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Sample records for previously observed age-related

  1. Pegaptanib: choroidal neovascularization in patients with age-related macular degeneration and previous arterial thromboembolic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Di Bartolo, Emanuele; Brue, Claudia; Cappello, Ezio; Furino, Claudio; Giuffrida, Sebastiano; Imparato, Manuela; Reibaldi, Michele

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and the rate of side effects of the pegylated aptamer pegaptanib in the treatment of patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and a history of previous arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs). Twenty-three eyes of 23 patients with subfoveal CNV due to AMD and cerebrovascular accidents (n = 12) and myocardial infarction (n = 11) in the previous 6 months received intravitreal pegaptanib 0.3 mg according to a pro re nata regimen and were followed for 12 months. The paired Student t test was used to evaluate mean changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; primary outcome measure) and central foveal thickness (CFT). The mean patient age was 71.5 ± 4.6 years; there were 14 women and 9 men. The CNV was type 1, 2, and 3 in 18, 3, and 2 eyes, respectively. The mean BCVA improved from 0.67 ± 0.23 logMAR at baseline to 0.52 ± 0.31 logMAR at the end of 12-month follow-up (p = 0.044). Thirty-five percent of patients achieved ≥3 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study lines improvement at 12 months. Mean CFT at baseline (381 ± 111 µm) decreased to 304 ± 82 µm at 12 months (p = 0.008). Patients received a mean of 4.3 ± 1.3 (range 3-7) injections. No systemic or ocular side effects occurred; no patient experienced further ATEs. Intravitreal pegaptanib can be considered a viable treatment option for patients with AMD-related CNV who are at high risk of ATEs.

  2. Worsening anatomic outcomes following aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in eyes previously well controlled with ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudleman E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nudleman,1 Jeremy D Wolfe,2,3 Maria A Woodward,4 Yoshihiro Yonekawa,2,3 George A Williams,2,3 Tarek S Hassan2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2Beaumont Eye Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3Associated Retinal Consultants, Royal Oak, 4Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included. Results: A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity. Conclusion: Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab. Keywords: anti

  3. Age-Related Differences in Corticospinal Excitability during Observation and Motor Imagery of Balance Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Audrey A; Ruffieux, Jan; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Postural control declines across adult lifespan. Non-physical balance training has been suggested as an alternative to improve postural control in frail/immobilized elderly people. Previous studies showed that this kind of training can improve balance control in young and older adults. However, it is unclear whether the brain of young and older adults is activated differently during mental simulations of balance tasks. For this purpose, soleus (SOL) and tibialis motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and SOL H-reflexes were elicited while 15 elderly (mean ± SD = 71 ± 4.6 years) and 15 young participants (mean ± SD = 27 ± 4.6 years) mentally simulated static and dynamic balance tasks using motor imagery (MI), action observation (AO) or the combination of AO and MI (AO + MI). Young subjects displayed significant modulations of MEPs that depended on the kind of mental simulation and the postural task. Elderly adults also revealed differences between tasks, but not between mental simulation conditions. Furthermore, the elderly displayed larger MEP facilitation during mental simulation (AGE-GROUP; F (1,28) = 5.9; p = 0.02) in the SOL muscle compared to the young and a task-dependent modulation of the tibialis background electromyography (bEMG) activity. H-reflex amplitudes and bEMG in the SOL showed neither task- nor age-dependent modulation. As neither mental simulation nor balance tasks modulated H-reflexes and bEMG in the SOL muscle, despite large variations in the MEP-amplitudes, there seems to be an age-related change in the internal cortical representation of balance tasks. Moreover, the modulation of the tibialis bEMG in the elderly suggests that aging partially affects the ability to inhibit motor output.

  4. Improved word recognition for observers with age-related maculopathies using compensation filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri B.

    1988-01-01

    A method for improving word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies, which cause a loss of central vision, is discussed. It is found that the use of individualized compensation filters based on an person's normalized contrast sensitivity function can improve word recognition for people with age-related maculopathies. It is shown that 27-70 pct more magnification is needed for unfiltered words compared to filtered words. The improvement in word recognition is positively correlated with the severity of vision loss.

  5. 36-Month Evaluation of Intravitreous Aflibercept Injection for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients Previously Treated With Ranibizumab or Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Felipe F; Silva, Fabiana Q; Srivastava, Sunil K; Ehlers, Justis P; Schachat, Andrew P; Singh, Rishi P

    2018-03-01

    In the ASSESS study, patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration transitioned from other anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapies to intravitreous aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY) injections (IAI). The purpose was to determine the 36-month outcomes following the change from a fixed 24-month IAI dosing regimen to a routine clinical practice regimen. Patients were treated with a fixed bimonthly regimen for the first 2 years. In the third year, patients were managed according to routine clinical practice. A total of 18 patients completed the 36 months and were considered for statistical analyses. At 36 months, a nonsignificant decrease of -37.8 μm in central subfield thickness and a nonsignificant gain of 5.8 letters from baseline were observed. Despite the significant visual and anatomical gains observed in the 2 years of fixed-dosing IAI, there was gradual decline in these improvements when patients were transitioned to a variable regimen. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:179-185.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. IUE observations of the chromospheric activity-age relation in young solar-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Except for the synoptic observations of the chromospheric Ca II H-K lines by Wilson (1978), in which he sought evidence for magnetic activity cycles, there is still scant data on stellar activity, especially at UV and X-ray wavelengths where 10 5 K TRs and 10 6 - 10 7 K coronae are expected to radiate. This paper presents new UV data, obtained with the IUE spacecraft, for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The stars are of spectral type F6 V - G1 V; on the basis of their high Li content, they range in age from 0.1 to 2.8 Gyr. The purpose is to study the evolution of TR and chromospheric emission with stellar age, and also the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes. (Auth.)

  7. A prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study to investigate the daily treatment practice of ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, F. van; Evers-Birkenkamp, K.U.; Lith-Verhoeven, J.J. van; Jong-Hesse, Y. de; Hoppenreijs, V.P.T.; Hommersom, R.F.; Scholten, A.M.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The HELIOS (Health Economics with Lucentis in Observational Settings) study was designed on request of the Dutch Health Authority for an observational study to assess the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) in daily practice.

  8. A prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study to investigate the daily treatment practice of ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Freekje; Evers-Birkenkamp, Kim U.; van Lith-Verhoeven, Janneke J. C.; de Jong-Hesse, Yvonne; Hoppenreijs, Vincent P. T.; Hommersom, Richard F.; Scholten, Agnes M.; Hoyng, Carel B.; Klaver, Johannes H. J.; Klaver, J. H. J.; Hoyng, C. B.; Raijmakers, A. J.; van Lith-Verhoeven, J. J. C.; Rulo, A. H. F.; Verbraak, F. D.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Hommersom, C. F.; de Jong-Hesse, Y.; Bosch-Driessen, E. H.; Smeets, M. H.; Gonçalves, A.; Klomp, H. J.; Hoppenreijs, V. P. T.; Dito, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The HELIOS (Health Economics with Lucentis in Observational Settings) study was designed on request of the Dutch Health Authority for an observational study to assess the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) in daily practice. The HELIOS

  9. Clinical observation of phacoemulsification in patients with previous trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical effect of transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification in cataract patients who had undergone different kinds of glaucoma filtration surgeries.METHODS: Totally 43 cases(50 eyes, in which 23 patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(group A, 26 eyesand 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma(group B, 24 eyes, all had undergone glaucoma filtration surgery for more than 6 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit lamp, gonioscope, corneal endothelial cell counts, etc., were done before surgery.And transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification combined with artificial lens implantation operation were preformed, postoperative follow-up of 3 to 12 months, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell counts and vision field, etc. were observed and recorded.RESULTS: The visual acuity of 50 eyes(100%increased with different degree postoperatively, 41 eyes(82%with postoperative visual acuity ≥0.3; average preoperative intraocular pressure: group A 18.08±5.08mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kpa, group B 14.48±3.52mmHg; Postoperative follow-up average intraocular pressure: group A 13.65±3.51mmHg, group B 14.28±3.41 mmHg, intraocular pressure changed significantly pre and post-operation in group A(PP>0.05; Postoperative intraocular pressure of 1 eye in group A and 3 eyes in group B rose within three days post-operation, the intraocular pressure fluctuated between 21-33mmHg, with drug therapy and drug withdral when intraocular pressure epistrophy; Intraocular pressure was stable in the follow-up process.Corneal endothelial cell density: pre-operation group A was 2 293.57±352.24(cells/mm2, group B 2 658.14±458.69(cells/mm2, post- operation group A 2 175.95±379.16(cells/mm2, group B 2 442.97±477.30(cells/mm2, cell loss rate: 5.13% in group A, and 8.10% in group B. Postoperative visual acuity was related to vision field damage in patients, the more visual field damage, the longer the duration

  10. A prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study to investigate the daily treatment practice of ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Freekje; Evers-Birkenkamp, Kim U; van Lith-Verhoeven, Janneke J C; de Jong-Hesse, Yvonne; Hoppenreijs, Vincent P T; Hommersom, Richard F; Scholten, Agnes M; Hoyng, Carel B; Klaver, Johannes H J

    2015-03-01

    The HELIOS (Health Economics with Lucentis in Observational Settings) study was designed on request of the Dutch Health Authority for an observational study to assess the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) in daily practice. The HELIOS study was a 2-year prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study involving 14 sites. Patients with wet AMD were enrolled and observed for a period of 24 months. The data were collected at baseline and at the visits closest around the time-points 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after inclusion. Treatment with ranibizumab resulted in prevention of vision loss. The mean ETDRS score increased from 45.1 letters at baseline to 48.5 letters at 24 months. This was achieved with a mean of 7.8 injections over 24 months. Stabilization of visual acuity was also reflected by the scores on the quality of life EQ-5D questionnaire, which did not significantly change over the study period. The more subjective EQ-VAS questionnaire showed an overall improvement. The VFQ-25 questionnaire was also mostly stable over time. After 24 months, 32.2% of the patients gained ≥1 letter and 17.1% gained >15 letters. Patients completing the loading phase were better responders, as demonstrated by increased long-term visual acuity. In addition, ranibizumab was well tolerated and had a safety profile commonly seen in routine clinical practice. This study demonstrates that also in daily practice ranibizumab was effective in preventing vision loss over a period of 24 months. No new safety findings were identified. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Observation of curative effect of intravitreal injection of conbercept in wet age-related macular degeneration: Optical coherence tomography analysis after injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Tan, Ying; Li, Chaowei; Liu, Yi; Lu, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of intravitreal injection of conbercept in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was observed to measure the changes of anatomical changes of central macular thickness (CMT) and the area and volume of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) uplift. Fifteen patients (15 eyes) with wet AMD were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent intravitreal injection of conbercept of 0.05 mL once. After 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months, OCT and BCVA were used to examine and to compare with the preoperative and postoperative central macular thickness and RPE uplift area. BCVA (median) increased respectively from 0.12 ± 0.13 to 0.21 ± 0.15 at 1 week, to 0.90 ± 0.25 at 1 month, to 0.38 ± 0.17 at 3 months (p macular decreased from 500 ± 25 μm to 256 ± 19 μm, 221 ± 29 μm, and 215 ± 14 μm, respectively. The normal physiological structure and stratification of the macular area were clear gradually. Conbercept treatment of wet AMD can significantly improve visual acuity, after 1 month up to the plateau, 3 months of continuous drug injection can make the vision maintained at a high stage, and macular retinal normal structural morphology recovery is good, the treatment has no obvious adverse reactions, and with good security. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clinical observations on the use of new anti-VEGF drug, conbercept, in age-related macular degeneration therapy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui C

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chunmei Cui, Hong Lu Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Beijing, China Purpose: Conbercept is a new anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF drug approved for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Although this novel drug has been widely used in clinic, unlike other anti-VEGF drugs, validation and consensus on its method of clinical application and clinical safety have not yet been achieved.Methods: Relevant literature was searched on PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Internet, and Wanfang Data. Stata 12.0 was used for data analysis. Random- and fixed-effect models were employed to evaluate heterogeneity. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central retinal thickness (CRT were utilized to measure the improvement of AMD patients.Results: In this study, we analyzed conbercept administration and compared its application with other control clinical methods for AMD treatment. Ranibizumab, triamcinolone, and traditional transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT were administered in the control group. No differences were found in the BCVA and CRT improvement between the groups treated with conbercept and ranibizumab. However, the conbercept group had a lower serum VEGF level. After 3 months of treatment, conbercept led to a more significant BCVA and CRT improvement than triamcinolone. A more considerable BCVA improvement was observed in the group treated with conbercept than in the group treated with TTT. Moreover, even 6 months after the treatment, the effect of conbercept on CRT improvement was still more pronounced than that of TTT.Conclusion: In AMD patients, conbercept exerts considerably more positive effects on the long-term BCVA and CRT improvement than triamcinolone and TTT. The serum VEGF level in the conbercept group was lower than that in the ranibizumab group. Keywords: AMD, VEGF, conbercept, BCVA, CRT

  13. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  14. Age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  16. [A new possible strategy for prevention and preventive treatment of age-related macular degeneration resting on recent clinical and pathophysiological observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2009-03-15

    The beneficial effect achieved by the treatment of endothelial dysfunction in chronic cardiovascular diseases is already an evidence belonging to the basic treatment of the disease. Given the fact that the vascular system is uniform and consubstantial both physiologically, pathophysiologically and in terms of therapy, and that it plays a key role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a disease leading to tragic loss of vision with its etiology and therapy being unknown--endothelial dysfunction should be treated. The pleiotropic effects of ACE-inhibitors, AR-blockers and statins and third generation beta blockers help to restitute the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, the balance of growth factors and their inhibitors, pro- and anti-inflammatory substances and prothrombotic and fibrinolytic factors, inhibit the formation of oxidative stress and its harmful effects; while aspirin with its pleiotropic effects acting as an antiaggregation substance on platelets helps to set the endothelial layer back to its normal balance regarding its vasodilating, antithrombotic, antiadhesive and anti-inflammatory functions; trimetazidine as an adjuvant agent helps to normalize, to restore the disturbed metabolism of the retinal tissue functioning insufficiently, in the end. The angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan with its peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist effect inhibits the development of choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) and improves it clinically favourably. The third generation beta adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol and nebivolol as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist pioglitazone elicit their antioxidant vascular protective effects mitochondrially. For the above reasons it is suggested that, as a part of long term primary and/or secondary prevention, the following groups of patients with AMD receive--taking into

  17. Low temperature magneto-morphological characterisation of coronene and the resolution of previously observed unexplained phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potticary, Jason; Boston, Rebecca; Vella-Zarb, Liana; Few, Alex; Bell, Christopher; Hall, Simon R.

    2016-12-01

    The polyaromatic hydrocarbon coronene has been the molecule of choice for understanding the physical properties of graphene for over a decade. The modelling of the latter by the former was considered to be valid, as since it was first synthesised in 1932, the physical behaviour of coronene has been determined extremely accurately. We recently discovered however, an unforeseen polymorph of coronene, which exists as an enantiotrope with the previously observed crystal structure. Using low-temperature magnetisation and crystallographic measurements, we show here for the first time that the electronic and magnetic properties of coronene depend directly on the temperature at which it is observed, with hysteretic behaviour exhibited between 300 K and 100 K. Furthermore we determine that this behaviour is a direct result of the appearance and disappearance of the newly-discovered polymorph during thermal cycling. Our results not only highlight the need for theoretical models of graphene to take into account this anomalous behaviour at low temperatures, but also explain puzzling experimental observations of coronene dating back over 40 years.

  18. Directed Research in Bone Discipline: Refining Previous Research Observations for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mass density, as a sole index, is an insufficient surrogate for fracture; Clinical Practice Guidelines using bone mass density (both World Health Organization and FRAX) are not specific for complicated subjects such as young, healthy persons following prolonged exposure to skeletal unloading (i.e. an attribute of spaceflight); Research data suggest that spaceflight induces changes to astronaut bones that could be profound, possibly irreversible and unlike age-related bone loss on Earth.; There is a need to objectively assess factors across human physiology that are also influenced by spaceflight (e.g., muscle) that contribute to fracture risk. Some of these objective assessments may require innovative technologies, analyses and modeling.; Astronauts are also exposed to novel situations that may overload their bones highlighting a need integrate biomechanics of physical activities into risk assessments.; As we accumulate data, which reflects the biomechanical competence of bone under specific mechanically-loaded scenarios (even activities of daily living), BONE expects Bone Fracture Module to be more sensitive and/or have less uncertainty in its assessments of fracture probability.; Fracture probability drives the requirement for countermeasures. Level of evidence will unlikely be obtained; hence, the Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (like a Data Safety Monitoring Board) will provide the recommendations.

  19. Age-related synaptic loss of the medial olivocochlear efferent innervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Angela

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related functional decline of the nervous system is consistently observed, though cellular and molecular events responsible for this decline remain largely unknown. One of the most prevalent age-related functional declines is age-related hearing loss (presbycusis, a major cause of which is the loss of outer hair cells (OHCs and spiral ganglion neurons. Previous studies have also identified an age-related functional decline in the medial olivocochlear (MOC efferent system prior to age-related loss of OHCs. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that this functional decline of the MOC efferent system is due to age-related synaptic loss of the efferent innervation of the OHCs. To this end, we used a recently-identified transgenic mouse line in which the expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP, under the control of neuron-specific elements from the thy1 gene, permits the visualization of the synaptic connections between MOC efferent fibers and OHCs. In this model, there was a dramatic synaptic loss between the MOC efferent fibers and the OHCs in older mice. However, age-related loss of efferent synapses was independent of OHC status. These data demonstrate for the first time that age-related loss of efferent synapses may contribute to the functional decline of the MOC efferent system and that this synaptic loss is not necessary for age-related loss of OHCs.

  20. Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly. AMD is diagnosed based on characteristic retinal findings in individuals older than 50. Early detection and treatment are critical in increasing the likelihood of retaining good and functional vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The period-age relation for cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    The list of 119 cepheid-members of 55 clusters and associations of the Magellanic Clouds, the Galaxy, and M31 is given. The period-age relation is found from the data on 64 cepheids in 29 clusters for which the age determinations are available, the ages of extragalactic clusters were determined mainly from their integral colours. The U-B colours are found to be of much better age parameters than the B-V ones. The composite period-age relation agrees well with the theoretical one. The observed dispersion of the period-age relation leads to an estimate of the age dispersion about 1x10 7 years in the associations. Some peculiarities of the cepheids with the shortest periods amongst others in the same clusters are probably explained if they are overtone pulsators. The period-age relation may be used for an investigation of the recent history of star formation in the galaxies. This relation allows to determine the age gradient across the spiral arm in M31 which is in agreement with the density wave theory predictions. The distribution of cepheids in our Galaxy and neighbouring galaxies is consistent with the conception of star formation lasting for some dozen million years in cells with a dimension of some hundreds of parsecs

  2. Age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  3. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lily K; Eaton, Angie

    2013-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and the prevalence of the disease increases exponentially with every decade after age 50 years. It is a multifactorial disease involving a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, metabolic, and functional factors. Besides smoking, hypertension, obesity, and certain dietary habits, a growing body of evidence indicates that inflammation and the immune system may play a key role in the development of the disease. AMD may progress from the early form to the intermediate form and then to the advanced form, where two subtypes exist: the nonneovascular (dry) type and the neovascular (wet) type. The results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study have shown that for the nonneovascular type of AMD, supplementation with high-dose antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and β-carotene) and zinc is recommended for those with the intermediate form of AMD in one or both eyes or with advanced AMD or vision loss due to AMD in one eye. As for the neovascular type of the advanced AMD, the current standard of therapy is intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. In addition, lifestyle and dietary modifications including improved physical activity, reduced daily sodium intake, and reduced intake of solid fats, added sugars, cholesterol, and refined grain foods are recommended. To date, no study has demonstrated that AMD can be cured or effectively prevented. Clearly, more research is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology as well as to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE AGE RELATED CHANGES OF THE CERVIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjushree Chakravarty

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Disease of the cervix is a common clinical condition in females, worldwide and especially in a developing country like India. The study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the cervix. AIM The study was done to observe the age related changes in the cervix and compare the same with the different studies done by the previous workers around the world so as to help clinicians to diagnose the pathologies of this part of the female reproductive system better. MATERIALS AND METHOD The specimens were divided into three groups viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal. Twenty specimens were collected of each group. The results were statistically analysed and ‘t’ test was employed to find out the significant difference between the mean value. SUMMARY A study of the 60 specimens collected were done to find the morphological parameters of each group viz. pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-menopausal and the findings of each group were compared to one another and were related to the finding of previous workers. CONCLUSION The study showed that there were certain differences in the morphology of the three groups and these differences tallied with that of the previous workers.

  6. Clinical and social characteristics associated with reduced visual acuity at presentation in Australian patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from a long-term observational data set. The Fight Retinal Blindness! Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vuong; Daien, Vincent; Guymer, Robyn H; McAllister, Ian L; Morlet, Nigel; Barthelmes, Daniel; Gillies, Mark C

    2018-04-01

    Identifying variables that influence presenting visual acuity (VA) in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) is important because it is a strong predictor of long-term outcomes. To assess the clinical and social characteristics associated with low presenting VA in nAMD patients. The present study is a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective, observational database. We identified 3242 treatment-naïve patients from 54 Australian practices in the Fight Retinal Blindness! registry. Age, gender, ethnicity and VA were recorded at the baseline visit. Socio-economic status was determined using the Australian Bureau of Statistics socio-economic indexes for areas. Association between clinical and socio-economic characteristics with presenting VA was identified. Poor VA (≤35 letters) in the presenting eye was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.33 for patients aged ≥80 years vs. <80 years [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.04, 1.71]), treatment at a public practice (AOR: 1.91 for public vs. private practices [95% CI: 1.46, 2.50]) and intermediate (36-69 letters) VA in the fellow eye (AOR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.47, 0.95] and 0.64 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.85] for poor [≤35 letters] and good [≥70 letters] VA vs. intermediate VA in the fellow eye). Gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status were not independently associated with VA at presentation. Poor presenting vision is detrimental to the long-term outcomes of nAMD. Poor presentation of nAMD in Australia may not be related to socio-economic circumstances, but due to systems of care. Further research is warranted to determine why patients at public practices present with worse vision compared with private practices in Australia. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD, without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%, whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%. Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. Conclusion: PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  8. Chronic Chagas disease: PCR-xenodiagnosis without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool to detect viable Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Miguel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Martínez, Gabriela; Rojas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the elimination of the microscopic stage of conventional xenodiagnosis (XD) to optimize the parasitological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas disease. To this purpose we applied under informed consent two XD cages to 150 Chilean chronic chagasic patients. The fecal samples (FS) of the triatomines at 30, 60 and 90 days post feeding were divided into two parts: in one a microscopic search for mobile trypomastigote and/or epimastigote forms was performed. In the other part, DNA extraction-purification for PCR directed to the conserved region of kDNA minicircles of trypanosomes (PCR-XD), without previous microscopic observation was done. An XD was considered positive when at least one mobile T. cruzi parasite in any one of three periods of incubation was observed, whereas PCR-XD was considered positive when the 330 bp band specific for T. cruzi was detected. 25 of 26 cases with positive conventional XD were PCR-XD positive (concordance 96.2%), whereas 85 of 124 cases with negative conventional XD were positive by PCR-XD (68.5%). Human chromosome 12 detected by Real-time PCR used as exogenous internal control of PCR-XD reaction allowed to discounting of PCR inhibition and false negative in 40 cases with negative PCR-XD. PCR-XD performed without previous microscopic observation is a useful tool for detection of viable parasites with higher efficiency then conventional XD.

  9. No dramatic age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in Bcl-2 over-expression mice or Bax null mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlemiller Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss instead of neuronal loss. However, in the cochlea, age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs is consistently observed in a variety of species, including humans. Since age-related loss of these cells is a major contributing factor to presbycusis, it is important to study possible molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related cell death. Previous studies suggested that apoptotic pathways were involved in age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. In the present study, we examined the role of Bcl-2 gene in age-related hearing loss. In one transgenic mouse line over-expressing human Bcl-2, there were no significant differences between transgenic mice and wild type littermate controls in their hearing thresholds during aging. Histological analysis of the hair cells and SGNs showed no significant conservation of these cells in transgenic animals compared to the wild type controls during aging. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression has no significant effect on age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. We also found no delay of age-related hearing loss in mice lacking Bax gene. These findings suggest that age-related hearing loss is not through an apoptotic pathway involving key members of Bcl-2 family.

  10. In vivo observation of age-related structural changes of dermal collagen in human facial skin using collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation microscope equipped with 1250-nm mode-locked Cr:Forsterite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Yonetsu, Makoto; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yuji; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Ogura, Yuki; Hirao, Tetsuji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2013-03-01

    In vivo visualization of human skin aging is demonstrated using a Cr:Forsterite (Cr:F) laser-based, collagen-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. The deep penetration into human skin, as well as the specific sensitivity to collagen molecules, achieved by this microscope enables us to clearly visualize age-related structural changes of collagen fiber in the reticular dermis. Here we investigated intrinsic aging and/or photoaging in the male facial skin. Young subjects show dense distributions of thin collagen fibers, whereas elderly subjects show coarse distributions of thick collagen fibers. Furthermore, a comparison of SHG images between young and elderly subjects with and without a recent life history of excessive sun exposure show that a combination of photoaging with intrinsic aging significantly accelerates skin aging. We also perform image analysis based on two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the SHG images and extracted an aging parameter for human skin. The in vivo collagen-sensitive SHG microscope will be a powerful tool in fields such as cosmeceutical sciences and anti-aging dermatology.

  11. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  12. Age-Related White Matter Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yun Xiong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter changes (WMC are considered manifestation of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and are related to age and vascular risk factors. Most recent studies have shown that WMC are associated with a host of poor outcomes, including cognitive impairment, dementia, urinary incontinence, gait disturbances, depression, and increased risk of stroke and death. Although the clinical relevance of WMC has been extensively studied, to date, only very few clinical trials have evaluated potential symptomatic or preventive treatments for WMC. In this paper, we reviewed the current understanding in the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical importance, chemical biomarkers, and treatments of age-related WMC.

  13. Age Related Variations in The Architecture of Caprine Haemal Nodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age related variations in the architecture of caprine haemal nodes were studied in West African dwarf goats aged between 1-24 months. Variations were observed in the thickness of the capsule, the content and organization of the cortical and medullary parenchyma as well as the stroma. In young goats age between 1-4 ...

  14. Nutritional modulation of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30-50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated wi...

  15. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research.

  16. What Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Age-Related Macular Degeneration Sections What Is Macular Degeneration? How is AMD ... What Does Macular Degeneration Look Like? What Is Macular Degeneration? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la degeneración macular ...

  17. Interventions for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueira, Inês; Fernandes, Adelaide; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Over 60% of people aged over 65 are affected by multiple morbidities, which are more difficult to treat, generate increased healthcare costs and lead to poor quality of life compared to individual diseases. With the number of older people steadily increasing this presents a societal challenge. Age...... is the major risk factor for age-related diseases and recent research developments have led to the proposal that pharmacological interventions targeting common mechanisms of ageing may be able to delay the onset of multimorbidity. Here we review the state of the knowledge of multimorbidity, appraise...... the available evidence supporting the role of mechanisms of ageing in the development of the most common age-related diseases and assess potential molecules that may successfully target those key mechanisms....

  18. Prevention of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ian Yat Hin; Koo, Simon Chi Yan; Chan, Clement Wai Nang

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the developed world. Although effective treatment modalities such as anti-VEGF treatment have been developed for neovascular AMD, there is still no effective treatment for geographical atrophy, and therefore the most cost-effective management of AMD is to start with prevention. This review looks at current evidence on preventive measures targeted at AMD. Modalities reviewed include (1) nutritional supplements such as the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) formula, lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acid, and berry extracts, (2) lifestyle modifications, including smoking and body-mass-index, and (3) filtering sunlight, i.e. sunglasses and blue-blocking intraocular lenses. In summary, the only proven effective preventive measures are stopping smoking and the AREDS formula.

  19. Immunology of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Jayakrishna; Atkinson, John P.; Gelfand, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in aged individuals. Recent advances have highlighted the essential role of immune processes in the development, progression and treatment of AMD. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries related to the immunological aspects of AMD pathogenesis. We outline the diverse immune cell types, inflammatory activators and pathways that are involved. Finally, we discuss the future of inflammation-directed therapeutics to treat AMD in the growing aged population. PMID:23702979

  20. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  1. Systemic complement activation in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik P N Scholl

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the alternative pathway (AP of complement cascade has been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. To further test the hypothesis that defective control of complement activation underlies AMD, parameters of complement activation in blood plasma were determined together with disease-associated genetic markers in AMD patients. Plasma concentrations of activation products C3d, Ba, C3a, C5a, SC5b-9, substrate proteins C3, C4, factor B and regulators factor H and factor D were quantified in patients (n = 112 and controls (n = 67. Subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor H (CFH, factor B-C2 (BF-C2 and complement C3 (C3 genes which were previously found to be associated with AMD. All activation products, especially markers of chronic complement activation Ba and C3d (p<0.001, were significantly elevated in AMD patients compared to controls. Similar alterations were observed in factor D, but not in C3, C4 or factor H. Logistic regression analysis revealed better discriminative accuracy of a model that is based only on complement activation markers Ba, C3d and factor D compared to a model based on genetic markers of the complement system within our study population. In both the controls' and AMD patients' group, the protein markers of complement activation were correlated with CFH haplotypes.This study is the first to show systemic complement activation in AMD patients. This suggests that AMD is a systemic disease with local disease manifestation at the ageing macula. Furthermore, the data provide evidence for an association of systemic activation of the alternative complement pathway with genetic variants of CFH that were previously linked to AMD susceptibility.

  2. The age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Samuel; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    The age-related changes in ultraendurance performance have been previously examined for running and triathlon but not mountain biking. The aims of this study were (i) to describe the performance trends and (ii) to analyze the age-related performance decline in ultraendurance mountain biking in a 120-km ultraendurance mountain bike race the "Swiss Bike Masters" from 1995 to 2009 in 9,325 male athletes. The mean (±SD) race time decreased from 590 ± 80 min to 529 ± 88 min for overall finishers and from 415 ± 8 min to 359 ± 16 min for the top 10 finishers, respectively. The mean (±SD) age of all finishers significantly (P Bike Masters" appears to start earlier compared with other ultraendurance sports.

  3. Resting-state networks associated with cognitive processing show more age-related decline than those associated with emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Braskie, Meredith N; Mather, Mara

    2017-06-01

    Correlations in activity across disparate brain regions during rest reveal functional networks in the brain. Although previous studies largely agree that there is an age-related decline in the "default mode network," how age affects other resting-state networks, such as emotion-related networks, is still controversial. Here we used a dual-regression approach to investigate age-related alterations in resting-state networks. The results revealed age-related disruptions in functional connectivity in all 5 identified cognitive networks, namely the default mode network, cognitive-auditory, cognitive-speech (or speech-related somatosensory), and right and left frontoparietal networks, whereas such age effects were not observed in the 3 identified emotion networks. In addition, we observed age-related decline in functional connectivity in 3 visual and 3 motor/visuospatial networks. Older adults showed greater functional connectivity in regions outside 4 out of the 5 identified cognitive networks, consistent with the dedifferentiation effect previously observed in task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Both reduced within-network connectivity and increased out-of-network connectivity were correlated with poor cognitive performance, providing potential biomarkers for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-related hair pigment loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Humans are social animals that communicate disproportionately via potent genetic signals imbued in the skin and hair, including racial, ethnic, health, gender, and age status. For the vast majority of us, age-related hair pigment loss becomes the inescapable signal of our disappearing youth. The hair follicle (HF) pigmentary unit is a wonderful tissue for studying mechanisms generally regulating aging, often before this becomes evident elsewhere in the body. Given that follicular melanocytes (unlike those in the epidermis) are regulated by the hair growth cycle, this cycle is likely to impact the process of aging in the HF pigmentary unit. The formal identification of melanocyte stem cells in the mouse skin has spurred a flurry of reports on the potential involvement of melanocyte stem cell depletion in hair graying (i.e., canities). Caution is recommended, however, against simple extrapolation of murine data to humans. Regardless, hair graying in both species is likely to involve an age-related imbalance in the tissue's oxidative stress handling that will impact not only melanogenesis but also melanocyte stem cell and melanocyte homeostasis and survival. There is some emerging evidence that the HF pigmentary unit may have regenerative potential, even after it has begun to produce white hair fibers. It may therefore be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some aging-associated changes to maintain melanin production for longer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  6. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  7. Psychophysical function in age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neelam, Kumari

    2012-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the late stage of age-related maculopathy (ARM), is the leading cause of blind registration in developed countries. The visual loss in AMD occurs due to dysfunction and death of photoreceptors (rods and cones) secondary to an atrophic or a neovascular event. The psychophysical tests of vision, which depend on the functional status of the photoreceptors, may detect subtle alterations in the macula before morphological fundus changes are apparent ophthalmoscopically, and before traditional measures of visual acuity exhibit deterioration, and may be a useful tool for assessing and monitoring patients with ARM. Furthermore, worsening of these visual functions over time may reflect disease progression, and some of these, alone or in combination with other parameters, may act as a prognostic indicator for identifying eyes at risk for developing neovascular AMD. Lastly, psychophysical tests often correlate with subjective and relatively undefined symptoms in patients with early ARM, and may reflect limitation of daily activities for ARM patients. However, clinical studies investigating psychophysical function have largely been cross-sectional in nature, with small sample sizes, and lack consistency in terms of the grading and classification of ARM. This article aims to comprehensively review the literature germane to psychophysical tests in ARM, and to furnish the reader with an insight into this complex area of research.

  8. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  9. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  10. Age-related perspectives and emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynchard, Nicholas A; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2012-12-01

    Emotion is processed differently in younger and older adults. Older adults show a positivity effect, whereas younger adults show a negativity effect. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that these effects can be elicited in any age group when age-related perspectives are manipulated. To examine this, younger and older adults were oriented to actual and age-contrasting possible selves. Emotion activations were assessed using lexical decision. In line with socioemotional selectivity theory, shifts in emotion orientation varied according to perspective, with both younger and older adults showing a negativity effect when a younger adult perspective was taken and a positivity effect when an older adult perspective was taken. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Age-Related Neurodegeneration and Memory Loss in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Lockrow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a condition where a complete or segmental chromosome 21 trisomy causes variable intellectual disability, and progressive memory loss and neurodegeneration with age. Many research groups have examined development of the brain in DS individuals, but studies on age-related changes should also be considered, with the increased lifespan observed in DS. DS leads to pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD by 40 or 50 years of age. Progressive age-related memory deficits occurring in both AD and in DS have been connected to degeneration of several neuronal populations, but mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Inflammation and oxidative stress are early events in DS pathology, and focusing on these pathways may lead to development of successful intervention strategies for AD associated with DS. Here we discuss recent findings and potential treatment avenues regarding development of AD neuropathology and memory loss in DS.

  12. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  14. Age-related changes in mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, M A; Woda, A; Bourdiol, P; Hennequin, M

    2017-04-01

    The paper reviews human mastication, focusing on its age-related changes. The first part describes mastication adaptation in young healthy individuals. Adaptation to obtain a food bolus ready to be swallowed relies on variations in number of cycles, muscle strength and volume of emitted saliva. As a result, the food bolus displays granulometric and rheological properties, the values of which are maintained within the adaptive range of deglutition. The second part concerns healthy ageing. Some mastication parameters are slightly modified by age, but ageing itself does not impair mastication, as the adaptation possibilities remain operant. The third part reports on very aged subjects, who display frequent systemic or local diseases. Local and/or general diseases such as tooth loss, salivary defect, or motor impairment are then indistinguishably superimposed on the effects of very old age. The resulting impaired function increases the risk of aspiration and choking. Lastly, the consequences for eating behaviour and nutrition are evoked. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Radiation therapy: age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Carlos A Medina; Ehlers, Justis P

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe irreversible vision loss in patients over the age of 50 years in the developed world. Neovascular AMD (NVAMD) is responsible for 90% of the cases with severe visual loss. In the last decade, the treatment paradigm for NVAMD has been transformed by the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Despite the excellent results of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, frequent injections remain a necessity for most patients. The burden of these frequent visits as well as the cumulative risks of indefinite intravitreal injections demand continued pursuit of more enduring therapy that provides similar functional results. Radiotherapy has been studied for two decades as a potential therapy for NVAMD. Because of its antiangiogenic properties, radiation therapy remains a promising potential adjunctive resource for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to NVAMD. This review considers the past, present and future of radiation as a treatment or combination treatment of NVAMD. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Animal models of age related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Mark E.; Neuringer, Martha; Courtney, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss of those over the age of 65 in the industrialized world. The prevalence and need to develop effective treatments for AMD has lead to the development of multiple animal models. AMD is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors with the unique anatomy of the human macula. Models in mice, rats, rabbits, pigs and non-human primates have recreated many of the histological features of AMD and provided much insight into the underlying pathological mechanisms of this disease. In spite of the large number of models developed, no one model yet recapitulates all of the features of human AMD. However, these models have helped reveal the roles of chronic oxidative damage, inflammation and immune dysregulation, and lipid metabolism in the development of AMD. Models for induced choroidal neovascularization have served as the backbone for testing new therapies. This article will review the diversity of animal models that exist for AMD as well as their strengths and limitations. PMID:22705444

  17. Radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripp, Stephan; Stammen, Johannes; Petersen, Claudia; Hartmann, Axel; Willers, Reinhart; Althaus, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the benefit from radiotherapy in age-related macula degeneration in a single-arm longitudinal study. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 1998, 39 patients with occult and 33 patients with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) were irradiated with 16 Gy. Fluorescein angiography and measurements of visual acuity were performed before and 3, 6, and 12 months after irradiation. Results: Complete follow-up data for 1 year were available from 69 patients. The mean patient age was 72 years (range 49-92). Vision decreased in 43, was stable in 18, and improved in 8 cases. The mean vision deteriorated significantly (p=0.02, Wilcoxon test), particularly within the first 3 months. Patients with occult CNV did significantly better than did those with classic CNV (p=0.03). The proportion of patients retaining vision ≥0.2 fell from 65% to 42% (p <0.01), for classic and occult CNV from 50% to 23%, and for occult CNV from 77% to 56% (p<0.02), respectively. CNV size increased in 30 patients and was stable in 38. Neither age (p=0.17) nor gender (p=0.21, chi-square test) influenced prognosis. Four patients reported transitional complaints. Conclusion: Low-dose fractionated radiotherapy with 16 Gy is well tolerated. However, vision and reading ability were not preserved in most patients

  18. Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Tang, Jianguo

    2010-08-01

    Aging is a natural consequence of a society developing process. Although many adults retain good hearing as they aging, hearing loss related with age-presbycusis which can vary in severity from mild to substantial is common among elderly persons. There are a number of pathophysiological processes underlying age-related changes in the auditory system as well as in the central nervous systems. Many studies have been dedicated to the illustration of risk factors accumulating presbycusis such as heritability, environment factors, medical conditions, free radical (reactive oxygen species, ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA. Left untreated, presbycusis can not only lead sufferers to reduced quality of life, isolation, dependence and frustration, but also affect the healthy people around. These can be partly corrected using hearing aids, but it is not enough, more and more strategies of treatment based on the findings associating with presbycusis should be added rather than using single hearing aids. We review here the pathophysiology; heritability, susceptibility genes and other risk factors including environmental, medical, especially free radical (ROS) and damage of mitochondrial DNA; and some strategies of treatment, as well as promising rehabilitations associating with presbycusis.

  19. Age-related mitochondrial DNA depletion and the impact on pancreatic Beta cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Donna L; Brown, Audrey E; Kumaheri, Meutia A; Blair, Helen R; Heggie, Alison; Miwa, Satomi; Cree, Lynsey M; Payne, Brendan; Chinnery, Patrick F; Brown, Louise; Gunn, David A; Walker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterised by an age-related decline in insulin secretion. We previously identified a 50% age-related decline in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in isolated human islets. The purpose of this study was to mimic this degree of mtDNA depletion in MIN6 cells to determine whether there is a direct impact on insulin secretion. Transcriptional silencing of mitochondrial transcription factor A, TFAM, decreased mtDNA levels by 40% in MIN6 cells. This level of mtDNA depletion significantly decreased mtDNA gene transcription and translation, resulting in reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and ATP production. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was impaired following partial mtDNA depletion, but was normalised following treatment with glibenclamide. This confirms that the deficit in the insulin secretory pathway precedes K+ channel closure, indicating that the impact of mtDNA depletion is at the level of mitochondrial respiration. In conclusion, partial mtDNA depletion to a degree comparable to that seen in aged human islets impaired mitochondrial function and directly decreased insulin secretion. Using our model of partial mtDNA depletion following targeted gene silencing of TFAM, we have managed to mimic the degree of mtDNA depletion observed in aged human islets, and have shown how this correlates with impaired insulin secretion. We therefore predict that the age-related mtDNA depletion in human islets is not simply a biomarker of the aging process, but will contribute to the age-related risk of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Age related macular degeneration and visual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, John B; Tecce, Nicola; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Verolino, Marco; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-02-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central blindness or low vision among the elderly in industrialized countries. AMD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among modifiable environmental risk factors, cigarette smoking has been associated with both the dry and wet forms of AMD and may increase the likelihood of worsening pre-existing AMD. Despite advances, the treatment of AMD has limitations and affected patients are often referred for low vision rehabilitation to help them cope with their remaining eyesight. The characteristic visual impairment for both forms of AMD is loss of central vision (central scotoma). This loss results in severe difficulties with reading that may be only partly compensated by magnifying glasses or screen-projection devices. The loss of central vision associated with the disease has a profound impact on patient quality of life. With progressive central visual loss, patients lose their ability to perform the more complex activities of daily living. Common vision aids include low vision filters, magnifiers, telescopes and electronic aids. Low vision rehabilitation (LVR) is a new subspecialty emerging from the traditional fields of ophthalmology, optometry, occupational therapy, and sociology, with an ever-increasing impact on the usual concepts of research, education, and services for visually impaired patients. Relatively few ophthalmologists practise LVR and fewer still routinely use prismatic image relocation (IR) in AMD patients. IR is a method of stabilizing oculomotor functions with the purpose of promoting better function of preferred retinal loci (PRLs). The aim of vision rehabilitation therapy consists in the achievement of techniques designed to improve PRL usage. The use of PRLs to compensate for diseased foveae has offered hope to these patients in regaining some function. However, in a recently published meta-analysis, prism spectacles were found to be unlikely to be of

  1. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.

  2. Statins for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Peter; Li, Tianjing; Hatef, Elham

    2015-02-11

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive late onset disorder of the macula affecting central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years in industrialized countries. Recent epidemiologic, genetic, and pathological evidence has shown AMD shares a number of risk factors with atherosclerosis, leading to the hypothesis that statins may exert protective effects in AMD. The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of statins compared with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in delaying the onset and progression of AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 6), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2014), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2014), PubMed (January 1946 to June 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 June 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared statins with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who were either susceptible to or diagnosed as having early stages of AMD. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two authors independently evaluated the search results against the selection criteria, abstracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We did not perform meta-analysis due to heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes among the included studies. Two RCTs with 144 total participants met the selection criteria

  3. Perceptual and social attributes underlining age-related preferences for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni SM Kiiski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with ageing, with an age-related bias in favouring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together

  4. Perceptual and Social Attributes Underlining Age-Related Preferences for Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Cullen, Brendan; Clavin, Sarah L.; Newell, Fiona N.

    2016-01-01

    Although aesthetic preferences are known to be important in person perception and can play a significant role in everyday social decisions, the effect of the age of the observer on aesthetic preferences for faces of different ages has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study we investigated whether aesthetic preferences change with aging, with an age-related bias in favoring faces from one’s own age group. In addition, we examined the role of age on both the perceptual qualities and the social attributes of faces that may influence these aesthetic judgements. Both younger and older adult observers provided ratings to images of younger, middle-aged and older unfamiliar faces. As well as attractiveness, the rating dimensions included other perceptual (distinctiveness, familiarity) and social (competence, trustworthiness and dominance) factors. The results suggested a consistent aesthetic preference for youthful faces across all ages of the observers but, surprisingly, no evidence for an age-related bias in attractiveness ratings. Older adults tended to provide higher ratings of attractiveness, competence and trustworthiness to the unfamiliar faces, consistent with the positivity effect previously reported. We also tested whether perceptual factors such as face familiarity or distinctiveness affected aesthetic ratings. Only ratings of familiarity, but not distinctiveness, were positively associated with the attractiveness of the faces. Moreover, ratings of familiarity decreased with increasing age of the face. With regard to the social characteristics of the faces, we found that the age of the face negatively correlated with ratings of trustworthiness provided by all observers, but with the competence ratings of older observers only. Interestingly, older adults provided higher ratings of perceived competence and trustworthiness to younger than older faces. However, our results also suggest that higher attractiveness ratings, together with older aged

  5. Age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving: The role of executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, T; Lemaire, P

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we provide an overview of how age-related changes in executive control influence aging effects in arithmetic processing. More specifically, we consider the role of executive control in strategic variations with age during arithmetic problem solving. Previous studies found that age-related differences in arithmetic performance are associated with strategic variations. That is, when they accomplish arithmetic problem-solving tasks, older adults use fewer strategies than young adults, use strategies in different proportions, and select and execute strategies less efficiently. Here, we review recent evidence, suggesting that age-related changes in inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory processes underlie age-related changes in strategic variations during arithmetic problem solving. We discuss both behavioral and neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes in these executive control processes. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. KCNQ channels regulate age-related memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans KCNQ2/3 heteromeric channels form an M-current that acts as a brake on neuronal excitability, with mutations causing a form of epilepsy. The M-current has been shown to be a key regulator of neuronal plasticity underlying associative memory and ethanol response in mammals. Previous work has shown that many of the molecules and plasticity mechanisms underlying changes in alcohol behaviour and addiction are shared with those of memory. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ when mutated show decrements in associative short- and long-term memory, with KCNQ function in the mushroom body α/βneurons being required for short-term memory. Ethanol disrupts memory in wildtype flies, but not in a KCNQ null mutant background suggesting KCNQ maybe a direct target of ethanol, the blockade of which interferes with the plasticity machinery required for memory formation. We show that as in humans, Drosophila display age-related memory impairment with the KCNQ mutant memory defect mimicking the effect of age on memory. Expression of KCNQ normally decreases in aging brains and KCNQ overexpression in the mushroom body neurons of KCNQ mutants restores age-related memory impairment. Therefore KCNQ is a central plasticity molecule that regulates age dependent memory impairment.

  7. Gender effects on age-related changes in brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Kobayashi, S; Yamaguchi, S; Iijima, K; Okada, K; Yamashita, K

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested that brain atrophy is associated with aging and that there are gender differences in brain atrophy with aging. These reports, however, neither exclude silent brain lesions in "healthy subjects" nor divide the brain into subregions. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of gender on age-related changes in brain subregions by MR imaging. A computer-assisted system was used to calculate the brain matter area index (BMAI) of various regions of the brain from MR imaging of 331 subjects without brain lesions. There was significantly more brain atrophy with aging in the posterior parts of the right frontal lobe in male subjects than there was in female subjects. Age-related atrophy in the middle part of the right temporal lobe, the left basal ganglia, the parietal lobe, and the cerebellum also was found in male subjects, but not in female subjects. In the temporal lobe, thalamus, parieto-occipital lobe, and cerebellum, brain volume in the left hemisphere is significantly smaller than in the right hemisphere; sex and age did not affect the hemisphere differences of brain volume in these regions. The effect of gender on brain atrophy with aging varied in different subregions of the brain. There was more brain atrophy with aging in male subjects than in female subjects.

  8. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reaction time inconsistency in a spatial stroop task: age-related differences through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on stimulus direction) and stimulus location. An interference effect was observed across all ages. Analyses of neutral condition data replicated previous research demonstrating RT inconsistency follows a U-shaped developmental curve across the life span. The relationship between age and inconsistency, however, depended on condition: inconsistency in the congruent condition was higher than inconsistency in both the neutral and incongruent conditions across middle-aged groups. Reaction time inconsistency may reflect processing efficiency that is maximal in young adulthood and may also be sensitive to fluctuations in performance that reflect momentarily highly efficient responding.

  10. Age-Related Changes in Visual Pseudoneglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Remy; Peigneux, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoneglect is a slight but consistent leftward attentional bias commonly observed in healthy young populations, purportedly explained by right hemispheric dominance. It has been suggested that normal aging might be associated with a decline of the right hemisphere. According to this hypothesis, a few studies have shown that elderly tend to…

  11. Age Related Changes in Hematological Values of Myanmar Local Puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandar Oo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The hematological parameters were used to monitor the health status and its components also changed according to the ages. However, there were no reports for this issues in Myanmar local dogs. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the age-related changes on the hematological parameters of local puppies in Myanmar. Ten local puppies with the age of 2-3 month old were used in this experiment, which was lasted for 8 weeks.The daily clinical examinations were conducted throughout the entire experimental period for general health check-up. Haematological parameters (Total WBC count and its differential counts, and RBC, HCT, MCV, HGB, MCH, MCHC and platelets were measured bi-weekly with Abacus Vet-5 automate haematology analyser. According to the results, the total WBC and eosinophil counts were not significantly different (P>0.05, while lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils and basophils were significantly different (P0.05 throughout the experimental periods. Thus, the age-related changes were observed on cell counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils in Myanmar local puppies.

  12. Patient-reported utilities in bilateral visual impairment from amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Graaf, Elizabeth S; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Klaver, Caroline C W; Simonsz, Huibert J

    2016-05-17

    Utility of visual impairment caused by amblyopia is important for the cost-effectiveness of screening for amblyopia (lazy eye, prevalence 3-3.5 %). We previously measured decrease of utility in 35-year-old persons with unilateral persistent amblyopia. The current observational case-control study aimed to measure loss of utility in patients with amblyopia with recent decrease of vision in their better eye. As these patients are rare, the sample was supplemented by patients with bilateral age-related macular degeneration with similar decrease of vision. From our out-patient department, two groups of patients with recent deterioration to bilateral visual acuity less than Snellen 0.5 (bilateral visual impairment, BVI) were recruited, with either persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMB + AMD), or with bilateral age-related macular degeneration (BAMD). To measure utility, the time trade-off method and the standard gamble method were applied through interviews. Correlations were sought between utility values and visual acuity, age and Visual Function Questionnaire-25 scores. Seventeen AMB + AMD patients (mean age 72.9 years), and 63 BAMD patients (mean age 79.6 years) were included in the study. Among AMB + AMD, 80 % were willing to trade lifetime in exchange for cure. The overall mean time trade-off utility was 0.925. Among BAMD, 75 % were willing to trade, utility was 0.917. Among AMB + AMD, 38 % accepted risk of death in exchange for cure, overall mean standard gamble utility was 0.999. Among BAMD, 49 % accepted risk of death, utility was 0.998. Utility was not related to visual acuity but it was to age (p = 0.02). Elderly patients with BVI, caused by persistent amblyopia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or by bilateral AMD, had an approximately 8 % loss of TTO utility. Notably, the 8 % loss in elderly with BVI differs little from the 3.7 % loss we found previously in 35-year-old persons with unilateral

  13. Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Garcia Layana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology.

  14. Age-related decline in global form suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    . Selective attention, i.e., the ability to focus on relevant and ignore irrelevant information, declines with increasing age; however, how this deficit affects selection of global vs. local configurations remains unknown. On this background, the present study examined for age-related differences in a global...... differences in the subsequent (250–500 ms) posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) indicated that attentional resources were allocated faster to Kanisza, as compared to non-Kanisza, targets in both age groups, while the allocation of spatial attention seemed to be generally delayed in older relative...... to younger age. Our results suggest that the enhanced global-local asymmetry in the older age group originated from less effective suppression of global distracter forms on early processing stages – indicative of older observers having difficulties with disengaging from a global default selection mode...

  15. Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layana, Alfredo Garcia; Minnella, Angelo Maria; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Aslam, Tariq; Holz, Frank G; Leys, Anita; Silva, Rufino; Delcourt, Cécile; Souied, Eric; Seddon, Johanna M

    2017-10-13

    In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology.

  16. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular (VOR and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa’s ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC, it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarises and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  17. Age-Related Neurochemical Changes in the Vestibular Nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the normal aging process is associated with impaired vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, causing reduced visual acuity and postural instability. Nonetheless, the available evidence is not entirely consistent, especially with respect to the VOR. Some recent studies have reported that VOR gain can be intact even above 80 years of age. Similarly, although there is evidence for age-related hair cell loss and neuronal loss in Scarpa's ganglion and the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), it is not entirely consistent. Whatever structural and functional changes occur in the VNC as a result of aging, either to cause vestibular impairment or to compensate for it, neurochemical changes must underlie them. However, the neurochemical changes that occur in the VNC with aging are poorly understood because the available literature is very limited. This review summarizes and critically evaluates the available evidence relating to the noradrenaline, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, and nitric oxide neurotransmitter systems in the aging VNC. It is concluded that, at present, it is difficult, if not impossible, to relate the neurochemical changes observed to the function of specific VNC neurons and whether the observed changes are the cause of a functional deficit in the VNC or an effect of it. A better understanding of the neurochemical changes that occur during aging may be important for the development of potential drug treatments for age-related vestibular disorders. However, this will require the use of more sophisticated methodology such as in vivo microdialysis with single neuron recording and perhaps new technologies such as optogenetics.

  18. Nutritional Modulation of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikel, Karen A; Taylor, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. It affects 30–50 million individuals and clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in at least one third of persons over the age of 75 in industrialized countries (Gehrs et al., 2006). Costs associated with AMD are in excess of $340 billion US (American-Health-Assistance-Foundation, 2012). The majority of AMD patients in the United States are not eligible for clinical treatments (Biarnes et al., 2011; Klein et al., 2011). Preventive interventions through dietary modulation are attractive strategies because many studies suggest a benefit of micro and macronutrients with respect to AMD, as well as other age-related debilities, and with few, if any, adverse effects (Chiu, 2011). Preservation of vision would enhance quality of life for millions of elderly people, and alleviate the personal and public health financial burden of AMD (Frick et al., 2007; Wood et al., 2011). Observational studies indicate that maintaining adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. with 2 servings/wk of fish) or a low glycemic index diet may be particularly beneficial for early AMD and that higher levels of carotenoids may be protective, most probably, against neovascular AMD. Intervention trials are needed to better understand the full effect of these nutrients and/or combinations of nutrients on retinal health. Analyses that describe effects of a nutrient on onset and/or progress of AMD are valuable because they indicate the value of a nutrient to arrest AMD at the early stages. This comprehensive summary provides essential information about the value of nutrients with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progress of AMD and can serve as a guide until data from ongoing intervention trials are available. PMID:22503690

  19. Age-related changes in bone architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Franco, José Sérgio; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Labronici, Pedro José; Pires, Robinson Esteves S; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro DO

    2016-01-01

    : to evaluate the histologic and morphometric characteristics of bone biopsies of the anterior iliac crest of patients of different age groups. : we studied 30 bone samples from the iliac crest, using brightfield optical microscopy. We divided the samples by donors' age groups in three groups: Group 1 (n = 10), subjects aged between 25 and 39 years; Group 2 (n = 10), subjects aged between 40 and 64 years; Group 3 (n = 10), individuals aged 65 years and over. We randomly divided the samples into two sets with 15 specimens. In the first study segment (n = 15), we used histological to assess the osteogenic property of the graft, through the analysis of cell reserve in the periosteum, the number of osteocytes in the lacunae and the number of Haversian and Volkmann's canals. In the second study segment (n = 15), we investigated the morphology of osteoconductive property of the graft, through quantification of the trabecular meshwork (Vv) and trabecular area (Sv). : histologically, we observed degeneration of bone occurring with age, characterized by thinning of the periosteum, with gradual replacement of the steogenic layer by fibrous tissue, small amount of Haversian and Volkmann's canals, osteocyte lacunae voids and fine spongy bone trabeculae, allowing ample medullary space, usually occupied by fat cells and adipocytes. Morphologically, with respect to the quantification of the trabecular meshwork (Vv), we found statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 3 and between Groups 2 and 3, with reduction of the trabecular meshwork of about 45% in the elderly over 65 years old ; there was no statistically significant difference between Groups 1 and 2. There was also no statistical difference between the Groups regarding Sv. : the results of this experiment suggest that, in the elderly (over 65 years old), the osteogenic property of autologous bone graft decreases and the osteoconductive property is compromised. avaliar as características histológicas e

  20. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  1. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  2. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Age-related variations of visuo-motor adaptation beyond explicit knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert eHeuer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation suffers at older working age. The age-related decline of behavioural adjustments is accompanied by reduced explicit knowledge of the visuo-motor transformation. It disappears when explicit knowledge is kept constant across the age range, except for particularly high levels of explicit knowledge. According to these findings, at older adult age both the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its application for strategic corrections become poorer. Recently it has been posited that visuo-motor adaptation can involve model-free reinforcement mechanisms of learning in addition to model-based mechanisms. We tested whether age-related declines of reinforcement learning can also contribute to the age-related changes of visuo-motor adaptation. Therefore we enhanced the contribution of reinforcement learning to visuo-motor adaptation by way of introducing salient markers of success and failure during practice. With such modified practice conditions, there were residual age-related variations of behavioural adjustments at all levels of explicit knowledge, even when explicit knowledge was absent. The residual age-related variations were observed for practiced target directions only, but not for new target directions. These findings are consistent with an age-related decline of model-free reinforcement learning as a third factor in the age-related decline of visuo-motor adaptation. Under practice conditions, which spur model-free reward-based learning, this factor adds to the decrements of the acquisition of explicit knowledge and its use for strategic corrections.

  4. Association of HTRA1 rs11200638 with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Tamires Prates; da Silva Costa, Sueli Matilde; Ananina, Galina; Hirata, Fábio Endo; Rim, Priscila Hae Hyun; Medina, Flávio MacCord; de Vasconcellos, José Paulo Cabral; de Melo, Mônica Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a multifactorial disease that can lead to vision impairment in older individuals. Although the etiology of age-related macular degeneration remains unknown, risk factors include age, ethnicity, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and genetic factors. Two main loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies, on chromosomes 1 and 10. Among the variants located at the 10q26 region, rs11200638, located at the HTRA1 gene promoter, has been associated with age-related macular degeneration in several populations and is considered the main polymorphism. We conducted a replication case-control study to analyze the frequency and participation of rs11200638 in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration in a sample of patients and controls from the State of São Paulo, Brazil, through polymerase chain reaction and enzymatic digestion. The frequency of the A allele was 57.60% in patients with age-related macular degeneration and 36.45% in controls (p value age-related macular degeneration group compared to the control group (p = 1.21 e-07 and 0.0357, respectively). No statistically significant results were observed after stratification in dry versus wet types or advanced versus non-advanced forms. To our knowledge, this is the first time the association between rs11200638 and overall age-related macular degeneration has been reported in South America.

  5. Age-Related Maculopathy: a biochemical and immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kliffen (Mike)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractAge-related maculopathy (ARM) is an age-related degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, the macula lutea (yellow spot). Essentially, ARM is a clinical diagnosis based on funduscopical changes. It is customary nowadays to call the late stages of ARM, geographic atrophy

  6. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in elderly Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, Maja G; Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde

    2012-01-01

    To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).......To describe the sex- and age-specific prevalence of drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD)....

  7. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Honda, Kaoru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of low-dose radiation on choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since Chakravarthy reported the benefits from administration of low-dose external-beam irradiation for CNV, many studies have demonstrated that irradiation could have a beneficial treatment effect, whereas several reports have not. In our hospital, 12 eyes with AMD received 10 Gy of 4 MV photons and the other 9 eyes received 20 Gy. Another 4 eyes were untreated as control. After 6 months of treatment, visual acuity was maintained in 11 eyes, improved in 5 eyes, and deteriorated in 5 eyes of treated patients. In control group, visual acuity was maintained in 1 eye and deteriorated in 3 eyes. The size of CNV regressed in 10 eyes, remained stationary in 2 eyes and progressed in 2 eyes of treated patients, while in control group CNV regressed in 2 eyes and remained stationary in 1 eye. After 12 months some CNV progressed. Although the present result seems to be better than those in previous reports, whether or not the treatment is beneficial has to be awaited. (author)

  8. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Honda, Kaoru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of low-dose radiation on choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since Chakravarthy reported the benefits from administration of low-dose external-beam irradiation for CNV, many studies have demonstrated that irradiation could have a beneficial treatment effect, whereas several reports have not. In our hospital, 12 eyes with AMD received 10 Gy of 4 MV photons and the other 9 eyes received 20 Gy. Another 4 eyes were untreated as control. After 6 months of treatment, visual acuity was maintained in 11 eyes, improved in 5 eyes, and deteriorated in 5 eyes of treated patients. In control group, visual acuity was maintained in 1 eye and deteriorated in 3 eyes. The size of CNV regressed in 10 eyes, remained stationary in 2 eyes and progressed in 2 eyes of treated patients, while in control group CNV regressed in 2 eyes and remained stationary in 1 eye. After 12 months some CNV progressed. Although the present result seems to be better than those in previous reports, whether or not the treatment is beneficial has to be awaited. (author)

  9. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Keun Yoo

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population.A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044. In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032. However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract.Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors.

  10. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  11. The Age-Related Changes in Cartilage and Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YongPing Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is closely associated with aging, but its underlying mechanism is unclear. Recent publications were reviewed to elucidate the connection between aging and OA. With increasing OA incidence, more senior people are facing heavy financial and social burdens. Age-related OA pathogenesis is not well understood. Recently, it has been realized that age-related changes in other tissues besides articular cartilage may also contribute to OA development. Many factors including senescence-related secretory phenotypes, chondrocytes’ low reactivity to growth factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, and abnormal accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs may all play key roles in the pathogenesis of age-related OA. Lately, epigenetic regulation of gene expression was recognized for its impact on age-related OA pathogenesis. Up to now, few studies have been reported about the role of miRNA and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA in age-related OA. Research focusing on this area may provide valuable insights into OA pathogenesis. OA-induced financial and social burdens have become an increasingly severe threat to older population. Age-related changes in noncartilage tissue should be incorporated in the understanding of OA development. Growing attention on oxidative stress and epigenetics will provide more important clues for the better understanding of the age-related OA.

  12. Tear film proteome in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Kaarniranta, Kai; Winiarczyk, Stanisław; Adaszek, Łukasz; Winiarczyk, Dagmara; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness in elderly people in the developed countries. Current screening protocols have limitations in detecting the early signs of retinal degeneration. Therefore, it would be desirable to find novel biomarkers for early detection of AMD. Development of novel biomarkers would help in the prevention, diagnostics, and treatment of AMD. Proteomic analysis of tear film has shown promise in this research area. If an optimal set of biomarkers could be obtained from accessible body fluids, it would represent a reliable way to monitor disease progression and response to novel therapies. Tear films were collected on Schirmer strips from a total of 22 patients (8 with wet AMD, 6 with dry AMD, and 8 control individuals). 2D electrophoresis was used to separate tear film proteins prior to their identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight spectrometer (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and matching with functional databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified. Most of them were previously described in various proteomic studies concerning AMD. Shootin-1, histatin-3, fidgetin-like protein 1, SRC kinase signaling inhibitor, Graves disease carrier protein, actin cytoplasmic 1, prolactin-inducible protein 1, and protein S100-A7A were upregulated in the tear film samples isolated from AMD patients and were not previously linked with this disease in any proteomic analysis. The upregulated proteins supplement our current knowledge of AMD pathogenesis, providing evidence that certain specific proteins are expressed into the tear film in AMD. As far we are aware, this is the first study to have undertaken a comprehensive in-depth analysis of the human tear film proteome in AMD patients.

  13. Impacts of age-related failures on nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meale, B.M.; Satterwhite, D.G.; Krantz, E.A.; MacDonald, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aging-related failure data from nine light water reactor safety, support, and power conversion systems have been extracted from an operational data base. Systems and components within the systems that are most affected by aging are identified. In addition, information on aging-related root causes of component failures has been extracted for service water and Class 1E electrical power distribution systems. Engineering insights are presented, and preliminary quantification of the importance of aging-related root causes for a service water system is provided

  14. [Current concepts in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka-Trząska, Agnieszka; Karska-Basta, Izabella; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of central blindness in elderly population of the western world. The pathogenesis of this disease, likely multifactorial, is not well known, although a number of theories have been put forward, including oxidative stress, genetic interactions, hemodynamic imbalance, immune and inflammatory processes. The understanding of age-related macular degeneration pathogenesis will give rise to new approaches in prevention and treatment of the early and late stages of both atrophic and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  15. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  16. Review Article Therapeutic Potential of Statins in Age-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-09

    Aug 9, 2011 ... Keywords: Age-related macular, Non-invasive treatment, Pleiotropic effects, Prevention, Statins. Received 14 June ... two types: non-exudative or “dry', characterised by .... Dam Eye Study in Wisconsin, statin use at the 10-.

  17. The theory behind the age-related positivity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E Reed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The positivity effect refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather & Carstensen, 2005 scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision-making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.

  18. Recent developments in age-related macular degeneration: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zamil, Waseem M; Yassin, Sanaa A

    2017-01-01

    Background Visual impairment in elderly people is a considerable health problem that significantly affects quality of life of millions worldwide. The magnitude of this issue is becoming more evident with an aging population and an increasing number of older individuals. Objective The objective of this article was to review the clinical and pathological aspects of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diagnostic tools, and therapeutic modalities presently available or underway for both atrophic and wet forms of the disease. Methods An online review of the PubMed database was performed, searching for the key words. The search was limited to articles published since 1980 to date. Results Several risk factors have been linked to AMD, such as age (>60 years), lifestyle (smoking and diet), and family history. Although the pathogenesis of AMD remains unclear, genetic factors have been implicated in the condition. Treatment for atrophic AMD is mainly close observation, coupled with nutritional supplements such as zinc and antioxidants, whereas treatment of wet AMD is based on targeting choroidal neovascular membranes. Conclusion Identification of modifiable risk factors would improve the possibilities of preventing the progression of AMD. The role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents has transformed the therapeutic approach of the potentially blinding disease “wet AMD” into a more favorable outcome. PMID:28860733

  19. [Depression in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Yamile Reveiz; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a cause for disability in the elderly since it greatly affects their quality of life and increases depression likelihood. This article discusses the negative effect depression has on patients with age-related macular degeneration and summarizes the interventions available for decreasing their depression index. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Vitamin K’s role in age-related bone loss: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protective role of vitamin K in age-related bone loss continues to be controversial. The results of observational analyses are inconsistent with respect to associations between vitamin K status and bone, which arguably may be related to the limitations of observational study designs and analyt...

  1. Age-related changes in factor VII proteolysis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, F A; Craven, S; Dewar, L; Anvari, N; Andrew, M; Blajchman, M A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that pre-operative plasmas of patients over the age of 40 years who developed post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) had approximately twice the amount of proteolysed factor VII found in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis with heparin or low M(r) heparin was successful. These and other studies also reported higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III in pre- and post-operative plasmas of patients who developed post-operative thrombosis than in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis was successful. Whether the extent of factor VII proteolysis seen in the patients who developed post-operative DVT is related to the severity of their disease or age is not known. This report investigated age-related changes in the concentrations of total factor VII protein, factor VII zymogen, factor VIIa, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin III, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in normal plasmas and the relationships between these parameters. With the exception of thrombin-antithrombin III, statistically significant increases in the concentrations of these parameters with age were found. Additionally, the differences between the concentrations of total factor VII protein and factor VII zymogen, an index factor VII proteolysis in vivo, were statistically significant only for individuals over age 40. Using linear regression analysis, a significant correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of plasma factor VIIa and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Since factor VIIa-tissue factor probably initiates coagulation in vivo, we hypothesize that the elevated plasma factor VIIa (reflecting a less tightly regulated tissue factor activity and therefore increased thrombin production in vivo) accounts for the high risk for post-operative thrombosis seen in individuals over the age of 40.

  2. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  3. Glucose and age-related changes in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul E

    2005-12-01

    Epinephrine, released from the adrenal medulla, enhances memory in young rats and mice and apparently does so, at least in part, by increasing blood glucose levels. Like epinephrine, administration of glucose enhances cognitive functions in humans and rodents, including reversing age-related impairments in learning and memory. Epinephrine responses to training are increased in aged rats but the subsequent increase in blood glucose levels is severely blunted. The absence of increases in blood glucose levels during training might contribute to age-related deficits in learning and memory. Also, extracellular glucose levels in the hippocampus are depleted during spontaneous alternation testing to a far greater extent in aged than in young rats. Importantly, systemic injections of glucose block the depletion in the hippocampus and also enhance performance on the alternation task. Thus, the extensive depletion of extracellular glucose during training in aged rats may be associated with age-related memory impairments, an effect that might be related to - or may exacerbate - the effects on learning and memory of an absence of the increases in blood glucose levels to training as seen in young rats. Together, these findings suggest that age-related changes in both peripheral and central glucose physiology contribute to age-related impairments in memory.

  4. Gender Differences in Age-Related Striatal Dopamine Depletion in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jung Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Gender differences are a well-known clinical characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In-vivo imaging studies demonstrated that women have greater striatal dopamine transporter (DAT activity than do men, both in the normal population and in PD patients. We hypothesize that women exhibit more rapid aging-related striatal DAT reduction than do men, as the potential neuroprotective effect of estrogen wanes with age. Methods This study included 307 de novo PD patients (152 men and 155 women who underwent DAT scans for an initial diagnostic work-up. Gender differences in age-related DAT decline were assessed in striatal sub-regions using linear regression analysis. Results Female patients exhibited greater DAT activity compared with male patients in all striatal sub-regions. The linear regression analysis revealed that age-related DAT decline was greater in the anterior and posterior caudate, and the anterior putamen in women compared with men; we did not observe this difference in other sub-regions. Conclusions This study demonstrated the presence of gender differences in age-related DAT decline in striatal sub-regions, particularly in the antero-dorsal striatum, in patients with PD, presumably due to aging-related decrease in estrogen. Because this difference was not observed in the sensorimotor striatum, this finding also suggests that women may not have a greater capacity to tolerate PD pathogenesis than do men.

  5. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Larsen, K.; Weidich, F.

    2005-01-01

    back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. METHODS: During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background......BACKGROUND: Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low...... on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires...

  6. Retinal vascular caliber, iris color, and age-related macular degeneration in the Irish Nun Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Amy; Silvestri, Giuliana; Moore, Evelyn; Silvestri, Vittorio; Patterson, Christopher C; Maxwell, Alexander P; McKay, Gareth J

    2014-12-18

    To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber (RVC), iris color, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in elderly Irish nuns. Data from 1233 participants in the cross-sectional observational Irish Nun Eye Study were assessed from digital photographs with a standardized protocol using computer-assisted software. Macular images were graded according to the modified Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. Regression models were used to assess associations, adjusting for age, mean arterial blood pressure, body mass index, refraction, and fellow RVC. In total, 1122 (91%) participants had gradable retinal images of sufficient quality for vessel assessment (mean age: 76.3 years [range, 56-100 years]). In an unadjusted analysis, we found some support for a previous finding that individuals with blue iris color had narrower retinal venules compared to those with brown iris color (P < 0.05), but this was no longer significant after adjustment. Age-related macular degeneration status was categorized as no AMD, any AMD, and late AMD only. Individuals with any AMD (early or late AMD) had significantly narrower arterioles and venules compared to those with no AMD in an unadjusted analysis, but this was no longer significant after adjustment. A nonsignificant reduced risk of any AMD or late AMD only was observed in association with brown compared to blue iris color, in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Retinal vascular caliber was not significantly associated with iris color or early/late AMD after adjustment for confounders. A lower but nonsignificant AMD risk was observed in those with brown compared to blue iris color. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szaflik, Jacek P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Synowiec, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Dominika [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Zaras, Magdalena [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Wozniak, Katarzyna [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Szaflik, Jerzy [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw and Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Okulistyczny, Sierakowskiego 13, 03-710 Warsaw (Poland); Blasiak, Janusz, E-mail: januszb@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2009-10-02

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the main cause of vision loss in individuals over the age of 55 in the Western world. Clinically relevant AMD results from damage to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells thought to be mainly caused by oxidative stress. The stress also affects the DNA of RPE cells, which promotes genome instability in these cells. These effects may coincide with the decrease in the efficacy of DNA repair with age. Therefore individuals with DNA repair impaired more than average for a given age may be more susceptible to AMD if oxidative stress affects their RPE cells. This may be helpful in AMD risk assessment. In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of DNA repair in lymphocytes of 100 AMD patients and 110 age-matched individuals without visual disturbances. The cells taken from AMD patients displayed a higher extent of basal endogenous DNA damage without differences between patients of dry and wet forms of the disease. DNA double-strand breaks did not contribute to the observed DNA damage as checked by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The extent of oxidative modification to DNA bases was grater in AMD patients than in the controls, as probed by DNA repair enzymes NTH1 and Fpg. Lymphocytes from AMD patients displayed a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation and repaired lesions induced by these factors less effectively than the cells from the control individuals. We postulate that the impaired efficacy of DNA repair may combine with enhanced sensitivity of RPE cells to blue and UV lights, contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  8. DNA damage and repair in age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaflik, Jacek P.; Janik-Papis, Katarzyna; Synowiec, Ewelina; Ksiazek, Dominika; Zaras, Magdalena; Wozniak, Katarzyna; Szaflik, Jerzy; Blasiak, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal degenerative disease that is the main cause of vision loss in individuals over the age of 55 in the Western world. Clinically relevant AMD results from damage to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells thought to be mainly caused by oxidative stress. The stress also affects the DNA of RPE cells, which promotes genome instability in these cells. These effects may coincide with the decrease in the efficacy of DNA repair with age. Therefore individuals with DNA repair impaired more than average for a given age may be more susceptible to AMD if oxidative stress affects their RPE cells. This may be helpful in AMD risk assessment. In the present work we determined the level of basal (measured in the alkaline comet assay) endogenous and endogenous oxidative DNA damage, the susceptibility to exogenous mutagens and the efficacy of DNA repair in lymphocytes of 100 AMD patients and 110 age-matched individuals without visual disturbances. The cells taken from AMD patients displayed a higher extent of basal endogenous DNA damage without differences between patients of dry and wet forms of the disease. DNA double-strand breaks did not contribute to the observed DNA damage as checked by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The extent of oxidative modification to DNA bases was grater in AMD patients than in the controls, as probed by DNA repair enzymes NTH1 and Fpg. Lymphocytes from AMD patients displayed a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and UV radiation and repaired lesions induced by these factors less effectively than the cells from the control individuals. We postulate that the impaired efficacy of DNA repair may combine with enhanced sensitivity of RPE cells to blue and UV lights, contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  9. Different alpha crystallin expression in human age-related and congenital cataract lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun

    2016-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.

  10. Oxidative stress, innate immunity, and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Peter X.; Stiles, Travis; Douglas, Christopher; Ho, Daisy; Fan, Wei; Du, Hongjun; Xiao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of vision loss affecting tens of millions of elderly worldwide. Early AMD is characterized by the appearance of soft drusen, as well as pigmentary changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). These soft, confluent drusen can progress into two forms of advanced AMD: geographic atrophy (GA, or dry AMD) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV, or wet AMD). Both forms of AMD result in a similar clinical progression in terms of loss of central vision. The exact mechanism for developing early AMD, as well as triggers responsible for progressing to advanced stage of disease, is still largely unknown. However, significant evidence exists demonstrating a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as causes of AMD progression. Multiple genes and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with AMD, including various genes involved in the complement pathway, lipid metabolism and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Of the known genetic contributors to disease risk, the CFH Y402H and HTRA1/ARMS polymorphisms contribute to more than 50% of the genetic risk for AMD. Environmentally, oxidative stress plays a critical role in many aging diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and AMD. Due to the exposure to sunlight and high oxygen concentration, the oxidative stress burden is higher in the eye than other tissues, which can be further complicated by additional oxidative stressors such as smoking. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating suggesting that functional abnormalities of the innate immune system incurred via high risk genotypes may be contributing to the pathogenesis of AMD by altering the inflammatory homeostasis in the eye, specifically in the handling of oxidation products. As the eye in non-pathological instances maintains a low level of inflammation despite the presence of a relative abundance of potentially inflammatory molecules, we have

  11. The epigenetic landscape of age-related diseases: the geroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensous, Noémie; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Pirazzini, Chiara; Marasco, Elena; Giuliani, Cristina; Ravaioli, Francesco; Mengozzi, Giacomo; Bertarelli, Claudia; Palmas, Maria Giustina; Franceschi, Claudio; Garagnani, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the epigenetics of age-related diseases, focusing on those studies that have described DNA methylation landscape in cardio-vascular diseases, musculoskeletal function and frailty. We stress the importance of adopting the conceptual framework of "geroscience", which starts from the observation that advanced age is the major risk factor for several of these pathologies and aims at identifying the mechanistic links between aging and age-related diseases. DNA methylation undergoes a profound remodeling during aging, which includes global hypomethylation of the genome, hypermethylation at specific loci and an increase in inter-individual variation and in stochastic changes of DNA methylation values. These epigenetic modifications can be an important contributor to the development of age-related diseases, but our understanding on the complex relationship between the epigenetic signatures of aging and age-related disease is still poor. The most relevant results in this field come from the use of the so called "epigenetics clocks" in cohorts of subjects affected by age-related diseases. We report these studies in final section of this review.

  12. [Vitreomacular adhesion in HD-OCT images in the age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalska, Małgorzata; Swiech-Zubilewicz, Anna; Mackiewicz, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an incidence of the vitreomacular adhesion in patients with age-related macular degeneration. We examined 472 eyes in 241 patients (136 W/ 105 M) in age of 54-92 years (mean 62.6 years +/- 8.5) with dry or wet age-related macular degeneration using Cirrus HD-OCT (Zeiss) macular cube 512x128 program or 5-line pro-gram. Vitreomacular adhesion was observed in 139 eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration (29.4%, p=0.000*), in 101 eyes with drusen (21.4%, p=0.000*), in 38 eyes with retinal pigment epithelium alterations (8%, p=0.202), in 278 eyes with wet age-related macular degeneration (58.9%, p=0.001*), in 21 eyes with pigment epithelial detachment (4.4%, p=0.303), in 161 eyes with choroidal neovascularzation (34. 1%, p=0.031*/ and in 96 eyes with scar (20.4%, p=0.040*). Probably, vitreomacular adhesion alone is not able to induce age-related macular degeneration, but it may be associated with choroidal neovascularization development, it can contribute to exudate formation and choroidal neovascularization, it may induces or sustains a chronic low-grade inflammation in the macula region.

  13. Age-related changes of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the normal cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: medsciwangkun@126.com [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Song, Qingxin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Canglong; Tang, Yixing [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shiyue [Radiology Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Hao, Qiang, E-mail: haoqiang@189.cn [Radiology Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Shen, Hongxing, E-mail: shenhxgk@126.com [Orthopedics Department, Changhai Hospital Affiliated to Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • It is essential to determine the DTI parameters in the whole CSC. • To analyze DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the CSC. • To study the impact of age on these parameters in healthy Chinese subjects. • Provide better insights in factors that could bias the diagnosis of CSC pathologies. - Abstract: Background: The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the cervical spinal cord (CSC) changes with age. However, previous studies only examined specific CSC areas. Objectives: To analyze the DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the whole normal CSC and to study the impact of age on these parameters in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 20–77 years were recruited. DTI parameters were calculated for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) funiculi in all the CSC intervertebral spaces (C1/2-C6/7). Age-related changes of DTI parameters were analyzed for the GM and WM funiculi. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were lower in GM than in WM. MD and FA values were lower in the WM in the lower CSC compared with the upper CSC (all P < 0.05), but no difference was observed in GM. In ventral funiculi, MD increased with age, while FA decreased (all P < 0.001). In lateral and dorsal funiculi, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). In GM, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). Significant age-related changes were observed in FA and MD from GM and WM funiculi. FA was correlated with age in all funiculi (ventral: r = −0.733; lateral: r = −0.468; dorsal: r = −0.607; GM: r = −0.724; all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Important changes in MD and FA were observed with advancing age at all levels of CSC in Chinese patients. DTI parameters may be useful to assess CSC pathology, but the influence of age and segments need to be taken into account in diagnosis.

  14. Age-related changes of the diffusion tensor imaging parameters of the normal cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun; Song, Qingxin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Canglong; Tang, Yixing; Chen, Shiyue; Hao, Qiang; Shen, Hongxing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • It is essential to determine the DTI parameters in the whole CSC. • To analyze DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the CSC. • To study the impact of age on these parameters in healthy Chinese subjects. • Provide better insights in factors that could bias the diagnosis of CSC pathologies. - Abstract: Background: The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of the cervical spinal cord (CSC) changes with age. However, previous studies only examined specific CSC areas. Objectives: To analyze the DTI parameters in all intervertebral space levels of the whole normal CSC and to study the impact of age on these parameters in a Chinese population. Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects aged 20–77 years were recruited. DTI parameters were calculated for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) funiculi in all the CSC intervertebral spaces (C1/2-C6/7). Age-related changes of DTI parameters were analyzed for the GM and WM funiculi. Results: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were lower in GM than in WM. MD and FA values were lower in the WM in the lower CSC compared with the upper CSC (all P < 0.05), but no difference was observed in GM. In ventral funiculi, MD increased with age, while FA decreased (all P < 0.001). In lateral and dorsal funiculi, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). In GM, MD and FA decreased with age (all P < 0.001). Significant age-related changes were observed in FA and MD from GM and WM funiculi. FA was correlated with age in all funiculi (ventral: r = −0.733; lateral: r = −0.468; dorsal: r = −0.607; GM: r = −0.724; all P < 0.01). Conclusion: Important changes in MD and FA were observed with advancing age at all levels of CSC in Chinese patients. DTI parameters may be useful to assess CSC pathology, but the influence of age and segments need to be taken into account in diagnosis

  15. Of goals and habits: Age-related and individual differences in goal-directed decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eEppinger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated age-related and individual differences in habitual (model-free and goal-directed (model-based decision-making. Specifically, we were interested in three questions. First, does age affect the balance between model-based and model-free decision mechanisms? Second, are these age-related changes due to age differences in working memory (WM capacity? Third, can model-based behavior be affected by manipulating the distinctiveness of the reward value of choice options? To answer these questions we used a two-stage Markov decision task in in combination with computational modeling to dissociate model-based and model-free decision mechanisms. To affect model-based behavior in this task we manipulated the distinctiveness of reward probabilities of choice options. The results show age-related deficits in model-based decision-making, which are particularly pronounced if unexpected reward indicates the need for a shift in decision strategy. In this situation younger adults explore the task structure, whereas older adults show perseverative behavior. Consistent with previous findings, these results indicate that older adults have deficits in the representation and updating of expected reward value. We also observed substantial individual differences in model-based behavior. In younger adults high WM capacity is associated with greater model-based behavior and this effect is further elevated when reward probabilities are more distinct. However, in older adults we found no effect of WM capacity. Moreover, age differences in model-based behavior remained statistically significant, even after controlling for WM capacity. Thus, factors other than decline in WM, such as deficits in the in the integration of expected reward value into strategic decisions may contribute to the observed impairments in model-based behavior in older adults.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life. Because affected individuals have trouble understanding speech, the condition affects their ability to communicate. It can contribute to social isolation, depression, and loss of self-esteem. Age-related hearing loss also causes safety issues if individuals become ...

  17. Age-Related Differences in Idiom Production in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Peggy S.; Hyun, Jungmoon; O'Connor Wells, Barbara; Anema, Inge; Goral, Mira; Monereau-Merry, Marie-Michelle; Rubino, Daniel; Kuckuk, Raija; Obler, Loraine K.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether idiom production was vulnerable to age-related difficulties, we asked 40 younger (ages 18-30) and 40 older healthy adults (ages 60-85) to produce idiomatic expressions in a story-completion task. Younger adults produced significantly more correct idiom responses (73%) than did older adults (60%). When older adults generated…

  18. Age-related maculopathy: A genetic and epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the 19th century, age-related maculopathy (ARM) was described for the first time as an agerelated abnormality of the macula lutea. ARM consists of a variety of clinical signs, from the early stages with soft distinct drusen, indistinct drusen and pigment alterations up to the late

  19. [Impact of thymic function in age-related immune deterioration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; de la Fuente, Mónica; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Leal, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Age-related biological deterioration also includes immune system deterioration and, in consequence, a rise in the incidence and prevalence of infections and cancers, as well as low responses to vaccination strategies. Out of all immune cell subsets, T-lymphocytes seem to be involved in most of the age-related defects. Since T-lymphocytes mature during their passage through the thymus, and the thymus shows an age-related process of atrophy, thymic regression has been proposed as the triggering event of this immune deterioration in elderly people. Historically, it has been accepted that the young thymus sets the T-lymphocyte repertoire during the childhood, whereupon atrophy begins until the elderly thymus is a non-functional evolutionary trace. However, a rising body of knowledge points toward the thymus functioning during adulthood. In the elderly, higher thymic function is associated with a younger immune system, while thymic function failure is associated with all-cause mortality. Therefore, any new strategy focused on the improvement of the elderly quality of life, especially those trying to influence the immune system, should take into account, together with peripheral homeostasis, thymus function as a key element in slowing down age-related decline. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colijn, Johanna M.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G.; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E.; Foster, Paul J.; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Ajana, Soufiane; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Arndt, Verena; Bhatia, Vaibhav; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.; Biarnés, Marc; Borrell, Anna; Bühren, Sebastian; Calado, Sofia M.; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Dammeier, Sascha; de Jong, Eiko K.; de la Cerda, Berta; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Diaz-Corrales, Francisco J.; Diether, Sigrid; Emri, Eszter; Endermann, Tanja; Ferraro, Lucia L.; Garcia, Míriam; Heesterbeek, Thomas J.; Honisch, Sabina; Bergen, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in

  1. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yper, L.N. Van; Vermeire, K.; Vel, E.F. De; Beynon, A.J.; Dhooge, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The

  2. Extrinsic Mechanisms Involved in Age-Related Defective Bone Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Context: Age-related bone loss is associated with progressive changes in bone remodeling characterized by decreased bone formation relative to bone resorption. Both trabecular and periosteal bone formation decline with age in both sexes, which contributes to bone fragility and increased risk of f...

  3. Pathophysiology of Age-Related Hearing Loss (Peripheral and Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) refers to bilaterally symmetrical hearing loss resulting from aging process. Presbycusis is a complex phenomenon characterized by audiometric threshold shift, deterioration in speech-understanding and speech-perception difficulties in noisy environments. Factors contributing to presbycusis include mitochondria DNA mutation, genetic disorders including Ahl, hypertension, diabetes, metabolic disease and other systemic diseases in the intrinsic aspects. Ext...

  4. Age-related differences in muscular capacity among workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the age-related changes in muscular capacity in a working population, and to investigate whether these changes are dependent on sports participation. Methods: Data were used from the longitudinal study on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, stress and health (n = 1,800). At

  5. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  6. Age-related macular degeneration in Onitsha, Nigeria | Nwosu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, pattern and ocular morbidity associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The case files of all new patients aged 50 years and above seen between January 1997 and December 2004 were reviewed.

  7. Age-related decrements in cycling and running performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... This study examined age-related decrements in athletic performance during running and cycling activities. ... These findings establish a trend that there is 'accelerated' aging during running which can perhaps be attributed to the increased weight-bearing stress on the muscles ...

  8. Gene-diet interactions in age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a prevalent blinding disease, accounting for roughly 50% of blindness in developed nations. Very significant advances have been made in terms of discovering genetic susceptibilities to AMD as well as dietary risk factors. To date, nutritional supplementation...

  9. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Prokofyeva, Elena

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD...

  10. Ranibizumab vs. aflibercept for wet age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Hedegaard, Morten; Chan, Keith

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although a reduced aflibercept (2.0 mg) injection frequency relative to the approved dosing posology is included in national treatment guidelines for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), there is limited evidence of its comparative efficacy. The objective was to compare...

  11. Awareness, Knowledge, and Concern about Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R.; Laban-Baker, Allie; Hamilton, Wanda S.; Stuen, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a common eye disease causing vision loss--can be detected early through regular eye-health examinations, and measures can be taken to prevent visual decline. Getting eye examinations requires certain levels of awareness, knowledge, and concern related to AMD. However, little is known about AMD-related…

  12. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidick Flemming

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. Methods During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires to 1,711 recruits before and after this three-month period. Results Sedentary occupation was negatively associated with long-lasting low back pain (>30 days during the past year at baseline with an odds ratios of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33–0.90. This effect vanished during service. Having parents with higher education increased the risk of low back pain during service (OR: 1.9;1.2–3.0, for the highest educated group, but not of the consequences (leg pain and exemption from duty, whereas high IQ decreased the risk of these consequences (odds ratios as low as 0.2;0.1–0.8 for exemption from duty in the group with highest IQ. Long-lasting low back pain prior to service increased the risk of long-lasting low back pain (OR: 4.8;2.1–10.8, leg pain (OR: 3.3;1.3–8.3 and exemption from duty during service (OR: 5.9;2.4–14.8. Conclusion Sedentary occupation is negatively associated with low back pain at baseline. This protective effect disappears, when the person becomes physically active. For predicting trouble related to the low back during service, the

  13. Contextual cueing impairment in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-09-12

    Visual attention can be guided by past experience of regularities in our visual environment. In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental learning of repeated distractor configurations speeds up search times compared to random search arrays. Concomitantly, fewer fixations and more direct scan paths indicate more efficient visual exploration in repeated search arrays. In previous work, we found that simulating a central scotoma in healthy observers eliminated this search facilitation. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who suffer from impaired foveal vision. AMD patients performed visual search using only their more severely impaired eye (n = 13) as well as under binocular viewing (n = 16). Normal-sighted controls developed a significant contextual cueing effect. In comparison, patients showed only a small nonsignificant advantage for repeated displays when searching with their worse eye. When searching binocularly, they profited from contextual cues, but still less than controls. Number of fixations and scan pattern ratios showed a comparable pattern as search times. Moreover, contextual cueing was significantly correlated with acuity in monocular search. Thus, foveal vision loss may lead to impaired guidance of attention by contextual memory cues.

  14. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S.; Naranjo, M.C.; Bermúdez, B.; López, S.; Abia, R.; Muriana, F.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs) could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD. [es

  15. Dietary fatty acids and lipoproteins on progression of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montserrat-de la Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a medical condition of central loss vision and blindness. Numerous studies have revealed that changes on certain dietary fatty acids (FAs could have useful for AMD management. This review summarizes the effects of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, MUFAs, and SFAs, and lipoproteins on AMD. Findings are consistent with the beneficial role of dietary omega-3 long-chain PUFAs, while the effects of dietary MUFAs and SFAs appeared to be ambiguous with respect to the possible protection from MUFAs and to the possible adverse impact from SFAs on AMD. Some of the pathological mechanisms associated with lipoproteins on AMD share those observed previously in cardiovascular diseases. It was also noticed that the effects of FAs in the diet and lipoprotein on AMD could be modulated by genetic variants. From a population health perspective, the findings of this review are in favour of omega-3 long-chain FAs recommendations in a preventive and therapeutic regimen to attain lower AMD occurrence and progression rates. Additional long-term and short-term nutrigenomic studies are required to clearly establish the role and the relevance of interaction of dietary FAs, lipoproteins, and genes in the genesis and progression of AMD.

  16. Towards early detection of age-related macular degeneration with tetracyclines and FLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmacinski, Henryk; Hegde, Kavita; Zeng, Hui-Hui; Eslami, Katayoun; Puche, Adam; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Lengyel, Imre; Thompson, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, we discovered microscopic spherules of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in aged human sub-retinal pigment epithelial (sub-RPE) deposits in the retinas of aged humans (PMID: 25605911), and developed evidence that the spherules may act to nucleate the growth of sub-RPE deposits such as drusen. Drusen are clinical hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We found that tetracycline-family antibiotics, long known to stain HAP in teeth and bones, also stained the HAP spherules, but in general the HAP-bound fluorescence excitation and emission spectra overlapped with the well-known autofluorescence of the RPE overlying drusen, making them difficult to resolve. However, we also found that certain tetracyclines exhibited substantial increases in fluorescence lifetime upon binding to HAP, and moreover these lifetimes were substantially greater than those previously observed (Dysli, et al., 2014) for autofluorescence in the human retina in vivo. Thus we were able to image the HAP spherules by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in cadaveric retinas of aged humans. These findings suggest that FLIM imaging of tetracycline binding to HAP could become a diagnostic tool for the development and progression of AMD.

  17. Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Because foods provide many nutrients, which may interact with each other to modify risk for multifactorial diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), we sought to develop a composite scoring system to summarize the combined effect of multiple dietary nutrients on AMD risk. Th...

  18. Lipids, lipid genes, and incident age-related macular degeneration: the three continent age-related macular degeneration consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H. S.; Rochtchina, Elena; Gao, Xiaoyi; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Sivakumaran, Theru A.; Burlutsky, George; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Hofman, Albert; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Lee, Kristine E.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Wang, Jie Jin

    2014-01-01

    To describe associations of serum lipid levels and lipid pathway genes to the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analysis. setting: Three population-based cohorts. population: A total of 6950 participants from the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES), Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES),

  19. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-mak...

  20. A data mining approach for classifying DNA repair genes into ageing-related or non-ageing-related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasieva Olga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ageing of the worldwide population means there is a growing need for research on the biology of ageing. DNA damage is likely a key contributor to the ageing process and elucidating the role of different DNA repair systems in ageing is of great interest. In this paper we propose a data mining approach, based on classification methods (decision trees and Naive Bayes, for analysing data about human DNA repair genes. The goal is to build classification models that allow us to discriminate between ageing-related and non-ageing-related DNA repair genes, in order to better understand their different properties. Results The main patterns discovered by the classification methods are as follows: (a the number of protein-protein interactions was a predictor of DNA repair proteins being ageing-related; (b the use of predictor attributes based on protein-protein interactions considerably increased predictive accuracy of attributes based on Gene Ontology (GO annotations; (c GO terms related to "response to stimulus" seem reasonably good predictors of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; (d interaction with the XRCC5 (Ku80 protein is a strong predictor of ageing-relatedness for DNA repair genes; and (e DNA repair genes with a high expression in T lymphocytes are more likely to be ageing-related. Conclusions The above patterns are broadly integrated in an analysis discussing relations between Ku, the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, ageing and lymphocyte development. These patterns and their analysis support non-homologous end joining double strand break repair as central to the ageing-relatedness of DNA repair genes. Our work also showcases the use of protein interaction partners to improve accuracy in data mining methods and our approach could be applied to other ageing-related pathways.

  1. Prediction and characterization of human ageing-related proteins by using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Daróczy, Bálint; Sturm, Ádám; Vellai, Tibor; Benczúr, András

    2018-03-06

    Ageing has a huge impact on human health and economy, but its molecular basis - regulation and mechanism - is still poorly understood. By today, more than three hundred genes (almost all of them function as protein-coding genes) have been related to human ageing. Although individual ageing-related genes or some small subsets of these genes have been intensively studied, their analysis as a whole has been highly limited. To fill this gap, for each human protein we extracted 21000 protein features from various databases, and using these data as an input to state-of-the-art machine learning methods, we classified human proteins as ageing-related or non-ageing-related. We found a simple classification model based on only 36 protein features, such as the "number of ageing-related interaction partners", "response to oxidative stress", "damaged DNA binding", "rhythmic process" and "extracellular region". Predicted values of the model quantify the relevance of a given protein in the regulation or mechanisms of the human ageing process. Furthermore, we identified new candidate proteins having strong computational evidence of their important role in ageing. Some of them, like Cytochrome b-245 light chain (CY24A) and Endoribonuclease ZC3H12A (ZC12A) have no previous ageing-associated annotations.

  2. Idiom understanding in adulthood: examining age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pei-Fang; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Idioms are figurative expressions such as hold your horses, kick the bucket, and lend me a hand, which commonly occur in everyday spoken and written language. Hence, the understanding of these expressions is essential for daily communication. In this study, we examined idiom understanding in healthy adults in their 20s, 40s, 60s and 80s (n=30 per group) to determine if performance would show an age-related decline. Participants judged their own familiarity with a set of 20 idioms, explained the meaning of each, described a situation in which the idiom could be used, and selected the appropriate interpretation from a set of choices. There was no evidence of an age-related decline on any tasks. Rather, the 60s group reported greater familiarity and offered better explanations than did the 20s group. Moreover, greater familiarity with idioms was associated with better understanding in adults.

  3. Age-related changes of monoaminooxidases in rat cerebellar cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Tranquilli Leali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes of the monoaminoxidases, evaluated by enzymatic staining, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assay and statistical analysis of data were studied in cerebellar cortex of young (3-month-old and aged (26- month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The enzymatic staining shows the presence of monoamino-oxidases within the molecular and granular layers as well as within the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum of young and aged animals. In molecular layer, and in Purkinje neurons the levels of monoaminooxidases were strongly increased in old rats. The granular layer showed, on the contrary, an age-dependent loss of enzymatic staining. These morphological findings were confirmed by biochemical results. The possibility that age-related changes in monoaminooxidase levels may be due to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energetic needs is discussed.

  4. Reviewing fluid systems for age-related degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stan

    1991-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company has developed the component degradation assessment tool (CoDAT), an expert system, that aids in handling and evaluating the large amounts of data required to support the license renewal process for nuclear power station fluid systems. In 1990, CoDAT evaluated the Yankee Nuclear Power Station fluid systems for age-related degradation. Its results are now being used to help focus the plant's maintenance programs and manage the expected degradation. CoDAT uses 'If-Then' rules, developed from industry codes, standards and publications, to determine the potential for 19 age-related degradation mechanisms. Other nuclear utilities pursuing the license renewal option also could use CoDAT. (author)

  5. Hot Topics in Pharmacogenetics of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Brantley, Milam A; Kovach, Jaclyn L; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible visual loss and is primarily treated with nutritional supplementation as well as with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents for certain patients with neovascular disease. AMD is a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. In addition, treatment outcomes from nutritional supplementation and anti-VEGF agents vary considerably. Therefore, it is reasonable to suspect that there may be pharmacogenetic influences on these treatments. Many series have reported individual associations with variants in complement factor H (CFH), age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2), and other loci. However, at this time there are no validated associations. With respect to AMD, pharmacogenetics remains an intriguing area of research but is not helpful for routine clinical management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Heart Failure as an Aging-Related Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Komuro, Issei

    2018-01-27

    The molecular pathophysiology of heart failure, which is one of the leading causes of mortality, is not yet fully understood. Heart failure can be regarded as a systemic syndrome of aging-related phenotypes. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway, both of which are key regulators of aging, have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Circulating C1q was identified as a novel activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, promoting systemic aging-related phenotypes including sarcopenia and heart failure. On the other hand, p53 induces the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in the failing heart. In these molecular mechanisms, the cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and non-cardiomyocytes (e,g,. endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, macrophages) deserves mentioning. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathophysiology underlying heart failure, focusing on Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the p53 pathway.

  7. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  8. Expertise and age-related changes in components of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, H; Horn, J

    2001-06-01

    In a sample of 263 male GO players at 48 levels of expertise and ranging from 18 to 78 years of age, it was found that factors of expertise deductive reasoning (EDR) and expertise working memory (EWM) were independent of factors of fluid reasoning (Gf) and short-term working memory (STWM) that, along with cognitive speed (Gs), have been found to characterize decline of intelligence in adulthood. The main effects of analyses of cross-sectional age differences indicated age-related decline in EDR and EWM as well as in Gf, STWM, and Gs. However, interaction and partialing analyses indicated that decline in EDR and EWM decreased to no decline with increase in level of expertise. The results thus suggest that with increase in factors known to raise the level of expertise--particularly, intensive, well-designed practice--there may be no age-related decline in the intelligence that is measured in the abilities of expertise.

  9. Radiation treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Tomoko; Mandai, Michiko; Honjo, Megumi; Matsuda, Naoko; Miyamoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Masayo; Ogura, Yuichiro; Sasai, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-11-01

    Fifteen eyes of age-related macular degeneration were treated by low-dose radiation. All the affected eyes had subfoveal neovascular membrane. Seventeen nontreated eyes with similar macular lesion served as control. Radiation was performed using photon beam at 6MV. Each eye received daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 consecutive days. When evaluated 9 to 12 months after treatment, the size of neovascular membrane had decreased in 47% of treated eyes and 7% of control eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 13% of treated eyes and in none of control eyes. When the initial neovascular membrane was less than 1.5 disc diameter in size, the visual acuity had improved or remained stationary in 90% of treated eyes and in 36% of control eyes. The findings show the potential beneficial effect of radiation for age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  10. Age-Related Differences in Multiple Task Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men excee...

  11. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ...

  12. Complement pathway biomarkers and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzi, M; Lotery, A J

    2016-01-01

    In the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ‘inflammation model', local inflammation plus complement activation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. Multiple genetic associations have now been established correlating the risk of development or progression of AMD. Stratifying patients by their AMD genetic profile may facilitate future AMD therapeutic trials resulting in meaningful clinical trial end points with smaller sample sizes and study duration. PMID:26493033

  13. Age-Related Changes in Trabecular and Cortical Bone Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayue Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT, micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT, imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.

  14. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Zhou, Xiangrong; Fujita, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2013-01-01

    The elderly population has substantially increased worldwide. Aging is a complex process, and the effects of aging are myriad and insidious, leading to progressive deterioration of various organs, including the skeleton. Age-related bone loss and resultant osteoporosis in the elderly population increase the risk for fractures and morbidity. Osteoporosis is one of the most common conditions associated with aging, and age is an independent risk factor for osteoporotic fractures. With the development of noninvasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), micro-CT, and high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT), imaging of the bone architecture provides important information about age-related changes in bone microstructure and estimates of bone strength. In the past two decades, studies of human specimens using imaging techniques have revealed decreased bone strength in older adults compared with younger adults. The present paper addresses recently studied age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone microstructure based primarily on HR-pQCT and micro-CT. We specifically focus on the three-dimensional microstructure of the vertebrae, femoral neck, and distal radius, which are common osteoporotic fracture sites.

  15. Accident sequence precursor events with age-related contributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.A.; Kohn, W.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program at ORNL analyzed about 14.000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) filed by US nuclear power plants 1987--1993. There were 193 events identified as precursors to potential severe core accident sequences. These are reported in G/CR-4674. Volumes 7 through 20. Under the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research program, the authors evaluated these events to determine the extent to which component aging played a role. Events were selected that involved age-related equipment degradation that initiated an event or contributed to an event sequence. For the 7-year period, ORNL identified 36 events that involved aging degradation as a contributor to an ASP event. Except for 1992, the percentage of age-related events within the total number of ASP events over the 7-year period ({approximately}19%) appears fairly consistent up to 1991. No correlation between plant ape and number of precursor events was found. A summary list of the age-related events is presented in the report.

  16. Identification of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Using OCT Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Punal M., Dr; Krishna, Nanditha; Ashwini, V.; Prathibha, H. M.

    2018-02-01

    Age-related Macular Degeneration is the most leading retinal disease in the recent years. Macular degeneration occurs when the central portion of the retina, called macula deteriorates. As the deterioration occurs with the age, it is commonly referred as Age-related Macular Degeneration. This disease can be visualized by several imaging modalities such as Fundus imaging technique, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique and many other. Optical Coherence Tomography is the widely used technique for screening the Age-related Macular Degeneration disease, because it has an ability to detect the very minute changes in the retina. The Healthy and AMD affected OCT images are classified by extracting the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium (RPE) layer of the images using the image processing technique. The extracted layer is sampled, the no. of white pixels in each of the sample is counted and the mean value of the no. of pixels is calculated. The average mean value is calculated for both the Healthy and the AMD affected images and a threshold value is fixed and a decision rule is framed to classify the images of interest. The proposed method showed an accuracy of 75%.

  17. Early initial clinical experience with intravitreal aflibercept for wet age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Philip J; Anwar, Farihah; Naysan, Jonathan; Chaudhary, Khurram; Fastenberg, David; Graham, Kenneth; Deramo, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative process that leads to severe vision loss. Wet AMD is defined by choroidal neovascularisation, leading to the accumulation of subretinal fluid (SRF), macular oedema (ME), and pigment epithelium detachments (PED). Purpose To evaluate the initial clinical experience of conversion from bevacizumab or ranibizumab to aflibercept in wet AMD patients. Records of 250 consecutive wet AMD patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of 250 patients, 29 were naive (with no previous treatment), and 221 were previously treated with bevacizumab (1/3) or ranibizumab (2/3). On average, converted patients received 14 injections every 6 weeks on a treat-and-extend regimen with Avastin or Lucentis before being converted to aflibercept every 7 weeks on average (no loading dose) for three doses. For the purposes of this study, we concentrated on the patients converted to aflibercept since the number of naive patients was too small to draw any conclusion from. Snellen (as logMar) visual acuities, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were compared predrug and postdrug conversion. Converted patients did not show a significant difference in visual acuity or average OCT thickness from preconversion values; however, small improvements in ME (p=0.0001), SRF (p=0.0001), and PED (p=0.008) grading were noted on average after conversion to aflibercept. No significant difference in visual outcome or average OCT thickness was observed when switched from bevacizumab or ranibizumab q6 week to aflibercept 7-week dosing, on average. Mild anatomic improvements did occur in converted patients with regard to ME, SRF and PED improvement, on average, after conversion to aflibercept, and aflibercept was injected less frequently. No serious adverse reactions, including ocular infections or inflammation, as well as ocular and systemic effects were noted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  18. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  19. A multivariate analysis of age-related differences in functional networks supporting conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Alireza; Rieckmann, Anna; Fischer, Håkan; Bäckman, Lars

    2014-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies demonstrate age-related differences in recruitment of a large-scale attentional network during interference resolution, especially within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). These alterations in functional responses have been frequently observed despite equivalent task performance, suggesting age-related reallocation of neural resources, although direct evidence for a facilitating effect in aging is sparse. We used the multi-source interference task and multivariate partial-least-squares to investigate age-related differences in the neuronal signature of conflict resolution, and their behavioral implications in younger and older adults. There were interference-related increases in activity, involving fronto-parietal and basal ganglia networks that generalized across age. In addition an age-by-task interaction was observed within a distributed network, including DLPFC and ACC, with greater activity during interference in the old. Next, we combined brain-behavior and functional connectivity analyses to investigate whether compensatory brain changes were present in older adults, using DLPFC and ACC as regions of interest (i.e. seed regions). This analysis revealed two networks differentially related to performance across age groups. A structural analysis revealed age-related gray-matter losses in regions facilitating performance in the young, suggesting that functional reorganization may partly reflect structural alterations in aging. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related structural changes contribute to reductions in the efficient recruitment of a youth-like interference network, which cascades into instantiation of a different network facilitating conflict resolution in elderly people. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. VITRECTOMY FOR INTERMEDIATE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION ASSOCIATED WITH TANGENTIAL VITREOMACULAR TRACTION: A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziada, Jean; Hagenau, Felix; Compera, Denise; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Schaumberger, Markus M; Priglinger, Siegfried G; Schumann, Ricarda G

    2018-03-01

    To describe the morphologic characteristics of the vitreomacular interface in intermediate age-related macular degeneration associated with tangential traction due to premacular membrane formation and to correlate with optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and clinical data. Premacular membrane specimens were removed sequentially with the internal limiting membrane from 27 eyes of 26 patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were processed for immunocytochemical staining of epiretinal cells and extracellular matrix components. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images and patient charts were evaluated in retrospect. Immunocytochemistry revealed hyalocytes and myofibroblasts as predominant cell types. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated evidence of vitreoschisis in all eyes. Myofibroblasts with contractile properties were observed to span between folds of the internal limiting membrane and vitreous cortex collagen. Retinal pigment epithelial cells or inflammatory cells were not detected. Mean visual acuity (Snellen) showed significant improvement from 20/72 ± 20/36 to 20/41 ± 20/32 (P age-related macular degeneration predominantly consists of vitreous collagen, hyalocytes, and myofibroblasts with contractile properties. Vitreoschisis and vitreous-derived cells appear to play an important role in traction formation of this subgroup of eyes. In patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration and contractile premacular membrane, release of traction by vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling results in significantly functional and anatomical improvement.

  1. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathogenesis of age-related bone loss in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-10-01

    Although data from rodent systems are extremely useful in providing insights into possible mechanisms of age-related bone loss, concepts evolving from animal models need to ultimately be tested in humans. This review provides an update on mechanisms of age-related bone loss in humans based on the author's knowledge of the field and focused literature reviews. Novel imaging, experimental models, biomarkers, and analytic techniques applied directly to human studies are providing new insights into the patterns of bone mass acquisition and loss as well as the role of sex steroids, in particular estrogen, on bone metabolism and bone loss with aging in women and men. These studies have identified the onset of trabecular bone loss at multiple sites that begins in young adulthood and remains unexplained, at least based on current paradigms of the mechanisms of bone loss. In addition, estrogen appears to be a major regulator of bone metabolism not only in women but also in men. Studies assessing mechanisms of estrogen action on bone in humans have identified effects of estrogen on RANKL expression by several different cell types in the bone microenvironment, a role for TNF-α and IL-1β in mediating effects of estrogen deficiency on bone, and possible regulation of the Wnt inhibitor, sclerostin, by estrogen. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of age-related bone loss in humans. However, there are also significant gaps in knowledge, particularly in defining cell autonomous changes in bone in human studies to test or validate concepts emerging from studies in rodents. Decision Editor: Luigi Ferrucci, MD, PhD.

  3. Age-related deterioration of rod vision in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2010-08-18

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and, more specifically, photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid-deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5-year-old mice compared with 4-month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a twofold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by twofold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods, providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization.

  4. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E.

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Yonekawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in older populations in industrialized nations. AMD is a late-onset deterioration of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium in the central retina caused by various environmental and genetic factors. Great strides in our understanding of AMD pathogenesis have been made in the past several decades, which have translated into revolutionary therapeutic agents in recent years. In this review, we describe the clinical and pathologic features of AMD and present an overview of current diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  6. Figure ground discrimination in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Ha Chau; Guyader, Nathalie; Guerin, Anne; Despretz, Pascal; Boucart, Muriel

    2011-03-01

    To investigate impairment in discriminating a figure from its background and to study its relation to visual acuity and lesion size in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Seventeen patients with neovascular AMD and visual acuity Figure/ground segregation is impaired in patients with AMD. A white space surrounding an object is sufficient to improve the object's detection and to facilitate figure/ground segregation. These results may have practical applications to the rehabilitation of the environment in patients with AMD.

  7. Age related macular degeneration - modern diagnostic and therapeutic preventive approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gogelová, Blanka

    2009-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease associated with aging that gradually destroys sharp, central vision. Central vision is needed for seeing objects clearly and for common daily tasks such as reading and driving. AMD affects the macula, the part of the eye that alows seeing of fine details. AMD occurs in two form: dry and wet. In dry AMD, the light sensitive cells in the macula slowly break down. As fewer cells in the macula are able to function, people will see details less c...

  8. New developments in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon da Cruz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that over 3 million people (9% of global blindness are blinded by age-related macular degeneration (AMD. AMD affects people over the age of 55. There are two main types of AMD, dry and wet. In dry AMD, patients slowly lose vision through progressive atrophy of the macular tissue. Wet, or exudative, AMD, is associated with new blood vessels called subretinal neovascular membranes (or SRNVM and affected patients lose vision more rapidly due to fluid leakage and haemorrhage at the macula.

  9. Counteracting age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Reitelseder, Søren; Højfeldt, Grith

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with decreased muscle mass and functional capacity, which in turn decrease quality of life. The number of citizens over the age of 65 years in the Western world will increase by 50 % over the next four decades, and this demographic shift brings forth new challenges...... at both societal and individual levels. Only a few longitudinal studies have been reported, but whey protein supplementation seems to improve muscle mass and function, and its combination with heavy strength training appears even more effective. However, heavy resistance training may reduce adherence...... Intervention Study will generate scientific evidence and recommendations to counteract age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass in elderly individuals....

  10. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology and optimal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common macular disease affecting elderly people in the Western world. It is characterised by the appearance of drusen in the macula, accompanied by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) or geographic atrophy. The disease is more common in Caucasian....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  11. Research status of conbercept treating age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration(AMDis one of the major reasons of blindness among the elderly in the developed countries. As AMD patients are increasing year by year, AMD has become one of the important topics of ophthalmic research to prevent blindness. Its pathogenesis is not fully understood, but many studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGFplays an important role in the pathogenesis. With the development and application of anti-VEGF drugs, there are a variety of drugs applied to the disease. This article introduces conbercept for the treatment of AMD.

  12. Age-related changes in crowding and reading speed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rong; Patel, Bhavika N.; Kwon, MiYoung

    2017-01-01

    Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in clutter, is known to play a role in developmental changes in reading speed. Here, we investigated whether crowding also plays a role in age-related changes in reading speed. We recruited 18 young (mean age: 22.6???3.5; range: 18~31) and 21 older adults (mean age: 58.2???7.0; range: 50~73) with normal vision. Reading speed was measured with short blocks of text. The degree of crowding was determined by measuring crowding zone (the distance betwee...

  13. A feasibility study on age-related factors of wrist pulse using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang-Han Bae; Young Ju Jeon; Sanghun Lee; Jaeuk U Kim

    2016-08-01

    Various analysis methods for examining wrist pulse characteristics are needed for accurate pulse diagnosis. In this feasibility study, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to observe age-related factors of wrist pulse from various analysis parameters. Forty subjects in the age group of 20s and 40s were participated, and their wrist pulse signal and respiration signal were acquired with the pulse tonometric device. After pre-processing of the signals, twenty analysis parameters which have been regarded as values reflecting pulse characteristics were calculated and PCA was performed. As a results, we could reduce complex parameters to lower dimension and age-related factors of wrist pulse were observed by combining-new analysis parameter derived from PCA. These results demonstrate that PCA can be useful tool for analyzing wrist pulse signal.

  14. Age-related retinopathy in NRF2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in retinal antioxidant and detoxification responses. The purposes of this study were to determine whether NRF2-deficient mice would develop AMD-like retinal pathology with aging and to explore the underlying mechanisms.Eyes of both wild type and Nrf2(-/- mice were examined in vivo by fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG. Structural changes of the outer retina in aged animals were examined by light and electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence labeling. Our results showed that Nrf2(-/- mice developed age-dependent degenerative pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Drusen-like deposits, accumulation of lipofuscin, spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV and sub-RPE deposition of inflammatory proteins were present in Nrf2(-/- mice after 12 months. Accumulation of autophagy-related vacuoles and multivesicular bodies was identified by electron microscopy both within the RPE and in Bruch's membrane of aged Nrf2(-/- mice.Our data suggest that disruption of Nfe2l2 gene increased the vulnerability of outer retina to age-related degeneration. NRF2-deficient mice developed ocular pathology similar to cardinal features of human AMD and deregulated autophagy is likely a mechanistic link between oxidative injury and inflammation. The Nrf2(-/- mice can provide a novel model for mechanistic and translational research on AMD.

  15. Splicing regulatory factors, ageing and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Eva; Harries, Lorna W

    2017-07-01

    Alternative splicing is a co-transcriptional process, which allows for the production of multiple transcripts from a single gene and is emerging as an important control point for gene expression. Alternatively expressed isoforms often have antagonistic function and differential temporal or spatial expression patterns, yielding enormous plasticity and adaptability to cells and increasing their ability to respond to environmental challenge. The regulation of alternative splicing is critical for numerous cellular functions in both pathological and physiological conditions, and deregulated alternative splicing is a key feature of common chronic diseases. Isoform choice is controlled by a battery of splicing regulatory proteins, which include the serine arginine rich (SRSF) proteins and the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) classes of genes. These important splicing regulators have been implicated in age-related disease, and in the ageing process itself. This review will outline the important contribution of splicing regulator proteins to ageing and age-related disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petrarca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert Petrarca, Timothy L JacksonDepartment of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET. Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002, with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections.Keywords: wet age-related macular degeneration, neovascular, radiation therapy, epimacular brachytherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, anti-VEGF

  17. Age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Kumar, Dinesh; Arjunan, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    Limited studies exist on the use of surface electromyogram (EMG) signal features to detect age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior. Motor unit remodeling leads to declined muscle strength and force steadiness during submaximal contractions which are factors for risk of falls in the elderly. This study investigated the remodeling phenomena in the Tibialis Anterior using sample entropy and higher order statistics. Eighteen young (26.1 ± 2.9 years) and twelve elderly (68.7 ± 9.0 years) participants performed isometric dorsiflexion of the ankle at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and their Tibialis Anterior (TA) EMG was recorded. Sample entropy, Gaussianity and Linearity Test statistics were calculated from the recorded EMG for each MVC. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine normality, and either a two-tail student t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to determine significant difference in the EMG features between the young and old cohorts. Results show age-related motor unit remodeling to be depicted by decreased sample entropy (p <; 0.1), increased non-Gaussianity (p <; 0.05) and lesser degree of linearity in the elderly. This is due to the increased sparsity of the MUAPs as a result of the denervation-reinnervation process, and the decrease in total number of motor units.

  18. Parainflammation, chronic inflammation and age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Xu, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an adaptive response of the immune system to noxious insults to maintain homeostasis and restore functionality. The retina is considered an immune privileged tissue due to its unique anatomical and physiological properties. During aging, the retina suffers from a low-grade chronic oxidative insult, which sustains for decades and increases in level with advancing age. As a result, the retinal innate immune system, particularly microglia and the complement system, undergo low levels of activation (para-inflammation). In many cases, this para-inflammatory response can maintain homeostasis in the healthy aging eye. However, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), this para-inflammatory response becomes dysregulated and contributes to macular damage. Factors contributing to the dysregulation of age-related retinal para-inflammation include genetic predisposition, environmental risk factors and old age. Dysregulated para-inflammation (chronic inflammation) in AMD damages the blood retina barrier (BRB), resulting in the breach of retinal immune privilege leading to the development of retinal lesions. This review discusses the basic principles of retinal innate immune responses to endogenous chronic insults in normal aging and in AMD, and explores the difference between beneficial para-inflammation and the detrimental chronic inflammation in the context of AMD. PMID:26292978

  19. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Chikako; Mori, Hideo; Akuta, Keizou [Otsu Red Cross Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    1998-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of low-dose radiation on age-related macular degeneration in 8 affected eyes. Radiation was applied using photons at 4 MV. Each eye received 10 fractions of 2 Gy per day over 2 weeks. At 6 months after treatment, funduscopic or angiographic findings had either improved or remained unchanged in all the eyes. The visual acuity improved by 2 lines or more in 2 eyes (25%), remained unchanged in 5 eyes (63%) and deteriorated in 1 eye (13%). At the last examination, fundus findings had improved in 2 eyes (25%), remained unchanged in 1 eye (13%) and deteriorated in 5 eyes (63%). The visual acuity had improved or unchanged in 2 eyes each (25%) and deteriorated in 4 eyes (50%). There has been no negative side effects of radiation. Above findings show that low-dose radiation is potentially beneficial for subfoveal or juxtafoveal choroidal neovascularizations in age-related macular degeneration on a short term basis. (author)

  20. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, transplantation, retinal pigment epithelial cells, treatment...

  1. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells - a possible future treatment for age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiencke, Anne Katrine

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment......ophthalmology, age-related macular degeneration, retinal pigment epithelial cells, transplantation, treatment...

  2. Prevalence of age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration among the inuit in Greenland. The Greenland Inuit Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Varis Nis; Rosenberg, Thomas; la Cour, Morten

    2008-01-01

    To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland.......To examine the age- and gender-specific prevalence and describe the common phenotype of early age-related maculopathy (ARM) and late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland....

  3. Age-related effects on postural control under multi-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wehrle, Anja; Kressig, Reto W

    2011-01-01

    Changes in postural sway and gait patterns due to simultaneously performed cognitive (CI) and/or motor interference (MI) tasks have previously been reported and are associated with an increased risk of falling in older adults. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a CI and/or MI task on static and dynamic postural control in young and elderly subjects, and to find out whether there is an association between measures of static and dynamic postural control while concurrently performing the CI and/or MI task. A total of 36 healthy young (n = 18; age: 22.3 ± 3.0 years; BMI: 21.0 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) and elderly adults (n = 18; age: 73.5 ± 5.5 years; BMI: 24.2 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) participated in this study. Static postural control was measured during bipedal stance, and dynamic postural control was obtained while walking on an instrumented walkway. Irrespective of the task condition, i.e. single-task or multiple tasks, elderly participants showed larger center-of-pressure displacements and greater stride-to-stride variability than younger participants. Associations between measures of static and dynamic postural control were found only under the single-task condition in the elderly. Age-related deficits in the postural control system seem to be primarily responsible for the observed results. The weak correlations detected between static and dynamic measures could indicate that fall-risk assessment should incorporate dynamic measures under multi-task conditions, and that skills like erect standing and walking are independent of each other and may have to be trained complementarily. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Crystalline lens paradoxes revisited: significance of age-related restructuring of the GRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2017-09-01

    The accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline lens is used to explore the age-related changes in ocular power and spherical aberration. The additional parameter m in the GRIN lens model allows decoupling of the axial and radial GRIN profiles, and is used to stabilise the age-related change in ocular power. Data for age-related changes in ocular geometry and lens parameter P in the axial GRIN profile were taken from published experimental data. In our age-dependent eye model, the ocular refractive power shows behaviour similar to the previously unexplained "lens paradox". Furthermore, ocular spherical aberration agrees with the data average, in contrast to the proposed "spherical aberration paradox". The additional flexibility afforded by parameter m , which controls the ratio of the axial and radial GRIN profile exponents, has allowed us to study the restructuring of the lens GRIN medium with age, resulting in a new interpretation of the origin of the power and spherical aberration paradoxes. Our findings also contradict the conceptual idea that the ageing eye is similar to the accommodating eye.

  5. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Aire; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Valk, Raivo

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies indicate that recognition of emotions, particularly negative emotions, decreases with age. However, there is no consensus at which age the decrease in emotion recognition begins, how selective this is to negative emotions, and whether this applies to both facial and vocal expression. In the current cross-sectional study, 607 participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years (mean age = 32.6 +/- 14.9 years) were asked to recognize emotions expressed either facially or vocally. In general, older participants were found to be less accurate at recognizing emotions, with the most distinctive age difference pertaining to a certain group of negative emotions. Both modalities revealed an age-related decline in the recognition of sadness and -- to a lesser degree -- anger, starting at about 30 years of age. Although age-related differences in the recognition of expression of emotion were not mediated by personality traits, 2 of the Big 5 traits, openness and conscientiousness, made an independent contribution to emotion-recognition performance. Implications of age-related differences in facial and vocal emotion expression and early onset of the selective decrease in emotion recognition are discussed in terms of previous findings and relevant theoretical models.

  6. Gender difference and age-related changes in performance at the long-distance duathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The differences in gender- and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e., swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e., running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends and the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the "Powerman Zofingen" long-distance duathlon (10-km run, 150-km cycle, and 30-km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were 2,236 finishers (272 women and 1,964 men, respectively). Linear regression analyses for the 3 split times, and the total event time, demonstrated that running and cycling times were fairly stable during the last decade for both male and female elite duathletes. The top 10 overall gender differences in times were 16 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 15 ± 3, and 16 ± 5%, for the 10-km run, 150-km cycle, 30-km run and the overall race time, respectively. There was a significant (p triathlons, the age-related decline in the duathlon performance was more pronounced in running than in cycling. Athletes and coaches can use these findings to plan the career in long-distance duathletes with the age of peak performance between 25 and 39 years for both women and men.

  7. Desipramine rescues age-related phenotypes in depression-like rats induced by chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoxian; Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Qi; Shen, Qichen; Ma, Lingyan; Huang, Liangfeng; Wu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    Our previous finding demonstrates that major depressive disorder can mediate accelerated aging in rats. Desipramine is a typical tricyclic antidepressant, and can provide neuroprotection and counteract depression-like behaviors. However, whether desipramine can rescue age-related phenotypes in depressed individuals is not understood. In the present study, we investigated the physiological function of desipramine on rescuing the age-related phenotypes in these animals. The rats were induced by chronic mild stress paradigm, and the depression-like behaviors of rats were detected by sucrose intake test, open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST). Then the depressed rats were treated by desipramine. Desipramine administration was effective in counteracting depression-like behaviors by increasing the sucrose solution intake, reducing the immobility time in the FST, and increasing total distance travelled and numbers of grid line crossed in the OFT. Moreover, desipramine treatment was able to reduce the oxidative damage to rat liver, and to increase the expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), leading to correspondingly restored telomerase activity. Our findings identify that one function of desipramine may partly be to rescue age-related phenotypes in depressed individuals induced by chronic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Mäntylä, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  9. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    chimpanzees. We used the BrainVisa software to measure total brain volume, gray and white matter volumes, gray matter thickness, and gyrification index in a cross-sectional sample of 219 captive chimpanzees (8-53 years old), with 38 subjects being 40 or more years of age. Mean depth and cortical fold opening...... of 11 major sulci of the chimpanzee brains were also measured. We found that chimpanzees showed increased gyrification with age and a cubic relationship between age and white matter volume. For the association between age and sulcus depth and width, the results were mostly non......Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray...

  10. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue......-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal...... and organs in tissue-engineering protocols. However, several challenges confront the use of these cells in the clinic, ranging from biological challenges (e.g., how to isolate a homogenous populations of the cells with specific criteria from the bone marrow and how to expand them ex vivo without affecting...

  11. Imaging geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Arno P; Fleckenstein, Monika; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Brinkmann, Christian K; Holz, Frank G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in retinal imaging technology have largely contributed to the understanding of the natural history, prognostic markers and disease mechanisms of geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. There is still no therapy available to halt or slow the disease process. In order to evaluate potential therapeutic effects in interventional trials, there is a need for precise quantification of the GA progression rate. Fundus autofluorescence imaging allows for accurate identification and segmentation of atrophic areas and currently represents the gold standard for evaluating progressive GA enlargement. By means of high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, distinct microstructural alterations related to GA can be visualized. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Age-related associative deficits and the isolation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    If all but one of the items in a list are similar (e.g., all black except one red), memory for the different item is enhanced (the isolation effect). Older adults generally show similar or smaller isolation effects compared to young adults, which has been attributed to age-related deficits in associative memory whereby older adults are less able to associate an isolated stimulus to its isolating feature. Experiment 1 examined the isolation effect for isolation based on spatial position, modality and color; in Experiment 2, the criterion for isolation was the associative relation between stimuli. The results consistently showed no differences between young and older participants in the magnitude of the isolation effect. Whilst age deficits in associative memory may act to reduce the isolation effect in older adults, age deficits in self-initiated processing and inhibitory functionality may counteract this reduction by enhancing the isolation effect in older adults.

  13. Transcriptome changes in age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitmore S Scott

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a debilitating, common cause of visual impairment. While the last decade has seen great progress in understanding the pathophysiology of AMD, the molecular changes that occur in eyes with AMD are still poorly understood. In the current issue of Genome Medicine, Newman and colleagues present the first systematic transcriptional profile analysis of AMD-affected tissues, providing a comprehensive set of expression data for different regions (macula versus periphery, tissues (retina versus retinal pigment epithelium (RPE/choroid, and disease state (control versus early or advanced AMD. Their findings will serve as a foundation for additional systems-level research into the pathogenesis of this blinding disease. Please see related article: http://genomemedicine.com/content/4/2/16

  14. Age-related differences in the attention network test (ANT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboz, Nadia; Zamarian, Stefania; Cavallero, Corrado

    2010-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of aging on alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution by assessing younger (mean age = 25.8) and older (mean age = 67.9) adults' performance in the Attention Network Test that combines, in a single experimental paradigm, a flanker task with alerting and orienting cues. The analyses of response times indicated equivalent orienting and conflict resolution effects in younger and older adults. By contrast, alerting was found to be significantly reduced in the elderly. This result is only marginally in accordance with recent studies addressing the issues of age-related differences in alerting, which provide mixed results. The possible role of methodological differences across studies in accounting for the controversial results concerning the aging affect on alerting is discussed.

  15. Age-related Deterioration of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Seung Ah; Chang, Jae Suk

    2008-11-01

    Aging is the process of system deterioration over time in the whole body. Stem cells are self-renewing and therefore have been considered exempt from the aging process. Earlier studies by Hayflick showed that there is an intrinsic limit to the number of divisions that mammalian somatic cells can undergo, and cycling kinetics and ontogeny-related studies strongly suggest that even the most primitive stem cell functions exhibit a certain degree of aging. Despite these findings, studies on the effects of aging on stem cell functions are inconclusive. Here we review the age-related properties of hematopoietic stem cells in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic alterations, proliferative potential, signaling molecules, telomere and telomerase, senescence and cancer issues, regenerative potential and other indications of stem cell aging are discussed in detail.

  16. Age-related differences in multiple task monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Todorov

    Full Text Available Coordinating multiple tasks with narrow deadlines is particularly challenging for older adults because of age related decline in cognitive control functions. We tested the hypothesis that multiple task performance reflects age- and gender-related differences in executive functioning and spatial ability. Young and older adults completed a multitasking session with four monitoring tasks as well as separate tasks measuring executive functioning and spatial ability. For both age groups, men exceeded women in multitasking, measured as monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of young adults' monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability was related to sex differences. For older adults, age and executive functioning, but not spatial ability, predicted multitasking performance. These results suggest that executive functions contribute to multiple task performance across the adult life span and that reliance on spatial skills for coordinating deadlines is modulated by age.

  17. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Insights into Inflammatory Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Cascella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects approximately 8.7% of elderly people worldwide (>55 years old. AMD is characterized by a multifactorial aetiology that involves several genetic and environmental risk factors (genes, ageing, smoking, family history, dietary habits, oxidative stress, and hypertension. In particular, ageing and cigarette smoking (including oxidative compounds and reactive oxygen species have been shown to significantly increase susceptibility to the disease. Furthermore, different genes (CFH, CFI, C2, C3, IL-6, IL-8, and ARMS2 that play a crucial role in the inflammatory pathway have been associated with AMD risk. Several genetic and molecular studies have indicated the participation of inflammatory molecules (cytokines and chemokines, immune cells (macrophages, and complement proteins in the development and progression of the disease. Taking into consideration the genetic and molecular background, this review highlights the genetic role of inflammatory genes involved in AMD pathogenesis and progression.

  18. Female age-related fertility decline. Committee Opinion No. 589.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The fecundity of women decreases gradually but significantly beginning approximately at age 32 years and decreases more rapidly after age 37 years. Education and enhanced awareness of the effect of age on fertility are essential in counseling the patient who desires pregnancy. Given the anticipated age-related decline in fertility, the increased incidence of disorders that impair fertility, and the higher risk of pregnancy loss, women older than 35 years should receive an expedited evaluation and undergo treatment after 6 months of failed attempts to conceive or earlier, if clinically indicated. In women older than 40 years, more immediate evaluation and treatment are warranted. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982

  20. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  1. Nutritional supplements in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the Western World. While with new therapies that are directed towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potentially efficient treatment option for the wet form of the disease has been introduced, a therapeutic regimen for dry AMD is still lacking. There is evidence from several studies that oral intake of supplements is beneficial in preventing progression of the disease. Several formulations of micronutrients are currently available. The present review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the current knowledge about the most frequently used micronutrients. In addition, regulatory issues are discussed, and future directions for the role of supplementation in AMD are highlighted. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Age-related degradation of boiling water reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory performed an assessment of the aging of the reactor internals in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and identified the unresolved technical issues related to the degradation of these components. The overall life-limiting mechanism is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, and thermal aging embrittlement are other potential degradation mechanisms. Several failures in BWR internals have been caused by a combination of factors such as environment, high residual or preload stresses, and flow-induced vibration. The ASME Code Section XI in-service inspection requirements are insufficient for detecting aging-related degradation at many locations in reactor internals. Many of the potential locations for IGSCC or fatigue are not accessible for inspection. (orig.)

  3. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; MacDougall, E.; Kochis, S.; Wilhelm, W.; Lee, B.S.

    1990-11-01

    After the McGuire event in 1987 relating to failure of the center pole weld in one of its reactor trip breakers, activities were initiated by the NRC to investigate the probable causes. A review of operating experience suggested that the burning of coils, jamming of the operating mechanism, and deterioration of the contacts dominated the breakers failures. Although failures of the pole shaft weld were not included as one of the generic problems, the NRC augmented inspection team had suspected that these welds were substandard which led them to crack prematurely. A DS-416 low voltage air circuit breaker manufactured by Westinghouse was mechanically cycled to identify age-related degradations. This accelerated aging test was conducted for over 36,000 cycles during nine months. Three separate pole shafts, one with a 60 degree weld, one with a 120 degree and one with a 180 degree were used to characterize the cracking in the pole level welds. In addition, three different operating mechanisms and several other parts were replaced as they became inoperable. The testing yielded many useful results. The burning of the closing coils was found to be the effect of binding in the linkages that are connected to this device. Among the seven welds on the pole shaft, number-sign 1 and number-sign 3 were the critical ones which cracked first to cause misalignment of the pole levers, which, in turn, had led to many problems with the operating mechanism including the burning of coils, excessive wear in certain parts, and overstressed linkages. Based on these findings, a maintenance program is suggested to alleviate the age-related degradations that occur due to mechanical cycling of this type of breaker. 3 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Gu

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in the retina are often accompanied by visual impairment but their mechanistic details remain poorly understood.Proteomic studies were pursued toward a better molecular understanding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE aging mechanisms. RPE cells were isolated from young adults (3-4 month-old and old (24-25 month-old F344BN rats, and separated into subcellular fractions containing apical microvilli (MV and RPE cell bodies (CB lacking their apical microvilli. Proteins were extracted in detergent, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in situ with trypsin and analyzed by LC MS/MS. Select proteins detected in young and old rat RPE were further studied using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.A total of 356 proteins were identified in RPE MV from young and 378 in RPE MV from old rats, 48% of which were common to each age group. A total of 897 proteins were identified in RPE CB from young rats and 675 in old CB, 56% of which were common to each age group. Several of the identified proteins, including proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, displayed both quantitative and qualitative changes in overall abundance during RPE aging. Numerous proteins were identified for the first time in the RPE. One such protein, collectrin, was localized to the apical membrane of apical brush border of proximal tubules where it likely regulates several amino acid transporters. Elsewhere, collectrin is involved in pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In the RPE, collectrin expression was significantly modulated during RPE aging. Another age-regulated, newly described protein was DJ-1, a protein extensively studied in brain where oxidative stress-related functions have been described.The data presented here reveals specific changes in the RPE during aging, providing the first protein database of RPE aging, which will facilitate future studies of age-related retinal diseases.

  5. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Age-Related Cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Choi, Nam-Kyong

    2017-10-01

    Cataract and insufficient vitamin D intake are both increasing worldwide concerns, yet little is known about the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and age-related cataract. We performed this study to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and age-related cataract in adults. Study participants comprised 16,086 adults aged 40 years or older who had never been diagnosed with or undergone surgery for cataract using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2012. Participants were assessed to have cataract when diagnosed with cortical, nuclear, anterior subcapsular, posterior subcapsular, or mixed cataract. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and cataract in multivariable logistic regression models. The OR for nuclear cataract with the highest quintile of serum 25(OH)D levels was 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.99) compared to the lowest quintile. A linear trend across quintiles was significant. Natural log-transformed serum 25(OH)D levels were also significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.95). The opulation-attributable fraction of nuclear cataract due to serum 25(OH)D insufficiency (D levels were inversely associated with the risk of nuclear cataract. Prospective studies investigating the effects of serum 25(OH)D levels on the development of nuclear cataract are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Age-related changes in contextual associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trinh T; Pirogovsky, Eva; Gilbert, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a critical role in processing contextual information. Although age-related changes in the hippocampus are well documented in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents, few studies have examined contextual learning deficits in old rats. The present study investigated age-related differences in contextual associative learning in young (6 mo) and old (24 mo) rats using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli consisted of common odors mixed in sand and placed in clear plastic cups. Testing was conducted in two boxes that represented two different contexts (Context 1 and Context 2). The contexts varied based on environmental features of the box such as color (black vs. white), visual cues on the walls of the box, and flooring texture. Each rat was simultaneously presented with two cups, one filled with Odor A and one filled with Odor B in each context. In Context 1, the rat received a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A, but did not receive a food reward for digging in the cup containing Odor B. In Context 2, the rat was rewarded for digging in the cup containing Odor B, but did receive a reward for digging in the cup containing Odor A. Therefore, the rat learned to associate Context 1 with Odor A and Context 2 with Odor B. The rat was tested for eight days using the same odor problem throughout all days of testing. The results showed no significant difference between young and old rats on the first two days of testing; however, young rats significantly outperformed old rats on Day 3. Young rats continued to maintain superior performance compared to old rats on Days 4-8. The results suggest that aging results in functional impairments in brain regions that support memory for associations between specific cues and their respective context.

  7. Age-related changes in the endocytic capacity of rat liver Kupffer and endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, A.; Barelds, R.J.; Knook, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    There are many indications that the functional capacity of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) declines with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular basis of age-related changes in the clearance function of the RES. The experiments were focused mainly on Kupffer and endothelial cells of the liver which represent a major part of the RES and are primarily responsible for clearance of colloidal material from the circulation. The clearance capacity of the RES was tested clinically and experimentally by intravenous injection of colloids, such as radiolabeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin. Age-related changes in the endocytosis of 125 I-labeled colloidal albumin (CA) in rats were determined by clearance and organ distribution of different doses of intravenously injected CA, uptake of CA by Kupffer and endothelial liver cells in vivo as determined after isolation of the cells from injected rats and kinetic studies on CA uptake by Kupffer cells in culture. The results show that, at a low dose, the clearance of CA is primarily determined by liver blood flow. At a higher saturating dose, plasma clearance and uptake by the liver are not significantly decreased with age. Endocytosis by endothelial cells, which accounts for about 60% of that of the whole liver, is also unchanged with age. In contrast, a significant decrease in endocytic capacity was observed for Kupffer cells in vivo. This age-related functional decline was also observed in Kupffer cells which were isolated from rats of different ages and maintained in culture

  8. Clinical study of Conbercept intravitreal injection for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ting He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical curative effect of conbercept intravitreal injection for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration.METHODS: Sixty patients with wet age related macular degeneration were randomly divided into treatment group 30 cases and control group 30 cases according to the random number table. The treatment group was injected with Conbercept 0.05mL, the control group was injected with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1mL. The best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwas performed before and after 1d, 1 and 3mo after treatment, and the thickness of macular was detected by optical coherence tomography(OCT. The complications of patients were observed after 1d, 1 and 3mo,including inflammatory reaction, corneal edema, anterior chamber, high intraocular pressure, etc.RESULTS:In treatment group 1d, 1 and 3mo after treatment, eyesight was improved significantly better than the control group(PPCONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of Conbercept in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration can improve the curative effect.

  9. Age-related deficits in free recall: the role of rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Geoff; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2005-01-01

    Age-related deficits have been consistently observed in free recall. Recent accounts of episodic memory suggest that these deficits could result from differential patterns of rehearsal. In the present study, 20 young and 20 older adults (mean ages 21 and 72 years, respectively) were presented with lists of 20 words for immediate free recall using the overt rehearsal methodology. The young outperformed the older adults at all serial positions. There were significant age-related differences in the patterns of overt rehearsals: Young adults rehearsed a greater number of different words than did older adults, they rehearsed words to more recent serial positions, and their rehearsals were more widely distributed throughout the list. Consistent with a recency-based account of episodic memory, age deficits in free recall are largely attributable to age differences in the recency, frequency, and distribution of rehearsals.

  10. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS II intervention trial should be particularly informative.

  11. Ultrastructural age-related changes in the sensory corpuscles of the human genital skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, A; Parisella, F R; Cavallotti, C; Persechino, S; Cavallotti, C

    2013-01-01

    In human genital skin the majority of superficial sensory corpuscles is represented by glomerular corpuscles. These corpuscles show an own morphology. Our aim is to compare the ultra-structure of superficial sensory corpuscles in the penis skin of younger and older subjects. In this report the ultra-structure of the sensitive corpuscle in the penis skin of the younger and older subjects was compared, showing that the genital skin of the older humans contains more simple complexes than the younger ones. Our findings support the view that the age-related changes that can be observed in human glomerular genital corpuscles are consistent with an increase of the simple complexes and a strong decrease of the poly-lamellar one in the older people. These findings demonstrate that human genital corpuscles underwent age-related changes. Moreover our morphological findings can be correlated in relation to the clinical evolution of the sensitivity in the genital skin.

  12. Diminishing Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Nutrition: A Current View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Molly; Weikel, Karen; Garber, Caren; Taylor, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Clinical hallmarks of AMD are observed in one third of the elderly in industrialized countries. Preventative interventions through dietary modification are attractive strategies, because they are more affordable than clinical therapies, do not require specialists for administration and many studies suggest a benefit of micro- and macro-nutrients with respect to AMD with few, if any, adverse effects. The goal of this review is to provide information from recent literature on the value of various nutrients, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, lower glycemic index diets and, perhaps, some carotenoids, with regard to diminishing risk for onset or progression of AMD. Results from the upcoming Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) II intervention trial should be particularly informative. PMID:23820727

  13. Spontaneous Age-Related Neurite Branching in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Elizabeth M. H.; Rodgers, Kasey E.; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of morphological changes that occur in the nervous system during normal aging could provide insight into cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease. Previous studies have suggested that the nervous system of C. elegans maintains its structural integrity with age despite the deterioration of surrounding tissues. Unexpectedly, we observed that neurons in aging animals frequently displayed ectopic branches, and that the prevalence of these branches increased with time. Within age-matched populations, the branching of mechnosensory neurons correlated with decreased response to light touch and decreased mobility. The incidence of branching was influenced by two pathways that can affect the rate of aging, the Jun kinase pathway and the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Loss of Jun kinase signaling, which slightly shortens lifespan, dramatically increased and accelerated the frequency of neurite branching. Conversely, inhibition of the daf-2 insulin/IGF-1-like signaling pathway, which extends lifespan, delayed and suppressed branching, and this delay required DAF-16/FOXO activity. Both JNK-1 and DAF-16 appeared to act within neurons in a cell-autonomous manner to influence branching, and, through their tissue-specific expression, it was possible to disconnect the rate at which branching occurred from the overall rate of aging of the animal. Old age has generally been associated with the decline and deterioration of different tissues, except in the case of tumor cell growth. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that aging can potentiate another form of growth, the growth of neurite branches, in normal animals. PMID:21697377

  14. In patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, physical activity may influence C-reactive protein levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger

    2014-01-01

    Association of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with C-reactive protein (CRP) was previously reported, indicating a relation to systemic low-grade inflammation. However, visual impairment limits physical activity, and physical activity modulates CRP levels. Here, we investigated...

  15. Differential age-related effects on conjunctive and relational visual short-term memory binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Christine

    2017-12-28

    An age-related associative deficit has been described in visual short-term binding memory tasks. However, separate studies have suggested that ageing disrupts relational binding (to associate distinct items or item and context) more than conjunctive binding (to integrate features within an object). The current study directly compared relational and conjunctive binding with a short-term memory task for object-colour associations in 30 young and 30 older adults. Participants studied a number of object-colour associations corresponding to their individual object span level in a relational task in which objects were associated to colour patches and a conjunctive task where colour was integrated into the object. Memory for individual items and for associations was tested with a recognition memory test. Evidence for an age-related associative deficit was observed in the relational binding task, but not in the conjunctive binding task. This differential impact of ageing on relational and conjunctive short-term binding is discussed by reference to two underlying age-related cognitive difficulties: diminished hippocampally dependent binding and attentional resources.

  16. Age-related changes in hand dominance and functional asymmetry in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sebastjan

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate fine motor performance and ascertain age-related changes in laterality between the dominant and non-dominant hand. A representative sample of 635 adults (144 males and 491 females aged 50 years and over completed a test battery MLS (Motor Performance Series to assess a broad range of hand functions. Functional asymmetry was observed in all four motor tests (postural tremor, aiming, tapping, and inserting long pins. Significant differences between the dominant and non-dominant hand were obtained in both sexes across all age groups, except in the oldest female group (age >70 for the aiming (number of hits and errors and postural tremor (number of errors tasks. These differences in age-related changes may be attributed to hemispheric asymmetry, environmental factors, or use-dependent plasticity. Conflicting evidence in the literature warrants additional research to better explain age-related alterations of hand dominance and manual performance in old age.

  17. Age-related changes in the testes and prostate of the Beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowseth, L.A.; Gerlach, R.F.; Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related changes in the histologic morphology of the Beagle dog prostate and testes must be separated from those changes that may result from the testing of experimental compounds. The prostate and testes of healthy age-matched Beagle dogs 3 to 14 yr of age were obtained. Serum to evaluate testosterone levels was also obtained from each dog at the time of euthanasia. Tissue sections from the prostate and testes were examined by light microscopy for both qualitative and quantitative morphologic assessment. A statistically significant increase in prostatic weight with increased age was noted. Significant morphometric findings in the prostate included a decrease in the relative percent of epithelial cells and an increase in the relative lumen size of glandular acini with increased age. The absolute volume of prostate interstitial tissue and inflammation showed a statistically significant increase with age. Stereological analysis of the testes showed a decrease in the relative percent epithelium with increasing age. No distinct age-related trend could be detected in serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels did not correlate with the morphologic age-related changes observed in the testes or prostate. (author)

  18. Age-related infra-tentorial brain atrophy on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitani, Mitsuhiro; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Murata, Akihiro; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1985-01-01

    We had reported that the brain atrophy progressed significantly with advancing age using the two dimensional CT measurement by digitizer which was connected with personal computer. Using this method, we studied the age-related infra-tentrial brain atrophy in 67 normal subjects (14-90 years), and compared that with age-related supra-tentrial brain atrophy. There was a significant correlation between age and all indices [cranio-ventricular index (CVI), ventricular area index (VAI) and brain atrophy index (BAI)] in supratentrial brain. These indices did not correlated to the age in infra-tentrial brain (brainstem and cerebellum). Significant change of the brain atrophy occured above 60 years old was observed by BAI and VAI in supra-tentrial brain. There was a significant correlation between supra-tentrial brain atrophy index (BAI) and that of infratentrial brain. These results indicate that age-related brain atrophy might progress more slowly in brainstem and cerebellum than in cerebrum. (author)

  19. GSK-3α is a central regulator of age-related pathologies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jibin; Freeman, Theresa A; Ahmad, Firdos; Shang, Xiying; Mangano, Emily; Gao, Erhe; Farber, John; Wang, Yajing; Ma, Xin-Liang; Woodgett, James; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Lal, Hind; Force, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Aging is regulated by conserved signaling pathways. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) family of serine/threonine kinases regulates several of these pathways, but the role of GSK-3 in aging is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate premature death and acceleration of age-related pathologies in the Gsk3a global KO mouse. KO mice developed cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction as well as sarcomere disruption and striking sarcopenia in cardiac and skeletal muscle, a classical finding in aging. We also observed severe vacuolar degeneration of myofibers and large tubular aggregates in skeletal muscle, consistent with impaired clearance of insoluble cellular debris. Other organ systems, including gut, liver, and the skeletal system, also demonstrated age-related pathologies. Mechanistically, we found marked activation of mTORC1 and associated suppression of autophagy markers in KO mice. Loss of GSK-3α, either by pharmacologic inhibition or Gsk3a gene deletion, suppressed autophagy in fibroblasts. mTOR inhibition rescued this effect and reversed the established pathologies in the striated muscle of the KO mouse. Thus, GSK-3α is a critical regulator of mTORC1, autophagy, and aging. In its absence, aging/senescence is accelerated in multiple tissues. Strategies to maintain GSK-3α activity and/or inhibit mTOR in the elderly could retard the appearance of age-related pathologies.

  20. Age-related macular degeneration and modification of systemic complement factor H production through liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandhadia, Samir; Hakobyan, Svetlana; Heng, Ling Z; Gibson, Jane; Adams, David H; Alexander, Graeme J; Gibson, Jonathan M; Martin, Keith R; Menon, Geeta; Nash, Kathryn; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Ennis, Sarah; Cree, Angela J; Morgan, B Paul; Lotery, Andrew J

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether modification of liver complement factor H (CFH) production, by alteration of liver CFH Y402H genotype through liver transplantation (LT), influences the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, cross-sectional study. We recruited 223 Western European patients ≥ 55 years old who had undergone LT ≥ 5 years previously. We determined AMD status using a standard grading system. Recipient CFH Y402H genotype was obtained from DNA extracted from recipient blood samples. Donor CFH Y402H genotype was inferred from recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype, measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This approach was verified by genotyping donor tissue from a subgroup of patients. Systemic complement activity was ascertained by measuring levels of plasma complement proteins using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, including substrates (C3, C4), activation products (C3a, C4a, and terminal complement complex), and regulators (total CFH, C1 inhibitor). We evaluated AMD status and recipient and donor CFH Y402H genotype. In LT patients, AMD was associated with recipient CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.036; odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.4) but not with donor CFH Y402H genotype (P = 0.626), after controlling for age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index. Recipient plasma CFH Y402H protein allotype predicted donor CFH Y402H genotype with 100% accuracy (n = 49). Plasma complement protein or activation product levels were similar in LT patients with and without AMD. Compared with previously reported prevalence figures (Rotterdam Study), LT patients demonstrated a high prevalence of both AMD (64.6% vs 37.1%; OR, 3.09; Pproduction. In addition, AMD is not associated with systemic complement activity in LT patients. These findings suggest that local intraocular complement activity is of greater importance in AMD pathogenesis. The high AMD prevalence observed in LT patients may be associated with

  1. Imaging Polarimetry in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Yamanari, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Takuya; Elsner, Ann E.; Makita, Shuichi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the birefringence properties of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To compare the information from two techniques—scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT)—and investigate how they complement each other. METHODS The authors prospectively examined the eyes of two healthy subjects and 13 patients with exudative AMD. Using scanning laser polarimetry, they computed phase-retardation maps, average reflectance images, and depolarized light images. To obtain polarimetry information with improved axial resolution, they developed a fiber-based, polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT system and measured the phase retardation associated with birefringence in the same eyes. RESULTS Both GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography detected abnormal birefringence at the locus of exudative lesions. Polarization-sensitive, spectral-domain OCT showed that in the old lesions with fibrosis, phase-retardation values were significantly larger than in the new lesions (P = 0.020). Increased scattered light and altered polarization scramble were associated with portions of the lesions. CONCLUSIONS GDx and polarization-sensitive spectral-domain OCT are complementary in probing birefringence properties in exudative AMD. Polarimetry findings in exudative AMD emphasized different features and were related to the progression of the disease, potentially providing a noninvasive tool for microstructure in exudative AMD. PMID:18515594

  2. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Parmeggiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease.

  3. Age related changes in steroid receptors on cultured lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, F.A.; Bienkowski, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The number of high affinity glucocorticoid receptors (Ro) on human fetal lung fibroblasts decreases as the cells age in vitro, and it has been suggested that these cell systems may be useful models of age-related changes in vivo. They examined the relation between change in Ro with in vitro aging and donor age. Confluent monolayers of lung fibroblasts at various population doubling levels (PDL), were incubated with ( 3 H)-dexamethasone (( 3 H)Dex) either alone or with excess (.01 mM) Dex. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between radioactivity in cells incubated with and without unlabeled Dex; Scatchard plots were used to analyze the data. Ro, measured as fmol ( 3 H)Dex/10 6 cells, for two lines of human fetal cells (HFL-1 and MRC-5) decreased with increasing age in vitro. However, human newborn (CRL-1485) and adult (CCL-201) cells and fetal rabbit cells (FAB-290), showed increases in Ro with continuous passage. For each cell line, the affinity constant (K/sub d/) did not change significantly with passage. They conclude that the direction of changes in steroid receptor levels on cells aging in vitro is influenced by donor age and species. Caution should be used in applying results obtained from model systems to aging organisms

  4. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm/sup 2/) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author).

  5. Bioactive Nutrients and Nutrigenomics in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rescigno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased life expectancy and the expansion of the elderly population are stimulating research into aging. Aging may be viewed as a multifactorial process that results from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors, which include lifestyle. Human molecular processes are influenced by physiological pathways as well as exogenous factors, which include the diet. Dietary components have substantive effects on metabolic health; for instance, bioactive molecules capable of selectively modulating specific metabolic pathways affect the development/progression of cardiovascular and neoplastic disease. As bioactive nutrients are increasingly identified, their clinical and molecular chemopreventive effects are being characterized and systematic analyses encompassing the “omics” technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being conducted to explore their action. The evolving field of molecular pathological epidemiology has unique strength to investigate the effects of dietary and lifestyle exposure on clinical outcomes. The mounting body of knowledge regarding diet-related health status and disease risk is expected to lead in the near future to the development of improved diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies targeting processes relevant to nutrition. The state of the art of aging and nutrigenomics research and the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of bioactive nutrients on the main aging-related disorders are reviewed herein.

  6. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  7. Targeting Mitochondria to Counteract Age-Related Cellular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina T. Madreiter-Sokolowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Senescence is related to the loss of cellular homeostasis and functions, which leads to a progressive decline in physiological ability and to aging-associated diseases. Since mitochondria are essential to energy supply, cell differentiation, cell cycle control, intracellular signaling and Ca2+ sequestration, fine-tuning mitochondrial activity appropriately, is a tightrope walk during aging. For instance, the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS ensures a supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, but is also the main source of potentially harmful levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Moreover, mitochondrial function is strongly linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial shape, which undergo various alterations during aging. Since mitochondria play such a critical role in an organism’s process of aging, they also offer promising targets for manipulation of senescent cellular functions. Accordingly, interventions delaying the onset of age-associated disorders involve the manipulation of mitochondrial function, including caloric restriction (CR or exercise, as well as drugs, such as metformin, aspirin, and polyphenols. In this review, we discuss mitochondria’s role in and impact on cellular aging and their potential to serve as a target for therapeutic interventions against age-related cellular dysfunction.

  8. Effect of NCAM on aged-related deterioration in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Margaret Po-Shan; LeVatte, Terry L; O'Reilly, Amanda M; Smith, Benjamin J; Tremblay, François; Brown, Richard E; Clarke, David B

    2016-05-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is involved in developmental processes and age-associated cognitive decline; however, little is known concerning the effects of NCAM in the visual system during aging. Using anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays, we analyzed age-related changes in visual function of NCAM deficient (-/-) and wild-type mice. Anatomical analyses indicated that aging NCAM -/- mice had fewer retinal ganglion cells, thinner retinas, and fewer photoreceptor cell layers than age-matched controls. Electroretinogram testing of retinal function in young adult NCAM -/- mice showed a 2-fold increase in a- and b-wave amplitude compared with wild-type mice, but the retinal activity dropped dramatically to control levels when the animals reached 10 months. In behavioral tasks, NCAM -/- mice had no visual pattern discrimination ability and showed premature loss of vision as they aged. Together, these findings demonstrate that NCAM plays significant roles in the adult visual system in establishing normal retinal anatomy, physiology and function, and in maintaining vision during aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular models and therapies for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex neurodegenerative visual disorder that causes profound physical and psychosocial effects. Visual impairment in AMD is caused by the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE cells and the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that they support. There is currently no effective treatment for the most common form of this disease (dry AMD. A new approach to treating AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from either human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Multiple clinical trials are being initiated using a variety of cell therapies. Although many animal models are available for AMD research, most do not recapitulate all aspects of the disease, hampering progress. However, the use of cultured RPE cells in AMD research is well established and, indeed, some of the more recently described RPE-based models show promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms of AMD and for screening drug candidates. Here, we discuss innovative cell-culture models of AMD and emerging stem-cell-based therapies for the treatment of this vision-robbing disease.

  10. MR imaging of proximal femur: age-related changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Heon; Jeon, Woo Jin; Sohn, Cheol Ho; Park, Mi Ok; Lee, Seong Mun; Joo, Yang Gu; Suh, Soo Jhi; Pyun, Young Sik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate MR patterns of signal intensity of proximal femur in normal subjects according to the age distribution. T1-weighted MR images of the proximal femur in 125 subjects, aged 13 days to 25 years, were retrospectively analyzed. Age distribution was classified to 4 groups; below 4 months, 5 months to 4 years, 5 years to 14 years, and 15 years to 25 years. By the age of 4 months, the non-ossified femoral epiphysis was seen as intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage. At 5 months-4 years, the ossified femoral capital epiphysis was seen within intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow surrounded by a rim of low-signal-intensity cortical bone. At 5-14 years, the ossified femoral capital and greater trochanteric epiphysis were seen within the intermediate-signal-intensity cartilage and appeared as decreased or increased signal-intensity red or yellow marrow. At 15-25 years, the proximal metaphyseal marrow showed increased signal intensity. Four patterns of the metaphyseal marrow were recognized by Ricci et al. The frequency of pattern 1 a progressively decreased with age. Pattern 2 and 3 were visible in the 15-25 years age group. An understanding of the spectrum of normal age-related change of the proximal femoral cartilage and marrow patterns serves as the foundation for interpretation of proximal femur pathologies

  11. Age-Related Changes in Binaural Interaction at Brainstem Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yper, Lindsey N; Vermeire, Katrien; De Vel, Eddy F J; Beynon, Andy J; Dhooge, Ingeborg J M

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss hampers the ability to understand speech in adverse listening conditions. This is attributed to a complex interaction of changes in the peripheral and central auditory system. One aspect that may deteriorate across the lifespan is binaural interaction. The present study investigates binaural interaction at the level of the auditory brainstem. It is hypothesized that brainstem binaural interaction deteriorates with advancing age. Forty-two subjects of various age participated in the study. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were recorded using clicks and 500 Hz tone-bursts. ABRs were elicited by monaural right, monaural left, and binaural stimulation. Binaural interaction was investigated in two ways. First, grand averages of the binaural interaction component were computed for each age group. Second, wave V characteristics of the binaural ABR were compared with those of the summed left and right ABRs. Binaural interaction in the click ABR was demonstrated by shorter latencies and smaller amplitudes in the binaural compared with the summed monaural responses. For 500 Hz tone-burst ABR, no latency differences were found. However, amplitudes were significantly smaller in the binaural than summed monaural condition. An age-effect was found for 500 Hz tone-burst, but not for click ABR. Brainstem binaural interaction seems to decline with age. Interestingly, these changes seem to be stimulus-dependent.

  12. The Hayflick Limit and Age-Related Adaptive Immune Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Zoe; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Ndifon, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    The adaptive immune system (AIS) acquires significant deficiency during chronological ageing, making older individuals more susceptible to infections and less responsive to vaccines compared to younger individuals. At the cellular level, one of the most striking features of this ageing-related immune deficiency is the dramatic loss of T-cell diversity that occurs in elderly humans. After the age of 70 years, there is a sharp decline in the diversity of naïve T cells, including a >10-fold decrease in the CD4+ compartment and a >100-fold decrease in the CD8+ compartment. Such changes are detrimental because the AIS relies on a diverse naïve T-cell pool to respond to novel pathogens. Recent work suggests that this collapse of naïve T-cell diversity results from T cells reaching the Hayflick limit and being eliminated through both antigen-dependent and -independent pathways. The progressive attrition of telomeres is the molecular mechanism that underlies this Hayflick limit. Therefore, we propose that by measuring the telomere lengths of T cells with high resolution, it is possible to develop a unique biomarker of immune deficiency, potentially much better correlated with individual susceptibility to diseases compared to chronological age alone. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Mechanism of Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.; Costagliola, Ciro; Semeraro, Francesco; Incorvaia, Carlo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Perri, Paolo; De Palma, Paolo; De Nadai, Katia; Sebastiani, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease that represents the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over the age of 50 in Europe, the United States, and Australia, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of central blindness. Risk factors of AMD are heterogeneous, mainly including increasing age and different genetic predispositions, together with several environmental/epigenetic factors, that is, cigarette smoking, dietary habits, and phototoxic exposure. In the aging retina, free radicals and oxidized lipoproteins are considered to be major causes of tissue stress resulting in local triggers for parainflammation, a chronic status which contributes to initiation and/or progression of many human neurodegenerative diseases such as AMD. Experimental and clinical evidences strongly indicate the pathogenetic role of immunologic processes in AMD occurrence, consisting of production of inflammatory related molecules, recruitment of macrophages, complement activation, microglial activation and accumulation within those structures that compose an essential area of the retina known as macula lutea. This paper reviews some attractive aspects of the literature about the mechanisms of inflammation in AMD, especially focusing on those findings or arguments more directly translatable to improve the clinical management of patients with AMD and to prevent the severe vision loss caused by this disease. PMID:23209345

  14. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  15. Chlorinative stress in age-related diseases: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, Marco; Di Salvo, Eleonora; Pace, Elisabetta; Ventura-Spagnolo, Elvira; Navarra, Michele; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Aging is an agglomerate of biological long-lasting processes that result being inevitable. Main actors in this scenario are both long-term inflammation and oxidative stress. It has been proved that oxidative stress induce alteration in proteins and this fact itself is critically important in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to diseases typical of aging. Among reactive species, chlorine ones such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl) are cytotoxic oxidants produced by activated neutrophils during chronic inflammation processes. HOCl can also cause damages by reacting with biological molecules. HOCl is generated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) and augmented serum levels of MPO have been described in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions in cardiovascular patients and has been implicated in many inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative conditions, and some cancers. Due to these data, we decided to conduct an up-to-date review evaluating chlorinative stress effects on every age-related disease linked; potential anti-oxidant countermeasures were also assessed. Results obtained associated HOCl generation to the aging processes and confirmed its connection with diseases like neurodegenerative and cardiovascular pathologies, atherosclerosis and cancer; chlorination was mainly linked to diseases where molecular (protein) alteration constitute the major suspected cause: i.e. inflammation, tissue lesions, DNA damages, apoptosis and oxidative stress itself. According data collected, a healthy lifestyle together with some dietary suggestion and/or the administration of nutracetical antioxidant integrators could balance the effects of chlorinative stress and, in some cases, slow down or prevent the onset of age-releated diseases.

  16. Electrophysiological assessment of retinal function during 6 months of bevacizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karen Bjerg; Møller, Flemming; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the alteration of retinal function by multifocal electroretinography and full-field electroretinography in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with bevacizumab. METHODS: We performed a prospective pilot study of 26 eyes of 26...... previously treatment-naïve patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration receiving intravitreal injections with 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Patients were examined with multifocal electroretinography, full-field electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity. Follow...

  17. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause

  18. Gender differences in age-related decline in regional cerebral glucose metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Seong Ae; Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Sun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we investigated gender differences in age-related declines in regional cerebral glucose metabolism using FDG-PET in a large population sample with a broad age range. 230 healthy subjects (90 male; age: 34-80 y, 140 females; age: 33-82 y) participated. Correlation maps showing age related declines in glucose uptake were created separately for each gender in SPM2. Using population-based probabilistic volume of interests (VOIs), VOIs were defined for the regions showing significant decline with aging. Age related declines were separately assessed within each age range using analysis of covariate in SPSS 13.0. In the total population without gender effect, age-related negative correlation of glucose metabolism was found in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, bilateral caudate, bilateral thalamus, left insula, left superior frontal gyrus, left uncus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate gyrus (P < 0.001 corrected, extent threshold k = 100). 14 VOIs values of brain regions were calculated based on this negative correlation results. The rate of decline across all defined VOIs assessed in the age category of 'more than 70' referenced to the category of '30- 39years' were 7.85% in the entire sample; 7.62% in male and 8.09% in female. Detailed analyses of declines in each age range showed separable patterns of declines across gender. In males, greater decline was observed after the age 60 (20.45%) than the ages of 30 and 50(7.98%). Whereas in females, greater declines were found in age 60s (20.15%) compared to 50s, and in 40(14.84%) compared to 30s. Age-related decline in cerebral glucose metabolism was found in both genders. We further observed that males show a relatively constant pattern of decline across a life span; whereas, females show a pattern of steep changes aging to 60s and to 40s, which may be related to changes in sex hormone levels after menopause.

  19. The Association of Statin Use with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression: The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Holou, Shaza N; Tucker, William R; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E; Cukras, Catherine; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the association of statin use with progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Preplanned, prospective cohort study within a controlled clinical trial of oral supplementation for age-related eye diseases. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants, aged 50 to 85 years. Factors, including age, gender, smoking status, aspirin use, and history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, angina, and stroke-all known to be associated with statin use-were included in a logistic regression model to estimate propensity scores for each participant. Age-adjusted proportional hazards regression models, with and without propensity score matching, were performed to evaluate the association of statin use with progression to late AMD. Analyses adjusting for the competing risk of death were also performed. Baseline and annual stereoscopic fundus photographs were assessed centrally by masked graders for the development of late AMD, either neovascular AMD or geographic atrophy (GA). Of the 3791 participants (2462 with bilateral large drusen and 1329 with unilateral late AMD at baseline), 1659 (43.8%) were statin users. The overall analysis, with no matching of propensity scores and no adjustment for death as a competing risk, showed that statin use was not associated with progression to late AMD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.41; P = 0.56). When matched for propensity scores and adjusted for death as a competing risk, the result was not statistically significant (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20; P = 0.29). Furthermore, subgroup analyses of persons with or without late AMD at baseline and the various components of late AMD (neovascular AMD, central GA, or any GA) also showed no statistically significant association of statin use with progression to AMD. Statin use was not statistically significantly associated with progression to late AMD in the AREDS2 participants, and these findings are consistent with findings in the

  20. The Association of Statin Use with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Holou, Shaza N.; Tucker, William R.; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Cukras, Catherine; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/purpose To evaluate the association of statin use with progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Preplanned, prospective cohort study within a controlled clinical trial of oral supplementation for age-related eye diseases. Subjects Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 participants, aged 50 to 85 years. Methods Factors, including age, gender, smoking status, aspirin use, and history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, angina, and stroke, all known to be associated with statin use, were included in a logistic regression model to estimate propensity scores for each participant. Age-adjusted proportional hazards regression models, with and without propensity score matching, were performed to evaluate the association of statin use with progression to late AMD. Analyses were also performed adjusting for the competing risk of death. Main Outcome Measures Baseline and annual stereoscopic fundus photographs were assessed centrally by masked graders for the development of late AMD, either neovascular AMD or geographic atrophy (GA). Results Of the 3791 participants (2462 with bilateral large drusen and 1329 with unilateral late AMD at baseline), 1659 (43.8%) were statin users. The overall analysis, with no matching of propensity scores and no adjustment for death as a competing risk, showed that statin use was not associated with progression to late AMD (hazard ratios [HR] of 1.08, 95% confidence intervals [CI] of 0.83–1.41, P=0.56). When matched for propensity scores and adjusted for death as a competing risk, the result was not statistically significant with HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.55–1.20, P=0.29. Further subgroup analyses of persons with or without late AMD at baseline to the various components of late AMD (neovascular, central geographic atrophy, or any geographic atrophy) also showed no statistically significant association of statin use with progression to AMD. Conclusions Statin use was not statistically significantly associated with the

  1. Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to main content Home Open menu About Member Agencies Data Previous Reports Resources Infographics Past Products Federal Data Resources Glossary Contact Agency Contacts Resource Links Subject Area Contacts FAQ Search ...

  2. Age-related distance esotropia: Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Liaño Sánchez, P; Olavarri González, G; Merino Sanz, P; Escribano Villafruela, J C

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of a group of patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive case series of 16 adult patients diagnosed with ARDE between 2008 and 2015. The clinical features evaluated included mean age and gender, primary position deviations at distance and near, measured in prism dioptres (pd), treatment offered in each case, and post-surgical deviations. Ductions and versions were full, with no evidence of lateral rectus paresis. None of these patients had any obvious underlying neurological disorder, such as, high myopia or thyroid disease. A good result is considered to be the disappearance of diplopia in all positions of gaze. A total of 16 patients (11 females [68.8%]) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 78.19±6.77 years. The mean initial esodeviation was 2.25±3.08 pd at near (-4 to +8 pd) and 9.5±4.18 pd at distance (2 to 18 pd). Treatment was not necessary in 5 cases because the symptoms were intermittent or well-tolerated. Of the 11 patients with symptoms, one was corrected with an external base therapeutic prism. Botulinum toxin was administered in another patient, without satisfactory results. Unilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed on one patient, and unilateral lateral rectus plication on 7 patients, indicating prisms before surgery. One patient refused surgery despite continuous diplopia in far vision. After a mean follow-up of 16.5 months, all operated patients were asymptomatic. Not all patients with ARDE require treatment, as the tolerance to diplopia varies from one subject to another. Both medial rectus weakening and lateral rectus strengthening provides excellent results. Crown Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-Related Difference in Functional Brain Connectivity of Mastication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-shu; Wu, Ching-yi; Wu, Shih-yun; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Cheng, Dong-hui; Lo, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The age-related decline in motor function is associated with changes in intrinsic brain signatures. Here, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) associated with masticatory performance, a clinical index evaluating general masticatory function. Twenty-six older adults (OA) and 26 younger (YA) healthy adults were recruited and assessed using the masticatory performance index (MPI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). We analyzed the rs-fMRI FC network related to mastication, which was constructed based on 12 bilateral mastication-related brain regions according to the literature. For the OA and the YA group, we identified the mastication-related hubs, i.e., the nodes for which the degree centrality (DC) was positively correlated with the MPI. For each pair of nodes, we identified the inter-nodal link for which the FC was positively correlated with the MPI. The network analysis revealed that, in the YA group, the FC between the sensorimotor cortex, the thalamus (THA) and the cerebellum was positively correlated with the MPI. Consistently, the cerebellum nodes were defined as the mastication-related hubs. In contrast, in the OA group, we found a sparser connection within the sensorimotor regions and cerebellum and a denser connection across distributed regions, including the FC between the superior parietal lobe (SPL), the anterior insula (aINS) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Compared to the YA group, the network of the OA group also comprised more mastication-related hubs, which were spatially distributed outside the sensorimotor regions, including the right SPL, the right aINS, and the bilateral dACC. In general, the findings supported the hypothesis that in OA, higher masticatory performance is associated with a widespread pattern of mastication-related hubs. Such a widespread engagement of multiple brain regions associated with the MPI may reflect an increased demand in sensorimotor integration, attentional

  4. Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG): harmonized evaluation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Grinberg, Lea T.; Alafuzoff, Irina; Attems, Johannes; Budka, Herbert; Cairns, Nigel J.; Crary, John F.; Duyckaerts, Charles; Ghetti, Bernardino; Halliday, Glenda M.; Ironside, James W.; Love, Seth; Mackenzie, Ian R.; Munoz, David G.; Murray, Melissa E.; Nelson, Peter T.; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Trojanowski, John Q.; Ansorge, Olaf; Arzberger, Thomas; Baborie, Atik; Beach, Thomas G.; Bieniek, Kevin F.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Bodi, Istvan; Dugger, Brittany N.; Feany, Mel; Gelpi, Ellen; Gentleman, Stephen M.; Giaccone, Giorgio; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J.; Heale, Richard; Hof, Patrick R.; Hofer, Monika; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Jellinger, Kurt; Jicha, Gregory A.; Ince, Paul; Kofler, Julia; Kövari, Enikö; Kril, Jillian J.; Mann, David M.; Matej, Radoslav; McKee, Ann C.; McLean, Catriona; Milenkovic, Ivan; Montine, Thomas J.; Murayama, Shigeo; Lee, Edward B.; Rahimi, Jasmin; Rodriguez, Roberta D.; Rozemüller, Annemieke; Schneider, Julie A.; Schultz, Christian; Seeley, William; Seilhean, Danielle; Smith, Colin; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Takao, Masaki; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf; Toledo, Jon B.; Tolnay, Markus; Troncoso, Juan C.; Vinters, Harry V.; Weis, Serge; Wharton, Stephen B.; White, Charles L.; Wisniewski, Thomas; Woulfe, John M.; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    Pathological accumulation of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein in astrocytes is a frequent, but poorly characterized feature of the aging brain. Its etiology is uncertain, but its presence is sufficiently ubiquitous to merit further characterization and classification, which may stimulate clinicopathological studies and research into its pathobiology. This paper aims to harmonize evaluation and nomenclature of aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG), a term that refers to a morphological spectrum of astroglial pathology detected by tau immunohistochemistry, especially with phosphorylation-dependent and 4R isoform-specific antibodies. ARTAG occurs mainly, but not exclusively, in individuals over 60 years of age. Tau-immunoreactive astrocytes in ARTAG include thorn-shaped astrocytes at the glia limitans and in white matter, as well as solitary or clustered astrocytes with perinuclear cytoplasmic tau immunoreactivity that extends into the astroglial processes as fine fibrillar or granular immunopositivity, typically in gray matter. Various forms of ARTAG may coexist in the same brain and might reflect different pathogenic processes. Based on morphology and anatomical distribution, ARTAG can be distinguished from primary tauopathies, but may be concurrent with primary tauopathies or other disorders. We recommend four steps for evaluation of ARTAG: (1) identification of five types based on the location of either morphologies of tau astrogliopathy: subpial, subependymal, perivascular, white matter, gray matter; (2) documentation of the regional involvement: medial temporal lobe, lobar (frontal, parietal, occipital, lateral temporal), subcortical, brainstem; (3) documentation of the severity of tau astrogliopathy; and (4) description of subregional involvement. Some types of ARTAG may underlie neurological symptoms; however, the clinical significance of ARTAG is currently uncertain and awaits further studies. The goal of this proposal is to raise awareness of

  5. Age-related changes in oscillatory power affect motor action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Liu

    Full Text Available With increasing age cognitive performance slows down. This includes cognitive processes essential for motor performance. Additionally, performance of motor tasks becomes less accurate. The objective of the present study was to identify general neural correlates underlying age-related behavioral slowing and the reduction in motor task accuracy. To this end, we continuously recorded EEG activity from 18 younger and 24 older right-handed healthy participants while they were performing a simple finger tapping task. We analyzed the EEG records with respect to local changes in amplitude (power spectrum as well as phase locking between the two age groups. We found differences between younger and older subjects in the amplitude of post-movement synchronization in the β band of the sensory-motor and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. This post-movement β amplitude was significantly reduced in older subjects. Moreover, it positively correlated with the accuracy with which subjects performed the motor task at the electrode FCz, which detects activity of the mPFC and the supplementary motor area. In contrast, we found no correlation between the accurate timing of local neural activity, i.e. phase locking in the δ-θ frequency band, with the reaction and movement time or the accuracy with which the motor task was performed. Our results show that only post-movement β amplitude and not δ-θ phase locking is involved in the control of movement accuracy. The decreased post-movement β amplitude in the mPFC of older subjects hints at an impaired deactivation of this area, which may affect the cognitive control of stimulus-induced motor tasks and thereby motor output.

  6. Tremor in the Elderly: Essential and Aging-Related Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschl, Günthe; Petersen, Inge; Lorenz, Delia; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Isolated tremor in the elderly is commonly diagnosed as essential tremor (ET). The prevalence of tremor increases steeply with increasing age, whereas hereditary tremor is becoming less common. Moreover, late-manifesting tremor seems to be associated with dementia and earlier mortality. We hypothesize that different entities underlie tremor in the elderly. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight subjects from the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins older than 70 y answered screening questions for ET in 2001. Two thousan fifty-six (84%) participants drew Archimedes spirals to measure their tremor severity, and classical aging phenotypes were assessed. A subgroup of 276 individuals fulfilling either screening criteria for ET or being controls were personally assessed. Medications and mortality data are available. The spiral score increased with age. The spiral score correlated with tremor severity. For the whole cohort, mortality was significantly correlated with the spiral score, and higher spiral scores were associated with lower physical and cognitive functioning. Multivariate analysis identified higher spiral scores as an independent risk factor for mortality. In contrast, the ET patients did not show an increased but rather a lower mortality rate although it was not statistically significant. Consistent with a slower than normal aging, they were also physically and cognitively better functioning than controls. Because incident tremors beyond 70 y of age show worse aging parameters and mortality than controls and ET, we propose to label it ‘aging-related tremor’ (ART). This tremor starts later in life and is accompanied by subtle signs of aging both cognitively and physically. More detailed clinical features and pathogenesis warrant further assessment. PMID:26095699

  7. Modelling the genetic risk in age-related macular degeneration.

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    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common sight-threatening disease of the central retina affecting approximately 1 in 30 Caucasians. Besides age and smoking, genetic variants from several gene loci have reproducibly been associated with this condition and likely explain a large proportion of disease. Here, we developed a genetic risk score (GRS for AMD based on 13 risk variants from eight gene loci. The model exhibited good discriminative accuracy, area-under-curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.820, which was confirmed in a cross-validation approach. Noteworthy, younger AMD patients aged below 75 had a significantly higher mean GRS (1.87, 95% CI: 1.69-2.05 than patients aged 75 and above (1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.54. Based on five equally sized GRS intervals, we present a risk classification with a relative AMD risk of 64.0 (95% CI: 14.11-1131.96 for individuals in the highest category (GRS 3.44-5.18, 0.5% of the general population compared to subjects with the most common genetic background (GRS -0.05-1.70, 40.2% of general population. The highest GRS category identifies AMD patients with a sensitivity of 7.9% and a specificity of 99.9% when compared to the four lower categories. Modeling a general population around 85 years of age, 87.4% of individuals in the highest GRS category would be expected to develop AMD by that age. In contrast, only 2.2% of individuals in the two lowest GRS categories which represent almost 50% of the general population are expected to manifest AMD. Our findings underscore the large proportion of AMD cases explained by genetics particularly for younger AMD patients. The five-category risk classification could be useful for therapeutic stratification or for diagnostic testing purposes once preventive treatment is available.

  8. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  9. Age-related macular degeneration: prevention and treatment. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a multifactorial disease. Age, light exposure, smoking, melanin levels and low-antioxidant diet are contributed to AMD development and progression. Cardiovascular disorders are of considerable importance as well. In macula, photoreceptor outer segments that are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA, particularly, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are susceptible to free radicals damage. High blood flow velocity and oxygen partial pressure as well as direct sunlight exposure induce oxidative processes. The source of free radicals in photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an extensive mitochondrial metabolism, photoreceptor outer segments phagocytosis, lipofuscin phototoxic activity and hemoglobin or protoporphyrin precursors photosensitization. Oxidative stress is considered as an universal component of cell depth in necrosis, apoptosis and toxic damage. Antioxidant protective system consists of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase and non-enzymatic factors (ascorbic acid, alpha tocopherol, retinol, carotenoids. Specific antioxidant food supplement containing ascorbic acid (500 mg, vitamin E (400 IU and beta carotene (15 mg coupled with zinc (80 mg of zinc oxide and copper (2 mg of copper oxide results in 25 % decrease in late-stage AMD development rate. Amongst the agents that can protect retina from oxidative stress and AMD development, carotenoids are of special importance. Lutein and zeaxanthin containing in retina and lens screen blue light from central area of the retina. They also absorb blue light and inhibit free radicals generation thus preventing polyunsaturated FA light destruction. Association between lutein and zeaxanthin intake and late-stage AMD risk was revealed. Amongst the most important factors which deficiency favors macular degeneration are omega-3 FAs, i.e., DHA. DHA is the key component of visual pigment rhodopsin transformation. It

  10. Age-related distribution of vertebral bone-marrow diffusivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Jochen, E-mail: j.herrmann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Pediatric Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Krstin, Nina, E-mail: ninakrstin@web.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Schoennagel, Bjoern P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Sornsakrin, Marjike, E-mail: m.sornsakrin@uke.de [Department of Pediatrics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten, E-mail: t.derlin@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Busch, Jasmin D., E-mail: jd.busch@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Petersen, Kay Uwe, E-mail: Kay.Petersen@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Psychiatry, University Clinic Tübingen, Calwerstraße 14 Tübingen 72076 (Germany); Graessner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.graessner@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare, Lindenplatz 2, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, Gerhard, E-mail: g.adam@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany); Habermann, Christian R., E-mail: c.habermann@uke.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Martinistraße 52, D-20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine age-related diffusivity changes of the lumbar bone marrow by measurement of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study and written informed consent was obtained. The study group comprised 88 individuals including 75 healthy volunteers and 13 patients (48 female, 40 male; mean age 36 years, range 0–84 years). The pediatric cases were recruited from patients. Echo-planar diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed with b-values of 50, 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. ADC-values were calculated and measured in the 1st and 2nd vertebral body of the lumbar spine. Correlation between age and ADC-values was analyzed with Spearman's rho test. Results: The ADC values of the vertebral bone marrow of the lumbar spine showed a significant negative correlation with age (rho = −0.398, p = 0.001). The mean ADC values (×10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) in the age groups 0–29 years (mean age 18.0 years, n = 42) and 30–88 years (mean age 51.6 years, n = 46) were 0.54 ± 0.07 and 0.47 ± 0.08, respectively (p < 0.001, T-test). No significant differences were found between children and young adults. Conclusion: Bone marrow ADC values of the lumbar spine show a linear decrease with growing age and thereby reflect the gradual changes of cell composition occurring during marrow conversion.

  11. Alzheimer's disease and age-related memory decline (preclinical).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Alvin V; Callahan, Patrick M; Hall, Brandon; Webster, Scott J

    2011-08-01

    An unfortunate result of the rapid rise in geriatric populations worldwide is the increasing prevalence of age-related cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a devastating neurodegenerative illness that is characterized by a profound impairment of cognitive function, marked physical disability, and an enormous economic burden on the afflicted individual, caregivers, and society in general. The rise in elderly populations is also resulting in an increase in individuals with related (potentially treatable) conditions such as "Mild Cognitive Impairment" (MCI) which is characterized by a less severe (but abnormal) level of cognitive impairment and a high-risk for developing dementia. Even in the absence of a diagnosable disorder of cognition (e.g., AD and MCI), the perception of increased forgetfulness and declining mental function is a clear source of apprehension in the elderly. This is a valid concern given that even a modest impairment of cognitive function is likely to be associated with significant disability in a rapidly evolving, technology-based society. Unfortunately, the currently available therapies designed to improve cognition (i.e., for AD and other forms of dementia) are limited by modest efficacy and adverse side effects, and their effects on cognitive function are not sustained over time. Accordingly, it is incumbent on the scientific community to develop safer and more effective therapies that improve and/or sustain cognitive function in the elderly allowing them to remain mentally active and productive for as long as possible. As diagnostic criteria for memory disorders evolve, the demand for pro-cognitive therapeutic agents is likely to surpass AD and dementia to include MCI and potentially even less severe forms of memory decline. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the contemporary therapeutic targets and preclinical pharmacologic approaches (with representative drug examples) designed to enhance memory

  12. Age-related loss of early grasp affordance when viewing a safety handle

    OpenAIRE

    McDannald, Doug

    2018-01-01

    Age-related loss of early grasp affordance when viewing a safety handle Author: D.W. McDannald1, , M. Mansour2, G. Rydalch3, D.A.E. Bolton1 Mere observation of objects in our surroundings can potentiate movement, a fact reflected by visually-primed activation of motor cortical networks. This mechanism holds potential value for reactive balance control where recovery actions of the arms or legs must be targeted to a new support base to avoid a fall. The present study was conducted to test if t...

  13. Diastolic pressure underestimates age-related hemodynamic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, C R; Alfie, J; Waisman, G D; Mayorga, L M; Cámera, L A; del Río, M; Vasvari, F; Limansky, R; Farías, J; Tessler, J; Cámera, M I

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that as large arteries become more rigid with age, the pattern of hypertension changes from diastolic to systolic. Thus, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) may lose its ability to reflect the increase in vascular resistance with age. To assess this, we studied the age-related changes in blood pressure pattern and its steady-state and pulsatile determinants. We performed an epidemiological analysis based on a national survey of 10,462 subjects from Argentina. A hemodynamic analysis (impedance cardiography) was then carried out in 636 consecutive hypertensive patients (age, 25 to 74 years). Whereas the rate of increment in the prevalence of mild to moderate hypertension (MMH) reached a plateau after the sixth decade, isolated and borderline systolic forms of hypertension began a steep and sustained rise. Among patients with MMH, DBP remained stable from the third to the seventh decade, whereas SBP maintained a sustained increase. Despite similar DBP, the systemic vascular resistance index increased 47% (P<.01) and the cardiac index decreased 27% (P<.01), whereas the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure, an index of arterial compliance, decreased 45% (P<.01). However, there were no significant differences between older patients with MMH and those with isolated systolic hypertension in the level of SBP, vascular resistance, stroke volume, and cardiac index. Compared with age-matched normotensive control subjects, the ratio of stroke volume to pulse pressure was much more reduced in isolated systolic hypertension (48%) than in MMH (30%). In summary, the present study, carried out in a large sample of hypertensive subjects with a wide age range, showed a simultaneous impairment in vascular resistance and arterial compliance associated with aging in different patterns of hypertension. The magnitude of these changes, with opposite effects on DBP but additive effects on SBP, suggests that a hemodynamic mechanism could determine the transition in the

  14. Interleukin-13 and age-related macular degeneration

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    Bo Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the effects of interleukin (IL-13 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and the IL-13 level in aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD patients. METHODS: IL-13 levels in aqueous humor specimens from AMD patients were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. ARPE-19 cells were treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 12, 24, and 48h. The cell proliferaton was evaluated by the MTS method. The mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA and ZO-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and Western blot respectively. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were assessed by ELISA. RESULTS: IL-13 levels in the aqueous humor of patients with AMD were significantly higher than those in the control (167.33±17.64 vs 27.12±5.65 pg/mL; P<0.01. In vitro, IL-13 of high concentrations (10, 15, and 20 ng/mL inhibited ARPE-19 cell proliferation. α-SMA mRNA in ARPE-19 cell were increased (1.017±0.112 vs 1.476±0.168; P<0.001 and ZO-1 decreased (1.051±0.136 vs 0.702±0.069; P<0.001 after treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 48h. The protein expression of α-SMA and ZO-1 also showed the same tendency (α-SMA: P=0.038; ZO-1: P=0.008. IL-13 significantly reduced the level of TNF-α (44.70±1.67 vs 31.79±3.53 pg/mL; P=0.005 at 48h, but the level of TGF-β2 was significantly increased from 34.44±2.92 to 57.61±6.31 pg/mL at 24h (P=0.004 and from 61.26±1.11 to 86.91±3.59 pg/mL at 48h (P<0.001. While expressions of VEGF didn’t change after IL-13 treatment. CONCLUSION: IL-13 in vitro inhibit ARPE-19 cell proliferation and expression in the aqueous may be associated with AMD.

  15. Complement inhibitors for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A; McKay, Gareth J; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2014-01-15

    Given the relatively high prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the increased incidence of AMD as populations age, the results of trials of novel treatments are awaited with much anticipation. The complement cascade describes a series of proteolytic reactions occurring throughout the body that generate proteins with a variety of roles including the initiation and promotion of immune reactions against foreign materials or micro-organisms. The complement cascade is normally tightly regulated, but much evidence implicates complement overactivity in AMD and so it is a logical therapeutic target in the treatment of AMD. To assess the effects and safety of complement inhibitors in the prevention or treatment of advanced AMD. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 11), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2013), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (January 1985 to November 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to November 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (CPCI-S) (January 1990 to November 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 21 November 2013. We also performed handsearching of proceedings, from 2012 onwards, of meetings and conferences of specific professional organisations. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with

  16. Age-Related Effects of Stimulus Type and Congruency on Inattentional Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Background: Most of the previous inattentional blindness (IB) studies focused on the factors that contributed to the detection of unattended stimuli. The age-related changes on IB have rarely been investigated across all age groups. In the current study, by using the dual-task IB paradigm, we aimed to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB. Methods: The current study recruited 111 participants (30 adolescents, 48 young adults, and 33 middle-aged adults) in the baseline recognition experiments and 341 participants (135 adolescents, 135 young adults, and 71 middle-aged adults) in the IB experiment. We applied the superimposed picture and word streams experimental paradigm to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB. An ANOVA was performed to analyze the results. Results: Participants across all age groups presented significantly lower recognition scores for both pictures and words in comparison with baseline recognition. Participants presented decreased recognition for unattended pictures or words from adolescents to young adults and middle-aged adults. When the pictures and words are congruent, all the participants showed significantly higher recognition scores for unattended stimuli in comparison with incongruent condition. Adolescents and young adults did not show recognition differences when primary tasks were attending pictures or words. Conclusion: The current findings showed that all participants presented better recognition scores for attended stimuli in comparison with unattended stimuli, and the recognition scores decreased from the adolescents to young and middle-aged adults. The findings partly supported the attention capacity models of IB.

  17. Age-Related Effects of Stimulus Type and Congruency on Inattentional Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hui Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the previous inattentional blindness (IB studies focused on the factors that contributed to the detection of unattended stimuli. The age-related changes on IB have rarely been investigated across all age groups. In the current study, by using the dual-task IB paradigm, we aimed to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB.Methods: The current study recruited 111 participants (30 adolescents, 48 young adults, and 33 middle-aged adults in the baseline recognition experiments and 341 participants (135 adolescents, 135 young adults, and 71 middle-aged adults in the IB experiment. We applied the superimposed picture and word streams experimental paradigm to explore the age-related effects of attended stimuli type and congruency between attended and unattended stimuli on IB. An ANOVA was performed to analyze the results.Results: Participants across all age groups presented significantly lower recognition scores for both pictures and words in comparison with baseline recognition. Participants presented decreased recognition for unattended pictures or words from adolescents to young adults and middle-aged adults. When the pictures and words are congruent, all the participants showed significantly higher recognition scores for unattended stimuli in comparison with incongruent condition. Adolescents and young adults did not show recognition differences when primary tasks were attending pictures or words.Conclusion: The current findings showed that all participants presented better recognition scores for attended stimuli in comparison with unattended stimuli, and the recognition scores decreased from the adolescents to young and middle-aged adults. The findings partly supported the attention capacity models of IB.

  18. Age-related decline in functional connectivity of the vestibular cortical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyran, Carolin Anna Maria; Boegle, Rainer; Stephan, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the elderly, major complaints include dizziness and an increasing number of falls, possibly related to an altered processing of vestibular sensory input. In this study, we therefore investigate age-related changes induced by processing of vestibular sensory stimulation. While previous functional imaging studies of healthy aging have investigated brain function during task performance or at rest, we used galvanic vestibular stimulation during functional MRI in a task-free sensory stimulation paradigm to study the effect of healthy aging on central vestibular processing, which might only become apparent during stimulation processing. Since aging may affect signatures of brain function beyond the BOLD-signal amplitude-such as functional connectivity or temporal signal variability--we employed independent component analysis and partial least squares analysis of temporal signal variability. We tested for age-associated changes unrelated to vestibular processing, using a motor paradigm, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. This allows us to control for general age-related modifications, possibly originating from vascular, atrophic or structural connectivity changes. Age-correlated decreases of functional connectivity and increases of BOLD--signal variability were associated with multisensory vestibular networks. In contrast, no age-related functional connectivity changes were detected in somatosensory networks or during the motor paradigm. The functional connectivity decrease was not due to structural changes but to a decrease in response amplitude. In synopsis, our data suggest that both the age-dependent functional connectivity decrease and the variability increase may be due to deteriorating reciprocal cortico-cortical inhibition with age and related to multimodal vestibular integration of sensory inputs.

  19. Age-related differences during simple working memory decisions: ERP indices of early recognition and compensation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tays, William J; Dywan, Jane; Capuana, Lesley J; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2011-06-01

    Imaging data has identified frontal cortical activation in older adults during simple recognition tasks that relates positively with performance and could, therefore, be considered compensatory. However, in a previous electrophysiological study involving a Sternberg task with proactive interference manipulations, we observed a frontal positive scalp potential between 400 and 500 ms that was unique to older adults and predictive of poorer performance. These results led us to ask whether unique frontal activation in older adults serves a compensatory role only during relatively simple tasks when stimulus familiarity provides an unambiguous basis for response selection. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis by having younger and older adults complete a verbal Sternberg task without interference manipulations. In younger adults, we observed an early posterior negativity (90-120 ms) that predicted performance accuracy. Older adults failed to show this early negativity but did produce the expected frontal positivity. However, the frontal positivity was again associated with poorer performance. These data support the view that younger adults are able to bias early target discrimination to benefit response selection whereas older adults rely on later controlled processes that are not always effective in buffering against normative age-related decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related reduction of hemispheric lateralisation for spatial attention: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Gemma; Benwell, Christopher S Y; Thut, Gregor; Harvey, Monika

    2017-06-01

    A group-level visuospatial attention bias towards the left side of space (pseudoneglect) is consistently observed in young adults, which is likely to be a consequence of right parieto-occipital dominance for spatial attention. Conversely, healthy older adults demonstrate a rightward shift of this behavioural bias, hinting that an age-related reduction of lateralised neural activity may occur within visuospatial attention networks. We compared young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 60-80) adults on a computerised line bisection (landmark) task whilst recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Full-scalp cluster mass permutation tests identified a larger right parieto-occipital response for long lines compared to short in young adults (confirming Benwell et al., 2014a) which was not present in the older group. To specifically investigate age-related differences in hemispheric lateralisation, cluster mass permutation tests were then performed on a lateralised EEG dataset (RH-LH electrodes). A period of right lateralisation was identified in response to long lines in young adults, which was not present for short lines. No lateralised clusters were present for either long or short lines in older adults. Additionally, a reduced P300 component amplitude was observed for older adults relative to young. We therefore report here, for the first time, an age-related and stimulus-driven reduction of right hemispheric control of spatial attention in older adults. Future studies will need to determine whether this is representative of the normal aging process or an early indicator of neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  2. Are there age-related differences in learning to optimize speed, accuracy, and energy expenditure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Timothy N; Higgins, Laura; Elliott, Digby

    2007-12-01

    Studies of age-related differences in manual aiming have indicated that older adults take longer to complete their movements than their younger counterparts because they tend to rely on time-consuming feedback-based control processes. Many authors have suggested that the reliance on feedback is the result of a "play-it-safe" strategy that has been adopted to compensate for a deterioration in accurate and consistent force generation. That is, perhaps because older adults know that their motor systems are not as reliable as the systems were at a younger age, they plan shorter movements that conserve time and space for feedback control to correct their programmed actions. The vast majority of the previous studies that have revealed these age-related differences in aiming, however, have used computer-based tasks that involve the transformation of perceptual into motor space. In the present experiment, older and younger adults completed real aiming movements over three sessions. The results suggest that, when acting in a real environment, the main difference between older and younger adults in movement execution lies in the efficient use of response-related feedback, not in the programming of movement.

  3. Age-related decline in bottom-up processing and selective attention in the very old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Tatyana Y; Alperin, Brittany R; Haring, Anna E; Rentz, Dorene M; Holcomb, Philip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2014-06-01

    Previous research demonstrating age-related deficits in selective attention have not included old-old adults, an increasingly important group to study. The current investigation compared event-related potentials in 15 young-old (65-79 years old) and 23 old-old (80-99 years old) subjects during a color-selective attention task. Subjects responded to target letters in a specified color (Attend) while ignoring letters in a different color (Ignore) under both low and high loads. There were no group differences in visual acuity, accuracy, reaction time, or latency of early event-related potential components. The old-old group showed a disruption in bottom-up processing, indexed by a substantially diminished posterior N1 (smaller amplitude). They also demonstrated markedly decreased modulation of bottom-up processing based on selected visual features, indexed by the posterior selection negativity (SN), with similar attenuation under both loads. In contrast, there were no group differences in frontally mediated attentional selection, measured by the anterior selection positivity (SP). There was a robust inverse relationship between the size of the SN and SP (the smaller the SN, the larger the SP), which may represent an anteriorly supported compensatory mechanism. In the absence of a decline in top-down modulation indexed by the SP, the diminished SN may reflect age-related degradation of early bottom-up visual processing in old-old adults.

  4. Age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without occupational noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hederstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the pattern of age-related hearing decline in individuals with and without self-reported previous occupational noise exposure. This was a prospective, population-based, longitudinal study of individuals aged 70-75 years, from an epidemiological investigation, comprising three age cohorts. In total there were 1013 subjects (432 men and 581 women. Participants were tested with pure tone audiometry, and they answered a questionnaire to provide information regarding number of years of occupational noise exposure. There were no significant differences in hearing decline, at any frequency, for those aged 70-75 years between the noise-exposed (N= 62 men, 22 women and the nonexposed groups (N = 96 men, 158 women. This study supports the additive model of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and age-related hearing loss (ARHL. The concept of different patterns of hearing decline between persons exposed and not exposed to noise could not be verified.

  5. Age-related patterns of drug use initiation among polydrug using regular psychostimulant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Kaye, Sharlene; Torok, Michelle

    2012-09-01

    To determine age-related patterns of drug use initiation, drug sequencing and treatment entry among regular psychostimulant users. Cross-sectional study of 269 regular psychostimulant users, administered a structured interview examining onset of use for major licit and illicit drugs. The mean age at first intoxication was not associated with age or gender. In contrast, younger age was associated with earlier ages of onset for all of the illicit drug classes. Each additional year of age was associated with a 4 month increase in onset age for methamphetamine, and 3 months for heroin. By the age of 17, those born prior to 1961 had, on average, used only tobacco and alcohol, whereas those born between 1986 and 1990 had used nine different drug classes. The period between initial use and the transition to regular use, however, was stable. Age was also negatively correlated with both age at initial injection and regular injecting. Onset sequences, however, remained stable. Consistent with the age-related patterns of drug use, each additional year of age associated with a 0.47 year increase in the age at first treatment. While the age at first intoxication appeared stable, the trajectory through illicit drug use was substantially truncated. The data indicate that, at least among those who progress to regular illicit drug use, younger users are likely to be exposed to far broader polydrug use in their teens than has previously been the case. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a 14-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, Troels; la Cour, Morten

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM).......To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM)....

  7. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  8. Three Studies Point to Same Risk Gene for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... point to same risk gene for age-related macular degeneration NIH-funded research helps unravel the biology of ... rare, but powerful risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common cause of vision loss in ...

  9. Does eating particular diets alter risk of age-related macular degeneration in users of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Recent information suggests that the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) supplement, enhanced intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and diminishing dietary glycemic index (dGI) are protective against advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Dietary information was collected a...

  10. Mediterranean Diet Score and Its Association with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The European Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Ruth E; Woodside, Jayne V; McGrath, Alanna; Young, Ian S; Vioque, Jesus L; Chakravarthy, Usha; de Jong, Paulus T; Rahu, Mati; Seland, Johan; Soubrane, Gisele; Tomazzoli, Laura; Topouzis, Fotis; Fletcher, Astrid E

    2017-01-01

    To examine associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in countries ranging from Southern to Northern Europe. Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiologic study. Of 5060 randomly sampled people aged 65 years or older from 7 study centers across Europe (Norway, Estonia, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Greece, and Spain), full dietary data were available in 4753. The mean age of participants was 73.2 years (standard deviation, 5.6), and 55% were women. Participants underwent an eye examination and digital retinal color photography. The images were graded at a single center. Dietary intake during the previous 12 months was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A previously published Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was used to classify participants according to their responses on the FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of the MDS score and AMD, taking account of potential confounders and the multicenter study design. Images were graded according to the International Classification System for age-related maculopathy and stratified using the Rotterdam staging system into 5 exclusive stages (AMD 0-4) and a separate category of large drusen (≥125 μm). Age-related macular degeneration 4 included neovascular AMD (nvAMD) and geographic atrophy (GA). Increasing MDS was associated with reduced odds of nvAMD in unadjusted and confounder-adjusted analysis. Compared with the lowest MDS adherence (≤4 score), those in the highest category MDS adherence (>6 score) showed lower odds of nvAMD (odds ratio, 0.53; 0.27-1.04; P trend = 0.01). The association with MDS did not differ by Y204H risk allele (P = 0.89). For all early AMD (grade 1-3), there was no relationship with MDS (P trend = 0.9). There was a weak trend (P = 0.1) between MDS and large drusen; those in the highest category of MDS had 20% reduced odds compared with those in

  11. Age-related changes of MAO-A and -B distribution in human and mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, N; Andrés, N; Andrade, C; Saura, J

    2000-01-01

    Age-related changes of MAO-A and -B were studied in human and BL/C57 mouse brain areas (substantia nigra, putamen and cerebellum). [3H]Ro41-1049 and [3H]lazabemide were used as selective radioligands to image and quantify MAO-A and MAO-B respectively by enzyme autoradiography. MAO-A binding was higher in mouse, whereas MAO-B binding was higher in human. With aging, mouse MAO-A was significantly reduced between 4 and 8 weeks and remained unchanged until 19 months followed by a slight increase between 19 and 25 months. In contrast, no clear variation was observed in humans between the age of 17-93 years. In most of the structures studied a clear age-related increase in MAO-B was observed beginning in mouse brain at 4 weeks, whereas in human tissue this increase started at the age of 50-60 years. These results show marked differences in the levels and variations of mouse and human MAO-A and -B associated with aging and should be taken into account when extrapolating experimental data from mouse to human.

  12. Reduced age-related degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum in long-term meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen

    2015-06-30

    Normal aging is known to result in a reduction of gray matter within the hippocampal complex, particularly in the subiculum. The present study was designed to address the question whether the practice of meditation can amend this age-related subicular atrophy. For this purpose, we established the correlations between subicular volume and chronological age within 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were automatically processed combining cytoarchitectonically defined probabilistic maps with advanced tissue segmentation and registration methods. Overall, we observed steeper negative regression slopes in controls. The analysis further revealed a significant group-by-age interaction for the left subiculum with a significant negative correlation between age and subicular volume in controls, but no significant correlation in meditators. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest a reduced age-related atrophy of the left subiculum in meditators compared to healthy controls. Possible explanations might be a relative increase of subicular tissue over time through long-term training as meditation is a process that incorporates regular and ongoing mental efforts. Alternatively, because meditation is an established form of reducing stress, our observation might reflect an overall preservation of subicular tissue through a reduced neuronal vulnerability to negative effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aging Is Not a Disease: Distinguishing Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardeljan, Daniel; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease of the outer retina, characterized most significantly by atrophy of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium accompanied with or without choroidal neovascularization. Development of AMD has been recognized as contingent on environmental and genetic risk factors, the strongest being advanced age. In this review, we highlight pathogenic changes that destabilize ocular homeostasis and promote AMD development. With normal aging, photoreceptors are steadily lost, Bruch's membrane thickens, the choroid thins, and hard drusen may form in the periphery. In AMD, many of these changes are exacerbated in addition to the development of disease-specific factors such as soft macular drusen. Para-inflammation, which can be thought of as an intermediate between basal and robust levels of inflammation, develops within the retina in an attempt to maintain ocular homeostasis, reflected by increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 coupled with shifts in macrophage plasticity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to the anti-inflammatory M2 polarization. In AMD, imbalances in the M1 and M2 populations together with activation of retinal microglia are observed and potentially contribute to tissue degeneration. Nonetheless, the retina persists in a state of chronic inflammation and increased expression of certain cytokines and inflammasomes is observed. Since not everyone develops AMD, the vital question to ask is how the body establishes a balance between normal age-related changes and the pathological phenotypes in AMD. PMID:23933169

  14. Age-related effect of cell death on fiber morphology and number in tongue muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletzien, Heidi; Hare, Allison J; Leverson, Glen; Connor, Nadine P

    2018-01-01

    Multiple pathways may exist for age-related tongue muscle degeneration. Cell death is one mechanism contributing to muscle atrophy and decreased function. We hypothesized with aging, apoptosis, and apoptotic regulators would be increased, and muscle fiber size and number would be reduced in extrinsic tongue muscles. Cell death indices, expression of caspase-3 and Bcl-2, and measures of muscle morphology and number were determined in extrinsic tongue muscles of young and old rats. Significant increases in cell death, caspase-3, and Bcl-2 were observed in all extrinsic tongue muscles along with reductions in muscle fiber number in old rats. We demonstrated that apoptosis indices increase with age in lingual muscles and that alterations in apoptotic regulators may be associated with age-related degeneration in muscle fiber size and number. These observed apoptotic processes may be detrimental to muscle function, and may contribute to degradation of cranial functions with age. Muscle Nerve 57: E29-E37, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Subgroups in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads Krüger; Subhi, Yousif

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate potential differences in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin in subtypes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and in patients in Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging (CARMS) group 5 with or without subretinal fibrosis.......To evaluate potential differences in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin in subtypes of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and in patients in Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging (CARMS) group 5 with or without subretinal fibrosis....

  16. Increased Expression of CD200 on Circulating CD11b+ Monocytes in Patients with Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Falk, Mads K; Hviid, Thomas V F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dysregulation of retinal microglial activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Microglia activity can be regulated through the membrane protein CD200 and its corresponding receptor, the CD200 receptor (CD200R). Because both...... with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and 44 age-matched controls without AMD. METHODS: The participants were aged 60 years or older, had no history of immune dysfunction or cancer, and were not receiving immune-modulating therapy. All participants were subjected to a structured interview......: Patients with neovascular AMD had a higher percentage of CD11b+CD200+ monocytes and CD200+ monocytes compared with controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the intergroup differences observed were independent of age. Moreover, an age-related increment in CD200 expression on monocytes...

  17. Age-related changes in brain perfusion of normal subjects detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, Y.; Karger, H.; Chisin, R.; Bonne, O.; Gorfine, M.; Lerer, B.

    1998-01-01

    Previous functional imaging data generally show impairment in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age. Conflicting data, however, concerning age-related changes in regional CBF (rCBF) have been reported. We examined the relative rCBF in a sample of healthy subjects of various ages, to define and localize any age-related CBF reduction. Twenty-seven healthy subjects (17 male, 10 female; mean age 49 ± 15, range 26-71, median 47 years) were studied by 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT. The younger age group consisted of subjects below, the older group above 47 years of age, respectively. Analysis was performed by applying three preformed templates, each containing delineated regions of interest (ROIs), to three transaxial brain slices at approximately 4, 6, and 7 cm above the orbitomeatal line (OML). The average number of counts for each ROI was normalized to mean uptake of the cerebellum and of the whole brain slice. Globally, 99m Tc-HMPAO uptake ratio normalized to cerebellum was significantly decreased in older subjects, affecting both hemispheres. A slight left-to-right asymmetry was observed in HMPAO uptake of the whole study group. It did not, however, change with age. Regionally, both cortical and subcortical structures of older subjects were involved: uptake ratio to cerebellum was significantly lower (after correction for multiple testing) in the left basal ganglia and in the left superior temporal, right frontal and bilateral occipital cortices at 4 cm above the OML. At 6 cm above the OML, reduced uptake ratios were identified in the left frontal and bilateral parietal areas. At 7 cm, reduced uptake was detected in the right frontal and left occipital cortices. Most of these differences were reduced when uptake was normalized to whole slice, whereas an increase in uptake ratios was observed in the cingulate cortex of the elderly. An inverse correlation between age and HMPAO uptake ratios normalized to cerebellum was observed in a number of brain regions. These

  18. Age-Related Differences in Quality of Standing Balance Using a Composite Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; van der Bij, M.D.W.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure

  19. Dietary Curcumin Ameliorates Aging-Related Cerebrovascular Dysfunction through the AMPK/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Pu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction contributes to stroke, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. One pathogenic mechanism underlying this effect is increased oxidative stress. Up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 plays a crucial role in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Dietary patterns are widely recognized as contributors to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary curcumin, which has an antioxidant effect, can improve aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via UCP2 up-regulation. Methods: The 24-month-old male rodents used in this study, including male Sprague Dawley (SD rats and UCP2 knockout (UCP2-/- and matched wild type mice, were given dietary curcumin (0.2%. The young control rodents were 6-month-old. Rodent cerebral artery vasorelaxation was detected by wire myograph. The AMPK/UCP2 pathway and p-eNOS in cerebrovascular and endothelial cells were observed by immunoblotting. Results: Dietary curcumin administration for one month remarkably restored the impaired cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aging SD rats. In cerebral arteries from aging SD rats and cultured endothelial cells, curcumin promoted eNOS and AMPK phosphorylation, up-regulated UCP2 and reduced ROS production. These effects of curcumin were abolished by either AMPK or UCP2 inhibition. Chronic dietary curcumin significantly reduced ROS production and improved cerebrovascular endothelium-dependent relaxation in aging wild type mice but not in aging UCP2-/- mice. Conclusions: Curcumin improves aging-related cerebrovascular dysfunction via the AMPK/UCP2 pathway.

  20. Age-related slowing of digit symbol substitution revisited: what do longitudinal age changes reflect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Stuart W S; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    A previous investigation reported that cross-sectional age differences in Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) test performance reflect declines in perceptual processing speed. Support for the tenability of the processing speed hypothesis requires examining whether longitudinal age-related change in DSS performance is largely mediated by changes in speed. The present study used data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine patterns and predictors of longitudinal change in DSS for 512 older adults (M(age) = 68.37 years, SD = 7.43). On the basis of multilevel modeling, baseline DSS performance was poorer for older participants and men, with longitudinal declines more pronounced with increasing age and decreasing speed. In contrast to the present cross-sectional findings, statistical control of change trajectories in perceptual speed using the same data did not substantially attenuate age changes. These discrepancies suggest different sources of variance may underlie cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal age changes for DSS.

  1. Gut microbiota modify risk for dietary glycemia-induced age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Sheldon; Taylor, Allen

    2018-03-21

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness world-wide. Although the etiology of AMD is multifactorial, diet and nutrition have strong epidemiologic associations with disease onset and progression. Recent studies indicate a role for gut microbiota in development of AMD in mouse models and in some forms of human AMD. We previously found that consuming lower glycemia diets is associated with protection against AMD in humans and switching from higher to lower glycemia diets arrests AMD phenotypes in mice. Gut microbiota populations and circulating microbial cometabolites were altered in response to dietary carbohydrates, indicating a gut-retina axis. Here we explore additional gut microbiota-AMD interactions that point toward pathogenic roles for some gut microbiota families, including Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, and individual members of Turicibacteraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae. We also speculate on potential mechanisms by which gut microbiota influence AMD, with the objective of devising new AMD diagnoses and treatments.

  2. Is parental age related to the risk of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); W. Schulte (Wim); T.A. Tanja (Teun); R. Haaxma (Rob); A.J. Lameris; R.J. Saan; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAdvanced maternal and paternal age were investigated as putative risk factors for AD in 198 clinically diagnosed Alzheimer patients and in 198 randomly selected healthy controls. No significant differences in average age of fathers and of mothers at birth of the subject were observed.

  3. Clostridium difficile in goats and sheep in Slovenia: characterisation of strains and evidence of age-related shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avberšek, Jana; Pirš, Tina; Pate, Mateja; Rupnik, Maja; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2014-08-01

    Diversity of Clostridium difficile in different age groups of goats (n = 109) and sheep (n = 105) was investigated. C. difficile was detected in 9.2% of goats and 5.7% of sheep. None of the adult animals were positive. Isolates belonged to four toxinotypes (0, V, XIa, XII), six PCR-ribotypes (010, 014/020, 045, 056, SLO 061, SLO 151) and six pulsotypes. PCR-ribotypes 010, 014/020, 045 and 056 were found previously in other animal species and humans in Slovenia. Additionally, three pulsotypes were indistinguishable from restriction patterns in our PFGE database of animal isolates. All strains were susceptible to metronidazol, vancomycin, moxifloxacin, and with the exception of a single non-toxigenic strain also to clindamycin and erythromycin. While all strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, oxacillin-resistance was observed only in strains of PCR-ribotype 045. This first study on C. difficile in small ruminants in Slovenia revealed the evidence of age-related shedding as the highest was demonstrated in neonatal goats and sheep aged up to 16 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nils C J; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline.

  5. Age-related effects on perceptual and semantic encoding in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, M C C; Liu, K P Y; Ting, K H; Chan, C C H

    2014-03-07

    This study examined the age-related subsequent memory effect (SME) in perceptual and semantic encoding using event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen younger adults and 17 older adults studied a series of Chinese characters either perceptually (by inspecting orthographic components) or semantically (by determining whether the depicted object makes sounds). The two tasks had similar levels of difficulty. The participants made studied or unstudied judgments during the recognition phase. Younger adults performed better in both conditions, with significant SMEs detected in the time windows of P2, N3, P550, and late positive component (LPC). In the older group, SMEs were observed in the P2 and N3 latencies in both conditions but were only detected in the P550 in the semantic condition. Between-group analyses showed larger frontal and central SMEs in the younger sample in the LPC latency regardless of encoding type. Aging effect appears to be stronger on influencing perceptual than semantic encoding processes. The effects seem to be associated with a decline in updating and maintaining representations during perceptual encoding. The age-related decline in the encoding function may be due in part to changes in frontal lobe function. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  7. Age-related patterns of vigorous-intensity physical activity in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corder, Kirsten; Sharp, Stephen J; Atkin, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    the relative reduction was 6.0% (5.6%, 6.4%). The age-related decrease in vigorous-intensity activity remained after adjustment for moderate activity. A larger age-related decrease in vigorous activity was observed for girls (- 10.7%) versus boys (- 2.9%), non-white (- 12.9% to - 9.4%) versus white individuals......Physical activity declines during youth but most evidence reports on combined moderate and vigorous-intensity physical activity. We investigated how vigorous-intensity activity varies with age. Cross-sectional data from 24,025 participants (5.0-18.0 y; from 20 studies in 10 countries obtained 2008...... (- 6.1%), lowest maternal education (high school (- 2.0%)) versus college/university (ns) and for overweight/obese (- 6.1%) versus healthy-weight participants (- 8.1%). In addition to larger annual decreases in vigorous-intensity activity, overweight/obese individuals, girls and North Americans had...

  8. Reversing Age Related Changes of the Laryngeal Muscles by Chronic Electrostimulation of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Karbiener

    Full Text Available Age related atrophy of the laryngeal muscles -mainly the thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM- leads to a glottal gap and consequently to a hoarse and dysphonic voice that significantly affects quality of life. The aim of our study was to reverse this atrophy by inducing muscular hypertrophy by unilateral functional electrical stimulation (FES of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in a large animal model using aged sheep (n = 5. Suitable stimulation parameters were determined by fatiguing experiments of the thyroarytenoid muscle in an acute trial. For the chronic trial an electrode was placed around the right RLN and stimulation was delivered once daily for 29 days. We chose a very conservative stimulation pattern, total stimulation time was two minutes per day, or 0.14% of total time. Overall, the mean muscle fiber diameter of the stimulated right TAM was significantly larger than the non-stimulated left TAM (30μm±1.1μm vs. 28μm±1.1 μm, p<0.001. There was no significant shift in fiber type distribution as judged by immunohistochemistry. The changes of fiber diameter could not be observed in the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCAM. FES is a possible new treatment option for reversing the effects of age related laryngeal muscle atrophy.

  9. Modeling the impacts of two age-related portfolio effects on recruitment variability with and without a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilliard, Carey R; Punt, André E; Hilborn, Ray; Essington, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Many rockfish species are long-lived and thought to be susceptible to being overfished. Hypotheses about the importance of older female rockfish to population persistence have led to arguments that marine reserves are needed to ensure the sustainability of rockfish populations. However, the implications of these hypotheses for rockfish population dynamics are still unclear. We modeled two mechanisms by which reducing the proportion of older fish in a population has been hypothesized to influence sustainability, and explored whether these mechanisms influenced mean population dynamics and recruitment variability. We explored whether populations with these mechanisms could be managed more sustainably with a marine reserve in addition to a constant fishing mortality rate (F) than with a constant F alone. Both hypotheses can be seen as portfolio effects whereby risk of recruitment failure is spread over a "portfolio" of maternal ages. First, we modeled a spawning window effect whereby mothers of different ages spawned in different times or locations (windows) with local environmental conditions. Second, we modeled an offspring size effect whereby older mothers produced larger offspring than younger mothers, where length of a starvation period over which offspring could survive increased with maternal age. Recruitment variability resulting from both models was 55-65% lower than for models without maternal age-related portfolio effects in the absence of fishing and increased with increases in Fs for both models. An offspring size effect caused lower output reproductive rates such that the specified reproductive rate input as a model parameter was no longer the realized rate measured as the reproductive rate observed in model results; this quirk is not addressed in previous analyses of offspring size effects. We conducted a standardization such that offspring size effect and control models had the same observed reproductive rates. A comparison of long-term catch, the

  10. EPHA2 polymorphisms and age-related cataract in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periasamy Sundaresan

    Full Text Available We investigated whether previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of EPHA2 in European studies are associated with cataract in India.We carried out a population-based genetic association study. We enumerated randomly sampled villages in two areas of north and south India to identify people aged 40 and over. Participants attended a clinical examination including lens photography and provided a blood sample for genotyping. Lens images were graded by the Lens Opacification Classification System (LOCS III. Cataract was defined as a LOCS III grade of nuclear ≥4, cortical ≥3, posterior sub-capsular (PSC ≥2, or dense opacities or aphakia/pseudophakia in either eye. We genotyped SNPs rs3754334, rs7543472 and rs11260867 on genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using TaqMan assays in an ABI 7900 real-time PCR. We used logistic regression with robust standard errors to examine the association between cataract and the EPHA2 SNPs, adjusting for age, sex and location.7418 participants had data on at least one of the SNPs investigated. Genotype frequencies of controls were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p>0.05. There was no association of rs3754334 with cataract or type of cataract. Minor allele homozygous genotypes of rs7543472 and rs11260867 compared to the major homozygote genotype were associated with cortical cataract, Odds ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI (1.1, 3.1 p = 0.03 and 2.9 (1.2, 7.1 p = 0.01 respectively, and with PSC cataract, OR = 1.5 (1.1, 2.2 p = 0.02 and 1.8 (0.9, 3.6 p = 0.07 respectively. There was no consistent association of SNPs with nuclear cataract or a combined variable of any type of cataract including operated cataract.Our results in the Indian population agree with previous studies of the association of EPHA2 variants with cortical cataracts. We report new findings for the association with PSC which is particularly prevalent in Indians.

  11. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  12. Age-related reduction of the confidence-accuracy relationship in episodic memory: effects of recollection quality and retrieval monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Cramer, Stefanie J; Gallo, David A

    2012-12-01

    We investigated age-related reductions in episodic metamemory accuracy. Participants studied pictures and words in different colors and then took forced-choice recollection tests. These tests required recollection of the earlier presentation color, holding familiarity of the response options constant. Metamemory accuracy was assessed for each participant by comparing recollection test accuracy with corresponding confidence judgments. We found that recollection test accuracy was greater in younger than older adults and also for pictures than font color. Metamemory accuracy tracked each of these recollection differences, as well as individual differences in recollection test accuracy within each age group, suggesting that recollection ability affects metamemory accuracy. Critically, the age-related impairment in metamemory accuracy persisted even when the groups were matched on recollection test accuracy, suggesting that metamemory declines were not entirely due to differences in recollection frequency or quantity, but that differences in recollection quality and/or monitoring also played a role. We also found that age-related impairments in recollection and metamemory accuracy were equivalent for pictures and font colors. This result contrasted with previous false recognition findings, which predicted that older adults would be differentially impaired when monitoring memory for less distinctive memories. These and other results suggest that age-related reductions in metamemory accuracy are not entirely attributable to false recognition effects, but also depend heavily on deficient recollection and/or monitoring of specific details associated with studied stimuli. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Neural Alterations in Acquired Age-Related Hearing Loss

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    Raksha Anand Mudar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in older adults. Growing evidence suggests that hearing loss is associated with reduced cognitive functioning and incident dementia. In this mini-review, we briefly examine literature on anatomical and functional alterations in the brains of adults with acquired age-associated hearing loss, which may underlie the cognitive consequences observed in this population, focusing on studies that have used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and event-related electroencephalography. We discuss structural and functional alterations observed in the temporal and frontal cortices and the limbic system. These neural alterations are discussed in the context of common cause, information-degradation, and sensory-deprivation hypotheses, and we suggest possible rehabilitation strategies. Although we are beginning to learn more about changes in neural architecture and functionality related to age-associated hearing loss, much work remains to be done. Understanding the neural alterations will provide objective markers for early identification of neural consequences of age-associated hearing loss and for evaluating benefits of intervention approaches.

  14. Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives To evaluate the associations of sensory impairments with the 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. Previous work has primarily focused on the relationship between a single sensory system and cognition. Design The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) is a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, WI community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up exams have been conducted every 5 years. Setting General community Participants EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998–2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age = 66.7 years) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Measurements Cognitive impairment was a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) of > 25 decibel Hearing Level in either ear. Visual impairment was Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk [Hearing: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 1.11, 3.26; Vision: HR = 2.05, 95% C.I. = 1.24, 3.38; Olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% C.I. = 2.45, 6.26]. However, 85% with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. Conclusion The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system suggesting sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. PMID:27611845

  15. Age-related changes in the signal value of tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeifman, Debra M; Brown, Sarah A

    2011-08-12

    Emotional tears may be uniquely human and are an effective signal of distress in adults. The present study explored whether tears signal distress in younger criers and whether the effect of tears on observers is similar in magnitude across the life span. Participants rated photographs of crying infants, young children, and adults, with tears digitally removed or added. The effectiveness of tears in conveying sadness and eliciting sympathy was greatest for images of adults, intermediate for images of children, and least potent for images of infants. These findings suggest that the signal value of tears varies with the age of the crier. The results may shed light on the functional significance of crying at different stages of human development.

  16. A Deep Learning Algorithm for Prediction of Age-Related Eye Disease Study Severity Scale for Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Color Fundus Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Felix; Mengelkamp, Judith; Brandl, Caroline; Harsch, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Martina E; Linkohr, Birgit; Peters, Annette; Heid, Iris M; Palm, Christoph; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2018-04-10

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common threat to vision. While classification of disease stages is critical to understanding disease risk and progression, several systems based on color fundus photographs are known. Most of these require in-depth and time-consuming analysis of fundus images. Herein, we present an automated computer-based classification algorithm. Algorithm development for AMD classification based on a large collection of color fundus images. Validation is performed on a cross-sectional, population-based study. We included 120 656 manually graded color fundus images from 3654 Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) participants. AREDS participants were >55 years of age, and non-AMD sight-threatening diseases were excluded at recruitment. In addition, performance of our algorithm was evaluated in 5555 fundus images from the population-based Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA; Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg) study. We defined 13 classes (9 AREDS steps, 3 late AMD stages, and 1 for ungradable images) and trained several convolution deep learning architectures. An ensemble of network architectures improved prediction accuracy. An independent dataset was used to evaluate the performance of our algorithm in a population-based study. κ Statistics and accuracy to evaluate the concordance between predicted and expert human grader classification. A network ensemble of 6 different neural net architectures predicted the 13 classes in the AREDS test set with a quadratic weighted κ of 92% (95% confidence interval, 89%-92%) and an overall accuracy of 63.3%. In the independent KORA dataset, images wrongly classified as AMD were mainly the result of a macular reflex observed in young individuals. By restricting the KORA analysis to individuals >55 years of age and prior exclusion of other retinopathies, the weighted and unweighted κ increased to 50% and 63%, respectively. Importantly, the algorithm

  17. Natural history of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: Age-Related Eye Disease Study Report No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Agrón, Elvira; Klein, Michael L; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Gensler, Gary; Wong, Wai T

    2010-03-01

    To describe the natural history of eyes with drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (DPEDs) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, clinic-based, prospective cohort study. Among 4757 participants enrolled in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), 255 were identified as having DPED in at least 1 eye and having 5 or more years of follow-up after the initial detection of the DPED. Baseline and annual fundus photographs were evaluated for the evolution of the fundus features and the development of advanced AMD in the forms of central geographic atrophy (CGA) or neovascular (NV) AMD. Kaplan-Meier analyses of progression to advanced AMD and of moderate vision loss (> or =15 letters compared with baseline) were performed. Rate of progression to advanced AMD and change in visual acuity from baseline (in terms of mean letters lost and proportion losing > or =15 letters). A total of 311 eyes (from 255 participants) with DPED were followed for a median follow-up time of 8 years subsequent to the initial detection of a DPED. Of the 282 eyes that did not have advanced AMD at baseline, advanced AMD developed within 5 years in 119 eyes (42%) (19% progressing to CGA and 23% progressing to NV-AMD). In the remaining eyes that did not develop advanced AMD (n=163), progressive fundus changes, typified by the development of calcified drusen and pigmentary changes, were detected. Visual decline was prominent among study eyes, with approximately 40% of all eyes decreasing in visual acuity by > or =15 letters at 5 years follow-up. Mean visual acuity decreased from 76 letters ( approximately 20/30) at baseline to 61 letters ( approximately 20/60) at 5 years. Five-year decreases in mean visual acuity averaged 26 letters for eyes progressing to advanced AMD and 8 letters for non-progressing eyes. The natural history of eyes containing DPED is characterized by a high rate of progression to both CGA and NV-AMD. Among eyes not progressing to advanced AMD

  18. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding Papers I, II and III a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to model gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed, and simulation results of two synthetic nucleation scenarios (binary vs. ternary on new particle formation (NPF in the anthropogenically influenced CBL were presented and discussed. The purpose of the present finishing Paper IV is twofold: Firstly, an attempt is made to compile previous observational findings on NPF bursts in the CBL, obtained from a number of field experiments. Secondly, the scenario simulations discussed in Paper III will be evaluated with respect to the role of CBL turbulence in NPF burst evolution. It was demonstrated, that completely different nucleation mechanisms can lead to the occurrence of NPF bursts in the surface layer, but the corresponding evolution patterns strongly differ with respect to the origin, amplitude and phase of the NPF burst as well as with respect to the time-height evolution of turbulent vertical fluxes and double correlation terms of physicochemical and aerosoldynamical variables. The large differences between the binary and ternary case scenario indicate, that ammonia (NH3 can not be considered as a time-independent tuning parameter in nucleation modelling. Its contribution to the evolution of the NPF burst pattern is much more complicated and reflects the influence of CBL turbulence as well as the strong non-linearity of the ternary nucleation rate. The impact of water (H2O vapour on the nucleation rate is quite varying depending on the considered nucleation mechanism. According to the classical theory of binary nucleation involving H2O and sulphuric acid (H2SO4, H2O vapour favours NPF, according to the classical theory of ternary nuncleation involving H2O, H2SO4 and NH3 and according to organic nucleation via chemical reactions involving stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs, H2O vapour disfavours nucleation, and

  19. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

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    Flavia Bruna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult’s BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult’s BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion.

  20. Age-related shifts in hemispheric dominance for syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Michelle; Federmeier, Kara D

    2017-12-01

    Recent ERP data from young adults have revealed that simple syntactic anomalies elicit different patterns of lateralization in right-handed participants depending upon their familial sinistrality profile (whether or not they have left-handed biological relatives). Right-handed participants who do not have left-handed relatives showed a strongly lateralized response pattern, with P600 responses following left-hemisphere-biased presentations and N400 responses following right-hemisphere-biased presentations. Given that the literature on aging has documented a tendency to change across adulthood from asymmetry of function to a more bilateral pattern, we tested the stability of this asymmetric response to syntactic violations by recording ERPs as 24 older adults (age 60+) with no history of familial sinistrality made grammaticality judgments on simple two-word phrases. Results showed that the asymmetric pattern observed in right-handed adults without familial sinistrality indeed changes with age, such that P600 responses come to be elicited not only with left-hemisphere-biased but also with right-hemisphere-biased presentations in older adults. These findings suggest that, as with many other cognitive functions, syntactic processing becomes more bilateral with age. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Functional impact of treatment with ranibizumab under a reactive strategy in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Pinazo, R; Dolz-Marco, R; Andreu-Fenoll, M; Farrés, J; Monclús, L

    2017-03-01

    To analyse the functional recovery using a pro re nata (PRN) dosing strategy with intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). An observational, retrospective, single-centre study, was conducted on patients with neovascular AMD managed with a PRN strategy with ranibizumab, and were followed-up for a minimum of 18 months. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from medical records. The percentage of visual acuity (VA) recovered after losing 5 or more letters was calculated taking into account the previous visit, as well as considering the best VA recorded prior to the retreament. The analysis included 128 patients. The mean (SD) follow-up period was 18.9 (2.3) months. The mean (SD) elapsed days between onset of symptoms and diagnosis, and between prescription and administration of treatment was 50.2 (57.4) and 10.9 (16.0), respectively. Only 108 patients were prescribed ranibizumab after losing 5 or more letters of VA. The mean (SD) VA recovery compared to the previous VA was 70.3% (114.4). On the other hand, the mean (SD) VA recovery when considering the best VA registered before the retreatment was 43.5% (112.9), with 59.4% of re-treatments having a VA recovery below 75%, and with 11.7% not presenting any VA recovery. A PRN dosing strategy with intravitreal ranibizumab for neovascular AMD may not be efficient in preserving and/or recovering VA in the long-term, due to a cumulative irreversible VA loss. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. ASSOCIATION OF DRUSEN VOLUME WITH CHOROIDAL PARAMETERS IN NONNEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Siva; Lei, Jianqin; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Velaga, Swetha B; Haines, Jonathan; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Stambolian, Dwight; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2017-10-01

    The choroid is thought to be relevant to the pathogenesis of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration, but its role has not yet been fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between the extent of macular drusen and specific choroidal parameters, including thickness and intensity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were collected from two distinct, independent cohorts with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration: Amish (53 eyes of 34 subjects) and non-Amish (40 eyes from 26 subjects). All spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were obtained using the Cirrus HD-OCT with a 512 × 128 macular cube (6 × 6 mm) protocol. The Cirrus advanced retinal pigment epithelium analysis tool was used to automatically compute drusen volume within 3 mm (DV3) and 5 mm (DV5) circles centered on the fovea. The inner and outer borders of the choroid were manually segmented, and the mean choroidal thickness and choroidal intensity (i.e., brightness) were calculated. The choroidal intensity was normalized against the vitreous and nerve fiber layer reflectivity. The correlation between DV and these choroidal parameters was assessed using Pearson and linear regression analysis. A significant positive correlation was observed between normalized choroidal intensity and DV5 in the Amish (r = 0.42, P = 0.002) and non-Amish (r = 0.33, P = 0.03) cohorts. Also, DV3 showed a significant positive correlation with normalized choroidal intensity in both the groups (Amish: r = 0.30, P = 0.02; non-Amish: r = 0.32, P = 0.04). Choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with normalized choroidal intensity in both Amish (r = -0.71, P = 0.001) and non-Amish (r = -0.43, P = 0.01) groups. Normalized choroidal intensity was the most significant constant predictor of DV in both the Amish and non-Amish groups. Choroidal intensity, but not choroidal thickness, seems to be associated with drusen volume in Amish and non-Amish populations. These

  3. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  4. Age-Related Cognitive Effects of Videogame Playing Across the Adult Life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhang, Yi-Wen; Hu, Yang; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies found positive influences of videogame playing on cognition. However, the age-related and task-related effects of videogame experience across the adult life span are still unknown. The current study aimed to systematically investigate this question. The current study used the cross-sectional approach. A total of 166 participants (84 videogame players [VGPs], 82 nonvideogame players [NVGPs]) at the age of 18-80 in the present study were recruited, including 62 young adults aged from 18 to 34 (35 VGPs, 27 NVGPs), 55 middle-aged adults aged between 35 and 59 (24 VGPs, 31 NVGPs), and 49 older adults aged between 60 and 80 (25 VGPs, 24 NVGPs). 1,2 A series of neuropsychological tests from different cognitive domains, including processing speed, visuospatial, attention, memory, and executive function, were conducted on participants. The age-related effects demonstrated that young and older adults benefited more from videogame experience than middle-aged adults. The task-related effects showed that VGPs benefited more from videogame experience in processing speed and visuospatial processing; next was executive function and attention, while no benefits in memory. The effect sizes suggested that the difference in extent between VGPs and NVGPs in processing speed and visuospatial processing is moderate, in attention and executive function is small, and in memory is negligible. The current findings support the beneficial effects and transfer effects of videogame experience; however, the effects presented age-specific and task-specific characteristics. The results provide useful insights for future videogame intervention studies for healthy adults of different ages.

  5. Age-related carbonylation of fibrocartilage structural proteins drives tissue degenerative modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Brian; Clement, Cristina C; Yodmuang, Supansa; Urbanska, Aleksandra M; Suadicani, Sylvia O; Aphkhazava, David; Thi, Mia M; Perino, Giorgio; Hardin, John A; Cobelli, Neil; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Santambrogio, Laura

    2013-07-25

    Aging-related oxidative stress has been linked to degenerative modifications in different organs and tissues. Using redox proteomic analysis and illustrative tandem mass spectrometry mapping, we demonstrate oxidative posttranslational modifications in structural proteins of intervertebral discs (IVDs) isolated from aging mice. Increased protein carbonylation was associated with protein fragmentation and aggregation. Complementing these findings, a significant loss of elasticity and increased stiffness was measured in fibrocartilage from aging mice. Studies using circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence revealed a significant loss of secondary and tertiary structures of purified collagens following oxidation. Collagen unfolding and oxidation promoted both nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation. Importantly, induction of oxidative modification in healthy fibrocartilage recapitulated the biochemical and biophysical modifications observed in the aging IVD. Together, these results suggest that protein carbonylation, glycation, and lipoxidation could be early events in promoting IVD degenerative changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Age-related changes of sensory peripheral nerve system in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitenkov, V B; Ekusheva, E V; Komancev, V N; Skripchenko, N V; Grigoryev, S G; Klimkin, A V; Aksenova, A I

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to present and evaluate age-related changes of peripheral nerves of limbs on a huge population of healthy subjects of different ages. In 2009-2016 subjects aged from 1months to 90 years were studied by nerve conduction velocity studies (NCV). Data of those confirmed healthy was included in our study. In total there were 372 healthy subjects. NCV for nn. Medianus et Ulnaris was registered, with NCV and amplitude of compound sensory action potential (CSAP) being analyzed. There were significant differences on both these parameters between different age groups. Since the childhood the improvement of conduction (which was reflected in rising of CSAP amplitudes and NCV quickening) was registered; from 40-50 years steady decline of both these parameters were observed in both nerves. Conduction studies of peripheral nerves may be implemented in gerontology for early detection of neurophysiology patterns reflecting physiological aging. Also our results may be implemented for accelerated aging detection.

  7. Age-related changes in human tendo calcaneus collagen fibrils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargon, Mustafa F.; Ozlu, Korhan; Oken, Fuad

    2005-01-01

    The ruptures of tendo calcaneus often occur between the age group of 30-45 years as described by several text books. It is also described that some diseases and drugs are said to be responsible in the etiology; however, there are no studies related with the detailed histological structure of collagen fibrils found in the tendon in the age groups of humans. In view there of, this study was aimed to obtain further information on the etiology and to find an answer regarding the frequency the ruptures occurring between the age of 30-45 years in human. In the study, the biopsy specimen taken from 28 patients age (1-68) years who had undergone surgery due to tendo calcaneus ruptures or acilloplasty operations were examined by transmission electron microscope. All the specimens were prepared according to routine electronic microscope tissue preparation technique. The patients were divided into 7 age groups (1-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, >60 years) and there were 4 patients in each group. The transverse diameters of collagen fibers were measured from the ultra thin sections and statistical analysis of the results were performed. The study was carried out in the electron microscopy laboratory of the Anatomy Department of Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between January 2004 and September 2004. The diameters of the collagen fibers were higher in the 20-29 year-old groups compared to other groups and it showed a statistically significant difference. In patients who were in the 30-39 year old group or older, the diameters of the collagen fibers were lesser than the 20-29 year-old group. However, an increase was observed in the collagen fibril concentration of these groups. In examination of the specimens of patients who were under 20-year old, the diameter of the collagen fibers were less than 20-29 year -old group. The electron microscopic appearance of the tissue sample of a one year-old patient had a specific organization and in this patient, both the

  8. Patient Awareness of Cataract and Age-related Macular Degeneration among the Korean Elderly: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hankil; Jang, Yong Jung; Lee, Hyung Keun; Kang, Hye Young

    2017-12-01

    Age-related eye disease is often considered part of natural aging. Lack of awareness of eye conditions can result in missed treatment. We investigated the rates of awareness of cataract and age-related macular degeneration, the most common age-related eye-diseases, and the associated factors among elderly Koreans. We identified 7,403 study subjects (≥40 years old) with cataract or age-related macular degeneration based on ophthalmic examination results during the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2010 and 2012. We assessed whether patients were aware of their eye condition based on a previous diagnosis by a physician. The average awareness rate over the 3-year study period was 23.69% in subjects with cataract and 1.45% in subjects with age-related macular degeneration. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with cataract were more likely to recognize their condition if they had myopia (odds ratio, 2.08), hyperopia (odds ratio, 1.33), family history of eye disease (odds ratio, 1.44), or a past eye examination (odds ratio, 4.07-29.10). The presence of diabetes mellitus was also a significant predictor of patient awareness of cataract (odds ratio, 1.88). Poor patient recognition of eye disease among the Korean elderly highlights the seriousness of this potential public health problem in our aging society. Pre-existing eye-related conditions and diabetes were significant predictors of awareness; therefore, patients in frequent contact with their doctors have a greater chance of detecting eye disease. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  9. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wavre-Shapton, Silène T; Tolmachova, Tanya; Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; da Silva, Mafalda Lopes; Futter, Clare E; Seabra, Miguel C

    2013-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1). REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox), Tyr-Cre+). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox), Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  10. Conditional ablation of the choroideremia gene causes age-related changes in mouse retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silène T Wavre-Shapton

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is a pigmented monolayer of cells lying between the photoreceptors and a layer of fenestrated capillaries, the choriocapillaris. Choroideremia (CHM is an X-linked progressive degeneration of these three layers caused by the loss of function of Rab Escort protein-1 (REP1. REP1 is involved in the prenylation of Rab proteins, key regulators of membrane trafficking. To study the pathological consequences of chronic disruption of membrane traffic in the RPE we used a cell type-specific knock-out mouse model of the disease, where the Chm/Rep1 gene is deleted only in pigmented cells (Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to quantitate the melanosome distribution in the RPE and immunofluorescent staining of rhodopsin was used to quantitate phagocytosed rod outer segments in retinal sections. The ultrastructure of the RPE and Bruch's membrane at different ages was characterised by TEM to analyse age-related changes occurring as a result of defects in membrane traffic pathways. Chm/Rep1 gene knockout in RPE cells resulted in reduced numbers of melanosomes in the apical processes and delayed phagosome degradation. In addition, the RPE accumulated pathological changes at 5-6 months of age similar to those observed in 2-year old controls. These included the intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin-containing deposits, disorganised basal infoldings and the extracellular accumulation of basal laminar and basal linear deposits. The phenotype of the Chm(Flox, Tyr-Cre+ mice suggests that loss of the Chm/Rep1 gene causes premature accumulation of features of aging in the RPE. Furthermore, the striking similarities between the present observations and some of the phenotypes reported in age-related macular degeneration (AMD suggest that membrane traffic defects may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD.

  11. Targeted deletion of Atg5 in chondrocytes promotes age-related osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderlique, Thibault; Vuppalapati, Karuna K; Newton, Phillip T; Li, Lei; Barenius, Björn; Chagin, Andrei S

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that the lysosomal recycling process called macro-autophagy plays a role in osteoarthritis development. We thus decided to genetically ablate the autophagy-indispensable Atg5 gene specifically in chondrocytes and analyse the development of osteoarthritis upon aging and in a post-traumatic model. Mice lacking the Atg5 gene in their chondrocytes (Atg5cKO) were generated by crossing Atg5-floxed mice with transgenic mice that expressed cre recombinase driven by the collagen type 2 promoter. Animals were analysed at the age of 2, 6 and 12 months for age-related osteoarthritis or underwent mini-open partial medial meniscectomy at 2 months of age and were analysed 1 or 2 months after surgery. We evaluated osteoarthritis using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring on safranin-O-stained samples. Cell death was evaluated by terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl-transferase-mediated deoxy-UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and by immunostaining of cleaved caspases. We observed the development of osteoarthritis in Atg5cKO mice with aging including fibrillation and loss of proteoglycans, which was particularly severe in males. The ablation of Atg5 was associated with an increased cell death as assessed by TUNEL, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9. Surprisingly, no difference in the development of post-traumatic osteoarthritis was observed between Atg5cKO and control mice. Autophagy protects from age-related osteoarthritis by facilitating chondrocyte survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Associations between a polymorphism in the pleiotropic GCKR and Age-related phenotypes: the HALCyon programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamuno Alfred

    Full Text Available The glucokinase regulatory protein encoded by GCKR plays an important role in glucose metabolism and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1260326 (P446L in the gene has been associated with several age-related biomarkers, including triglycerides, glucose, insulin and apolipoproteins. However, associations between SNPs in the gene and other ageing phenotypes such as cognitive and physical capability have not been reported.As part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon collaborative research programme, men and women from five UK cohorts aged between 44 and 90+ years were genotyped for rs1260326. Meta-analysis was used to pool within-study genotypic associations between the SNP and several age-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI, blood lipid levels, lung function, and cognitive and physical capability.We confirm the associations between the minor allele of the SNP and higher triglycerides and lower glucose levels. We also observed a triglyceride-independent association between the minor allele and lower BMI (pooled beta on z-score= -0.04, p-value=0.0001, n=16,251. Furthermore, there was some evidence for gene-environment interactions, including physical activity attenuating the effects on triglycerides. However, no associations were observed with measures of cognitive and physical capability.Findings from middle-aged to older adults confirm associations between rs1260326 GCKR and triglycerides and glucose, suggest possible gene-environment interactions, but do not provide evidence that its relevance extends to cognitive and physical capability.

  13. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas Jyotirmay; Raman Rajiv

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, ...

  15. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MACULAR ATROPHY FINDINGS BY OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY COMPARED WITH FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE IN TREATED EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasago, Yukari; Shiragami, Chieko; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Osaka, Rie; Ono, Aoi; Yamashita, Ayana; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Hirooka, Kazuyuki

    2017-11-28

    To compare the areas of choriocapillaris (CC) nonperfusion and macular atrophy (MA) in treated exudative age-related macular degeneration. This was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Forty-four eyes exhibiting MA (42 patients with age-related macular degeneration), with a dry macula, underwent fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography angiography. The area of MA detected by fundus autofluorescence and CC nonperfusion detected by optical coherence tomography angiography was measured using image analysis software. The rates of concordance between the MA and CC nonperfusion areas were calculated. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the areas of MA and CC nonperfusion in age-related macular degeneration eyes. The mean areas of MA and CC nonperfusion were 5.95 ± 4.50 mm and 10.66 ± 7.05 mm, respectively (paired t-test, P autofluorescence matching optical coherence tomography angiography showed that the CC nonperfusion area was almost included in the MA area. The mean concordance rate for the MA area inside the CC nonperfusion area was 87.7 ± 13.9%. The MA and CC nonperfusion areas markedly overlapped. The area of CC nonperfusion correlated with the MA area. Choroidal ischemia might be involved in the pathogenesis of MA in treated age-related macular degeneration.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  17. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  18. GRM7 variants associated with age-related hearing loss based on auditory perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Dina L.; Fisher, Laurel M.; Ohmen, Jeffrey; Parody, Robert; Fong, Chin-To; Frisina, Susan T.; Mapes, Frances; Eddins, David A.; Frisina, D. Robert; Frisina, Robert D.; Friedman, Rick A.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is a common condition of the elderly that results in significant communication difficulties in daily life. Clinically, it has been defined as a progressive loss of sensitivity to sound, starting at the high frequencies, inability to understand speech, lengthening of the minimum discernable temporal gap in sounds, and a decrease in the ability to filter out background noise. The causes of presbycusis are likely a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Previous research into the genetics of presbycusis has focused solely on hearing as measured by pure-tone thresholds. A few loci have been identified, based on a best ear pure-tone average phenotype, as having a likely role in susceptibility to this type of hearing loss; and GRM7 is the only gene that has achieved genome-wide significance. We examined the association of GRM7 variants identified from the previous study, which used an European cohort with Z-scores based on pure-tone thresholds, in a European–American population from Rochester, NY (N = 687), and used novel phenotypes of presbycusis. In the present study mixed modeling analyses were used to explore the relationship of GRM7 haplotype and SNP genotypes with various measures of auditory perception. Here we show that GRM7 alleles are associated primarily with peripheral measures of hearing loss, and particularly with speech detection in older adults. PMID:23102807

  19. Investigation of the 5q33.3 longevity locus and age-related phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardi......A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation...... and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity......-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations...

  20. Complement factor H polymorphisms in Japanese population with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Haru; Umeda, Shinsuke; Obazawa, Minoru; Minami, Masayoshi; Noda, Toru; Mizota, Atsushi; Honda, Miki; Tanaka, Minoru; Koyama, Risa; Takagi, Ikue; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Yoshihiro; Miyake, Yozo; Iwata, Takeshi

    2006-03-06

    To study the frequency of five haplotypes previously reported in the complement factor H (CFH) gene for Japanese patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples taken from 96 Japanese AMD patients and 89 age-matched controls. All patients were diagnosed as having exudative (wet-type) AMD. The amplified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of CFH exons 2, 9, and 13, and intron 6 were analyzed by temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) and by direct sequencing. The haplotypes were identified, and their frequencies were calculated and compared with reported results. Five haplotypes were identified in the Japanese population including four already reported in the American population. The frequencies of these haplotypes were significantly different between Japanese and American in both control and case groups. The haplotype containing Y402H, which was previously reported to be associated with AMD, was only 4% in the control and case population, with a p value of 0.802. However, two other haplotypes were found as risk factors, which gave an increased likelihood of AMD of 1.9 and 2.5 fold (95% CI 1.12-3.69 and 1.42-6.38). One protective haplotype that decreased the likelihood of AMD by 1.6 fold (95% CI 0.26-0.67) was identified. The frequencies for five haplotypes previously identified were analyzed in a Japanese population with AMD. Four previously found haplotypes were identified and one additional haplotype was found. The frequencies of each haplotype were significantly different from that in found Americans affected with AMD. Two of the haplotypes were identified as risk factors and one was considered protective.

  1. Right anterior cerebellum BOLD responses reflect age related changes in Simon task sequential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, D; Sapir, A; Close, A; Henik, A; d'Avossa, G

    2018-01-31

    Participants are slower to report a feature, such as color, when the target appears on the side opposite the instructed response, than when the target appears on the same side. This finding suggests that target location, even when task-irrelevant, interferes with response selection. This effect is magnified in older adults. Lengthening the inter-trial interval, however, suffices to normalize the congruency effect in older adults, by re-establishing young-like sequential effects (Aisenberg et al., 2014). We examined the neurological correlates of age related changes by comparing BOLD signals in young and old participants performing a visual version of the Simon task. Participants reported the color of a peripheral target, by a left or right-hand keypress. Generally, BOLD responses were greater following incongruent than congruent targets. Also, they were delayed and of smaller amplitude in old than young participants. BOLD responses in visual and motor regions were also affected by the congruency of the previous target, suggesting that sequential effects may reflect remapping of stimulus location onto the hand used to make a response. Crucially, young participants showed larger BOLD responses in right anterior cerebellum to incongruent targets, when the previous target was congruent, but smaller BOLD responses to incongruent targets when the previous target was incongruent. Old participants, however, showed larger BOLD responses to congruent than incongruent targets, irrespective of the previous target congruency. We conclude that aging may interfere with the trial by trial updating of the mapping between the task-irrelevant target location and response, which takes place during the inter-trial interval in the cerebellum and underlays sequential effects in a Simon task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ROLE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION IN PREVENTING PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a chronic, progressive, degenerative eye disease affecting the central retina. It is the leading cause of blindness among individuals of 65 years and older. In the early stage patients have drusen and/or alterations of pigmentation in the macular region. This disease can progress to geographic atrophy and/or choroidal neovascularization. It has been shown that oxidative stress and hypoxia are important in the pathogenesis of AMD. Patients may gain some visual improvement with inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor, but complete restoration of visual function is achieved only in small cases. No effective therapies are known for atrophic AMD. Many large observational studies have shown that dietary antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in preventing the progression of AMD from early to late stages. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS demonstrated that daily oral supplementation with vitamins C (500 mg and E (400 IU, beta carotene (15 mg, zinc (80 mg and copper (2 mg reduced the risk of progression to advanced AMD by 25% at 5 years. In primary analyses AREDS II failed to show further reduce of this risk by addition of lutein (10 mg and zeaxanthin (2mg, or/and omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [docosahexaenoic acid (350 mg DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid 650 mg (EPA] to the AREDS formulation. But there was no true placebo group. The simultaneous administration of beta carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin may suppress tissue level of the both laters because of competitive absorption of carotenoids. Subgroup analyses revealed that dietary supplementation with lutein, zeaxanthin and AREDS formulation without beta carotene may reduce the risk of progression to advanced AMD.The LUNA (Lutein nutrition effects measured by autofluorescence study demonstrated that supplementation with lutein (12 mg, zeaxanthin (1 mg, vitamin C (120 mg, vitamin E (17,6 mg, zinc (10 mg, selenium (40 mg resulted

  3. Age-related decline of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model associated with the common deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Hu, Yujuan; Peng, Wei; Sun, Yu; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xueyan; Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Honglian; Kong, Weijia

    2012-12-01

    The age-related deterioration in the central auditory system is well known to impair the abilities of sound localization and speech perception. However, the mechanisms involved in the age-related central auditory deficiency remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions accumulated with age in the auditory system. Also, a cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) deficiency has been proposed to be a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study was designed to explore the changes of CcO activity and to investigate the possible relationship between the mtDNA common deletion (CD) and CcO activity as well as the mRNA expression of CcO subunits in the auditory cortex of D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mimetic aging rats at different ages. Moreover, we explored whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were involved in the changes of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded CcO subunits in the auditory cortex during aging. Our data demonstrated that d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats exhibited an accelerated accumulation of the CD and a gradual decline in the CcO activity in the auditory cortex during the aging process. The reduction in the CcO activity was correlated with the level of CD load in the auditory cortex. The mRNA expression of CcO subunit III was reduced significantly with age in the d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats. In contrast, the decline in the mRNA expression of subunits I and IV was relatively minor. Additionally, significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and TFAM were observed in the auditory cortex of D-gal-induced mimetic aging rats with aging. These findings suggested that the accelerated accumulation of the CD in the auditory cortex may induce a substantial decline in CcO subunit III and lead to a significant decline in the Cc

  4. Age-Related Health Hazards in Old Patients with First-Time Referral to a Rheumatologist: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. van Lankveld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of generic age-related health hazards in elderly patient referred to a rheumatologist. Methods. Patients aged 75 or older referred to a specialized gerontorheumatological outpatient service over a period of 2 years were studied prospectively to determine the prevalence of comorbidities, a history of falls, inactivity, cognitive dysfunction, loneliness, and depression in this patient group. Results. A group of 154 patients were included in the study. Comorbidities were observed in 88% of the patients. At least one fall was reported in the last year by 44% of the patients; 44% of the patients reported low levels of health-enhancing physical activity. Depressed mood and loneliness were elevated in 30% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Mild or moderate cognitive impairment was observed in 13% of the patients. Conclusion. Patients in this study were characterized by poor physical ability, high levels of pain, and high prevalence of age-related health hazards.

  5. Normal age-related conversion of bone marrow in the skull base. Assessment with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Koki; Tomura, Noriaki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Izumi, Junichi; Kurosawa, Ryo; Sashi, Ryuji; Watarai, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the normal age-related sequence of conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base by means of MR imaging. We retrospectively reviewed T1-weighted MR images of the skull base for the distribution of hematopoietic and fatty marrow. The subjects consisted of 169 MR examinations that were performed with the spin-echo technique. The age of the subjects ranged from 0 months to 20 years old. Patients with known marrow abnormalities were excluded from this study. Marrow conversion was assessed in the presphenoid, postsphenoid, basiocciput, petrous apex, clivus, zygomatic bone, and condyle of the mandible. The signal intensity was visually graded, and the signal intensity ratio was determined on the basis of the intensities of the subcutaneous fat and air. The signal intensity of all observed regions was as low as that of muscles until 3 months of age. Conversion of hematopoietic to fatty marrow first occurred in the zygomatic bone until 6 months of age. The presphenoid increased in signal intensity from 5 months to 2 years of age, and the sphenoid sinus began to be pneumatic at this age. Marrow conversion of the postsphenoid and basiocciput was later than that of the presphenoid. Most of the bone marrow of the skull base appeared as fatty conversion until 3 years of age, although some mandibular condyles appeared hematopoietic at 3 years of age. The normal age-related conversion from hematopoietic to fatty marrow in the skull base followed a well-defined sequence. Knowledge of the normal bone marrow conversion by MR imaging is essential for the recognition of pathologic marrow processes. (author)

  6. Intraoperative performance and longterm outcome of phacoemulsification in age-related cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dholakia Sheena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate intraoperative performance and longterm surgical outcome after phacoemulsification of age-related cataracts. METHODS: Prospective, observational, non-comparative study of 165 consecutive eyes undergoing phacoemulsification with nuclear sclerosis Grade I to III (Scale I to V. Preoperative evaluation included specular microscopy. Phacoemulsification was performed by a single surgeon using a standardised surgical technique under topical anaesthesia. Intraoperatively, effective phaco time (EPT, wound site thermal injury (WSTI, serious complications (eg. vitreous loss, posterior capsule rupture, zonulolysis and intraoperative posterior capsule opacification (plaque were evaluated. Postoperatively, posterior capsule opacification (PCO, Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy rate, corneal endothelial count, best corrected visual acuity and cystoid macular oedema were evaluated. Eyes were examined at 6 months and then yearly for 3 years. RESULTS: Mean ages of 78 males and 87 females were 59.12 +/- 8.56 and 58.34 +/- 7.45 years respectively. EPT was 36 +/- 19 seconds and WSTI occurred in 7 eyes (4.7%. No serious intraocular complications occurred. Intraoperative posterior capsule opacification (plaque was present in 21 eyes (13.93%. Postoperatively, PCO occurred in 8 eyes (4.84% and Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed in 3 eyes (1.8%. Endothelial cell loss was 7.1% at 3 years follow-up. At the end of 3 years follow-up, 146 eyes (88.89% maintained a best corrected visual acuity of > or = 6/12. Cystoid macular oedema did not occur in any eye at 1 and 6 months′ follow-up. CONCLUSION: PCO rates and endothelial cell loss were acceptable. Consistent and reproducible outcome can be obtained after phacoemulsification of age related cataracts (grade I to III.

  7. Prevalence of anti-retinal autoantibodies in different stages of Age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, Grazyna; Chew, Emily Y; Ferris, Frederick L; Klein, Michael L

    2014-12-08

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of central vision loss in older adults. Anti-retinal autoantibodies (AAbs) have been found in individuals with AMD. The goal of the study was to determine the AAb specificity in different stages of AMD, and determine whether there is a prevalent AAb signature. Sera of 134 participants in the Age-related Eye Disease Study were analyzed for anti-retinal AAbs by western blotting. The subjects were classified by diagnostic subgroups based upon their clinical classification: No AMD, Intermediate AMD, and Late AMD - geographic atrophy (GA) and Late AMD - neovascular (NV). The presence of anti-retinal AAb was detected in 58% patients with Intermediate and Late AMD, and 54% of those with no AMD. AAbs bound to fifteen different retinal antigens. Most individuals had 1 specific AAbs (67%), with the remainder having 2 to 4 different AAbs. Over 40% of patients with Intermediate AMD, and 46% of those with GA had anti-enolase AAbs, compared with 29% of individuals with NV and 29% with no AMD. Different AAbs signatures related to NV as compared to GA and/or Intermediate AMD were distinguished. Anti-40-kDa (10%) and 42-kDa (16%) autoantibodies were associated with Intermediate AMD, while anti-30-kDa AAbs (23%) were primarily present in GA. Anti-32-kDa (12%), 35-kDa (21%), and 60-kDa (8%) AAbs were more frequent in NV AMD. A unique AAb pattern for each of the disease subgroups was present when AMD progressed from the intermediate to the late forms of severity. Differences in the frequency of specific AAbs between AMD subgroups suggested that they may participate in pathogenicity of AMD. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations in the larger cohort and individual AMD patients over time.

  8. Age related association of her-2/neu with prognostic markers in female breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.A.; Mamoon, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Khadim, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    To determine age-related association of Her-2/neu expression with histological and immunohistochemical prognostic markers in female breast carcinoma. Study Design: Cross sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2004 to December 2007. Methodology: Patients of primary operable female breast carcinoma were categorised as 50 years (post-menopausal) age groups. Histological type, tumour size, tumour grade and lymph node status were determined while estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu expression were evaluated immunohistochemically. Association of Her-2/neu with histological and immunohistochemical prognostic markers was determined in pre-menopausal, peri-menopausal and post- menopausal age groups using the x2 test for uni- and multivariate analysis. Results: Out of the 722 patients, 230 (31.9%) were in pre-menopuasal, 221 (30.6%) in peri-menopausal and 271 (37.5%) in post-menopausal age group. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the pre-dominant subtype in all the age groups. Mean tumour size was 4.3 +- 2.3 cm (range 0.4-17 cm) and lymph node metastasis was seen in 310 (70.8%) cases. Her-2/neu showed association with ER in the all the age groups while PR only showed association in the peri-menopausal and postmenopausal women. Her-2/neu showed no association with tumour size, tumor grade and lymph node metastases in pre-menopausal and peri-menopausal women while it showed positive association with tumour size and lymph node metastasis in the post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Majority (62%) patients were under 50 years as against the Western epidemiology. Association of Her-2/neu with ER, PR, tumour size and lymph node metastasis was age related as pre-menopausal, peri-menopausal and postmenopausal had variable expression of these prognostic markers with therapeutic and prognostic implications. (author)

  9. Serum levels of lipid metabolites in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Johnson, William M; Dong, Zhiqian; Maeda, Tadao; Maeda, Akiko; Sakai, Tsutomu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Mieyal, John J; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-11-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes adult-onset blindness. There are 2 forms of this progressive disease: wet and dry. Currently there is no cure for AMD, but several treatment options have started to emerge making early detection critical for therapeutic success. Analysis of the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice that display light-induced retinal degeneration indicates that 11-cis-retinal and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were significantly decreased as compared with the eyes of control dark-adapted C57BL/6J mice. In addition, exposure to intense light correlated with higher levels of prostaglandin G2 in the eyes of Abca4(-/-)Rdh8(-/-) mice. Intense light exposure also lowered DHA levels in the eyes of wild-type C57BL/6J mice without discernible retinal degeneration. Analysis of human serum from patients with AMD recapitulated these dysregulated DHA levels and revealed dysregulation of arachidonic acid (AA) levels as well (∼32% increase in patients with AMD compared with average levels in healthy individuals). From these observations, we then built a statistical model that included levels of DHA and AA from human serum. This model had a 74% probability of correctly identifying patients with AMD from controls. Addition of a genetic analysis for one of the most prevalent amino acid substitutions in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene linked to AMD, Ala(69)→Ser, did not improve the statistical model. Thus, we have characterized a reliable method with the potential to detect AMD without a genetic component, paving the way for a larger-scale clinical evaluation. Our studies on mouse models along with the analysis of human serum suggest that our small molecule-based model may serve as an effective tool to estimate the risk of developing AMD. © FASEB.

  10. Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Beirne

    Full Text Available Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells', stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles. Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations.

  11. The ties to unbind: Age-related differences in feature (unbinding in working memory for emotional faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem ePehlivanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated age-related differences in the processing of emotional stimuli. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would show deficits in unbinding emotional expression (i.e., either no emotion, happiness, anger, or disgust from bound stimuli (i.e., photographs of faces expressing these emotions, as a hyperbinding account of age-related differences in working memory would predict. Younger and older adults completed different N-Back tasks (side-by-side 0-Back, 1-Back, 2-Back under three conditions: match/mismatch judgments based on either the identity of the face (identity condition, the face’s emotional expression (expression condition, or both identity and expression of the face (binding condition. Both age groups performed more slowly and with lower accuracy in the expression condition than in the binding condition, indicating the presence of an unbinding process. This unbinding effect was more pronounced in older adults than in younger adults, but only in the 2-Back task. Thus, older adults seemed to have a specific deficit in unbinding in working memory, over and beyond age-related differences observed in perceptual processing (0-Back and attention/short-term memory (1-Back. Additionally, no age-related differences were found in accuracy in the 0-Back task, but such differences emerged in the 1-Back task, and were further magnified in the 2-Back task, indicating independent age-related differences in attention/short-term memory and working memory. Pupil dilation data confirmed that the attention/short-term memory version of the task (1-Back is more effortful in older adults than younger adults.

  12. [The age-related macular degeneration as a vascular disease/part of systemic vasculopathy: contributions to its pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-03-01

    The wall of blood vessels including those in choroids may be harmed by several repeated and/or prolonged mechanical, physical, chemical, microbiological, immunologic, and genetic impacts (risk factors), which may trigger a protracted response, the so-called host defense response. As a consequence, pathological changes resulting in vascular injury (e. g. atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration) may be evolved. Risk factors can also act directly on the endothelium through an increased production of reactive oxygen species promoting an endothelial activation, which leads to endothelial dysfunction, the onset of vascular disease. Thus, endothelial dysfunction is a link between the harmful stimulus and vascular injury; any kind of harmful stimuli may trigger the defensive chain that results in inflammation that may lead to vascular injury. It has been shown that even early age-related macular degeneration is associated with the presence of diffuse arterial disease and patients with early age-related macular degeneration demonstrate signs of systemic and retinal vascular alterations. Chronic inflammation, a feature of AMD, is tightly linked to diseases associated with ED: AMD is accompanied by a general inflammatory response, in the form of complement system activation, similar to that observed in degenerative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. All these facts indicate that age-related macular degeneration may be a vascular disease (or part of a systemic vasculopathy). This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction may prevent the development or improve vascular disease resulting in prevention or improvement of age-related macular degeneration as well.

  13. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Emily A; Gobeske, Kevin T; Bond, Allison M; Jarrett, Jennifer C; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A

    2016-02-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Physical activity diminishes aging-related decline of physical and cognitive performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Babai, László

    2014-05-25

    Aging-related decline of muscle force, walking speed, locomotor coordination, aerobic capacity and endurance exert prognostic impact on life expectancy. Proper use of training may diminish the aging process and it may improve the quality of life of elderly persons. This paper provides a brief summary on the impact of training on aging-related decline of physical and cognitive functions.

  15. Incidence and progression rates of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline); R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To describe the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the progression rates of early stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), and to study the hierarchy of fundus features that determine progression. METHODS: A group of 4953 subjects

  16. Development of age-related maculopathy: a histochemical and molecular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lambooij (Antoinette)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAge-related maculopathy (ARM) is a severe threat to the visual ability of people over 65 years of age. In the late stages of ARM, called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), photoreceptor cells gradually disappear. New vessels growing beneath the retina may complicateb the disease;

  17. Age-related attitudes: the influence on relationships and performance at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Franz Josef Gellert; R. Schalk

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: – This paper aims to examine the influence of age and age-related attitudes on relationship factors. In addition, it seeks to assess how both factors affect care service work performance. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper explores the influence of age and age-related attitudes on the

  18. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Attenuating Age-Related Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation towards the bone forming osteoblastic lineage decreases as a function of age and may contribute to age-related...problem of age-related reduced availability of MSC we propose to examine the bone anabolic potential of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) derived MSC

  19. Subfoveal fibrosis in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal ranibizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Sander, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis.......To assess baseline and follow-up characteristics of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions in age-related macular degeneration in relation to the development of subfoveal subretinal fibrosis....

  20. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  1. Verteporfin plus ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of same-day verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal ranibizumab combination treatment versus ranibizumab monotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.......To compare the efficacy and safety of same-day verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and intravitreal ranibizumab combination treatment versus ranibizumab monotherapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration....

  2. PATTERNS OF FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE DEFECTS IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION SUBTYPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkok, Ahmet; Sigford, Douglas K; Tezel, Tongalp H

    2016-11-01

    To test define characteristic fundus autofluorescence patterns of different exudative age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-two patients with choroidal neovascularization because of three different neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes were included in the study. Macular and peripheral fundus autofluorescence patterns of study subjects were compared in a masked fashion. Fundus autofluorescence patterns of all three neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes revealed similar patterns. However, peripapillary hypo-autofluorescence was more common among patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (88.2%) compared with patients with retinal angiomatous proliferation (12.5%) and patients without retinal angiomatous proliferation and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (21.1%) (P autofluorescence defects in neovascular age-related macular degeneration maybe suggestive of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy as a variant of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

  3. Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Krishna Priya Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10. Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD.

  4. Age-related variation in foraging behaviour in the wandering albatross at South Georgia: no evidence for senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Froy

    Full Text Available Age-related variation in demographic rates is now widely documented in wild vertebrate systems, and has significant consequences for population and evolutionary dynamics. However, the mechanisms underpinning such variation, particularly in later life, are less well understood. Foraging efficiency is a key determinant of fitness, with implications for individual life history trade-offs. A variety of faculties known to decline in old age, such as muscular function and visual acuity, are likely to influence foraging performance. We examine age-related variation in the foraging behaviour of a long-lived, wide-ranging oceanic seabird, the wandering albatross Diomedea exulans. Using miniaturised tracking technologies, we compared foraging trip characteristics of birds breeding at Bird Island, South Georgia. Based on movement and immersion data collected during the incubation phase of a single breeding season, and from extensive tracking data collected in previous years from different stages of the breeding cycle, we found limited evidence for age-related variation in commonly reported trip parameters, and failed to detect signs of senescent decline. Our results contrast with the limited number of past studies that have examined foraging behaviour in later life, since these have documented changes in performance consistent with senescence. This highlights the importance of studies across different wild animal populations to gain a broader perspective on the processes driving variation in ageing rates.

  5. Glycomics and glycoproteomics focused on aging and age-related diseases--Glycans as a potential biomarker for physiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao

    2016-08-01

    Since glycosylation depends on glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and sugar nucleotide donors, it is susceptible to the changes associated with physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, alterations in glycan structures may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions. Since human aging and longevity are affected by genetic and environmental factors such as diseases, lifestyle, and social factors, a scale that reflects various environmental factors is required in the study of human aging and longevity. We herein focus on glycosylation changes elucidated by glycomic and glycoproteomic studies on aging, longevity, and age-related diseases including cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, and frailty. We also consider the potential of glycan structures as biomarkers and/or targets for monitoring physiological and pathophysiological changes. Glycan structures are altered in age-related diseases. These glycans and glycoproteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and, thus, be useful diagnostic markers. Age-dependent changes in N-glycans have been reported previously in cohort studies, and characteristic N-glycans in extreme longevity have been proposed. These findings may lead to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying aging as well as the factors influencing longevity. Alterations in glycosylation may be good targets and biomarkers for monitoring health conditions, and be applicable to studies on age-related diseases and healthy aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related emotional bias in processing two emotionally valenced tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip A; Lien, Mei-Ching; Jardin, Elliott

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that older adults process positive emotions more efficiently than negative emotions, whereas younger adults show the reverse effect. We examined whether this age-related difference in emotional bias still occurs when attention is engaged in two emotional tasks. We used a psychological refractory period paradigm and varied the emotional valence of Task 1 and Task 2. In both experiments, Task 1 was emotional face discrimination (happy vs. angry faces) and Task 2 was sound discrimination (laugh, punch, vs. cork pop in Experiment 1 and laugh vs. scream in Experiment 2). The backward emotional correspondence effect for positively and negatively valenced Task 2 on Task 1 was measured. In both experiments, younger adults showed a backward correspondence effect from a negatively valenced Task 2, suggesting parallel processing of negatively valenced stimuli. Older adults showed similar negativity bias in Experiment 2 with a more salient negative sound ("scream" relative to "punch"). These results are consistent with an arousal-bias competition model [Mather and Sutherland (Perspectives in Psychological Sciences 6:114-133, 2011)], suggesting that emotional arousal modulates top-down attentional control settings (emotional regulation) with age.

  7. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstatt, Kelly L; Voss, Joel L

    2014-01-01

    Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  8. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness and age-related arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbán-Méndez, Cristina; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Vargas-Hitos, José A; Sáez-Urán, Luis M; Rosales-Castillo, Antonio; Morillas-de-Laguno, Pablo; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus; (ii) to assess the potential interaction of cardiorespiratory fitness with age on arterial stiffness in this population. A total of 49 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean age 41.3 [standard deviation 13.8] years) and clinical stability during the previous 6 months were included in the study. Arterial stiffness was assessed through pulse wave velocity (Mobil-O-Graph® 24 hours pulse wave velocity monitor). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with the Siconolfi step test and the 6-minute walk test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity in crude analyses (P fitness × age interaction effect on pulse wave velocity, regardless of the test used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (P fitness was associated with a lower increase in pulse wave velocity per each year increase in age. The results of this study suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness might attenuate the age-related arterial stiffening in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and might thus contribute to the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in this population. As the cross-sectional design precludes establishing causal relationships, future clinical trials should confirm or contrast these findings. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Exercise counteracts aging-related memory impairment: a potential role for the astrocytic metabolic shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng eTsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas.

  11. Age-related impairments in active learning and strategic visual exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Brandstatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Old age could impair memory by disrupting learning strategies used by younger individuals. We tested this possibility by manipulating the ability to use visual-exploration strategies during learning. Subjects controlled visual exploration during active learning, thus permitting the use of strategies, whereas strategies were limited during passive learning via predetermined exploration patterns. Performance on tests of object recognition and object-location recall was matched for younger and older subjects for objects studied passively, when learning strategies were restricted. Active learning improved object recognition similarly for younger and older subjects. However, active learning improved object-location recall for younger subjects, but not older subjects. Exploration patterns were used to identify a learning strategy involving repeat viewing. Older subjects used this strategy less frequently and it provided less memory benefit compared to younger subjects. In previous experiments, we linked hippocampal-prefrontal co-activation to improvements in object-location recall from active learning and to the exploration strategy. Collectively, these findings suggest that age-related memory problems result partly from impaired strategies during learning, potentially due to reduced hippocampal-prefrontal co-engagement.

  12. Effects of Age-related Differences in Empathy on Social Economic Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N.; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. Methods On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player (“Proposer”) splits ten dollars with another player (“Responder”) who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For unfair offers (i.e., offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. Conclusions High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may be involved in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead facilitate social relationships. PMID:22237008

  13. HTRA1 promoter polymorphism predisposes Japanese to age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tsunehiko; DeWan, Andrew; Zhang, Hong; Sakamoto, Ryosuke; Okamoto, Haru; Minami, Masayoshi; Obazawa, Minoru; Mizota, Atsushi; Tanaka, Minoru; Saito, Yoshihiro; Takagi, Ikue; Hoh, Josephine; Iwata, Takeshi

    2007-04-04

    To study the effect of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 10q26, recently shown to be associated with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Chinese and Caucasian cohorts, in a Japanese cohort. Using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood of wet AMD cases and age-matched controls, we genotyped two SNPs, rs10490924, and rs11200638, on chromosome 10q26, 6.6 kb and 512 bp upstream of the HTRA1 gene, respectively, using temperature gradient capillary electrophoresis (TGCE) and direct sequencing. Association tests were performed for individual SNPs and jointly with SNP complement factor H (CFH) Y402H. The two SNPs, rs10490924 and rs11200638, are in complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1). Previous sequence comparisons among seventeen species revealed that the genomic region containing rs11200638 was highly conserved while the region surrounding rs10490924 was not. The allelic association test for rs11200638 yielded a p-value fashion: Odds ratio was 10.1 (95% CI 4.36, 23.06), adjusted for SNP CFH 402, for those carrying two copies of the risk allele, whereas indistinguishable from unity if carrying only one risk allele. The HTRA1 promoter polymorphism, rs11200638, is a strong candidate with a functional consequence that predisposes Japanese to develop neovascular AMD.

  14. Memory's aging echo: age-related decline in neural reactivation of perceptual details during recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Cervantes, Sasha N; Gray, Stephen J; Gallo, David A

    2014-09-01

    Episodic memory decline is a hallmark of normal cognitive aging. Here, we report the first event-related fMRI study to directly investigate age differences in the neural reactivation of qualitatively rich perceptual details during recollection. Younger and older adults studied pictures of complex scenes at different presentation durations along with descriptive verbal labels, and these labels subsequently were used during fMRI scanning to cue picture recollections of varying perceptual detail. As expected from prior behavioral work, the two age groups subjectively rated their recollections as containing similar amounts of perceptual detail, despite objectively measured recollection impairment in older adults. In both age groups, comparisons of retrieval trials that varied in recollected detail revealed robust activity in brain regions previously linked to recollection, including hippocampus and both medial and lateral regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Critically, this analysis also revealed recollection-related activity in visual processing regions that were active in an independent picture-perception task, and these regions showed age-related reductions in activity during recollection that cannot be attributed to age differences in response criteria. These fMRI findings provide new evidence that aging reduces the absolute quantity of perceptual details that are reactivated from memory, and they help to explain why aging reduces the reliability of subjective memory judgments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Familial Aggregation of Age-Related Hearing Loss in an Epidemiological Study of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Laura A.; Pankow, James S.; Miller, Michael B.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Dalton, Dayna; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the genetic contributions to presbycusis Method Presbycusis was assessed by audiometric measurements at three waves of the population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS). Measurements from the most recent hearing examination were used, at which time subjects were between 48 and 100 years of age. Heritability of presbycusis was estimated using maximum likelihood methods in 973 biological relative pairs from 376 families. Familial aggregation was also evaluated by tetrachoric correlations, odds ratios, and lambda statistics in 594 sibling pairs from 373 sibships. Subjects 3,510 participants from the EHLS study Results The prevalence of presbycusis conformed to previous research, increasing with age and male sex. Heritability estimates for presbycusis adjusted for age, sex, education level, and exposure to work noise exceeded 50%, and siblings of an affected relative were at 30% higher risk. When stratified by sex, estimates of familial aggregation were higher in women than men. Conclusions There is evidence that genetic factors contribute to age-related hearing loss in this population-based sample. The familial aggregation is stronger in women than in men. PMID:19474454

  16. Effects of age-related differences in empathy on social economic decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Kovach, Christopher; Polgreen, Linnea; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    The ways in which aging affects social economic decision-making is a central issue in the psychology of aging. To examine age-related differences in social economic decision-making as a function of empathy, 80 healthy volunteers participated in the Repeated Fixed Opponent Ultimatum Game (UG-R). Previous economic decision-making research has shown that in younger adults empathy is associated with prosocial behavior. The effects of empathy on older adult social economic decision-making are not well understood. On each of 20 consecutive trials in the UG-R, one player ("Proposer") splits $10 with another player ("Responder") who chooses either to accept (whereby both receive the proposed division) or reject (whereby neither receives anything). Trait cognitive and emotional empathy were measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. UG-R data were examined as a function of age and cognitive empathy. For "unfair" offers (i.e. offers less than $5), older Responders with high cognitive empathy showed less prosocial behavior and obtained greater payoffs than younger Responders with high cognitive empathy. High levels of cognitive empathy may differentially affect economic decision-making behavior in younger and older adults. For older adults, high cognitive empathy may play a role in obtaining high financial payoffs while for younger adults it may instead be involved in facilitating social relationships.

  17. Multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy for image guided treatment of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. D.; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Mujat, Mircea; Husain, Deeba

    2009-02-01

    Subretinal neovascular membranes (SRNM) are a deleterious complication of laser eye injury and retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroiditis, and myopic retinopathy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are approved treatment methods. PDT acts by selective dye accumulation, activation by laser light, and disruption and clotting of the new leaky vessels. However, PDT surgery is currently not image-guided, nor does it proceed in an efficient or automated manner. This may contribute to the high rate of re-treatment. We have developed a multimodal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for automated diagnosis and image-guided treatment of SRNMs associated with AMD. The system combines line scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (LSLO), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), PDT laser delivery, and retinal tracking in a compact, efficient platform. This paper describes the system hardware and software design, performance characterization, and automated patient imaging and treatment session procedures and algorithms. Also, we present initial imaging and tracking measurements on normal subjects and automated lesion demarcation and sizing analysis of previously acquired angiograms. Future pre-clinical testing includes line scanning angiography and PDT treatment of AMD subjects. The automated acquisition procedure, enhanced and expedited data post-processing, and innovative image visualization and interpretation tools provided by the multimodal retinal imager may eventually aid in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of AMD and other retinal diseases.

  18. Tachyphylaxis after intravitreal bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B; Chew, Emily Y; Wong, Wai T

    2009-06-01

    To describe tachyphylaxis to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 consecutive patients treated with IVB at the National Eye Institute over a 14-month period and identified cases demonstrating loss of treatment efficacy as revealed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We defined tachyphylaxis as a loss of therapeutic response to IVB 28 +/- 7 days after administration in an eye that had previously demonstrated a therapeutic response in the same time interval. Five patients (six eyes) were identified as developing tachyphylaxis after repeated treatment with IVB. High-dose IVB (2.50 mg) did not restore therapeutic response in these patients. Bilateral tachyphylaxis to IVB was seen after an episode of unilateral postinjection anterior uveitis. After the first treatment of IVB, the median time taken to develop tachyphylaxis was 100 weeks (range: 31-128 weeks), and the median number of IVB treatments to the development of tachyphylaxis was 8 treatments (range: 5-10 treatments). Tachyphylaxis can occur after long-term intravitreal use of bevacizumab in patients with AMD. The precise mechanism of tachyphylaxis is unclear, but both local and/or systemic factors may be involved.

  19. Tachyphylaxis Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forooghian, Farzin; Cukras, Catherine; Meyerle, Catherine B.; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To describe tachyphylaxis to intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 59 consecutive patients treated with IVB at the National Eye Institute over a 14 month period, and identified cases demonstrating loss of treatment efficacy as revealed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We defined tachyphylaxis as a loss of therapeutic response to IVB 28±7 days after administration in an eye which had previously demonstrated a therapeutic response in the same time interval. Results Five patients (6 eyes) were identified as developing tachyphylaxis following repeated treatment with IVB. High-dose IVB (2.50mg) did not restore therapeutic response in these patients. Bilateral tachyphylaxis to IVB was seen following an episode of unilateral post-injection anterior uveitis. After the first treatment of IVB, the median time taken to develop tachyphylaxis was 100 weeks (range: 31-128 weeks), and the median number of IVB treatments to the development of tachyphylaxis was 8 treatments (range: 5-10). Conclusion Tachyphylaxis can occur following long-term intravitreal use of bevacizumab in patients with AMD. The precise mechanism of tachyphylaxis is unclear, but both local and/or systemic factors may be involved. PMID:19516114

  20. Comprehensive identification of age-related lipidome changes in rat amygdala during normal aging.

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    Roman Šmidák

    Full Text Available Brain lipids are integral components of brain structure and function. However, only recent advancements of chromatographic techniques together with mass spectrometry allow comprehensive identification of lipid species in complex brain tissue. Lipid composition varies between the individual areas and the majority of previous reports was focusing on individual lipids rather than a lipidome. Herein, a mass spectrometry-based approach was used to evaluate age-related changes in the lipidome of the rat amygdala obtained from young (3 months and old (20 months males of the Sprague-Dawley rat strain. A total number of 70 lipid species with significantly changed levels between the two animal groups were identified spanning four main lipid classes, i.e. glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterol lipids. These included phospholipids with pleiotropic brain function, such as derivatives of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. The analysis also revealed significant level changes of phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin and ceramide that directly represent lipid signaling and affect amygdala neuronal activity. The amygdala is a crucial brain region for cognitive functions and former studies on rats and humans showed that this region changes its activity during normal aging. As the information on amygdala lipidome is very limited the results obtained in the present study represent a significant novelty and may contribute to further studies on the role of lipid molecules in age-associated changes of amygdala function.

  1. Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A; Ruderman, Lital; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2013-10-15

    It has long been known that human cognitive function improves through young adulthood and then declines across the later life span. Here we examined how decision-making function changes across the life span by measuring risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains, as well as choice consistency, in an urban cohort ranging in age from 12 to 90 y. We identified several important age-related patterns in decision making under uncertainty: First, we found that healthy elders between the ages of 65 and 90 were strikingly inconsistent in their choices compared with younger subjects. Just as elders show profound declines in cognitive function, they also show profound declines in choice rationality compared with their younger peers. Second, we found that the widely documented phenomenon of ambiguity aversion is specific to the gain domain and does not occur in the loss domain, except for a slight effect in older adults. Finally, extending an earlier report by our group, we found that risk attitudes across the life span show an inverted U-shaped function; both elders and adolescents are more risk-averse than their midlife counterparts. Taken together, these characterizations of decision-making function across the life span in this urban cohort strengthen the conclusions of previous reports suggesting a profound impact of aging on cognitive function in this domain.

  2. [Potential of melatonin for prevention of age-related macular degeneration: experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, N A; Zhdankina, A A; Fursova, A Zh; Kolosova, N G

    2013-01-01

    Decline with age of the content of melatonin is considered as one of the leading mechanisms of aging and development of associated diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--the disease, which becomes the most common cause of blindness and acuity of vision deterioration in elderly. The prospects of the use of melatonin in the prevention of AMD is being actively discussed, but as a rule on the basis of the results of the experiments on cells in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We showed previously that the senescence-accelerated OXYS rat is an adequate animal model of AMD, already used for identifying the relevant therapeutic targets. Here we have investigated the effect of Melatonin (Melaksen, 0,004 mg per kg--a dose equivalent to the recommended one for people) on the development of retinopathy similar to AMD in OXYS rats. Ophthalmoscopic examinations show that Melatonin supplementation decreased the incidence and severity of retinopathy and improved some (but not all) histological abnormalities associated with retinopathy. Thus, melatonin prevented the structural and functional changes in RPE cells, reduced the severity of microcirculatory disorders. Importantly, Melatonin prevented destruction of neurosensory cells, associative and gangliolar neurons in the retina. Taken together, our data suggest the therapeutic potential of Melatonin for treatment and prevention of AMD.

  3. Age-related Decline of Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Young Drosophila melanogaster Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Chertemps, Thomas; Boulogne, Isabelle; Siaussat, David

    2016-12-01

    Stress tolerance generally declines with age as a result of functional senescence. Age-dependent alteration of stress tolerance can also occur in early adult life. In Drosophila melanogaster, evidence of such a decline in young adults has only been reported for thermotolerance. It is not known whether early adult life entails a general stress tolerance reduction and whether the response is peculiar to thermal traits. The present work was designed to investigate whether newly eclosed D melanogaster adults present a high tolerance to a range of biotic and abiotic insults. We found that tolerance to most of the abiotic stressors tested (desiccation, paraquat, hydrogen peroxide, deltamethrin, and malathion) was high in newly eclosed adults before dramatically declining over the next days of adult life. No clear age-related pattern was found for resistance to biotic stress (septic or fungal infection) and starvation. These results suggest that newly eclosed adults present a culminating level of tolerance to extrinsic stress which is likely unrelated to immune process. We argue that stress tolerance variation at very young age is likely a residual attribute from the previous life stage (ontogenetic carryover) or a feature related to the posteclosion development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates α-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. α-klotho(-/-) (α-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of α-kl(-/-) mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in α-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of α-kl(-/-) mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis.

  5. The importance of age-related decline in forest NPP for modeling regional carbon balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Sitch, Stephen; Prentice, I Colin; Liski, Jari; Cramer, Wolfgang; Erhard, Markus; Hickler, Thomas; Smith, Benjamin

    2006-08-01

    We show the implications of the commonly observed age-related decline in aboveground productivity of forests, and hence forest age structure, on the carbon dynamics of European forests in response to historical changes in environmental conditions. Size-dependent carbon allocation in trees to counteract increasing hydraulic resistance with tree height has been hypothesized to be responsible for this decline. Incorporated into a global terrestrial biosphere model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena model, LPJ), this hypothesis improves the simulated increase in biomass with stand age. Application of the advanced model, including a generic representation of forest management in even-aged stands, for 77 European provinces shows that model-based estimates of biomass development with age compare favorably with inventory-based estimates for different tree species. Model estimates of biomass densities on province and country levels, and trends in growth increment along an annual mean temperature gradient are in broad agreement with inventory data. However, the level of agreement between modeled and inventory-based estimates varies markedly between countries and provinces. The model is able to reproduce the present-day age structure of forests and the ratio of biomass removals to increment on a European scale based on observed changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, forest area, and wood demand between 1948 and 2000. Vegetation in European forests is modeled to sequester carbon at a rate of 100 Tg C/yr, which corresponds well to forest inventory-based estimates.

  6. Preliminary study of Conbercept injected intravitreally for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Qin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the preliminary efficacy of conbercept injected intravitreally for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration(wAMD.METHODS:Seventeen wAMD patients(18 eyeswere selected to receive conbercept injection. All patients were given a single conbercept injection every month, 3 times. Before and after 1, 2, 3mo of the injection, the best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, intraocular pressure(IOP, measured by Non-contact tonometer, fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, indocyanine green angiography(ICG, optical coherence tomography(OCTexamination and the complications incidence were compared.RESULTS:Three months after conbercept injection, the BCVA improved in 15 eyes(83%, stable in 3 eyes(17%. Before treatment, the average central macular thickness was 421.72±54.43μm, at 1 and 2 and 3mo after treatment, the average central macular thickness was 337.89±25.88μm, 293.56±26.87μm, 266.89±19.10μm respectively. There were significant differences compared with before and after injection(PCONCLUSION:Intravitreal injection conbercept for wAMD can significantly improve the visual function, reduce the macular edema and the leakage with higher safety and less complications. However the prolonged efficacy needs further observation.

  7. Age-related changes in normal adult pancreas: MR imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Sone, Teruki; Noda, Yasufumi; Higaki, Atsushi; Kanki, Akihiko; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higashi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate age-related changes in normal adult pancreas as identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: We examined 115 patients without pancreatic diseases (21–90 years) who underwent upper abdominal MRI to evaluate the normal pancreatic MRI findings related to aging. The parameters examined were the pancreatic anteroposterior (AP) diameter, pancreatic lobulation, pancreatic signal intensity (SI), depiction of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), grade of the visual SI decrease on the opposed-phase T1-weighted images compared with in-phase images, and enhancement effect of the pancreas in the arterial phase of dynamic imaging. Results: The pancreatic AP diameter significantly reduced (head, p = 0.0172; body, p = 0.0007; tail, p < 0.0001), and lobulation (p < 0.0001) and parenchymal fatty change (p < 0.0001) became more evident with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and pancreatic SI, however the SI on the in-phase T1-weighted images tended to decrease with aging. No significant correlation was observed between aging and the depiction of the MPD as well as aging and contrast enhancement. Conclusion: MRI findings of pancreatic atrophy, lobulation, and fatty degeneration are characteristic changes related to aging, and it is necessary to recognize these changes in the interpretation of abdominal MRI in patients with and without pancreatic disease

  8. The association between statin use and risk of age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Le; Wang, Yafeng; Du, Junhui; Wang, Mingxu; Zhang, Rui; Fu, Yihao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between statin use and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE and ISI web of science databases was used to identify eligible published literatures without language restrictions up to April 2015. Summary relative ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using a fixed-effect or random-effects model. A total of 14 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between statin use and the risk of any AMD (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.74–1.15); and stratified analysis showed that statins had a significantly different effects on early and late stages of AMD. For early AMD, statin use significantly reduced the risk approximately 17% (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.66–0.99). At the late stage, we observed a significant protective association of statin use with exudative AMD (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80–0.99), in contrast with the absent association between statins and geographic atrophy (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.77–1.56). These results demonstrated that statin use was protective for early and exudative AMD. Additional large prospective cohort studies and RCTs are required to determine the potential effect of statins on AMD prevention. PMID:26658620

  9. Age-related changes in rat bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase P Bryant

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of adult stem cells is known to be compromised as a function of age. This therefore raises questions about the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy in elderly patients. Results We demonstrated that the expression profile of stemness markers was altered in BM-MSCs derived from old rats. BM-MSCs from young rats (4 months expressed Oct-4, Sox-2 and NANOG, but we failed to detect Sox-2 and NANOG in BM-MSCs from older animals (15 months. Chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic potential is compromised in old BM-MSCs. Stimulation with a cocktail mixture of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 induced cardiomyogenesis in young BM-MSCs but not old BM-MSCs. Significant differences in the expression of gap junction protein connexin-43 were observed between young and old BM-MSCs. Young and old BM-MSCs fused with neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes in co-culture and expressed key cardiac transcription factors and structural proteins. Cells from old animals expressed significantly lower levels of VEGF, IGF, EGF, and G-CSF. Significantly higher levels of DNA double strand break marker γ-H2AX and diminished levels of telomerase activity were observed in old BM-MSCs. Conclusion The results suggest age related differences in the differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs. These changes may affect the efficacy of BM-MSCs for use in stem cell therapy.

  10. Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Clinical Findings following Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs

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    Ricardo Casaroli-Marano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To survey the management of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD in Spain. Methods. An observational retrospective multicenter study was conducted. The variables analyzed were sociodemographic characteristics, foveal and macular thickness, visual acuity (VA, type of treatment, number of injections, and the initial administration of a loading dose of an antiangiogenic drug. Results. 208 patients were followed up during 23.4 months in average. During the first and second years, patients received a mean of 4.5±1.8 and 1.6±2.1 injections of antiangiogenic drugs, and 5.4±2.8 and 3.6±2.2 follow-up visits were performed, respectively. The highest improvement in VA was observed at 3 months of follow-up, followed by a decrease in the response that stabilized above baseline values until the end of the study. Patients who received an initial loading dose presented greater VA gains than those without. Conclusions. Our results suggest the need for a more standardized approach in the management and diagnosis of nvAMD receiving VEGF inhibitors. To achieve the visual outcomes reported in pivotal trials, an early diagnosis, proactive approach (more treating than follow-up visits, and a close monitoring might be the key to successfully manage nvAMD.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of disease progression in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Ding, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Tao; Fritsche, Lars G; Clemons, Traci; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Klein, Michael L; Cook, Richard J; Liu, Yu; Fan, Ruzong; Wei, Lai; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Swaroop, Anand; Chew, Emily Y; Weeks, Daniel E; Chen, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Family- and population-based genetic studies have successfully identified multiple disease-susceptibility loci for Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), one of the first batch and most successful examples of genome-wide association study. However, most genetic studies to date have focused on case-control studies of late AMD (choroidal neovascularization or geographic atrophy). The genetic influences on disease progression are largely unexplored. We assembled unique resources to perform a genome-wide bivariate time-to-event analysis to test for association of time-to-late-AMD with ∼9 million variants on 2721 Caucasians from a large multi-center randomized clinical trial, the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study of disease progression (bivariate survival outcome) in AMD genetic studies, thus providing novel insights to AMD genetics. We used a robust Cox proportional hazards model to appropriately account for between-eye correlation when analyzing the progression time in the two eyes of each participant. We identified four previously reported susceptibility loci showing genome-wide significant association with AMD progression: ARMS2-HTRA1 (P = 8.1 × 10-43), CFH (P = 3.5 × 10-37), C2-CFB-SKIV2L (P = 8.1 × 10-10) and C3 (P = 1.2 × 10-9). Furthermore, we detected association of rs58978565 near TNR (P = 2.3 × 10-8), rs28368872 near ATF7IP2 (P = 2.9 × 10-8) and rs142450006 near MMP9 (P = 0.0006) with progression to choroidal neovascularization but not geographic atrophy. Secondary analysis limited to 34 reported risk variants revealed that LIPC and CTRB2-CTRB1 were also associated with AMD progression (P < 0.0015). Our genome-wide analysis thus expands the genetics in both development and progression of AMD and should assist in early identification of high risk individuals.

  12. Age-Related Decline of Wrist Position Sense and its Relationship to Specific Physical Training

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    Ann Van de Winckel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of limb and body positions is known as proprioception. Sensory feedback, especially from proprioceptive receptors, is essential for motor control. Aging is associated with a decline in position sense at proximal joints, but there is inconclusive evidence of distal joints being equally affected by aging. In addition, there is initial evidence that physical activity attenuates age-related decline in proprioception. Our objectives were, first, to establish wrist proprioceptive acuity in a large group of seniors and compare their perception to young adults, and second, to determine if specific types of training or regular physical activity are associated with preserved wrist proprioception. We recruited community-dwelling seniors (n = 107, mean age, 70 ± 5 years, range, 65–84 years without cognitive decline (Mini Mental State Examination-brief version ≥13/16 and young adult students (n = 51, mean age, 20 ± 1 years, range, 19–26 years. Participants performed contralateral and ipsilateral wrist position sense matching tasks with a bimanual wrist manipulandum to a 15° flexion reference position. Systematic error or proprioceptive bias was computed as the mean difference between matched and reference position. The respective standard deviation over five trials constituted a measure of random error or proprioceptive precision. Current levels of physical activity and previous sport, musical, or dance training were obtained through a questionnaire. We employed longitudinal mixed effects linear models to calculate the effects of trial number, sex, type of matching task and age on wrist proprioceptive bias and precision. The main results were that relative proprioceptive bias was greater in older when compared to young adults (mean difference: 36% ipsilateral, 88% contralateral, p < 0.01. Proprioceptive precision for contralateral but not for ipsilateral matching was smaller in older than in young adults (mean difference: 38

  13. Clinical risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Evans Christopher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in Western countries. Numerous risk factors have been reported but the evidence and strength of association is variable. We aimed to identify those risk factors with strong levels of evidence which could be easily assessed by physicians or ophthalmologists to implement preventive interventions or address current behaviours. Methods A systematic review identified 18 prospective and cross-sectional studies and 6 case control studies involving 113,780 persons with 17,236 cases of late AMD that included an estimate of the association between late AMD and at least one of 16 pre-selected risk factors. Fixed-effects meta-analyses were conducted for each factor to combine odds ratio (OR and/or relative risk (RR outcomes across studies by study design. Overall raw point estimates of each risk factor and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results Increasing age, current cigarette smoking, previous cataract surgery, and a family history of AMD showed strong and consistent associations with late AMD. Risk factors with moderate and consistent associations were higher body mass index, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and higher plasma fibrinogen. Risk factors with weaker and inconsistent associations were gender, ethnicity, diabetes, iris colour, history of cerebrovascular disease, and serum total and HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Conclusions Smoking, previous cataract surgery and a family history of AMD are consistent risk factors for AMD. Cardiovascular risk factors are also associated with AMD. Knowledge of these risk factors that may be easily assessed by physicians and general ophthalmologists may assist in identification and appropriate referral of persons at risk of AMD.

  14. The effects of attention on age-related relational memory deficits: Evidence from a novel attentional manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Yeon; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Healthy aging is often accompanied by episodic memory decline. Prior studies have consistently demonstrated that older adults show disproportionate deficits in relational memory (RM) relative to item memory (IM). Despite rich evidence of an age-related RM deficit, the source of this deficit remains unspecified. One of the most widely investigated factors of age-related RM impairment is a reduction in attentional resources. However, no prior studies have demonstrated that reduced attentional resources are the critical source of age-related RM deficits. Here, we utilized qualitatively different attention tasks, and tested whether reduced attention for relational processing underlies the RM deficit observed in aging. In Experiment 1, we imposed either item-detection or relation-detection attention tasks on young adults during episodic memory encoding, and found that only the concurrent attention task involving relational processing disproportionately impaired RM performance in young adults. Moreover, by ruling out the possible confound of task-difficulty on the disproportionate RM impairment, we further demonstrated that reduced relational attention is a key factor for the age-related RM deficit. In Experiment 2, we replicated the results from Experiment 1 using different materials of stimuli and found that the effect of relational attention on RM is material-general. The results of Experiment 2 also showed that reducing attentional resources for relational processing in young adults strikingly equated their RM performance to that of older adults. Thus, the current study documents the first evidence that reduced attentional resources for relational processing are a critical factor for the relational memory impairment observed in aging. PMID:21707178

  15. Protective role of the apolipoprotein E2 allele in age-related disease traits and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Raghavachari, Nalini; Arbeev, Konstantin G

    2016-01-01

    , which can link this allele with age-related phenotypes. We focused on age-related macular degeneration, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, stroke, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diseases of heart (HD), cancer, and survival. Our analysis......-related mechanism is also sensitive to gender. The LDL-C-related mechanism appears to be independent of these factors. Insights into mechanisms linking ε2 allele with age-related phenotypes given biodemographic structure of the population studied may benefit translation of genetic discoveries to health care...

  16. Examining Age-Related Differences in Auditory Attention Control Using a Task-Switching Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lawo; Iring Koch

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using a novel task-switching variant of dichotic selective listening, we examined age-related differences in the ability to intentionally switch auditory attention between 2 speakers defined by their sex.

  17. Cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Theil, Pernille Koefoed; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the outcome after cataract surgery in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections in routine clinical practice. Methods We extracted information about patients recorded...

  18. Evaluation of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with age-related wet macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keles S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sadullah Keles,1 Orhan Ates,1 Baki Kartal,2 Hamit Hakan Alp,3 Metin Ekinci,4 Erdinc Ceylan,2 Osman Ondas,5 Eren Arpali,2 Semih Dogan,6 Kenan Yildirim,7 Mevlut Sait Keles8 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey; 3Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey; 4Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Erbaa Government Hospital, Tokat, Turkey; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Kolan Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Ophthalmology, Igdir Government Hospital, Igdir, Turkey; 8Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey Aim: To evaluate levels of homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, and nitric oxide (NO, as well as activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: The levels of homocysteine, ADMA, and NO and activity of eNOS in patients who were diagnosed with wet AMD by fundus fluorescein angiography (n=30 were compared to a control group with no retinal pathology (n=30.Results: Levels of homocysteine and ADMA were found to be significantly higher in the wet AMD group than in the control group (P<0.001, whereas NO levels and eNOS activity were higher in the control group (P<0.001. In the wet AMD group, we detected a 2.64- and 0.33-fold increase in the levels of ADMA and homocysteine, respectively, and a 0.49- and 2.41-fold decrease in the eNOS activity and NO level, respectively.Conclusion: Elevated levels of homocysteine and ADMA were observed in patients with wet AMD. Increased ADMA may be responsible for the diminished eNOS activity found in these patients, which in turn contributes to the decrease in NO levels, which likely plays a role in the pathogenesis of AMD. Keywords: age-related macular

  19. Circulating vitamin D concentration and age-related macular degeneration: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annweiler, Cedric; Drouet, Morgane; Duval, Guillaume T; Paré, Pierre-Yves; Leruez, Stephanie; Dinomais, Mickael; Milea, Dan

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D may be involved in ocular function in older adults, but there is no current consensus on a possible association between circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our objective was to systematically review and quantitatively assess the association of circulating 25OHD concentration with AMD. A Medline search was conducted in November 2015, with no date limit, using the MeSH terms "Vitamin D" OR "Vitamin D deficiency" OR "Ergocalciferols" OR 'Cholecalciferol' combined with "Age-related macular degeneration" OR "Macular degeneration" OR "Retinal degeneration" OR "Macula lutea" OR "Retina". Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses were performed to compute (i) standard mean difference in 25OHD concentration between AMD and non-AMD patients; (ii) AMD risk according to circulating 25OHD concentration. Of the 243 retrieved studies, 11 observational studies-10 cross-sectional studies and 1 cohort study-met the selection criteria. The number of participants ranged from 65 to 17,045 (52-100% women), and the number with AMD ranged from 31 to 1440. Circulating 25OHD concentration was 15% lower in AMD compared with non-AMD on average. AMD was inversely associated with the highest 25OHD quintile compared with the lowest (summary odds ratio (OR)=0.83 [95%CI:0.71-0.97]), notably late AMD (summary OR=0.47 [95%CI:0.28-0.79]). Circulating 25OHD<50nmol/L was also associated with late-stage AMD (summary OR=2.18 [95%CI:1.34-3.56]), an association that did not persist when all categories of AMD were considered (summary OR=1.26 [95%CI:0.90-1.76]). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that high 25OHD concentrations may be protective against AMD, and that 25OHD concentrations below 50nmol/L are associated with late AMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional and Lifestyle Interventions for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Carneiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. In this narrative review, we will summarize the nutritional interventions evaluated in numerous observational studies and a few randomized clinical trials. The AREDS and AREDS2 studies demonstrated that supplements including vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and zinc may reduce the progression to advanced AMD, in some patients, by 25% in five years. This is one of the few nutritional supplements known to have beneficial effects in any eye disease. Lutein/zeaxanthin supplementation may have beneficial effects in some individuals whereas omega-3 fatty acids supplementation needs to be further investigated and supported by more evidence. Genetic factors may explain the different patterns of response and explain differences found among individuals. More importantly, a combination of lifestyle behaviors such as the avoidance of smoking, physical activity, and the adoption of a healthy dietary pattern like the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower prevalence of AMD. The adoption of these lifestyles may reduce the prevalence of the early stages of AMD and decrease the number of individuals who develop advanced AMD and consequently the onerous and climbing costs associated with the treatment of this disease.

  1. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Bloom, E.T.; Makinodan, Takashi; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1988-01-01

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  2. Age-related changes in visual temporal order judgment performance: Relation to sensory and cognitive capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas; Craig, James; Clark, Chris; Humes, Larry

    2010-08-06

    Five measures of temporal order judgments were obtained from 261 participants, including 146 elder, 44 middle aged, and 71 young participants. Strong age group differences were observed in all five measures, although the group differences were reduced when letter discriminability was matched for all participants. Significant relations were found between these measures of temporal processing and several cognitive and sensory assays, and structural equation modeling revealed the degree to which temporal order processing can be viewed as a latent factor that depends in part on contributions from sensory and cognitive capacities. The best-fitting model involved two different latent factors representing temporal order processing at same and different locations, and the sensory and cognitive factors were more successful predicting performance in the different location factor than the same-location factor. Processing speed, even measured using high-contrast symbols on a paper-and-pencil test, was a surprisingly strong predictor of variability in both latent factors. However, low-level sensory measures also made significant contributions to the latent factors. The results demonstrate the degree to which temporal order processing relates to other perceptual and cognitive capacities, and address the question of whether age-related declines in these capacities share a common cause. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Variability in DNA Repair Proteins in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

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    Janusz Blasiak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD is complex and involves interactions between environmental and genetic factors, with oxidative stress playing an important role inducing damage in biomolecules, including DNA. Therefore, genetic variability in the components of DNA repair systems may influence the ability of the cell to cope with oxidative stress and in this way contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD. However, few reports have been published on this subject so far. We demonstrated that the c.977C>G polymorphism (rs1052133 in the hOGG1 gene and the c.972G>C polymorphism (rs3219489 in the MUTYH gene, the products of which play important roles in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA, might be associated with the risk of AMD. Oxidative stress may promote misincorporation of uracil into DNA, where it is targeted by several DNA glycosylases. We observed that the g.4235T>C (rs2337395 and c.−32A>G (rs3087404 polymorphisms in two genes encoding such glycosylases, UNG and SMUG1, respectively, could be associated with the occurrence of AMD. Polymorphisms in some other DNA repair genes, including XPD (ERCC2, XRCC1 and ERCC6 (CSB have also been reported to be associated with AMD. These data confirm the importance of the cellular reaction to DNA damage, and this may be influenced by variability in DNA repair genes, in AMD pathogenesis.

  4. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola Davalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  5. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  6. Quantitative diffusion tensor fiber tracking of age-related changes in the limbic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Salomonowitz, Erich; Strunk, Guido; Hammen, Thilo; Ganslandt, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral white matter is known to undergo degradation with aging, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is capable of revealing the white matter integrity. We assessed age-related changes of quantitative diffusivity parameters and fiber characteristics within the fornix and the cingulum. Thirty-eight healthy subjects aged 18-88 years were examined at 3 Tesla using a 1.9-mm isotropic DTI sequence. Quantitative fiber tracking was performed for 3D-segmentation of the fornix and the cingulum to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), eigenvalues (λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 ), number of fibers (NoF), and mean NoF/voxel (FpV). In the fornix, all diffusivity parameters (FA, MD, and eigenvalues) were moderately correlated with age. Strong and moderate negative correlations for NoF and FpV were found, respectively. In the cingulum, no correlation was observed between FA and age, and only weak correlations for the other quantitative parameters. Differences in correlations between the fornix and the cingulum were significant for all diffusivity parameters and for NoF, but not for FpV. The strongest relative changes per decade of age were found in the fornix: FA -2.1%, MD 4.2%, NoF -10.6%, and FpV -4.6%. Our quantitative 3D fiber tracking approach shows that the cingulum is resistant to aging while the fornix is not. (orig.)

  7. Age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in decision making ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Valeria; Mapelli, Cristina; Morielli, Nadia; Pelati, Oriana; Franceschi, Massimo; Appollonio, Ildebrando Marco

    2008-01-01

    The "frontal aging hypothesis" predicts that brain senescence affects predominantly the prefrontal regions. Preliminary evidence has recently been gathered in favour of an age-related change in a typically frontal process, i.e. decision making, using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), but overall findings have been conflicting. Following the traditional scoring method, coupled with a qualitative analysis, in the present study we compared IGT performance of 40 young (mean age: 27.9+/-4.7) and 40 old (mean age: 65.4+/-8.6) healthy adults and of 18 patients affected by frontal lobe dementia of mild severity (mean age: 65.1+/-7.4, mean MMSE score: 24.1+/-3.9). Quantitative findings support the notion that decision making ability declines with age; moreover, it approximates the impairment observed in executive dysfunction due to neurodegeneration. Results of the qualitative analysis did not reach statistical significance for the motivational and learning decision making components considered, but approached significance for the attentional component for elderly versus young normals, suggesting a possible decrease in the ability to maintain sustained attention during complex and prolonged tasks as the putative deficit underlying impaired decision making in normal aging.

  8. Age-Related Declines in Early Sensory Memory: Identification of Rapid Auditory and Visual Stimulus Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogerty, Daniel; Humes, Larry E; Busey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Age-related temporal-processing declines of rapidly presented sequences may involve contributions of sensory memory. This study investigated recall for rapidly presented auditory (vowel) and visual (letter) sequences presented at six different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) that spanned threshold SOAs for sequence identification. Younger, middle-aged, and older adults participated in all tasks. Results were investigated at both equivalent performance levels (i.e., SOA threshold) and at identical physical stimulus values (i.e., SOAs). For four-item sequences, results demonstrated best performance for the first and last items in the auditory sequences, but only the first item for visual sequences. For two-item sequences, adults identified the second vowel or letter significantly better than the first. Overall, when temporal-order performance was equated for each individual by testing at SOA thresholds, recall accuracy for each position across the age groups was highly similar. These results suggest that modality-specific processing declines of older adults primarily determine temporal-order performance for rapid sequences. However, there is some evidence for a second amodal processing decline in older adults related to early sensory memory for final items in a sequence. This selective deficit was observed particularly for longer sequence lengths and was not accounted for by temporal masking.

  9. The Age-Related Association of Movement in Irish Adolescent Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diarmuid Lester

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Research has shown that post-primary Irish youth are insufficiently active and fail to reach a level of proficiency across basic movement skills. The purpose of the current research was to gather cross-sectional baseline data on Irish adolescent youth, specifically the prevalence of movement skills and patterns, in order to generate an overall perspective of movement within the first three years (Junior Certificate level of post-primary education. (2 Methods: Data were collected on adolescents (N = 181; mean age: 14.42 ± 0.98 years, attending two, mixed-gender schools. Data collection included 10 fundamental movement skills (FMS and the seven tests within the Functional Movement Screen (FMS™. The data set was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0 for Windows. (3 Results: Overall, levels of actual mastery within fundamental and functional movement were low. There were statistically significant age-related differences observed, with a progressive decline as age increased in both the object control (p = 0.002 FMS sub-domain, and the in-line lunge (p = 0.048 test of the FMS™. (4 Conclusion: In summary, we found emerging evidence that school year group is significantly associated with mastery of movement skills and patterns. Results from the current study suggest that developing a specifically tailored movement-oriented intervention would be a strategic step towards improving the low levels of adolescent fundamental and functional movement proficiency.

  10. Strategic insight and age-related goal-neglect influence risky decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Andrew; Martins, Bruna S; Yarkoni, Tal; Braver, Todd S

    2012-01-01

    Maximizing long-run gains often requires taking on some degree of risk, yet decision-makers often exhibit risk aversion (RA), rejecting risky prospects even when these have higher expected value (EV) than safer alternatives. We investigated whether explicit strategy instruction and practice can decrease prepotent RA, and whether aging impacts the efficacy of such an intervention. Participants performed a paired lottery task with options varying in risk and magnitude, both before and after practice with a similar task that encouraged maximization of EV and instruction to use this strategy in risky decisions. In both younger and older adults (OAs), strategy training reduced RA. Although RA was age-equivalent at baseline, larger training effects were observed in younger adults (YAs). These effects were not explained by risk-related (i.e., affective) interference effects or computation ability, but were consistent with a progressive, age-related neglect of the strategy across trials. Our findings suggest that strategy training can diminish RA, but that training efficacy is reduced among OAs, potentially due to goal neglect. We discuss implications for neural mechanisms that may distinguish older and YAs' risky decision-making.

  11. Executive functioning in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: domain asynchrony and age-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna; Moss, Jo; Nelson, Lisa; Groves, Laura; Oliver, Chris

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests. Individuals with CdLS showed significantly greater impairment on tasks requiring flexibility and inhibition (rule switch) and on forwards span capacity. These impairments were also reported in the parent/carer-rated questionnaire measures. Backwards Digit Span was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age in CdLS, indicating increased deficits with age. This was not identified in individuals with DS. The relative deficits in executive functioning task performance are important in understanding the behavioural phenotype of CdLS. Prospective longitudinal follow-up is required to examine further the changes in executive functioning with age and if these map onto observed changes in behaviour in CdLS. Links with recent research indicating heightened responses to oxidative stress in CdLS may also be important.

  12. The neural architecture of age-related dual-task interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Xaver Chmielewski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In daily life elderly adults exhibit deficits when dual-tasking is involved. So far these deficits have been verified on a behavioral level in dual-tasking. Yet, the neuronal architecture of these deficits in aging still remains to be explored especially when late-middle aged individuals around 60 years of age are concerned. Neuroimaging studies in young participants concerning dual-tasking were, among others, related to activity in middle frontal (MFG and superior frontal gyrus (SFG and the anterior insula (AI. According to the frontal lobe hypothesis of aging, alterations in these frontal regions (i.e., SFG and MFG might be responsible for cognitive deficits. We measured brain activity using fMRI, while examining age-dependent variations in dual-tasking by utilizing the PRP (psychological refractory period test. Behavioral data showed an increasing PRP effect in late-middle aged adults. The results suggest the age-related deteriorated performance in dual-tasking, especially in conditions of risen complexity. These effects are related to changes in networks involving the anterior insula, the SFG and the MFG. The results suggest that different cognitive subprocesses are affected that mediate the observed dual-tasking problems in late-middle aged individuals.

  13. The neural architecture of age-related dual-task interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Yildiz, Ali; Beste, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In daily life elderly adults exhibit deficits when dual-tasking is involved. So far these deficits have been verified on a behavioral level in dual-tasking. Yet, the neuronal architecture of these deficits in aging still remains to be explored especially when late-middle aged individuals around 60 years of age are concerned. Neuroimaging studies in young participants concerning dual-tasking were, among others, related to activity in middle frontal (MFG) and superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and the anterior insula (AI). According to the frontal lobe hypothesis of aging, alterations in these frontal regions (i.e., SFG and MFG) might be responsible for cognitive deficits. We measured brain activity using fMRI, while examining age-dependent variations in dual-tasking by utilizing the PRP (psychological refractory period) test. Behavioral data showed an increasing PRP effect in late-middle aged adults. The results suggest the age-related deteriorated performance in dual-tasking, especially in conditions of risen complexity. These effects are related to changes in networks involving the AI, the SFG and the MFG. The results suggest that different cognitive subprocesses are affected that mediate the observed dual-tasking problems in late-middle aged individuals.

  14. Age-related differences in body weight loss in response to altered thyroidal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, A D

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether age-related differences in body weight loss in hyperthyroidism could be related to caloric intake, the body weight and food consumption of Fischer 344 male rats were monitored every other day for four weeks. Six-month-old (young) rats were compared to 16-month-old rats (intermediate age) and 25-month-old (aged) rats. Hypothyroidism was induced with 0.025% methimazole in the drinking water for four weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced with triiodothyronine (T3) injections (15 micrograms/100 g body weight i.p.) for the last 10 days of observation. A group of young rats pair fed with aged rats was included as a control group. The body weight changes of aged rats were similar to hypothyroid young rats. An index of T3 catabolic effect was calculated based on the net weight loss and food intake. This index was not different in aged rats compared to young rats. The apparent hypersensitivity of aged rats to T3 as evidenced by excessive weight loss could totally be attributed to decreased caloric intake. It is concluded that aged rats compared to the young are not more sensitive to the overall catabolic effects of thyroid hormones.

  15. Progress and Prospects in Human Genetic Research into Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributable to confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The degree of impairment shows substantial variation between individuals, as is also observed in the senescence of other functions. This individual variation would seem to refute the stereotypical view that hearing deterioration with age is inevitable and may indicate that there is ample scope for preventive intervention. Genetic predisposition could account for a sizable proportion of interindividual variation. Over the past decade or so, tremendous progress has been made through research into the genetics of various forms of hearing impairment, including ARHI and our knowledge of the complex mechanisms of auditory function has increased substantially. Here, we give an overview of recent investigations aimed at identifying the genetic risk factors involved in ARHI and of what we currently know about its pathophysiology. This review is divided into the following sections: (i genes causing monogenic hearing impairment with phenotypic similarities to ARHI; (ii genes involved in oxidative stress, biologic stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction; and (iii candidate genes for senescence, other geriatric diseases, and neurodegeneration. Progress and prospects in genetic research are discussed.

  16. Influence of new societal factors on neovascular age-related macular degeneration outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocanti-Aurégan, Audrey; Chbat, Elige; Darugar, Adil; Morel, Christophe; Morin, Bruno; Conrath, John; Devin, François

    2018-02-01

    To assess the impact of unstudied societal factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) on functional outcomes after anti-VEGFs. Charts of 94 nAMD patients treated in the Monticelli-Paradis Centre, Marseille, France, were reviewed. Phone interviews were conducted to assess societal factors, including transportation, living status, daily reading and social security scheme (SSS). Primary outcome was the impact of family support and disease burden on functional improvement in nAMD. Between baseline and month 24 (M24), 42.4% of the variability in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was explained by the cumulative effect of the following societal factors: intermittent out-patient follow-up, marital status, daily reading, transportation type, commuting time. No isolated societal factor significantly correlated with ETDRS BCVA severity at M24. A trend to correlation was observed between the EDTRS score at M24 and the SSS (P = 0.076), economic burden (P = 0.075), time between diagnosis and treatment initiation (P = 0.070). A significant correlation was found for the disease burdensome on the patient (P = 0.034) and low vision rehabilitation (P = 0.014). Societal factors could influence functional outcomes in nAMD patients treated with anti-VEGFs. They could contribute to the healing process or sustain disease progression.

  17. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  18. The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on age-related lipids and lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F; Lavie, Carl J; Hardin, James W; Blair, Steven N

    2015-05-19

    Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. This study sought to assess the longitudinal aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 health examinations (mean 3.5 examinations) between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until age mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p lipoproteins in young to middle-age men than in older men. Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Public opinion on age-related degradation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to shed light on the public opinion on age-related degradation at nuclear power plants, namely, on how the general public recognizes or views age-related degradation, which is a safety-related issue and one of the factors contributing to accidents and failures which occur at nuclear power plants. The second objective is to look into the impacts of the accident at Mihama Unit 3, which was caused by a failure to check on the piping wall thickness, on the public opinion on age-related degradation. The first survey was conducted in August 2003, followed by the second survey in October 2004, two months after the accident. The surveys found that the age-related degradation is being perceived by people as one of the risk factors that affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The characteristics of the citizens' perceptions toward age-related degradation in the form of piping cracks are that: (a) many respondents feel uneasy but a relatively few people consider that nuclear operators are technologically capable of coping with this problem; (b) many people believe that radioactivity may be released; and (c) numerous respondents consider that signs of cracks must be thoroughly detected through inspections, while on the other hand, a large percentage of the respondents attribute the accident to improper inspections/maintenance. Based on these results, the government and nuclear operators are expected to give most illuminating explanation on the current situation of and remedial measures against age-related degradation at nuclear power plants. As for the effects of the Mihama-3 accident on the public opinion on age-related degradation, it was revealed that the accident has not so significantly affected the general view for the safety of nuclear power plants, but has newly or strongly aroused people's consciousness of two of the risk factors - improper inspections/maintenance and the age-related degradation of piping. (author)

  20. Self-reported optometric practise patterns in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Angelica; Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zangerl, Barbara; Assaad, Nagi; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The use of advanced imaging in clinical practice is emerging and the use of this technology by optometrists in assessing patients with age-related macular degeneration is of interest. Therefore, this study explored contemporary, self-reported patterns of practice regarding age-related macular degeneration diagnosis and management using a cross-sectional survey of optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Practising optometrists were surveyed on four key areas, namely, demographics, clinical skills and experience, assessment and management of age-related macular degeneration. Questions pertaining to self-rated competency, knowledge and attitudes used a five-point Likert scale. Completed responses were received from 127 and 87 practising optometrists in Australia and New Zealand, respectively. Advanced imaging showed greater variation in service delivery than traditional techniques (such as slitlamp funduscopy) and trended toward optical coherence tomography, which was routinely performed in age-related macular degeneration by 49 per cent of respondents. Optical coherence tomography was also associated with higher self-rated competency, knowledge and perceived relevance to practice than other modalities. Most respondents (93 per cent) indicated that they regularly applied patient symptoms, case history, visual function results and signs from traditional testing, when queried about their management of patients with age-related macular degeneration. Over half (63 per cent) also considered advanced imaging, while 31 per cent additionally considered all of these as well as the disease stage and clinical guidelines. Contrary to the evidence base, 68 and 34 per cent rated nutritional supplements as highly relevant or relevant in early age-related macular degeneration and normal aging changes, respectively. These results highlight the emergence of multimodal and advanced imaging (especially optical coherence tomography) in the assessment of age-related macular degeneration

  1. Incidence of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration in denmark: year 2000 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sara Brandi; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger Christine

    2012-01-01

    To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older.......To report incidence rates of legal blindness from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other causes in Denmark from years 2000 to 2010 in the age group at risk of AMD aged 50 years and older....

  2. NATURAL COURSE OF PATIENTS DISCONTINUING TREATMENT FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VISUAL PROGNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hui; Chang, Young Suk; Kim, Jong Woo

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the 24-month natural course of visual changes in patients discontinuing treatment despite persistent or recurrent fluid and factors predictive of visual prognosis. This retrospective, observational study included 35 patients (35 eyes) who initially received anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but discontinued treatment despite persistent or recurrent fluid. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at treatment discontinuation was determined and compared with the 24-month BCVA, which was then compared between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and other neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes. Baseline characteristics predictive of visual outcome and the degree of visual change were also analyzed. The mean number of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections before treatment discontinuation was 4.0 ± 1.6. The mean logarithm of minimal angle of resolution of BCVA at treatment discontinuation and that at 24 months were 1.02 ± 0.20 (Snellen equivalents = 20/209) and 1.60 ± 0.56 (20/796), respectively (P age-related macular degeneration subtypes (P = 0.803). The type of fluid (intraretinal fluid vs. no intraretinal fluid) was predictive of 24-month BCVA (P = 0.004) and the degree of changes in BCVA (P = 0.043). Marked deterioration in visual acuity was noted in patients discontinuing treatment, regardless of neovascular age-related macular degeneration subtypes. The presence of intraretinal fluid was associated with worse visual prognosis, suggesting that patients with intraretinal fluid should be strongly warned about their poor prognosis before they decide to discontinue treatment.

  3. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  4. The Digital Ageing Atlas: integrating the diversity of age-related changes into a unified resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jyotirmay; Raman, Rajiv

    2002-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch's membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark's classification. Twenty-four donor eyes (48%) had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  6. Age-related changes in the macula. A histopathological study of fifty Indian donor eyes

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    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is clinically less common in India compared to the West. Therefore, clinicians are unfamiliar with histopathologic evidence of age-related macular changes in the Indian population. METHODS: Fifty consecutive human donor eyes removed for corneal grafting were studied for gross, microscopic and histochemical features of age-related changes in the macula in the Indian population. A horizontal block was cut from the globe including the optic disc, and the macula. Six sections, 6 microns thick, were cut from three levels in the macula at a distance of 140 microns. These were stained with haemotoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Mallory, Masson trichrome, alcian blue and von Kossa stains. The presence of basal laminar deposits, drusen and thickening and calcification of Bruch′s membrane in the macula were assessed at 400 x magnification using a modified version of Sark′s classification. RESULTS: Twenty-four donor eyes (48% had some form of age-related macular change. These included basal laminar deposits, hard drusen, soft drusen, extensive retinal pigment epithelium atrophy of the macula, and disciform degeneration of macula. A combination of changes was often seen. Age-related changes were more common in the seventh and eighth decade. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that histological changes characteristic of the early stages of age-related macular degeneration are fairly common in the Indian population. However, advanced macular changes are significantly rare.

  7. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Age-related macular degeneration as a local manifestation of atherosclerosis - a novel insight into pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalińska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible visual impairment and disability among the elderly in developed countries. There is compelling evidence that atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration share a similar pathogenic process. The association between atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration has been inferred from histological, biochemical and epidemiological studies. Many published data indicate that drusen are similar in molecular composition to plaques in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, a great body of evidence has emerged over the past decade that implicates the chronic inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis and progression of both disorders. We speculate that vascular atherosclerosis and age-related macular degeneration may represent different manifestations of the same disease induced by a pathologic tissue response to the damage caused by oxidative stress and local ischemia. In this review, we characterise in detail a strong association between age-related macular degeneration and atherosclerosis development, and we postulate the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of a systemic disease. This provides a new approach for understanding the aspects of pathogenesis and might improve the prevention and treatment of both diseases which both result from ageing of the human body.

  9. Antagonistic pleiotropy and mutation accumulation contribute to age-related decline in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Elizabeth R; Morgan, Theodore J

    2018-02-01

    As organisms age, the effectiveness of natural selection weakens, leading to age-related decline in fitness-related traits. The evolution of age-related changes associated with senescence is likely influenced by mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP). MA predicts that age-related decline in fitness components is driven by age-specific sets of alleles, nonnegative genetic correlations within trait across age, and an increase in the coefficient of genetic variance. AP predicts that age-related decline in a trait is driven by alleles with positive effects on fitness in young individuals and negative effects in old individuals, and is expected to lead to negative genetic correlations within traits across age. We build on these predictions using an association mapping approach to investigate the change in additive effects of SNPs across age and among traits for multiple stress-response fitness-related traits, including cold stress with and without acclimation and starvation resistance. We found support for both MA and AP theories of aging in the age-related decline in stress tolerance. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of age-related decline in stress tolerance is driven by a combination of alleles that have age-specific additive effects, consistent with MA, as well as nonindependent and antagonistic genetic architectures characteristic of AP. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Pleiotropic Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Studies Discover Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Age-Related Diseases

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    Liang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases may result from shared biological mechanisms in intrinsic processes of aging. Genetic effects on age-related diseases are often modulated by environmental factors due to their little contribution to fitness or are mediated through certain endophenotypes. Identification of genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on both common complex diseases and endophenotypes may reveal potential conflicting evolutionary pressures and deliver new insights into shared genetic contribution to healthspan and lifespan. Here, we performed pleiotropic meta-analyses of genetic variants using five NIH-funded datasets by integrating univariate summary statistics for age-related diseases and endophenotypes. We investigated three groups of traits: (1 endophenotypes such as blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids, hematocrit, and body mass index, (2 time-to-event outcomes such as the age-at-onset of diabetes mellitus (DM, cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs, and (3 both combined. In addition to replicating previous findings, we identify seven novel genome-wide significant loci (< 5e-08, out of which five are low-frequency variants. Specifically, from Group 2, we find rs7632505 on 3q21.1 in SEMA5B, rs460976 on 21q22.3 (1 kb from TMPRSS2 and rs12420422 on 11q24.1 predominantly associated with a variety of CVDs, rs4905014 in ITPK1 associated with stroke and heart failure, rs7081476 on 10p12.1 in ANKRD26 associated with multiple diseases including DM, CVDs, and NDs. From Group 3, we find rs8082812 on 18p11.22 and rs1869717 on 4q31.3 associated with both endophenotypes and CVDs. Our follow-up analyses show that rs7632505, rs4905014, and rs8082812 have age-dependent effects on coronary heart disease or stroke. Functional annotation suggests that most of these SNPs are within regulatory regions or DNase clusters and in linkage disequilibrium with expression quantitative trait loci, implying their potential regulatory

  11. Localization of age-related macular degeneration-associated ARMS2 in cytosol, not mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaofeng; Spencer, Kylee L.; Court, Brenda L.; Olson, Lana M.; Scott, William K.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To analyze the relationship between ARMS2 and HTRA1 in the association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an independent case-control dataset, and to investigate the subcellular localization of the ARMS2 protein in an in vitro system. METHOD Two SNPs in ARMS2 and HTRA1 were genotyped in 685 cases and 269 controls by Taqman Assay. Allelic association was tested by a χ2 test. A likelihood ratio test (LRT) of full vs. reduced models was utilized to analyze the interaction between ARMS2 and smoking and HTRA1 and smoking, after adjusting for CFH and age. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot were applied to localize ARMS2 in retinal epithelial ARPE-19 cells and COS7 cell transfected by ARMS2 constructs. RESULT Both significantly associated SNP rs10490924 and rs11200638 (P<0.0001) are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (D′=0.97, r2=0.93) that generates virtually identical association test and odds ratios. In separate logistic regression models the interaction effect for both smoking with ARMS2 and with HTRA1 was not statistically significant. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot show that both endogenous and exogenous ARMS2 are mainly distributed in the cytosol, not the mitochondria. Comparing to wild type, ARMS2 A69S is more likely to be associated with cytoskeleton in COS7 cells. CONCLUSIONS The significant associations in ARMS2 and HTRA1 are with polymorphisms in strong LD that confer virtually identical risks, preventing differentiation at the statistical level. We found that ARMS2 was mainly distributed in the cytosol, not in mitochondrial outer membrane as previously reported, suggesting that ARMS2 may not confer risk to AMD through the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:19255159

  12. OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF PIGMENT EPITHELIAL DETACHMENTS IN EYES WITH NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanani, Arshad M; Eichenbaum, David; Schlottmann, Patricio G; Tuomi, Lisa; Sarraf, David

    2018-04-24

    This review aimed to determine the optimal management of retinal pigment epithelial detachments (PEDs) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) based on review of available evidence in the literature. A comprehensive literature review evaluates previous retrospective and prospective studies that assessed the treatment of PEDs in nAMD. Studies illustrated that anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy can be effective in eyes with PED secondary to nAMD. Similar visual outcomes are associated with different anti-VEGF treatments. Higher anti-VEGF doses may improve anatomical response, without correlation with vision improvement. Fibrovascular PEDs may be difficult to treat, but even these eyes can gain vision with anti-VEGF therapy. A retinal pigment epithelial tear may develop in 15% to 20% of eyes with PEDs after anti-VEGF therapy, especially in PEDs greater than 500 µm to 600 µm in height; however, vision may stabilize with continued therapy. Atrophy may complicate eyes with PED and nAMD after anti-VEGF therapy, especially in association with complete PED resolution. Available literature suggests that anti-VEGF therapy is safe and efficacious for PED and nAMD. Treatment should focus on vision gains rather than PED resolution because there is no apparent correlation between anatomical and functional improvement in most eyes with PED and nAMD.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  13. A novel multi-tissue RNA diagnostic of healthy ageing relates to cognitive health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sanjana; Gallagher, Iain J; Lunnon, Katie; Rullman, Eric; Keohane, Aoife; Crossland, Hannah; Phillips, Bethan E; Cederholm, Tommy; Jensen, Thomas; van Loon, Luc J C; Lannfelt, Lars; Kraus, William E; Atherton, Philip J; Howard, Robert; Gustafsson, Thomas; Hodges, Angela; Timmons, James A

    2015-09-07

    Diagnostics of the human ageing process may help predict future healthcare needs or guide preventative measures for tackling diseases of older age. We take a transcriptomics approach to build the first reproducible multi-tissue RNA expression signature by gene-chip profiling tissue from sedentary normal subjects who reached 65 years of age in good health. One hundred and fifty probe-sets form an accurate classifier of young versus older muscle tissue and this healthy ageing RNA classifier performed consistently in independent cohorts of human muscle, skin and brain tissue (n = 594, AUC = 0.83-0.96) and thus represents a biomarker for biological age. Using the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men birth-cohort (n = 108) we demonstrate that the RNA classifier is insensitive to confounding lifestyle biomarkers, while greater gene score at age 70 years is independently associated with better renal function at age 82 years and longevity. The gene score is 'up-regulated' in healthy human hippocampus with age, and when applied to blood RNA profiles from two large independent age-matched dementia case-control data sets (n = 717) the healthy controls have significantly greater gene scores than those with cognitive impairment. Alone, or when combined with our previously described prototype Alzheimer disease (AD) RNA 'disease signature', the healthy ageing RNA classifier is diagnostic for AD. We identify a novel and statistically robust multi-tissue RNA signature of human healthy ageing that can act as a diagnostic of future health, using only a peripheral blood sample. This RNA signature has great potential to assist research aimed at finding treatments for and/or management of AD and other ageing-related conditions.

  14. Misidentifying a tennis racket as keys: object identification in people with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Miguel; Tran, Thi Ha Chau; Delerue, Céline; Boucart, Muriel

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies showed that people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) can categorise a pre-defined target object or scene with high accuracy (above 80%). In these studies participants were asked to detect the target (e.g. an animal) in serial visual presentation. People with AMD must rely on peripheral vision which is more adapted to the low resolution required for detection than for the higher resolution required to identify a specific exemplar. We investigated the ability of people with central vision loss to identify photographs of objects and scenes. Photographs of isolated objects, natural scenes and objects in scenes were centrally displayed for 2 s each. Participants were asked to name the stimuli. We measured accuracy and naming times in 20 patients with AMD, 15 age-matched and 12 young controls. Accuracy was lower (by about 30%) and naming times were longer (by about 300 ms) in people with AMD than in age-matched controls in the three categories of images. Correct identification occurred in 62-66% of the stimuli for patients. More than 20% of the misidentifications resulted from a structural and/or semantic similarity between the object and the name (e.g. spectacles for dog plates or dolphin for shark). Accuracy and naming times did not differ significantly between young and older normally sighted participants indicating that the deficits resulted from pathology rather than to normal ageing. These results show that, in contrast to performance for categorisation of a single pre-defined target, people with central vision loss are impaired at identifying various objects and scenes. The decrease in accuracy and the increase in response times in patients with AMD indicate that peripheral vision might be sufficient for object and scene categorisation but not for precise scene or object identification. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  15. A novel source of methylglyoxal and glyoxal in retina: implications for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kee Dong; Yamamoto, Kazunori; Ueda, Keiko; Zhou, Jilin; Sparrow, Janet R

    2012-01-01

    Aging of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye is marked by accumulations of bisretinoid fluorophores; two of the compounds within this lipofuscin mixture are A2E and all-trans-retinal dimer. These pigments are implicated in pathological mechanisms involved in some vision-threatening disorders including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies have shown that bisretinoids are photosensitive compounds that undergo photooxidation and photodegradation when irradiated with short wavelength visible light. Utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) we demonstrate that photodegradation of A2E and all-trans-retinal dimer generates the dicarbonyls glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MG), that are known to modify proteins by advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation. By extracellular trapping with aminoguanidine, we established that these oxo-aldehydes are released from irradiated A2E-containing RPE cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA) revealed that the substrate underlying A2E-containing RPE was AGE-modified after irradiation. This AGE deposition was suppressed by prior treatment of the cells with aminoguanidine. AGE-modification causes structural and functional impairment of proteins. In chronic diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, MG and GO modify proteins by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation reactions. AGE-modified proteins are also components of drusen, the sub-RPE deposits that confer increased risk of AMD onset. These results indicate that photodegraded RPE bisretinoid is likely to be a previously unknown source of MG and GO in the eye.

  16. Age-related changes in gait adaptability in response to unpredictable obstacles and stepping targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2016-05-01

    A large proportion of falls in older people occur when walking. Limitations in gait adaptability might contribute to tripping; a frequently reported cause of falls in this group. To evaluate age-related changes in gait adaptability in response to obstacles or stepping targets presented at short notice, i.e.: approximately two steps ahead. Fifty older adults (aged 74±7 years; 34 females) and 21 young adults (aged 26±4 years; 12 females) completed 3 usual gait speed (baseline) trials. They then completed the following randomly presented gait adaptability trials: obstacle avoidance, short stepping target, long stepping target and no target/obstacle (3 trials of each). Compared with the young, the older adults slowed significantly in no target/obstacle trials compared with the baseline trials. They took more steps and spent more time in double support while approaching the obstacle and stepping targets, demonstrated poorer stepping accuracy and made more stepping errors (failed to hit the stepping targets/avoid the obstacle). The older adults also reduced velocity of the two preceding steps and shortened the previous step in the long stepping target condition and in the obstacle avoidance condition. Compared with their younger counterparts, the older adults exhibited a more conservative adaptation strategy characterised by slow, short and multiple steps with longer time in double support. Even so, they demonstrated poorer stepping accuracy and made more stepping errors. This reduced gait adaptability may place older adults at increased risk of falling when negotiating unexpected hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

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    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation

  18. Age-related changes in functional connectivity of cerebellar PlV: a FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Yoon, Eun Jin; Bang, Seong Ae; Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The cerebellum is known to have strong connection with cerebral cortex, and it shows the greatest mean shrinkage with aging. Changes in functional connectivity between cerebellum and cortical and subcortical cerebral areas possibly occur in normal aging. In this study, we tested changes of interregional connection between cerebellar posterior inferior vermis (PIV) and cerebrum in healthy subjects divided in three classes of age group (young: 20-30, middle age: 40-50, elderly: over 60 years) using FDG PET. 211 healthy subjects (age, 20-82 y; 134 female) were studied with resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET, cerebellar PIV activity after count-normalization to the whole gray matter mean count was extracted. Using PIV count as a 'seed', the maps of cross-correlation coefficients were computed by measuring the correlation between 'seed' and all the other brain voxels (P < 0.001 uncorrected, k = 100). Across all age groups, positive correlations of metabolic activity in the cerebellar PIV showed in cerebellum itself and bilateral thalamus. An extended positive correlation in cuneus which is served for visual information processing was observed in middle aged and elderly group differently from the young group. Also, in elderly group, this correlation was observed in the frontal areas such as right orbital and precentral gyri. Negative correlation implicating mutual inhibition between the areas was also founded in prefrontal and cingulate cortices and temporoparietal association areas. Comparing with the young group, in theses areas, enlarged negative correlations was founded with aging. We identified age related changes in cerebrocerebellar communication loop which reflect changes in local neuroplasticity in the normal aging brain. Present result may have implication for understanding the functional decline of cerebellum related cognitive ability as well as the deficit of motor coordination in normal aging and its compensation mechanism of brain

  19. Associations Between Vitamin D Intake and Progression to Incident Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Silver, Rachel E; Rosner, Bernard; Seddon, Johanna M

    2017-09-01

    There is growing evidence of the importance of nutrition in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but no prospective studies have explored the impact of vitamin D. We evaluated the association between vitamin D intake and progression to advanced AMD. Among 2146 participants (3965 eyes), 541 (777 eyes) progressed from early or intermediate AMD to advanced disease (mean follow-up: 9.4 years) based on ocular imaging. Nutrients were log transformed and calorie adjusted. Survival analysis was used to assess associations between incident advanced disease and vitamin D intake. Neovascular disease (NV) and geographic atrophy (GA) were evaluated separately. Combined effects of dietary vitamin D and calcium were assessed based on high or low consumption of each nutrient. There was a lower risk of progression to advanced AMD in the highest versus lowest quintile of dietary vitamin D intake after adjustment for demographic, behavioral, ocular, and nutritional factors (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.83; P trend = 0.0007). Similar results were observed for NV (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.39-0.89; P trend = 0.005) but not GA (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.53-1.30; P trend = 0.35). A protective effect was observed for advanced AMD among participants with high vitamin D and low calcium compared to the group with low levels for each nutrient (HR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.50-0.88; P = 0.005). When supplement use was considered, the effect was in the protective direction but was not significant. A diet rich in vitamin D may prevent or delay progression to advanced AMD, especially NV. Additional exploration is needed to elucidate the potential protective role of vitamin D and its contribution to reducing visual loss.

  20. Nucleotide Excision DNA Repair is Associated with Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durik, Matej; Kavousi, Maryam; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Isaacs, Aaron; Cheng, Caroline; Verdonk, Koen; Loot, Annemarieke E.; Oeseburg, Hisko; Musterd-Bhaggoe, Usha; Leijten, Frank; van Veghel, Richard; de Vries, Rene; Rudez, Goran; Brandt, Renata; Ridwan, Yanto R.; van Deel, Elza D.; de Boer, Martine; Tempel, Dennie; Fleming, Ingrid; Mitchell, Gary F.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Tarasov, Kirill V.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Duckers, Henricus J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Duncker, Dirk J.; Danser, A.H. Jan; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.; Roks, Anton J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction in atherosclerosis and diabetes, as observed in the aging population of developed societies, is associated with vascular DNA damage and cell senescence. We hypothesized that cumulative DNA damage during aging contributes to vascular dysfunction. Methods and Results In mice with genomic instability due to the defective nucleotide excision repair genes ERCC1 and XPD (Ercc1d/− and XpdTTD mice), we explored age-dependent vascular function as compared to wild-type mice. Ercc1d/− mice showed increased vascular cell senescence, accelerated development of vasodilator dysfunction, increased vascular stiffness and elevated blood pressure at very young age. The vasodilator dysfunction was due to decreased endothelial eNOS levels as well as impaired smooth muscle cell function, which involved phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Similar to Ercc1d/− mice, age-related endothelium-dependent vasodilator dysfunction in XpdTTD animals was increased. To investigate the implications for human vascular disease, we explored associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of selected nucleotide excision repair genes and arterial stiffness within the AortaGen Consortium, and found a significant association of a SNP (rs2029298) in the putative promoter region of DDB2 gene with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. Conclusions Mice with genomic instability recapitulate age-dependent vascular dysfunction as observed in animal models and in humans, but with an accelerated progression, as compared to wild type mice. In addition, we found associations between variations in human DNA repair genes and markers for vascular stiffness which is associated with aging. Our study supports the concept that genomic instability contributes importantly to the development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22705887

  1. Characteristics of choroidal neovascularization in the complications of age-related macular degeneration prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Maureen G; Alexander, Judith; Fine, Stuart L

    2008-09-01

    To describe the characteristics of incident choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in observed and treated eyes in the Complications of Age-related Macular Degeneration Prevention Trial (CAPT). Cross-sectional descriptive study within a multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Patients who developed CNV during CAPT follow-up. Inclusion criteria for CAPT specified bilateral large drusen (>or=10 drusen at least 125 micro), visual acuity >or=20/40 in each eye, and age >or=50. Exclusion criteria included CNV and geographic atrophy >1 Macular Photocoagulation Study (MPS) disc area or within 500 micro of the foveal center. One eye of each person was selected randomly for low-intensity laser treatment and the contralateral eye was observed. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline, annually for >or=5 years, and whenever there were symptoms of CNV. Trained readers at the CAPT Photograph Reading Center assessed color stereo photographs and angiogram negatives to identify CNV. Choroidal neovascularization was classified by type (predominantly classic CNV, minimally classic CNV, occult only CNV, or scar), location, and area. Visual acuity was measured by certified examiners. Symmetry of characteristics between eyes of bilaterally affected patients was examined. Choroidal neovascularization developed in 282 eyes of 225 patients. At the time of detection, 192 (68%) of the lesions were occult only, 153 (54%) were subfoveal, and 157 (56%) were or=20/40 in 123 (69%) of 179 eyes with visual acuity measured at the time of detection. Choroidal neovascularization developed in both eyes in 57 patients (25%) during CAPT follow-up. Lesions in eyes of bilaterally affected patients were no more similar to each other than affected eyes in 2 different patients. When patients are monitored closely, many CNV lesions can be detected outside of the fovea and when they are relatively small. Early detection may lead to improved long-term visual acuity.

  2. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were...... recruited from a population-based cohort based on previous cognitive assessments in young adulthood and late midlife. The sample included 24 cognitively high-functioning and 26 cognitively impaired participants. Saliva samples were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hour period and analyzed for cortisol...... and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than...

  3. [Pharmacological therapy of age-related macular degeneration based on etiopathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-11-15

    It is of great therapeutic significance that disordered function of the vascular endothelium which supply the affected ocular structures plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of age-related macular degeneration. Chronic inflammation is closely linked to diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, and age-related macular degeneration is accompanied by a general inflammatory response. According to current concept, age-related macular degeneration is a local manifestation of systemic vascular disease. This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize the condition of chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction by pharmaacological or non pharmacological interventions may prevent the development or improve endothelial dysfunction, which result in prevention or improvement of age related macular degeneration as well. Medicines including inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers and renin inhibitors), statins, acetylsalicylic acid, trimetazidin, third generation beta-blockers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, folate, vitamin D, melatonin, advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker alagebrium, endothelin-receptor antagonist bosentan, coenzyme Q10; "causal" antioxidant vitamins, N-acetyl-cysteine, resveratrol, L-arginine, serotonin receptor agonists, tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers, specific inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway, curcumin and doxycyclin all have beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction. Restoration of endothelial dysfunction can restabilize chronic vascular disease including age-related macular degeneration as well. Considering that the human vascular system is consubstantial, medicines listed above should be given to patients (1) who have no macular degeneration but have risk factors

  4. A Systematic Investigation into Aging Related Genes in Brain and Their Relationship with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guofeng; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Mei, Hongkang

    2016-01-01

    Aging, as a complex biological process, is accompanied by the accumulation of functional loses at different levels, which makes age to be the biggest risk factor to many neurological diseases. Even following decades of investigation, the process of aging is still far from being fully understood, especially at a systematic level. In this study, we identified aging related genes in brain by collecting the ones with sustained and consistent gene expression or DNA methylation changes in the aging process. Functional analysis with Gene Ontology to these genes suggested transcriptional regulators to be the most affected genes in the aging process. Transcription regulation analysis found some transcription factors, especially Specificity Protein 1 (SP1), to play important roles in regulating aging related gene expression. Module-based functional analysis indicated these genes to be associated with many well-known aging related pathways, supporting the validity of our approach to select aging related genes. Finally, we investigated the roles of aging related genes on Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that aging and AD related genes both involved some common pathways, which provided a possible explanation why aging made the brain more vulnerable to Alzheimer's Disease.

  5. New approaches and potential treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Max Damico

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging treatments for dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD and geographi c atrophy focus on two strategies that target components involved in physiopathological pathways: prevention of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium loss (neuroprotection induction, oxidative damage prevention, and visual cycle modification and suppression of inflammation. Neuroprotective drugs, such as ciliary neurotrophic factor, brimonidine tartrate, tandospirone, and anti-amyloid β antibodies, aim to prevent apoptosis of retinal cells. Oxidative stress and depletion of essential micronutrients are targeted by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS formulation. Visual cycle modulators reduce the activity of the photoreceptors and retinal accumulation of toxic fluorophores and lipofuscin. Eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration present chronic inflammation and potential treatments include corticosteroid and complement inhibition. We review the current concepts and rationale of dry age-related macular degeneration treatment that will most likely include a combination of drugs targeting different pathways involved in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration.

  6. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  7. Mechanical strain modulates age-related changes in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Wen-Sheng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on the effects of aging in human and mouse mesenchymal stem cells suggest that a decline in the number and differentiation potential of stem cells may contribute to aging and aging-related diseases. In this report, we used stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue (ADSCs of young (8-10 weeks, adult (5 months, and old (21 months mice to test the hypothesis that mechanical loading modifies aging-related changes in the self-renewal and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of these cells. Results We show that aging significantly reduced the proliferation and increased the adipogenesis of ADSCs, while the osteogenic potential is not significantly reduced by aging. Mechanical loading (10% cyclic stretching, 0.5 Hz, 48 h increased the subsequent proliferation of ADSCs from mice of all ages. Although the number of osteogenic colonies with calcium deposition was increased in ADSCs subjected to pre-strain, it resulted from an increase in colony number rather than from an increase in osteogenic potential after strain. Pre-strain significantly reduced the number of oil droplets and the expression of adipogenic marker genes in adult and old ADSCs. Simultaneously subjecting ADSCs to mechanical loading and adipogenic induction resulted in a stronger inhibition of adipogenesis than that caused by pre-strain. The reduction of adipogenesis by mechanical strain was loading-magnitude dependent: loading with 2% strain only resulted in a partial inhibition, and loading with 0.5% strain could not inhibit adipogenesis in ADSCs. Conclusions We demonstrate that mechanical stretching counteracts the loss of self-renewal in aging ADSCs by enhancing their proliferation and, at the same time, reduces the heightened adipogenesis of old cells. These findings are important for the further study of stem cell control and treatment for a variety of aging related diseases.

  8. No late effect of ionizing radiation on the aging-related oxidative changes in the mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Beom Su; Kim, Seol Wha; Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Radiation-induced late injury to normal tissue is a primary area of radiation biology research. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the late effect of the ionizing radiation appears as an age-related oxidative status in the brain. Three groups of 4-month old C57BL/6 mice that were exposed to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays at a single dose (5 Gy) or fractionated doses (1 Gy x 5 times, or 0,2 Gy x 25 times) at 2 months old were investigated for the oxidative status of their brains with both young (2-month) and old (24-month) mice. A significant (pobserved in old mice brains compared with that of the young mice. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the old mice brain. However, any significant difference in SOD activity and MDA contents of the irradiated brain was not observed compared to age-matched control group mice. SOD activity and MDA content were observed within good parameters of brain aging and there no late effects on the age-related oxidative level in the {gamma}-ray irradiated mice brains.

  9. No late effect of ionizing radiation on the aging-related oxidative changes in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Beom Su; Kim, Seol Wha; Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced late injury to normal tissue is a primary area of radiation biology research. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the late effect of the ionizing radiation appears as an age-related oxidative status in the brain. Three groups of 4-month old C57BL/6 mice that were exposed to 137 Cs γ-rays at a single dose (5 Gy) or fractionated doses (1 Gy x 5 times, or 0,2 Gy x 25 times) at 2 months old were investigated for the oxidative status of their brains with both young (2-month) and old (24-month) mice. A significant (p< o.05) decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was observed in old mice brains compared with that of the young mice. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly (p<0.05) increased in the old mice brain. However, any significant difference in SOD activity and MDA contents of the irradiated brain was not observed compared to age-matched control group mice. SOD activity and MDA content were observed within good parameters of brain aging and there no late effects on the age-related oxidative level in the γ-ray irradiated mice brains

  10. Difference between age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the hereditary contribution of the A69S variant of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene (ARMS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Suiho; Kondo, Naoshi; Miki, Akiko; Matsumiya, Wataru; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Honda, Shigeru; Negi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether the A69S variant of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 gene (ARMS2) has a different hereditary contribution in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). We initially conducted a comparative genetic analysis of neovascular AMD and PCV, genotyping the ARMS2 A69S variant in 181 subjects with neovascular AMD, 198 subjects with PCV, and 203 controls in a Japanese population. Genotyping was conducted using TaqMan technology. Results were then integrated into a meta-analysis of previous studies representing an assessment of the association between the ARMS2 A69S variant and neovascular AMD and/or PCV, comprising a total of 3,828 subjects of Asian descent. The Q-statistic test was used to assess between-study heterogeneity. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a fixed effects model. The genetic effect of the A69S variant was stronger in neovascular AMD (allelic summary OR=3.09 [95% CI, 2.71-3.51], fixed effects parchitecture of this phenotypically heterogeneous disorder.

  11. Measurement of Retinal Sensitivity on Tablet Devices in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; Guymer, Robyn H; Jung, Chang J; Goh, Jonathan K; Ayton, Lauren N; Luu, Chi D; Lawson, David J; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    We compared measurements of central retinal sensitivity on a portable, low-cost tablet device to the established method of microperimetry in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A customized test designed to measure central retinal sensitivity (within the central 1° radius) on a tablet device was developed using an open-source platform called PsyPad. A total of 30 participants with AMD were included in this study, and all participants performed a practice test on PsyPad, followed by four tests of one eye and one test of the other eye. Participants then underwent standardized microperimetry examinations in both eyes. The average test duration on PsyPad was 53.9 ± 7.5 seconds, and no significant learning effect was observed over the examinations performed ( P = 1.000). The coefficient of repeatability of central retinal sensitivity between the first two examinations on PsyPad was ±1.76 dB. The mean central retinal sensitivity was not significantly different between PsyPad (25.7 ± 0.4 dB) and microperimetry (26.1 ± 0.4 dB, P = 0.094), and the 95% limits of agreement between the two measures were between -4.12 and 4.92 dB. The measurements of central retinal sensitivity can be performed effectively using a tablet device, displaying reasonably good agreement with those obtained using the established method of microperimetry. These findings highlight the potential of tablet devices as low-cost and portable tools for developing and performing visual function measures that can be easily and widely implemented.

  12. Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenglin; Stratton, Charity; Francis, Peter J.; Kleinman, Mark E.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Gibbs, Daniel; Tong, Zongzhong; Chen, Haoyu; Constantine, Ryan; Yang, Xian; Chen, Yuhong; Zeng, Jiexi; Davey, Lisa; Ma, Xiang; Hau, Vincent S.; Wang, Chi; Harmon, Jennifer; Buehler, Jeanette; Pearson, Erik; Patel, Shrena; Kaminoh, Yuuki; Watkins, Scott; Luo, Ling; Zabriskie, Norman A.; Bernstein, Paul S.; Cho, Wongil; Schwager, Andrea; Hinton, David R; Klein, Michael L; Hamon, Sara C.; Simmons, Emily; Yu, Beifeng; Campochiaro, Betsy; Sunness, Janet S.; Campochiaro, Peter; Jorde, Lynn; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Zack, Donald J.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Zhang, Kang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment in the developed world. Advanced AMD is comprised of geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Specific genetic variants that predispose for GA are largely unknown. METHODS We tested (i) for association between the functional toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) variant rs3775291 (L412F) and AMD in European Americans and (ii) the effect of TLR3 L and F variants on the viability of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro and on RPE cell apoptosis in wildtype and Tlr3−/− mice. RESULTS The F variant (or T allele at single nucleotide polymorphism at rs3775291) was associated with protection against GA (P=0.005); this association was replicated in two independent GA case-control series (P=5.43×10−4 and P=0.002, respectively. We observed no association between TLR3 variants and CNV. The rs377291 variant is probably critical to the function of TLR3, because a prototypic TLR3 ligand induced cell death and apoptosis in human RPE cells with the LL genotype to a greater extent than it did RPE cells with the LF genotype. Moreover, the ligand induced more RPE cell death and apoptosis in wild-type than in Tlr3−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS The TLR3 412F variant confers protection against GA, probably by suppressing RPE cell death. Given that double stranded RNA can activate TLR3-mediated apoptosis, our results suggest a possible role for viral dsRNA transcripts in the development of GA and raise awareness of potential toxicity induced by short interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics in the eye. PMID:18753640

  13. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  14. Age-related functional changes in gustatory and reward processing regions: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Aaron; Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2010-11-01

    Changes in appetite in older adults may result in unhealthy weight change and negatively affect overall nutrition. Research examining gustatory processing in young adults has linked changes in patterns of the hemodynamic response of gustatory and motivation related brain regions to the physiological states of hunger and satiety. Whether the same brain regions are involved in taste processing in older adults is unknown. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine age-related changes in gustatory processing during hedonic assessment. Caffeine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl were administered orally during two event-related fMRI sessions, one during hunger and one after a pre-load. Participants assessed the pleasantness of the solutions in each session. Increased activity of the insula was seen in both age groups during hunger. Activity of secondary and higher order taste processing and reward regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and caudate nucleus was also observed. Hunger and satiety differentially affected the hemodynamic response, resulting in positive global activation during hunger and negative during satiety in both age groups. While in a state of hunger, the frequency and consistency of positive activation in gustatory and reward processing regions was greater in older adults. Additional regions not commonly associated with taste processing were also activated in older adults. Investigating the neurological response of older adults to taste stimuli under conditions of hunger and satiety may aid in understanding appetite, health, and functional changes in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Murat, Dogru [Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo [Research Center, Ophtecs Corporation, Hyogo (Japan); Shimmura, Shigeto [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shinmura, Ken [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo, E-mail: tsubota@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  17. Autofluorescence Lifetimes in Geographic Atrophy in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate fluorescence lifetime characteristics in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with age-related macular degeneration and to correlate the measurements with clinical data and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings. Patients with GA were imaged with a fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscope. Retinal autofluorescence lifetimes were measured in a short and a long spectral channel (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Mean retinal fluorescence lifetimes were analyzed within GA and the surrounding retina, and data were correlated with best corrected visual acuity and OCT measurements. Fluorescence lifetime maps of 41 eyes of 41 patients (80 ± 7 years) with GA were analyzed. Mean lifetimes within areas of atrophy were prolonged by 624 ± 276 ps (+152%) in the short spectral channel and 418 ± 186 ps (+83%) in the long spectral channel compared to the surrounding tissue. Autofluorescence lifetime abnormalities in GA occurred with particular patterns, similar to those seen in fundus autofluorescence intensity images. Within the fovea short mean autofluorescence lifetimes were observed, presumably representing macular pigment. Short lifetimes were preserved even in the absence of foveal sparing but were decreased in patients with advanced retinal atrophy in OCT. Short lifetimes in the fovea correlated with better best corrected visual acuity in both spectral channels. This study established that autofluorescence lifetime changes in GA present with explicit patterns. We hypothesize that the short lifetimes seen within the atrophy may be used to estimate damage induced by atrophy and to monitor disease progression in the context of natural history or interventional therapeutic studies.

  18. Ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Guduru

    Full Text Available Establish accuracy and reproducibility of subjective grading in ultra-widefield fundus autofluorescence (FAF imaging in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and determine if an association exists between peripheral FAF abnormalities and AMD.This was a prospective, single-blinded case-control study. Patients were consecutively recruited for the study. Patients were excluded if there was a history of prior or active ocular pathology other than AMD or image quality was insufficient for analysis as determined by two independent graders. Control patients were those without any evidence of AMD or other ophthalmic disease apart from cataract. Using the Optos 200Tx (Optos, Marlborough, MA, USA, a ResMax central macula and an ultra-widefield peripheral retina image was taken for each eye in both normal color and short wavelength FAF. Ultra-widefield photographs were modified to mask the macula. Each ResMax and ultra-widefield image was independently graded by two blinded investigators.There were 28 AMD patients and 11 controls. There was a significant difference in the average age between AMD patients and control groups (80 versus 64, respectively P<0.001. There was moderate, statistically significant agreement between observers regarding image interpretation (78.4%, K = 0.524, P<0.001, and 69.0% (K = 0.49, P<0.001 agreement between graders for FAF abnormality patterns. Patients with AMD were at greater risk for peripheral FAF abnormalities (OR: 3.43, P = 0.019 and patients with FAF abnormalities on central macular ResMax images were at greater risk of peripheral FAF findings (OR: 5.19, P = 0.017.Subjective interpretation of FAF images has moderate reproducibility and validity in assessment of peripheral FAF abnormalities. Peripheral FAF abnormalities are seen in both AMD and control patients. Those with AMD, poor visual acuity, and macular FAF abnormalities are at greater risk.

  19. Is Coffee Consumption associated with Age-related Macular Degeneration and Diabetic Retinopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Kumari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Coffee is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between coffee consumption and risk of systemic diseases; however, there is paucity of data in relation to coffee consumption and risk of eye diseases.  This study aims to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and diabetic retinopathy (DR in multiethnic population of Singapore.   Materials and MethodsWe analyzed the data from 4121 study participants from the Singapore Prospective Study Program to examine the relationship of coffee to prevalence of AMD and DR.  A standardized questionnaire that included information about the habitual amount of coffee consumed was completed by all study participants.  Presence and severity of AMD and DR was assessed on fundus photographs using the Mutiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Grading Protocol. ResultsThe prevalence of AMD and DR in our population was 5.4% and 32.0%, respectively. A positive history of coffee consumption was present in 77.5% of AMD population and 76.1% of DR population with majority of participants consuming 1-2 cups of coffee daily.  No statistically significant association was observed between coffee consumption and odds of AMD or DR after adjusting for confounding factors [AMD: Odds Ratio (OR = 1.27, Confidence Interval (CI = 0.88-1.83, p = 0.20; DR: OR = 1.36, CI = 0.69-2.69, p = 0.37.  ConclusionThis epidemiological study of a large multiethnic population data set do not support the hypothesis that habitual intake of coffee and caffeine is associated with an altered risk of AMD and DR among Asians.

  20. Melatonin: Antioxidant and modulatory properties in age-related changes during Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia H; Colato, Rafaela P; Mazotti, Tamires T; Tazinafo, Lucas F; Toldo, Míriam Paula A; do Vale, Gabriel T; Tirapelli, Carlos R; do Prado, José C

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on selected biomarkers of innate and humoral immune response as well as the antioxidant/oxidant status (superoxide dismutase-SOD and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) to understand whether age-related changes would influence the development of acute Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection. Young- (5 weeks) and middle-aged (18 months) Wistar rats were orally treated with melatonin (gavage) (05 mg/kg/day), 9 days after infection. A significant increase in both SOD activity and GSH levels was found in plasma from all middle-aged melatonin-treated animals. Melatonin triggered enhanced expression of major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II) antigens on antigen-presenting cell (APC) and peritoneal macrophages in all treated animals. High levels of CD4 + CD28-negative T cells (*PMelatonin induced a significant reduction (***PMelatonin also triggered an upregulation of CD80 and CD86 expression in all young-treated groups. Significant percentages of B and spleen dendritic cells in middle-aged infected and treated animals were observed. Our data reveal new features of melatonin action in inhibiting membrane lipid peroxidation, through the reduction in 8-isoprostane, upregulating the antioxidant defenses and triggering an effective balance in the antioxidant/oxidant status during acute infection. The ability of melatonin to counteract the immune alterations induced by aging added further support to its use as a potential therapeutic target not only for T. cruzi infection but also for other immunocompromised states. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging.

  2. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M.; Fusilli, S.; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm 3 per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  3. Age-related changes assessed by peripheral QCT in healthy Italian women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmi, G.; Serio, A. de; Cammisa, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Fusilli, S. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Clinical Pathology; Scillitani, A.; Chiodini, I.; Torlontano, M. [Scientific Institute Hospital ' ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' ' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Division of Endocrinology

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal cross-sectional pattern of radial bone loss associated with aging in healthy women and to generate a normative database using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any drugs affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and the total bone density of the ultradistal radius at the nondominant forearm was measured using the Norland-Stratec XCT-960 pQCT scanner in 386 healthy pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal females aged 15-81 years. The long-term in vivo precision error was 1.6% CV (coefficient of variation) for trabecular and 0.8% CV for total BMD measurements. The highest value of trabecular and total BMD measured was observed at the age group 15-39 years. Beyond these ages both trabecular and total BMD showed a linear decline with aging, decreasing by an overall slope of -1.28 and -0.55 mg/cm{sup 3} per year for total and trabecular BMD measurements, respectively. The test of parallelism between the regression slopes of the peri- and postmenopausal women showed a statistically significant difference for total BMD measurement (p=0.003). Measurement of total and trabecular BMD was not influenced by weight, height or body mass index, but it was correlated with natural logarithm of years since menopause. We conclude that pQCT of the ultradistal radius is a precise method for measuring the true volumetric BMD and for detecting age-related bone loss in the trabecular and total bone of female subjects encompassing the adult age range and menopausal status. (orig.)

  4. Age-related differences in dual task performance: A cross-sectional study on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustio, Paolo R; Magistro, Daniele; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Liubicich, Monica E

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous performances of motor and attention-demanding tasks are common in activities of everyday life. The present cross-sectional study examined the changes and age-related differences on mobility performance with an additional cognitive or motor task, and evaluated the relative dual-task cost (DTC) on the motor performance in young, middle-aged and older women. A total of 30 young (mean age 25.12 ± 3.00 years), 30 middle-aged (mean age 47.82 ± 5.06 years) and 30 older women (mean age 72.74 ± 5.95 years) were recruited. Participants carried out: (i) single task: Timed Up & Go Test; (ii) cognitive dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while counting backwards by three; (iii) manual dual-task: Timed Up & Go Test while carrying a glass of water. A repeated measures anova with between-factor as age groups and within-factor as tasks was carried out to assess the effect of aging on the performance of mobility tasks. DTC was calculated as ([performance in single-task - performance in dual-task] / performance in single task) × 100%. One-way ancova were carried out to compare the DTC among the three age groups. A significant interaction between age groups and task (F 4,172  = 6.716, P performance under dual-task condition compared with young and middle-aged groups. Furthermore, DTC differences in cognitive task were observed in older women compared with younger and middle-aged women (F 2,86  = 7.649, P task. Dual-task conditions might affect mobility performance differently across the lifespan, and could be particularly challenging in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 315-321. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography and the Development of Antiangiogenic Therapies in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explain the pivotal role optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging had in the development of antiangiogenic therapies for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods A historical literature review was combined with personal perspectives from the introduction of OCT imaging and the early clinical use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. Results At the time that OCT emerged, the gold standard for imaging of nvAMD was fluorescein angiography (FA), a time-consuming, dye-based, invasive technique that provided en face images of the retina and was used to characterize leakage, perfusion status, and the types of macular neovascularization (MNV). In comparison, OCT imaging was a fast, safe, noninvasive technique that complemented FA imaging by providing cross-sectional images of the macula. OCT was able to visualize and quantify the macular fluid that was associated with the presence of excess VEGF, which was identified by intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, and fluid under the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Clinicians quickly appreciated the benefits of OCT imaging for following macular fluid after anti-VEGF therapy. By observing the qualitative and quantitative changes in macular fluid depicted by OCT imaging, clinicians were empowered to compare anti-VEGF drugs and move from fixed-dosing regimens to patient-specific dosing strategies requiring fewer injections. Conclusions Optical coherence tomography imaging was adopted as a VEGF-meter, a method to detect excess VEGF, and evolved to become the gold standard imaging strategy for diagnosing nvAMD, assessing treatment responses to anti-VEGF drugs, deciding when to re-treat, and evaluating disease progression. PMID:27409464

  6. Risks of newly onset hemorrhagic stroke in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Ju Annabelle; Cheng, Ching-Lan; Lee, Cheng-Han; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang

    2017-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an eye disease causing blindness in the elderly. It shares many common possible pathogenic mechanisms with cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have discussed the association between AMD and stroke, but the results were inconsistent. Our aim was to determine the associations between neovascular AMD and the risk of stroke in the Taiwanese population. This is a retrospective cohort study. We used claims data from National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients aged more than 45 years without stroke, myocardial infarction, or any AMD were selected from 2001 to 2008 and followed until 2010. The index date was defined as the date of nAMD diagnosis (ICD-9 code, 362.52). The comparison group was patients without an nAMD diagnosis with age- and sex-matched to nAMD subjects at a ratio of up to 10 to 1. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were used. The incidence of stroke events (ICD-9 codes, 430-434) and their subtypes (hemorrhagic and ischemic) were primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes included acute myocardial infarction (AMI), composite AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a higher risk of developing stroke, with an adjusted HR of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.01-1.68). A higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.70, 95% CI, 1.03-2.83) was also found. No significant differences were observed in ischemic stroke, the composite of AMI/stroke, and all-cause mortality. Patients with nAMD had a significantly higher risk of developing stroke, which was driven mainly by the increased risk of developing the hemorrhagic subtype. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Implications of Age-Related Changes in Anatomy for Geriatric-Focused Difficult Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function surrounding the airway change by the age, which may ultimately result in having anatomic features of difficult airways in the elderly. Hence, we reviewed the literature focusing on the age-related anatomic changes and accordingly to compare the characteristics of difficult airways. With age, teeth wear and loss, protein and collagen synthesis reduction, and bone loss and muscle atrophy results in aged face (chin protrusion, cheek retraction and drooping, jaw restriction (temporo-madibular joint disc displacement and osteoarthritis, neck and back stiffness, and kyphotic deformities (degeneration of spinal articular cartilage, intervertebral discs, and spinal osteoporosis. These age-related changes in anatomy are compatible with the predictors of a difficult airway. We hope that these age-related anatomic approaches will prospectively allow a detailed understanding of the hallmarks resulting in geriatric-focused difficult airways in the future studies.

  8.  Age-related changes of skeletal muscles: physiology, pathology and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ławniczak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  This review provides a short presentation of the aging-related changes of human skeletal muscles. The aging process is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia and strength. This results from fibre atrophy and apoptosis, decreased regeneration capacity, mitochondrial dysfunction, gradual reduction of the number of spinal cord motor neurons, and local and systemic metabolic and hormonal alterations. The latter involve age-related decrease of the expression and activity of some mitochondrial and cytoplasmic enzymes, triacylglycerols and lipofuscin accumulation inside muscle fibres, increased proteolytic activity, insulin resistance and decreased serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations. Aging of the skeletal muscles is also associated with a decreased number of satellite cells and their proliferative activity. The age-related reduction of skeletal muscle mass and function may be partially prevented by dietary restriction and systematic physical exercises.

  9. Oxidative stress participates in age-related changes in rat lumbar intervertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gang; Lu, Huading; Chen, Mingjuan; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Huiqing

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a major factor associated with lumber intervertebral disc degeneration, and oxidative stress is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. In this study, we investigated oxidative stress in intervertebral discs of Wistar rats in three different age groups: youth, adult, and geriatric. Age-related intervertebral disc changes were examined by histological analysis. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by assessing nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs). Intervertebral disc, but not serum, NO concentrations significantly differed between the three groups. Serum and intervertebral disc SOD activity gradually decreased with age. Furthermore, both serum and intervertebral disc MDA and AOPP levels gradually increased with age. Our studies suggest that oxidative stress is associated with age-related intervertebral disc changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dizziness and Imbalance in the Elderly: Age-related Decline in the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are amongst the most common complaints in older people, and are a growing public health concern since they put older people at a significantly higher risk of falling. Although the causes of dizziness in older people are multifactorial, peripheral vestibular dysfunction is one of the most frequent causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is the most frequent form of vestibular dysfunction in the elderly, followed by Meniere’s disease. Every factor associated with the maintenance of postural stability deteriorates during aging. Age-related deterioration of peripheral vestibular function has been demonstrated through quantitative measurements of the vestibulo-ocular reflex with rotational testing and of the vestibulo-collic reflex with testing of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. Age-related decline of vestibular function has been shown to correlate with the age-related decrease in the number of vestibular hair cells and neurons. The mechanism of age-related cellular loss in the vestibular endorgan is unclear, but it is thought that genetic predisposition and cumulative effect of oxidative stress may both play an important role. Since the causes of dizziness in older people are multi-factorial, management of this disease should be customized according to the etiologies of each individual. Vestibular rehabilitation is found to be effective in treating both unilateral and bilateral vestibular dysfunction. Various prosthetic devices have also been developed to improve postural balance in older people. Although there have been no medical treatments improving age-related vestibular dysfunction, new medical treatments such as mitochondrial antioxidants or caloric restriction, which have been effective in preventing age-related hearing loss, should be ienvestigated in the future. PMID:25657851

  11. Age-related loss in attention-based modulation of tactile stimuli at early stages of somatosensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, David A E; Staines, W Richard

    2012-06-01

    Normal aging has been linked to impairments in gating of irrelevant sensory information and neural markers of diminished cognitive processing. Whilst much of the research in this area has focussed on visual and auditory modalities it is unclear to what degree these findings apply to somatosensation. Therefore we investigated how age impacts early event-related potentials (ERPs) arising from relevant or irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli to the fingertips. Specifically, we hypothesised that older adults would demonstrate reduced attention-based modulation of tactile ERPs generated at early stages of cortical somatosensory processing. In accord with previous research we also expected to observe diminished P300 responses to attended targets and behavioural deficits. Participants received vibrotactile stimulation to the second and fifth digit on the left hand and reported target stimuli on one digit only (as instructed) with comparisons between two age groups: (1) Young adults (age range 20-39) and (2) Older adults (age range 62-89). ERP amplitudes for the P50, N70, P100, N140 and long latency positivity (LLP) were quantified for attended and non-attended trials at several electrodes (C4, CP4, CP3 and FC4). The P300 in response to attended target stimuli was measured at CPZ. There was no effect of attention on the P50 and N70 however the P100, N140 and LLP were modulated with attention. In both age groups the P100 and LLP were more positive during trials where the stimuli were attended to, whilst the N140 was enhanced for non-attended stimuli. Comparisons between groups revealed a reduction in P100 attention-based modulation for the older adults versus the young adults. This effect was due to a loss of suppression of the non-attended stimuli in older subjects. Moreover, the P300 was both slower and reduced in peak amplitude for older subjects in response to attended targets. Finally, older adults demonstrated impaired performance in terms of both reduced target detection

  12. Age-related X-ray feature of the spine in patients with achondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevtsov, V.I.; D'yachkova, G.V.; Novikova, O.S.

    1999-01-01

    Age-related X-ray features of the spine in patients with achondroplasia are studied. It gives the time course of changes in the shape of vertebrae, the specific features of apophyseal ossification, provides a quantitative account of the shorter caudal lumbar vertebral arch root distance symptom. The time course of changes in the size of the lumbosacral angle was examined. The findings suggest that there are not only considerable static changes in the spine of patients with achondroplasia, but also significant age-related features of vertebral tissue growth and differentiation [ru

  13. Age-related inequalities in health and healthcare: the life stages approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2017-05-16

    How should healthcare systems prepare to care for growing numbers and proportions of older people? Older people generally suffer worse health than younger people do. Should societies take steps to reduce age-related health inequalities? Some express concern that doing so would increase age-related inequalities in healthcare. This paper addresses this debate by (1) presenting an argument in support of three principles for distributing scarce resources between age groups; (2) framing these principles of age group justice in terms of life stages; and (3) indicating policy implications that merit further attention in light of rapidly aging societies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Radiation therapy for subfoveal chroidal neovascularization complicating age-related macular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuko; Ohara, Masae; Ishii, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of low-dose external beam irradiation on the visual function of 14 eyes with subfoveal chroidal neovascularization complicating age-related macular degeneration. Patient received external beam irradiation at a dose of 20 Gy in 10 fraction of 2 Gy. After treatment the visual function improved in 2 eyes, remained stable in 8 eyes and deteriorated in 4 eyes. At the last examination visual function improved in 1 eyes, remained stable in 2 eyes and deteriorated in 5 eyes. The low-dose irradiation is potentially beneficial for subfoveal chroidal neovascularization complicating age-related macular degeneration. (author)

  15. Fatty old hearts: role of cardiac lipotoxicity in age-related cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Drosatos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cardiomyopathy accounts for a significant part of heart failure cases. Imbalance of the energetic equilibrium of the heart along with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired β-adrenergic receptor signaling contributes in the aggravation of cardiac function in the elderly. In this review article, studies that correlate cardiac aging with lipotoxicity are summarized. The involvement of inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, β-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and mitochondrial dysfunction as underlying mechanisms for the lipid-driven age-related cardiomyopathy are presented with the aim to indicate potential therapeutic targets for cardiac aging.

  16. The Potential of Chitosan and Its Derivatives in Prevention and Treatment of Age-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerch, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Age-related, diet-related and protein conformational diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases are common in the elderly population. The potential of chitosan, chitooligosaccharides and their derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related dysfunctions is reviewed and discussed in this paper. The influence of oxidative stress, low density lipoprotein oxidation, increase of tissue stiffness, protein conformational changes, aging-associated chronic inflammation and their pathobiological significance have been considered. The chitosan-based functional food also has been reviewed. PMID:25871293

  17. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed......In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16...... in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes...

  18. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit; Mengel-From, Jonas; Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-06-01

    In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16 additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed with phenotype data on physical functioning (hand grip strength), cognitive functioning (mini mental state examination and a cognitive composite score), activity of daily living and self-rated health. Five SNPs showed association to one of the phenotypes; however, none of these SNPs were associated with a change in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes consistently shown to predict survival. It is possible that larger sample sizes are needed to robustly reveal associations with small effect sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced age-related denervation and fiber-type grouping in skeletal muscle of SOD1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrominova, Tatiana Y

    2010-11-30

    In this study skeletal muscles from 1.5- and 10-month-old Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) homozygous knockout (JLSod1(-/-)) mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (C57Bl6/129SvEv background) were compared with muscles from age- and sex-matched heterozygous (JLSod1(+/-)) littermates. The results of this study were compared with previously published data on two different strains of Sod1(-/-) mice: one from Dr. Epstein's laboratory (ELSod1(-/-); C57Bl6 background) and the other from Cephalon, Inc. (CSod1(-/-); 129/CD-1 background). Grouping of succinate dehydrogenase-positive fibers characterized muscles of Sod1(-/-) mice from all three strains. The 10-month-old Sod1(-/-)C and JL mice displayed pronounced denervation of the gastrocnemius muscle, whereas the ELSod1(-/-) mice displayed a small degree of denervation at this age, but developed accelerated age-related denervation later on. Denervation markers were up-regulated in skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice. This study is the first to show that metallothionein mRNA and protein expression was up-regulated in the skeletal muscle of 10-month-old JLSod1(-/-) mice and was mostly localized to the small atrophic muscle fibers. In conclusion, all three strains of Sod1(-/-) mice develop accelerated age-related muscle denervation, but the genetic background has significant influence on the progress of denervation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  1. Age-related changes in the transmission properties of the human lens and their relevance to circadian entrainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Herbst, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses.......To characterize age-related changes in the transmission of light through noncataractous human lenses....

  2. Cognitive reserve and emotional stimuli in older individuals: level of education moderates the age-related positivity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Davide; Brown, Adam D; Kapucu, Aycan; Marmar, Charles R; Pomara, Nunzio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: A frequently observed age-related effect is a preference in older individuals for positive stimuli. The cognitive control model proposes that this positivity effect may be mediated by executive functions. We propose that cognitive reserve, operationally defined as years of education, which tempers cognitive decline and has been linked to executive functions, should also influence the age-related positivity effect, especially as age advances. An emotional free recall test was administered to a group of 84 cognitively intact individuals aged 60 to 88, who varied in years of education. As part of a larger test battery, data were obtained on measures of executive functioning and depression. Multiple regression and moderation analyses were performed, controlling for general cognitive function, severity of depressive symptoms, and executive function. In our data, years of education appeared to moderate the effect of age on the positivity effect; age was negatively associated with recall of positive words in participants with fewer years of education, whereas a nonsignificant positive correlation was observed between age and positivity in participants with more education. Cognitive reserve appears to play a role in explaining individual differences in the positivity effect in healthy older individuals. Future studies should investigate whether cognitive reserve is also implicated in the ability to process a wide range of emotional stimuli and whether greater reserve is reflected in improved emotional regulation.

  3. Decline of the relative risk of death associated with low employment grade at older age: the impact of age related differences in smoking, blood pressure and plasma cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marang-van de Mheen, P. J.; Shipley, M. J.; Witteman, J. C.; Marmot, M. G.; Gunning-Schepers, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    To explore whether the observed age related decline in the relative risk of death associated with low employment grade can be explained by the profiles of smoking, blood pressure and plasma cholesterol changing differently with age between the employment grades. Prospective cohort study with 25

  4. A simple technique for treating age-related macular degeneration with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Daniel E.; Francis, J. Winston; Newnham, W. John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a simple external beam photon radiotherapy technique to treat age-related macular degeneration without the need for simulation, planning computed tomography (CT) or computer dosimetry. Methods and Materials: The goal was to enable the treatment to be set up reliably on the treatment machine on Day 1 with the patient supine in a head cast without any prior planning. Using measurements of ocular globe topography from Karlsson et al. (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 33: 705-712), we chose a point 1.5 cm behind the anterior surface of the upper eyelid (ASUE) as the isocentre of a half-beam, blocked, 5.0 x 3.0-cm, angled lateral field to treat the involved eye. This would position the isocentre about 0.5 cm behind the posterior surface of the lens, and a little over 1 cm in front of the macula, according to Karlsson et al. The setup requires initial adjustment of the gantry from horizontal (to account for any asymmetry of position of the eyes), then angling 15 deg. posteriorly to avoid the contralateral eye. Finally, the couch is raised to position the isocentre 1.5 cm behind the ASUE. Results: To verify the applicability of the technique, we performed CT and computer dosimetry on the first 11 eyes so treated. Our CT measurements were in good agreement with Karlsson et al. The lens dose was < 5% and the macula was within the 95% isodose curve in each case (6-MV linac). Treatment setup time is approximately 10 min each day. The 11 patients were treated with 5 x 2.00 Gy (2 patients) or 5 x 3.00 Gy (9 patients), and subjective response on follow-up over 1 to 12 months (median 4 months) was comparable to previously reported results, with no significant acute side effects. Conclusion: Our technique is easy to set up and reliably treats the macula, with sparing of the lens and contralateral eye. It enables treatment to commence rapidly and cost-effectively without the need for simulation or CT computer planning

  5. Genetic insights into age-related macular degeneration: Controversies addressing Risk, Causality, and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common condition among the elderly population that leads to the progressive central vision loss and serious compromise of quality of life for its sufferers. It is also one of the few disorders for whom the investigation of its genetics has yielded rich insights into its diversity and causality and holds the promise of enabling clinicians to provide better risk assessments for individuals as well as to develop and selectively deploy new therapeutics to either prevent or slow the development of disease and lessen the threat of vision loss. The genetics of AMD began initially with the appreciation of familial aggregation and increase risk and expanded with the initial association of APOE variants with the disease. The first major breakthroughs came with family-based linkage studies of affected (and discordant) sibs, which identified a number of genetic loci and led to the targeted search of the 1q31 and 10q26 loci for associated variants. Three of the initial four reports for the CFH variant, Y402H, were based on regional candidate searches, as were the two initial reports of the ARMS2/HTRA1 locus variants. Case-control association studies initially also played a role in discovering the major genetic variants for AMD, and the success of those early studies have been used to fuel enthusiasm for the methodology for a number of diseases. Until 2010, all of the subsequent genetic variants associated with AMD came from candidate gene testing based on the complement factor pathway. In 2010, several large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified genes that had not been previously identified. Much of this historical information is available in a number of recent reviews.(Chen et al., 2010b; Deangelis et al., 2011; Fafowora and Gorin, 2012b; Francis and Klein, 2011; Kokotas et al., 2011) Large meta analysis of AMD GWAS has added new loci and variants to this collection.(Chen et al., 2010a; Kopplin et al., 2010; Yu et

  6. SORL1 rs1699102 polymorphism modulates age-related cognitive decline and gray matter volume reduction in non-demented individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Yang, Caishui; Wei, Dongfeng; Chen, Kewei; Li, Shaowu; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2017-01-01

    SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. High-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging data from 89 of these subjects were also collected using a Siemens Trio 3.0 Tesla scanner. The T allele carriers displayed an accelerated age-related change in episodic memory and processing speed tests relative to the CC genotype. A similar pattern was observed in the age-related gray matter volume (GMV) reduction of the right middle temporal pole. The GMV in this region was significantly positively correlated with the episodic memory scores. The SORL1 gene rs1699102 polymorphism has been found to be associated with age-related cognitive decline and GMV reduction of the right middle temporal pole in older adults. These findings elucidate how the SORL1 variants shape the neural system to modulate age-related cognitive decline and support the hypothesis that SORL1 may represent a candidate gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 EAN.

  7. Auditory perceptual learning in adults with and without age-related hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanin eKarawani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Speech recognition in adverse listening conditions becomes more difficult as we age, particularly for individuals with age-related hearing loss (ARHL. Whether these difficulties can be eased with training remains debated, because it is not clear whether the outcomes are sufficiently general to be of use outside of the training context. The aim of the current study was to compare training-induced learning and generalization between normal-hearing older adults and those with ARHL.Methods: 56 listeners (60-72 y/o, 35 participants with ARHL and 21 normal hearing adults participated in the study. The study design was a cross over design with three groups (immediate-training, delayed-training and no-training group. Trained participants received 13 sessions of home-based auditory training over the course of 4 weeks. Three adverse listening conditions were targeted: (1 Speech-in-noise (2 time compressed speech and (3 competing speakers, and the outcomes of training were compared between normal and ARHL groups. Pre- and post-test sessions were completed by all participants. Outcome measures included tests on all of the trained conditions as well as on a series of untrained conditions designed to assess the transfer of learning to other speech and non-speech conditions. Results: Significant improvements on all trained conditions were observed in both ARHL and normal-hearing groups over the course of training. Normal hearing participants learned more than participants with ARHL in the speech-in-noise condition, but showed similar patterns of learning in the other conditions. Greater pre- to post-test changes were observed in trained than in untrained listeners on all trained conditions. In addition, the ability of trained listeners from the ARHL group to discriminate minimally different pseudowords in noise also improved with training. Conclusions: ARHL did not preclude auditory perceptual learning but there was little generalization to

  8. Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Europe: The Past and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colijn, Johanna M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Prokofyeva, Elena; Alves, Dalila; Cachulo, Maria L; Khawaja, Anthony P; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M J; Korb, Christina; Erke, Maja G; Bron, Alain; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Meester-Smoor, Magda A; Segato, Tatiana; Piermarocchi, Stefano; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Topouzis, Fotis; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Bertelsen, Geir; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Fletcher, Astrid E; Foster, Paul J; Silva, Rufino; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile; Klaver, Caroline C W

    2017-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a frequent, complex disorder in elderly of European ancestry. Risk profiles and treatment options have changed considerably over the years, which may have affected disease prevalence and outcome. We determined the prevalence of early and late AMD in Europe from 1990 to 2013 using the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium, and made projections for the future. Meta-analysis of prevalence data. A total of 42 080 individuals 40 years of age and older participating in 14 population-based cohorts from 10 countries in Europe. AMD was diagnosed based on fundus photographs using the Rotterdam Classification. Prevalence of early and late AMD was calculated using random-effects meta-analysis stratified for age, birth cohort, gender, geographic region, and time period of the study. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was compared between late AMD subtypes; geographic atrophy (GA) and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Prevalence of early and late AMD, BCVA, and number of AMD cases. Prevalence of early AMD increased from 3.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1%-5.0%) in those aged 55-59 years to 17.6% (95% CI 13.6%-21.5%) in those aged ≥85 years; for late AMD these figures were 0.1% (95% CI 0.04%-0.3%) and 9.8% (95% CI 6.3%-13.3%), respectively. We observed a decreasing prevalence of late AMD after 2006, which became most prominent after age 70. Prevalences were similar for gender across all age groups except for late AMD in the oldest age category, and a trend was found showing a higher prevalence of CNV in Northern Europe. After 2006, fewer eyes and fewer ≥80-year-old subjects with CNV were visually impaired (P = 0.016). Projections of AMD showed an almost doubling of affected persons despite a decreasing prevalence. By 2040, the number of individuals in Europe with early AMD will range between 14.9 and 21.5 million, and for late AMD between 3.9 and 4.8 million. We observed a decreasing prevalence of AMD and an improvement

  9. Selenium and Mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: Opposing Influences on Age-Related Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemire, Mélanie; Fillion, Myriam; Frenette, Benoît; Mayer, Annie; Philibert, Aline; Passos, Carlos José Sousa; Guimarães, Jean Rémy Davée; Barbosa, Fernando; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related cataracts (ARCs) are an important cause of blindness in developing countries. Although antioxidants may be part of the body’s defense to prevent ARC, environmental contaminants may contribute to cataractogenesis. In fish-eating populations of the lower Tapajós region, elevated exposure to mercury (Hg) has been reported, and blood levels of selenium (Se) range from normal to very high (> 1,000 μg/L). Objectives We examined ARCs in relation to these elements among adults (≥ 40 years of age) from 12 riverside communities. Methods Participants (n = 211) provided blood samples and underwent an extensive ocular examination. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to assess Hg and Se in blood and plasma. Results One-third (n = 69; 32.7%) of the participants had ARC. Lower plasma Se (P-Se; < 25th percentile, 110 μg/L) and higher blood Hg (B-Hg; ≥ 25th percentile, 25 μg/L) were associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio (POR) of ARC [adjusted POR (95% confidence interval), 2.69 (1.11–6.56) and 4.45 (1.43–13.83), respectively]. Among participants with high P-Se, we observed a positive but nonsignificant association with high B-Hg exposure, whereas among those with low B-Hg, we observed no association for P-Se. However, compared with the optimum situation (high P-Se, low B-Hg), the POR for those with low P-Se and high B-Hg was 16.4 (3.0–87.9). This finding suggests a synergistic effect. Conclusion Our results suggest that persons in this population with elevated Hg, the cataractogenic effects of Hg may be offset by Se. Because of the relatively small sample size and possible confounding by other dietary nutrients, additional studies with sufficient power to assess multiple nutrient and toxic interactions are required to confirm these findings. PMID:20716509

  10. European survey on the opinion and use of micronutrition in age-related macular degeneration: 10 years on from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tariq Aslam,1 Cécile Delcourt,2 Frank Holz,3 Alfredo García-Layana,4 Anita Leys,5 Rufino M Silva,6 Eric Souied7 1Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; 3University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany; 4Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 5University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium; 6University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; 7Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, FrancePurpose: To evaluate ophthalmologists’ opinion of, and use of, micronutritional dietary supplements 10 years after publication of the first Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS study.Methods: Participation was solicited from 4,000 European ophthalmologists. Responding physicians were screened, and those treating at least 40 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD per month and prescribing nutrition supplements at least 4 times per month were admitted and completed a 40-item questionnaire.Results: The surveyed sample included 112 general ophthalmologists and 104 retinal specialists. Most nutritional supplements (46% were initiated when early/intermediate AMD was confirmed, although 18% were initiated on confirmation of neovascular AMD. Clinical studies were well known: 90% were aware of AREDS, with 88% aware of AREDS1 and 36% aware of the, as-yet-unpublished, AREDS2 studies. Respondents considered lutein, zeaxanthin, zinc, omega-3, and vitamins to be the most important components of nutritional supplements, with the results of AREDS2 already having been taken into consideration by many. Ophthalmologists anticipate more scientific studies as well as improved product quality but identify cost as a barrier to wider uptake.Conclusion: Micronutrition is now part of the routine management of AMD for many ophthalmologists. Ophthalmologists choosing to use nutritional supplements are well-informed regarding current scientific studies. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, micronutrition, nutritional

  11. AVE0991, a nonpeptide analogue of Ang-(1-7), attenuates aging-related neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Teng; Xue, Liu-Jun; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qing-Guang; Xue, Xiao; Ou, Zhou; Gao, Qing; Shi, Jian-Quan; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Ying-Dong

    2018-04-17

    During the aging process, chronic neuroinflammation induced by microglia is detrimental for the brain and contributes to the etiology of several aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. As a newly identified axis of renin-angiotensin system, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MAS1 axis plays a crucial role in modulating inflammatory responses under various pathological conditions. However, its relationship with aging-related neuroinflammation is less studied so far. In this study, by using SAMP8 mice, an animal model of accelerated aging, we revealed that the neuroinflammation in the aged brain might be attributed to a decreased level of Ang-(1-7). More importantly, we provided evidence that AVE0991, a nonpeptide analogue of Ang-(1-7), attenuated the aging-related neuroinflammation via suppression of microglial-mediated inflammatory response through a MAS1 receptor-dependent manner. Meanwhile, this protective effect might be ascribed to the M2 activation of microglia induced by AVE0991. Taken together, these findings reveal the association of Ang-(1-7) with the inflammatory response in the aged brain and uncover the potential of its nonpeptide analogue AVE0991 in attenuation of aging-related neuroinflammation.

  12. Alcohol consumption, smoking and development of visible age-related signs: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Anne L; Mølbak, Marie-Louise; Schnor, Peter; Grønbæk, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2017-12-01

    Visible age-related signs indicate biological age, as individuals that appear old for their age are more likely to be at poor health, compared with people that appear their actual age. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and smoking are associated with four visible age-related signs (arcus corneae, xanthelasmata, earlobe crease and male pattern baldness). We used information from 11 613 individuals in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1976-2003). Alcohol intake, smoking habits and other lifestyle factors were assessed prospectively and visible age-related signs were inspected during subsequent examinations. The risk of developing arcus corneae, earlobe crease and xanthelasmata increased stepwise with increased smoking as measured by pack-years. For alcohol consumption, a high intake was associated with the risk of developing arcus corneae and earlobe crease, but not xanthelasmata. High alcohol consumption and smoking predict development of visible age-related signs. This is the first prospective study to show that heavy alcohol use and smoking are associated with generally looking older than one's actual age. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Perceptions of oocyte banking from women intending to circumvent age-related fertility decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marije; Dancet, Eline; Repping, Sjoerd; Goddijn, Mariette; Stoop, Dominic; van der Veen, Fulco; Gerrits, Trudie

    2016-01-01

    Women can now opt to bank their oocytes with the intention of increasing their chances of achieving a pregnancy after their fertility has declined. This exploratory study aimed to gain insight into how women, considering oocyte banking to circumvent age-related fertility decline, perceive this

  14. Wandering stars: age-related habitat use and dispersal of Javan Hawk-eagles (Spizaetus bartelsi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Balen, van S.

    2003-01-01

    Natal dispersal and philopatry have rarely been studied in tropical forest raptors. Especially with respect to endangered species with fragmented distributions more knowledge of dispersal and age-related habitat preferences is needed for proper management. We conducted an island-wide study on

  15. GRM7 variants confer susceptibility to age-related hearing impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedman, Rick A; Van Laer, Lut; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), or presbycusis, is the most prevalent sensory impairment in the elderly. ARHI is a complex disease caused by an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Here we describe the results of the first whole genome association study for ARHI. The stud...

  16. Age-related changes of structures in cerebellar cortex of cat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the structures of the cerebellar cortex of young adult and old cats for age-related changes, which were statistically analysed. Nissl staining was used to visualize the cortical neurons. The immunohistochemical method was used to display glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes and ...

  17. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697

  18. Novel gene function revealed by mouse mutagenesis screens for models of age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Paul K; Bowl, Michael R; Jeyarajan, Prashanthini; Wisby, Laura; Blease, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Michelle E; Simon, Michelle M; Greenaway, Simon; Michel, Vincent; Barnard, Alun; Aguilar, Carlos; Agnew, Thomas; Banks, Gareth; Blake, Andrew; Chessum, Lauren; Dorning, Joanne; Falcone, Sara; Goosey, Laurence; Harris, Shelley; Haynes, Andy; Heise, Ines; Hillier, Rosie; Hough, Tertius; Hoslin, Angela; Hutchison, Marie; King, Ruairidh; Kumar, Saumya; Lad, Heena V; Law, Gemma; MacLaren, Robert E; Morse, Susan; Nicol, Thomas; Parker, Andrew; Pickford, Karen; Sethi, Siddharth; Starbuck, Becky; Stelma, Femke; Cheeseman, Michael; Cross, Sally H; Foster, Russell G; Jackson, Ian J; Peirson, Stuart N; Thakker, Rajesh V; Vincent, Tonia; Scudamore, Cheryl; Wells, Sara; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M; Cox, Roger; Mallon, Anne-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2016-08-18

    Determining the genetic bases of age-related disease remains a major challenge requiring a spectrum of approaches from human and clinical genetics to the utilization of model organism studies. Here we report a large-scale genetic screen in mice employing a phenotype-driven discovery platform to identify mutations resulting in age-related disease, both late-onset and progressive. We have utilized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis to generate pedigrees of mutagenized mice that were subject to recurrent screens for mutant phenotypes as the mice aged. In total, we identify 105 distinct mutant lines from 157 pedigrees analysed, out of which 27 are late-onset phenotypes across a range of physiological systems. Using whole-genome sequencing we uncover the underlying genes for 44 of these mutant phenotypes, including 12 late-onset phenotypes. These genes reveal a number of novel pathways involved with age-related disease. We illustrate our findings by the recovery and characterization of a novel mouse model of age-related hearing loss.

  19. Audiovisual Temporal Perception in Aging: The Role of Multisensory Integration and Age-Related Sensory Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cassandra J; Chan, Yu Man; Anderson, Andrew J; McKendrick, Allison M

    2018-01-01

    Within each sensory modality, age-related deficits in temporal perception contribute to the difficulties older adults experience when performing everyday tasks. Since perceptual experience is inherently multisensory, older adults also face the added challenge of appropriately integrating or segregating the auditory and visual cues present in our dynamic environment into coherent representations of distinct objects. As such, many studies have investigated how older adults perform when integrating temporal information across audition and vision. This review covers both direct judgments about temporal information (the sound-induced flash illusion, temporal order, perceived synchrony, and temporal rate discrimination) and judgments regarding stimuli containing temporal information (the audiovisual bounce effect and speech perception). Although an age-related increase in integration has been demonstrated on a variety of tasks, research specifically investigating the ability of older adults to integrate temporal auditory and visual cues has produced disparate results. In this short review, we explore what factors could underlie these divergent findings. We conclude that both task-specific differences and age-related sensory loss play a role in the reported disparity in age-related effects on the integration of auditory and visual temporal information.

  20. Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: Pooled findings from three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, W.; Assink, J.; Klein, R.; Mitchell, P.; Klaver, C. C.; Klein, B. E.; Hofman, A.; Jensen, S.; Wang, J. J.; de Jong, P. T.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and potential risk factors for late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in three racially similar populations from North America, Europe, and AUSTRALIA: Combined analysis of population-based eye disease prevalence data. There were 14,752 participants with gradable

  1. Adaptation to Low Vision Caused by Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theresa Marie

    2008-01-01

    One in eight Americans aged 65 and older has an eye disease resulting in low vision, and more women than men are visually impaired, mainly because women live longer. Age-related visual impairments are an indicator of a decline in activities of daily living and self-help skills. The top eye conditions that affect older adults are macular…

  2. Association of gait and balance disorders with age-related white matter changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baezner, H.; Blahak, C.; Poggesi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Scheltens, P.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Hennerici, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability (LADIS) Study, 11 European centers are evaluating the role of age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent determinant of the transition to disability in the elderly (65 to 84 years). We aimed at determining the influence of ARWMC on

  3. Age-related differences in cognition across the adult lifespan in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever, A.G.; Geurts, H.M.

    It is largely unknown how age impacts cognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated whether age-related cognitive differences are similar, reduced or increased across the adult lifespan, examined cognitive strengths and weaknesses, and explored whether objective test performance is

  4. Age-related adaptations of brain function during a memory task are also present at rest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippini, N.; Nickerson, L.D.; Beckmann, Christian; Ebmeier, K.P.; Frisoni, G.B.; Matthews, P.M.; Smith, S.M.; Mackay, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated age-related regional differences in the magnitude of the BOLD signal using task-based fMRI. It has been suggested that functional changes reflect either compensatory or de-differentiation mechanisms, both of which assume response to a specific stimulus. Here, we

  5. The Prevalence of Age-Related Eye Diseases and Visual Impairment in Aging: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. Methods. Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. Results. Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are high in four different studies of these conditions, especially in people over 75 years of age. There are disparities among racial/ethnic groups with higher age-specific prevalence of DR, open-angle glaucoma, and visual impairment in Hispanics and blacks compared with whites, higher prevalence of age-related cataract in whites compared with blacks, and higher prevalence of late AMD in whites compared with Hispanics and blacks. The estimates are based on old data and do not reflect recent changes in the distribution of age and race/ethnicity in the United States population. There are no epidemiologic estimates of prevalence for many visually-impairing conditions. Conclusions. Ongoing prevalence surveys designed to provide reliable estimates of visual impairment, AMD, age-related cataract, open-angle glaucoma, and DR are needed. It is important to collect objective data on these and other conditions that affect vision and quality of life in order to plan for health care needs and identify areas for further research. PMID:24335069

  6. Significance of categorization and the modeling of age related factors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  8. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Age-Related Differences in Reactions to Psychological Contract Breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Velde, M.E.G. van der

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  10. A longitudinal study of age-related differences in reactions to psychological contract breach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; van der Velde, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The current paper investigated age-related differences in the relations of psychological contract breach with work outcomes over time. Based on affective events theory, we expected job satisfaction to mediate the longitudinal relationship of contract breach with changes in job performance. Moreover,

  11. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  12. A novel radial water tread maze tracks age-related cognitive decline in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no treatment and cure for age-related dementia and cognitive impairment in humans. Mice suffer from age-related cognitive decline just as people do, but assessment is challenging because of cumbersome and at times stressful performance tasks. We developed a novel radial water tread (RWT maze and tested male C57BL/6 (B6 and C57BL/6 x Balb/c F1 (CB6F1 mice at ages 4, 12, 20, and 28 months. B6 mice showed a consistent learning experience and memory retention that gradually decrease