from 43% to 64.9%, and case fatality of the HIV-positive patients decreased from 7.0% to 5.8% (P ART had a substantial decrease in case fatality. The difference in case fatality between patients on ART and not on ART was most pronounced at low CD4 counts with the positive influence of ART noted up to a CD4 count threshold of 350 cells per cubic millimeter (P ART uptake, in 2011, 21% of the patients with CD4 counts ART during TB treatment. This study showed a relatively poor uptake of ART among severely immune-compromised TB patients. Patients with CD4 counts ART during TB treatment, and ART initiation should be prioritized for this category of patients.

  13. Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Sabine M.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M. A.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to

  14. Lithium-aluminum-zinc phosphate glasses activated with Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ for green laser medium, reddish-orange and white phosphor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco-Rodriguez, H. I.; Lira, A.; Soriano-Romero, O.; Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Bordignon, S.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2018-05-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of Tb3+ and Tb3+/Eu3+ doped lithium-aluminum-zinc phosphate glasses is performed through their absorbance and photoluminescence spectra, and decay time profiles. Laser parameter values (stimulated emission cross section, effective bandwidth, gain bandwidth and optical gain) were obtained for the terbium 5D4 → 7F5 green emission from the Tb3+ singly-doped glass (LAZT) excited at 350 nm to judge the suitability of the glass phosphor for fiber lasers. A quantum yield of (47.68 ± 0.49)% was measured for the 5D4 level luminescence. Upon 350 nm excitation the LAZT glass phosphor emits green light with a color purity of 65.6% and chromaticity coordinates (0.285, 0.585) very close to those (0.29, 0.60) of European Broadcasting Union illuminant green. The Tb3+/Eu3+codoped glass emission color can be tuned from reddish-orange of 1865 K upon 318 nm excitation to warm white of 3599 K and neutral white of 4049 K upon 359 and 340 nm excitations, respectively. Upon Tb3+ excitation at 340 nm Eu3+ is sensitized by Tb3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer with an efficiency of 0.23-0.26. An electric dipole-dipole interaction might be the dominant mechanism in the Tb3+ to Eu3+ energy transfer taking place into Tb3+ - Eu3+ clusters.

  15. Estimating the effect of lay knowledge and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients, on health-belief model in a high-risk pulmonary TB transmission population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Rizqy Amelia; Suhariadi, Fendy; Hendriani, Wiwin

    2017-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the effect of lay knowledge of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and prior contact with pulmonary TB patients on a health-belief model (HBM) as well as to identify the social determinants that affect lay knowledge. Survey research design was conducted, where participants were required to fill in a questionnaire, which measured HBM and lay knowledge of pulmonary TB. Research participants were 500 residents of Semampir, Asemrowo, Bubutan, Pabean Cantian, and Simokerto districts, where the risk of pulmonary TB transmission is higher than other districts in Surabaya. Being a female, older in age, and having prior contact with pulmonary TB patients significantly increase the likelihood of having a higher level of lay knowledge. Lay knowledge is a substantial determinant to estimate belief in the effectiveness of health behavior and personal health threat. Prior contact with pulmonary TB patients is able to explain the belief in the effectiveness of a health behavior, yet fails to estimate participants' belief in the personal health threat. Health authorities should prioritize males and young people as their main target groups in a pulmonary TB awareness campaign. The campaign should be able to reconstruct people's misconception about pulmonary TB, thereby bringing around the health-risk perception so that it is not solely focused on improving lay knowledge.

  16. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Charles; Masuka, Nyasha; Hazangwe, Patrick; Choto, Regis C.; Mutasa-Apollo, Tsitsi; Nkomo, Brilliant; Sibanda, Edwin; Mugurungi, Owen; Siziba, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB) mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84%) were new cases compared with 314 (16%) retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78%) TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46–282). Overall, 428 (22%) TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35–4.55)], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10–1.63)], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42)] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22–0.29)]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART. PMID:28352474

  17. Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients on TB Treatment in the Southern Region of Zimbabwe, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe C. Takarinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2013, the tuberculosis (TB mortality rate was highest in southern Zimbabwe at 16%. We therefore sought to determine factors associated with mortality among registered TB patients in this region. Methodology. This was a retrospective record review of registered patients receiving anti-TB treatment in 2013. Results. Of 1,971 registered TB patients, 1,653 (84% were new cases compared with 314 (16% retreatment cases. There were 1,538 (78% TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfected patients, of whom 1,399 (91% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART with median pre-ART CD4 count of 133 cells/uL (IQR, 46–282. Overall, 428 (22% TB patients died. Factors associated with increased mortality included being ≥65 years old [adjusted relative risk (ARR = 2.48 (95% CI 1.35–4.55], a retreatment TB case [ARR = 1.34 (95% CI, 1.10–1.63], and being HIV-positive [ARR = 1.87 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42] whilst ART initiation was protective [ARR = 0.25 (95% CI, 0.22–0.29]. Cumulative mortality rates were 10%, 14%, and 21% at one, two, and six months, respectively, after starting TB treatment. Conclusion. There was high mortality especially in the first two months of anti-TB treatment, with risk factors being recurrent TB and being HIV-infected, despite a high uptake of ART.

  18. The 500 deg. C isothermal section of the Gd-Tb-Co ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, K.W.; Zhuang, Y.H.; Li, J.Q.; Zhu, Q.M.; Deng, J.Q.

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal section of the phase diagram of the Gd-Tb-Co ternary system at 500 deg. C was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis and metallographic analysis techniques. In this isothermal section, there are nine single-phase regions, eight two-phase regions and none three-phase region. No ternary compound was found. The compounds Gd 2 Co 17 and Tb 2 Co 17 , Gd 2 Co 7 and Tb 2 Co 7 , GdCo 3 and TbCo 3 , GdCo 2 and TbCo 2 , Gd 4 Co 3 and Tb 4 Co 3 , Gd 12 Co 7 and Tb 12 Co 7 , Gd 3 Co and Tb 3 Co, Gd and Tb form a continuous series of solid solutions. In addition, we experimentally determined the vertical section of pseudobinary system and the Curie temperature of Gd 1-x Tb x Co 2 (x from 0 to 1) series alloys

  19. QuantiFERON–TB Gold In-Tube test performance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Thomas; Lillebaek, Troels; Hansen, Ann-Brit E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT) in extreme age groups. The test performance has been reported to be impaired in children and elderly, but reports are diverging. The aim of this study was to evaluate QFT performance in patients with and without......, the overall QFT performance was good. The sensitivity in children (≥ 1) was high although few children were included, whereas sensitivity declined with increasing age. Indeterminate rates were higher in infants and elderly. In contrast to current guidelines, our data suggest that the QFT performs well...... in children ≥ 1 years in low endemic regions but that the test should be used with care among the elderly....

  20. TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Michelle L; Presnyak, Vladimir; Fisk, John C; Foda, Bardees M; Read, Laurie K

    2010-11-01

    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.

  1. Processing of metacaspase 2 from Trypanosoma brucei (TbMCA2) broadens its substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Joyce M; Marcondes, Marcelo F; Ferrari, Débora; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Oliveira, Vitor; Machado, Maurício F M

    2017-04-01

    Metacaspases are members of the cysteine peptidase family and may be implicated in programmed cell death in plants and lower eukaryotes. These proteases exhibit calcium-dependent activity and specificity for arginine residues at P 1 . In contrast to caspases, they do not require processing or dimerization for activity. Indeed, unprocessed metacaspase-2 of Trypanosoma brucei (TbMCA2) is active; however, it has been shown that cleavages at Lys 55 and Lys 268 increase TbMCA2 hydrolytic activity on synthetic substrates. The processed TbMCA2 comprises 3 polypeptide chains that remain attached by non-covalent bonds. Replacement of Lys 55 and Lys 268 with Gly via site-directed mutagenesis results in non-processed but enzymatically active mutant, TbMCA2 K55/268G. To investigate the importance of this processing for the activity and specificity of TbMCA2, we performed activity assays comparing the non-processed mutant (TbMCA2 K55/268G) with the processed TbMCA2 form. Significant differences between TbMCA2 WT (processed form) and TbMCA2 K55/268G (non-processed form) were observed. Specifically, we verified that although non-processed TbMCA2 is active when assayed with small synthetic substrates, the TbMCA2 form does not exhibit hydrolytic activity on large substrates such as azocasein, while processed TbMCA2 is able to readily digest this protein. Such differences can be relevant for understanding the physiological regulation and function of TbMCA2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses - a phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa is characterised by one of the highest levels of TB/HIV co-infection and growing multidrug-resistant TB worldwide. Hospitals play a central role in the management of TB. We investigated nurses' experiences of factors influencing TB infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to identify risks associated with potential nosocomial transmission. Methods The qualitative study employed a phenomenological approach, using semi-structured interviews with a quota sample of 20 nurses in a large tertiary academic hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was subjected to thematic analysis. Results Nurses expressed concerns about the possible risk of TB transmission to both patients and staff. Factors influencing TB-IPC, and increasing the potential risk of nosocomial transmission, emerged in interconnected overarching themes. Influences related to the healthcare system included suboptimal IPC provision such as the lack of isolation facilities and personal protective equipment, and the lack of a TB-IPC policy. Further influences included inadequate TB training for staff and patients, communication barriers owing to cultural and linguistic differences between staff and patients, the excessive workload of nurses, and a sense of duty of care. Influences related to wider contextual conditions included TB concerns and stigma, and the role of traditional healers. Influences related to patient behaviour included late uptake of hospital care owing to poverty and the use of traditional medicine, and poor adherence to IPC measures by patients, family members and carers. Conclusions Several interconnected influences related to the healthcare system, wider contextual conditions and patient behavior could increase the potential risk of nosocomial TB transmission at hospital level. There is an urgent need for the implementation and evaluation of a comprehensive contextually appropriate TB IPC policy with the setting and

  3. Scapular bone destruction: A case report of skeletal tuberculosis with a series of dynamic radiologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an extremely common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients. Pulmonary TB is the most common manifestation while skeletal TB, especially with an involvement of flat bone like scapula, is quite rare. We report the first case scapular TB in an advanced AIDS individual who was initially considered as lymphoma because of the faulty interpretation of the positivity of PET/CT scan. In this article, we present a series of dynamic radiologic data and emphasize the differential diagnostic of skeletal TB.

  4. Protocol for the mixed-methods process and context evaluation of the TB & Tobacco randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh and Pakistan: a hybrid effectiveness–implementation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohavova, Iveta; Dogar, Omara; Kralikova, Eva; Pankova, Alexandra; Zvolska, Kamila; Huque, Rumana; Fatima, Razia; Noor, Maryam; Elsey, Helen; Sheikh, Aziz; Siddiqi, Kamran; Kotz, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health problem in South Asia. Tobacco use increases the risks of TB infection and TB progression. The TB& Tobacco placebo-controlled randomised trial aims to (1) assess the effectiveness of the tobacco cessation medication cytisine versus placebo when combined with behavioural support and (2) implement tobacco cessation medication and behavioural support as part of general TB care in Bangladesh and Pakistan. This paper summarises the process and context evaluation protocol embedded in the effectiveness–implementation hybrid design. Methods and analysis We are conducting a mixed-methods process and context evaluation informed by an intervention logic model that draws on the UK Medical Research Council’s Process Evaluation Guidance. Our approach includes quantitative and qualitative data collection on context, recruitment, reach, dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. Quantitative data include patient characteristics, reach of recruitment among eligible patients, routine trial data on dose delivered and dose received, and a COM-B (‘capability’, ‘opportunity’, ‘motivation’ and ‘behaviour’) questionnaire filled in by participating health workers. Qualitative data include semistructured interviews with TB health workers and patients, and with policy-makers at district and central levels in each country. Interviews will be analysed using the framework approach. The behavioural intervention delivery is audio recorded and assessed using a predefined fidelity coding index based on behavioural change technique taxonomy. Ethics and dissemination The study complies with the guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. Ethics approval for the study and process evaluation was granted by the University of Leeds (qualitative components), University of York (trial data and fidelity assessment), Bangladesh Medical Research Council and Bangladesh Drug Administration (trial data and qualitative

  5. Previously undiagnosed hemophilia patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Atalay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial bleeding in hemophilia patients is a rare but a mortal complication. Diagnosis of hemophilia in adulthood is an uncommon occurrence. In this case report an adult patient with intracranial hemorrhage is presented.

  6. Photoluminescence of Alq3 - and Tb-activated aluminium-tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) complex for blue chip-excited OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawalkar, P W; Dhoble, S J; Thejo Kalyani, N; Atram, R G; Kokode, N S

    2013-01-01

    The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminium complex is the most important and widely studied as electron transporting and green light emitting material. Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) have been synthesized (where x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9) and blended films of Alq(3) and Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) with PMMA and PS at different percentage weight (wt%) concentrations (e.g., 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 wt%) have been prepared. The synthesized materials and their blended thin films have been characterized by a photoluminescence (PL) technique; the synthesis and PL characterization are reported in this paper. The synthesized metal complex shows bright emission of green light with blue light excitation (440 nm) and the prepared Tb(x) Al((1-x)) q(3) phosphor may be applicable in blue chip-excited OLEDs for the newly developed wallpaper lighting technology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 6,7}Li + {sup 159}Tb reactions near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Manjeet Singh [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India); Indus Degree College, Department of Physics, Kinana, Jind, Haryana (India); Grover, Neha; Sharma, Manoj K. [Thapar University, School of Physics and Materials Science, Patiala (India)

    2017-01-15

    The complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) cross-sections are estimated for {sup 6,} {sup 7}Li + {sup 159}Tb reactions using the energy-dependent Woods-Saxon potential model (EDWSP model) and dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The CF data of the {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb({sup 7}Li + {sup 159}Tb) reaction at above barrier energies is suppressed with reference to expectations of the EDWSP model by 25% (20%) which is smaller than the reported data by ∝ 9% (6%). This suppression is correlated with the projectile breakup effect. The projectiles {sup 6,7}Li are loosely bound systems, which may break up into charged fragments prior to reaching the fusion barrier and subsequently one of the fragment is captured by the target leading to the suppression of fusion data at above barrier energies. The sum of CF and ICF, which is termed as total fusion cross-section (TF), removes the discrepancies between theoretical predictions and the above barrier complete fusion data and hence is adequately explained via the EDWSP model over a wide range of energy spread across the Coulomb barrier. In addition to fusion, the decay mechanism of {sup 6}Li + {sup 159}Tb reaction is studied within the framework of the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The breakup of the projectile ({sup 6}Li) in the entrance channel indicates the presence of ICF, which is investigated further using the collective clusterization approach of DCM. The present theoretical analysis suggests that a larger barrier modification is needed to address the fusion data of chosen reactions in the below barrier energy region. (orig.)

  8. Effect of silver ions on the energy transfer from host defects to Tb ions in sol–gel silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbass, Abd Ellateef [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Department of Physics, Sudan University of Science and Technology (Sudan); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2015-04-15

    Plasmonic metal structures have been suggested to enhance the luminescence from rare-earth (RE) ions, but this enhancement is not yet well understood or applied to phosphor materials. Although some reports using Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in glass have attributed enhancement of RE emission to the strong electric fields associated with Ag NPs, it has also been proposed that the enhancement is instead due to energy transfer from Ag ions to RE ions. Our work using sol–gel silica shows a third possibility, namely that enhancement of the RE (e.g. Tb) emission is due to energy transfer from defects of the host material to the Tb ions, where the addition of Ag influences the silica host defects. The oxidation state of Ag as a function of annealing temperature was investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while optical properties were investigated using a Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer or by exciting samples with a 325 nm He–Cd laser. The results showed that Ag ions have a significant effect on the silica host defects, which resulted in enhancement of the green Tb emission at 544 nm for non-resonant excitation using a wavelength of 325 nm. - Highlights: • Conversion of Ag ions to metallic nanoparticles after annealing of sol–gel silica. • Addition of Ag resulted in enhanced green luminescence from Tb ions in silica. • Enhancement is attributed to the effect of added Ag on the host defects of silica.

  9. Role of Tulipa gesneriana TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TgTB1) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth in bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pachon, Natalia M; Mutimawurugo, Marie-Chantal; Heynen, Eveline; Sergeeva, Lidiya; Benders, Anne; Blilou, Ikram; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H

    2018-06-01

    Tulip vegetative reproduction. Tulips reproduce asexually by the outgrowth of their axillary meristems located in the axil of each bulb scale. The number of axillary meristems in one bulb is low, and not all of them grow out during the yearly growth cycle of the bulb. Since the degree of axillary bud outgrowth in tulip determines the success of their vegetative propagation, this study aimed at understanding the mechanism controlling the differential axillary bud activity. We used a combined physiological and "bottom-up" molecular approach to shed light on this process and found that first two inner located buds do not seem to experience dormancy during the growth cycle, while mid-located buds enter dormancy by the end of the growing season. Dormancy was assessed by weight increase and TgTB1 expression levels, a conserved TCP transcription factor and well-known master integrator of environmental and endogenous signals influencing axillary meristem outgrowth in plants. We showed that TgTB1 expression in tulip bulbs can be modulated by sucrose, cytokinin and strigolactone, just as it has been reported for other species. However, the limited growth of mid-located buds, even when their TgTB1 expression is downregulated, points at other factors, probably physical, inhibiting their growth. We conclude that the time of axillary bud initiation determines the degree of dormancy and the sink strength of the bud. Thus, development, apical dominance, sink strength, hormonal cross-talk, expression of TgTB1 and other possibly physical but unidentified players, all converge to determine the growth capacity of tulip axillary buds.

  10. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  11. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  12. Catching the missing million: experiences in enhancing TB & DR-TB detection by providing upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing for people living with HIV in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available A critical challenge in providing TB care to People Living with HIV (PLHIV is establishing an accurate bacteriological diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents results from PLHIV taking part in a large demonstration study across India wherein upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each TU. All HIV-infected patients suspected of TB (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and provided upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing.2,787 HIV-infected presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 867 (31.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 29.4‒32.8 HIV-infected TB cases were diagnosed under the study. Overall 27.6% (CI 25.9-29.3 of HIV-infected presumptive PTB cases were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 12.9% (CI 11.6-14.1 who had positive sputum smears. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 73 (9.5%, CI 7.6‒11.8 and 16 (11.2%, CI 6.7‒17.1 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high 97.7% (CI 89.3‒99.8, with no significant difference with or without prior history of TB treatment.The study results strongly demonstrate limitations of using smear microscopy for TB diagnosis in PLHIV, leading to low TB and DR-TB detection which can potentially lead to either delayed or sub-optimal TB treatment. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of addressing this diagnostic gap with upfront of Xpert MTB/RIF testing, leading to overall strengthening of care and support package for PLHIV.

  13. Global evidence directing regional preventive strategies in Southeast Asia for fighting TB/HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Moolphate, Saiyud; Paudel, Damodar; Jayathunge Ph, Mangalasiri; Duangrithi, Duangjai; Wangdi, Kinley; Aung, Thin Nyein Nyein; Lorga, Thaworn; Higuchi, Kazue

    2013-03-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemics form a huge burden of disease in the Southeast Asia region. Five out of eleven nations in this region are high TB/HIV burden countries: Myanmar, Thailand, India, Indonesia and Nepal. The trends of TB incidence in these countries have been rising in recent years, in contrast to a falling global trend. Experts in the field of TB control and health service providers have been perplexed by the association of TB and HIV infections which causes a mosaic clinical presentation, a unique course with poor treatment outcomes including death. We conducted a review of contemporary evidence relating to TB/HIV control with the aims of assisting integrated health system responses in Southeast Asia and demystifying current evidence to facilitate translating it into practice.

  14. Dr Mario Raviglione, director of the Stop TB Department World Health Organization. Interview by Christo Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviglione, Mario

    2012-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a very global disease; there are over 9 million new incidences of TB every year with the vast majority of cases emerging in the developing world. As one of three major diseases associated with poverty it affects the areas where poverty is most prevalent, notably Asia and Africa. While the incidence rate has been slowly declining in the developed world it continues to pose a major health threat to even the most developed nations. To demonstrate the global, and persistent, nature of TB we asked Dr Mario Raviglione, Director of the World Health Organization's Stop TB Department to provide an analysis on the current TB situation in the United Kingdom and comment on what measures should be taken to alleviate the issue of TB in one of the world's richest countries.

  15. Immunoendocrine Interactions during HIV-TB Coinfection: Implications for the Design of New Adjuvant Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Veronica Suarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, around 14 million individuals are coinfected with both tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In coinfected individuals, both pathogens weaken immunological system synergistically through mechanisms that are not fully understood. During both HIV and TB infections, there is a chronic state of inflammation associated to dramatic changes in immune cytokine and endocrine hormone levels. Despite this, the relevance of immunoendocrine interaction on both the orchestration of an effective immune response against both pathogens and the control of the chronic inflammation induced during HIV, TB, or both infections is still controversial. The present study reviews immunoendocrine interactions occurring during HIV and TB infections. We also expose our own findings on immunoendocrine cross talk in HIV-TB coinfection. Finally, we evaluate the use of adrenal hormones and their derivatives in immune-therapy and discuss the use of some of these compounds like the adjuvant for the prevention and treatment of TB in HIV patients.

  16. Age-specific mortality among TB patients in Denmark 1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Løkke, Anders; Ibsen, Rikke

    Objective: To evaluate the age-specific mortality in a national TB cohort, and to estimate relative age-specific mortality compared with matched controls, in a retrospective case-control study. Methods: Using Danish National Patient Registry, we retrospectively identified TB-patients between 1998...... to matched controls. While the difference in survival is substantial among elderly patients, a high relative risk of dying is particularly of concern among young and middle-aged adult TB patients....

  17. Team approach to manage difficult-to-treat TB cases: Experiences in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D’Ambrosio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO, optimal management of MDR-TB cases can be ensured by a multi-speciality consultation body known as ‘TB Consilium’. This body usually includes different medical specialities, competences and perspectives (e.g., clinical expertise both for adults and children; surgical, radiological and public health expertise; psychological background and nursing experience, among others, thus lowering the risk of making mistakes – or managing the patients inappropriately, in order to improve their clinical outcomes.At present, several high MDR-TB burden countries in the different WHO regions (and beyond have introduced TB Consilium-like bodies at the national or subnational level to reach consensus on the best treatment approach for their patients affected by TB.In addition, in countries/settings where a formal system of consultation does not exist, specialized staff from MDR-TB reference centres or international organizations usually spend a considerable amount of their working time responding to phone or e-mail clinical queries on how to manage M/XDR-TB cases.The aim of this manuscript is to describe the different experiences with the TB Consilia both at the international level (European Respiratory Society – ERS/WHO TB Consilium and in some of the countries where this experience operates successfully in Europe and beyond. The Consilium experiences are described around the following topics: (1 history, aims and focus; (2 management and funding; (3 technical functioning and structure; (4 results achieved.In addition a comparative analysis of the TB Consilia in the different countries has been performed. Keywords: MDR-TB, XDR-TB, Clinical management, Drug resistance, Prevention, Consilium

  18. HoTbTi2O7, the mixtures of spin ice and spin liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.J.; Terashita, H.; Schweika, W.; Chen, Y.Y.; Gardner, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Ho 2- x Tb x Ti 2 O 7 (x=0.5, 1, and 1.5) have been prepared and characterized. No long-range order is observed for HoTbTi 2 O 7 in magnetization and specific heat measurements down to 2 K. The low-energy magnetic excitation measurements suggests that HoTbTi 2 O 7 possesses both characteristics of spin ice and spin liquid in the ground state

  19. Alcohol and drug use disorders, HIV status and drug resistance in a sample of Russian TB patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M. F.; Krupitsky, E.; Tsoy, M.; Zvartau, E.; Brazhenko, N.; Jakubowiak, W.; E. McCaul, M.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING: Alcohol use, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behavior are of increasing concern in Russian TB patients. DESIGN: A prevalence study of alcohol use and HIV risk behavior was conducted in a sample of 200 adult men and women admitted to TB hospitals in St Petersburg and Ivanovo, Russia. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 72% were men. The mean age was 41. Active TB was diagnosed using a combination of chest X-ray, sputum smears and sputum cultures. Sixty-two per cent met DSM-IV criteria for current alcohol abuse or dependence. Drug use was uncommon, with only two patients reporting recent intravenous heroin use. There was one case of HIV infection. The mean total risk assessment battery score was 3.4. Depression was present in 60% of the sample, with 17% severely depressed. Alcohol abuse/dependence was associated with an eight-fold increase in drug resistance (OR 8.58; 95% CI 2.09-35.32). Patients with relapsing or chronic TB were more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 2.56; 95% CI 1.0-6.54). CONCLUSION: Alcohol use disorders are common in patients being treated for active TB, and are associated with significant morbidity. Additional surveys are needed to examine the relationship between alcohol use disorders and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. CONTEXTE: Chezles patients tuberculeux russes, l’utilisation d’alcool, la résistance aux médicaments antituberculeux et un comportement à risque pour le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) sont des sujets croissants d’inquiétude. SCHÉMA: Une étude: de prévalence de l’utilisation d’alcool et du comportement à risque pour le VIH a été menée sur un échantillon de 200 hommes et femmes adultes, admis dans des hôpitaux pour la tuberculose (TB) de Saint-Pétersbourg et d’Ivanovo en Russie. RÉSULTATS: Il y avait 72% d’hommes dans l’échantillon. L’âge moyen est de 41 ans. On a diagnostiqué la TB active par l

  20. Intraclonal genome diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa clones CHA and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to different living conditions is accompanied by microevolution resulting in genomic diversity between strains of the same clonal lineage. In order to detect the impact of colonized habitats on P. aeruginosa microevolution we determined the genomic diversity between the highly virulent cystic fibrosis (CF) isolate CHA and two temporally and geographically unrelated clonal variants. The outcome was compared with the intraclonal genome diversity between three more closely related isolates of another clonal complex. Results The three clone CHA isolates differed in their core genome in several dozen strain specific nucleotide exchanges and small deletions from each other. Loss of function mutations and non-conservative amino acid replacements affected several habitat- and lifestyle-associated traits, for example, the key regulator GacS of the switch between acute and chronic disease phenotypes was disrupted in strain CHA. Intraclonal genome diversity manifested in an individual composition of the respective accessory genome whereby the highest number of accessory DNA elements was observed for isolate PT22 from a polluted aquatic habitat. Little intraclonal diversity was observed between three spatiotemporally related outbreak isolates of clone TB. Although phenotypically different, only a few individual SNPs and deletions were detected in the clone TB isolates. Their accessory genome mainly differed in prophage-like DNA elements taken up by one of the strains. Conclusions The higher geographical and temporal distance of the clone CHA isolates was associated with an increased intraclonal genome diversity compared to the more closely related clone TB isolates derived from a common source demonstrating the impact of habitat adaptation on the microevolution of P. aeruginosa. However, even short-term habitat differentiation can cause major phenotypic diversification driven by single genomic variation events and uptake of phage