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Sample records for previously pregnant rats

  1. Reactive Protein Synthesis in Pregnant Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria. Summary: Genistein ... Oral exposure of pregnant rats to genistein precipitated hypothyroidism, altered some metabolic hormones with a ... consumption. Exposure to ...

  2. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  3. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, K. S.; Hansen, A. M.; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  4. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  5. Inhalative cadmium effects in pregnant and fetal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigge, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant and non-pregnant rats were continuously exposed for 21 days to an aerosol containing 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg cadmium/m/sup 3/ air. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats exposed to clean air served as controls. The aerosol was generated by an ultrasonic nebulizer and was carried into inhalation chambers. The median aerodynamic diameters were on the order of 0.6 ..mu..m. After inhalation of cadmium aerosols, serum iron levels were not lowered significantly in adult rats. A polycythaemic response of non-pregnant rats was observed due to a direct stimulatory effect of cadmium on erythropoiesis. Polycythaemia was less marked in pregnancy, presumably due to iron loss to placenta and fetus. Disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange or decreased plasma volumes were excluded as causative mechanisms of polycythaemia. In pregnant rats there was a marked dose dependent decrease of the activity of the alkaline phosphatase after cadmium inhalation, while there was no effect in exposed non-pregnant rats. This decreased enzyme activity, together with slowed growth rates and hemolytic effect indicate a higher sensitivity to cadmium in pregnancy. Proteinuria was not found in neither pregnant nor non-pregnant rats. Therefore, it is concluded that in this respect cadmium intoxication by inhalation does not resemble human toxemia of pregnancy, as discussed in the literature.

  6. Evaluation of anaerobic threshold in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

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    ALINE OLIVEIRA NETTO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies present different methodologies and results about intensity exercise, and many of them are performed in male rats. However, the impact of different type, intensity, frequency and duration of exercise on female rats needs more investigation. From the analysis of blood lactate concentration during lactate minimum test (LacMin in the swimming exercise, the anaerobic threshold (AT was identified, which parameter is defined as the transition point between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. LacMin test is considered a good indicator of aerobic conditioning and has been used in prescription of training in different exercise modalities. However, there is no evidence of LacMin test in female rats. The objective was to determine AT in non-pregnant and pregnant Wistar rats. The LacMin test was performed and AT defined for mild exercise intensity was from a load equivalent to 1% of body weight (bw, moderate exercise as carrying 4% bw and severe intensity as carrying 7% bw. In pregnant rats, the AT was reached at a lower loading from 5.0% to 5.5% bw, while in non-pregnant the load was from 5.5% to 6.0% bw. Thus, this study was effective to identify exercise intensities in pregnant and non-pregnant rats using anaerobic threshold by LacMin test.

  7. Cadmium toxcity in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.G.; Hitchcock, B.B.; King, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Iron-deficient and normal pregnant rats were assigned to groups that either received a dose of cadmium (0.025, 0.050, or 0.100 mmole) plus 8 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd on day 18 of gestation or served as a nondosed group. Animals were either sacrificed 3 days after the dosing or allowed to litter (nondosed and 0.100 mmole cadmium groups only); pups and dams were sacrificed at 14 days of age. Viability of iron-deficient dams and fetuses and pups from iron-deficient dams was affected by the 0.100 mmole cadmium dose to a greater degree than was that in comparable normal animals. Although calculated amounts of cadmium deposited in the dam's liver, kidney, blood, tibia, and fetuses were greater in iron-deficient than in normal animals at all doses, differences were not significant except in the amount of cadmium accumulated in the placenta at the highest cadmium doses. Total deposition in the placentas/litter was similar for normal and iron-deficient groups at each dose level. The decreased viability may have been due to the dam's decreased food intake; blockage of nutrients, especially minerals, by cadmium--protein complexes in the placenta; or hormonal interruptions of pregnancy by steroid--cadmium complexes

  8. Effect of indomethacin on the pregnant rat

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    Débora Cristina Damasceno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance, liver morphological study and post mortem characteristics of the pregnant Wistar rats treated with indomethacin, a general COX inhibitor. Indomethacin at doses of 0 (control, 0.32, 1.68 and 8.40 mg/kg/day were orally given once daily to each group (n=10 on days 3 and 4 of pregnancy (day 0 = first day of pregnancy = positive vaginal sperm. The animals were euthanized under anesthesia on day 11 of pregnancy, and were carried out necropsy and microorganism culture study. The results showed that the doses of 0.32 and 1.68 mg/kg body weight (the therapeutic dose for humans of indomethacin caused no embryotoxic or lethal effects. The highest dose (8.40 mg/kg of indomethacin disturbed implantation process and, thus, interrupted major development in some fetuses. The peritonitis was detected in the necropsy and in the bacteriological study of the animals treated with 8.4 mg/kg. It was considered death cause of these animals. Thus, this study analyzed a pharmacological agent on pregnancy in rodents and it provided some evidences that indomethacin presented embryotoxic and lethal effects at a high dose, but it was safe in the therapeutic dose used for humans.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance reprodutiva, estudo morfológico do fígado e características " post mortem" de ratas Wistar prenhes tratadas com indometacina, um inibidor geral de COX. Indometacina foi administrada oralmente, nas doses de 0 (controle, 0,32, 1,68 e 8,40 mg/kg/dia (n=10/grupo, nos dias 3 e 4 de prenhez (dia 0 = primeiro dia de prenhez = esperma positivo. Os animais foram eutanasiados sob anestesia no 11º dia de prenhez, e foram realizadas necropsia e cultura de microorganismos. Os resultados mostraram que as doses de 0,32 e 1,68 mg/kg de peso corpóreo (dose terapêutica para humanos de indometacina não causaram efeitos embriotóxicos ou letais. A maior dose (8,40 mg/kg de indometacina

  9. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

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    Tayfun Et

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26 were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6 received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10 received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05. No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy.

  10. Strontium-85 in the fetuses of pregnant rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyskowova, Z.; Josifko, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant SPF Wistar rats and ICR/Swiss albino mice were injected in the tail vein with 85 SrCl 2 with 0.05mM inactive carrier (SrCl 2 ) given in volumes of 0.1 ml. The activity in the injected volume.was about 14 MBq per kg of rat and 13 MBq per kg of mouse. The animals were injected on day 3 or 13 of gestation. Activity retained by the fetuses was quantitatively determined at three stages of the fetal intrauterine development: in rats on days 14, 16 and 21 of gestation, in mice on days 14, 16 and 20 of gestation. The activity of fetuses and/or placentas with fetal membranes was measured using a TESLA automatic gamma counter. The results indicate that the fetuses of mice retained a significantly (P<0.01) greater proportion of strontium activity than the fetuses of rats. The highest specific activities (the percentage of total activity retained per gram of fetal tissue) were found in the late pregnancy period on (day 21 of gestation in rats and on day 20 of gestation in mice) in animals that were injected with the radionuclide on day 13 of gestation. (author)

  11. Spontaneous Fundal Uterine Rupture in a Pregnant Woman at 32 Weeks Gestation who had Two Previous Cesarean Sections

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    Metin Kaba

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy can cause severe complications, even maternal and fetal demise. We report successful management of a spontaneous fundal uterine rupture in a 32 week pregnant who had undergone two previous cesarean sections due to preterm delivery. We explain causes of spontaneous uterine rupture and the management of this rare event in the presented case report.

  12. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-07-12

    Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period.

  13. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

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    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  14. Community Acquired Chronic Arthritis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Previously Healthy Pregnant Woman

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    Mesut Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Septic arthritis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is uncommon in the immunocompetent population, despite its occurrence in younger patients with open injuries and in intravenous drug abusers. Here we report a case of septic arthritis caused by P. aeruginosa. This case is unique for several reasons. First, it is a case of septic arthritis in a pregnant woman with no traditional risk factors reported in the literature including history of prior traumatic events, hospitalisation, or chronic underlying disease. She was suspected of having transient osteoporosis associated with pregnancy to involve both hip joints. Second, this is the first reported case of a community acquired chronic septic arthritis due to P. aeruginosa involving large joints of both upper and lower extremities. The patient was treated successfully with a combination of ceftazidime and amikacin for 4 weeks followed by oral ciprofloxacin 750 mg twice daily for 8 weeks.

  15. Disposition and metabolism of 14C citrinin in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, R.V.; Hayes, A.W.; Berndt, W.O.

    1982-01-01

    Citrinin is a product of fungal metabolism capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Distribution, excretion and metabolism of ( 14 C) citrinin was studied in pregnant female rats after subcutaneous administration of 35 mg/kg on the 12th day of gestation. Elimination of ( 14 C) citrinin-derived radioactivity from plasma was biphasic. The half-lives of the rapid (α) and slower (β) plases of elimination were 1.95 h and 39.7 h, respectively. Approximately 74% of the radioactivity appeared in the urine in the first 24 h, with only 1.7% and 1.4% in the urine at 48 h 72 h, respectively. Fecal elimination accounted for 9.5%, 4.1% and 7.3% of the total radioactivity at each of these times. At least one metabolite of citrinin was demonstrable with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of plasma extracts. Retention times for the parent compound and metabolite were 270 s and 175 s, respectively. The metabolite was more polar than the parent compound. At least 3 metabolites of citrinin were found in urine of the same rats. Retention times for two metabolites were 140 s and 180 s, with both metabolites more polar than the parent compound. Chromatograms of bile samples suggested at least one metabolite was present with a retention time of 140 s. Chromatograms of uterus extracts indicated the presence of one metabolite with a retention time of 180 s. Chromatograms of fetus extracts indicated that no metabolites of citrinin were present. (author)

  16. Tritium ingestion as organically bound tritium (OBT) - incorporation in different organs of pregnant and non-pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Pollaris, K.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kowalska, M.

    1998-01-01

    For a better understanding of the hazard of tritium, its bound form in the food constituents (organically bound tritium (OBT)) has not been investigated though study on tritiated water are many. Hence an evaluation of the uptake of tritium incorporated in basic constituents of food viz, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids is warranted. Present study cells with the incorporated three organically bound tritium components separated from tritiated milk powder (casein, butter and lactose). This is further compared in the organs of pregnant (after parturition) and non-pregnant rats

  17. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  18. The acute toxicity and teratogenicity of nickel in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, A.; Holt, D.; Webb, M.

    1985-01-01

    The increased susceptibility of the pregnant rat to intraperitoneally administered nickel (Ni) is apparent at 12 and 19 days of pregnancy and cannot be due, therefore, to the increase in total body weight. Teratogenic malformations occur when Ni is administered during organogenesis and are maximal at dose levels that are toxic for the dam. The yolk sac and chorioallantoic placentas accumulate Ni, but this does not prevent the transport of the metal to the embryo or foetus. The Ni concentrations in the conceptuses decrease more slowly with time than those in the maternal organs. In the foetuses, the decrease in concentration is due to the increase in weight, since the content of Ni increases between 4 h and 24 h. Foetal uptake of ( 14 C)thymidine, ( 3 H)leucine and 65 Zn is unaffected at 3 h after the injection of the dam with 4 mg Ni/kg body wt. Incorporation of ( 3 H)leucine into foetal protein, but not the incorporation of ( 14 C)thymidine into DNA, is decreased at this time. A major effect of treatment with this teratogenic dose is an increase in the maternal plasma glucose concentration which, in turn, alters the supply of the sugar to the foetus. The possible relevance of temporary foetal hyperglycaemia to teratogenesis is discussed. (author)

  19. Intention to breastfeed in low-income pregnant women: the role of social support and previous experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between breastfeeding intention among socioeconomically disadvantaged pregnant women and maternal demographics, previous breastfeeding experience, and social support. A cross-sectional, convenience sampling strategy was employed for data collection. Low-income women (n = 1001) in a public hospital completed a six-page questionnaire about their infant feeding plans, demographics, and social support. Simple regression analyses were conducted to compare maternal breastfeeding intention with the hypothesized correlates. Breastfeeding intention was positively correlated with older maternal age, higher education, more breastfeeding experience, Hispanic ethnicity, and hearing about breastfeeding benefits from family members, the baby's father, and lactation consultants, but not from other health professionals. Health professionals' attitudes were less influential on women's infant feeding decisions than the attitudes and beliefs of members of women's social support networks. When controlling for breastfeeding experience (none vs any), some findings, varied, indicating a need for breastfeeding interventions tailored to women's level of experience. Use of peer counselors and lactation consultants, inclusion of a woman's family members in breastfeeding educational contacts, and creation of breastfeeding classes tailored to influential members of women's social support networks may improve breastfeeding rates among low-income women, especially those with no breastfeeding experience, more effectively than breastfeeding education to pregnant women that is solely conducted by health professionals.

  20. Disposition of inorganic mercury in pregnant rats and their offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Pereira, Maria E.; Bridges, Christy C.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as methylmercury have been shown to negatively impact fetal health. Despite the prevalence of inorganic mercury (Hg2+) in the environment and the ability of methylmercury to biotransform into Hg2+, little is known about the ability of Hg2+ to cross the placenta into fetal tissues. Therefore, it is important to understand the handing and disposition of Hg2+ in the reproductive system. The purpose of the current study was to assess the disposition and transport of Hg2+ in placental and fetal tissues, and to test the hypothesis that acute renal injury in dams can alter the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal tissues. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected intravenously with 0.5 or 2.5 μmol kg−1 HgCl2 for 6 or 48 h and the disposition of Hg2+ was measured. Accumulation of Hg2+ in the placenta was rapid and dose-dependent. Very little Hg2+ was eliminated during the initial 48 h after exposure. When dams were exposed to the low dose of HgCl2, fetal accumulation of Hg2+ increased between 6 h and 48 h, while at the higher dose, accumulation was similar at each time point. Within fetal organs, the greatest concentration of Hg2+ (nmol/g) was localized in the kidneys, followed by the liver and brain. A dose-dependent increase in the accumulation of Hg2+ in fetal organs was observed, suggesting that continued maternal exposure may lead to increased fetal exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that Hg2+ is capable of crossing the placenta and gaining access to fetal organs in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26196528

  1. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

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    de Mello Maria

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. Methods To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein: pregnant (N, tumor-bearing (WN, pair-fed rats (Np. Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine: leucine (L, tumor-bearing (WL and pair-fed with leucine (Lp. Non pregnant rats (C, which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Results Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Conclusions Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones.

  2. Effects of leucine supplemented diet on intestinal absorption in tumor bearing pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice Roston de; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2002-01-01

    It is known that amino acid oxidation is increased in tumor-bearing rat muscles and that leucine is an important ketogenic amino acid that provides energy to the skeletal muscle. To evaluate the effects of a leucine supplemented diet on the intestinal absorption alterations produced by Walker 256, growing pregnant rats were distributed into six groups. Three pregnant groups received a normal protein diet (18% protein): pregnant (N), tumor-bearing (WN), pair-fed rats (Np). Three other pregnant groups were fed a diet supplemented with 3% leucine (15% protein plus 3% leucine): leucine (L), tumor-bearing (WL) and pair-fed with leucine (Lp). Non pregnant rats (C), which received a normal protein diet, were used as a control group. After 20 days, the animals were submitted to intestinal perfusion to measure leucine, methionine and glucose absorption. Tumor-bearing pregnant rats showed impairment in food intake, body weight gain and muscle protein content, which were less accentuated in WL than in WN rats. These metabolic changes led to reduction in both fetal and tumor development. Leucine absorption slightly increased in WN group. In spite of having a significant decrease in leucine and methionine absorption compared to L, the WL group has shown a higher absorption rate of methionine than WN group, probably due to the ingestion of the leucine supplemented diet inducing this amino acid uptake. Glucose absorption was reduced in both tumor-bearing groups. Leucine supplementation during pregnancy in tumor-bearing rats promoted high leucine absorption, increasing the availability of the amino acid for neoplasic cells and, mainly, for fetus and host utilization. This may have contributed to the better preservation of body weight gain, food intake and muscle protein observed in the supplemented rats in relation to the non-supplemented ones

  3. COMPARISON OF THE RESULTS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE SELFMONITORING AND CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS DIABETES MELLITUS

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    A. V. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is one of the indications for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. The data on its efficiency in pregnant women are contradictory.Aim: To compare the results of blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG and CGM in pregnant women with previous diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: We performed a cross-sectional comparative study of glycemia in 18 pregnant women with previous type 1 (87.8% of patients and type 2 diabetes (22.2% of patients with various degrees of glycemic control. Their age was 27.7 ± 4.9 year. At study entry, the patients were at 17.2 ± 6.1 weeks of gestation. CGM and SMBG were performed in and by all patients for the duration of 5.4 ± 1.5 days. Depending on their HbA1c levels, all patients were divided into two groups: group 1 – 12 women with the HbA1c above the target (8.5 ± 1%, and group 2 – 6 women with the HbA1c levels within the target (5.6 ± 0.3%.Results: According to SMBG results, women from group 2 had above-the-target glycemia levels before breakfast, at 1 hour after breakfast and at bedtime: 6.2 ± 1.6, 8.7 ± 2.1, and 5.7 ± 1.9 mmol/L, respectively. According to CGM, patients from group 1 had higher postprandial glycemia than those from group 2 (8.0 ± 2.1 and 6.9 ± 1.8 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.03. The analysis of glycemia during the day time revealed significant difference between the groups only at 1 hour after dinner (7.1 ± 1.4 mmol/L in group 1 and 5.8 ± 0.9 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.041 and the difference was close to significant before lunch (6.0 ± 2.2 mmol/L in group 1 and 4.8 ± 1.0 mmol/L in group 2, р = 0.053. Comparison of SMBG and CGM results demonstrated significant difference only at one timepoint (at 1 hour after lunch and only in group 1: median glycemia was 7.4 [6.9; 8.1] mmol/L by SMBG and 6 [5.4; 6.6] mmol/L by CGM measurement (р = 0.001. Lower median values by CGM measurement could be explained by averaging of three successive measurements carried out in the

  4. Modulation of Radiation Injury in Pregnant Rats by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, E.M.; Abd Rabu, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Work aims to point out the influence of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in protection of irradiated pregnant rats and suppression of oxidative stress. BMT was administered to rats, 1 h post gamma irradiation at the dose level of 2 Gy given at the 7th or 14th day of gestation. Rats were examined after 20 days from gestation to detect the physiological parameters of the mother and number of implantation sites and resorption as well as length of foetuses and tails. Pregnant rats irradiated at the 7th and 14th day of gestation showed reduction in live foetuses and length of foetuses and their tails and significant decrease in erythrocytes (RBCs), leucocytes (WBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), and hematocrit percentage (Ht). Irradiation-induced an elevation in aldosterone and a drop in calcium (Ca). Glutathione levels showed significant decreases in blood while the content of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) showed significant increases. Lipid profile exhibited an increase in the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C) with a significant decrease in high lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) in both groups. BMT to irradiated pregnant rats induced significant amelioration in radiation- induced changes. BMT was shown to be effective in reducing physiological disorders and oxidative stress in pregnant rats reflected on minimizing embryonic injuries

  5. Low-protein diet does not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters in pregnant Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.V. Barros

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reproductive, biochemical, and hematological outcomes of pregnant rats exposed to protein restriction. Wistar rat dams were fed a control normal-protein (NP, 17% protein, n=8 or a low-protein (LP, 8% protein, n=14 diet from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy. On the 20th day, the clinical signs of toxicity were evaluated. The pregnant rats were then anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical-hematological analyses, and laparotomy was performed to evaluate reproductive parameters. No sign of toxicity, or differences (P>0.05 in body weight gain and biochemical parameters (urea, creatinine, albumin, globulin, and total protein between NP and LP pregnant dams were observed. Similarly, hematological data, including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell distribution width (coefficient of variation, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, % lymphocytes, absolute lymphocyte count, platelet count, and mean platelet volume were similar (P>0.05 at the end of pregnancy. Reproductive parameters (the dam-offspring relationship, ovary mass, placenta mass, number of corpora lutea, implantation index, resorption index, and the pre- and post-implantation loss rates were also not different (P>0.05 between NP and LP pregnant dams. The present data showed that a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy did not alter reproductive, biochemical, and hematological parameters and seems not to have any toxic effect on pregnant Wistar rats.

  6. Quantitative alterations in the liver and adrenal gland in pregnant rats induced by Pyralene 3000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreci, M.; Sek, S.; Lorger, J.; Bavdek, S. [Univ. of Ljubljana, Gerbiceva (Slovenia); Pogacnik, A.

    1995-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental pollutants known in the world. The half-life of PCBs is very long and, therefore, once released into the environment, they accumulate in food chains and tissues of various mammals, including man. Their presence can cause numerous toxic effects, e.g., hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, dermatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and disorders of the reproductive system, among others. These effects depend on the distribution route in the organism, the rate of metabolism and excretion. Their characteristics are closely associated with the number and position of the chlorine atoms in the molecule. Previous studies of trichlorobiphenyl distributions in various tissues demonstrated that low chlorinated trichlorobiphenyls do no accumulate in endocrine organs, whereas higher chlorinated biphenyls, such as hexa- and octachlorobiphenyl, are deposited and retained in the adrenal gland. A selective distribution of radioabelled tetrachlorobiphenyl to the zona fasciculata, accompanied by morphometric evidence of the hypertrophy of the zona fasciculata, was also noted. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the tissue structure of the pregnant rat liver and adrenal gland induced experimentally by Pyralene 3000 administration. We chose this commercial low chlorinated PCB because it was in use in Slovenia and, discharged from the electroindustrial plants, caused a serious incidence of environmental pollution in the region of Bela Krajina. Our further aim was to research the transplacental influences of Pyralene 3000 in rats. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Treatment of pregnant rats with oleoyl-estrone slows down pup fat deposition after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilà Ruth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, oral oleoyl-estrone (OE decreases food intake and body lipid content. The aim of this study was to determine whether OE treatment affects the energy metabolism of pregnant rats and eventually, of their pups; i.e. changes in normal growth patterns and the onset of obesity after weaning. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with daily intragastric gavages of OE in 0.2 ml sunflower oil from days 11 to 21 of pregnancy (i.e. 10 nmol oleoyl-estrone/g/day. Control animals received only the vehicle. Plasma and hormone metabolites were determined together with variations in cellularity of adipose tissue. Results Treatment decreased food intake and lowered weight gain during late pregnancy, mainly because of reduced adipose tissue accumulation in different sites. OE-treated pregnant rats' metabolic pattern after delivery was similar to that of controls. Neonates from OE-treated rats weighed the same as those from controls. They also maintained the same growth rate up to weaning, but pups from OE-treated rats slowed their growth rate afterwards, despite only limited differences in metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The OE influences on pup growth can be partially buffered by maternal lipid mobilization during the second half of pregnancy. This maternal metabolic "imprinting" may condition the eventual accumulation of adipose tissue after weaning, and its effects can affect the regulation of body weight up to adulthood.

  8. The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of valproic acid on renal corpuscle of pregnant rats and protective role of folic acid and vitamin E. Ayfer Aktas, Yusuf Nergız, Yusuf Nergız, Murat Akkus, Murat Akkus, Yasemin Nasır, Yasemin Nasır ...

  9. The teratogenic effects of low dose 60Co γ-rays on the early pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chunlin

    1991-01-01

    The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 0.5 Gy and 1.0 Gy 60 Co γ-rays at the 9th day after conception. The results: 60 Co γ-rays at dose of 1.0 Gy could induced many defects: excenphaly, hydrocephalus, gastroschisis, cleft palate and cleft lip, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, shorten tail and absent tail in surviving fetuses. The growth retardation was found from the parameters of fetal weight, height, head circle and development of skeleton. In the group of radiation dose 0.5 Gy, only hydrocephalus, absent tail and growth retardation of skeleton appeared. The results suggest that low-dose exposure in the early pregnant rats can induce fetal defects and growth retardation. The probable mechanism of teratogen and growth retardation was discussed. The cAMP levels of brain and liver of rat fetuses were reported

  10. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  11. Biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring exposed to different doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Ineu, Rafael P; Moraes-Silva, Lucélia; Pereira, Maria E

    2012-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of low and high doses of inorganic mercury in drinking water on biochemical parameters of pregnant rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were treated during pregnancy with 0, 0.2, 0.5, 10 or 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL as HgCl(2). Rats were euthanized on day 20 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats presented a decrease in total water intake in all doses of mercury tested. At high doses, a decrease in the total food intake and in body weight gain was observed. Pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in kidney relative weight. Mercury exposure did not change serum urea and creatinine levels in any of the doses tested. Moreover, mercury exposure did not change porphobilinogen synthase activity of kidney, liver and placenta from pregnant rats in any of the doses tested, whereas fetuses of pregnant rats exposed to 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL presented an increase in the hepatic porphobilinogen synthase activity. In general, pregnant rats presented alterations due to HgCl(2) exposure in drinking water. However, only the dose 50 μg Hg(2+)/mL appeared to be enough to cross the blood-placenta barrier, since at this dose the fetuses presented change in the porphobilinogen synthase activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of tamsulosin and nifedipine on contractility of pregnant rat ureters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisette; Corriveau, Stéphanie; Rousseau, Eric; Blouin, Simon; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Ponsot, Yves; Roy-Lacroix, Marie-Ève

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro effect of tamsulosin and nifedipine on the contractility of pregnant rat ureters and to perform quantitative analysis of the pharmacological effects. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) is commonly used to treat urolithiasis. However, this treatment is seldom used in pregnant women since no studies support this practice. This was an in vitro study on animal tissue derived from pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 124 ureteral segments were mounted in an organ bath system and contractile response to methacholine (MCh) was assessed. Tamsulosin or nifedipine were added at cumulative concentrations (0.001-1 μM). The area under the curve (AUC) from isometric tension measurements was calculated. The effect of pharmacological agents and the respective controls were assessed by calculating the AUC for each 5-min interval. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon nonparametric test. Both drugs displayed statistically significant inhibitory activity at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μM for tamsulosin and 1 μM for nifedipine when calculated as the AUC as compared to DMSO controls. Tamsulosin and nifedipine directly inhibit MCh-induced contractility of pregnant rat ureters. Further work is needed to determine the clinical efficacy of these medications for MET in pregnancy.

  13. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development...... smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise...

  14. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  15. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deux espèces probiotiques, le lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 et le Lactobacillus fermentumRC 14 ont été administé séparément comme supplément dans l\\'eau potable aux rats étudiés pendant 30 jours. La ration et le poids à la naissance des chiots ont été mesuré. Une amélioration significative d\\'appetit des rats dont le ...

  16. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  17. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiune, Luana Alves Freitas; Leal-Silva, Thaís; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Herrera, Emilio; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group): non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Results The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI) and coronary artery risk index (CRI), and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group. Conclusion Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy. PMID:28644857

  18. Beneficial effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. flower aqueous extract in pregnant rats with diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Alves Freitas Afiune

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes and has shown antifertility activity in female Wistar rats. However, there is no scientific confirmation of its effect on diabetes and pregnancy. The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of H. rosa-sinensis flowers on maternal-fetal outcome in pregnant rats with diabetes.Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg in virgin, adult, female Wistar rats. After diabetes induction, the rats were mated. The pregnant rats were distributed into four groups (n minimum = 11 animals/group: non-diabetic, non-diabetic treated, diabetic, and diabetic treated. Oral aqueous extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was administered to rats in the treatment groups during pregnancy. At term pregnancy, maternal reproductive outcomes, fetal parameters, and biochemical parameters were analyzed.The non-diabetic treated group showed decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased atherogenic index (AI and coronary artery risk index (CRI, and increased preimplantation loss rate compared to the non-diabetic group. Although treatment with H. rosa-sinensis led to no toxicity, it showed deleterious effects on cardiac and reproductive functions. However, the diabetic treated group showed increased maternal and fetal weights, reduced AI and CRI, and reduced preimplantation loss rate compared to the untreated diabetic group.Our results demonstrate beneficial effects of this flower only in pregnant rats with diabetes and their offspring. Although these findings cannot be extrapolated to human clinical use, they show that the indiscriminate intake of H. rosa-sinensis may be harmful to healthy individuals and its use should be completely avoided in pregnancy.

  19. Effects of some food pollutants on pregnant rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, E.M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of some food pollutants on pregnant rats and their foetuses The present work deals to illustrate asses the possible adverse effect evoked by radiation and/or tartrazine on the pregnant rats and their foetuses and to evaluate their haematological and their histological changes on liver and kidney. The pregnant rats were treated with radiation (1/2 Gy) on the 5th day of gestation and two doses of tartrazine (2.8, 5.6 mg/kg b.wt) from the 5th to 20th day of gestation singly or in combination. On the 20th day of gestation, the results have teveald marked decrease of maternal body weight, increase in the percentage of abortion and decrease in maternal uterine weight. In addition. to wide haematological disorders which are represented by decrease in erythrocytic count, decrease in haemoglobin content and haematocrit percentage. In addition to increase in total leukocyte count, changes in blood differential, and marked histological changes in their livers and kidneys. The effect of radiation and/or tartrazine on the development rat foetuses were characterized by growth retardation, high percentage of foetal mortality with gross malformation. In addition to decrease in R.B.Cs count and haemoglobin content and increase in total leucocyte count with marked histological changes in their livers and kidneys. Furthermore, the use of radiation alone or in combination with the two doses of tartrazine were found to cause effects both pregnant rats and their resulting foetuses. These effects increase with the highest dose of tartrazine than with the lower one and it was more pronounced in combination groups than in the groups used radiation or tartrazine alone. 5 tabs., 102 figs., 357 refs

  20. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  1. C-Psilocin tissue distribution in pregnant rats after intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis C.P. Law

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many species of hallucinogenic mushrooms have been found in the genus Psilocybe. The main psychoactive chemicals of Psilocybe mushrooms are psilocin and its phosphoryloxy derivative, psilocybin. In addition to its psychedelic effects, psilocybin is an effective agent to lift the mood of depressed patients with terminal cancers. Objective: To study the dispositional kinetics of 14C-psilocin in pregnant rats after intravenous injection, to calculate tissue dose surrogates i.e., tissue 14C concentration and area under the concentration-time curve using the experimental data, to quantify trans-placental passage of psilocin and/or its metabolites, and to identify new psilocin metabolite(s in rat urine. Methods: A group of 15 pregnant Wistar rats weighing between 0.30-0.36 kg was used in the study. Each rat was given a single dose of 7.5 mg/kg 14C-psilocin i.v. Three rats were randomly selected and sacrificed at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 hr post-dosing. The maternal and fetal tissues were quickly removed and the radioactivity in these tissues determined by liquid scintillation counting. In a separate study, urine samples were collected from 6 male Wistar rats after administering 15 mg/kg of unlabeled psilocin i.p. The urine samples were collected and extracted by chloroform-methanol (9:1 v/v and analyzed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Results: 14C-Psilocin crossed the placental barrier of pregnant rats readily after i.v. administration; maternal tissue 14C concentrations were found to be much higher than those in fetal tissues. The areas under the curve for maternal tissues also were much higher than the fetal tissues. In general, maternal tissues could be divided into the fast eliminating organ group, which included the brain (elimination half-life 13 hr. A new psilocin metabolite tentatively identified as dihydroxyindoleacetic acid was found in the urine. Conclusion: Our study showed that psilocin readily crossed the

  2. Decreased insulin secretion in pregnant rats fed a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijun; Ho, Eric; Balakrishnan, Meena; Yechoor, Vijay; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Low protein (LP) diet during pregnancy leads to reduced plasma insulin levels in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Glucose is the primary insulin secretagogue, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in beta cells contributes to compensation for insulin resistance and maintenance of glucose homeostasis during pregnancy. In this study, we hypothesized that plasma insulin levels in pregnant rats fed LP diet are reduced due to disrupted GSIS of pancreatic islets. We first confirmed reduced plasma insulin levels, then investigated in vivo insulin secretion by glucose tolerance test and ex vivo GSIS of pancreatic islets in the presence of glucose at different doses, and KCl, glibenclamide, and L-arginine. Main findings include (1) plasma insulin levels were unaltered on day 10, but significantly reduced on days 14-22 of pregnancy in rats fed LP diet compared to those of control (CT) rats; (2) insulin sensitivity was unchanged, but glucose intolerance was more severe in pregnant rats fed LP diet; (3) GSIS in pancreatic islets was lower in LP rats compared to CT rats in the presence of glucose, KCl, and glibenclamide, and the response to L-arginine was abolished in LP rats; and (4) the total insulin content in pancreatic islets and expression of Ins2 were reduced in LP rats, but expression of Gcg was unaltered. These studies demonstrate that decreased GSIS in beta cells of LP rats contributes to reduced plasma insulin levels, which may lead to placental and fetal growth restriction and programs hypertension and other metabolic diseases in offspring. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Radiation effects on pregnant rats. part 1: Morphological changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.A.; Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were performed to provide a rational systematic understanding of the radiation induced effects on the various stages of embryonic development. The doses delivered were 1, 2, 3, 4 Gy whole body irradiation of the pregnant rats, at specific time periods of gestation. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on 9 th day of gestation corresponding to placentation stage, and sacrificed on days 14, 18, 21, showed disintegration of embryonic and placental formation on the day 14 which appeared more advanced at higher doses. At later stages of gestation period at days 18 and 21 animals irradiated with low doses showed deformed fetal masses, incompatible with life. At high doses, there was total absence of embryonic and placental formations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on day 13 of gestation corresponding to stage of organogenesis, and sacrificed on days 18 and 21 showed major changes in fetal development. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Radiation effects on pregnant rats. part 1: Morphological changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, M A; Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were performed to provide a rational systematic understanding of the radiation induced effects on the various stages of embryonic development. The doses delivered were 1, 2, 3, 4 Gy whole body irradiation of the pregnant rats, at specific time periods of gestation. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on 9{sup th} day of gestation corresponding to placentation stage, and sacrificed on days 14, 18, 21, showed disintegration of embryonic and placental formation on the day 14 which appeared more advanced at higher doses. At later stages of gestation period at days 18 and 21 animals irradiated with low doses showed deformed fetal masses, incompatible with life. At high doses, there was total absence of embryonic and placental formations. Irradiation of pregnant rats on day 13 of gestation corresponding to stage of organogenesis, and sacrificed on days 18 and 21 showed major changes in fetal development. The results obtained are detailed in the text, and supplemented by photographic presentations. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effects of [123I]ADAM, a serotonin transporter radiopharmaceutical, on pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, K.W.; Lin, M.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Chen, H.Y.; Chen, C.C.; Fu, Y.K.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin transport abnormalities are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. [ 123 I]ADAM ([ 123 I]-2-([2-({dimethylamino}methyl)phenyl]thio)-5-iodophenylamine) is a novel radiotracer that targets serotonin transporters. We assessed the toxicity of [ 123 I]ADAM (18.5 MBq) administered in early- and late-phases (8 and 14 day postfertilization, respectively) of pregnancy. The mortality, clinical status, and gross necropsy were measured in pregnant rats, and the fertility index was measured in rat offspring (weight, clinical observations). We found no dosing-related clinical signs. In conclusion, [ 123 I]ADAM was not toxic in an animal pregnancy model.

  6. Sibutramine effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant overweight and non-overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia-Farje, Luis Alberto Domingo; Silva, Denise Salioni; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu; Fernandes, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves; Carnietto, Nilson; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that sibutramine produces weight loss and is used frequently in women of childbearing age. However, the potential adverse consequences attributed to sibutramine use by women who may become pregnant is not known. It was thus of interest to determine the effects of sibutramine on the reproductive performance of pregnant rats. Overweight as well as non-overweight female Wistar rats were treated with sibutramine (6 mg/kg) orally, daily for 15 d and then mated with normal male rats. Pregnancy was confirmed and treatment continued with sibutramine until d 14 of pregnancy. On d 20 of pregnancy all rats were anesthetized for determination of various maternal and fetal parameters. There was a significant maternal weight reduction at the end of pregnancy in the non-overweight drug-treated group compared to the control (non-overweight, no drug). Sibutramine alone and overweight condition alone produced a significant increase in postimplantation loss and placental index. In the overweight with or without sibutramine groups a significant decrease in fetal weight was noted. Data suggest that sibutramine alone or the condition of excess weight in the absence of drugs produced impaired reproductive performance. However, treatment of overweight rats with sibutramine did not further exacerbate fetal loss compared to sibutramine alone or the effects noted with excess weight alone.

  7. The Effect of Endurance Swimming Exercise Training on Structural Remodeling and Apoptotic Index of Adrenal Cortex in Pregnant Rats Exposed to Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dabagh Nikukheslat

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise training in determined intensity increased the structural and morphological complications of cadmium toxicity in the adrenal gland of pregnant rats. So, pregnant mothers are advised to use low-intensity exercises and trainings.

  8. Dose-Related Effects of Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on Gamma Radiation-Induced Teratogenicity in Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Reviews of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a widely used nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug, has consistently suggested a possible association between prenatal ASA ingestion and adverse effects in the pregnant mothers and their developing fetuses. The objective of the current study was to comprehensively define the effect of relatively low and high doses of ASA (25 mg/kg body wt. and 200 mg/kg body wt. respectively) on gestating rats and their possible impact on the irradiated ones. Therefore 36 pregnant rats were randomly divided into 6 equal groups. Three rat groups were daily orally gavaged from the 7th to the 18th gestational days with: distilled water (Group 1), 25 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 2) and 200 mg/kg body wt. ASA (Group 3). The other three groups similarly received the same previous treatments besides 2 Gy whole body gamma irradiation of each, to serve as: Group 4 (distilled water + irradiation), Group 5 (25 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation) and Group 6 (200 mg/kg body wt. ASA + irradiation). All rat groups were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy and the uterine contents were examined. The lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg body wt.) treated group (Group 2) displayed healthy mothers and fetuses whereas that of the higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) (Group 3) despite not showing significant maternal or fetal mortalities, yet the intrauterine contents presented fetal developmental disorders including stunted growth and resorption together with some head and limb anomalies including plagiocephaly, marked acampsia and acrocontracture. Meanwhile, results have unexpectedly shown a radioprotective role of the lower ASA dose (25 mg/kg. body wt.) (Group 5) to pregnant rats and their fetuses as inspected by its efficacy in retrieving the radiation induced maternal weight loss together with its noticeable ameliorating effects on the intrauterine lethality of the affected fetuses and their externally detected abnormalities in addition toits effectiveness in retaining some

  9. Effect of leptin gene methylation on glucose metabolism in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen LI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the dynamic level of progesterone,insulin,and leptin,as well as the change in the features of leptin gene methylation in the promoter region of pregnant rats during different gestation stages and to analyze the correlation and effect of these conditions on glucose metabolism during gestation.Methods C57BL/6J pregnant rats are divided to four different groups,namely,early,mid-,and late gestation,as well as seven days postpartum(five rats for each group.Five C57BL/6J non-pregnant rats are taken as the control group.The change in glucose metabolism during gestation was determined by measuring the glucose tolerance of rats in different groups and by testing the level of progesterone,insulin,and leptin in the sera and the level of the methylation of leptin gene promoters during different stages of gestation.Results The levels of insulin [(13.70±0.70,14.78±0.91,and 16.07±0.55mU/L],progesterone [(10.10±0.37,11.41±0.50,and 15.34±0.65μg/L],and leptin [(1356.73±100.41,1628.02±53.03,and 1954.12±39.71ng/L] in pregnant rats in the three groups(early,mid-,and late gestation are apparently higher than that of the non-pregnant rats [(12.25±1.62mU/L,(7.14±0.38μg/L,and(934.38±62.29ng/L] and the postpartum group [(12.46±0.93mU/L,(9.74±0.82μg/L,and(1259.19±105.74ng/L].The difference among the different stages of gestation has statistical significance(P < 0.01,but the difference between the non-pregnant and postpartum groups is statistically insignificant.Fasting blood glucose during gestation is low.The level of blood glucose in mid-gestation and late-gestation rats after being injected with glucose is apparently higher than that of the non-pregnant group(P < 0.01.The level of methylation in the leptin gene promoter zone of the placenta drops along with gestation.Conclusions High levels of progesterone,insulin,and leptin contribute to physiological insulin resistance during gestation,resulting in reduced fasting blood glucose

  10. Accretion of visceral fat and hepatic insulin resistance in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H; Fishman, Sigal; Muzumdar, Radhika H; Yang, Xiao Man; Atzmon, Gil; Barzilai, Nir

    2008-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of pregnancy. Because increased visceral fat (VF) is associated with IR in nonpregnant states, we reasoned that fat accretion might be important in the development of IR during pregnancy. To determine whether VF depots increase in pregnancy and whether VF contributes to IR, we studied three groups of 6-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats: 1) nonpregnant sham-operated rats (Nonpreg; n = 6), 2) pregnant sham-operated rats (Preg; n = 6), and 3) pregnant rats in which VF was surgically removed 1 mo before mating (PVF-; n = 6). VF doubled by day 19 of pregnancy (Nonpreg 5.1 +/- 0.3, Preg 10.0 +/- 1.0 g, P Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in late gestation in chronically catheterized unstressed rats. Glucose IR (mg.kg(-1).min(-1)) was highest in Nonpreg (19.4 +/- 2.0), lowest in Preg (11.1 +/- 1.4), and intermediate in PVF- (14.7 +/- 0.6; P insulin sensitivity than Preg [hepatic glucose production (HGP): Nonpreg 4.5 +/- 1.3, Preg 9.3 +/- 0.5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1); P insulin sensitivity was similar to nonpregnant levels in PVF- (HGP 4.9 +/- 0.8 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)). Both pregnant groups had lower peripheral glucose uptake compared with Nonpreg. In parallel with hepatic insulin sensitivity, hepatic triglyceride content was increased in pregnancy (Nonpreg 1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. Preg 3.2 +/- 0.3 mg/g) and decreased with removal of VF (PVF- 1.3 +/- 0.4 mg/g; P insulin action in pregnancy.

  11. A NEW ANIMAL-MODEL FOR HUMAN PREECLAMPSIA - ULTRA-LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN INFUSION IN PREGNANT RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; VISSCHER, CA; BAKKER, WW

    OBJECTIVE: An animal model for preeclampsia was developed by means of an ultra-low-dose endotoxin infusion protocol in conscious pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Rats received a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 0 of pregnancy, through which endotoxin (1.0 mu/kg body weight) (n = 10) or saline

  12. Gestational hypoxia induces preeclampsia-like symptoms via heightened endothelin-1 signaling in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Xiao, Daliao; Hu, Yali; Wang, Zhiqun; Paradis, Alexandra; Mata-Greenwood, Eugenia; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy disorder. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia induces preeclampsia-like symptoms via heightened endothelin-1 (ET-1) signaling. Time-dated pregnant and nonpregnant rats were divided into normoxic and hypoxic (10.5% O2 from the gestational day 6-21) groups. Chronic hypoxia had no significant effect on blood pressure or proteinuria in nonpregnant rats but significantly increased blood pressure on day 12 (systolic blood pressure, 111.7 ± 6.1 versus 138.5 ± 3.5 mm Hg; P=0.004) and day 20 (systolic blood pressure, 103.4 ± 4.6 versus 125.1 ± 6.1 mm Hg; P=0.02) in pregnant rats and urine protein (μg/μL)/creatinine (nmol/μL) ratio on day 20 (0.10 ± 0.01 versus 0.20 ± 0.04; P=0.04), as compared with the normoxic control group. This was accompanied with asymmetrical fetal growth restriction. Hypoxia resulted in impaired trophoblast invasion and uteroplacental vascular remodeling. In addition, plasma ET-1 levels, as well as the abundance of prepro-ET-1 mRNA, ET-1 type A receptor and angiotensin II type 1 receptor protein in the kidney and placenta were significantly increased in the chronic hypoxic group, as compared with the control animals. Treatment with the ET-1 type A receptor antagonist, BQ123, during the course of hypoxia exposure significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced hypertension and other preeclampsia-like features. The results demonstrate that chronic hypoxia during gestation induces preeclamptic symptoms in pregnant rats via heightened ET-1 and ET-1 type A receptor-mediated signaling, providing a molecular mechanism linking gestational hypoxia and increased risk of preeclampsia.

  13. Antioxidant enzymes response induced by static magnetic field in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chater, S.; Abdelmelek, H.; Garrel, C.; Favier, A.; Sakly, M.; Rhouma, K.B.

    2005-01-01

    Some recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that static magnetic fields (MF) affect human health and, in particular, that the incidence of certain types of cancer, depression, and miscarriage might increase among individuals living or working in environments exposed to such fields. However, despite numerous studies concerning MF, the mechanism of its adverse effect still remains unknown. So, our work hypothesis was that abortion effects induced by MF exposure could be due to an over production of reactive oxygen species produced by pregnant rats. The aim of our study was to examine if MF was able to induce an oxidative stress in pregnant-rats. Pregnant female Wistar rats were exposed to MF (128 mT/1h/day) on day 6 to 19 of gestation. Animals were sacrificed three days after delivery and plasma was collected to determine malondialdehyde (MDA), an indirect oxidative stress marker, glutathion peroxidase activity (GPX), an antioxydant enzyme, and the total antioxidant status (TAS). MF exposure had no effects on MDA level (2.97 ± 0.50 μmol/l vs 2.62 ±0.19 μmol/l, p>0.05) and plasma GPX activity (6936.00 ±109.59 U/l vs 6258.00 ±111.12 U/l, p>0.05). Interestingly, MF exposure induced elevation in the total antioxidant status values (0.716 ±0.018 mmol/l vs 0.646 ±0.023 mmol/l, p<0.05). The results indicated that sub-acute exposures to magnetic field during rat pregnancy have no effects on lipid peroxidation, probably related to the protection role of antioxidant enzymes

  14. Embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion intravenously administered to pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Ye, Xiangfeng; Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Bangjie; Zhang, Yingxue; Bao, Jie; Li, Wanfang; Wei, Jinfeng; Wang, Aiping; Jin, Hongtao; Chen, Shizhong

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embryo-fetal development toxicity of honokiol microemulsion. The drug was intravenously injected to pregnant SD rats at dose levels of 0, 200, 600 and 2000 μg/kg/day from day 6-15 of gestation. All the pregnant animals were observed for body weights and any abnormal changes and subjected to caesarean-section on gestation day (GD) 20; all fetuses obtained from caesarean-section were assessed by external inspection, visceral and skeletal examinations. No treatment-related external alterations as well as visceral and skeletal malformations were observed in honokiol microemulsion groups. There was no significant difference in the body weight gain of the pregnant rats, average number of corpora lutea, and the gravid uterus weight in the honokiol microemulsion groups compared with the vehicle control group. However, at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, there was embryo-fetal developmental toxicity observed, including a decrease in the body length and tail length of fetuses. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of honokiol microemulsion is 600 μg/kg/day, 75 times above the therapeutic dosage and it has embryo-fetal toxicity at a dose level of 2000 μg/kg/day, which is approximately 250 times above the therapeutic dosage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-fat diet induced insulin resistance in pregnant rats through pancreatic pax6 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Yunyun; Wang, Hongkun; Xu, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    To explore the changes in pancreas islet function of pregnant rats after consumption of high-fat diet and the underlying mechanism. Thirty pregnant Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: high-fat diet group and normal control group. Twenty days after gestation, fasting blood glucose concentration (FBG) and fasting serum insulin concentration (FINS) were measured. Then, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT) were performed. Finally, all the rats were sacrificed and pancreas were harvested. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated according to FBG and FINS. RT-PCR and Real-time PCR were performed to study the expression of paired box 6 transcription factor (Pax6) and its target genes in pancreatic tissues. The body weight was significantly increased in the high-fat diet group compared with that of normal control rats (Pinsulin concentration between the two groups. OGTT and IRT were abnormal in the high-fat diet group. The high-fat diet rats were more prone to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. The level of the expression of Pax6 transcription factor and its target genes in pancreas, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) and glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) were decreased significantly compared with those of normal control group. High-fat diet feeding during pregnancy may induce insulin resistance in maternal rats by inhibiting pancreatic Pax6 and its target genes expression.

  16. Kinetic variation of protein metabolism in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Katsuharu

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic variation of nitrogen metabolism in the skeletal muscle and liver of rats during the course of pregnancy was studied by the use of 15 N-amino nitrogen during acclimatization on a protein-free diet. 15 N from 15 N-glycine given on day 1 of pregnancy decreased from the 1st to 2nd trimester in the liver, suggesting contribution to the N metabolic pool. In the muscle, the rate of 15 N showed a marked decrease in the 2nd trimester, indicating, along with an increased accumulation of the total muscular N content, N accumulation in muscle protein in the 2nd trimester and promoted decomposition of mobiler muscular protein in the 2nd trimester. The marked decrease in the muscle 15 N content from the 2nd trimester and the decrease in the total N content in the 3rd trimester support the serious involvement of muscular N in fetal growth. The level of 15 N from 15 N-ammonium during the course of pregnancy was significantly high in the 2nd trimester and low in the 3rd. The 2nd trimester showed amino N accumulation in the muscle, and the 3rd, a decrease in N accumulation and amino N release. In regard to the kinetics of 15 N-lysine in the cell fraction, the muscular microsomes showed a high 15 N accumulation in the 2nd trimester and a voluminous release in the 3rd trimester. In contrast, the liver microsomes showed a linear decrease of 15 N up to 2nd trimester, followed by no change. (Chiba, N.)

  17. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  18. Propofol Exposure in Pregnant Rats Induces Neurotoxicity and Persistent Learning Deficit in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xiong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is a general anesthetic widely used in surgical procedures, including those in pregnant women. Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause neuronal injury to the offspring of primates if it is administered during pregnancy. However, it is unknown whether those neuronal changes would lead to long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring. In this study, propofol (0.4 mg/kg/min, IV, 2 h, saline, or intralipid solution was administered to pregnant rats on gestational day 18. We detected increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 in fetal brain at 6 h after propofol exposure. The neuronal density of the hippocampus of offspring was reduced significantly on postnatal day 10 (P10 and P28. Synaptophysin levels were also significantly reduced on P28. Furthermore, exploratory and learning behaviors of offspring rats (started at P28 were assessed in open-field trial and eight-arm radial maze. The offspring from propofol-treated dams showed significantly less exploratory activity in the open-field test and less spatial learning in the eight-arm radial maze. Thus, this study suggested that propofol exposure during pregnancy in rat increased cleaved caspsase-3 levels in fetal brain, deletion of neurons, reduced synaptophysin levels in the hippocampal region, and persistent learning deficits in the offspring.

  19. Sub-acute toxicological effects of Jobelyn on pregnant albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Abiodun Humphrey; Yakubu, Omolara Faith; Egbung, Godwin Eneji; Williams, Olabisi Ibidun; Okubena, Olajuwon

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the sub-acute toxicological effects of Jobelyn® on pregnant albino rats by employing biochemical, haematological and histopathological methods. A total of 32 pregnant female rats were randomly assigned to four different groups of eight rats each. The control group received distilled water and different doses of Jobelyn®; 250, 500, 1000 mg kg-1 were administered orally once a day for 2 weeks to the other groups. Biochemical analysis revealed a significant decrease (pAlkaline phosphatase, total protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, WBC count, revealed no significant difference (p<0.05) when compared to the control. The results show that at an appropriate dosage, the use of Jobelyn® during pregnancy may have no adverse effect on the liver and kidney tissues and may possess hepatoprotective and nephroprotective properties however the histopathological studies revealed that very high levels of Jobelyn may be hepatotoxic.

  20. Role of the availability of substrates on hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis in the fasted late pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzano, A.; Lasuncion, M.A.; Herrera, E.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the role of gluconeogenetic substrate availability on glucose production in the fasted late pregnant rat. Virgin and 21-day pregnant rats were studied after 24 hours' food deprivation. Pregnant animals showed decreased circulating glucose and gluconeogenic amino acid and increased plasma glycerol concentration. Glucose formation was studied in vivo two, five, and ten minutes after the intravenous administration of two concentrations of 14 C-alanine, 14 C-pyruvate, or 14 C-glycerol. Concentrations of 0.2 mmols of 14 C-glycerol or 14 C-pyruvate, but not of 14 C-alanine, enhanced 14 C-glucose production in pregnant rats, whereas 1 mmol of any of the three 14 C-substrates always enhanced 14 C-glucose production in these rats. Both 1 mmol/L and 5 mmol/L 14 C-alanine increased 14 C-glucose formation in 90-minute-incubated liver slices of fasted pregnant rats, in spite of decreased cytosolic activity of alanine aminotransferase. The three substrates enhanced in vitro renal gluconeogenesis in pregnant rats. Under all experimental conditions studied, labeled glycerol was converted more efficiently into glucose than equivalent amounts of any other substrate used, and this difference was greater in pregnant, than in virgin animals. Results indicate that, in spite of enhanced gluconeogenetic activity, maternal glucose production in the fasted state at late gestation is limited by the deficiency of certain substrates, such as amino acids. It is proposed that glycerol derived from enhanced maternal adipose tissue lipolysis constitutes a preferential gluconeogenetic substrate in comparison with others, such as alanine, that are more efficiently transferred through the placenta to the fetus

  1. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of the Previous Outcome on Probabilistic Choice in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew T.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of previous outcomes on subsequent choices in a probabilistic-choice task. Twenty-four rats were trained to choose between a certain outcome (1 or 3 pellets) versus an uncertain outcome (3 or 9 pellets), delivered with a probability of .1, .33, .67, and .9 in different phases. Uncertain outcome choices increased with the probability of uncertain food. Additionally, uncertain choices increased with the probability of uncertain food following both certain-choice outcomes and unrewarded uncertain choices. However, following uncertain-choice food outcomes, there was a tendency to choose the uncertain outcome in all cases, indicating that the rats continued to “gamble” after successful uncertain choices, regardless of the overall probability or magnitude of food. A subsequent manipulation, in which the probability of uncertain food varied within each session as a function of the previous uncertain outcome, examined how the previous outcome and probability of uncertain food affected choice in a dynamic environment. Uncertain-choice behavior increased with the probability of uncertain food. The rats exhibited increased sensitivity to probability changes and a greater degree of win–stay/lose–shift behavior than in the static phase. Simulations of two sequential choice models were performed to explore the possible mechanisms of reward value computations. The simulation results supported an exponentially decaying value function that updated as a function of trial (rather than time). These results emphasize the importance of analyzing global and local factors in choice behavior and suggest avenues for the future development of sequential-choice models. PMID:23205915

  3. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  4. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour [ 203 Hg]-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total 203 Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood 203 Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater 203 Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals 203 Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain 203 Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing 203 Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system

  5. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  6. Effect of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor on insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Jin, Jun; Sun, Li-Zhou

    2018-06-21

    This paper aims to investigate the influence of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor, darapladib, on insulin resistance (IR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic pregnant rats. The rat models were divided into Control (normal pregnancy), STZ + saline (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats), STZ + Low-dose and STZ + High-dose darapladib (STZ-induced diabetic pregnant rats treated with low-/high-dose darapladib) groups. Pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Immunohistochemistry staining. Lp-PLA2 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of biochemical indicators, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) were calculated. Western blot was applied to determine levels of inflammatory cytokines. Compared with Control group, rats in the STZ + saline group were significantly decreased in body weight, the number of embryo implantation, the number of insulin positive cells and pancreatic islet size as well as the islet endocrine cells, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level, but substantially increased in Lp-PLA2, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), fatty acids (FFA), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) levels. Moreover, the increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HOMA-IR and inflammatory cytokines but decreased fasting insulin (FINS) and ISI were also found in diabetic pregnant rats. On the contrary, rats in the darapladib-treated groups were just opposite to the STZ + saline group, and STZ + High-dose group improved better than STZ + Low-dose group. Thus, darapladib can improve lipid metabolism, and enhance insulin sensitivity of diabetic pregnant rats by regulating inflammatory cytokines.

  7. Previous Repeated Exposure to Food Limitation Enables Rats to Spare Lipid Stores during Prolonged Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Albach, Audrey; Salazar, Giovanni

    The risk of food limitation and, ultimately, starvation dates back to the dawn of heterotrophy in animals, yet starvation remains a major factor in the regulation of modern animal populations. Researchers studying starvation more than a century ago suggested that animals subjected to sublethal periods of food limitation are somehow more tolerant of subsequent starvation events. This possibility has received little attention over the past decades, yet it is highly relevant to modern science for two reasons. First, animals in natural populations are likely to be exposed to bouts of food limitation once or more before they face prolonged starvation, during which the risk of mortality becomes imminent. Second, our current approach to studying starvation physiology in the laboratory focuses on nourished animals with no previous exposure to nutritional stress. We examined the relationship between previous exposure to food limitation and potentially adaptive physiological responses to starvation in adult rats and found several significant differences. On two occasions, rats were fasted until they lost 20% of their body mass maintained lower body temperatures, and had presumably lower energy requirements when subjected to prolonged starvation than their naive cohort that never experienced food limitation. These rats that were trained in starvation also had lower plasma glucose set -points and reduced their reliance on endogenous lipid oxidation. These findings underscore (1) the need for biologists to revisit the classic hypothesis that animals can become habituated to starvation, using a modern set of research tools; and (2) the need to design controlled experiments of starvation physiology that more closely resemble the dynamic nature of food availability.

  8. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in the uterine vascular bed of pregnant rats with adriamycin-induced nephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mariam H; Adeagbo, Ayotunde S; Kadavil, Elizabeth A; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Oriowo, Mabayoje A

    2002-01-01

    This project was designed to study endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the uterine vascular bed during experimentally induced preeclampsia in rats. Uterine vascular beds were isolated from non-pregnant and pregnant rats with or without treatment with adriamycin (ADR) and perfused with physiological solution. Thereafter, vasodilator responses to acetylcholine were recorded. RECORDS: Pregnant ADR-treated rats displayed symptoms of preeclampsia including hypertension and proteinuria. Blood pressure was 110.0 +/- 4.7 mm Hg (n = 5) in control pregnant rats and 136.0 +/- 5.3 mm Hg (n = 5) in ADR-treated pregnant rats, and urinary protein concentrations were 0.35 mg/ml (n = 5) and 13.2 +/- 3.6 mg/ml (n = 9), respectively. Both blood pressure and proteinuria values were significantly (p acetylcholine-induced dose-dependent vasodilator responses in the vascular beds were not significantly different between the pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Although acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was significantly reduced by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) in both groups, the residual response to acetylcholine was not affected by indomethacin, suggesting that prostanoids were not involved in this response. The L-NAME-resistant component, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), was greater in ADR-treated uterine beds than in those of the controls, indicating a significant contribution from EDHF in these vessels. In the presence of an elevated external potassium ion concentration, acetylcholine produced similar vasodilator responses, indicating that the release of nitric oxide was not impaired. These results indicate that endothelium-dependent vasodilation was not impaired in this model of preeclampsia.

  9. Teratogenicity and metabolism of water-soluble forms of vitamin A in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, D.B.; Barua, A.B.; Olson, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoyl β-glucuronide, unlike retinoic acid, has been shown to be non-teratogenic when administered orally, even in large doses, to pregnant rats. The degree to which water-solubility is associated with low teratogenicity is not known. Other water-soluble forms of vitamin A have now been synthesized in our laboratory and are being evaluated for teratogenicity. New water-soluble forms of vitamin A were administered orally to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in a single dose of 0.35 mmole/kg bw on day 8 of gestation. On day 19, the dams were sacrificed and the litters were examined. Control animals received either vehicle only or an equivalent dose of all-trans retinoic acid. Maternal and fetal tissues were taken and analyzed by HPLC for vitamin A metabolites. In another experiment, a large single oral dose of the radiolabelled water-soluble compound was administered on day 10. At either 30 minutes or 1 hour after the dose, dams were sacrificed and the embryos analyzed both for radioactivity and for specific metabolites. In contrast to retinoyl β-glucuronide, retinoyl β-glucose is highly teratogenic under identical conditions. Thus, water-solubility does not seem to be the determining factor in the teratogenicity of retinoic acid conjugates

  10. Malformations Induced in Pregnant Rats and their Fetuses Treated with Fluconazole and / or Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the synergistic effect of antifungal (fluconazole) treatment and / or g-radiation stress on pregnant mothers and their developing embryos by evaluating the maternal biochemical changes, embryological and histopathological lesions. Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum azole antifungal medication used for the treatment of several types of fungal infections including common forms such as vaginal candidiasis. Fluconazole (50 mg/kg b.wt.) was daily administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats from the 4th to the 13th gestational days during which they were subjected to g-radiation at a dose level of 1 Gy given at the 6th day (post implantation period) and 1 Gy on the 12th day (organogenesis period) of gestation. The animals were dissected and examined on the 20th day of gestation (one day prior to praturation). Fluconazole and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and sodium (Na + ) level accompanied with a decline in potassium (K + ) concentration. The results showed that there was an elevation in the lipid peroxidation end product malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and heart tissues of pregnant rats. Meantime, the developing embryos in the uteri showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairments. Moreover, the fluconazole treatment and / or g-radiation harm effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. The examination of the endoskeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the center of vertebrae and appendages. In addition, the embryonic histological examinations revealed heart loss of normal architecture, the interstitial tissues were oedematous and containing necrotic cellular debris together with fibrosis of nerve cells in the brain

  11. Effects of d- and l-limonene on the pregnant rat myometrium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Hódi, Ágnes; Seres, Adrienn B; Gáspár, Róbert

    2015-10-01

    To study the effects of d- and l-limonene on pregnant rat myometrial contractility in vitro, and investigate how these effects are modified by other agents. D- and l-limonene (10(-13)-10(-8) M) caused myometrial contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Contractions of uterine rings from 22-day-pregnant rats were measured in an organ bath in the presence of d- or l-limonene (10(-13)-10(-8) M) and nifedipine (10(-8) M), tetraethyl-ammonium (10(-3) M), theophylline (10(-5) M), or paxilline (10(-5) M). Uterine cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was detected by enzyme immunoassay. Oxidative damage was induced by methylglyoxal (3×10(-2) M) and the alteration was measured via noradrenaline (1×10(-9) to 3×10(-5) M) -induced contractions. Pre-treatment with nifedipine (10(-8) M), tetraethylammonium (10(-3) M), and theophylline (10(-5) M) attenuated the contracting effect of d- and l-limonene, while in the presence of paxilline (10(-5) M) d- and l-limonene were ineffective. The two enantiomers decreased the myometrial cAMP level, but after paxilline pretreatment the cAMP level was not altered compared with the control value. Additionally, l-limonene (10(-6) M) diminished consequences of oxidative damage caused by methylglyoxal (3×10(-2) M) on contractility, whereas d-limonene was ineffective. Our findings suggest that l-limonene has an antioxidant effect and that both d-and l-limonene cause myometrial contraction through activation of the A2A receptor and opening of the voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel. It is possible that limonene-containing products increase the pregnant uterus contractility and their use should be avoided during pregnancy.

  12. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-08-01

    Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) supplies the developing fetus during pregnancy; however, the mechanisms are unclear. We utilized pregnant rats to determine rates of DHA accretion, tissue unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion. Female rats maintained on a DHA-free, 2% α-linolenic acid diet were either:1) sacrificed at 56 days for baseline measures, 2) mated and sacrificed at 14-18 days of pregnancy or 3) or sacrificed at 14-18 days as age-matched virgin controls. Maternal brain, adipose, liver and whole body fatty acid concentrations was determined for balance analysis, and kinetic modeling was used to determine brain and liver plasma unesterified DHA uptake and whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. Total liver DHA was significantly higher in pregnant (95±5 μmol) versus non-pregnant (49±5) rats with no differences in whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion rates. However, liver uptake of plasma unesterified DHA was 3.8-fold higher in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant controls, and periuterine adipose DHA was lower in pregnant (0.89±0.09 μmol/g) versus non-pregnant (1.26±0.06) rats. In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatic steatosis development with four weeks of physical inactivity in previously active, hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Meers, Grace M; Ruebel, Meghan L; Jenkins, Nathan T; Booth, Frank W; Laughlin, M Harold; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Rector, R Scott

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity-induced prevention of hepatic steatosis is maintained during short-term (7-day) transitions to an inactive state; however, whether these protective effects are present under a longer duration of physical inactivity is largely unknown. Here, we sought to determine whether previous physical activity had protective effects on hepatic steatosis and metabolic health following 4 wk of physical inactivity. Four-week old, hyperphagic, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats were randomly assigned to either a sedentary group for 16 wk (OLETF-SED), given access to running wheels for 16 wk with wheels locked 5 h (OLETF-WL5hr) or given access to running wheels for 12 wk with wheels locked 4 wk (OLETF-WL4wk) prior to death. Four weeks of physical inactivity caused hepatic steatosis development, but liver triglycerides remained 60% lower than OLETF-SED (P inactivity, whereas markers of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis remained relatively suppressed following 4 wk of inactivity. In addition, 4 wk of inactivity caused a complete loss of activity-induced increases in serum IL-6 and reductions in regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and a partial loss in reductions in leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and TNF-α. In conclusion, 4 wk of physical inactivity does not result in a complete loss in physical activity-induced benefits but does cause deterioration in the liver phenotype and overall metabolic health in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

  14. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Impact of monosodium glutamate and /or gamma irradiation on pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the destructive impact of the widely used nutritional flavouring agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or radiation stress on the female rats mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical and embryological morphological and histopathological lesions induced. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, widely used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in modern nutrition. MSG (4 mg/rat) was daily administered subcutaneously to pregnant female rats from the 10 th to the 15 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy increments delivered every other day up to a cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. MSG and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum levels of lipid peroxides, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and sodium together with decreased calcium concentrations. consequently, the developing embryos in the uteri, due to their increased sensitivity, showed various teratological and histological impairments . MSG and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. moreover, embryonic histological examination revealed ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layer together with severely degenerated neurons

  16. Hsp70 Expression Profile in Preeclampsia Model of Pregnant Rat (Rattus norvegicus) after Giving the EVOO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianti, E.; ilyas, S.; Rosidah; Hutahaean, S.

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) has long been known to protect cells from oxidative stress. In this case an increased expression is found on several cases of preeclampsia. One of the efforts to prevent preeclampsia is by giving antioxidants such as Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) or it’s better known as olive oil (Oleoa europaea), in the form of extra virgin known for its rich antioxidant content of tocopherols (vitamin E). The purpose of this study is to determine the expression levels of Hsp70 serum on pregnant white rat model of preeclampsia after being given EVOO. This type of research is true experiment; the subjects were female white rats and male virgin with Sprague Dawley, ± 8-11 weeks old, 180g BB s / d 200g, healthy and didn’t show any physical defects. Samples were 25 animals, divided into 5 groups, which consisted of different control and treatment given to T2 (rat model of preeclampsia), T3 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.45g/bw/day), T4 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 0.9g/bw/day) and T5 (rat model of preeclampsia + EVOO 1.8g/bw/day). The determination of each group was done by simple random sampling. Result on serum levels of Hsp70 that were tested by Elisa test in rats showed the average control was 14.64 mg / ml, group T2: 22:51 mg/ml, T3: 13.62 mg/ml, T4: 15.92 mg/ml, T5: 16:09 mg/ml. ANOVA test showed the P value was 0.001 <0.005, which meant there were significant differences on serum Hsp70 levels in the control and treatment pregnant rats group. It was known that there was a significant difference level of Hsp70 serum in group of control rats with T2 (P value <0.001) after LSD test was conducted, but not so with the group T3, T4, and T5, where the difference was not significant. There was a significant difference in the levels of Hsp70 serum on group T2 and T3 (P value 0.000), T4 (0004), T5 (0000). The gift of EVOO in the treatment group which was given EVOO with even low doses was able to control the induction of Hsp70 serum levels, which

  17. The elimination, distribution, and metabolism of 14C-toxaphene in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, G.A.; Hillstrand, R.

    1982-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 14 C-toxaphene in olive oil on day 15 of pregnancy and housed in glass metabolism cages. Urine, feces, and tissues were collected and assayed for radioactivity. The elimination was similar to that in virgin females with the majority of activity excreted in the feces (38.4%; five days) and less in the urine (23.7%; five days). The fetuses contained the lowest levels of radioactivity of all tissues tested (28 ppb; five days) and fat contained the highest levels (7476 ppb; five days). A comparison of the activity in the fetuses with that in the dam's fat showed slight differences, indicating the presence of more polar compounds (perhaps metabolites)

  18. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct

  19. T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sehata

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

  20. Changes in brain development of rat fetus exposed to 137Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods of the female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yuefeng; Wang Mingming

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant rats in 11d and 16d of their pregnancy were given one-off whole body exposure by 137 Cs γ rays to 0.2, 0.4, 0.9 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Changes were observed in conditioned drinking response and cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number of the baby rats exposed to the γ rays in different periods of their embryo development. As a result, that pregnant rats exposed to 137 Cs γ rays in different pregnant periods may induce significant decrease in cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number and achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies. The dose-response relationship can be described by Y=a-b log 10 D. The achieving rate of conditioned drinking response were significantly correlated to cerebrum hippocampi cone cell number in the babies, and the achieving rate of conditioned drinking response of the babies exposed at pregnant 11d was lower than others exposed at pregnant 16d

  1. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  2. Impact of Isotretinoin on The Liver and Kidney of Irradiated Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Ismail, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isotretinoin and/or gamma radiation on the pregnant rats and their fetuses as judged by the maternal biochemical, histochemical and histopathological lesions induced in their fetuses. Isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is related to both retinoic acid and retinol (vitamin A) and found in small natural quantities in liver. It is medically indicated for treatment of severe cytic acne vulgaris. Isotretinoin at a dose level of 30 mg/kg was daily administered orally to pregnant albino rats from the 5th to 10th day of gestation. Mothers were subjected to 1 Gy of gamma radiation (0.5 Gy each time) on the 6th and 9th days of gestation then investigations were carried out on 20th day of gestation. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant increase in maternal serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), glucose, alanine and aspartate transaminases (AST, ALT) and creatinine (Cr) . In addition to decreased levels of serum protein, gamma, beta, alpha 2, alpha 1 and albumin with concomitance increase in pre-albumin were observed. The histopathological results of the liver tissue showed different distortions, which varied from necrotic cells, such as loss of architecture of hepatic lobules, rupture of the walls of blood vessels, dilated and congested blood vessels and vacuolated cytoplasm of the liver cells. On the other hand, the kidney tissue showed thickness of Bowman's capsule with hyaline material, atrophic glomerular tufts, fragmentlysis convoluted and completely degeneration of renal tubules. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed diminutions in each of the polysaccharides and DNA contents. It could be concluded that isotretinoin intake and/or radiation exposure could exert deleterious effect, therefore, radiation occupational workers, especially females, have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake

  3. Transplacental passage of {sup 26}Al from pregnant rats to fetuses and {sup 26}Al transfer through maternal milk to suckling rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Matsuzaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Tada, W.; Ohki, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Kobayashi, K

    2000-10-01

    Aluminium (Al) is toxic to the growth of fetuses and sucklings. However, the incorporation of Al into fetuses and sucklings in the periods of gestation and lactation has not been well clarified because Al lacks a suitable isotope for a tracer experiment. In this study, we used {sup 26}Al (a radioisotope of Al with half-life of 716,000 yr) as a tracer, and measured {sup 26}Al incorporation into fetuses and sucklings by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To investigate Al incorporation into fetuses through transplacental passage, {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}AlCl{sub 3}) was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation. {sup 26}Al was also subcutaneoulsy injected into lactating rats from day 1 to day 20 postpartum. By day 20 of gestation, 0.2% of the {sup 26}Al injected into a pregnant rat had been transferred to the fetuses, and {sup 26}Al was detected in the brain and liver of the fetuses. On day 9 postpartum, high levels of {sup 26}Al were demonstrated in the brain, liver, kidneys and blood of suckling rats. It is concluded that {sup 26}Al subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats and/or lactating rats is incorporated into their offspring through transplacental passage and/or maternal milk.

  4. Influences of serum from ozone-exposed pregnant rats in an in vitro model of implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our previous studies, ozone (O3) exposure during implantation [gestational day (GD) 5 and 6)] in rats resulted in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), suggesting impairment of implantation with exposure. The aim of this study was to (1) determine if serum collected from pre...

  5. Effects of hyperthermia applied to previously irradiated cervical spinal cord in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sminia, P.; Haveman, J.; Koedoder, C.

    1991-01-01

    Rat cervical spinal cord was X-ray irradiated at doses of 15, 18, 20 and 26 Gy. Approximately the same part of the spinal cord was heated by means of a 434 MHz microwave applicator 90 days later. After treatment, animals were observed for 18 months, for expression of neurological complications. These could either be result of the heat or of the radiation treatment. The time course showed 3 distinct peaks in the incidence of neurological symptoms. The 1st peak was due to the acute response to hyperthermia. The ED 50 value for neurological complications one day after treatment at 42.3±0.4 o C was 74 ±2 min. Previous X-ray irradiation of spinal cord with 18, 20 and 26 Gy reduced ED 50 to 57±7,65±4 and 55±5 min (12-26% of control), resp. Recovery from heat-induced neurological complications was diminished in previously irradiated animals. The 2nd peak (150-300 days after X-rays) concerned expression of 'early-delayed' radiation damage. Hyperthermia given in 90 days after irradiation did not influence either the percentage of animals with paralysis or the latent period. Neurological symptoms developing after day 300 were due to the late delayed radiation response. Significant difference was not observed in data on paralysis induced by radiation alone or radiation followed by heat. The late radiation-induced minor neurological symptoms, were however, influenced by retreatment with heat. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Influence of exposure of pregnant rats to tritiated water (HTO) on swimming function and brain weight of their litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefeng

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the effects of HTO exposure on the development of central nervous system in rats, the influence of exposure of pregnant rat to HTO on the swimming ability of their litters was studies. Experiment was completed in 21 rats and their 237 litters. It was found that exposure of rats to HTO at activity of 0.185 MBq/ml of body water (5 μCi/ml) or 0.740 MBq/ml (20 μCi/ml), begining on the 8th day of gestation, may retard the development of swimming ability in young litters (up to 18 day of life). These findings indicate that exposure to HTO at lower doses (0.20-1.85 Gy) may resut in a retardation of the function of the development of central nervous system in rats

  7. Malformations induced by gamma irradiation combined with vitamin A administration in pregnant female albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    In The Present investigation, oral administration of vitamin A of the therapeutic doses and double therapeutic doses (9.000 lU/kg b.wt and 18.000 IU/ kg body, wt) to female rats starting on day 1 up to day 19 of pregnancy and exposed to 3 Gy (1 Gy/3 times) whole body gamma irradiation on days 7th, 1th and 15th of gestation (dissection was preformed on day 20) caused morphological, histochemical and skeletal changes in pregnant rats and their foetuses. The congenital anomalies occurred in foetuses when pregnant rats were exposed to γ-irradiation including diminution of size and subcutaneous haemorrhage. On the other hand, miscellaneous malformations including kypophysis, exencephally, anophthalmia and deformation of ear region were designated in foetuses maternally treated with excess vitamin A. The malformations were severe when mothers were irradiated during vitamin A administration as manifested by macrocephaly and fusion of digits of the hind limb (Oligosyndactyly). The examination of the endo skeletal system of foetuses obtained from irradiated pregnant rats and treated with low or excess doses of vitamin A showed retardation in of the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the centre of vertebrae. Moreover, no ossification was observed in sternebra, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges. In the present study, the content of DNA exhibited significant decrease in mother irradiated and combined or not with vitamin A. The results are of great importance from the standpoint of radiation protection and drug safety

  8. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant

  9. Influence of γ-irradiation on the structure and enzymatic activity of nuclear membrane in pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Mirkhamidova, P.; Shamsutdinova, G.T.; Filatova, L.S.; Khamidov, D.Kh.; Zbarskij, I.B.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical investigations of pregnant rats and embryo liver cell nuclei after in vivo irradiation in the doses of 1 and 2 Gy revealed their high radiosnsitivity at all stages of gestation and embryonal development. At damaging effect of radiation, we managed to observe sharp accumulation of products of lipid peroxide oxidation and suppresion of the activities of such enzymes in liver nuclei of pregnant rats and embryos. The changes of such a kind are shown to intensify with the increasing of irradiation doses. The most profound inhibition of activities of these enzymes in liver nuclei of embryos irradiated in utero was observed during the period of organogenesis (the 13th day of the development) and in fetal period of embryogenesis (the 17th day of the development), as well as the 13th and 17th day of gestation. The morphological data also demonstate the high level of cell nucleus sensitivity to the action of radiation during gestattion and embryogenesis

  10. Protective effects of Allium sativum against defects of hypercholesterolemia on pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Abou-El-Naga, Amoura M; Gadallah, Abdelalim A; Bakr, Iman H

    2010-06-10

    Sixty fertile female and male albino rats of Wistar strain (I male/ 3 females) were used in the present study. The females were divided into four groups of ten rats each. Group 1 received water and standard feeds for thirty-four days. Group 2 was fed with a cholesterol-containing diet (1%) for two weeks prior to onset of gestation and maintained administration till parturition, produce atherosclerosis (34 days). Group 3 received intragastric administration of 100mg homogenate of garlic (Allium sativum)/kg body weight for three weeks prior to onset of gestation as well as throughout the gestation period. Group 4 intragastrically administered garlic for one week of group B and maintained with combined garlic-treatment for the mentioned period. At parturition, the pregnant were sacrificed and serum total cholesterol (TCL), triglycerides (TG), HDL, LDL and creatine kinase activity (CK) were determined. The total numbers of offspring were recorded and examined morphological for congenital abnormalities. Biopsies of heart and dorsal aorta of both pregnant and their offspring (1 day-age) were processed for investigation at light and transmission electron microscopy. The skeleton of the newborn of different experimental groups were stained with alizarin red s and mor-phometric assessment of mandibular and appendicular bone length. The study revealed that the myocardium of atherosclerotic mother exhibited leuhkocytic inflammatory cell infiltration associated with necrosis, eosinophilia of myocardiai fibers, and edema of blood vessels. Ultrastructural studies revealed swelling of mitochondria, disruption of cristae in the myocardiai muscle fibers. The dorsal aorta possessed accumulation of extra-cellular lipid in intima lining of endothelium. The collagenous fibrils in the tunica adventitia became fragile and loosely separated from each other. Numerous foamy lipid loaden cells were detected within the tunica intima causing deterioration of the elastic fibers, resulting in

  11. Can overeating induce conditioned taste avoidance in previously food restricted rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Amanda; Eikelboom, Roelof

    2010-03-30

    While feeding is rewarding, the feeling of satiation has been theorized to have a mixed affect. Using a food restriction model of overeating we examined whether bingeing was capable of supporting conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on either an ad lib (n=8) or restricted (50% of regular consumption; n=24) food access for 20 days. On Days 9, 14, and 19 all rats were given access to a novel saccharin solution in place of water, and two groups of food restricted rats were given access to either 100% of regular food consumption or ad lib food. Ad lib access in the restricted rats induced significant overeating on all three exposures. After all rats were returned to ad lib feeding, a 24h two-bottle saccharin/water choice test displayed significantly reduced saccharin consumption in the overeating rats, compared to those in the other 3 groups. To determine whether this avoidance was due to a learned association, a second experiment used a latent inhibition paradigm, familiarizing half the rats with the saccharin for 8 days prior to pairing it with overeating. Using the design of Experiment 1, with only the continuously ad lib and the restricted to ad lib feeding groups, it was found that the overeating-induced saccharin avoidance was attenuated by the pre-exposure. These results suggest that self-induced overeating is capable of supporting a learned avoidance of a novel solution suggestive of a conditioned satiety or taste avoidance. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) Role on the Biochemical, Histological and Teratological Changes Induced in Diabetic Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 called Cobalamin, is a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal function of the brain, nervous system, cell division and for the formation of blood. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, fatty acid synthesis and energy production.The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of vitamin B 12 intake on radiation induced damage in diabetic mothers.Diabetes was induced in female rats by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxan 150 mg/kg b.wt. dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received vitamin B 12 0.1 mg/100 g b.wt. from the 1st up to 19th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.6 Gy on the 7th and the 14th days of gestation. The increased incidence of malformations in diabetic pregnancy with an excess of free oxygen radicals in the embryos was recorded .Vitamin B12 supplementation to diabetic mother ameliorated radiation-induced damage which was obvious by diminishing the increase in glucose level, improving serum insulin level, glycogen content in the liver and ameliorating the decrease in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver of pregnant rats and their fetuses.In addition, vitamin B 12 treatment improved the decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) of fetuses and DNA content in the liver tissues. Moreover, vitamin B 12 treatment lead to the regeneration of normal architecture of maternal and fetuses hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that vitamin B 12 supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation effect which induced biochemical, histochemical, histological and teratological disorders.Furthermore, the results obtained showed that vitamin B 12 administration caused a protection to diabetic pregnant rats against embryo malformations induced by gamma rays

  13. [Effect of previous experience in reacting to a danger signal on "open field" behavior in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltyreva, T E; Petrov, E S

    1983-01-01

    Modification of rats behaviour in an "hopen field" test was investigated, induced by an acoustic stimulus, previously subjected to conditioning in a shuttle chamber in experiments with possibility and impossibility of avoidance from electrical shock. It has been established that presentation of a stimulus having the meaning of a danger signal, in a new situation, significantly suppresses investigating behaviour of rats, whereas the stimulus which had not been subjected to conditioning exerts no marked effect on behaviour. The greatest suppression was observed in rats with "learned helplessness". This fact suggests that the degree of suppression of the behaviour in an open field in response to a danger signal, depends on the animal's previous experience in reacting to this signal.

  14. The celiac ganglion modulates LH-induced inhibition of androstenedione release in late pregnant rat ovaries

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    Rastrilla Ana M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the control of ovarian production of steroid hormones is mainly of endocrine nature, there is increasing evidence that the nervous system also influences ovarian steroidogenic output. The purpose of this work was to study whether the celiac ganglion modulates, via the superior ovarian nerve, the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the rat ovary. Using mid- and late-pregnant rats, we set up to study: 1 the influence of the noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion on the ovarian production of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione; 2 the modulatory effect of noradrenaline at the celiac ganglion on the anti-steroidogenic effect of LH in the ovary; and 3 the involvement of catecholaminergic neurotransmitters released in the ovary upon the combination of noradrenergic stimulation of the celiac ganglion and LH treatment of the ovary. Methods The ex vivo celiac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve-ovary integrated system was used. This model allows studying in vitro how direct neural connections from the celiac ganglion regulate ovarian steroidogenic output. The system was incubated in buffer solution with the ganglion and the ovary located in different compartments and linked by the superior ovarian nerve. Three experiments were designed with the addition of: 1 noradrenaline in the ganglion compartment; 2 LH in the ovarian compartment; and 3 noradrenaline and LH in the ganglion and ovarian compartments, respectively. Rats of 15, 19, 20 and 21 days of pregnancy were used, and, as an end point, the concentration of the luteotropic hormone androstenedione was measured in the ovarian compartment by RIA at various times of incubation. For some of the experimental paradigms the concentration of various catecholamines (dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline was also measured in the ovarian compartment by HPLC. Results The most relevant result concerning the action of noradrenaline in the celiac ganglion

  15. Appearance of circulating and tissue 14C-lipids after oral 14C-tripalmitate administration in the late pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argiles, J.; Herrera, E.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether and/or how dietary lipids participate in maternal hypertriglyceridemia during late gestation in the rat. After oral administration of glycerol-tri(1-14C)-palmitate, total radioactivity in plasma increased more rapidly in 20-day pregnant rats than in either 19-day pregnant rats or virgin controls. At the peak of plasma radioactivity, four hours after the tracer was administered, most of the plasma label corresponded to 14C-lipids in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (d less than 1.006), and when expressed per micromol of triglyceride, values were higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. The difference was less after 24 hours, although at this time the level of 14C-lipids in d less than 1.006 lipoproteins was still higher in 20-day pregnant rats than in virgins. Tissue 14C-lipids, as expressed per gram of fresh weight, were similar in pregnant and virgin rats, but the values in mammary glands were much higher in the former group. Estimated recovery of administered radioactivity four hours after tracer in total white adipose tissue, mammary glands, and plasma lipids was higher in pregnant than in virgin rats. No difference was found between 20-day pregnant and virgin rats either in the label retained in the gastrointestinal tract or in that exhaled as 14C-CO2 during the first four hours following oral administration of 14C-tripalmitate. These findings plus the known maternal hyperphagia, indicate that in the rat at late pregnancy triglyceride intestinal absorption is unchanged or even enhanced and that dietary lipids actively contribute to both maternal hypertriglyceridemia and lipid uptake by the mammary gland

  16. Regulation of caspase-3 expression to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected pregnant rats

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    Banun Kusumawardani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has been involved in a variety of systemic disorders and suspected as a potential risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria may actively regulate embryonic development, implantation and placental trophoblast cell invasion. This study aimed to analyze the role of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 to maintain fetal growth in Porphyromonasgingivalis-infected pregnant rats. Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The weight and length of placentas and fetuses were evaluated. The expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. On GD14, TNF-α (R2=0.416;P=0.000 and IL-10 (R2=0.187;P=0.012 had an important role to increase expression of caspase-3 in the placenta, but only TNF-α (R2=0.393;P=0.000 was able to increase the expression of caspase-3 on GD20. TNF-α and caspase-3 also had an important role (P0.000. The increasing expressions of TNF-α and IL-10 did not only enhance immune protection, but also maintained the trophoblast cells survival by regulating expression of caspase-3. Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in maternal periodontal tissue can lead to decrease in placental weight, fetal weight and fetal length which mediated by increasing expression of TNF-α, IL-10 and caspase-3 in the placenta.

  17. Outcome of Angiotensin II Inhibition in Pregnant Irradiated Rats and their Embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F. L.; Ashry, Kh. M.

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate the synergism of losartan and or irradiation stress on the female rat mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical pathways during gestation and teratogenic effects on the embryos. Losartan is an angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist used to regulate blood pressure. Losartan (5 mg/kg b.wt day) was daily orally administrated to pregnant rats from the 6 th to 18 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy/4 times at the 9 th, 10 th, 11 th and 12 th days of gestation whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. Dual treatment of losartan and radiation resulted in increased maternal serum levels of creatinine and bilirubin.The developing embryos in the uteri due to their high sensitivity showed various teratological, skeletal and histological impairment. Losartan and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations expressed as anopthalmia, kypophysis, subcutaneous haemorrhage and microtia as well as elevated intrauterium death and embryonic resorption. Moreover, the examination of endo skeletal system of fetuses showed retardation in the ossification of the skull bones and lack of ossification at the vertebrae and edges. Also, maternal and embryonic histological examination revealed that losartan and gamma radiation induced injury to kidney tissue manifested in rupture and shrinkage of renal corpuscle, infiltration, disappearance of glomularies, while the kidney of fetuses showed loss of renal pattern. Results point out that losartan should be used with caution in women at the reproductive age and those occupationally exposed to irradiation

  18. Inorganic mercury exposure in drinking water alters essential metal homeostasis in pregnant rats without altering rat pup behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cláudia S; Oliveira, Vitor A; Costa, Lidiane M; Pedroso, Taíse F; Fonseca, Mariana M; Bernardi, Jamile S; Fiuza, Tiago L; Pereira, Maria E

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of HgCl 2 exposure in the doses of 0, 10 and 50μg Hg 2+ /mL in drinking water during pregnancy on tissue essential metal homeostasis, as well as the effects of HgCl 2 exposure in utero and breast milk on behavioral tasks. Pregnant rats exposed to both inorganic mercury doses presented high renal Hg content and an increase in renal Cu and hepatic Zn levels. Mercury exposure increased fecal Hg and essential metal contents. Pups exposed to inorganic Hg presented no alterations in essential metal homeostasis or in behavioral task markers of motor function. In conclusion, this work showed that the physiologic pregnancy and lactation states protected the offspring from adverse effects of low doses of Hg 2+ . This protection is likely to be related to the endogenous scavenger molecule, metallothionein, which may form an inert complex with Hg 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose film and perianastomotic adhesions in previously irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D; Raybon, R B; Wheeless, C R

    1999-12-01

    Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions are a major source of postsurgical morbidity. Pelvic irradiation increases the likelihood of adhesion development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose film, which was designed as a barrier to prevent adhesions, on the healing of ileal anastomoses performed on irradiated rat bowel. Sixty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent whole pelvic irradiation with a single fraction of 1700 cGy. Twenty weeks later the rats underwent exploratory laparotomy with segmental ileal resection and reanastomosis. Eighteen of the anastomoses were wrapped in hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose film. Fifty anastomoses were not treated with any adhesion-inhibiting barrier. On the fifth postoperative day the animals underwent another laparotomy for evaluation of the anastomotic sites. At the second laparotomy 93% of the rats treated with hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose film were found to have perianastomotic abscesses. In the non-hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose film group the perianastomotic abscess rate was 24% (P hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose film was associated with a markedly increased rate of abscess formation at the operative site.

  20. The adverse effect of 4-tert-octylphenol on fat metabolism in pregnant rats via regulation of lipogenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun; Kang, Eun-Jin; Park, Mee-Na; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Seung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik; Hwang, Dae-Youn; An, Beum-Soo

    2015-07-01

    Alkylphenols such as 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol, and bisphenol A are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Digestion and metabolism of food are controlled by many endocrine factors, including insulin, glucagon, and estrogen. These factors are differentially regulated during pregnancy. The alteration of nutritional intake and fat metabolism may affect the maintenance of pregnancy and supplementation of nutrients to the fetus, and therefore can cause severe metabolic diseases such as ketosis, marasmus and diabetes mellitus in pregnant individuals. In this study, we examined the effects of OP on fat metabolism in pregnant rats. Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was also administered as an estrogenic positive control. In our results, rats treated with OP showed significantly reduced body weights compared to the control group. In addition, histological analysis showed that the amount of fat deposited in adipocytes was reduced by OP treatment. To study the mechanism of action of OP in fat metabolism, we examined the expression levels of fat metabolism-associated genes in rat adipose tissue and liver by real-time PCR. OP and EE negatively regulated the expression of lipogenic enzymes, including FAS (fatty acid synthase), ACC-1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1), and SCD-1 (stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1). The levels of lipogenic enzyme-associated transcription factors such as C/EBP-α (CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha) and SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c) were also reduced in both liver and adipose tissue. In summary, these findings suggest that OP has adverse effects on fat metabolism in pregnant rats and inhibits fat deposition via regulating lipogenic genes in the liver and adipose tissue. The altered fat metabolism by OP may affect the nutrition balance during pregnancy and can cause metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation of pregnant rats on short-term and long-term memory of their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Ghotbeddin, Z.; Parham, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To see the dose dependent effects of zinc chloride on the short-term and long-term memory in a shuttle box (rats). Six pair adult wistar rats were taken for this experiment. One group of pregnant rats received a daily oral dose of 20 mg/kg Zn as zinc chloride and the remaining groups received a daily oral dose of (30, 50, 70,100 mg/kg) zinc chloride for two weeks by gavage. One month after birth, a shuttle box was used to test short-term and long-term memory. Two criteria were considered to behavioral test, including latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the dark chamber. This experiment showed that oral administration of ZnCl/sub 2/ with (20, 30, 50 mg/kg/day) doses after 2 weeks at the stage of pregnancy, can improve the working memory of their offspring (p<0.05). Where as ZnCl/sub 2/ with 30 mg/kg/day dose has been more effective than other doses (p<0.001). But rat which received ZnCl/sub 2/ with 100 mg/kg/day at the stage of pregnancy, has shown significant impairment in working (short-term) memory of their offspring (p<0.05) and there was no significant difference in reference (long-term) memory 3 for any of groups. This study has demonstrated that zinc chloride consumption with 30 mg/kg/day dose for two weeks at the stage of pregnancy in rats, has positive effect on short-term memory on their offspring. But consumption of enhanced zinc 100 mg/kg/day in pregnant rats can cause short-term memory impairment. On the other hand, zinc supplementation such as zinc chloride has no effect on long-term memory. (author)

  2. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Othman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  3. The influence of γ-radiation on biosynthesis of nuclear matrix proteins of hepatic cells of pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkhamidova, P.; Shamsutdinova, G.T.; Mirakhmedov, A.K.; Filatova, L.S.; Bul'dyaeva, T.V.; Zbarskij, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of incorporation of 35 S-methionine into nuclear matrix proteins of hepatic cells of pregnant rats and their embryos subjected to single γ-irradiation ( 60 Co, 1 and 2 Gy, 0.0233 Gy/s) on days 3, 13 and 17 of pregrnancy and embryogenesis. On day 21 of pregnancy and embryogenesis a decrease in the rate of incorporation of 35 S-methionine into nuclear matrix proteins was shown to be a function of radiation dose and time of pregnancy and embryogenesis on the moment of exposure

  4. Dopplervelocimetria arterial em gestantes com antecedente de crescimento intra-uterino retardado Arterial doppler velocimetry in pregnant women with previous idiopathic intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sasaki

    1998-10-01

    the perinatal results obtained for concepti with retarded intrauterine growth (RIUG with those for concepti considered adequate for gestational age (AGA. Methods: a prospective study of the evolution of doppler ultrasound was made in 38 pregnant women with of idiopathic intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR in previous pregnancy. A relationship was established between this antecedent and the new pregnancy. The pregnant women studied were divided into two groups in agreement with their neonates birthweight. Group 1 was associated with IUGR and group 2 with adequate birth weight. IUGR was confirmed in 23.7% of the cases. Umbilical and uterine artery doppler velocimetry was performed from 20 to 40 weeks of gestation. Middle cerebral artery doppler velocimetry was analyzed after 28 weeks of gestation, twice a month, being the last valued examination before birth. Results: the uterine and umbilical artery ratio at 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, respectively, correlated with the presence of IUGR. There was no difference between the two groups regarding the presence or absence of a small notch in the uterine artery wave form and middle cerebral artery doppler velocimetry ratio, at the last examination before birth. There was a relationship between neonatal stay in hospital for more than three days and the presence of IUGR. Conclusions: doppler ultrasound should be used in the follow-up of cases with a high risk of IUGR. It allows the detection of the fetuses at high risk of hypoxia and, by interrupting the pregnancy, fetal distress-related complications may be avoided.

  5. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  6. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  7. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  8. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol (E2, and progesterone (P4 were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-α, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  9. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  10. Distribution of 131I-labeled recombinant human erythropoietin in maternal and fetal organs following intravenous administration in pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, O.; Lambrecht, F.Y.; Durkan, K.; Gokmen, N.; Erbayraktar, S.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the possible transplacental transmission of 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin ( 131 I-rh-EPO) in pregnant rats and its distribution through maternal and fetal organs. Six Wistar Albino Rats in their pregnancy of 18 days were used 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin (specific activity = 2.4 μCi/IU) was injected into the tail vein of rats. After 30 minutes labeled erythropoietin infusion maternal stomach, kidney, lung, liver, brain and heart as well as fetus were removed. Then, the same organs were removed from each fetus. Measuring weight of maternal and fetal organs as well as placenta were followed by radioactivity count via Cd(Te) detector. 131 I labeled recombinant human erythropoietin was found to be able to pass rat placenta and its distribution order in fetal organs was similar to those of maternal organs. Besides, as measurements were performed closer to cornu uteri, uptakes were decreasing in every fetus and its corresponding placenta. (author)

  11. Disposition of diiosononyl phthalate and its effects on sexual development of the male fetus following repeated dosing in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Rebecca A; Sochaski, Mark; Edwards, Kendra; Creasy, Dianne M; Willson, Gabrielle; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg/day diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) from GD 12 to 19 via corn oil gavage to study the dose response for effects on fetal male rat sexual development as well as metabolite disposition in the dam and fetus. Monoisononyl phthalate (MiNP), mono(carboxy-isooctyl) phthalate (MCiOP), mono(hydroxyl-isononyl) phthalate (MHiNP), mono(oxo-isononyl) phthalate (MOiNP), and monoisononyl phthalate glucuronide (MiNP-G) were found in all measured tissues. MCiOP was the major metabolite, followed in decreasing order by MiNP, MHiNP, MOiNP, and MiNP-G. Percentage of dose absorbed decreased at 750 mg/kg/day. Testosterone concentration in the fetal testes was reduced at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. Multinucleated germ cells were increased in the testes of rats at 250 and 750 mg/kg/day. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for this study was 50 mg/kg/day based on increased MNGs and reduced testes testosterone concentration in the fetal rat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Apoptosis Induced in The Brain and Liver of Fetuses And Placenta of Irradiated Pregnant Rats Treated With Antacid Containing Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Madkour, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is widely used in antacid medicine which frequently used by pregnant women. It is of great importance to increase the knowledge about its harmful effects on the fetuses. The present study clarified that administration of antacid containing Al and/or exposure to gamma radiation induced maternal and fetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered antacid containing Al on the gestational days 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th, 15th and 17th at a dose of 4.5 mg/g and exposed to whole body fractionated gamma radiation (2 Gy) at a dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on gestational days 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th of pregnancy. Morphological, biochemical and molecular changes were studied. The investigation was carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20th day of gestation). Antacid containing Al and/or radiation induced growth retardation, intrauterine death, malformations and embryonic resorption. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as glutathione content in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses and placenta of pregnant rats were used as sensitive parameters to evaluate tissues damage. Antacid containing Al and/or radiation treatment resulted in decreased total protein content in the maternal placenta tissue. Moreover, the elevation in the lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde; MDA) was accompanied with decline in the glutathione content (GSH) in the brain and liver tissues of rat fetuses. The activity of a key enzyme of apoptosis namely the caspase-3 was analyzed, which its activation represent a point of no return in apoptosis induction. Apoptosis was confirmed by another important hallmark of programmed cell death such as the DNA fragmentation. Treatment with antacid containing Al and/or gamma irradiation significantly increased caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in maternal placental tissue and fetal brain and liver tissues as compared to control animals. In conclusion, the present investigation showed that the deleterious

  13. Late intestinal obstruction due to an intestinal volvulus in a pregnant patient with a previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzalle, Anajara; Braun, Débora; Cavazzola, Leandro Totti; Wendt, Luiz Roberto; Navarini, Daniel; Fauri, Marcelo de Azevedo; Vitola, Santo Pascual

    2010-12-01

    This is a case of a 33 weeks pregnant woman, presented 2 years after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with abdominal pain for 2 days. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed 1 day earlier in another hospital, without improving the pain. She presented at our hospital with acute abdominal pain and clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, undergoing an exploratory laparotomy that revealed a volvulus and necrosis of the jejunum from the gastroenteroanastomosis through the lateral enteroenterostomy, which was resected with the reconstruction of the Roux-en-Y limb performed at the same operation. Patient and neonate presented with improvement after surgery and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 15. Internal hernias after bariatric surgery have been reported as the cause of acute abdomen problems during pregnancy, which may progress to necrosis and perforation. The delay of surgical intervention could have brought a tragic outcome for mother and neonate.

  14. The Role of Clomipramine in Potentiating the Teratogenic Effects of Caffeine in Pregnant Rats: A Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nikoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since little is known about the teratogenic effects of clomipramine used concurrently with caffeine during the organogenesis period, the aim of this study was to test the teratogenic effects of a coadministration of caffeine and clomipramine on rat fetuses. We divided 42 pregnant rats into seven groups, randomly. The first group (control received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Clomipramine was injected at 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg to the second and third groups, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups received caffeine in doses of 60 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The sixth group received a combination of 40 mg/kg clomipramine and 60 mg/kg caffeine, and the seventh group was given clomipramine and caffeine at 80 mg/kg and 120 mg/kg, respectively. The fetuses were removed on the 17th day of pregnancy and studied in terms of microscopic and macroscopic morphological features. Fetuses of rats receiving high doses of caffeine or combinations of caffeine and clomipramine showed a significant rate of cleft palate development, open eyelids, mortality, torsion anomalies, shrinkage of skin, and subcutaneous haemorrhage (P≤0.001. This study concludes that caffeine in high doses or the simultaneous administration of caffeine and clomipramine leads to teratogenicity.

  15. Distribution of 14C-morphine and macromolecules in the brain and liver and their nuclei in pregnant rats and their foetuses after infusion of morphine into pregnant rats at near-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, W.J.; Johannesson, T.

    1975-01-01

    Timed-pregnant (day 21 or 22) Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 14 C-morphine (2.85 mci/mmol) 5 mg/kg/hr, or saline in equivalent volumes, by continuous intravenous infusion for periods of up to 4hrs. The brains and livers of the maternal rats and of their foetuses were collected and their nuclei were isolated. The tissues and nuclei isolated from them were analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content and radioactivity. Morphine infused maternal rats exhibited no significant difference in the total amount of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain or in the concentration of these constituents in brain nuclei. The concentration of nuclear RNA in foetal brain of morphine infused mothers was significantly lower at 4 hrs than that of saline infused controls. It was concluded that RNA synthesis in the foetal brain must be much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of morphine on macromolecular synthesis than that in maternal brain. The change in nuclear RNA concentration in foetal brain became significantly different when morphine reached its highest level in foetal brain nuclei. The morphine concentration (pmol 14 C-morphine equivalents per mg DNA) in the brain of foetal and maternal rats was the same at each time period, whereas the maternal liver levels were at least eight times greater than those in foetal liver. The concentrations in foetal brain nuclei were 2-14 times greater than those in maternal brain nuclei, whereas levels in the latter were found to be low and virtually constant at all time periods tested. It was concluded that foetal brain nuclei have a greater capacity to bind or retain morphine than maternal brain nuclei. (author)

  16. Distribution of /sup 14/C-morphine and macromolecules in the brain and liver and their nuclei in pregnant rats and their foetuses after infusion of morphine into pregnant rats at near-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, W J; Johannesson, T [Iowa Univ., Iowa City (USA)

    1975-01-01

    Timed-pregnant (day 21 or 22) Sprague-Dawley rats were administered /sup 14/C-morphine (2.85 mci/mmol) 5 mg/kg/hr, or saline in equivalent volumes, by continuous intravenous infusion for periods of up to 4hrs. The brains and livers of the maternal rats and of their foetuses were collected and their nuclei were isolated. The tissues and nuclei isolated from them were analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content and radioactivity. Morphine infused maternal rats exhibited no significant difference in the total amount of DNA, RNA and protein in the brain or in the concentration of these constituents in brain nuclei. The concentration of nuclear RNA in foetal brain of morphine infused mothers was significantly lower at 4 hrs than that of saline infused controls. It was concluded that RNA synthesis in the foetal brain must be much more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of morphine on macromolecular synthesis than that in maternal brain. The change in nuclear RNA concentration in foetal brain became significantly different when morphine reached its highest level in foetal brain nuclei. The morphine concentration (pmol /sup 14/C-morphine equivalents per mg DNA) in the brain of foetal and maternal rats was the same at each time period, whereas the maternal liver levels were at least eight times greater than those in foetal liver. The concentrations in foetal brain nuclei were 2-14 times greater than those in maternal brain nuclei, whereas levels in the latter were found to be low and virtually constant at all time periods tested. It was concluded that foetal brain nuclei have a greater capacity to bind or retain morphine than maternal brain nuclei.

  17. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gest...

  18. Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Model for the Thyroid Hormones in the Pregnant Rat and Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A developmental PBPK model is constructed to quantitatively describe the tissue economy of the thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in the rat. The model is also used to link maternal (THs) to rat fetal tissues via placental transfer. THs are importan...

  19. Peri-OVLT E-series prostaglandins and core temperature do not increase after intravenous IL-1beta in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, James E; Eliason, Heather L; Auer, Roland N

    2002-08-01

    Rats have an attenuated febrile response to endogenous pyrogen near the term of pregnancy. Given the fundamental role of E-series prostaglandins (PGEs) in mediating the febrile response to blood-borne endogenous pyrogen, the present experiments were carried out to determine whether PGEs increase in the area surrounding the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (peri-OVLT) of near-term pregnant (P) rats as in nonpregnant (NP) rats after intravenous (iv) administration of recombinant rat interleukin-1beta (rrIL-1beta). Core temperature was measured by telemetry and peri-OVLT interstitial fluid was sampled in 12 NP and 12 P chronically instrumented, Sprague-Dawley rats by microdialysis for determination of total PGEs by radioimmunoassay. Basal core temperatures were higher in NP compared with P rats (NP 37.9 degrees C +/- 0.5, P 36.9 degrees C +/- 0.4; P endogenous pyrogen near the term of pregnancy, warrants further investigation.

  20. Beneficial effects of vitamin C treatment on pregnant rats exposed to formaldehyde: Reversal of immunosuppression in the offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Beatriz Silva; Barioni, Éric Diego; Heluany, Cíntia [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Braga, Tárcio Teodoro [Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Drewes, Carine Cristiane [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Costa, Silvia Goes [Post Graduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, University Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo (Brazil); Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva [Department of Immunology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli [Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana, E-mail: alsantosfranco@gmail.com [Post Graduate Program in Biophotonics Applied to Health Sciences, University Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-06-01

    Inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) during the pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus, and here we hypothesized that this mechanism may be responsible for the impaired immune response detected in the offspring. In order to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C on the oxidative stress induced by FA in the uterine microenvironment, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with vitamin C (150 mg/kg, gavage) or vehicle (distilled water, gavage) 1 h before FA exposure (0.92 mg/m{sup 3}, 1 h/day, 5 days/week), for 21 days, and the 30 days old offspring were submitted to LPS injection (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced gene expression of iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 and decreased gene expression of SOD-2 in the uterus of FA exposed mothers was rescued by Vit C treatment. Moreover, vitamin C rescued the impaired immune response elicited by LPS in the offspring from FA exposed mothers, by increasing the number of blood and bone marrow leukocytes, and augmenting gene expression of IL-6 and reducing mRNA levels of IL-10 and IFN in the lungs. Vitamin C treatment did not rescue the impaired TLR4-NF-kB pathway in the lung of the offspring, suggesting that FA-induced uterine oxidative stress affects other inflammatory pathways activated by LPS in the offspring. Together, data obtained here confirm our hypothesis that FA-induced oxidative stress in the uterine microenvironment modifies the programming mechanisms of the immune defenses of offspring, leading to an impaired host defense. - Highlights: • FA exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus. • Vitamin C treatment blunted the oxidative stress in uterus induced by FA exposure. • Oxidative stress in uterus after FA exposure impairs the immune response of offspring. • Vitamin C in pregnant rats rescued the impaired immune response in the offspring.

  1. Beneficial effects of vitamin C treatment on pregnant rats exposed to formaldehyde: Reversal of immunosuppression in the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Beatriz Silva; Barioni, Éric Diego; Heluany, Cíntia; Braga, Tárcio Teodoro; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Costa, Silvia Goes; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) during the pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus, and here we hypothesized that this mechanism may be responsible for the impaired immune response detected in the offspring. In order to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C on the oxidative stress induced by FA in the uterine microenvironment, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with vitamin C (150 mg/kg, gavage) or vehicle (distilled water, gavage) 1 h before FA exposure (0.92 mg/m 3 , 1 h/day, 5 days/week), for 21 days, and the 30 days old offspring were submitted to LPS injection (Salmonella abortus equi, 5 mg/kg, i.p.). The enhanced gene expression of iNOS, COX-1 and COX-2 and decreased gene expression of SOD-2 in the uterus of FA exposed mothers was rescued by Vit C treatment. Moreover, vitamin C rescued the impaired immune response elicited by LPS in the offspring from FA exposed mothers, by increasing the number of blood and bone marrow leukocytes, and augmenting gene expression of IL-6 and reducing mRNA levels of IL-10 and IFN in the lungs. Vitamin C treatment did not rescue the impaired TLR4-NF-kB pathway in the lung of the offspring, suggesting that FA-induced uterine oxidative stress affects other inflammatory pathways activated by LPS in the offspring. Together, data obtained here confirm our hypothesis that FA-induced oxidative stress in the uterine microenvironment modifies the programming mechanisms of the immune defenses of offspring, leading to an impaired host defense. - Highlights: • FA exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress in the uterus. • Vitamin C treatment blunted the oxidative stress in uterus induced by FA exposure. • Oxidative stress in uterus after FA exposure impairs the immune response of offspring. • Vitamin C in pregnant rats rescued the impaired immune response in the offspring.

  2. Diaplacental transfer of 14C ethanol in pregnant albino rats at various stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberl, E.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of an acutely small dose of ethanol was studied for the first time in this paper. The kinetics of the ethanol during the elimination phase were ascertained during the early as well as late stages of development. The kinetic study is supplemented by measurements of the activity concentration in the exhaled air of the pregnant animals and by gas chromatographic determinations of blood alcohol concentration. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its primary metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Grote, Konstanze; Csanady, Gyoergy A.; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Filser, Johannes G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the dose-dependent blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets is presented. Sprague-Dawley rats and marmosets were treated orally with 30 or 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, nonpregnant animals on 7 (rats) and 29 (marmosets) consecutive days, pregnant animals on gestation days 14-19 (rats) and 96-124 (marmosets). In addition, rats received a single dose of 1000 mg DEHP/kg. Blood was collected up to 48 h after dosing. Concentrations of DEHP and MEHP in blood were determined by GC/MS. In rats, normalized areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of DEHP were two orders of magnitude smaller than the normalized AUCs of the first metabolite MEHP. Metabolism of MEHP was saturable. Repeated DEHP treatment and pregnancy had only little influence on the normalized AUC of MEHP. In marmosets, most of MEHP concentration-time courses oscillated. Normalized AUCs of DEHP were at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of MEHP. In pregnant marmosets, normalized AUCs of MEHP were similar to those in nonpregnant animals with the exception that at 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, the normalized AUCs determined on gestation days 103, 117, and 124 were distinctly smaller. The maximum concentrations of MEHP in blood of marmosets were up to 7.5 times and the normalized AUCs up to 16 times lower than in rats receiving the same daily oral DEHP dose per kilogram of body weight. From this toxicokinetic comparison, DEHP can be expected to be several times less effective in the offspring of marmosets than in that of rats if the blood burden by MEHP in dams can be regarded as a dose surrogate for the MEHP burden in their fetuses

  4. Liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry analysis of cocaine and its metabolites from blood, amniotic fluid, placental and fetal tissues: study of the metabolism and distribution of cocaine in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Wang, P P; Eley, A T; White, C A; Bartlett, M G

    2000-08-18

    following results were observed in the pregnant rat study: (1) the observations correlated strongly with the previous literature data on cocaine metabolism and distribution, (2) cocaine and norcocaine accumulated in the placenta, (3) arylhydroxylation of cocaine was a major metabolic pathway, (4) para-arylhydroxylation of cocaine was favored over meta-arylhydroxylation in rats and (5) accumulation of cocaine and its major metabolites was observed in the amniotic fluid.

  5. Efficacy of ginger in alleviating the severe radiation-induced biochemical, histological and embryological impactions pregnant female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale), a common part of the diet in many parts of the world, is one of the strongest plant antioxidants that has various pharmacological effects. Accordingly, this study was investigated to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of ginger on radiation-induced maternal and fetal detrimental impacts. Pregnant albino rats were administered ginger tea from gestation day 10 to 14 at a dose rate of 10 ml/kg body weight before being exposed to a single dose of 6 Gy of whole body gamma irradiation at day 15 of gestation, after which they were excised on the 18th day of pregnancy. Maternal ginger pre-treatment before radiation exposure was able to diminish the high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose, lipids, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) recorded in the serum of irradiated mother rats in addition to restoring the histopathological lesions induced in their aorta and uterus tissues. Moreover, ginger intake was found to reduce the severe deleterious symptoms of radiation-induced fetal mortality rate with increased growth in surviving fetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities.The present study suggests that ginger is an effective agent for improving the affected maternal biochemical and histological studied parameters and reducing the embryonic injuries induced by gamma irradiation

  6. Propolis maintaining the restorative role played by bone marrow transplantation in pregnant rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; El Beih, N.M.; Hussien, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    This work was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of the natural product propolis with its high anti oxidative capacity as a protector for bone marrow graft transplanted to pregnant rats 3 h post irradiation of 3 Gy gamma-rays. Different treatments were performed on days 7 or 13 of gestation and examined at the end of the gestation period. Irradiation significantly elevated serum AST, ALT, ALP, urea, uric acid and creatinine while it declined total proteins and albumin. Haematological parameters showed decrease in RBCs, Hb, Ht, WBCs and their differential counts. BMT (75 x 106 ± 5 cells) 3 h post-irradiation depressed AST, ALT and ALP but were still significantly different from the control. Urea, uric acid and creatinine declined approaching the control level. Less drop in total proteins and globulin and elevation in RBCs, Ht, Hb and WBCs were detected. Rats exposed to 3 Gy and treated with propolis (50 mg/ kg) showed results comparable and even exceeding those of BMT. Combined treatment of BMT and propolis accentuated the recovery process and could restore the physiological and haematological parameters and protect pregnancy which suggests that propolis maintained BMT graft so that they may have future potential value in patients subjected to irradiation and BMT

  7. Oxidative stress contributes to soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 induced vascular dysfunction in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Jason P; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Colson, Drew; Gilbert, Sara A; Dukes, Matthew P; Ryan, Michael J; Granger, Joey P

    2009-05-01

    Recent evidence indicates that both increased oxidative stress and an altered balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors such as vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the soluble VEGF receptor (sFlt-1) contribute to endothelial dysfunction in preeclampsia. We hypothesized that chronic infusion of sFlt-1 to mimic the increase observed in preeclamptic patients would reduce plasma VEGF concentrations, increase blood pressure (BP) and vascular superoxide levels, and cause endothelial dysfunction in the pregnant rat. Recombinant sFlt-1 was infused (500 ng/h) during days 13-18 of pregnancy. BP, fetal and placental weight, oxidative stress and vessel vasorelaxation were determined on day 18 of pregnancy. Plasma sFlt-1 concentrations (299 +/- 33 vs. 100 +/- 16 pg/ml; P 570 +/- 77 vs. 780 +/- 48 pg/ml; P < 0.01) were decreased when compared to vehicle infused dams. sFlt-1 rats had smaller fetuses (1.3 +/- 0.03 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.04 g, P < 0.01) and placentas (0.41 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.47 +/- 0.02 g; P < 0.05). Placental (180 +/- 66 vs. 24 +/- 2.3 RLU/min/mg; P < 0.05) and vascular (34 +/- 8 vs. 12 +/- 5 RLU/min/mg; P < 0.05) superoxide production was increased in the sFlt-1 compared to vehicle infused rats. Vasorelaxation to acetylecholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were both decreased (P < 0.05) in the sFlt-1 infusion group compared to the vehicle and this decrease was attenuated (P < 0.05) by the superoxide scavenger Tiron. These data indicate elevated maternal sFlt-1 and decreased VEGF concentrations results in increased oxidative stress that contributes to vascular dysfunction during pregnancy.

  8. Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase on Blood Pressure Regulation and Vascular Function in Pregnant Rats on a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palei, Ana C; Spradley, Frank T; Granger, Joey P

    2017-03-01

    While obesity is a leading risk factor for preeclampsia, the mechanisms whereby obese women are more susceptible to pregnancy-induced hypertension are unclear. As high-fat diet (HFD) is an important contributor to the development of obesity, we tested the hypothesis that pregnant rats on HFD have hypertension and endothelial dysfunction due to reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Twelve-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed normal diet (ND, 13% fat kcal) or HFD (40% fat kcal) for 9 weeks. Timed-pregnant rats were then generated and the effect of HFD on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and vascular function was assessed on gestational day (GD) 19. MAP was not different between HFD and ND pregnant rats. Intriguingly, sensitivity to acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was enhanced in small mesenteric arteries of HFD dams compared to ND controls (logEC50 -7.9 ± 0.3 vs. -6.7 ± 0.3 M; P hydrochloride (100 mg/l, drinking water) from GD 14 to 19. It was found that NOS inhibition increased MAP equally in HFD and ND groups. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, HFD dams were normotensive and presented increased endothelial function and NO/NOS3 levels. This enhanced NOS-mediated vascular function does not appear to have a major impact on blood pressure regulation of HFD-fed pregnant rats. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Increased expression of SNARE proteins and synaptotagmin IV in islets from pregnant rats and in vitro prolactin-treated neonatal islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL A CUNHA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy and the perinatal period of life, prolactin (PRL and other lactogenic substances induce adaptation and maturation of the stimulus-secretion coupling system in pancreatic β-cells. Since the SNARE molecules, SNAP-25, syntaxin 1, VAMP-2, and synaptotagmins participate in insulin secretion, we investigated whether the improved secretory response to glucose during these periods involves alteration in the expression of these proteins. mRNA was extracted from neonatal rat islets cultured for 5 days in the presence of PRL and from pregnant rats (17th-18th days of pregnancy and reverse transcribed. The expression of genes was analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. The expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Transcription and expression of all SNARE genes and proteins were increased in islets from pregnant and PRL-treated neonatal rats when compared with controls. The only exception was VAMP-2 production in islets from pregnant rats. Increased mRNA and protein expression of synaptotagmin IV, but not the isoform I, also was observed in islets from pregnant and PRL-treated rats. This effect was not inhibited by wortmannin or PD098059, inhibitors of the PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways, respectively. As revealed by confocal laser microscopy, both syntaxin 1A and synaptotagmin IV were immunolocated in islet cells, including the insulin-containing cells. These results indicate that PRL modulates the final steps of insulin secretion by increasing the expression of proteins involved in membrane fusion.

  10. Effect of Diabetes on Circulating Pancreatic Hormones in Pregnant Rats and Their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iessi, I L; Sinzato, Y K; Gallego, F Q

    2016-01-01

    into: control (C); mildly diabetic (MD); and severely diabetic (SD). The rats were mated and distributed into 2 subgroups: euthanasia at day 21 of pregnancy and at day 10 postpartum. Both MD and SD dams showed impaired oral glucose tolerance. SD dams had lower body weight and insulin levels compared...

  11. Release of Zn from maternal tissues in pregnant rats deficient in Zn or Zn and Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, L.S.; Masters, D.G.; Lonnerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that diets that increase tissue catabolism reduce the teratogenic effects of Zn deficiency. The hypothesis that Zn may be released from body tissues when the metabolic state is altered was further tested. Nonpregnant Sprague Dawley females were injected with Zn-65; after equilibration, the two major pools of Zn, bone and muscle, had different specific activities (SA), muscle being much higher. Females were mated and fed diets adequate in Zn and Ca (C) or deficient in Zn (ZnD) or deficient in both Zn and Ca (ZnCaD). Calculations using weight loss in ZnD and ZnCaD rats, Zn content of maternal bone and muscle, and total fetal Zn at term indicated that in ZnCaD rats a relatively small amount of Zn from bone early in pregnancy was sufficient to prevent abnormal organogenesis, but most fetal Zn came from breakdown of maternal muscle in the last 3 days of pregnancy. Isotope data supported this conclusion. SA of Zn in ZnD fetuses was equal and high, indicating that most Zn came from the same maternal tissue. High muscle SA prior to mating, and increased SA in tibia and liver during pregnancy suggest that muscle provided Zn for other maternal tissues as well as fetuses. In contrast, SA in C fetuses was less than 30% of that of the D groups, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that most fetal Zn in C rats is accrued directly from the diet

  12. Effect of administration of lead nitrate to pregnant rats on the lungs in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed'ko, O A; Ryzhavskii, B Ya

    2005-06-01

    Lead nitrate in a dose of 200 mg/kg was administered to female rats via a gartric tube on days 5 and 12 of pregnancy. The lungs of their offspring were examined on day 40 of life. We found a decrease in the ratio between the specific volumes of alveolar lumens and interalveolar septa and hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue in the bronchial wall (compared to the offspring of intact females). Chemiluminescent analysis revealed activation of lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant antiradical activity of the lungs.

  13. Coexistence of insulin resistance and increased glucose tolerance in pregnant rats: a physiological mechanism for glucose maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Marcia Aparecida; Batista, Márcia Regina; Saruhashi, Tiago Ribeiro; Felisberto, Antonio Machado; Guilhermetti, Marcio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2012-06-06

    The contribution of insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance to the maintenance of blood glucose levels in non diabetic pregnant Wistar rats (PWR) was investigated. PWR were submitted to conventional insulin tolerance test (ITT) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) using blood sample collected 0, 10 and 60 min after intraperitoneal insulin (1 U/kg) or oral (gavage) glucose (1g/kg) administration. Moreover, ITT, GTT and the kinetics of glucose concentration changes in the fed and fasted states were evaluated with a real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (RT-CGMS) technique. Furthermore, the contribution of the liver glucose production was investigated. Conventional ITT and GTT at 0, 7, 14 and 20 days of pregnancy revealed increased IR and glucose tolerance after 20 days of pregnancy. Thus, this period of pregnancy was used to investigate the kinetics of glucose changes with the RT-CGMS technique. PWR (day 20) exhibited a lower (pinsulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance during late pregnancy. In contrast to the general view that IR is a pathological process associated with gestational diabetes, a certain degree of IR may represent an important physiological mechanism for blood glucose maintenance during fasting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of subchronic administration of methyl parathion on in vivo protein synthesis in pregnant rats and their conceptuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Thornburg, J.E.; Stedman, D.B.; Welsch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant rats received daily po doses of the organophosphate methyl parathion (MPTH) from Day 6 through Day 15 or 19 of gestation at doses causing no (1.0 mg/kg) or minimal (1.5 mg/kg) signs of maternal toxicity. Following the dose of MPTH on Day 15 or 19, in vivo protein synthesis was measured 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hr after sc injection of L-[1- 14 C]valine at a dose of 5 microCi/mmol/100 g body wt. The specific activity of [ 14 C]valine in the free amino acid pool and protein bound pool was significantly reduced in various regions of maternal brain and in maternal viscera, placenta, and whole embryos (Day 15), and in fetal brain and viscera (Day 19). The inhibitory effect of MPTH on net protein synthesis was dose dependent, greater on Day 19 than 15 of gestation and more pronounced in fetal than in maternal tissues

  15. Effect of oral supplementation of the linoleic and gammalinolenic acids on the diabetic pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Consonni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the direct protective action of oral fatty acid supplementation against the deleterious effect of hyperglycemia on maternal reproductive outcomes; fetal growth and development on female Wistar rats. The animals were distributed into four experimental groups: G1= non-diabetic without supplementation (Control group; G2= non-diabetic treated with linoleic (LA and gammalinolenic acid (GLA (1 mL of Gamaline-V/day; G3= diabetic without supplementation and G4= diabetic treated with LA and GLA. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg. At day 21 of pregnancy, the gravid uterus was weighed and dissected to count the dead and live fetuses, resorption, implantation, and corpora lutea numbers. The fetuses were analyzed for external and internal anomalies. The treatment with Gamaline-V supplementation to diabetic rats interfered in the maternal reproductive outcome (reduced number of live fetuses and embryonic implantation; however, it protected the deleterious on the incidence of congenital anomalies caused by hyperglycemia.

  16. Effect of valproic acid on 65Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, C.L.; Peters, J.M.; Hurley, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of valproic acid on the distribution of gavaged 65 Zn in maternal and embryonic tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 h after gavaging of the drug on d 13 of pregnancy. Valproic acid treatment resulted in a significantly higher retention of 65 Zn in maternal liver and lower amounts in uterus, placenta and embryos than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from valproic acid-treated dams showed higher 65 Zn counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight of 6,500, the approximate molecular weight of the Zn-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the teratogenicity of valproic acid is in part due to an induction of embryonic Zn deficiency secondary to a drug-induced sequestering of Zn into maternal liver that results in a decrease in maternal plasma Zn and subsequent reduction in embryonic Zn uptake

  17. Conhecimento, atitude e prática sobre métodos anticoncepcionais entre adolescentes gestantes Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on previous use of contraceptive methods among pregnant teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Alves Vieira Belo

    2004-08-01

    describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to previous contraceptive methods used among pregnant teenagers as well as to outline some sociodemographic characteristics and sexual practices. METHODS: An observational study associated to the KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey was carried out in 156 pregnant teenagers aged 19 years or more. A structured questionnaire was applied before their first prenatal visit from October 1999 to August 2000. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using Pearson's and Yates' chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The adolescents had an average age of 16.1 years and most were in their first pregnancy (78.8%. Average age of menarche was 12.2 years and their first sexual intercourse was at the age of 14.5 years. Condoms (99.4% and oral contraceptives (98% were the most common contraceptive methods known. Of all, 67.3% were not using any contraceptive method before getting pregnant. The main reason reported for not using any contraceptive method was wanting to get pregnant (24.5%. The older ones who reported having religious beliefs and had a higher socioeconomic status had better knowledge on contraceptive methods. Teenagers who had had previous pregnancies reported more often use of contraceptive methods before getting pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant teenagers showed to have adequate knowledge of contraceptive methods and agreed to use them throughout their teenage years. Religion, age group, and socioeconomic status were directly related to their knowledge on contraceptive methods, and multiple pregnancies brought more awareness on that. Of all, 54% had used any contraceptive on first sexual intercourse but their use decreased over time and shortly after their first intercourse the studied teenagers got pregnant.

  18. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.F.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Abdel-Gawad, I.I.

    1996-01-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8 th day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14 th which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21 st showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8 th day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Radiation effect on pregnant rats receiving progesterone and Biochemical changes during pregnancy in rats under effect of gamma rays. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, M F; Abdel-Aziz, S M; Abdel-Gawad, I I [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The following terms were carried out to provide a comprehensive picture of the radiation induced biochemical changes in pregnant rats with and without progesterone injections. 1- serum total proteins. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant increase in serum total proteins on the day 8 of gestation in irradiated animals as compared to control animals, while on the other days serum total proteins increased significantly in irradiated animals compared to control animals. 2- serum total lipids. Animals irradiated on the third day of gestation and 8{sup th} day all showed significant increase in serum total lipids with exception of those on the 14{sup th} which showed nonsignificant change. Those on the 21{sup st} showed a reverse effect of decrease. 3- serum progesterone. It is evident that animals irradiated on third day sacrificed on day 8, 14, 18, and 21 showed non-significant change in serum progesterone on the day 8, but on the other days it is significantly decreased compared to control levels. 4-Calcium. Animals irradiated on the third day and sacrificed on the 8{sup th} day change in calcium level, others showed a significant decrease compared to control level. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Effect of short-term administration of lead to pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubermont, G; Buchet, J P; Roels, H; Lauwerys, R

    1976-03-01

    Lead was administered to adult female rats in drinking water (0; 0.1; 1 and 10 ppM) for 3 weeks before mating, during pregnancy and during 3 weeks after delivery. On day 21 after delivery the mothers and their newborns were sacrificed and various parameters of blood--lead concentration (Pb-B), hematocrit (Htc), hemoglobin (Hb), free erythrocyte porphyrins (FEP), delta-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD)--and tissue--ALAD, free tissue porphyrins (FTP), lead concentration (Pb-T)--were determined. In mothers a significant increase in Pb-B and Pb concentration in kidney was found in the 10 ppM group, but this increase in lead concentration was not associated with any statistically significant modification of the biochemical parameters. In newborns, lead concentration in blood and in kidney was also significantly increased in the 10 ppm group and this lead exposure was associated with a decrease of the ALAD activity in blood and an increase of FTP in kidney. On the basis of the biochemical parameters investigated it was concluded that the developing organism is more susceptible to the biological action of lead than the organism of adult animals and that the ''no-effect'' level of lead administered during pregnancy and in the neonatal period is around 1 ppM.

  1. Effect of 6-mercaptopurine on 65Zn distribution in the pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) on the distribution of gavaged 65 Zn in maternal and embryonic tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats was examined 24 hr after injection of the drug on day 13 of pregnancy. 6-MP injection resulted in a significantly higher retention of counts of 65 Zn in maternal liver and lower counts in maternal plasma, uterus, placenta, and embryo than in controls. Compared to controls, gel chromatography of maternal liver from 6-MP injected dams showed higher counts associated with a protein peak of molecular weight 6,000-8,000, the approximate molecular weight of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein. These results support the idea that the zinc deficiency, which is observed in day 21 fetuses from dams injected with 6-MP during midgestation, may be the result of a drug-induced sequestering of zinc into maternal liver followed by a decrease in maternal plasma zinc and subsequent reduction in fetal zinc uptake. We suggest that this 6-MP-associated redistribution of zinc into maternal liver may be due to induction of maternal metallothionein synthesis by the drug

  2. Application of the multitracer technique. Transport of various elements in the pregnant rats and the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2003-01-01

    The placenta functions as a barrier between fetus and mother, providing regulation of heat exchange, respiration, nutrition, and excretion for the fetus. There is limited information on the transport of trace elements from the mother to the fetus. Transfer of trace elements via the placenta to the fetus rats was examined by the multitracer technique, which can be used to evaluate the behavior of many elements under the same experimental condition. In this experiment, the multitracer solution contained the following elements: Be, Na, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Tc and Ru. We examined the time courses of uptake of various elements in the placenta and the fetus. From these results, we observed a significant difference in time dependency between each element. The elements were divided into three groups. Based on the results, it was considered that the placenta is highly selective because essential elements are readily transported across placenta/membranes to the growing fetus, whereas nonessential metals hardly penetrated the placental barrier that protects the fetus from toxic effects. (author)

  3. Ameliorating role of chromium ingestion on biochemical, histological and trigluconate disorders induced by diabetes and / or gamma irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMADAN, F.L.; REZK, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium is an essential trace element in human nutrition for the regulation of insulin action thereby influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of chromium intake on radiation-induced damage in diabetic mothers. Diabetes was induced in female rats by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg alloxan dissolved in saline. Pregnant diabetic mothers were received chromium (20 mg/kg) from the 1st up to the 19 th day of gestation. Meanwhile, pregnant diabetic rats were exposed to 0.3 Gy gamma radiation on the 6th and the 12 th day of gestation. Chromium treatment of diabetic mothers ameliorated radiation-induced damage, which was obvious by diminishing the increase of glucose, malonaldehyde (MDA), total cholesterol levels and by ameliorating the decrease of glutathione level in blood serum. In addition,chromium treatment ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in cholesterol levels of the fetuses. Moreover, chromium treatment led to the regeneration of the normal architecture of maternal hepatic cells and blood vessels. It could be concluded that chromium supplementation to diabetic mothers ameliorated the radiation-induced biochemical, histopathological and teratological disorders. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that chromium administration caused a significant protection to diabetic pregnant females against radiation-induced spontaneous abortion and embryo malformations

  4. Marginal zinc deficiency in pregnant rats impairs bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in their neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masashi; Kayanoma, Megumu; Takahashi, Takeshi; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency during pregnancy may result in a variety of defects in the offspring. We evaluated the influence of marginal Zn deficiency during pregnancy on neonatal bone status. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and fed AIN-93G-based experimental diets containing 35 mg Zn/kg (Zn adequately supplied, N) or 7 mg Zn/kg (low level of Zn, L) from 14-day preconception to 20 days of gestation, that is, 1 day before normal delivery. Neonates were delivered by cesarean section. Litter size and neonate weight were not different between the two groups. However, in the L-diet-fed dam group, bone matrix formation in isolated neonatal calvaria culture was clearly impaired and was not recovered by the addition of Zn into the culture media. Additionally, serum concentration of osteocalcin, as a bone formation parameter, was lower in neonates from the L-diet-fed dam group. Impaired bone mineralization was observed with a significantly lower content of phosphorus in neonate femurs from L-diet-fed dams compared with those from N-diet-fed dams. Moreover, Zn content in the femur and calvaria of neonates from the L-diet group was lower than that of the N-diet-fed group. In the marginally Zn-deficient dams, femoral Zn content, serum concentrations of Zn, and osteocalcin were reduced when compared with control dams. We conclude that maternal Zn deficiency causes impairment of bone matrix formation and bone mineralization in neonates, implying the importance of Zn intake during pregnancy for proper bone development of offspring.

  5. Effect of sodium benzoate on DNA breakage, micronucleus formation and mitotic index in peripheral blood of pregnant rats and their newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Saatci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium benzoate (SB is one of the most widely used additives in food products in the world. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three different concentrations of SB on the DNA breakage in liver cells and on the micronuclei formation and the mitotic index in lymphocytes of pregnant rats and their fetuses, as well as to evaluate the effects of SB on the fetus development. The results showed that general genomic injuries were present in almost all the liver cell samples obtained from the SB group compared with the control (non-treated group. This indicates that SB usage may cause DNA damage and increase micronuclei formation. We recommend that pregnant women should avoid consuming foodstuffs containing SB as an additive.

  6. Maternal adipose tissue becomes a source of fatty acids for the fetus in fasted pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soldado, Iliana; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-11-10

    The utilization of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) by the fetus may exceed its capacity to synthesize them from essential fatty acids, so they have to come from the mother. Since adipose tissue lipolytic activity is greatly accelerated under fasting conditions during late pregnancy, the aim was to determine how 24 h fasting in late pregnant rats given diets with different fatty acid compositions affects maternal and fetal tissue fatty acid profiles. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given isoenergetic diets containing 10% palm-, sunflower-, olive- or fish-oil. Half the rats were fasted from day 19 of pregnancy and all were studied on day 20. Triacylglycerols (TAG), glycerol and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were analyzed by enzymatic methods and fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography. Fasting caused increments in maternal plasma NEFA, glycerol and TAG, indicating increased adipose tissue lipolytic activity. Maternal adipose fatty acid profiles paralleled the respective diets and, with the exception of animals on the olive oil diet, maternal fasting increased the plasma concentration of most fatty acids. This maintains the availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during brain development. The results show the major role played by maternal adipose tissue in the storage of dietary fatty acids during pregnancy, thus ensuring adequate availability of LCPUFA to the fetus during late pregnancy, even when food supply is restricted.

  7. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by nicotine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinying; Bao, Junjie; Li, Xiaolan; Ye, Aihua; Zhang, Guozheng; Liu, Huishu

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) exerts a more intense systemic inflammatory response than normal pregnancy. Recently, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in regulating inflammation has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying it. Rats were administered LPS (1.0 μg/kg) via tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Nicotine (1.0 mg/kg/d) and α-bungarotoxin (1.0 μg/kg/d) were injected subcutaneously into the rats from gestational day 14-19. Clinical symptoms were recorded. Serum and placentas were collected to determine cytokine levels using Luminex. The mRNA and protein expression levels of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined using Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in placentas. Nicotine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats (P preeclampsia (P preeclampsia rats. Our findings suggest that the activation of α7nAChR by nicotine attenuates preeclampsia-like symptoms, and this protective effect is likely the result of the inhibition of inflammation via the NF-κB p65 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Teratogenicity Induced By 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid and/or Gamma Irradiation on Bone of Fetuses and Placenta of Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.; Ismail, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) has revolutionized the management of severe treatment-resistant acne and it has been widely used for a range of dermatological conditions. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies were occurred in pregnant rats given isotretinion and/or exposed to gamma irradiation on specific days during organogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of isotretinoin administration and/or exposure to gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rats, vertebrae and neural spine of their fetuses. Isotretinoin at the dose level 70 mg/kg was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 11th to 15th days of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation 1.5 Gy as fractionated dose (0.5 Gy/3 times) on the 11th, 12th and 13th day of gestation. The experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20 th day of gestation) have demonstrated that isotretinoin intake from the 11th-15th days of gestation induced embryological, biochemical, histochemical and histopathological disorders in irradiated mothers and their fetuses. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase accompanied by a decline in total protein and DNA in the placenta tissues and vertebrae bone. In addition, histopathological results showed different distortions in the placenta which varied from necrotic nuclei of giant cells, haemorrhage and pyknotic nuclei in trophoblast. Moreover, ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layers and reduced number of chondrocytes together with severe damage in spine neural arch were viewed. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a serious and powerful drug and should be used with great caution, therefore, it is recommended that radiation workers especially females have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake during pregnancy.

  9. Efficacy of wheat germ oil in alleviating certain disorders induced by aspirin administration and/or Γ-irradiation in pregnant albino rats and their foetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    Aspirin is one of the most commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, induces during pregnancy high incidence of developmental anomalies in pregnant rats when given on specific days during stage of organogenesis. Accordingly, this study was performed to clarify the beneficial effect of maternal intake of wheat germ oil on the effect of aspirin administration and/or radiation induced maternal and foetal detrimental impact. Pregnant albino rats were administered aspirin from the gestational day (GD), 6 to (GD) 17 at a dose of 250 mg kg/day body wt and exposed to whole body γ-irradiation at dose of 0.5 Gy for 4 times on GD 9,10,11 and 12 days from pregnancy. The extent of lipid peroxidase formation as well as estimation of alkaline phosphatase and total proteins content in tissues of liver and placenta was used as sensitive parameters of choice to evaluate tissue damage. Radiation exposure and aspirin administration induced marked elevation in lipid peroxidase (malondialdehyde), alkaline phosphatase, accompanied by decline in total protein content in placenta and liver tissues. In addition, miscellaneous malformations including anopthalmia, microtia, excencephaly, diminution of size or kypophysis were designated. The results showed that supplementation of pregnant female rats with wheat germ oil were able to reduce the high levels of malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase. Total protein content returned once more to its normal pattern. Also, reduction of severe deleterious symptoms of radiation and aspirin administration inducing i foetal mortality were reduced. Wheat germ oil showed to increase growth in surviving foetuses and remarkable protection against severe morphological deformities as well as biochemical, histochemical and embryological disorders

  10. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Jose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10 or HFD (n = 37. After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF, LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group. After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019. In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019, serum insulin (P = 0.022 and TNF-α (P = 0.044. Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021 levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042. Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration.

  11. Hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats causes sex-related vascular dysfunction in adult offspring: role of cyclooxygenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Francine Gomes; de Queiroz, Diego Barbosa; Ramos-Alves, Fernanda Elizabethe; Santos-Rocha, Juliana; da Silva, Odair Alves; Moreira, Hicla Stefany; Leal, Geórgia Andrade; da Rocha, Marcelo Aurélio; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Xavier, Fabiano Elias

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy induces vascular dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring. Given that female offspring from other fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, the present study investigated whether there are sex differences in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension only in male offspring. We found sex differences in oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostanoid production that might underlie the vascular dysfunction. These differences, particularly in resistance arteries, may in part explain the absence of hypertension in female offspring born to hyperglycaemic dams. Exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia induces hypertension and vascular dysfunction in adult male offspring. Given that female offspring from several fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, in this study we analysed possible differences relative to sex in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. Hyperglycaemia was induced on day 7 of gestation (streptozotocin, 50 mg kg -1 ). Blood pressure, acetylcholine and phenylephrine or noradrenaline responses were analysed in the aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries of 3-, 6- and 12-month-old male and female offspring. Thromboxane A 2 release was analysed with commercial kits and superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production by dihydroethidium-emitted fluorescence. Male but not female offspring of hyperglycaemic dams (O-DR) had higher blood pressure than control animals (O-CR). Contraction in response to phenylephrine increased and relaxation in response to acetylcholine decreased only in the aorta from 12-month-old male O-DR and not in age-matched O-CR. Contractile and vasodilator responses were preserved in both the

  12. Studies on the fate of poisonous metals in experimental animal. III. Distribution and transference of /sup 115m/Cd in pregnant rat and fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y; Takanaka, A; Onoda, K; Nakaura, S; Urakubo, G [National Inst. of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1975-08-01

    Distribution of sup(115m)Cd in pregnant rat, transference to fetus and distribution in fetal organs were investigated by means of intraveneous injection of sup(115m)CdCl/sub 2/ solution to dam at 20th day after mating, dissection at 1 hr later and measurement of radioactivities. In the pregnant rat, the thickest accumulation of radioactivity in liver, and much thicker concentration in pancreas, pituitary, kidney and adrenal than in blood were found. Besides, 24.6% of dose remained in gastrointestinal tract. The transference of sup(115m)Cd to fetus was not so remarkable. Concerning the distribution of partially transfered metal in fetus, outstanding accumulation were observed in adrenal, spleen and testis, and secondly thicker concentrations were seen in liver and bone. The distribution pattern in fetus was not similar to that of dam, and rather thicker concentrations of sup(115m)Cd were observed in fetal spleen, bone, adrenal and brain, comparing with the corresponding organs of dam. In conclusion, cadmium introduced in dam body was transfered partially to fetus through placenta and was distributed in many parts of fetal body.

  13. Dietary (n-6 : n-3 Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Abdulbari Kassem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO: 50% cod liver oil (CLO (1 : 1, 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1, 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1. Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  14. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  15. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  16. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  17. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  18. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  19. Effects of previous physical exercise to chronic stress on long-term aversive memory and oxidative stress in amygdala and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Tiago Marcon; Kolling, Janaína; Siebert, Cassiana; Biasibetti, Helena; Bertó, Carolina Gessinger; Grun, Lucas Kich; Dalmaz, Carla; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia María; Wyse, Angela T S

    2017-02-01

    Since stressful situations are considered risk factors for the development of depression and there are few studies evaluating prevention therapies for this disease, in the present study we evaluated the effect of previous physical exercise in animals subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS), an animal model of depression, on behavior tasks. We also investigated some parameters of oxidative stress and Na + , K + -ATPase activity, immunocontent and gene expression of alpha subunits in amygdala and hippocampus of rats. Young male rats were randomized into four study groups (control, exercised, stressed, exercised+stressed). The animals were subjected to controlled exercise treadmill for 20min,three times a week, for two months prior to submission to the CVS (40days). Results show that CVS impaired performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h and 7days after training session. CVS induced oxidative stress, increasing reactive species, lipoperoxidation and protein damage, and decreasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of Na + , K + -ATPase was decreased, but the immunocontents and gene expression of catalytic subunits were not altered. The previous physical exercise was able to improve performance in inhibitory avoidance at 24h after training; additionally, exercise prevented oxidative damage, but was unable to reverse completely the changes observed on the enzymatic activities. Our findings suggest that physical exercise during the developmental period may protect against aversive memory impairment and brain oxidative damage caused by chronic stress exposure later in life. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M U; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

    2014-08-01

    To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats. Review. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (p0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (p<0.001); however, lamivudine at the usual and 3-times doses, delavirdine at 3-times dose, and amprenavir at 3-times dose increased the litter weight (p<0.001). In the maternal compartment, we observed lethal toxicity in the pregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.

  1. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, K; Kirchgessner, M [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1998-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden

  2. Metabolic dose-effect relationships of different Pt compounds on growing, pregnant, and lactating rats; Metabolische Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehungen verschiedener Pt-Verbindungen bei wachsenden, graviden und laktierenden Ratten (VPT 04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, K.; Kirchgessner, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Tierernaehrung

    1997-12-31

    The fact that humans can take up platinum via the food chain calls for an investigation of the effects of platinum ingestion on the organism. For this purpose a study was carried out on the dose-effect relationships of various platinum compounds using the rat as a model. To take due account of different physiological stages the study included growing, pregnant, and lactating rats. According to present knowledge platinum is primarily emitted in its elemental form by the catalytic converter, i.e. with the formal oxidation number zero, and to a lesser degree in ionic form. Beside elemental platinum the study therefore also involved exposure to PtCl{sub 2} and PtCl{sub 4}. Furthermore, to do justice to the fact that humans and animals take up platinum not only from its primary source but also from plants in the food chain, platinum was also administered as a Pt-II-phytochelatin complex previously isolated from Pt-contaminated material. Study criteria were chosen with a view to obtaining a general indication of potential toxic effects and included parameters such as the live weight curve, haematological status, and platinum accumulation in the body or in specific organs. Of particular interest in pregnant and lactating rats were platinum levels in foetuses and milk. [Deutsch] Ueber die Nahrungskette ist eine alimentaere Aufnahme von Platin durch den Menschen moeglich und erfordert, die Auswirkungen der ingestiven Platinzufuhr auf den Organismus zu untersuchen. Deshalb wurden am Modelltier Ratte Studien zur Dosis-Wirkungsbeziehung verschiedener Platinverbindungen durchgefuehrt. Um den verschiedenen physiologischen Stadien gerecht zu werden, wurden sowohl wachsende wie auch gravide und laktierende Ratten in die Studien einbezogen. Soweit bislang bekannt, wird Platin vorwiegend in der formalen Oxidationsstufe Null als elementares Platin, zu einem geringeren Anteil aber auch in ionischer Form aus der Katalysatoreinheit ausgetragen. Deshalb wurden in den vorliegenden

  3. Incorporation of organically bound tritium (OBT) of food or tritium (OBT) of food or tritiated water (TW) into foetuses, placentas and some tissues of pregnant rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Szot, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Pregnant rats between 9 and 17 days of gestation were given OBT or TW during 5 days. On the 6th day the animals were sacrificed (13, 15, 17, 19 and 21st day gestation). Tritium radioactivity of foetuses, placentas, yolk sacs, some organs of mother and some organic compounds separated from foetuses and placentas were examined. The results were referred to the last day of experiment. The highest tritium concentration in the foetuses and placentas was found on the 13th day of gestation and decreased until the 17th day. Then, after a short lasting increase, the incorporation values attained the lowest values on the 21st day. Tritium radioactivity of foetuses was of the order of magnitude of that in the mother's liver and small intestine. During the last days of pregnancy diminished incorporation into phospholipids, nucleic acids and proteins and an increase into acid-soluble fraction was observed. (author)

  4. Liver and Kidney Functional Indices of Pregnant Rats Following the Administration of the Crude Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alkaloids from Senna alata leaves implicated as the active constituents of abortifacient are yet to be investigated for their effects on the normal functioning of the maternal liver and kidney. Therefore, the effects of crude alkaloids on some biochemical indices of kidney and liver damage were investigated in pregnant rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into 4 groups: A (control, B, C, and D and were orally administered 0.5 ml of distilled water, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of the alkaloids respectively once daily on days 10-18 post coitum. Results: Thin-layer chromatographic separation gave five spots with Rf values of 0.28, 0.33, 0.39, 0.47, and 0.55 that produced creamy precipitate and reddish-brown colour, respectively, with Mayer’s and Wagner’s reagents. Quantitative determination gave 0.30 g which corresponded to a percentage yield of 1.50 % of the alkaloids. The decreases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases in the liver and kidney of the animals by the alkaloids were accompanied by corresponding increases in the serum enzymes. The alkaloids reduced liver- and kidney-body weight ratios, serum globulin, urea, uric acid, and phosphate ions while the serum concentrations of albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, potassium ions, AST/ALT ratio, blood urea nitrogen: creatinine increased. The levels of sodium, calcium, and chloride ions did not change significantly (P>0.05. Conclusion: Overall, the alkaloid at doses of 250-1000 mg/kg body weight produced permeability changes in the plasma membrane of the organs and adversely affected the normal secretory, synthetic, and excretory functions of these organs.

  5. Upper respiratory tract nociceptor stimulation and stress response following acute and repeated Cyfluthrin inhalation in normal and pregnant rats: Physiological rat-specific adaptions can easily be misunderstood as adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauluhn, Juergen

    2018-01-05

    This paper reviews the results from past regulatory and mechanistic inhalation studies in rats with the type II pyrethroid Cyfluthrin. Apart from many chemical irritants, Cyfluthrin was shown to be a neuroexcitatory agent without any inherent tissue-destructive or irritant property. Thus, any Cyfluthrin-induced neuroexcitatory afferent sensory stimulus from peripheral nociceptors in the upper respiratory tract is likely to be perceived as a transient stimulus triggering annoyance and/or avoidance by both rats and humans. However, while thermolabile rats respond to such stresses reflexively, homeothermic humans appear to respond psychologically. With this focus in mind, past inhalation studies in rats and human volunteers were reevaluated and assessed to identify common denominators to such neuroexcitatory stimuli upon inhalation exposure. This analysis supports the conclusion that the adaptive physiological response occurring in rats secondary to such chemosensory stimuli requires inhalation exposures above the chemosensory threshold. Rats, a species known to undergo adaptively a hibernation-like physiological state upon environmental stresses, experienced reflexively-induced bradypnea, bradycardia, hypothermia, and changes in acid-base status during inhalation exposure. After cessation of the sensory stimulus, rapid recovery occurred. Physiological data of male and female rats from a 4-week repeated inhalation study (exposure 6-h/day, 5-times/week) were used to select concentration for a 10-day developmental inhalation toxicity study in pregnant rats. Maternal hypothermia and hypoventilation were identified as likely cause of fetal and placental growth retardations because of a maternal adaptation-driven reduced feto-placental transfer of oxygen. In summary, maternal reflex-hypothermia, reduced cardiac output and placental perfusion, and disruption of the gestation-related hyperventilation are believed to be the maternally mediated causes for developmental

  6. Investigations of nephrotoxicity caused by ionic and non-ionic contrast media in rats with previously damaged and not previously damaged kidneys and special view to urinary enzyme determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeister, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this study ionic (meglumine amidotrizoate) and non-ionic contrast media (SHH 340 AB, Iohexol, Iopromide, Iosimide and Iopamidol) were tested for their nephrotoxicity in rats. During the experiment detections of urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary enzymes as well as histological examinations of the kidneys were carried out for the diagnosis of acute renal damage. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that rats are not very sensitive to non-ionic contrast media with regard to kidney damage and determinations of urinary enzymes are valuable for the diagnosis of contrast media induced acute kidney damage in living animals. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring. Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats. In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and

  8. GLOMERULAR INFLAMMATION IN PREGNANT RATS AFTER INFUSION OF LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN - AN IMMUNOHISTOLOGICAL STUDY IN EXPERIMENTAL PREECLAMPSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; BAKKER, WW

    1995-01-01

    Increased endotoxin sensitivity during pregnancy occurs in many animals, including rats. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood. In the present study it was investigated whether this increased sensitivity is reflected by an altered inflammatory pattern. Inflammatory cell influx, the

  9. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  10. Disposition of cefixime in the material-fetal unit after an i.v. dose to pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin-Walega, E.; Barr, A.; Tonelli, A.P.; Shin, K.; Batra, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Cefixime, a potent, broad spectrum oral cephalosporin, is currently undergoing clinical trials. To determine the extent of transfer of cefixime across the placenta to the fetus, a single dose of 17.8 mg/kg 14 C-cefixime was administered to rats on day 18 of gestation via the caudal vein. Maternal serum and urine, fetal plasma and tissues, and placentae were sampled at appropriate times after dosing. Separate rats were subjected to whole body autoradiography. The half-life for elimination of radioactivity from both maternal serum and placentae was 6.9 hours. Elimination from fetal plasma and tissues was somewhat longer, 12.5 and 13.7 hours, respectively. However, based on a comparison of area under the curve, relative to maternal dose, exposure of the fetuses to cefixime was far less than that of placentae. Peak radioactivity in fetal plasma occurred at 2 hours and was less than 2% of the maternal peak at 0.5 hours after dosing. Whole body autoradiography showed the greatest radioactivity in maternal liver, kidney and intestines. Somewhat less radioactivity appeared in placentae and virtually none could be visualized within the amniotic sac. Overall, the data indicate that exposure of the rat fetus to cefixime after a single maternal dose is limited by the placenta

  11. Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis in pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da doença periodontal induzida por ligadura na prenhez de ratas Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ponzio de Azevedo Galvão

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ligature-induced periodontal disease in pregnant rats on their newborn's health parameters. Twenty-four female adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the control group (G1 and the group that was submitted to dental ligatures around second upper molars (G2. After the four week period of development of periodontitis, the female animals were mated with male adult Wistar rats. There were no differences in the body weight of females between the two groups during mating and pregnancy. No differences were observed among the groups in relation to the viable newborn index. However, there were differences in newborn birth weight, explained by the diverse size of the litters. In this study, ligature-induced periodontal disease did not promote changes during pregnancy that resulted in low birth weight in newborn Wistar rats.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência da periodontite induzida por ligadura em ratas prenhes sobre parâmetros de saúde geral de seus filhotes. Vinte e quatro ratas Wistar de idade adulta foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo controle (G1 e grupo experimental, que recebeu ligaduras ao redor dos segundos molares superiores (G2. Após o período de indução de periodontite (quatro semanas, as ratas foram colocadas para cruzamento com ratos Wistar machos, adultos. Não houve diferença no peso corporal das fêmeas durante os períodos de cruzamento e prenhez. Também não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos quanto à taxa de recém-nascidos viáveis. No entanto, houve diferença quanto ao peso dos recém-nascidos, sendo tal diferença explicada pela variação no tamanho das ninhadas. No presente estudo, doença periodontal induzida por ligadura não promoveu mudanças durante a prenhez que resultassem em baixo peso ao nascer dos filhotes Wistar.

  12. Neonatal taurine and alanine modulate anxiety-like behavior and decelerate cortical spreading depression in rats previously suckled under different litter sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Elian da Silva; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-11-01

    The amino acids taurine and alanine play a role in several physiological processes, including behavior and the electrical activity of the brain. In this study, we investigated the effect of treatment with taurine or alanine on anxiety-like behavior and the excitability-dependent phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD), using rats suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L9 and L15). From postnatal days 7 to 27, the animals received per gavage 300 mg/kg/day of taurine or alanine or both. At 28 days, we tested the animals in the elevated plus maze, and at 33-35 days, we recorded CSD and analyzed its velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration. Compared with water-treated controls, the L9 groups treated with taurine or alanine displayed anxiolytic behavior (higher number of entries in the open arms; p taurine, alanine, or both) treated at adulthood (90-110 days). The L15 condition resulted in smaller durations and higher CSD velocities compared with the L9 condition. Besides reinforcing previous evidence of behavioral modulation by taurine and alanine, our data are the first confirmation that treatment with these amino acids decelerates CSD regardless of lactation conditions (normal versus unfavorable lactation) or age at amino acid administration (young versus adult). The results suggest a modulating role for both amino acids on anxiety behavior and neuronal electrical activity.

  13. A set of genes previously implicated in the hypoxia response might be an important modulator in the rat ear tissue response to mechanical stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgill Dennis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wounds are increasingly important in our aging societies. Pathologies such as diabetes predispose patients to chronic wounds that can cause pain, infection, and amputation. The vacuum assisted closure device shows remarkable outcomes in wound healing. Its mechanism of action is unclear despite several hypotheses advanced. We previously hypothesized that micromechanical forces can heal wounds. To understand better the biological response of soft tissue to forces, rat ears in vivo were stretched and their gene expression patterns over time obtained. The absolute enrichment (AE algorithm that obtains a combined up and down regulated picture of the expression analysis was implemented. Results With the use of AE, the hypoxia gene set was the most important at a highly significant level. A co-expression network analysis showed that important co-regulated members of the hypoxia pathway include a glucose transporter (slc2a8, heme oxygenase, and nitric oxide synthase2 among others. Conclusion It appears that the hypoxia pathway may be an important modulator of response of soft tissue to forces. This finding gives us insights not only into the underlying biology, but also into clinical interventions that could be designed to mimic within wounded tissue the effects of forces without all the negative effects that forces themselves create.

  14. The similitude of some negative outcomes of Omega-3 to those of gamma radiation in pregnant albino rats and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Yacoub, S.F.; Abdel Aziz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Even though it is established that manipulation of Omega-3, the essential long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is beneficial during pregnancy for its well known antioxidant capacity, yet the present work aims at underscoring the adverse maternal biochemical and fetal teratological traits arising in consequence of excessive Omega-3 peri conceptional supplementation, some of which resemble various oxidative stress induced harmful effects of the prenatal maternal whole body gamma irradiation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. In the present study, adult Sprague Dawley female rats were randomized into 3 groups, one of which served as pregnant control (Group 1) whereas another one was orally administered with Omega-3 (0.5 g / kg /day) for 45 consecutive days (25 days preconception + 20 days of pregnancy) (Group 2) while the third group was subjected to 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on the 15th gestational day (Group 3). Five rats of each group were sacrificed after 20 days of gestation. The results revealed that both Omega-3 administration for 45 consecutive days or gamma radiation exposure resulted in a remarkable decrease in maternal blood Glutathione (GSH) content and Catalase accompanied by a significant elevation in maternal plasma Malonaldehyde (MDA), Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol levels when compared to the control group. Accordingly, the fetuses of the Omega-3 treated mothers, despite their lively active appearance, showed the occurrence of unexpected abnormal malformed extremities, sharing this phenomenon with the fetuses of the irradiated mother group who showed an exceptional high mortality rate together with higher incidence of recorded growth defects. Thus it can be speculated that Omega-3 over supplementation, may be inadvisable in pregnancy time in a manner relative to some extent to the maternal gamma irradiation prohibition.

  15. Effects of L-arginine oral supplements in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats Efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Sousa Ayres de Moura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of L-arginine oral supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive pregnant rats (SHR. METHODS: Thirty SHR and ten Wistar-EPM-1 virgin female rats were used in the study. Before randomization, females were caged with males of the same strain (3:1. Pregnancy was confirmed by sperm-positive vaginal smear (Day 0. Wistar-EPM-1 rats served as counterpart control (C-1. SHR rats were randomized in 4 groups (n=10: Group Control 2, non-treated rats; Group L-Arginine treated with L-arginine 2%; Group Alpha-methyldopa treated with Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg; Group L-Arginine+Alpha-methyldopa treated with L-arginine 2%+Alpha-methyldopa 33mg/Kg. L-arginine 2% solution was offered ad libitum in drinking water and Alpha-methyldopa was administered by gavage twice a day during the length of pregnancy (20 days. Blood pressure was measured by tailcuff plethysmography on days 0 and 20. Body weight was measured on days 0, 10 and 20. Results were expressed as mean ± SD (Standard Deviation. One-Way ANOVA/Tukey (or Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn, as appropriate was used for group comparisons. Statistical significance was accepted as pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da oferta oral de L-arginina em ratas prenhas espontaneamente hipertensivas (SHR. MÉTODOS: 30 SHR e 10 Wistar-EPM-1 ratas virgens foram utilizadas no estudo. Antes da distribuição, as fêmeas foram acasaladas com machos da mesma linhagem (3:1; a prenhez foi confirmada pela presença de espermatozóides no esfregaço vaginal. As ratas Wistar-EPM-1 foram utilizadas como controles. As ratas SHR foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em 4 grupos (n=10: Grupo Controle-2, não-tratado; Grupo L-Arginina, tratado com L-arginina; Grupo Alfa-metildopa, tratado com alfa-metildopa; Grupo L-Arginina+Alfa-metildopa, tratado com arginina+Alfa-metildopa. L-arginina (2% foi oferecida ad libitum na água de beber e a Alfa-metildopa (33 mg/Kg foi administrada por gavagem, duas vezes ao dia, durante toda a

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant rats impaired learning and memory of their offspring by promoting the p75NTR signal pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect the neurodevelopment of their offspring. This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH on spatial learning and memory, and its relationship with the apoptotic factors in cerebral cortex of the offspring. Methods: Female adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group: control (CON group, SCH group and overt hypothyroidism (OH group. Spatial learning and memory in the offspring were evaluated by long-term potentiation (LTP and Morris water-maze (MWM test. The protein expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and Bax were detected by Western blotting. Results: The Pups in the SCH and OH groups showed longer escape latencies in the MWM and decreased field-excitatory post synaptic potentials in LTP tests compared with those in the CON group. p75NTR, p-JNK, p53 and Bax expression levels in the cerebral cortex increased in pups in the SCH and OH groups compared with those in the CON group. Conclusions: Maternal SCH during pregnancy may impair spatial learning and memory in the offspring and may be associated with the increased apoptosis in the cerebral cortex.

  17. Ameliorative effect of Morus alba leaves extract against developmental retinopathy in pups of diabetic and aluminum intoxicated pregnant albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan; El-Sayyed; Gamal; Badawy; Sobhy; Hassab; Elnabi; Ibrahim; El-Elaimy; Eman; Al; Shehari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible ameliorative effect of crude water extract of Morus alba(M. alba) leaves on retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to diabetes and/or Al intoxication.Methods: Both control and experimental groups were subjected to certain integrated approaches, namely, biochemical assessments, light microscopic investigation, transmission electron microscopic investigation, single cell gel electrophoresis(comet assay) and determination of DNA fragmentation.Results: The retina of pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers exhibited abnormal alterations in retinal cell layers including retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells. Increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were evident in pups of diabetic and/or Al-intoxicated mothers. However, retina of pups maternally received M. alba extract plus diabetes or Al-intoxicated alone or in combination showed marked amelioration. Less degree of ameliorations was seen in retina of pups maternally subjected to combined treatment. Furthermore, application of crude water extract of M.alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose as well as Al concentration.Conclusions: Based on the results of the present study, M. alba extract is effective against experimentally diabetic and Al-induced developmental retinopathy.

  18. A toxicidade do Hypericum perforatum administrado a ratas prenhes Evaluation of Hypericum perforatum toxicity when administered to pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Valente Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho foi avaliada a toxicidade do H. perforatum administrado a ratas no período de organogênese (9º ao 15º dia de gestação. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratas Wistar inseminadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente nos grupos controle e tratado, que receberam, respectivamente, 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica e 36 mg/kg de extrato seco de Jarsin diluídos em 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica por gavagem. A toxicidade materna foi avaliada por: consumo de água e ração, peso corporal, piloereção, deambulação, diarréia e ocorrência de mortes. As ratas foram sacrificadas no 21º dia de gestação, quando foram removidos e pesados: rins, fígado e ovários. Foram calculados os índices de implantação e de reabsorção e foi verificado o número médio de fetos por rata. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados sinais clínicos de toxicidade materna e nenhuma das variáveis analisadas apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos experimentais. CONCLUSÃO: Na dose administrada e no modelo experimental utilizado, o Hypericum perforatum não apresenta manifestações tóxicas para ratas prenhas no período de organogênese.BACKGROUND: Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: In the present paper, the toxicity of H. perforatum administered to female rats during organogenesis (9th to 15th day of pregnancy was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty inseminated Wistar rats were randomly distributed into Control and Treated groups, which received by gavage, respectively, 0.5 ml of saline and 36 mg/Kg body weight of Jarsin dried extract diluted into 0.5 ml of saline. Maternal toxicity was evaluated by means of: water and food intake, body weight, piloerection, walking activity, diarrhea and death. Animals were killed on the 21st day of pregnancy, when kidneys, liver and ovaries were weighed. Implantation and reabsorption indices

  19. Expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in 17α-ethinyl estradiol-induced intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingyun; Wang, Jingjing; Yan, Shi; Zhao, Jin; Li, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant (ICP) offspring. The model of ICP rats was established by injecting s.c. 17α-ethinyl estradiol. The expression of NPY and POMC in female offspring was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry at birthday and 6 months. ICP group offspring had lower bodyweight at birthday. ICP offspring were markedly heavier than control offspring after 6 months. mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC significantly increased at 6 months as compared with the birthday among control offspring. Among ICP offspring, mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC also were higher at 6 months than at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of NPY were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of POMC were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. After 6 months, the mRNA expression and protein expression of NPY also were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The mRNA expression and protein expression of POMC also were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ICP offspring demonstrated evidence of persistent appetite stimulation with significantly upregulated NPY expression and reduced POMC expression at birthday and 6 months. ICP offspring showed a hunger state and then gained weight. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in the placenta but not the fetus is matched by plasma unesterified DHA uptake rates in pregnant Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined. For tissue DHA uptake, pregnant dams (14-18 days) were infused for 5 min with radiolabeled 14 C-DHA and kinetic modeling was used to determine fetal and placental serum unesterified DHA uptake rates. DHA accretion rates in the fetus were determined to be 38 ± 2 nmol/d/g, 859 ± 100 nmol/d/litter and 74 ± 3 nmol/d/pup, which are all higher (P  0.05) in placental DHA accretion rates versus serum unesterified DHA uptake rates were observed as values varied only 6-35% between studies. No differences in placental accretion and uptake rates suggests that serum unesterified DHA is a significant pool for the maternal-placental transfer of DHA, and lower fetal DHA uptake compared to accretion supports remodeling of placental DHA for delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ação crônica do napsilato de propoxifeno na prenhez da rata Chronic effects of propoxyphene napsylate on pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane T. R. Mendes

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os efeitos do napsilato de propoxifeno sobre a prenhez da rata albina. Para tanto utilizamos 50 ratas prenhes divididas ao acaso em cinco grupos iguais. Todas receberam diariamente, por gavagem, o volume de 1 ml, desde os dias 0 (zero até o 20 de prenhez, com as seguintes características: grupo I - somente água destilada (controle; grupo II - solução aquosa de acácia 2% (veículo; grupos III, IV e V - respectivamente, 5, 15 e 45 mg/kg de peso de napsilato de propoxifeno dissolvido em solução de acácia a 2%. Os pesos maternos foram anotados nos dias 0 (zero, 7, 14 e 20 de prenhez; no 20º dia as matrizes foram sacrificadas. Nossos resultados mostraram que os animais tratados com 45 mg/kg do fármaco apresentaram redução dos pesos individuais dos fetos como também dos pesos das ninhadas e das placentas. Quanto às outras variáveis apreciadas: número de reabsorções, de implantações e de placentas não houve diferença significante entre os grupos tratados em relação ao grupo controle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of propoxyphene napsylate on the pregnancy of the rat. We used fifty pregnant rats divided into five groups. All the animals received daily 1 ml of the solution by gavage from day 0 to the 20th day of pregnancy. Group I - only distilled water (control; group II - aqueous solution of acacia 2% (vehicle; groups III, IV and V - respectively, 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg of weight of propoxyphene napsylate diluted in 2% acacia solution. The animals were weighed on days 0, 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy. All animals were sacrificed on the 20th day of pregnancy. Our results showed that the animals treated with 45 mg/kg of propoxyphene napsylate presented reduction of the individual weights of the fetuses, as well as of the weights of the newborns and placentas. The difference betewwn number of resorptions, implantations and placentas of the treated groups was shown to be non

  2. Interleukin (IL)-1 in rat parturition: IL-1 receptors 1 and 2 and accessory proteins abundance in pregnant rat uterus at term - regulation by progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Tomohito; Takeda, Jun; Fang, Xin; Bronson, Heather; Olson, David M

    2016-07-01

    The role of interleukin-1 (IL-1), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, in parturition is typically noted by changes in its concentrations. Studying the expression of its receptor family, IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) 1, IL-1R2, IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP), and its predominantly brain isoform, IL-1RAcPb, during late gestation in the uterus in the Long-Evans rat is another. We assessed changes in their mRNA and protein relative abundance in the uterus and compared IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance in uterus, cervix, ovaries, placenta, and whole blood of Long-Evans rats during late gestation or in RU486 and progesterone-treated dams using quantitative real-time PCR and western immunoblotting. IL-1R1, IL-1RAcP, and IL-1RAcPb mRNA abundance significantly increased in the uterus at delivery whereas IL-1R2 mRNA abundance significantly decreased. IL-1R1 protein increased at term and IL-1R2 protein decreased at term compared to nonpregnant uteri. IL1-RAcPb mRNA abundance was less than IL-1RAcP, but in the lower uterine segment it was the highest of all tissues examined. RU486 stimulated preterm delivery and an increase in IL-1R1 mRNA abundance whereas progesterone administration extended pregnancy and suppressed the increase in IL-1R1. These data suggest that changes in uterine sensitivity to IL-1 occur during late gestation and suggest another level of regulation for the control of delivery. The roles for IL-1RAcP and IL-1RAcPb need to be determined, but may relate to different intracellular signaling pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Pregnant Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Børve , Hege Eggen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article examines the impact that the interplay between workplace, the welfare state and global working life has on female workers when they become pregnant. By focusing on two highly educated Norwegian female workers, it explores how this change process takes place in two companies operating in the global market located in different countries: Norway and the US. Pregnancy contributes to transforming the neutralized bodiless female worker into an embodied worker with g...

  4. Influence of diet or intrarectal bile acid injections on colon epithelial cell proliferation in rats previously injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, H.P.; Bennink, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of varying colon bile acid concentrations on rat colon epithelial cell proliferation were studied. Bile acid concentrations were altered by intrarectally injecting either deoxycholic or lithocholic acid for 4 weeks or by increasing the dietary fat or fiber (wheat bran, agar, or carrageenan) intake for 4 weeks. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was s.c. injected into half of the rats 1 week before treatments began. Colon epithelial cell proliferation was measured by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of colon crypts. Rats injected with DMH had more DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. Neither bile acid injection nor any of the diets altered the number of DNA-synthesizing cells per crypt. DMH injections, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid intrarectal injections, and dietary agar and wheat bran all increased the total number of cells per crypt. High fat diets and dietary carrageenan did not affect cell number. All diets containing fiber lowered total fecal bile acid concentrations, but increasing the fat content of the diet did not affect them. These results indicate that the bile acid injections and dietary agar and wheat bran induce a slight hyperplasia in the colon

  5. pulmonary tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that TB infection is present in one- third of the world's ... tuberculosis among pregnant women would be as high as in .... previous two years appeared to confer an increased ... limited to the immediate neighborhood or workplace.

  6. Influence of separate and combined impact both of radiation and chemical factors on state of lipid peroxide oxidation system and antioxidant protection at pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Kolb, V.G.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of low dozed ionizing irradiation and chemical toxicant was studied both under separate and combined action in the process of pregnancy. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) indices and antioxidant protection (AOP) parameters of females rats were studied. The result received proved that irradiation during pregnancy induced activation both of lipids free radical oxidation and of antioxidant protection in female rats. Chemical toxicants introduction resulted in shifts on the LPO-AOP system the hydrogen peroxide blood level increasing and the antioxidants ones reducing. Combined action of both factors led to development of a new level of LPO-AOP

  7. Comparison of phototoxic effects of pregnant rats exposure in Chernobyl NPP site and external prolonged exposure in the dose of 0.5 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'eva, E.E.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2007-01-01

    The morphometric study showed that within the 10-kilometre zone of the Chernobyl NPP delay of the rat fetus cerebral cortex maturation occurred, whereas used in the experiment prolonged low-dose irradiation did not cause essential disorders of cortical ontogenesis.(authors)

  8. Change in ATP-ase activity and transport of rna of liver cell nuclei of pregnant rats and embryos following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsutdinova, G.T.; Mirkhamidova, P.; Ibragimkhodzhaeva, M.P.; Mirakhmedov, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation on ATP-ase activity in rat liver nuclei and RNA transport of isolated liver nuclei in vitro is studied. It is shown that irradiation changes RNA transport from isolated liver cell nuclei of maternal organism and embryos. Irradiation during prefetus and fetus periods changes ATP-ase activity of embryon and maternal organism nuclei

  9. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE ON EX VIVO AND IN VITRO LUTEAL FUNCTION AND BROMODICHLOROMETHANE TISSUE DOSIMETRY IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM), a drinking water disinfection by-product, causes pregnancy loss, i.e. full-litter resorption, in F344 rats when treated during the luteinizing hormone (LH)-dependent period. This effect is associated with reduced maternal serum progesterone (P) and LH...

  10. Histological changes in the endometrial of pregnant Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a changed uterine morphometry and its application to the endometrial structure of a pregnant rat. The number and the size of uterine gland and blood vessels changed during the pregnancy period of the rat. This effect on day 15 was significantly changed in the different groups. When the endometrial ...

  11. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  12. Gestational Day-Dependent Expression of Interleukin-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected Pregnant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banun Kusumawardani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Fetal growth restriction remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Porphyromonas gingivaliscan induce placental inflammatory response resulting in fetal growth restriction. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the potential utility of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in rat placental tissues to understand whether these events were causally related. Methods: Female rats were infected with live-Porphyromonas gingivalis at concentration of 2x109 cells/ml into subgingival sulcus area of the maxillary first molar before and/or during pregnancy. They were sacrificed on gestational day (GD-14 and GD20. The expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: A higher expression of TNF-α was found in spongiotrophoblast of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (6.30±1.16, and in trophoblastic giant cells of Pg-D group on GD20 (5.50±1.35. Furthermore, a higher expression of IL-10 was found in trophoblastic giant cells of the Pg-BD group on GD14 (4.50±1.51 and in syncytiotrophoblasts of Pg-BD group on GD20 (8.70±2.67. Conclusion: The expression of TNF-α on GD14 and GD20 were accompanied by increased expression of IL-10. The placental pathologic conditions induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis can be inhibited by elevated expression of IL-10 in macrophages and trophoblast cells.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i3.199

  13. The homeless pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Umo I

    2017-09-01

    Women who are pregnant and homeless constitute a unique group at significant risk of adverse foetal and maternal outcomes. Despite this heightened risk profile, social housing support to this group of women is less than satisfactory. Concerted effort and more collaborative working is needed by all who provide social, and healthcare services to homeless pregnant women, to improve the lot of these women. Clear definitions and legislative provisions in respect of the homeless will go a long way in reducing ambiguity and close loopholes which currently act to deny the homeless pregnant woman social housing support at a time when it is most needed.

  14. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  15. Consumption of sucrose, but not high fructose corn syrup, leads to increased adiposity and dyslipidaemia in the pregnant and lactating rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, C R; Muhlhausler, B S; O'Dea, K; Gentili, S

    2015-02-01

    Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.

  16. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  17. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe dehydration, chronic malabsorption resulting in fetal growth restriction, and in the case of E. histolytica , invasive disease, including amebic liver abscess and colitis. Pregnant women should avoid swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, ...

  18. Anxiety during pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many women suffer psychological symptoms during pregnancy but few studies have examined anxiety among pregnant ladies in relation to the level of education, previous bad obstetrical history and female circumcision. Aims: To determine frequency of anxiety among Sudanese women as related to pregnancy and ...

  19. Suramin-restricted blood volume in the placenta of normal and diabetic rats is normalized by vitamin E treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, P; Eriksson, U J

    2007-01-01

    Previously maternal and fetal alterations resembling human pre-eclampsia were induced in pregnant rats by injections of the angiogenesis inhibitor Suramin. These alterations were aggravated by maternal diabetes and partly rectified by vitamin E supplementation. In the present study we evaluated the morphology of placentae and kidneys in this model. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant rats of two rat strains (U and H) were treated with Suramin or saline, and given standard or vitamin E-enriched food. On gestational day 20 one placenta and the left kidney of the mother were collected for morphological and stereological analysis. In the placental trophospongium Suramin treatment caused cysts, which were further enhanced by maternal diabetes. Vitamin E treatment had no effect on the vacuolization. In the placental labyrinth of the non-diabetic rats Suramin treatment restricted maternal placental blood volume and increased the interface between maternal and fetal circulation. These changes were reversed by vitamin E treatment. Diabetes increased slightly the interface between the circulations in both rat strains. Suramin treatment decreased the interface, and vitamin E further decreased the interface in the diabetic U rats, whereas neither treatment affected the maternal-fetal interface in the diabetic H rats. The kidneys of Suramin-treated and diabetic rats were heavier compared to controls. Suramin treatment and maternal diabetes damaged renal glomeruli to a similar extent. Vitamin E treatment diminished the Suramin- and diabetes-induced glomerular damage in U rats, but not in H rats. The average cell count per glomerulus was decreased by Suramin in the U rats. Vitamin E treatment did not affect cell number per glomerulus in any group. We conclude that Suramin-injected pregnant rats constitute a valid animal model for placental dysfunction and pre-eclampsia, also from the histological perspective. The present work supports the notion that one

  20. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  1. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  2. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...

  3. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  4. Pregnant Field Students' Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-01-01

    This study examined guilt feelings among social work students who were pregnant for the first time during field work training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in the 9th month (n=5) or 2-12 months after delivery (n=5). Content analysis revealed 6 main triggers, illustrated by excerpts, which stimulated field students' guilt…

  5. Effects of diets with different content in protein and fiber on embryotoxicity induced by experimental diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavini, E; Airoldi, L; Broccia, M L; Roversi, G D; Prati, M

    1993-01-01

    Three groups of streptozotocin-diabetic rats were maintained during pregnancy on three hyperproteic diets with different protein contents. These differences were compensated by an equal quantity of fiber (group 1: protein 55.0%, fiber 4.5%; group 2: 45.0%, 14.0%; group 3: 35.0%, 24.0%). Three groups of nondiabetic pregnant rats were fed with the same diets and served as control. The differences of the daily protein intake among the diabetic groups were less pronounced than those expected on the basis of the diet composition, and the embryopathic effects (reduced fetal weight, increased in malformation and resorption rate) were not statistically different among the three groups of diabetic animals. The frequency of congenital malformations was higher than that observed in a previous experiment in diabetic rats maintained on a standard diet, but much lower than that observed in animals fed on a purified, fiber-poor, normoproteic diet. When the caloric intake of the diabetic rats in the different groups was determined it was found to be similar for all of them and also similar to the caloric intake of the rats given a standard nonteratogenic diet (in previous experiments), while the rats maintained on a normoproteic, teratogenic diet increased their caloric intake. These results seem to indicate that the diet composition greatly influences the intake of food and calories of pregnant diabetic rats and this may play a role in modulating the embryopathic effect of diabetes.

  6. Counseling the pregnant adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibiasi, V; Sturgis, S H

    1980-07-01

    Approaches employed in counseling pregnant adolescents at the Crittenton Clinic in Boston are described. Concentrating on concrete issues of management of the pregnancy -- supplying information and exploring the pros and cons of various alternatives are advocated; probing into the psychological and emotional background of the pregnant adolescent is discouraged. Counseling about contraceptives and taking into account each individual situation are considered essential. Case studies are reviewed and figures representing the attitudes and contraceptive use of patients 1 year after abortion are presented. It is considered important to establish a trusting relationship with the adolescent, which will increase the likelihood that she will return for follow-up and additional help if she needs it.

  7. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Griglio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  8. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  9. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  10. Preliminary study on plasma proteins in pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, Marek; Wawrzykowski, Jacek; Dąbrowski, Roman; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Kankofer, Marta

    2017-07-15

    In this study, we used a combined approach based on 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE), and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the plasma protein composition in pregnant female dogs and compared it with non-pregnant female dogs. We used the plasma samples obtained from four female dogs during I, II, and III thirds of pregnancy, three days after parturition, as well as from four non-pregnant female dogs in diestrus phase. Analysis of 2-DE gel image exhibited of 249 protein spots. The intensity of staining of 35 spots differed significantly (P dogs. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify 47 spots corresponding to 52 different proteins. Five identified protein spots, including zinc finger BED domain-containing protein 5, hemoglobin subunit beta-2, integrator complex subunit 7, apolipoprotein A-I, and glutamyl aminopeptidase were differentially presented in the plasma of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the plasma protein profile of pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs. In this study, we identified proteins that have not been previously identified in dogs. Our findings showed that numerous protein spots were differentially presented in the plasma of female dogs during normal pregnancy. Although we identified only a limited number of differentially presented proteins, our study demonstrated that the plasma protein profile changed during pregnancy in female dogs, which suggests its importance in maintaining pregnancy. Further studies are necessary to define complete plasma protein profile of pregnant female dogs and to identify all proteins that are differentially presented in the pregnant animals compared with the non-pregnant ones. In addition, studies are warranted to explain the role of those proteins in maintaining the pregnancy and their usefulness in detection of early pregnancy

  11. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  12. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  13. Biochemical Profiles of Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.

  14. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  15. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  16. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno, Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  17. Macroscopic morphometry of the corpus luteum of pregnant and non-pregnant zebu cows in the Colombian tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the volume, weight, measures, ovarian location and shape of the corpus luteum of pregnant and non - pregnant cows from zebu cows of the Colombian tropics. 528 reproductive tracts were collected; 264 pregnant and 264 non-pregnant of cows benefited at the local slaughterhouse in Monteria, Córdoba, Colombia. The period of collection of the samples was extended for three months. After collection of each reproductive tract, the ovaries were separated, identified as right and left, weighed and measured. Then the drawing of the location of the corpus luteum was performed on the ovary according to the anatomical planes previously established in the corresponding form. Subsequently the corpus luteum was removed to perform their measurements, weighings and visualization of their shape. There were statistical differences between the locations of the corpus luteum in the ovary: Anterior pole, posterior pole, free edge, upper face and lower face (p≤0.05. The weight and volume of gestational corpus luteum was greater by 30 and 27.9% than the corpus luteum of non-pregnant cows. The predominant form por shape of the corpus luteum in both pregnant and non-pregnant cows was oval, then pyramidal and finally rounded. No gestation was observed contralateral to the location of the corpus luteum.

  18. Vascular neuroeffector activity in the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.L.; Freas, W.; Muldoon, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The activity of the vascular neuroeffector junction was examined in pregnant (PG) and non-pregnant (NPG) rats to determine if changes could account for the reported alterations in sympathetic control of the maternal circulation. Caudal and mesenteric arteries were removed from NPG and 19-21PG rats and prepared for isometric tension recording in Krebs-filled, 37 0 C tissue baths. At optimal passive tension frequency-response measurements were obtained with and without cocaine (10- 5 M), followed by norepinephrine (NE) and tyramine conc-response measurements. The densely innervated caudal artery developed more tension in response to NE, tyramine and transmural electrical stimulation than did the moderately innervated mesenteric artery. There were no significant differences in responses between vessels from NPG and PG rats, NE content, 3 H-NE accumulation, and effects of plasma on 3 H-NE accumulation of NPG and PG caudal arteries were also compared. The NE content of the NPG artery (8.61 +/- .61) was not different from that of the PG artery (9.97 +/- .71 μg/g). Also, NE accumulation was similar, and plasma inhibited 3 H-NE accumulation to the same extent. These results indicate that vascular neuroeffector functions of NE release, receptor sensitivity and uptake are not modified in the rat during pregnancy. Changes in sympathetic control of the circulation previously reported, therefore, are likely to be dependent on alterations at sites other than the neuroeffector junction

  19. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  20. Expression and organization of basement membranes and focal adhesion proteins in pregnant myometrium is regulated by uterine stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Chow, Michelle; Lye, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the preparation of the uterus for labor are not fully understood. We have previously found a significant increase in the expression of messenger RNA (mRNAs) encoding extracellular basement membrane (BM) proteins of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in late pregnant rat myometrium. At term, the myometrium is stretched by growing fetuses and these mechanical signals are transmitted from extracellular matrix into SMCs through focal adhesions (FA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gravidity on the expression and spatiotemporal distribution of major BM proteins, laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV, as well as typical FA constituents, vinculin and paxillin, in the myometrium during gestation and parturition, using a unilaterally pregnant rat model. We found that the expression of laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV proteins increased significantly with gestational age (P proteins were not affected. Near term, BM proteins from gravid horn myometrium demonstrated increased extracellular immunostaining and major rearrangement from sporadic protein distribution to organized, continuous, and regular structures surrounding the plasma membrane of each myocyte. Examination of FA proteins revealed that paxillin was translocated from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery, while vinculin was sequestered specifically to FAs. At labor, BM and FA proteins, organized in similar bead-like structures, were localized on opposing sides of SMC plasma membrane into 2 different compartments. We suggest that these stretch-induced changes facilitate formation of stable cell-matrix adhesions and provide the molecular basis for optimal force transduction during labor contractions.

  1. Effects of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on rat myometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-gang; ZHOU Liang; TANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on the contractility of isolated uterine muscle strips from pregnant and non-pregnant female rats. Methods: Full-thick myometrial strips were prepared from 18- to 21-day pregnant (n=g) and non-pregnant rats (n=7). After contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the two drugs from 10-8 to 10-4 mol/L, amplitude and frequency of the uterine contraction was recorded. Results: Two local anesthetics caused a concentration dependent inhibition on contractility of myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In the myometrium from non-pregnant rats, -logIC50 of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were 4.85 and 4.25 respectively. In the myometrium from pregnant rats, similar concentrations of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were observed, -logIC50 were 2.7 and 2.9respectively. Levobupivacaine produced an increase in amplitude of contractions, while bupivacaine showed an increased trend in frequency. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that levobupivacaine and bupivacaine may inhibit myometrium contractility.The inhibitory effect of levobupivacaine or bupivacaine is not enhanced by gestation in rat. Levobupivacaine may have more positive influence than bupivacaine in pregnant myometrium.

  2. Expression of c-Fos in the rat retrosplenial cortex during instrumental re-learning of appetitive bar-pressing depends on the number of stages of previous training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnik, Olga E.; Bulava, Alexandra I.; Alexandrov, Yuri I.

    2013-01-01

    Learning is known to be accompanied by induction of c-Fos expression in cortical neurons. However, not all neurons are involved in this process. What the c-Fos expression pattern depends on is still unknown. In the present work we studied whether and to what degree previous animal experience about Task 1 (the first phase of an instrumental learning) influenced neuronal c-Fos expression in the retrosplenial cortex during acquisition of Task 2 (the second phase of an instrumental learning). Animals were progressively shaped across days to bar-press for food at the left side of the experimental chamber (Task 1). This appetitive bar-pressing behavior was shaped by nine stages (“9 stages” group), five stages (“5 stages” group) or one intermediate stage (“1 stage” group). After all animals acquired the first skill and practiced it for five days, the bar and feeder on the left, familiar side of the chamber were inactivated, and the animals were allowed to learn a similar instrumental task at the opposite side of the chamber using another pair of a bar and a feeder (Task 2). The highest number of c-Fos positive neurons was found in the retrosplenial cortex of “1 stage” animals as compared to the other groups. The number of c-Fos positive neurons in “5 stages” group animals was significantly lower than in “1 stage” animals and significantly higher than in “9 stages” animals. The number of c-Fos positive neurons in the cortex of “9 stages” animals was significantly higher than in home caged control animals. At the same time, there were no significant differences between groups in such behavioral variables as the number of entrees into the feeder or bar zones during Task 2 learning. Our results suggest that c-Fos expression in the retrosplenial cortex during Task 2 acquisition was influenced by the previous learning history. PMID:23847484

  3. Immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stek Alice

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions

  4. QT Interval in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  6. Medida da espessura do segmento uterino inferior em gestantes com cesárea prévia: análise da reprodutibilidade intra- e interobservador por ultra-sonografia bi- e tridimensional Lower uterine segment thickness measurement in pregnant women with previous caesarean section: intra- and interobserver reliability analysis using bi- and tridimensional ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Abreu Barra

    2008-03-01

    interferir na conduta do obstetra ou antecipar o parto, foi feito por medidas bidimensionais abdominais da espessura total.PURPOSE: to compare the intra and interobserver reproducibility of the total thickness measurement of the inferior uterine segment (IUS, through the abdominal route, and of the muscle layer measurement, through the vaginal route, using bi and tridimensional ultrasonography. METHODS: the IUS thickness measurement of 30 women, between the 36th and 39th weeks of gestation with previous caesarean section, done by two observers, was studied. Abdominal ultrasonography with the patient in both supine and lithotomy position was performed. In the sagittal section, the IUS was identified and four bidimensional images and two tridimensional blocks of the total thickness were collected through the abdominal route, and the same for the muscle layer, through the vaginal route. Tridimensional acquisitions were manipulated in the multiplanar mode. The time was measured with a chronometer. Reproducibility was evaluated by the computation of the absolute difference between measurements, the ratio of differences smaller than 1 mm, the intraclass coefficient (ICC, and the Bland and Altman's concordance limits. RESULTS: the average bidimensional measurement of IUS thickness was 7.4 mm through the abdominal and 2.7 mm through the vaginal route, and the tridimensional measurement was 6.9 mm through the abdominal and 5.1 mm through the vaginal route. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility of vaginal versus abdominal route: smaller absolute difference (0.2-0.4 mm versus 0.8-1.5 mm, greater ratio of differences (85.8-97.8% versus 48.7-72,8%, with p0.05[A1] and similar lower concordance limits (-38 to 3.4 versus -3.6 to 4 mm for tridimensional ultrasonography and ICC (0.6-0.9 versus 0.7-0.9. CONCLUSIONS: from the above, we came to the conclusion that the measurement of the IUS muscle layer, through the vaginal route using tridimensional ultrasonography is more reproducible

  7. Kinetics of inhaled krypton in the blood of pregnant ewes and their fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meznarich, H.K.; Sikov, M.R.; Ballou, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    There has been concern about exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses to radiokrypton (Kr-85) released to the general environment. This led to previous studies on the distribution and effects of inhaled Kr-85 in sheep and rats. The data on hematogenous concentrations obtained during and after continuous inhalation by pregnant ewes had neither been analyzed nor reported in detail, which led to the kinetic analyses reported in this communication. Indwelling catheters were placed in an artery and a vein of pregnant ewes, and into a fetal artery or vein at gestational ages between 93 and 123 days. Ewes were exposed for 1.5 to 2 hors via a face mask to an atmosphere of 50 nCi/ml (1850 Bq/ml) Kr-85 in air; mean respiration rates were about 20 breaths per min. Blood samples were collected from each catheter at intervals throughout the accumulation and steady-state periods, and during a 90-min period following discontinuation of exposure. Results from 7 ewes, in which complete sampling was obtained, showed that both maternal fetal blood concentrations of Kr rose rapidly and attained a steady state by approximately 1 hr after initiation of exposure. The steady state concentrations of Kr-85 were significantly higher in maternal venous blood than in maternal arterial or fetal blood. There were no significant concentration differences between fetal arterial and venous bloods. The rate of disappearance of Kr-85 (per min) from maternal and fetal blood after discontinuation of exposure, 0.17 ± 0.02 and 0.06 ± 0.01, respectively, were significantly different. Thus, krypton is freely accessible to the fetal blood and rapidly reaches and maintains an equilibrium state with maternal blood during continuous exposure, although it disappears from fetal blood less rapidly after cessation of exposure

  8. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaku, Tomoyuki, E-mail: takakut@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U-{sup 14}C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up {sup 14}C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K{sub m} (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments.

  9. Metabolism and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of flumioxazin in pregnant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Tomoyuki; Nagahori, Hirohisa; Sogame, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to predict the concentration of flumioxazin, in the blood and fetus of pregnant humans during a theoretical accidental intake (1000 mg/kg). The data on flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats (30 mg/kg po) was used to develop the PBPK model in pregnant rats using physiological parameters and chemical specific parameters. The rat PBPK model developed was extrapolated to a human model. Liver microsomes of female rats and a mixed gender of humans were used for the in vitro metabolism study. To determine the % of flumioxazin absorbed after administration at a dose of 1000 mg/kg assuming maximum accidental intake, the biliary excretion study of [phenyl-U- 14 C]flumioxazin was conducted in bile duct-cannulated female rats (Crl:CD (SD)) to collect and analyze the bile, urine, feces, gastrointestinal tract, and residual carcass. The % of flumioxazin absorbed at a dose of 1000 mg/kg in rats was low (12.3%) by summing up 14 C of the urine, bile, and residual carcass. The pregnant human model that was developed demonstrated that the maximum flumioxazin concentration in the blood and fetus of a pregnant human at a dose of 1000 mg/kg po was 0.86 μg/mL and 0.68 μg/mL, respectively, which is much lower than K m (202.4 μg/mL). Because the metabolism was not saturated and the absorption rate was low at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, the calculated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was thought to be relatively low, considering the flumioxazin concentration in pregnant rats at a dose of 30 mg/kg. For the safety assessment of flumioxazin, these results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of flumioxazin in pregnant humans was developed. • Simulated flumioxazin concentration in pregnant humans was relatively low. • The results would be useful for further in vitro toxicology experiments

  10. Medical radiation exposure of pregnant and potentially pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de

  11. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquis Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  12. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  13. The lesser spotted pregnant surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, L C

    2017-10-19

    With more women entering surgical training, it will become more commonplace to encounter pregnant surgeons. This paper discusses the evidence for work-related risk factors as well as outlining the rights of a pregnant doctor. There are, in fact, very few real risks to pregnancy encountered as a surgeon, with the main risks involving standing or sitting for long periods and fatigue, which can be managed with support from the department. It is important for women in surgery to know that it is possible to continue their training while pregnant so they do not feel pressured into changing to a less demanding specialty or even leaving medicine entirely. It is also important for other professionals to understand the risks and choices faced by pregnant surgeons so that they can better support them in the workplace.

  14. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...

  15. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  16. Anxiety and depression symptoms among sub-fertile women, women pregnant after infertility treatment, and naturally pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A

    2017-09-01

    Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. The effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide on pregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A; van Pampus, M G; Aarnoudse, J G; van der Schans, C P; Abbas, F; Faas, M M

    OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis, mostly associated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, has frequently been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We therefore investigated whether lipopolysaccharides of P. gingivalis (Pg-LPS) induced pregnancy complications in the rat. METHODS: Experiment 1: pregnant rats (day

  18. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  19. Ação da melatonina sobre a dinâmica sanguínea de ratas prenhes e sobre a histogênese do baço e do timo da prole The action of melatonin on the blood dynamics of pregnant rats and on the histogenesis of the spleen and thymus of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C. Araújo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a influência da melatonina sobre o hemograma de ratas prenhes e dos filhotes e sobre a histogênese e morfometria do baço e do timo dos filhotes. A melatonina foi administrada na dose 0,5mg/kg de peso corporal, dissolvida em 0,1mL de etanol e diluída em 0,3mL de solução salina. Para análise do hematócrito, contagem total de hemácias e contagem total e diferencial dos leucócitos, amostras de sangue foram coletadas no sétimo, 14ºe 21ºdias de prenhez e aos 10 dias de nascimento dos filhotes. Cortes histológicos do baço e do timo da prole foram utilizados para histoquímica e morfometria. A ausência da melatonina promoveu alterações no hemograma apenas no terço final da gestação, sem interferir no hemograma dos filhotes, e induziu modificações morfológicas e morfométricas no timo e no baço nos primeiros dias de vida dos filhotes. Concluiu-se que a melatonina materna é importante para a modulação do hemograma em ratas prenhes e para o desenvolvimento normal do baço e do timo dos filhotes.We investigated the influence of melatonin on the hemogram of pregnant rats and puppies, and on the histogenesis and morphology of the spleen and thymus of puppies. Melatonin was administered at a dose 0.5mg/kgbody weight, dissolved in 0.1mL of ethanol and diluted in 0.3mL of saline. For hematocrit analysis, total erythrocyte count and total and differential leukocyte count, blood samples were collected on the 7th, 14th and 21st days of pregnancy and the offspring at 10 days of birth. Histological sections of spleen and thymus of the offspring were used for histochemistry and morphometry. The absence of melatonin promoted changes in blood count only in the final third of gestation, without interfering with the hemogram of the puppies, and induced morphological and morphometric changes in the thymus and spleen in the first days of life of the puppies. It was concluded that maternal melatonin is important for the modulation of

  20. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  1. Comparison of renal venous blood flow between normal pregnant women and non-pregnant women by colour and duplex doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Butt, R.W.; Masoud, R; Umar, M.; Shakil, U.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women

  2. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  3. Ação da Betametasona em Ratas Prenhes: Impacto sobre os Níveis de Corticosterona e Glândulas Adrenais Maternas e Fetais Effect of Betamethasone on Pregnant Rats: Impact on Corticosterone Level and Maternal and Fetal Adrenal Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: a utilização repetitiva do corticóide antenatal objetivando acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal tem sido muito empregada no risco de parto prematuro, o que nos motivou a estudar a dosagem de corticosterona no termo e aspectos morfológicos das glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais de ratas albinas submetidas à ação da betametasona na segunda metade da prenhez, para verificar conseqüências dessa terapêutica. Métodos: utilizamos 30 ratas prenhes, distribuídas em 3 grupos numericamente iguais. As do Grupo I receberam betametasona nos dias 11, 12, 18 e 19 da prenhez. As do Grupo II receberam água destilada nesses dias (grupo controle, e as do Grupo III não receberam qualquer medicamento, constituindo grupo controle de estresse. Foram todas sacrificadas no 20º dia de prenhez, quando dosamos a corticosterona no sangue das matrizes e extirpamos as glândulas adrenais maternas e fetais para exame de microscopia óptica. Resultados: a dosagem de corticosterona plasmática foi significantemente menor no grupo tratado com betametasona (4,8 mg/dL, quando comparada aos grupos controles (17,7 e 26,8 mg/dL. À microscopia óptica observou-se intensa vacuolização citoplasmática na zona fasciculada das adrenais maternas e fetais no grupo que utilizou a betametasona, indicando intensa supressão adrenal secundária ao uso do medicamento. Conclusões: o uso repetitivo e prolongado de corticóides, em ratas prenhes, para acelerar a maturidade pulmonar fetal determina supressão adrenal materna e fetal.Purpose: the repetitive use of antenatal corticosteroid therapy for acceleration of fetal lung maturation has been common in cases at risk of preterm delivery. We studied the corticosterone levels at term and the morphologic aspects in the maternal and fetal adrenal glands submitted to the effect of betamethasone in the second half of rat pregnancy in order to verify its consequences. Methods: thirty female pregnant rats were divided into

  4. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  5. Activation of peripheral leukocytes in rat pregnancy and experimental preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Schuiling, GA; Linton, EA; Sargent, IL; Redman, CWG

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to search for activation markers of peripheral leukocytes in experimental preeclampsia in the rat. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental preeclampsia was induced in 14-day-pregnant rats by infusion of endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg body weight). For comparison, rats with normal

  6. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  7. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters (A, B, C), with each group having a control and a treated subgroup. The Control Groups (A1, B1, ... offspring of tobacco smokers. Keywords: Cortex, Histology, Prenatal nicotine, Adolescent rats, Neurological abnormalities ...

  8. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  9. Serum markers thrombophilia in pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.

  10. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  11. Angiogenesis inhibition causes hypertension and placental dysfunction in a rat model of preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Wentzel, Parri; Skøtt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    in the mesometrial triangle was smaller in the pregnant Suramin-treated rats group than in the pregnant control rats group. CONCLUSION: The inhibition of uterine angiogenesis increases maternal blood pressure and compromises fetal and placental development. Placental hypoxia and subsequent activation of the renin...

  12. Risk and the pregnant body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Harris, Lisa H; Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Reasoning well about risk is most challenging when a woman is pregnant, for patient and doctor alike. During pregnancy, we tend to note the risks of medical interventions without adequately noting those of failing to intervene, yet when it's time to give birth, interventions are seldom questioned, even when they don't work. Meanwhile, outside the clinic, advice given to pregnant women on how to stay healthy in everyday life can seem capricious and overly cautious. This kind of reasoning reflects fear, not evidence.

  13. Guidance for Thyroid Assays in Pregnant Animals, Fetuses and Postnatal Animals, and Adult Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study may be done in place of a rat DNT study for thyroid disrupting chemicals. This special study is intended to provide LOAEL or NOAEL to derive RfDs to be protective of thyroid development in pregnant women, fetuses or newborns.

  14. Placental and Fetal Disposition of Mercuric Ions in Rats Exposed to Methylmercury: Role of Mrp2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a prevalent environmental toxicant that can have deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Previous studies indicate that the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) is involved in renal and hepatic export of mercuric ions. Therefore, we hypothesize that Mrp2 is also involved in export of mercuric ions from placental trophoblasts and fetal tissues. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the disposition of mercuric ions in pregnant Wistar and TR– (Mrp2-deficient) rats exposed to a single dose of methylmercury. The amount of mercury in renal tissues (cortex and outer stripe of outer medulla), liver, blood, amniotic fluid, uterus, placentas and fetuses was significantly greater in TR– rats than in Wistar rats. Urinary and fecal elimination of mercury was greater in Wistar dams than in TR– dams. Thus, our findings suggest that Mrp2 may be involved in the export of mercuric ions from maternal and fetal organs following exposure to methylmercury. PMID:23059061

  15. Nutrition and the Pregnant Teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Vicki; McCamey, Jody

    This illustrated guide for pregnant teenagers discusses the nutritional needs of the mother and her unborn child in a month-by-month format. The information presented for each of the 9 months typically includes a sample daily menu; a checklist of recommended servings per day for each of four food groups; a description of the usual emotional and…

  16. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  17. The pregnant female surgical resident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifflette V

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vanessa Shifflette,1 Susannah Hambright,2 Joseph Darryl Amos,1 Ernest Dunn,3 Maria Allo4 1Associates in Surgical Acute Care, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Methodist Surgical Associates, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 3Graduate Medical Education - General Surgery, Methodist Dallas Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA, USA Background: Surgery continues to be an intense, time-consuming residency. Many medical students decide against surgery as a profession due to the long work hours and family strain. The pregnant female surgical resident has an added stress factor compared to her male counterpart. Methods: We distributed an electronic, online 26-question survey to 32 general surgery programs in the southwestern region of the United States. Each program distributed our survey to the female surgical residents who had been pregnant during residency in the last 5 years. Each program was re-contacted 6 weeks after the initial contact. Most questions were in a 5-point Likert scale format. The responses were collected and analyzed using the Survey Monkey website. Results: An unvalidated survey was sent to 32 general surgery programs and 26 programs responded (81%. Each program was asked for the total number of possible responses from female residents that met our criteria (60 female residents. Seven of the programs (27% stated that they have had zero residents pregnant. We had 22 residents respond (37%. Over half of the residents (55% were pregnant during their 2nd or 3rd year of residency, with only 18% pregnant during a research year. Thirty-one percent had a lower American Board of Surgery In-Training Exam (ABSITE score. Ninety percent of the residents were able to take 4 weeks or more for maternity leave. Most of the residents (95% stated that they would do this again during residency given the opportunity, but many of the residents felt that returning back to work

  18. Domestic Violence Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain

    2018-01-01

    Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.

  19. Effect of the oral administration of monosodium glutamate during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the offspring of pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da administração de glutamato monossódico durante a gestação e amamentação na prole de ratas Wistar prenhes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius von Diemen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Determine the effects of the MSG (monosodium glutamate in the offspring of pregnant rats through the comparison of the weight, NAL (nasal-anal length and IL (Index of Lee at birth and with 21 days of life. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring were divided into 3 groups: GC, G10 and G20. Each of the groups received 0%, 10% and 20% of MSG, respectively from coupling until the end of the weaning period. RESULTS: Neither weight nor NAL were different among the groups at birth. The group G20 at birth had an IL lower than the group GC (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do glutamato monossódico (GMS nos fetos de ratas prenhes por meio da comparação do peso, comprimento nasal-anal (CNA e índice de Lee (IL ao nascimento e com 21 dias de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas ratas prenhes da linhagem Wistar distribuídas em três grupos: grupo controle (GC, G10 e G20. Estes, respectivamente, foram alimentados com ração contendo 0, 10 e 20% de GMS desde o período de acasalamento até o final da amamentação. RESULTADOS: O peso e o CNA não foram diferentes entre os grupos ao nascimento. O grupo G20, ao nascimento, teve IL menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,05 e, aos 21 dias de vida, apresentou peso e CNA menores que o grupo G10, o qual foi menor que o GC (p < 0,01. O grupo G20, aos 21 dias de vida, teve IL semelhante aos outros dois grupos. O percentual de ganho de peso do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida foi menor no G20 em relação aos outros dois grupos (p < 0,01. O grupo G20 teve percentual de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida menor que o grupo G10, e este menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÕES: O GMS nas concentrações de 10 e 20% na ração de ratas prenhes Wistar apresentou uma relação dose-dependente nas variáveis peso e CNA. Houve diminuição no padrão de ganho de peso e de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida com uso de GMS. O IL na prole do grupo G20 aumentou em relação ao do grupo GC após 3

  20. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  1. Methodology for dynamic biaxial tension testing of pregnant uterine tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah; Mcnally, Craig; Calloway, Britt; Duma, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Placental abruption accounts for 50% to 70% of fetal losses in motor vehicle crashes. Since automobile crashes are the leading cause of traumatic fetal injury mortality in the United States, research of this injury mechanism is important. Before research can adequately evaluate current and future restraint designs, a detailed model of the pregnant uterine tissues is necessary. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for testing the pregnant uterus in biaxial tension at a rate normally seen in a motor vehicle crash. Since the majority of previous biaxial work has established methods for quasi-static testing, this paper combines previous research and new methods to develop a custom designed system to strain the tissue at a dynamic rate. Load cells and optical markers are used for calculating stress strain curves of the perpendicular loading axes. Results for this methodology show images of a tissue specimen loaded and a finite verification of the optical strain measurement. The biaxial test system dynamically pulls the tissue to failure with synchronous motion of four tissue grips that are rigidly coupled to the tissue specimen. The test device models in situ loading conditions of the pregnant uterus and overcomes previous limitations of biaxial testing. A non-contact method of measuring strains combined with data reduction to resolve the stresses in two directions provides the information necessary to develop a three dimensional constitutive model of the material. Moreover, future research can apply this method to other soft tissues with similar in situ loading conditions.

  2. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  3. [Effect of pregnancy and lactation on the nutritional status of essential fatty acids in rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, J; Barriga, C

    1996-08-01

    Pregnancy and lactation could be high risk situations for the development of essential fatty acid deficiencies. To study the effect of pregnancy and lactation on red blood cell phospholipids percentual fatty acid composition of virgin, pregnant and lactating rats. Twenty four pregnant rats of 50 +/- 1 days of age were supplement with soy and 24 with fish oil during 21 days. Twelve rats of each group were sacrificed after 18 days of lactation, twenty four non pregnant rats received soy oil and acted as controls of pregnant and lactating rats. Red blood cell phospholipid fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. The percentage of total omega-6 fatty acids of red blood cell phospholipid was 37.8 +/- 5.9, 32.6 +/- 0.6 and 38.3 +/- 3.5% in non pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats respectively (p oil reverted the decrease in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid percentage of pregnant and lactating rats. Pregnancy and lactation decrease the capacity to transform precursors of essential fatty acids in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...

  5. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in pregnant Turkish women compared with non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.

  6. Regulation of N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase in rat liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J Y; Pan, J M; Dong, Z G; Ning, S M; Yang, C S

    1987-11-15

    In previous work, the low Km form of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) demethylase has been demonstrated to be due to a specific form of cytochrome P-450 (designated as P-450ac) and to be the enzyme required for the metabolic activation of NDMA. The present work deals with the regulation of P-450ac in rat liver during development as well as the mechanism of induction of P-450ac in rat liver and kidney by inducers. NDMA demethylase activity was almost undetectable in the liver of newborn rats, increased after day 4, and remained elevated throughout the first 17 days of the neonatal period. The enhancement of NDMA demethylase activity during development was accompanied by corresponding increases of P-450ac content and P-450ac mRNA levels as determined by Western and slot blot analyses, respectively. No sex differences with respect to this enzyme were observed in the developing rats. Acetone treatment on late-term pregnant rats for 2 days resulted in transplacental inductions of P-450ac and P-450ac mRNA in the newborn rats. Pretreatment of young male rats and adult female rats with acetone or isopropyl alcohol caused increases of NDMA demethylase activity and P-450ac content in the liver but no significant change in the P-450ac mRNA level. These facts suggest the possible existence of a posttranscription regulatory mechanism under these induction conditions. The presence of P-450ac in rat kidney was demonstrated by Western and Northern blot analyses. The renal form of P-450ac seemed to be regulated in a fashion similar to the hepatic P-450ac regarding its response to inducing factors such as fasting and acetone treatment.

  7. [Pregnant diabetic patients: institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Héctor Israel; Carrillo Iñiguez, Mayra Judith; Pestaña Mendoza, Silvia; Santamaría Ferreira, Mauricio

    2006-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus complicates 3-5% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The diet and insulin have revolutionized the care related with pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus. To report the management experience in patients with diabetes and pregnancy at the Instituto Materno Infantil, Estado de Mexico. A descriptive, retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study of pregnant women with diabetes and pregnancy was conducted from 2003 to 2004. We included 55 pregnant women who had: gestational diabetes 30 (54.4%), pregestational diabetes 24 (43.6%), and carbohydrate intolerance 1 (1.8%); every one of them were controlled either with diet, insulin or both. The mean age was 30.6, 80% with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 9% gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 33.3% by abnormal 50 g glucose screening and 46.6% with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The main complications among the patients were urinary disease (61.3%) and the major fetal malformation were those related with cardiovascular disease (9.09%). The most frequent mode of delivery was cesarean section (58%) and birth weight was of 3,146 g. The main risk factors identified among women in the study group were as follow: More than 25 years of age and family history of diabetes mellitus. We observed a progressive increase in the insulin dosage. The most consistent complications among the patients were urinary infection and the major fetal malformation was cardiovascular disease.

  8. Urinary incontinence in pregnant women and their quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaöz, Semra; Talas, Melek S; Atabekoğlu, Cem S

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the related risk factors as well as to assess its influence on the quality of life. Although urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and can have a substantial impact on quality of life, women rarely seek help for this symptom. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. A total of 393 pregnant women participated in the study between March and June 2007. The data was collected using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Wagner's quality of life scale. Potential risk factors were investigated through logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27% (106/393). Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, urinary incontinence in mother and sister, previous urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. According to the results of our study, urinary incontinence is common in women during pregnancy. The quality of life of pregnant women was found to be either unaffected or affected very little by urinary incontinence. This study reveals that the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy is very high. The findings will help increase the awareness of health care workers involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence and aid the design of more intensive education programmes directed towards the prevention of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. EFFECT OF INSULIN ON ENDOCRINE PANCREAS FUNCTION DURING LATE PREGNANCY IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; SCHUILING, GA; KOITER, TR

    To partly or completely satisfy the increasing demand for insulin, pregnant rats were infused SC with human insulin (2.4 or 4.8 IU/day) from day 14 to day 20 of gestation. Cyclic control rats underwent the same procedure of 6 days of insulin-treatment. During the treatment all,stoups of rats were

  10. A Discourse Analysis of Denmark´s Public Health Policy Concerning Overweight among Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg

    2017-01-01

    . Health care professionals’ approach to governing overweight pregnant women is affected by this breach in the discursive field. Thus, overweight pregnant women have become an issue for medical experts, who are encouraged to use stricter rhetoric when addressing them. This shift also renders pregnant women......A recent Danish public health report classified being overweight during pregnancy as a chronic disease, marking a discursive shift from its previous classification as a risk factor for complications in maternal and foetal health. This discursive shift is considered a breach in the discursive field...... subject to interventions by medical experts. The aim of this article is to critically analyse recommendations for how health professionals should govern these highrisk individuals and to discuss the implications of such governance for overweight pregnant women. In this study, overweight is classified...

  11. [An innovative policy for supporting pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stéphanie

    2015-04-01

    Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  13. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...

  14. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  15. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  16. Transplacental absorption of 238Pu in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats and guinea pigs were injected intravenously with 238 Pu citrate to determine if the potential for in utero accumulation of 238 Pu by these two species is related to the stage of development at which immunity is gained. Although guinea pigs retained more 238 Pu after birth than rats, the difference was not significant

  17. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Euan; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Kempson, Ivan M.; Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. ► We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. ► Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. ► Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 ± 15 mg Pb kg −1 ) was significantly higher (P −1 ). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  18. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  19. Teratogenic assessment of 'Winniecure' in pregnant Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  1. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Silva Vinhas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected by the HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breast-feeding crossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impediment from the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to the affectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, they were interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a Public Hospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy was not planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectations regarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood out that the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnant react to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnant soroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize the specific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV. KEY WORDS: Risk Prenatal; Nursing; HIV.

  2. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  3. FOETAL ULTRASOUND - NEUROECTODERMAL ANOMALIES IN RURAL PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Venkata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies

  4. Brucellosis in pregnant women from Pakistan: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban

    2016-09-02

    Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.

  5. An anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model and specific absorption rates for pregnant-woman exposure to electromagnetic plane waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Togashi, Toshihiro; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Watanabe, Soichi

    2007-01-01

    The numerical dosimetry of pregnant women is an important issue in electromagnetic-field safety. However, an anatomically realistic whole-body pregnant-woman model for electromagnetic dosimetry has not been developed. Therefore, we have developed a high-resolution whole-body model of pregnant women. A new fetus model including inherent tissues of pregnant women was constructed on the basis of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging data of a 26-week-pregnant woman. The whole-body pregnant-woman model was developed by combining the fetus model and a nonpregnant-woman model that was developed previously. The developed model consists of about 7 million cubical voxels of 2 mm size and is segmented into 56 tissues and organs. This pregnant-woman model is the first completely anatomically realistic voxel model that includes a realistic fetus model and enables a numerical simulation of electromagnetic dosimetry up to the gigahertz band. In this paper, we also present the basic specific absorption rate characteristics of the pregnant-woman model exposed to vertically and horizontally polarized electromagnetic waves from 10 MHz to 2 GHz

  6. Impact of Vaccination History on Serological Testing in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie

    2018-04-01

    Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Repercussões cardíacas após infarto do miocárdio em ratas submetidas previamente a exercício físico Cardiac implications after myocardial infarction in rats previously undergoing physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carvalho de Arruda Veiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Poucos estudos analisaram os efeitos cardíacos do exercício físico prévio à oclusão coronariana. OBJETIVO: Avaliar, em ratas submetidas a exercício físico, as repercussões do infarto do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Ratas foram submetidas à natação ou permaneceram sedentárias por oito semanas e foram randomizadas para oclusão coronariana ou cirurgia simulada, compondo quatro grupos: Sedentário (S, Exercício (E, Sedentário infarto (SIM e Exercício infarto (EIM. Após seis semanas, foram analisados biometria, ecodopplercardiograma, hemodinâmica e mecânica miocárdica. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados cardioproteção nos animais EIM e diferença no tamanho do infarto (%VE entre EIM (38,50 ± 4,60% e SIM (36,58 ± 4,11%. Os teores de água pulmonar (% de SIM (80 ± 0,59 e EIM (80 ± 0,57 foram maiores do que em S (78 ± 0,15 e E (78 ± 0,57. A pressão sistólica (mmHg do ventrículo esquerdo (S: 130 ± 5; E: 118 ± 8; SIM: 91 ± 3; EIM: 98 ± 3 e a primeira derivada temporal (mmHg/s positiva da pressão (S: 8.216 ± 385; E: 8.437 ± 572; SIM: 4.674 ± 455; EIM: 5.080 ± 412 de S e E foram maiores do que em SIM e EIM. As frações de encurtamento da área transversa (% de SIM (27 ± 2 e EIM (25 ± 2 foram similares e menores do que E (65 ± 2 e S (69 ± 2. A relação E/A foi maior em SIM (5,14 ± 0,61 e EIM (4,73 ± 0,57 em relação a S (2,96 ± 0,24 e E (2,83 ± 0,21. Em estudos de músculos papilares isolados foi verificada depressão da capacidade contrátil semelhante em SIM e EIM, e não houve alteração da rigidez miocárdica. CONCLUSÃO: O treinamento prévio por natação não atenuou as repercussões cardíacas em virtude do infarto do miocárdio.BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed the cardiac effects of exercise prior to coronary occlusion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of myocardial infarction in rats undergoing physical exercise. METHODS: Female rats underwent swimming exercise or were kept sedentary

  8. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  9. Research with Pregnant Women: New Insights on Legal Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Anna C; Henry, Leslie Meltzer; Robinson, David; Bailey, Theodore; Faden, Ruth R; Little, Margaret O; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2017-05-01

    U.S. researchers and scholars often point to two legal factors as significant obstacles to the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research: the Department of Health and Human Services' regulatory limitations specific to pregnant women's research participation and the fear of liability for potential harm to children born following a pregnant woman's research participation. This article offers a more nuanced view of the potential legal complexities that can impede research with pregnant women than has previously been reflected in the literature. It reveals new insights into the role of legal professionals throughout the research pathway, from product conception to market, and it highlights a variety of legal factors influencing decision-making that may slow or halt research involving pregnant women. Our conclusion is that closing the evidence gap created by the underrepresentation and exclusion of pregnant women in research will require targeted attention to the role of legal professionals and the legal factors that influence their decisions. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  10. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological and neurohistological changes in adolescent rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Pregnancy was confirmed and the pregnant rats were divided into 3 groups based on the 3 trimesters ... form of attention deficit hyperactive disorder characterised by ..... Yoshinaga K., Rice C., Krenn J., Pilot R.L. (1979). Effects of nicotine on ...

  12. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  13. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  14. 'I'm a bad mum': pregnant presenteeism and poor health at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatrell, Caroline Jane

    2011-02-01

    This paper contributes to research on women's health by challenging the 'common belief' that pregnant employees are prone to take sick leave. Conversely, it shows how some pregnant employees are so determined to appear 'well' that they remain at work when they are ill. The paper coins the phrase 'pregnant presenteeism' to describe pregnant employees who resist taking sick leave. The paper first acknowledges previous studies which show how employers associate pregnancy with incompetence and sickness absence. It then examines why (in contrast to employers' assumptions), some pregnant employees remain at work when they are ill. It does this through a qualitative study of 15 employed mothers in the UK, each of whom was working in a managerial/professional role at the time of her interview. Of these 15 women, three remained at work during pregnancy despite serious health problems. In order to understand the experiences of these 'pregnant presentees', the paper draws upon Annandale and Clark's (1996) concept of a 'binary opposition' which articulates the tendency within medicine to polarize women's and men's health as if at opposite ends of a scale, with women's health classified as 'poor' and men's health as 'good'. The paper argues that the conceptual principles of 'binary opposition' spill over into workplace contexts especially in relation to pregnancy. It then proposes that some employed pregnant women deny their own ill health due to fear of being identified with the female, 'poor health' end of the binary opposition scale. It articulates such denial as a potentially serious health issue for pregnant workers. The paper develops new and more explicit links between 'socio-cultural' feminist studies on the employed maternal body, and health research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pregnant Adolescents, Beliefs About Healthy Eating, Factors that Influence Food Choices, and Nutrition Education Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential

  16. Antagonistic effects of cadmium on lead accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Euan, E-mail: euan.smith@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan [Veterinary Services Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Gilles Plains, SA 5086 (Australia); Kempson, Ivan M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Weber, John; Juhasz, Albert L. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the exposure of pregnant and non-pregnant mice to cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) contaminated soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the changes in lead accumulation in mice due to the presence of cadmium in soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lead accumulation is higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium decreases lead accumulation in all mice irrespective of status. - Abstract: People are frequently exposed to combinations of contaminants but there is a paucity of data on the effects of mixed contaminants at low doses. This study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd) on lead (Pb) accumulation in pregnant and non-pregnant mice following exposure to contaminated soil. Exposure to Pb from contaminated soils increased Pb accumulation in both pregnant and non-pregnant mice compared to unexposed control animals (pregnant and non-pregnant). Lead accumulation in the liver and kidneys of exposure pregnant mice (40 {+-} 15 mg Pb kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than concentrations detected in control pregnant mice (<1 mg Pb kg{sup -1}). The presence of Cd in contaminated soil had a major effect on the Pb and Fe accumulation in the kidneys and liver, respectively. This study shows that Pb uptake is mediated by the presence of Cd in the co-contaminated soil and demonstrates that further research is required to investigate the influence of co-contaminants on human exposure at sub-chronic concentrations.

  17. Intermediate filaments in smooth muscle from pregnant and non-pregnant human uterus.

    OpenAIRE

    Leoni, P; Carli, F; Halliday, D

    1990-01-01

    The intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin from pregnant and non-pregnant uterine muscle and smooth-muscle cells in culture were analysed using SDS/PAGE. The desmin content in uterine muscle increases dramatically during pregnancy, whereas vimentin remains unchanged or changes very little. When muscle cells are kept in culture, a considerable increase in vimentin content is observed as compared with vimentin in freshly isolated non-pregnant uterine tissue. Our results strengthen t...

  18. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Apr 27, 2018 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  19. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...

  20. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for energy. People with untreated diabetes have high blood glucose levels. Most often, the first tests used to diagnose ... in people who are not pregnant are: Fasting blood glucose level: diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than ...

  1. Guided Imagery and Stress in Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Theresa A; Jones, Brittney A; Ausderau, Karla K

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of a guided imagery intervention on perceived stress in pregnant adolescents. Thirty-five pregnant adolescents recruited from a local alternative education program participated in a guided imagery intervention. Participants listened to a pregnancy-specific guided imagery recording on four separate occasions during their pregnancies. Perceived stress was measured immediately before and after each session using the Perceived Stress Measure-9 (PSM-9). Participants' pre- and postsession PSM-9 scores for three of the four sessions demonstrated a significant reduction in stress. Participants' baseline stress levels also decreased significantly across the four listening sessions. The greatest reductions in stress within and between sessions occurred in the early sessions, with effects diminishing over time. Pregnant teens experienced initial short- and long-term stress reduction during a guided imagery intervention, supporting the use of guided imagery to reduce stress in pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Prioritizing Pregnant Women’s Preferences to Receive Health Information Before and During Pregnancy in Semnan in 2014 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahouei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Given that family health is tied to women health, illness, or death of a woman has an adverse effect on the health of her child, family, and community; awareness of women’s preferences in receiving health information can help to improve and modify the methods of informing and providing appropriate services to them, and also makes pregnant women training more efficient and more effective. Objectives The aim of this study is to prioritize the preferences of women before and during pregnancy on receiving health information. Patients and Methods This descriptive study was performed on pregnant women who had referred to health care centers affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2014. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was developed. Results The results showed that 17.5% (n = 35 of the participants reported their information needs about physical health to become pregnant, 36% (n = 72 psychological readiness for pregnancy and 57.5% (n = 115 domestic violence and its impact on the health of the mother and fetus. Number of previous delivery had a negative and significant relationship with the pregnant women’s preferences (B = - 1.31, P < 0.001. Conclusions It is concluded that the most of pregnant women are oblivious to their health for getting pregnant and some of them experience symptoms of mental disorders in reproductive age. The findings show that domestic violence is a hidden and persistent epidemic among the pregnant women. Women, who had more previous delivery, needed this information less.

  3. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  4. Cytokine production of in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphocytes during the course of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Eenling, R; van der Schaaf, G; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; Vos, P

    Problem Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? Method of study Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood samples

  5. Metabolic profile and genotoxicity in obese rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Bueno, Aline; Dallaqua, Bruna; Lima, Paula H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Campos, Kleber E

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke has negative effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress status. Cigarette smoke exposure in nonpregnant and pregnant rats causes significant genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, no previous studies have directly evaluated the effects of obesity or the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on genotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate DNA damage levels, oxidative stress status and lipid profiles in obese Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Female rats subcutaneously (s.c.) received a monosodium glutamate solution or vehicle (control) during the neonatal period to induce obesity. The rats were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: control, obese exposed to filtered air, and obese exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke. After a 2-month exposure period, the rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples for genotoxicity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress status analyses. The obese rats exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke presented higher DNA damage, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, VLDL-c, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels compared to control and obese rats exposed to filtered air. Both obese groups showed reduced SOD activity. These results showed that cigarette smoke enhanced the effects of obesity. In conclusion, the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure exacerbated the genotoxicity, negatively impacted the biochemical profile and antioxidant defenses and caused early glucose intolerance. Thus, the changes caused by cigarette smoke exposure can trigger the earlier onset of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  7. Impaired glucose metabolism in HIV-infected pregnant women: a retrospective analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Rebecca

    2015-05-20

    Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.

  8. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  9. Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Lei, Fang; Hu, Yajie; Nie, Lihong; Jia, Qingyi; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Fusheng; Zheng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H 2 S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H 2 S) and NaHS groups. All the tests were performed with corresponding neonatal rats. Nissl staining revealed that NaHS treatment ameliorated neuronal chromatolysis in the hypoglossal nucleus and nucleus ambiguus resulted from prenatal CSE. Moreover, NaHS eliminated decrease of glutathione level, increase of malondialdehyde content and inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity within neonatal rat medulla oblongata caused by prenatal CSE. NaHS also relieved the up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 in the medulla oblongata of the neonatal CSE rats. These results suggest that H 2 S can alleviate prenatal CSE-induced injuries of neonatal rat medulla oblongata through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  11. Dentist's opinion toward treatment of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSadhan, Raed; AlManee, Abdullatif

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of dentists in Riyadh city about treatment alternatives available for pregnant patients. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 500 dentists practicing in Riyadh city. The questionnaire included data on dentists socio-demographic and practice characteristics in addition to management choices of the pregnant dental patient such as dental treatment practices and selected therapeutic choices. Out of the questionnaires distributed, 212 questionnaires were collected (42.5% response rate). Most of the participants were general practitioners, with less than 5 years clinical experience, who obtained their degree from local institutes and practiced in the government sectors. Over half of the participants stated that they would radiograph a pregnant patient who was suffering from pain from a tooth with doubtful diagnosis or would extract a non-restorable painful tooth. Two-thirds of the participating dentists would not replace a missing molar with a fixed partial denture during pregnancy. The majority of the participants (86%) would give oral hygiene instructions, prescribe a mouthwash and do scaling and/or root planing for a pregnant patient with gingival bleeding and calculus deposits. In respect to antibiotics, the majority of the dentists (96%) would prescribe amoxicillin to a pregnant patient. Of the four analgesic agents surveyed, paracetamol was the most popular analgesic agent (96.7%). On the use of local anesthetics, the majority of the dentists (75%) would use lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and would not use prilocaine with felypressin vasoconstrictor. The study showed that there was a lack of knowledge about the clinical management of the pregnant dental patients among the surveyed dentists regardless of their socio-demographic and practice characteristics necessitating continuous dental education programs on the dental management of pregnant dental patients. (author)

  12. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  13. A comparison of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnant and non pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.

  14. Association of testicular undescent induced by prenatal flutamide treatment with thickening of the cremaster muscle in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Tobe, Toyofusa; Toyota, Naoji; Adachi, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    Background and Aims:  Previously, in cryptorchid rats, which were induced by prenatal exposure to flutamide, we found a thickening of the cremaster muscle. This study was undertaken to quantify the increase of the cremaster muscle thickness in the cryptorchid rats, and to examine its possible relationship with the proliferation of muscle cells. Methods:  To obtain cryptorchid rats, pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with flutamide (100 mg/kg per day) during gestational days 16–17. Serial sections of the scrotum, containing the testis and cremaster muscle, were prepared from the control and cryptorchid rats that were 2–6 weeks of age, and stained with hematoxylin–eosin for morphometry, or stained with antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to analyze the cell proliferation ability. Results:  The thickened cremaster muscle was always associated with cryptorchid testis and, in the case of unilateral cryptorchidism, the cremaster muscle of the contralateral (descended testis) side exhibited normal thickness. The average thickness of the affected cremaster muscle was 0.80 and 1.89 mm at 4 and 6 weeks of age, respectively, although that of the normal muscle was 0.28 and 0.33 mm at the same time period, respectively. Conclusion:  Our results showed that the cremaster muscle of the cryptorchid rats was significantly thicker than that of the control rats. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that a thickened cremaster muscle contained many PCNA‐positive nuclei even at 4 weeks of age, in contrast to the control, which had only a few positive nuclei. Our present study indicates that continuous proliferation of the muscle cells associated with cryptorchid testis increases the thickness of cremaster cells in rats exposed to flutamide prenatally. (Reprod Med Biol 2003; 2: 109–113) PMID:29699173

  15. Effects of prenatal caffeine exposure on glucose homeostasis of adult offspring rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Hao; Wang, Gui-hua; Pei, Lin-guo; Zhang, Li; Shi, Chai; Guo, Yu; Wu, Dong-fang; Wang, Hui

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological evidences show that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). The IUGR offspring also present glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus after maturity. We have previously demonstrated that PCE induced IUGR and increased susceptibility to adult metabolic syndrome in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the effects of PCE on glucose homeostasis in adult offspring rats. Pregnant rats were administered caffeine (120 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) from gestational days 11 to 20. PCE offspring presented partial catch-up growth pattern after birth, characterizing by the increased body weight gain rates. Meanwhile, PCE had no significant influences on the basal blood glucose and insulin phenotypes of adult offspring but increased the glucose tolerance, glucose-stimulated insulin section and β cell sensitivity to glucose in female progeny. The insulin sensitivity of both male and female PCE offspring were enhanced accompanied with reduced β cell fraction and mass. Western blotting results revealed that significant augmentation in protein expression of hepatic insulin signaling elements of PCE females, including insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and the phosphorylation of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt), was also potentiated. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PCE reduced the pancreatic β mass but increased the glucose tolerance in adult offspring rats, especially for females. The adaptive compensatory enhancement of β cell responsiveness to glucose and elevated insulin sensitivity mainly mediated by upregulated hepatic insulin signaling might coordinately contribute to the increased glucose tolerance.

  16. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  17. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chin Huang

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy.We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP, of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4, free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG.Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%, MnBP (81% and MECPP (86%. Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = -5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97 in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction.We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations.

  18. [Status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women during 2010-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y; Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y; Lai, J Q

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To examine the status and related factors for gestational weight gain of Chinese pregnant women at different trimesters in 2010-2012. Methods: Participants were from Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. Using a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, we recruited 2 805 singleton pregnant women with gestational age 13 weeks or more from 31 provinces of China. A standard questionnaire was used to collect general information and pre-pregnancy weight; body weight and height of pregnant women were measured using a unified weighing scale and stadiometer, dietary intake during the previous year was collected using a food frequency questionnaire. A multiple logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with appropriate gestational weight gain. Results: Among 2 805 pregnant women, 1 441 were in the second (13-27 weeks) and 1 364 in the third trimesters (≥28 weeks) . In the 2(nd) trimester, 229 cases (15.9%), 440 cases (30.5%) and 772 cases (53.6%) were insufficient gestational weight gain, appropriate gestational weight gain and excessive gestational weight gain respectively. So were 256 cases (18.8%), 474 cases (34.8%), 634 cases (46.5%) in the 3(rd) trimester respectively. In the multivariate unconditional logistic model, less fruit intake was associated with insufficient weight gain for women in the 2(nd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 1.58 (1.06-2.34)). Pregnant women with Han ethnicity who live in the small/medium city had lower risk of insufficient weight gain in the 3(rd) trimester ( OR (95% CI ): 0.58 (0.34-0.98)). Those pregnant women with physical activity gain ( OR (95% CI ): 1.33 (1.02-1.73)). Conclusion: The prevalence of appropriate gestational weight gain was low in China. Our study suggests that pregnant weight gain is associated with fruit intake, types of residential area and physical activity.

  19. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  20. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  1. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  2. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  3. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  4. Parity implications for anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, L; Cuervo, M; Santiago, S; Zazpe, I; Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining an adequate health status and appropriate lifestyles during pregnancy is of great importance to prevent adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, socio-demographic features, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits of pregnant women in Spain, and to identify the influence of parity on these profiles. This cross-sectional study included pregnant women from regions all over Spain. The information was collected through a 40 item questionnaire, previously validated by community health professionals. The 5,087 pregnant women analyzed had an average age of 31.9 years with an adequate nutritional status. The distribution of the sample was 56% nulliparous and 44% multiparous. The nulliparous reported a better self-perceived health status and nutritional balance, and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the multiparous showed healthier lifestyle habits (lower rates of smoking and alcohol consumption) and more physically active patterns. Regarding diet, nulliparous pregnant women consumed more dairy products, fresh fruit and nuts, and less bread, rice/pasta/potatoes, meat, sausage and buns/pastries than multiparous pregnant women. Differences between analyzed patterns were observed in anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits, which may require different nutritional messages to nulliparous as compared to multiparous from a public health point of view.

  5. Prognosis of Pregnant Women with One Abnormal Value on 75g OGTT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuma, Yutaka; Inoue, Shigeru; Horinouchi, Takashi; Shinagawa, Takaaki; Nakayama, Hitomi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Hori, Daizo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Yamada, Kentaro; Ushijima, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors to allow us to detect patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy, among Japanese pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT). A total of 118 pregnant women with OAV on a previous 75-g OGTT between 1997 and 2010 were studied. We identified the factors which can predict patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy among Japanese pregnant women with OAV, by comparing severe abnormal glucose tolerance (insulin treatment; n=17) with mild glucose tolerance patients (diet only; n=101). The following factors were examined; plasma level of glucose (PG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) at fasting, 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after loading glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index-composite (ISI composite), and HbA1c at the time of the 75-g OGTT. Univariate analysis showed a positive correlation between insulin therapy and 2-h PG value, 0.5-h and 1-h IRI values, AUC-IRI and insulinogenic index (pinsulin therapy. A 2-h PG ≥153 mg / dl and an insulinogenic index of insulin therapy among pregnant women with OAV. These results suggest that a level of 2-h PG ≥153 mg/dl and an insulinogenic index of insulin therapy in Japanese pregnant women with OAV.

  6. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women with controlled folate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnette, R E; Caudill, M A; Boddie, A M; Hutson, A D; Kauwell, G P; Bailey, L B

    1998-08-01

    To assess the effects of folate intake and pregnancy on plasma total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in women during the second trimester of pregnancy compared with young, healthy nonpregnant women. The diet provided either 450 or 850 microg of folate per day. These levels are approximately the current (400 microg/day) and previous (800 microg/day) Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate in pregnant women. Folate was provided as both food folate (120 microg/day) and supplemental folic acid (either 330 or 730 microg/day) for a period of 12 weeks. Plasma homocyst(e)ine (sum of free and protein-bound homocysteine), serum folate, and erythrocyte folate concentrations were determined weekly. Homocyst(e)ine concentrations were lower in pregnant women during the second trimester of normal pregnancy than in nonpregnant controls, independent of dietary folate intake. The overall mean (+/- standard deviation) homocyst(e)ine concentration of the pregnant subjects (5.4 +/- 1.4 micromol/L) was significantly lower than that observed in the nonpregnant control group (8.7 +/- 1.7 micromol/L) (P ine concentrations remained constant throughout the 12 weeks of the investigation. The folate intakes in this investigation were adequate to maintain constant homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. The lower homocyst(e)ine concentrations observed in pregnant subjects compared with nonpregnant controls may be a physiologic response to pregnancy.

  7. Developmental and testicular toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate in the rat and the impact of study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Dormans JAMA; Elvers LH; Valk V de; Biesebeek JD te; Pieters MN; Slob W; LEO

    1999-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate was investigated in the rat in an alternative study design using ten treatment groups. The effect of exposure period was studied, and a comparison of reaction to treatment in pregnant versus non-pregnant females was made. The classical data

  8. Histopathological alterations in neonate after in utero irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Gawad, I.I.

    2000-01-01

    Series of experiments were performed to study the histopathological changes induced in embryonic tissue during various stages of gestation in female rats after gamma irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to doses 0.5, 1,2 and 3 Gy on 9 th 12 th and 15 th days of gestation. Histopathological changes were detected in tissues of neonates, namely, liver ileum, kidney, brain, spleen, suprarenal, thymus, lungs and heart. These tissues showed variable degrees of radiation induced tissue changes. For quantifying these changes arbitrary scores were formulated to assess the type and severity of changes observed tissues of thirty six neonates randomly selected after radiation exposure of pregnant animals as scheduled

  9. Nubia's mother: being pregnant in the time of experimental vaccines and therapeutics for Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, Séverine

    2017-12-14

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treated Ebola-positive pregnant women in its Ebola Treatment Centers (ETCs). For pregnant women with confirmed Ebola virus disease, inclusion in clinical vaccine/drug/therapeutic trials was complicated. Despite their extremely high Ebola-related mortality in previous epidemics (89-93%) and a neonatal mortality of 100%, theoretical concerns about safety of vaccines and therapeutics in pregnancy were invoked, limiting pregnant women's access to an experimental live attenuated vaccine and brincidofovir, an experimental antiviral. Favipiravir, another experimental antiviral, was made available to pregnant women only after extensive negotiations and under a 'Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered and Experimental Interventions' (MEURI) protocol. This paper describes the case of a pregnant woman who presented to the ETCs near the end of the Ebola epidemic in Guinea. The pregnant patient was admitted with confirmed Ebola disease. She was previously denied access to potentially protective vaccination due to pregnancy, and access to experimental ZMapp was only possible through a randomized clinical trial (presenting a 50% chance of not receiving ZMapp). She received favipiravir, but died of Ebola-related complications. The infant, born in the ETC, tested positive for Ebola at birth. The infant received ZMapp (under MEURI access outside of the clinical trial), an experimental drug GS5734, and a buffy coat of an Ebola survivor, and survived. Though the infant did have access to experimental therapeutics within 24 h of birth, access to other experimental compounds for her mother was denied, raising serious ethical concerns.

  10. Teratology studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Mariline; Allais, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the rodent species of choice for the regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics, such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. Many decades of experience and extensive data have accumulated for both general and developmental toxicology investigations in this species. The high fertility and large litter size of the rat are advantages for teratogenicity testing. The study designs are well defined in the regulatory guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world. Teratology studies address maternal- and embryo-toxicity following exposure during the period of organogenesis. This chapter describes the design and conduct of a teratology study in the rat in compliance with the regulatory guidelines. The procedures for the handling and housing of the pregnant animals, the caesarean examinations and the sampling of fetuses for morphological examinations are described. The utility and design of preliminary studies and the inclusion of satellite animals in the main study for toxicokinetic sampling are discussed.

  11. [Frequency of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) for pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2015-05-01

    To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.

  12. Assessment of lipid and protein peroxidation markers in non-pregnant and pregnant female dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczubiał, M; Kankofer, M; Dąbrowski, R; Bochniarz, M; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress during normal pregnancy in female dogs based on an evaluation of plasma markers for lipid and protein peroxidation. Twenty clinically healthy female dogs (10 non-pregnant and 10 pregnant) were used in the study. Blood samples from the pregnant animals were collected at 19-21, 38-40, and 56-58 days of pregnancy. Blood samples from non-pregnant female dogs were obtained between 20 and 35 days after ineffective breeding. As indicators of oxidative stress, we measured the following using spectrophotometric and spectrof- luorimetric methods: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N,N, diethylparaphenylene diamine (RC-DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The mean plasma TBARS concentration in the pregnant dogs (0.486 ± 0.071-0.581 ± 0.191 μmol/g protein) was significantly higher (p pregnant animals (0.274 ± 0.111 μmol/g protein). A marked, although not significant, decrease in SH group content, as well as an increase in bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentration were concurrently observed in the pregnant dogs. No significant differences were found in terms of the studied markers in the pregnant animals when comparing the values obtained during the investigated periods of pregnancy, although there was a progressive decrease in TBARS concentration and a progressive increase in RC-DEPPD, bityrosine and formylkynurenine contents. Our findings suggest that normal pregnancy in female dogs is associated with oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to establish the physiological ranges of antioxidative/oxidative profiles in pregnant dogs and to explain if and how the intensity of oxidative stress might contribute to the risk of the complications of pregnancy.

  13. Effects of estrogen coadministration on epoxiconazole toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Stefan; Schneider, Steffen; Fegert, Ivana; Rey Moreno, Maria Cecilia; Strauss, Volker; Gröters, Sibylle; Fabian, Eric; Fussell, Karma C; Pigott, Geoffrey H; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-06-01

    Epoxiconazole (EPX; CAS-No. 133855-98-8) is a triazole class-active substance of plant protection products. At a dose level of 50 mg/kg bw/day, it causes a significantly increased incidence of late fetal mortality when administered to pregnant rats throughout gestation (gestation day [GD] 7-18 or 21), as reported previously (Taxvig et al., 2007, 2008) and confirmed in these studies. Late fetal resorptions occurred in the presence of significant maternal toxicity such as clear reduction of corrected body weight gain, signs of anemia, and, critically, a marked reduction of maternal estradiol plasma levels. Furthermore, estradiol supplementation at dose levels of 0.5 or 1.0 μg/animal/day of estradiol cyclopentylpropionate abolished the EPX-mediated late fetal resorptions. No increased incidences of external malformations were found in rats cotreated with 50 mg/kg bw/day EPX and estradiol cyclopentylpropionate, indicating that the occurrence of malformations was not masked by fetal mortality under the study conditions. Overall, the study data indicate that fetal mortality observed in rat studies with EPX is not the result of direct fetal toxicity but occurs indirectly via depletion of maternal estradiol levels. The clarification of the human relevance of the estrogen-related mechanism behind EPX-mediated late fetal resorptions in rats warrants further studies. In particular, this should involve investigation of the placenta (Rey Moreno et al., 2013), since it is the materno-fetal interface and crucial for fetal maintenance. The human relevance is best addressed in a species which is closer to humans with reference to placentation and hormonal regulation of pregnancy, such as the guinea pig (Schneider et al., 2013). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  15. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, ... Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and ... shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment.

  16. Compliance with iron-folic acid (IFA) therapy among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Anaemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women and iron ... Methodology: This study included 190 pregnant women seeking ante-natal care in tertiary health centres in the Mangalore ..... preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid.

  17. Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.

  18. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... 220 out of 733 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the health centres within the three communities.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  20. The roentgenographic study of placental calcifications in Korean pregnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Che

    1980-01-01

    Calcifications in the placenta have been considered as a sign of the maturity because it is found frequently in variable degrees in full-term placentas. The placentas studied were those from deliveries at Chung-Ang University Hospital during the period of January 1978 to June 1980 and were excluded if their deliveries were by Caesarean section. Roentgenographic studies of placenta were performed postnatally in 135 cases delivered from normal pregnant. The results were as follows: 1. The incidence of calcification in the placenta was 53.3%. 2. The tendency of placenta calcification was increased as progress of maturity but not indicated as postmaturity. 3. Calcifications were less correlated with increasing gravidity or maternal age. 4. Calcifications occurred more frequently with increasing birth weight. 5. Calcifications in placentas were more frequently in the neonates with 10 scores of Apgar and normal level of maternal hemoglobin. 6. No significant correlation between incidence of calcification and maternal toxemia was observed. In the pregnant with an episode of previous abortion or S. P. R. M., incidence of calcification was apparently increased but statistically not significant. On the whole, placental calcifications are not harmful and identified as normal or proper aging process

  1. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-04-23

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for eight months. She was diagnosed with vivax malaria after a thin blood smear revealed the presence of plasmodial trophozoites and gametocytes and treated accordingly. Due to the onset of oligohydramnios, she underwent caesarian section at the 31st week of pregnancy with no further complications. Histological examination of the placenta showed no evidence of plasmodial infection, but was inconclusive. It is unclear whether oligohydramnios is a complication of pregnancy-related Plasmodium vivax malaria. Given the long latency of hypnozoites, every febrile pregnant patient with a previous stay in an endemic area should be screened for malaria with a thick and a thin blood smear.

  2. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus Antibodies among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytomegalovirus is a common virus that infects most people at some time during their lives. It becomes dormant for a while and may reactivate later. In pregnant women, intrauterine infection may be associated with congenital abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of the fetus as ...

  3. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    South African Journal of Education, Volume 34, Number 4, November 2014. 1 ... 2010, the highest number of pregnant learners was recorded in Limpopo Province, followed by .... formation. We maintained privacy and confidentiality of the information that participants shared with us by ...... based cohorts in southern Brazil.

  4. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome. Key words: high risk pregnancy; learner pregnancy; school health services; teacher experiences; teenage pregnancy ...

  5. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.

  6. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness of Pregnant Women Attending the Three Levels of Health Facilities in Ife Central Local Government, Nigeria. ... Only 24 (6.0%) had adequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs without prompting. Three hundred and forty (84.8%) and 312 (78.3%) women respectively had ...

  7. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened in a qualitative study using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Results: Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive.

  8. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  9. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  10. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  11. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.

  12. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  13. Hematologic features among anemic Cameroonian pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. Methods: this cross ...

  14. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  15. Effects of prenatal exposure to xylene on postnatal development and behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) on postnatal development and behavior in rats were studied. Pregnant rats (Mol:WIST) were exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene 6 h per day on gestation days 7-20. The dose level was selected so as no...

  16. Analysis of HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Liangshan Prefecture, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujuan; Yang, Chao; Liao, Qiang; Zhai, Wenwen; Yu, Gang; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Qixing; Gong, Yuhan; Zhang, Suhua; Yao, Yongna; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ju; Bian, Shaochao; Liu, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Yi people make up about 50% of the population in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China, but accounted for 88.07% of new HIV cases in the prefecture from 2011 to 2013. This study evaluated HIV prevalence in pregnant women of Liangshan Prefecture using HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data over the period of 2009 to 2015. Xichang, Zhaojue County, and Butuo County were selected as HSS sites. We investigated the temporal trends in HIV prevalence in these areas, and the association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and risk of HIV infection. Data on a total of 2797 pregnant women in Xichang and 3983 pregnant women in Zhaojue and Butuo was collected for the period 2009 to 2015. There was a fluctuating HIV prevalence among pregnant women of Xichang, with a rate of 0.75% in 2015 (χ2trend = 2.27, P = 0.13). HIV prevalence among pregnant women of Zhaojue and Butuo was consistently high, varying between 3.4% (9/267, 2011) and 10.3% (82/796, 2012) over the period of 2010 to 2015 (χ2trend = 0.12, P = 0.73). In Xichang, we found that Yi ethnicity (OR = 11.37, 95% CI = 2.92-44.25) and a husband who used drugs (OR = 32.13, 95% CI = 5.33-193.67) were significantly associated with HIV risk in pregnant women. For Zhaojue and Butuo, we observed that pregnant women had a higher risk of HIV infection when they were over 30 years old (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.17-2.52), when they had a higher number of previous births, when their husbands had a history of migrating for work (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.16-2.08), and when they had a history of other sexually transmitted infections (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-2.08). Compared to those with a primary school education or below, pregnant women with a secondary or high school education level had a lower risk of HIV infection (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89). Our results indicate that there is a serious HIV epidemic among pregnant Yi women, especially for those with less education, more past births, or a husband with a history of

  17. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  18. Determinants of pregnant women's compliance with alcohol guidelines: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Amy E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Australian alcohol guidelines for pregnancy changed from low to no alcohol intake. Previous research found a high proportion of pregnant Australian women drank during pregnancy; however, there has been limited investigation of whether pregnant women comply with 2009 alcohol guidelines. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of pregnant women’s compliance with 2009 Australian alcohol guidelines and identify predictors of such compliance, including previous drinking behaviour. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of prospective data from the 1973–1978 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health was conducted. Women aged 30–36 years who were pregnant at the 2009 survey and had data on alcohol use were included (n = 837. Compliance with 2009 alcohol guidelines for pregnancy was defined as no alcohol intake. Predictors of compliance were analysed using multivariate logistic regression, controlling for area of residence, in three separate models to account for multicollinearity between measures of previous alcohol intake (compliance with 2001 guidelines; frequency and quantity; bingeing. Private health insurance, household income, and illicit drug use were entered into all models and retained if significant. Results 72% of pregnant women did not comply with the 2009 alcohol guidelines and 82% of these women drank less than seven drinks per week, with no more than one or two drinks per drinking day. The odds of complying with abstinence increased by a factor of 3.48 (95% CI 2.39-5.05 for women who previously complied with the 2001 alcohol guidelines and decreased by a factor of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08-0.66 if household incomes were $36,400 or more. In other models the odds of complying were lower for women who consumed alcohol before pregnancy at least weekly (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.25-0.63 or binged (OR ≥ 0.18, 95% CI 0.10-0.31 and were higher for those who abstained (OR

  19. Protection against Escherichia coli K1 infection in newborn rats by antibody to K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, R; Ferrier, P

    1980-01-01

    The protective value of antibody to the K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen of Escherichia coli was investigated in a newborn rat model of E. coli K1 infection. Pregnant rats were immunized intravenously with E. coli, and the agglutinating titer to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, which is identical to K1 polysaccharide, was measured in the serum of rats and their offspring. Convalescent serum from rat mothers showed an increased antibody titer in animals injected twice but not once with ...

  20. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  1. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  2. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131...

  3. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    N. B. Gordovskaya; I. V. Korotchaeva

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  4. ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIURIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN: DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Gordovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.

  5. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  6. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...

  7. Translation and adaptation of smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention.

  8. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  9. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  10. Maternal red blood cell alloantibodies identified in blood samples obtained from Iranian pregnant women: the first population study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gorzin, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of alloantibodies among pregnant women in Iran. This was a prospective cross-sectional study, which was carried out in the immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in Tehran, Iran, in 2008 to 2015. Screening and identification of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies was done on the sera of 7340 pregnant females using the standard tube method and gel column agglutination technique. Alloantibodies were identified in the serum of 332 of the 7340 (4.5%) pregnant women. A total of 410 antibodies were detected in 332 positive maternal serum samples with no previous history of blood transfusion. Anti-D was the most common antibody accounting for 70.5% of all the antibodies formed in D- women. The incidence of specific alloimmunization other than Rh group was 14.4%. We concluded that the alloimmunization rate was high in comparison with wide pattern in previous studies. In Iran, like other developing countries, alloimmunization screening tests are performed only to detect anti-D in pregnant D- women. This high rate of alloimmunization, quite possibly, is due to the fact that the majority of blood samples came from pregnant women known to have previous obstetric problems. However, we suggest that RBC antibody screening tests should be extended to all D+ women. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  12. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Pregnant Women in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan, Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Hasan; Momen Heravi, Mansooreh; Moravveji, Seyyed Alireza; Poorrahnama, Maryam

    2015-07-01

    The transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and prenatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important, because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier state. There has been so much debate about hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg+ among pregnant women referred to Beheshti hospital in Kashan in 2012. This descriptive study was carried out on 768 pregnant women, hospitalized in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan in 2012. After obtaining consent forms, the questionnaires including demographic and HBV infection-associated risk factors were filled through interview and then 5 mL blood was taken from each patient and HBsAg was examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. These data were analyzed by statistical package for the social science (SPSS) software. A total of 12 (1.56%) out of 768 pregnant women were HBsAg+. The mean age of HBsAg+ cases was 24.5 ± 4 years. Most of the HBsAg+ cases (66.6%) were uneducated; 17.7% of the pregnant women were not Iranian, of which 7.4% were HBsAg+. There was no high-risk job, recent dentistry interruption or skin tattoo among the HBsAg+ cases. In this study, 1.56% of pregnant women were HBsAg+, which was higher than the previous studies. This increasing prevalence may be due to the increase of non-Iranians' migrations to Iran. Control of migration and screening and vaccination of these groups should be considered by health policy makers.

  13. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm. Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  14. Analysis of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Pregnant Women With Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...... developed LGA. LGA was associated with lower mean glucose (7.0 vs. 7.1 mmol/L; P FDA showed that glucose was significantly lower midmorning (0900-1100 h) and early...... evening (1900-2130 h) in trimester 1, significantly higher early morning (0330-0630 h) and throughout the afternoon (1130-1700 h) in trimester 2, and significantly higher during the evening (2030-2330 h) in trimester 3 in women whose infants were LGA. CONCLUSIONS: FDA of CGM data identified specific times...

  15. Pregnant Employee Protection Program in a Large Chemical Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Gunild; Schuster, Michael; Oberlinner, Christoph; Queier-Wahrendorf, Annette; Lang, Stefan; Yong, Mei

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether a structured employee protection program for pregnant workers at a chemical company has an impact on pregnancy outcomes. Reported pregnancies (n = 1402) between 2003 and 2010 and their outcomes were documented using questionnaires at the time of pregnancy report, end of pregnancy, and 1 year later. Potential maternal exposures were assessed using job histories, workplace inspections, and questionnaires. Participation was 86% overall and was consistently high across subgroups.Pregnancy losses (10.9%), pregnancy complications, and preterm births (8.1%) were in agreement with rates in the general population and were independent of type of work and maternal exposure category. Pregnancy complication rates in this chemical company are not statistically elevated than that in the general population, as suggested in a previous study. The protection program may play a role in preventing complications that may have occurred.

  16. Emotional style, health and perceived quality of life in pregnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Guarino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the possible relationship among emotional style (rumination and emotional inhibition and the perceived health and quality of life of pregnant women. To do so, a sample of 94 Venezuelan women on their first trimester of pregnancy completed questionnaires measuring the studied variables: Rumination, Emotional Inhibition, Global Health and perceived Quality of Life. Results support previous findings regarding the positive association between negative emotional style and the deterioration of the health status, while brings new evidence of the inverse relationship between these individual difference and the quality of life in this particular group, who has been poorly studied in its psychosocial dimension. 

  17. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  18. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  19. Análise morfológica e fisiológica dos fígados e rins de ratas prenhes e seus fetos tratados pela associação zidovudina, lamivudina e ritonavir durante toda a prenhez Morphological and physiological analysis of livers and kidneys of pregnant rats and their fetuses treated by the association of zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir for the whole period of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Wagner

    2010-11-01

    em sua(s dose(s de aplicação. A avaliação estatística foi realizada por análise de variância (ANOVA, completada pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of administration of three different doses of the zidovudine/lamivudine/ritonavir combination on the liver and kidneys of pregnant rats and their concepts from a morphological and physiological standpoint. METHODS: 40 pregnant EPM-1 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1 control (Ctrl: drug vehicle control, n=10 and 3 experimental groups: Exp1x, Exp3x and Exp9x. An oral solution of the zidovudine/lamivudine/ritonavir combination was administered to the experimental groups from the day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy: Exp1x=10/5/20 mg/kg; Exp3x=30/15/60 mg/kg; Exp9x=90/45/180 mg/kg. On the 20th pregnancy day the rats were anesthetized and blood was taken directly from the ventricular chambers for further biochemical determinations: aspartate-(AST and alanine-(ALT aminotransferases (Calorimetric method, urea nitrogen (BUN by an enzymatic-kinetic method, and creatinine by a kinetic-calorimetric method. Maternal and fetal liver and kidney samples were taken, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed histologically for paraffin embedding. Five µm-thick fragments of maternal and fetal livers and kidneys were stained with hematoxilyn-eosin, being analyzed by light microscopy. To interpret the results, the well-known pattern of normality for livers and kidneys was considered on the basis of the following structures: hepatocytes, portal structure, hepatic veins, renal corpuscles, renal tubules and loop of Henle. Regarding the fetal livers, we also considered the erythrocytes in their different stages of development as well as the megacariocytes. If there was a change in the established staining pattern for liver and kidney structures, changes in nuclear morphology, rupture of some cytoplasmic organelles, and presence of vascular congestion, this was considered to be due to the drug doses

  20. Influence of maternal diet during early pregnancy on the fatty acid profile in the fetus at late pregnancy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Flavia Spreafico; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; Herrera, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of different dietary fatty acids during the first half of pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of maternal adipose tissue and of maternal and fetal plasma at mid- and late-pregnancy. Pregnant rats received soybean-, olive-, fish-, linseed- or palm-oil diets from conception to day 12 of gestation. Virgin rats receiving the same treatments were studied in parallel. At day 12, some rats were sacrificed and others were returned to the standard diet and studied at day 20. At day 12, the concentrations of most fatty acids in plasma reflected the dietary composition and individual fatty acids in lumbar adipose tissue of pregnant rats correlated with those in the diet. At day 20, the plasma concentration of each fatty acid was higher in pregnant than in both virgin rats and day-12 pregnant rats. The composition in 20-day pregnant (but not in virgin) rats resembled the diet consumed during the first 12 days. Fatty acid concentration in fetal plasma was also influenced by the maternal diet during the first 12 days of pregnancy, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) concentrations correlated with those in the mothers. In conclusion, during the first half of pregnancy maternal adipose tissue stores dietary-derived fatty acids, which are released into blood during late pregnancy enabling LC-PUFA to become available to the fetus.

  1. Increasing tobacco quitline calls from pregnant african american women: the "one tiny reason to quit" social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, May G; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L; Garland, Sheryl L; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-05-01

    Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but "quitlines" are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality.

  2. Increasing Tobacco Quitline Calls from Pregnant African American Women: The “One Tiny Reason to Quit” Social Marketing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Sepulveda, Allison L.; Garland, Sheryl L.; Wilson, Diane Baer; Stith-Singleton, Rose; Dubuque, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pregnant African American women are at disproportionately high risk of premature birth and infant mortality, outcomes associated with cigarette smoking. Telephone-based, individual smoking cessation counseling has been shown to result in successful quit attempts in the general population and among pregnant women, but “quitlines” are underutilized. A social marketing campaign called One Tiny Reason to Quit (OTRTQ) promoted calling a quitline (1-800-QUIT-NOW) to pregnant, African American women in Richmond, Virginia, in 2009 and was replicated there 2 years later. Methods The campaign disseminated messages via radio, interior bus ads, posters, newspaper ads, and billboards. Trained volunteers also delivered messages face-to-face and distributed branded give-away reminder items. The number of calls made from pregnant women in the Richmond area during summer 2009 was contrasted with (a) the number of calls during the seasons immediately before and after the campaign, and (b) the number of calls the previous summer. The replication used the same evaluation design. Results There were statistically significant spikes in calls from pregnant women during both campaign waves for both types of contrasts. A higher proportion of the calls from pregnant women were from African Americans during the campaign. Conclusion A multimodal quitline promotion like OTRTQ should be considered for geographic areas with sizable African American populations and high rates of infant mortality. PMID:23621745

  3. Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    Each year, more than 500 000 girls and young women younger than 20 years become pregnant. It is important for pediatricians to have the ability and the resources in their offices to make a timely pregnancy diagnosis in their adolescent patients and provide them with nonjudgmental pregnancy options counseling. Counseling includes an unbiased discussion of the adolescent's legal options to either continue or terminate her pregnancy, supporting the adolescent in the decision-making process, and referring the adolescent to appropriate resources and services. Pediatricians who choose not to provide such discussions should promptly refer pregnant adolescent patients to a health care professional who will offer developmentally appropriate pregnancy options counseling. This approach to pregnancy options counseling has not changed since the original 1989 American Academy of Pediatrics statement on this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Pregnant women's choice of birthing hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-01-01

    design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS: Women made their hospital choice decision independently......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized...

  5. Critical androgen-sensitive periods of rat penis and clitoris development

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, M.; Macleod, D. J.; Walker, M.; Smith, L. B.; Sharpe, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Androgen control of penis development/growth is unclear. In rats, androgen action in a foetal 'masculinisation programming window' (MPW; e15.5-e18.5)' predetermines penile length and hypospadias occurrence. This has implications for humans (e.g. micropenis). Our studies aimed to establish in rats when androgen action/administration affects development/growth of the penis and if deficits in MPW androgen action were rescuable postnatally. Thus, pregnant rats were treated with flutamide during t...

  6. Exploring the Pregnant Guinea Pig as a Model for Group B Streptococcus Intrauterine Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Maria I; Burnside, Kellie; Whidbey, Christopher; Vornhagen, Jay; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2017-09-01

    Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost. Given these limitations, the guinea pig is an attractive animal model for studying pregnancy infections, particularly as the placental structure is quite similar to the human placenta. Here, we describe our studies that explored the pregnant guinea pig as a model to study in utero Group B Streptococci (GBS) infections. We observed that intrauterine inoculation of wild type GBS in pregnant guinea pigs resulted in bacterial invasion and dissemination to the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetal organs. Also, hyperhemolytic GBS such as those lacking the hemolysin repressor CovR/S showed increased dissemination into the amniotic fluid and fetal organs such as the fetal lung and brain. These results are similar to those observed in mouse and non-human primate models of in utero infection, and support use of the guinea pig as a model for studying GBS infections in pregnancy.

  7. Is pregnancy fatalism normal? An attitudinal assessment among women trying to get pregnant and those not using contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K

    2018-05-21

    To assess factors associated with pregnancy fatalism among U.S. adult women. I used data from the Change and Consistency in Contraceptive Use study, which collected information from a national sample of 4634U.S. women aged 18-39 at baseline (59% response rate). I assessed pregnancy fatalism based on agreement with the statement: "It doesn't matter whether I use birth control, when it is my time to get pregnant, it will happen." I compare fatalism among all respondents to fatalism among respondents who were trying to get pregnant and those who did not want to get pregnant but were not using contraception. I used logistic regression to assess associations between nonuse of contraception and pregnancy fatalism at baseline and whether respondents were trying to get pregnant six months later. Overall, 36% of the sample expressed some degree of pregnancy fatalism, and proportions were higher for respondents trying to get pregnant (55%) and those not using contraception (57%). The association between pregnancy fatalism and trying to get pregnant was maintained after controlling for other characteristics (OR 1.4, p=.01), as was the association for nonuse of contraception (OR 2.08, p<.001). Contraceptive nonusers at baseline were more likely than users to be trying to get pregnant six months later, especially if they expressed a fatalistic outlook at baseline. Pregnancy fatalism may be a common outlook among women who are trying to get pregnant. Associations between fatalism and nonuse of contraception may be more complex than previously recognized. Gaining a better understanding of the dynamics of pregnancy planning might inform our understanding of why some women do not use contraception. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  9. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  10. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  11. Asymptomatic plasmodial infection in Colombian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M

    2017-08-01

    Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Espana, M.L.; Sevillano, D.; Minguez, C.; Ferrer, C.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    A female employee working in diagnostic radiology should take additional controls to protect the unborn child from ionizing radiations. The fetus is particularly sensitive to the effects of x-rays and, so, the determination of the equivalent dose to the unborn child is of interest for risk estimates from occupational exposures of the pregnant workers. The ian of this study is to develop a method for fetus dose estimate of a pregnant worker who participates in interventional radiology procedures. Factors for converting dosemeter readings to equivalent dose to the fetus have been measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Equivalent dose to the uterus is used to simulate the equivalent dose to the fetus during the first two months of pregnancy. Measurements at different depths are made to consider the variations in the position of the uterus between pregnant women. The normalized doses obtained are dependent on the beam quality. Accurate estimation of fetus doses due to occupational exposures can be made using the data provided in the current study. (Author)

  13. Domestic violence on pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik

    2009-04-01

    Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.

  14. 137Cs metabolism in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.

    2000-01-01

    Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)

  15. Morphological analysis of the enamel organ in rats treated with fluoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Morais Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies have evaluated the presence of serotonin in the dental epithelia and mesenchyme during odontogenesis, suggesting its participation in tooth development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we used fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered for 20 days during pregnancy in 12 Wistar rats to examine the influence of this drug on the development of the enamel organ of the upper first molars of rat fetuses at 17 days of intra-uterine life (i.u.l., and at one, five and ten days postpartum. The pregnant rats were anesthetized with xylazine at 10 mg/kg and ketamine at 25 mg/kg. The fetuses were removed and beheaded; their jaws were removed, and the upper jaws were exposed. The tissues were fixed in Bouin's fixative, decalcified in 5% nitric acid for 4 - 12 h, conventionally processed for microscopy, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of approximately 5 mm were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, as well as periodic acid-Schiff. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Morphological analysis showed no structural changes in the experimental group compared to the controls, suggesting that, at the dose used, fluoxetine does not interfere with serotonin-mediated development of the enamel organ or the process of amelogenesis.

  16. Pregnancy aggravates proteinuria in subclinical glomerulonephritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Poelman, RT; Schuiling, GA

    Because subclinical renal disease may be aggravated during pregnancy-as reflected in the occurrence of proteinuria, for example-we investigated whether a subclinical glomerulonephritis (SG) in the non-pregnant rat (passive Heymann nephritis), a condition without proteinuria, is aggravated when the

  17. Altered monocyte function in experimental preeclampsia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; Broekema, Martine; Moes, Henk; van der Schaaf, Gerda; Heineman, Maas Jan; de Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we evaluated functional activity of monocytes in experimental preeclampsia induced by low-dose endotoxin infusion. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant (n = 12) and cyclic rats (n = 12) were equipped with a permanent jugular vein cannula and infused with either low-dose endotoxin

  18. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  19. Hybrid pregnant reference phantom series based on adult female ICRP reference phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Hoseinian-Azghadi, Elie

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents boundary representation (BREP) models of pregnant female and her fetus at the end of each trimester. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference voxel phantom was used as a base template in development process of the pregnant hybrid phantom series. The differences in shape and location of the displaced maternal organs caused by enlarging uterus were also taken into account. The CT and MR images of fetus specimens and pregnant patients of various ages were used to replace the maternal abdominal pelvic organs of template phantom and insert the fetus inside the gravid uterus. Each fetal model contains 21 different organs and tissues. The skeletal model of the fetus also includes age-dependent cartilaginous and ossified skeletal components. The replaced maternal organ models were converted to NURBS surfaces and then modified to conform to reference values of ICRP Publication 89. The particular feature of current series compared to the previously developed pregnant phantoms is being constructed upon the basis of ICRP reference phantom. The maternal replaced organ models are NURBS surfaces. With this great potential, they might have the feasibility of being converted to high quality polygon mesh phantoms.

  20. State Medicaid Expansions for Parents Led to Increased Coverage and Prenatal Care Utilization among Pregnant Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Laura R

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate impacts of state Medicaid expansions for low-income parents on the health insurance coverage, pregnancy intention, and use of prenatal care among mothers who became pregnant. Person-level data for women with a live birth from the 1997-2012 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. The sample was restricted to women who were already parents using information on previous live births and combined with information on state Medicaid policies for low-income parents. I used a measure of expanded generosity of state Medicaid eligibility for low-income parents to estimate changes in health insurance, pregnancy intention, and prenatal care for pregnant mothers associated with Medicaid expansion. I found an increase in prepregnancy health insurance coverage and coverage during pregnancy among pregnant mothers, as well as earlier initiation of prenatal care, associated with the expansions. Among pregnant mothers with less education, I found an increase in the adequacy of prenatal care utilization. Expanded Medicaid coverage for low-income adults has the potential to increase a woman's health insurance coverage prior to pregnancy, as well as her insurance coverage and medical care receipt during pregnancy. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

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    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.

  2. Comments on ICRP-60 rationale for dose limits for the pregnant worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1992-06-01

    ICRP Publication 60 has recently recommended new dose limits for the radiation exposure of pregnant workers. These new dose limits for pregnant workers are more restrictive than the current limits in force in Canada. Recent presentations by Dr. R.H. Mole have faulted the arguments provided by ICRP as justification for reducing the previously recommended limits for pregnant radiation workers. The present paper provides a brief review of the development of the human conceptus, of the biological effects of low doses of radiation on the foetus, and discusses R.H. Mole's comments on ICRP-60. On the critical issues concerning the presence or absence of threshold doses for induction of specific biological endpoints, Dr. Mole and ICRP-60 appear to be in agreement. The basic disagreement between Dr. Mole and ICRP-60 seems to revolve around the philosophical question of whether dose limits should be based on quantitative risks to the foetus or whether dose limits to the pregnant worker should provide a standard of protection to the foetus which is broadly comparable with that provided for members of the general public. Further research is recommended on one of the topics raised by Dr. Mole, namely, foetal doses from radionuclides inhaled or ingested by the mother

  3. Endogenous digitals-like factor in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Balzan, S.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Fruzzetti, F.; Bernardini, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3 H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p 3 Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy

  4. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hallstrom, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M.; Hirschberg, Angelica Linden

    2015-01-01

    Background Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child?s early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. Methods In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a...

  5. Fear of childbirth in pregnant women: External and internal factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashshapova, E. V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of

  6. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2007-02-01

    Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no

  7. Comparison Of Blood Proteins And Some Hormonal Levels In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the changes in serum protein and its fractions by using electrophoresis in Holstein cows during different months of pregnancy in comparison with non-pregnant cows and to determine hormonal levels including T4, T3 and progesterone hormones. The samples were taken from 40 pregnant cows during deferent months and 10 non-pregnant cows. Significant decrease in the levels of total protein, albumin and globulin were observed in the third and late month of pregnancy than in mid pregnancy where the values were 6.5, 3.1 and 3.4 g/dl for early months and 6.5, 3.2 and 3.3 g/dl for late month as compared to the non-pregnant cows. Significant increase in α-1globulin was observed during months of pregnancy by about 33.3%. The decrease in the levels of α-2, β and γ-globulins were recorded by about 10%, 45.3% and 21.6%, respectively. A marked decrease in T4 hormone (5.0 μg/dl) was observed in pregnant cows than in non-pregnant ones (7.1 μg/dl). Also, a decreasing T3 level (169 ng/dl) was recorded as compared to non-pregnant cows (221 ng/dl). High significant increase in progesterone level was recorded in the mid pregnancy until reached the maximum value (49.94 ng/ml) at the 7 th month of pregnancy then declined (2.42 ng/ml) at the late month of pregnancy. In conclusion, during pregnancy of Holstein dairy cows, a decline in protein fractions and thyroid hormonal levels were recorded during different months as compared to non- pregnant cows. The opposite trend was observed in progesterone levels. The increasing progesterone level at the mid pregnancy indicated its importance in the continuation of pregnancy and maintenance of fetus against maternal rejection.

  8. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia : a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional

  9. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

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    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MAXIMUM PE AND PI BETWEEN PREGNANT AND NO-PROGNANT WOMEN AND PREGNANT OF DIFFERENT GESTATIONAL PERIODS

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    Leila Graziele Dias de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This research had how his objectives to investigate if there is difference between the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant women and no-pregnant women of period different of pregnancy. To get the informations necessary, we use the machine manuvacuômetro MVD 500 Mycrohard Globalmed , how the instrument to have the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant and no- pregnant women that have similar age. We use how criterion to select the informer this research to be pregnant in one group and not to be pregnant in another group. The women that participate of this research were choose aleatorialy through of the indications of the another persons. We went to their houses to collect data of the insp. and exp. maxim pressure and afterward, we organize, understand, pass to the category and, finely, to find the medium of the value. The value of the insp. and exp. maxim pressures that were found in the pregnant group was the follow: PE Max= 51,3 cm H20 and PIMax= 48,3 cm H20; the averages found in the not- pregnant were: PEMax= 73 cm H20, PIMax = 69,2 cm H20. The pregnants that were in the subgroup of the 1o to 5o month had a average of PE= 56 cm H20 and PI= 60 cm H20, while the pregnant of subgroup above the 6o month had the averages of PE and PI = 56 cm H20 and 43 cm H20, respective. Based in the results we conclude that have difference between the insp. and exp. pressures between pregnant and no-pregnant women, as well as in the pregnant of different period of pregnance.

  11. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

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    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  12. Protective effect of Petroselinum crispum extract in abortion using prostadin-induced renal dysfunction in female rats

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    Maryam Rezazad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties. Materials and Methods:  Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant statues (TAS, creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method. Results: After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed. Conclusion: These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.

  13. Sexual dysfnction in Iranian pregnant women

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    Safieh Jamali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy

  14. Acute headache diagnosis in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282

  15. TORCH Screening Test in Pregnant Women of Kirkuk City

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    Hiro M. Obaid

    2017-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health  as well as her baby.

  16. Effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility of female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiró-Filho, Ernesto Antonio; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra; Senefonte, Flávio Renato de Almeida; Ferreira, Cristiane Munaretto; Pereira, Erica Freire de Vasconcelos; Oliveira, Vanessa Marcon de; Menezes, Giovanna Pádoa de; Bósio, Marco Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in prophylactic and therapeutic doses on the fertility rates of pregnant healthy Wistar rats. Enoxaparin and UFH were administered in prophylactic doses 1 mg/Kg/day 72 UI/Kg/day, and in therapeutic doses at 2 mg/kg/day 400UI/Kg/day. The rats were divided into five groups. The number of live and dead foetuses was quantified. The uterine horns were dissected and the presence of early and late reabsorptions (abortions) was determined. A peffect on fertility with the use of anticoagulant drugs in pregnant healthy Wistar rats.

  17. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

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    Kleiton Augusto dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training (ET is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM. However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05. The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05, and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05. This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  18. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

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    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown.This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP.Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  19. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  20. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed v,an dragtigheid en laktasie op die vrywillige inname en verteerbaarheid von voere deur Merinoooie. M. Sc. (Land) Tesis Univ. Stellenbosch. HADJIPIERES, G. & HOLMES, W., 1966. Studies on feed intake and feed utilization by sheep. I. The voluntary feed intake of dry, pregnant and lactating ewes. J. agric Sci.

  1. Prostaglandins, masculinization and its disorders: effects of fetal exposure of the rat to the cyclooxygenase inhibitor- indomethacin.

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    Afshan Dean

    Full Text Available Recent studies have established that masculinization of the male reproductive tract is programmed by androgens in a critical fetal 'masculinization programming window' (MPW. What is peculiar to androgen action during this period is, however, unknown. Studies from 20 years ago in mice implicated prostaglandin (PG-mediation of androgen-induced masculinization, but this has never been followed up. We therefore investigated if PGs might mediate androgen effects in the MPW by exposing pregnant rats to indomethacin (which blocks PG production by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity during this period and then examining if androgen production or action (masculinization was affected. Pregnant rats were treated with indomethacin (0.8 mg/kg/day; e15.5-e18.5 to encompass the MPW. Indomethacin exposure decreased fetal bodyweight (e21.5, testis weight (e21.5 and testicular PGE2 (e17.5, e21.5, but had no effect on intratesticular testosterone (ITT; e17.5 or anogenital index (AGI; e21.5. Postnatally, AGI, testis weight and blood testosterone were unaffected by indomethacin exposure and no cryptorchidism or hypospadias occurred. Penis length was normal in indomethacin-exposed animals at Pnd25 but was reduced by 26% (p<0.001 in adulthood, an effect that is unexplained. Our results demonstrate that indomethacin can effectively decrease intra-testicular PGE2 level. However, the resulting male phenotype does not support a role for PGs in mediating androgen-induced masculinization during the MPW in rats. The contrast with previous mouse studies is unexplained but may reflect a species difference.

  2. Standing working posture compared in pregnant and non-pregnant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; Frings-Dresen, M H

    1994-09-01

    During pregnancy, an increase in body weight occurs together with changes in body weight distribution and in fit between body dimensions and workplace layout. These changes may cause alterations in working posture which may, in turn, have adverse consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and so increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Using photographic posture registration, the standing working posture was studied in 27 women during the last stage of pregnancy and after delivery (the experimental group). The women performed an assembly task while standing at various workplace layouts. The postural differences between the pregnant condition and the non-pregnant condition were studied and the effect of the various workplace layouts assessed. Ten non-pregnant controls were also studied twice to establish the effect of the time interval between the measuring occasions. We found that the women of the experimental group stood further from the work surface in the pregnant condition compared to the non-pregnant condition, the hips were positioned more backwards, and, in order to reach the tesk, they increased the flexion of the trunk, increased the anteflexion of the upper arms, and extended the arms more. At the workplace layout in which the work surface height was self-selected, the postural differences due to pregnancy were smallest or even absent, compared to the postural differences in the other workplace layouts studied. Ergonomists and workers in occupational health services should be alert to the consequences for the biomechanical load on the musculoskeletal system and the risk of development of health complaints caused by postural changes due to pregnancy. An adjustable workplace layout may prevent some problems.

  3. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  4. Effect of behavior training on learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuelan; Gou Wenli; Huang Pu; Li Chunfang; Sun Yunping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of behavior training on the learning and memory of young rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Methods: The model of FGR was established by passive smoking method to pregnant rats.The new-born rats were divided into FGR group and normal group, and then randomly subdivided into trained and untrained group respectively. Morris water maze behavior training was performed on postnatal months 2 and 4, then learning and memory abilities of young rats were measured by dark-avoidance testing and step-down testing. Results: In the dark-avoidance and step-down testing, the young rats' performance of FGR group was worse than that of control group, and the trained group was better than the untrained group significantly. Conclusion: FGR young rats have descended learning and memory abilities. Behavior training could improve the young rats' learning and memory abilities, especially for the FGR young rats.

  5. Time to viral load suppression in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy: implications for pregnant women presenting late in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N; Sokoloff, A; Kornak, J; Leva, N V; Mendiola, M L; Levison, J; Feakins, C; Shannon, M; Cohan, D

    2013-11-01

    To compare time to achieve viral load HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV) -naive versus ARV-experienced pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective cohort study. Three university medical centers, USA. HIV-infected pregnant women initiated or restarted on HAART during pregnancy. We calculated time to viral load HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART who reported at least 50% adherence, stratifying based on previous ARV exposure history. Time to HIV viral load HIV-infected pregnant women, comprising 76 ARV-naive and 62 ARV-experienced. Ninety-three percent of ARV-naive women achieved a viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a later time of achieving viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a longer time of achieving viral load Pregnant women with ≥50% adherence, whether ARV-naive or ARV-experienced, on average achieve a viral load HIV log10 viral load were all statistically significant predictors of earlier time to achieve viral load <400 copies/ml and <1000 copies/ml. Increased CD4 count was statistically significant as a predictor of earlier time to achieve viral load <1000 copies/ml. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  6. [Psychosocial aspects regarding pregnant university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-Aponte, María R; Rodríguez-Barreto, Lucía

    2009-12-01

    Determining the subjective construction of psychosocial factors affecting pregnancy in adolescents in a sample of students. 68 students who had become pregnant during their adolescence were selected after reviewing their files and sampling by logical criteria. The implications of pregnancy on personal, family and academic conditions were analysed by means of life stories and in-depth interviews. Crises and adjustments appeared in family and affective structure during the first trimester of pregnancy which culminated in them accepting motherhood as part of their life project, thereby reproducing the single-mother stereotype. Accompaniment of the pair occurred mainly during the first months, followed by abandonment. Although prejudiced, the university community's support had a bearing on interest in personal and academic development and in the baby. Specialised referents were consulted which scared the girls due to their pathological emphasis, thereby leading to them consulting family sources. The pregnant girls' mothers provided ongoing support for their daughters; this was not true of the fathers with whom constant conflict was presented. The services offered by the university were little used even though their importance was recognised. Forming integral students require programmes preparing students to be responsible for motherhood and fatherhood. Prevention was conveyed as promoting healthy affective links and strengthening family and social communication.

  7. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  8. Factors affecting oral health-related quality of life among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Bhat, P V; Acharya, S

    2009-05-01

    To assess oral health status and to describe the possible factors that could affect the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a group of pregnant rural women in South India. A total of 259 pregnant women (mean age 26 +/- 5.5 years) who participated in the cross-sectional study were administered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and were clinically examined for caries and periodontal status. The highest oral impact on quality of life was reported for 'painful mouth' (mean: 1.7) and 'difficulty in eating' (mean: 1.1). On comparing the mean OHIP-14 scores against the various self-reported oral problems, it was seen that the mean OHIP-14 scores were significantly higher among those who reported various oral problems than those who did not. Those with previous history of pregnancies had more severe levels of gingivitis than those who were pregnant for the first time. Also gingival index scores, community periodontal index of treatment needs scores and previous pregnancies was associated with poorer OHRQoL scores. Increased health promotion interventions and simple educational preventive programmes on oral self-care and disease prevention during pregnancy can go a long way in improving oral health and lessening its impact on the quality of life in this important population.

  9. [Analysis of risk factors of fatal outcome in pregnant and puerperant patients with severe H1N1 influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskikh, I B; Penzhoian, G A; Musaeva, T S; Goncharenko, S I

    2010-01-01

    As well as previous epidemics and pandemias of influenza, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemia increases the risk of severe illness in pregnant. Data were reported for 28 pregnant and 2 postpartum women who have been hospitalized in ICUs of Krasnodar Region with H1N1 influenza diagnosis. The laboratory tests for H1N1 were negative in 53.3% of suspected cases of H1N1 influenza (16 of 30). The major lethal risk factor in pregnant with H1N1 influenza is a development of septic shock with low PaO2\\FiO2 ratio (less than 140) and high Murray's Acute Lung Injury Score (higher than 2.5). High Apache II, Apache III, SAPS 2, SAPS 3 and SOFA scores are the additional lethal risk factors. Lethal outcomes were more frequent in the end of the second trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  11. Counselling pregnant women at the crossroads of Europe and Asia: effect of Teratology Information Service in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Karadaş, Barış; Küçüksolak, Gözde; Ediz, Bartu; Demir, Ömer; Sozmen, Kaan; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2017-08-01

    Background Previous studies from western countries demonstrated the effectiveness of Teratology Information Service (TIS) counselling in reducing the teratogenic risk perception of pregnant women. Objective To assess whether TIS counselling would be effective in reducing the teratogenic risk perception of the Turkish pregnant women. Setting A TIS (Terafar) operating in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods A cross-sectional survey study. Pregnant women with non-teratogenic medication exposures were asked to assign scores on visual analogue scales (VAS) in response to the questions aiming to measure their teratogenic risk perception. The mean score before and after counselling were compared and the associations with maternal socio-demographic characteristics were analysed using SPSS (Version 20.0). Main outcome measures The differences in the mean scores of the perception regarding the baseline risk of pregnancy, own teratogenic risk and the likelihood of termination of pregnancy before and after counselling and their possible associations with maternal socio-demographic characteristics. Results 102 pregnant women participated in the study. The counselling significantly reduced the mean own teratogenic risk perception score and the mean score for the likelihood of termination of pregnancy whereas the mean baseline risk perception score was not significantly changed. Pregnancy week <8 and the exposed number of active ingredients <3 were significantly associated with the difference in the mean score for the likelihood of termination of pregnancy. Conclusions TIS counselling lowers the teratogenic risk perception of Turkish pregnant women and increases their likelihood to continue the pregnancy as it does in the western countries.

  12. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Zemenu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Adera, Addis

    2014-11-20

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.

  13. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same

  14. Frequency of Group B Streptococci in Pregnant Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, S. I.; Waheed, K.; Khanum, A.; Iqbal, R.; Eusaph, A. Z.; Hanif, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of Group B Streptococci (GBS) in pregnant patients in third trimester in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Cross-sectional, prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore, from October 2014 to March 2015. Methodology: Sterile lower vaginal swabs were taken from 200 women aged 20 years and over, in third trimester, with no history of vaginal bleeding, ruptured membrane, recent intake of antibiotics or chronic illness. These swabs were cultured for detection of GBS. The risk factors of GBS and its frequency were noted in the pregnant population. Quantitative and qualitative data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was applied to see association between diagnosis of GBS and other categorical variables. P-value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In this study, the mean age of all the females was 26.36 ±4.32 years and mean duration of pregnancy was 35.54 ±2.65 weeks. Frequency of GBS in pregnant women was found as 14 percentage. We observed significant association of GBS with parity and previous history of miscarriage (p-value = 0.033 and 0.010 respectively). Moreover, significant association between vaginal discharge and GBS was also found (p = 0.027). Conclusion: GBS is present in a small but significant number of pregnant women in our setting and it has association with multiparity, vaginal discharge during pregnancy, and previous history of miscarriage. (author)

  15. [Eating habits of pregnant and non-pregnant women: are there differences?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite

    2015-07-01

    To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.

  16. Oral health Knowledge and behavior among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...

  17. Evaluation of oral health among pregnant women in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...

  18. Exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-11-01

    The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.

  19. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...

  20. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  1. Motivating Smoking Cessation Text Messages: Perspectives from Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Leavitt, Leah E; Macherelli, Laura E; Turner, Monique M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze cessation text-messages written by pregnant smokers to elucidate the target population's preferred content and message attributes. To achieve this goal, the objectives of this study are three-fold; to qualitatively code messages written by pregnant smokers for frame, type of appeal, and intended target. Study participants were recruited as part of a larger trial of pregnant smokers who were enrolled in a text-messaging program or control group and surveyed 1 month post-enrollment. Each participant was asked to write a brief message to another pregnant smoker and two independent coders qualitatively analyzed responses. User generated messages (N = 51) were equally loss and gain framed, and the most common appeals were: fear, guilt, cognitive, hope and empathy, in order of most to least frequent. The target of the majority of the messages was the baby. Allowing pregnant smokers to write cessation text-messages for other pregnant women can provide relevant insight into intervention content. Specifically, pregnant smokers appear to equally promote gain and loss frames, but may prefer messages that include components of fear and guilt related to the impact of smoking on their baby. Additional research is needed to systematically uncover perspectives of pregnant smokers to ensure interventions are optimally effective.

  2. Sero-epidemiology of toxoplasmosis amongst pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in relation to exposure to infection risk, age and pregnancy-related risk factors. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 294 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Accra who consented to participate. Personal and Toxoplasma ...

  3. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...

  4. Determinants of good oral hygiene among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...

  5. Treatment of the Pregnant Patient with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel; Nørgård, Bente M; Friedman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    a pregnant patient with a disease flare. The best way to manage women with IBD who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy is a multidisciplinary approach. Team members often include a gastroenterologist, a high-risk obstetrician, an infertility specialist, a colorectal surgeon, and a pediatrician...

  6. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  7. Evaluation of the knowledge and practices of pregnant Yemeni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Of the 150 pregnant women who participated in the study, 95.3 % of the pregnant women were < 36 years old, 7.4 % had children with congenital malformations, 62 % indicated that they had heard about folic acid; however, only 16.6 % knew the significance of folic acid. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 94.7 % indicated ...

  8. Prevalence of malaria parasites and anaemia in pregnant and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of Malaria parasites in pregnant women attending pre - natal care in Government hospitals in two major towns (Aba and Okigwe) in Southeast Ngeria was carried out.Blood was collected by vein puncture rom 500 pregnant women in different trimesters (300 from Aba and 200 from Okigwe) and 200 ...

  9. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  10. Fair Inclusion of Pregnant Women in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, I.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which

  11. Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant Women in Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... On ways of improving the condition/nutrition knowledge of pregnant mothers, the respondents accepted the building of more health

  12. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...

  13. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bobo-Dioulasso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...

  14. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  15. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo...

  16. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Jung-Hyun Park,1 Yun-Jung Choi,1 Min-Hee Kang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim11Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice.Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc. At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions.Results: The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of

  17. What Can a Woman Do to Promote a Healthy Pregnancy Before She Gets Pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting pregnant? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Can you promote a healthy pregnancy before getting pregnant? ... getting pregnant, following a health care provider's advice can reduce the risk of problems during pregnancy and ...

  18. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  19. Breastfeeding knowledge among working pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Maternal psychological distress and placental circulation in pregnancies after a previous offspring with congenital malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helbig

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced placental circulation, which could lead to lower birthweight. Studies investigating this in humans show mixed results, which may be partially due to type, strength and timing of distress. In addition, the arterial vascular resistance measures often used as outcome measures do not detect smaller changes in placental volume blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effect of a specific stressor, with increased levels of stress early in pregnancy, on the fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 74 pregnant women with a congenital malformation in a previous fetus or child. Psychological distress was assessed twice, around 16 and 30 weeks' gestation. Psychometric measures were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance, and arousal. Placental circulation was examined at 30 weeks, using Doppler ultrasonography, primarily as fetoplacental volume blood flow in the umbilical vein, normalized for abdominal circumference; secondarily as vascular resistance measures, obtained from the umbilical and the uterine arteries. RESULTS: Maternal distress in second but not third trimester was associated with increased normalized fetoplacental blood flow (P-values 0.006 and 0.013 for score > mean for depression and intrusion, respectively. Post-hoc explorations suggested that a reduced birthweight/placental weight ratio may mediate this association. Psychological distress did not affect vascular resistance measures in the umbilical and uterine arteries, regardless of adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with a previous fetus or child with a congenital malformation, higher distress levels in second trimester were associated with third trimester fetoplacental blood flow that

  1. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chen, Liaobin, E-mail: lbchen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  2. Prenatal caffeine ingestion induces transgenerational neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in second generation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Lian; Shen, Lang; Kou, Hao; He, Zheng; Ping, Jie; Xu, Dan; Ma, Lu; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal caffeine ingestion induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome with alterations of glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes in adult first generation (F1) of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) rats, and the underlying mechanism is originated from a hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in utero. This study aims to investigate the transgenerational effects of this programming alteration in adult second generation (F2). Pregnant Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. Four groups in F2 were set according to the cross-mating between control and caffeine-induced IUGR rats. F2 were subjected to a fortnight ice water swimming stimulus on postnatal month 4, and blood samples were collected before and after stress. Results showed that the majority of the activities of HPA axis and phenotypes of glucose and lipid metabolism were altered in F2. Particularly, comparing with the control group, caffeine groups had an enhanced corticosterone levels after chronic stress. Compared with before stress, the serum glucose levels were increased in some groups whereas the triglyceride levels were decreased. Furthermore, total cholesterol gain rates were enhanced but the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol gain rates were decreased in most caffeine groups after stress. These transgenerational effects were characterized partially with gender and parental differences. Taken together, these results indicate that the reproductive and developmental toxicities and the neuroendocrine metabolic programming mechanism by prenatal caffeine ingestion have transgenerational effects in rats, which may help to explain the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and associated diseases in F2. - Highlights: • Caffeine-induced neuroendocrine metabolic programming of HPA has hereditary effect. • Caffeine

  3. Heightened fear in response to a safety cue and extinguished fear cue in a rat model of maternal immune activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan eSangha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation during pregnancy is an environmental risk factor for psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. Hence, changes in an array of behaviors, including behavioral flexibility, consistent with altered functioning of cortico-limbic circuits have been reported in rodent models of maternal immune activation. Surprisingly, previous studies have not examined the effect of maternal immune activation on the extinction of fear conditioning which depends on cortico-limbic circuits. Thus, we tested the effects of treating pregnant Long Evans rats with the viral mimetic polyI:C (gestational day 15; 4 mg/kg; i.v. on fear conditioning and extinction in the male offspring using two different tasks. In the first experiment, we observed no effect of polyI:C treatment on the acquisition or extinction of a classically conditioned fear memory in a non-discriminative auditory cue paradigm. However, polyI:C-treated offspring did increase contextual freezing during the recall of fear extinction in this non-discriminative paradigm. The second experiment utilized a recently developed task to explicitly test the ability of rats to discriminate among cues signifying fear, reward, and safety; a task that requires behavioral flexibility. To our surprise, polyI:C-treated rats acquired the task in a manner similar to saline-treated rats. However, upon subsequent extinction training, they showed significantly faster extinction of the freezing response to the fear cue. In contrast, during the extinction recall test, polyI:C-treated offspring showed enhanced freezing behavior before and after presentation of the fear cue, suggesting an impairment in their ability to regulate fear behavior. These behavioral results are integrated into the literature suggesting impairments in cortico-limbic brain function in the offspring of rats treated with polyI:C during pregnancy.

  4. Fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of HSP related genes in testes of pubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangfei; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Jinming; Wang, Jundong

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fluoride exposure damaged the male reproductive function; however, the cellular mechanism of fluoride-induced testicular toxicity is still unclear. In this study, twenty-two female pregnant Wistar rats were allotted randomly to two groups: control (deionized water) and sodium fluoride (NaF, contain F - : 67.86 mg/L) groups. After delivery, the dosage was continued for 15 weeks for puppies. Twelve rats in each group were tested at 6 and 9 (pubertal); 12 and 15 (mature) weeks of age. Our results suggested that organ coefficient of epididymis was significantly decreased in the mature (12 and 15 week-old) rats. Epididymal sperm abnormality and femur fluoride concentration were increased with the concomitant decrease in sperm motility and concentration in these experimental periods. Compared to the control, in the NaF group, the seminiferous tubules of each age were reduced in terms of diameter and thickness. The sperm cells were lost and shedding and finally disappeared after 9 weeks. mRNA and protein levels of HSP27 and 90 were decreased with a concomitant increase in HSP70 and HSF mRNA and protein levels in NaF exposed rats. The mRNA and protein levels of HSP27 and HSF (only mRNA) were significantly increased in NaF treated rats at 9 and 15 weeks of age, respectively. In summary, these results emphasize that NaF induces testicular and sperm abnormalities through the involvement of HSPs especially during the pubertal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The rat acute-phase protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin plays a central role in amifostine-mediated radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjana, Mihailovic; Goran, Poznanovic; Nevena, Grdovic; Melita, Vidakovic; Svetlana, Dinic; Ilijana, Grigorov; Desanka, Bogojevic, E-mail: mista@ibiss.bg.ac.r [Department of Molecular Biology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-09-15

    Previously we reported that elevated circulating concentrations of the acute-phase (AP) protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin ({alpha}{sub 2}M), either as typically occurring in pregnant female rats or after administration to male rats, provides radioprotection, displayed as 100% survival of experimental animals exposed to total-body irradiation with 6.7 Gy (LD{sub 50/30}) x-rays, that is as effective as that afforded by the synthetic radioprotector amifostine. The finding that amifostine administration induces a 45-fold increase in {alpha}{sub 2}M in the circulation led us to hypothesise that {alpha}{sub 2}M assumes an essential role in both natural and amifostine-mediated radioprotection in the rat. In the present work we examined the activation of cytoprotective mechanisms in rat hepatocytes after the exogenous administration of {alpha}{sub 2}M and amifostine. Our results showed that the IL6/JAK/STAT3 hepatoprotective signal pathway, described in a variety of liver-injury models, upregulated the {alpha}{sub 2}M gene in amifostine-pretreated animals. In both {alpha}{sub 2}M- and amifostine-pretreated rats we observed the activation of the Akt signalling pathways that mediate cellular survival. At the cellular level this was reflected as a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage that allowed for the rapid and complete restoration of liver mass and ultimately at the level of the whole organism the complete restoration of body weight. We conclude that the selective upregulation of {alpha}{sub 2}M plays a central role in amifostine-provided radioprotection.

  6. Local treatment of chloasma in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shperling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To assess the efficacy and safety of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration for the treatment of chloasma in pregnant women. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 pregnant women aged 18-36 (mean age: 24.7 with a normal course of pregnancy. The patients consulted a doctor in the spring, summer or fall complaining of focal skin hyperpigmentation on the face, chin and chest area. Ten patients (35.7% developed hyperpigmentation prior to their pregnancy and 18 women (64.3% - during the pregnancy. As of the consultation date, the pregnancy terms in all of the patients were 18-20 weeks. Chloasma was diagnosed by using dermatoscopy and skin examination with the Wood’s lamp. The patients were informed about the content and procedure of the study and gave their consent to take part in the study. Thin layers of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration were applied to the hyperpigmented skin of the patients and gently rubbed twice a day (in the morning and evening as topical treatment for four months. The treatment results were assessed taking into consideration the patient’s subjective assessment, study group structure depending on the clinical efficacy, percentage of adverse events, and survey results based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. To reveal any potential general toxicological effects of the treatment, hepatic samples, total blood count and coagulogram results were analyzed as a part of obstetrical and gynecologic care for pregnant women. Key findings. Positive dynamics of the following characteristics was revealed: subjective assessment of treatment results by the patients, clinical efficacy of treatment and life quality index. Therapeutic results were observed as early as after one month but not later than three months after the treatment began. The therapeutic efficacy was recorded in 92.9-96.4% of all cases after four months of treatment: pigment spots disappeared or

  7. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  8. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  9. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  10. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  11. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  12. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  13. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yao

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  14. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wang; Gan, Yu; Myers, Kristin M; Vink, Joy Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Hendon, Christine P

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.

  15. Health insurance, alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Slaughter of pregnant cattle in German abattoirs--current situation and prevalence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patric; Lücker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2016-06-07

    The slaughter of pregnant cattle and the fate of the foetuses are relatively new subjects in the field of animal welfare. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health (SCVPH), however, does not believe this topic to be a critical issue because of the hitherto supposed rare occurrence of this practice. Some previous studies though, contradict this assessment, emphasising its relevance to animal welfare. With regard to the heterogeneous study design of previous investigations, the objective of this study is to evaluate the current situation concerning the slaughter of pregnant cattle in different German abattoirs. Additionally, the prevalence was assessed semi-quantitatively on the basis of a cross-sectional, voluntary and anonymous survey that was conducted amongst senior veterinary students of the University of Leipzig from 2010 until 2013. Of 255 evaluable questionnaires, 157 (63.6%) mention the slaughter of pregnant cattle, corresponding to 76.9% of all visited abattoirs. Slaughter of pregnant cattle is reported often (>10% of females) in 6 (3.8%), frequently (1-10% of females) in 56 (35.7%), and rarely (current situation is indispensable to ensure the high standards in animal welfare in Germany and Europe.

  18. Trends in hospitalizations of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States: 2004 through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Alexander C; Datwani, Hema M; Flowers, Lisa M; Ellington, Sascha R; Jamieson, Denise J; Kourtis, Athena P

    2016-10-01

    With the development and widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected women live longer, healthier lives. Previous research has shown that, since the adoption of combination antiretroviral therapy in the United States, rates of morbidity and adverse obstetric outcomes remained higher for HIV-infected pregnant women compared with HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Monitoring trends in the outcomes these women experience is essential, as recommendations for this special population continue to evolve with the progress of HIV treatment and prevention options. We conducted an analysis comparing rates of hospitalizations and associated outcomes among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in the United States from 2004 through 2011. We used cross-sectional hospital discharge data for girls and women age 15-49 from the 2004, 2007, and 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of US hospital discharges. Demographic characteristics, morbidity outcomes, and time trends were compared using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression. Analyses were weighted to produce national estimates. In 2011, there were 4751 estimated pregnancy hospitalizations and 3855 delivery hospitalizations for HIV-infected pregnant women; neither increased since 2004. Compared with those of HIV-uninfected women, pregnancy hospitalizations of HIV-infected women were more likely to be longer, be in the South and Northeast, be covered by public insurance, and incur higher charges (all P pregnant women with HIV infection had higher rates for many adverse outcomes. Compared to 2004, hospitalizations of HIV-infected pregnant women in 2011 had higher odds of gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.84), preeclampsia/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.24), viral/mycotic/parasitic infections (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1

  19. Characteristics of transplacental lead transfer in rat dams and fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Miller, R.G.; Kowal, N.E.; Kelty, K.C.; Doerger, J.U.; Mills, T.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the dose resulting from lead exposure during the critical periods of brain development during gestation by determining: (1) if blood lead concentration in rat dams is affected by pregnancy status or duration of lead exposure, (2) if lead concentration in fetuses is associated with the duration of dam exposure, (3) the rates of lead absorption and elimination in pregnant and nonpregnant dams; and (4) the effect that prebreeding exposure on lead kinetics in the dam and upon fetus blood lead concentrations. The results of experiments in which the dams' drinking water contained 50 mg/L lead indicate blood lead levels (after normalizing by water consumption on a body weight basis) of pregnant rats are significantly higher than blood lead levels of non-pregnant rats. Statistical differences in blood lead levels were observed by day 15 of gestation and continue through day 20 of gestation. These blood lead differences are not due to lead treatment prior to breeding as seen when comparing Figure 1 and Figure 2. The blood lead levels of the fetuses at day 20 of gestation were 50-60% higher than that of the corresponding dams. The results from the latter two phases were ambiguous, due to large variability in individual animal absorption and elimination rates. However, the following observations can be made. Preexposure to lead does not affect the percent of lead transferred from the dams' blood to the fetuses. The rate of elimination of lead from the dams' blood does not appear to be affected by prebreeding exposure to lead or by the status of pregnancy. The fraction of the 203 Pb dose transferred to the fetus increases dramatically toward the end of gestation. The data suggest that lead absorption from the gut of pregnant rats is higher than that for nonpregnant rats

  20. EFFECTS ON THE FETAL RAT INTESTINE OF MATERNAL MALNUTRITION AND EXPOSURE TO NITROFEN (2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL-P-NITROPHENYL ETHER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of maternal protein-energy malnutrition and exposure to nitrofen on selected aspects of intestinal morphology and function were studied in the fetal rat. Pregnant rats were fed, throughout gestation, diets containing 24% or 6% casein as the sole source of protein. Red...

  1. Aluminium chloride impairs long-term memory and downregulates cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Jin, Cuihong; Lu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; Liu, Qiufang; Chen, Rong; Bai, Chunyu; Zhang, Di; Zheng, Linlin; Du, Yanqiu; Cai, Yuan

    2014-09-02

    Epidemiological investigations have indicated that aluminium (Al) is an important environmental neurotoxicant that may be involved in the aetiology of the cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, exposure to Al is known to cause neurobehavioural abnormalities in animals. Previous studies demonstrated that Al impaired early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in vivo and in vitro. Our previous research revealed that Al could impair long-term memory via the impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in vivo. However, the exact mechanism by which Al impairs long-term memory has been poorly studied thus far. This study was designed not only to observe the effects of subchronic Al treatment on long-term memory and hippocampal ultrastructure but also to explore a possible underlying mechanism (involving the cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling pathway) in the hippocampus of rats.. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Neonatal rats were exposed to Al by parental lactation for 3 weeks and then fed with distilled water containing 0, 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% Al chloride (AlCl3) for 3 postnatal months. The levels of Al in the blood and hippocampus were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The shuttle-box test was performed to detect long-term memory. The hippocampus was collected for ultrastructure observation, and the level of cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling was examined. The results showed that the Al concentrations in the blood and hippocampus of Al-treated rats were higher than those of the control rats. Al may impair the long-term memory of rats. Hippocampal cAMP, cPKA, pCREB, BDNF and c-jun expression decreased significantly, and the neuronal and synaptic ultrastructure exhibited pathological changes after Al treatment. These results indicated that Al may induce long-term memory damage in rats by inhibiting cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling and altering the synaptic and neuronal ultrastructure in the hippocampus. Copyright

  2. Aluminium chloride impairs long-term memory and downregulates cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Jin, Cuihong; Lu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jinghua; Wu, Shengwen; Liu, Qiufang; Chen, Rong; Bai, Chunyu; Zhang, Di; Zheng, Linlin; Du, Yanqiu; Cai, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations have indicated that aluminium (Al) is an important environmental neurotoxicant that may be involved in the aetiology of the cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, exposure to Al is known to cause neurobehavioural abnormalities in animals. Previous studies demonstrated that Al impaired early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in vivo and in vitro. Our previous research revealed that Al could impair long-term memory via the impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in vivo. However, the exact mechanism by which Al impairs long-term memory has been poorly studied thus far. This study was designed not only to observe the effects of subchronic Al treatment on long-term memory and hippocampal ultrastructure but also to explore a possible underlying mechanism (involving the cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling pathway) in the hippocampus of rats.. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Neonatal rats were exposed to Al by parental lactation for 3 weeks and then fed with distilled water containing 0, 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% Al chloride (AlCl 3 ) for 3 postnatal months. The levels of Al in the blood and hippocampus were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The shuttle–box test was performed to detect long-term memory. The hippocampus was collected for ultrastructure observation, and the level of cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling was examined. The results showed that the Al concentrations in the blood and hippocampus of Al-treated rats were higher than those of the control rats. Al may impair the long-term memory of rats. Hippocampal cAMP, cPKA, pCREB, BDNF and c-jun expression decreased significantly, and the neuronal and synaptic ultrastructure exhibited pathological changes after Al treatment. These results indicated that Al may induce long-term memory damage in rats by inhibiting cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling and altering the synaptic and neuronal ultrastructure in the hippocampus

  3. A novel marker in pregnant with preeclampsia: renalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Yıldırım, Tolga; Yılmaz, Rahmi; Erdem, Yunus

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by an increase in high blood pressure and decrease in GFR and proteinuria, however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Renalase is a recently discovered protein implicated in regulation of blood pressure in humans. Plasma concentrations of serum renalase were measured in healthy controls, healthy pregnant and pregnant with preeclampsia matched for age, gestational age, in the third trimester of pregnancy. Serum renalase levels were compared in pregnant with and without preeclampsia and non-pregnant controls. Factors associated with serum renalase levels in pregnancies were also evaluated. In healthy pregnant serum renalase levels were significantly higher than in controls. However, pregnant with preeclampsia had lower renalase levels than healthy controls. Serum renalase levels were inversely associated with blood pressure levels and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. The results indicated that the development of preeclampsia in pregnant is accompanied by altered serum renalase levels. High blood pressure and kidney damage that characterize this disorder are mediated at least in part by low renalase levels.

  4. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aguilar-Cordero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.

  5. Advancing HIV research with pregnant women: navigating challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2016-09-24

    Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.

  6. Prevalence and impact of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant women in central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeld, Andreas; Feldt, Torsten; Tufa, Tafese B; Orth, Hans M; Fuchs, André; Mesfun, Million G; Pfäfflin, Frieder; Nordmann, Tamara; Breuer, Matthias; Hampl, Monika; Häussinger, Dieter

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major global public health issue and omnipresent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Moreover, STIs and HIV in pregnant women can harm the unborn child. In this study, we systematically investigated the prevalence of HIV, relevant STIs and vaginal group B streptococcus colonization among pregnant women presenting at Asella Teaching Hospital in central Ethiopia and their effect on perinatal mortality. A follow-up was performed six weeks after delivery. A total of 580 women were included, of which 26.6% tested positive for at least one pathogen ( Chlamydia trachomatis 9.8%, trichomoniasis 5.3%, hepatitis B 5.3%, gonorrhoea 4.3%, group B streptococcus 2.4%, syphilis 2.2%, HIV 2.1%). None of the HIV infections were previously undiagnosed, indicating effective HIV screening activities in the region. Follow-up data were available for 473 (81.6%) children, of which 37 (7.8%) were stillborn or died within the first six weeks of life. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis and recruitment at obstetric ward (versus antenatal care) were associated with mortality. High prevalence of STIs in pregnant women and their impact on the unborn child demonstrate the need for screening and treatment programmes in order to prevent perinatal mortality.

  7. Intradermal injection of PPD as a novel approach of immunotherapy in anogenital warts in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eassa, Bayoumy I; Abou-Bakr, Amany A; El-Khalawany, Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    Immunotherapy for treatment of recalcitrant warts was used through different modalities including intralesional injection of purified protein derivative (PPD), which is an extract of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, used for testing exposure to tuberculin protein, either from a previous vaccination or from the environment. This method is used to evaluate the efficacy of a new approach of intradermal injection of PPD in the treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women, aged 20-35 years, and presented with anogenital warts were enrolled in this study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) typing was done using the GP5+/GP6+ PCR assay. The patients were treated with weekly injections of PPD given intradermally in the forearms, and evaluated for the response regularly. HPV type-6 was the predominant genotype (67.5%). Overall, the improvement in this study was 85% and was related to the extent of tuberculin reactivity. Nineteen (47.5%) patients demonstrated complete clearance, 15 (37.5%) had partial response, and three (7.5%) had minimal response. Three (7.5%) cases did not respond to treatment. Side effects were minimal and insignificant. Treatment of anogenital warts in pregnant women with intradermal injection of PPD was found to be a unique, safe, and effective modality of immunotherapy. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Reagent strip testing is not sensitive for the screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Chongsomchai, Chompilas; Chumworathayee, Bundit; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada

    2002-08-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the diagnostic performance of the reagent strip in screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women using urine culture as a gold standard. This study comprised 204 asymptomatic pregnant women who attended their first antenatal care at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University from April 1, 1999 to June 30, 1999. Women with symptoms of urinary tract infection, antibiotic treatment within the previous 7 days, pregnancy-induced hypertension, bleeding per vagina and history of urinary tract diseases were excluded. Urine specimens were collected by clean catched midstream urine technique for urinalysis, reagent strip test and urine culture. Diagnostic performance of reagent strip in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value was analyzed. Urine reagent strip test had a sensitivity of 13.9 per cent, a specificity of 95.6 per cent, a positive predictive value of 46.1 per cent, a negative predictive value of 80.6 per cent in detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  9. Presence of bacteria in the endometrium and placentomes of pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial invasion of the bovine uterus during the postpartum period occurs in most cows, but the general consensus is that these bacteria are eliminated before the next pregnancy. The pregnant uterus has therefore hitherto been considered a sterile environment, but this assumption has now been challenged by recent studies in humans, which indicate that bacteria can be present in the placenta of term pregnancies without causing abortion. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether bacteria are present in the uterus of pregnant cows. Specimens were taken from the inter-caruncular endometrium and from placentomes of slaughtered pregnant cows (n = 43) and subjected to histology, fluorescence in situ hybridization and massive parallel sequencing. Bacteria were observed in the tissue from 90.7% (39/43) of the cows by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii and Trueperella pyogenes were located within the endometrium, on the endometrial surface and in the caruncular stroma, but their presence was not associated with inflammation. Data from massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from a subset of 15 cows indicated that the most abundant bacteria were the families Porphyromonadaceae, followed by Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Our results indicate that the bovine uterus is not a sterile environment during pregnancy as previously assumed and that a cow can carry a pregnancy despite the presence of a few potentially pathogenic bacteria in the uterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving knowledge of antenatal care (ANC) among pregnant women: a field trial in central Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, E; Parker, E

    2005-01-01

    The need for reducing maternal mortality has become a paramount concern in developing countries including Indonesia. One of the strategies for reducing maternal mortality in Indonesia is the provision of antenatal care (ANC). Previous studies have reported the advantages and disadvantages of ANC. The purpose of this study is to ascertain if a new approach to ANC can improve pregnant women's knowledge of its benefits. An experimental design with 60 pregnant women from 10 cluster villages is used in this study. The intervention group received the new approach to ANC, while the control group received routine ANC. The findings show that the improvement of knowledge in the intervention group is significant particularly in the knowledge about healthy pregnancy (p=0.012), pregnancy complications (p=0.01), safe birth (p=0.01) and taking care of the newborn (p=0.012). The improvement of knowledge was significantly influenced by the respondents' educational back ground (p=0.002) and socio-economic status (p=0.027). This study recommends that the new approach to ANC be considered to educate pregnant women regarding safe birth and it is considered as one of the strategies that may be adopted to reduce maternal mortality.

  11. Review of standards of protection for pregnant workers and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Berard, P.; Harrison, J.D.; Melo, D.R.; Nosske, D.; Stabin, M.; Challeton-de Vathaire, C.

    2007-01-01

    The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards (BSS) make clear that the embryo and fetus should be regarded as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are or may be pregnant. The BSS note that the embryo and fetus should be 'afforded the same broad level of protection as required for members of the public'. Similar guidance is included in national legislation in a number of countries. On the basis of a review of such guidance, it was concluded that although the recommendations provided in the BSS are in general agreement with the international consensus on approaches to the protection of pregnant workers and their offspring, more specific supporting guidance is needed. The IAEA is preparing a technical document that extends and clarifies previous advice and considers the practical application of the advice for workers in different types of workplace, for which important potential routes of exposure for the pregnant worker have been identified. This action is being carried out under the framework of the International Action Plan for Occupational Radiation Protection. (authors)

  12. Health-related quality of life of pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'alba, Valesca; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia Maria; Krahe, Cláudio; Bruch, Juliana Paula; Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Barros, Sérgio Gabriel Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on quality of life has not been thoroughly investigated. To measure health-related quality of life of third-trimester pregnant women with heartburn and regurgitation. Methods Data on obstetric history, heartburn and regurgitation frequency and intensity, history of heartburn and regurgitation and health-related quality of life were collected of 82 third-trimester pregnant women. Sixty-two (76%) women had heartburn, and 58 (71%), regurgitation; 20 were asymptomatic. Mean gestational age was 33.8±3.7 weeks; 35 (43%) women had a family history of heartburn and/or regurgitation, and 57 (70%) were asymptomatic before pregnancy. The following quality of life concepts were significantly reduced: physical problems and social functioning for heartburn; physical problems and emotional functioning for regurgitation. There was agreement between heartburn in present and previous pregnancies. Heartburn and/or regurgitation affected health-related quality of life of third trimester pregnant women.

  13. HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HEARTBURN AND REGURGITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valesca DALL'ALBA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Heartburn and regurgitation frequently occur in the third trimester of pregnancy, but their impact on q