Recently, a number of neurodevelopmental studies of hitherto neglected taxa have become available, contributing to questions relating to the evolution of the nervous system of Lophotrochozoa (Spiralia + Lophophorata). As an example, neurogenesis of echiurans showed that these worm-shaped spiralia...
.... The causes of this neglect are many, ranging from previously mentioned predisposition toward classified intelligence sources to the technical challenge of information excess that overloads the users...
Lucas, Steven; Jernbro, Carolina
Although neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the home, it has received relatively little attention in both research and medical practice. Up to one in six children in the western world experience physical or psychological neglect during their upbringing. Severe neglect is associated with anatomical and physiological changes in the brain that in turn are coupled to cognitive impairment, impulsivity, and disturbances in concentration and social behavior. Reducing the risk of neglect requires the provision of preventive interventions at the individual and societal level, both universally and targeted to parents and children in need of special support. Health care services can play a key role in the prevention and early detection of neglect in childhood.
Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi
Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.
Full Text Available The syndrome of spatial neglect results from the combination of a number of deficits in attention, with patients demonstrating both spatially lateralised and non-lateralised impairments. Previous reports have hinted that there may be a motivational component to neglect and that modulating this might alleviate some of the debilitating symptoms. Additionally, recent work on the effects of reward on attention in healthy participants has revealed improvements across a number of paradigms. As the primary deficit in neglect has been associated with attention, this evidence for reward’s effects is potentially important. However, until very recently there have been few empirical studies addressing this potential therapeutic avenue. Here we review the growing body of evidence that attentional impairments in neglect can be reduced by motivation, for example in the form of preferred music or anticipated monetary reward, and discuss the implications of this for treatments for these patients. Crucially these effects of positive motivation are not observed in all patients with neglect, suggesting that the consequences of motivation may relate to individual lesion anatomy. Given the key role of dopaminergic systems in motivational processes, we suggest that motivational stimulation might act as a surrogate for dopaminergic stimulation. In addition, we consider the relationship between clinical post stroke apathy and lack of response to motivation.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.
Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407
Burton H Singer
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is a so-called neglected tropical disease, currently overshadowed by higher-profile efforts to address malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Despite recent successes in arresting transmission, some 40 million people who already have the disease have been largely neglected. This study aims to increase understanding of how this vulnerable, neglected group can be helped. METHODS: We used purposive sampling to select 60 men and women with filarial lymphoedema (45 with filarial elephantiasis and 15 men with filarial hydrocoele from the south of Sri Lanka in 2004-2005. Participants were selected to give a balance of men and women and poor and nonpoor, and a range of stages of the disease. Participants' experiences and the consequences of their disease for the household were explored with in-depth qualitative, semistructured interviews. FINDINGS: LF was extremely debilitating to participants over long periods of time. The stigma attached to the condition caused social isolation and emotional distress, and delayed diagnosis and treatment, resulting in undue advancement of the disease. Free treatment services at government clinics were avoided because the participants' condition would be identifiable in public. Loss of income due to the condition was reported by all households in the sample, not just the poorest. Households that were already on low incomes were pushed into near destitution, from which it was almost impossible to escape. Affected members of low-income households also had less opportunity to obtain appropriate treatment from distant clinics, and had living and working conditions that made hygiene and compliance difficult. SIGNIFICANCE: This highly vulnerable category of patients has low visibility, thus becoming marginalized and forgotten. With an estimated 300,000 total cases of elephantiasis and/or oedema in Sri Lanka, and around 300,000 men with filarial hydrocoele, the affected households will need
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis. Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/9/2012.
Full Text Available Seventeen neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO. It is estimated that over 1 billion people are infected with NTDs, with a further 1 billion at risk. The majority of NTDs occur in the tropics and sub-tropics and have particular characteristics in common.
... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...
more patients could be treated in the peripheral hospitals. .... most of the inovement from Perkins exercises will occur at the fracture site .... neglected femoral neck fracture in the elderly. ... The best treatment of neglected trauma is prevention.
Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel
INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...
Wojciulik, E; Rorden, C; Clarke, K; Husain, M; Driver, J
Visual neglect is a relatively common deficit after brain damage, particularly strokes. Cancellation tests provide standard clinical measures of neglect severity and deficits in daily life. A recent single-case study introduced a new variation on standard cancellation. Instead of making a visible mark on each target found, the patient made invisible marks (recorded with carbon paper underneath, for later scoring). Such invisible cancellation was found to reveal more neglect than cancellation with visible marks. Here we test the generality of this. Twenty three successive cases with suspected neglect each performed cancellation with visible or invisible marks. Neglect of contralesional targets was more pronounced with invisible marks. Indeed, about half of the patients only showed neglect in this version. For cases showing more neglect with invisible marks, stronger neglect of contralesional targets correlated with more revisits to ipsilesional targets for making additional invisible marks upon them. These results indicate that cancellation with invisible marks can reveal more neglect than standard cancellation with visible marks, while still providing a practical bedside test. Our observations may be consistent with recent proposals that demands on spatial working memory (required to keep track of previously found items only when marked invisibly) can exacerbate spatial neglect.
Miller, Bradley S; Spratt, Eve G; Himes, John H; Condon, Doreen; Summer, Andrea; Papa, Carrie E; Brady, Kathleen T
The long-lasting impact of different neglectful environments on growth in children is not well studied. Three groups of children, 3-10 years old, were recruited (n=60): previously institutionalized international adoptees living in stable home environments for at least 2 years (IA; n=15), children with a history of neglect born in the USA (USN; n=17), and controls (n=28). Children underwent physical examination, anthropometry, and collection of serum for growth parameters. Mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) were different (pneglected children. IGF-1 adjusted for age and weight SDS were different (pneglect groups. The degree of growth failure in height and HC in IAs was more severe than neglected US children. These findings may reflect differences between the impact of chronic and intermittent deprivation on the growth hormone system.
... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...
Rowland, Jane Thomas
Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)
Bier, J C; Vokaer, M; Fery, P; Garbusinski, J; Van Campenhoudt, G; Blecic, S A; Bartholomé, E J
Oculomotor nerve disease is a common cause of diplopia. When strabismus is present, absence of diplopia has to induce the research of either uncovering of visual fields or monocular suppression, amblyopia or blindness. We describe the case of a 41-year-old woman presenting with right oculomotor paresis and left object-centred visual neglect due to a right fronto-parietal haemorrhage expanding to the right peri-mesencephalic cisterna caused by the rupture of a right middle cerebral artery aneurysm. She never complained of diplopia despite binocular vision and progressive recovery of strabismus, excluding uncovering of visual fields. Since all other causes were excluded in this case, we hypothesise that the absence of diplopia was due to the object-centred visual neglect. Partial internal right oculomotor paresis causes an ocular deviation in abduction; the image being perceived deviated contralaterally to the left. Thus, in our case, the neglect of the left image is equivalent to a right monocular functional blindness. However, bell cancellation test clearly worsened when assessed in left monocular vision confirming that eye patching can worsen attentional visual neglect. In conclusion, our case argues for the possibility of a functional monocular blindness induced by visual neglect. We think that in presence of strabismus, absence of diplopia should induce the search for hemispatial visual neglect when supratentorial lesions are suspected.
Full Text Available The present study examined a battery of tests to evaluate unilateral spatial neglect; the tests included different tasks involving several modalities of spatial exploration mapping perceptual, motor, attentional and personal or extrapersonal space dimensions. The subjects, 121 right-brain-damaged patients with unilateral neglect, were studied in seven laboratories in four European countries. Relationships among the various tests were examined by correlations, a cluster analysis and by an analysis of individual cases. Different sensitivity was found among various tests for detecting neglect performances. Both the cluster analysis and the single case analysis clearly showed a segregation between personal and extrapersonal neglect. Analysis of the large cluster, including a variety of tests of extra personal neglect, together with the study of single cases, suggests the possibility of differentiating the various manifestations of spatial neglect which can be interpreted on the basis of the descriptions of other individual cases previously reported in the literature. Finally, the present study indicated the relative stability of neglect following the acute phase and its independence from age.
Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana
The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep
Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154
Rakesh Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.
Bost, Frederic; Jacobs, Robert T; Kowalczyk, Paul
Many different public and private organizations from across the globe are collaborating on neglected diseases drug-discovery and development projects with the aim of identifying a cure for tropical infectious diseases. These neglected diseases collaborations require a global, secure, multi-organization data-management solution, combined with a platform that facilitates communication and supports collaborative work. This review discusses the solutions offered by 'Software as a Service' (SaaS) web-based platforms, despite notable challenges, and the evolution of these platforms required to foster efficient virtual research efforts by geographically dispersed scientists.
Hotez, Peter J; Gurwith, Meredith
To review the prevalence, incidence, and geographic distribution of the major neglected infections of poverty in Europe as a basis for future policy recommendations. We reviewed the literature from 1999 to 2010 for neglected tropical diseases listed by PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (http://www.plosntds.org/static/scope.action) and the geographic regions and countries of (continental) Europe. Reference lists of identified articles and reviews were also hand searched, as were World Health Organization databases. In Eastern Europe, the soil-transmitted helminth infections (especially ascariasis, trichuriasis, and toxocariasis), giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis remain endemic. High incidence rates of selected food-borne helminthiases including trichinellosis, opisthorchiasis, taeniasis, and echinococcosis also occur, while brucellosis and leptospirosis represent important bacterial zoonoses. Turmoil and economic collapse following the war in the Balkans, the fall of Communism, and Europe's recent recession have helped to promote their high prevalence and incidence rates. In Southern Europe, vector-borne zoonoses have emerged, including leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, and key arboviral infections. Additional vulnerable populations include the Roma, orphans destined for international adoption, and some immigrant groups. Among the policy recommendations are increased efforts to determine the prevalence, incidence, and geographic distribution of Europe's neglected infections, epidemiological studies to understand the ecology and mechanisms of disease transmission, and research and development for new control tools. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006
Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…
Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve
Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions.
Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael
Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions.
Cheatham, Carol L; Larkina, Marina; Bauer, Patricia J; Toth, Sheree L; Cicchetti, Dante
To summarize, all children interacted with the experimenter and actively participated in the imitation task. There was evidence of improvement in performance from baseline to recall as would be expected with attention to, and memory for, the actions that were modeled by the experimenter. All participants evidenced a decrease in performance as the difficulty of the task increased, as would be expected. When the maltreated children were compared to the nonmaltreated children in a 2-group design, there was no statistically significant difference in performance. However, when the maltreated group was divided into two subtypes of either neglected or abused, and performance was compared in a 3-group design, it was revealed that the neglected children experienced deficits in performance relative to abused children. For production of target actions, the neglected children's performance trended toward significance when compared to the nonmaltreated children's performance. However, there was no significant difference between the performance of the abused children and the nonmaltreated children for either production of target actions or productions of ordered pairs. The children in this longitudinal study were assessed previously at 12 months of age in a mother-child play situation (Valentino et al., 2006). Interactions during structured play between mother and child were evaluated for maternal directives and child responses. Interestingly, the difference in social interactions that was most reliable was the finding that the abused children imitated their mothers more often than did the nonmaltreated children. There was no difference between the imitative behaviors of the neglected children and the abused or nonmaltreated children. The researchers note that by imitating their mothers, the abused children might be attempting to prevent further abusive incidents. Limit setting behaviors of the mothers in response to child initiations were positively related to the children
O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle
Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.
Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B
Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.
Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P
Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.
group, although at least four per cent of all children under one year of age, is subjected to child abuse and neglect. In her study, Else Christensen has attempted to estimate the extent of the problem among children under the age of one year. Furthermose, she has made a theoetical and practical...... clarification of the concept child abuse and neglect. Excatly which signs is the health nurse to observe in order to employ the serious term child abuse and neglect?...
Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.
Full Text Available XinQi Dong Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Elder self-neglect is a global public health and human rights issue that threatens older people’s health and safety. It commonly refers to refusal or failure to provide oneself with care and protection in areas of food, water, clothing, hygiene, medication, living environments, and safety precautions. While prevalent, the status of self-neglecting individuals remains largely unclear, in particular within community-dwelling populations. By reviewing the epidemiology of elder self-neglect (definition, prevalence, risk factors, and consequences to date, the present paper identifies key research gaps such as methodological inconsistency in case identification and measurement, and study designs that are inadequate to determine risk factors of self-neglect. More importantly, in light of the rapidly growing older population, relevant stakeholders (researchers, healthcare providers, social service providers, legal professionals, community organizations, and policymakers must be prepared for an expected increasing number of self-neglect cases and enlarging scope of the problem. Hence, in this article, I present an overview regarding the management issues of elderly self-neglect related to the detection, assessment, reporting and referral, and decision-making capacity. Based on the current literature, the paper is aimed to explore the present knowledge and challenges, and how they can pave the way for solutions to self-neglect research, practice, and policy. Keywords: elderly self-neglect, elder abuse, self-neglect future directions
This paper looks at emotional neglect in the early years of life, and postulates some probable long-term sequelae of such neglect. It argues that there is a continuum of neglect; ranging from the severest form, as seen in institutional orphanages, to milder variations. A range of theoretical and research traditions, including developmental…
Kessel, M.E. van; Fasotti, L.
Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic
Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.
Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…
Gurunathan, Deepa; Shanmugaavel, Arunachalam Karthikeyan
Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child's basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t)), pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001). A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003), deft (P = 0 Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.
Full Text Available This theme issue of Jàmbá takes up the question of neglected disasters. It is an important topic because the world is changing, disasters are changing, and theory is changing. All these changes call for a re-assessment of why some human suffering and social disruption receive attention from authorities, donors, researchers and the media, while some does not. Recent progress in both development studies and disaster studies provides tools for answering this question. Development and disaster studies date in their current forms to ways of thinking that were current in academic and policy circles in the late 1950s and 1960s. At that time the world was recovering from world war and former colonies of Europe were gaining independence. It was a world in which (with some exceptions conflict was held in check in an uneasy cold war balance. It was also a world where a growing UN system held the promise of meeting humanitarian needs when they arose. That world is no more. ‘Development’ has changed.
Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.
Lim, Jae Hoon
Liver fluke disease is a chronic parasitic inflammatory disease of the bile ducts. Infection occurs through ingestion of fluke-infested, fresh-water raw fish. The most well-known species that cause human infection are Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. Adult flukes settle in the small intrahepatic bile ducts and then they live there for 20-30 years. The long-lived flukes cause long-lasting chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and this produces epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and bile duct dilatation. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic, but the patients with heavy infection suffer from lassitude and nonspecific abdominal complaints. The complications are stone formation, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis and cholangiocarcinoma. Approximately 35 million people are infected with liver flukes throughout the world and the exceptionally high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in some endemic areas is closely related with a high prevalence of liver fluke infection. Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected.
Parr, Thomas; Friston, Karl J
Visual neglect is a debilitating neuropsychological phenomenon that has many clinical implications and-in cognitive neuroscience-offers an important lesion deficit model. In this article, we describe a computational model of visual neglect based upon active inference. Our objective is to establish a computational and neurophysiological process theory that can be used to disambiguate among the various causes of this important syndrome; namely, a computational neuropsychology of visual neglect. We introduce a Bayes optimal model based upon Markov decision processes that reproduces the visual searches induced by the line cancellation task (used to characterize visual neglect at the bedside). We then consider 3 distinct ways in which the model could be lesioned to reproduce neuropsychological (visual search) deficits. Crucially, these 3 levels of pathology map nicely onto the neuroanatomy of saccadic eye movements and the systems implicated in visual neglect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
absent a state statute, charges for child neglect under clauses 1 and 2, disorders or neglects to the prejudice of good order and discipline, may not...DOarMRET ROCIuCsiz KMW nuavmm Mr B2ID urn "LA NrOC DO CUMAE•N LOAN DOCUMENT CHILD NEGLECT IN THE MILITARY COMMUNITY: ARE WE NEGLECTING THE CHILD ? A Thesis...M. Schenck United States Army 43D JUDGE ADVOCATE OFFICER GRADUATE COURSE April 1995 Published: 148 Mil. L. Rev. 1 (1995). CHILD NEGLECT IN THE
di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio
This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target
Full Text Available Background: Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child′s basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t, pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT, PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student′s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P 3 years (P = 0.001. A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003, deft (P = 0 < 0.001, pufa (P = 0.011, and debris index (P = 0.002 scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Conclusion: Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.
Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.
Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder
Conclusions: Painless, supple, plantigrade, and cosmetically acceptable feet were achieved in neglected clubfeet without any extensive surgery. A fair trial of conservative Ponseti method should be tried before resorting to extensive soft tissue procedure.
Dill, Vicky S.; Stafford, Delia
Neglected children need teachers who are not judgmental, moralistic, or easily shocked; who listen, understand, and recognize their own fears and prejudices; and who enjoy interacting with children and define their work as eliciting effort and growth. (SK)
Peterson, Karen L.; Roscoe, Bruce
Discusses enhancing the development and improving the quality of life of neglected children through acquiring a special understanding and style of interacting with them and by using activities designed specifically to meet their developmental needs. (RH)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — There are more than 6,500 identified rare and neglected diseases, yet only about 250 treatments are available for these conditions. The limited numbers of patients...
Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael
To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children’s emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children’s mothers completed the Parent–Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were iden...
Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David
To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N=34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N=33) were obtained from community agencies serving families. Participants were administered the IFEEL Picture task to assess maternal perceptions of infant emotions, eight vignettes of young children's behavior to assess attributions for child behavior across different scenarios, and a passage recall task to assess information processing problems. A measure of depression was used as a covariate to control for this variable. Neglectful mothers were significantly less likely to recognize infants' feelings of interest, more likely to see sadness and shame, more inaccurate at labeling infants' emotions, and had a more limited emotion vocabulary. They also made more internal and stable attributions for children's behaviors in situations where it was not clear whether a child was at risk of harm, and had poor recall of information. Depressive symptoms had little effect on these findings with the exception of information recall. Neglectful mothers show significant problems in information processing concerning their child's emotions and behaviors, which may affect their childrearing behavior. Cognitive-behavioral interventions to improve parents' abilities to recognize their child's emotions and to address maladaptive attributions may be of value.
De Paul, Joaquín; Guibert, María
To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect is considered as a specific type of non-helping behavior. The central hypothesis of the theoretical model presented here suggests that neglectful parents cannot develop the helping response set to care for their children because the observation of a child's signal of need does not lead to the experience of emotions that motivate helping or because the parents experience these emotions, but specific cognitions modify the motivation to help. The present theoretical model suggests that different typologies of neglectful parents could be developed based on different reasons that parents might not to experience emotions that motivate helping behaviors. The model can be helpful to promote new empirical studies about the etiology of different groups of neglectful families.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.
Full Text Available Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalisation to (untrained tasks lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuo-spatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into 4 categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of
Full Text Available Recently, World Health Organization (WHO and Medicins San Frontieres (MSF proposed a classification of diseases as global, neglected and extremely neglected. Global diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular and mental (CNS diseases represent the targets of the majority of the R&D efforts of pharmaceutical companies. Neglected diseases affect millions of people in the world yet existing drug therapy is limited and often inappropriate. Furthermore, extremely neglected diseases affect people living under miserable conditions who barely have access to the bare necessities for survival. Most of these diseases are excluded from the goals of the R&D programs in the pharmaceutical industry and therefore fall outside the pharmaceutical market. About 14 million people, mainly in developing countries, die each year from infectious diseases. From 1975 to 1999, 1393 new drugs were approved yet only 1% were for the treatment of neglected diseases . These numbers have not changed until now, so in those countries there is an urgent need for the design and synthesis of new drugs and in this area the prodrug approach is a very interesting field. It provides, among other effects, activity improvements and toxicity decreases for current and new drugs, improving market availability. It is worth noting that it is essential in drug design to save time and money, and prodrug approaches can be considered of high interest in this respect. The present review covers 20 years of research on the design of prodrugs for the treatment of neglected and extremely neglected diseases such as ChagasÃ¢Â€Â™ disease (American trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis, malaria, sickle cell disease, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis.
Baheux, Kenji; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Yasuko
Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemispatial neglect is a cognitive disorder defined as a lack of attention for stimuli contra-lateral to the brain lesion. The assessment is traditionally done with basic pencil and paper tests and the rehabilitation programs are generally not well adapted. We propose a virtual reality system featuring an eye-tracking device for a better characterization of the neglect that will lead to new rehabilitation techniques. Methods This paper presents a comparison of eye-gaze patterns of healthy subjects, patients and healthy simulated patients on a virtual line bisection test. The task was also executed with a reduced visual field condition hoping that fewer stimuli would limit the neglect. Results We found that patients and healthy simulated patients had similar eye-gaze patterns. However, while the reduced visual field condition had no effect on the healthy simulated patients, it actually had a negative impact on the patients. We discuss the reasons for these differences and how they relate to the limitations of the neglect simulation. Conclusion We argue that with some improvements the technique could be used to determine the potential of new rehabilitation techniques and also help the rehabilitation staff or the patient's relatives to better understand the neglect condition.
Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.
Fox, Lynn; And Others
A study of the relationship between child abuse/neglect and language disability compared 30 abused, generally neglected, or severely neglected children, aged 3-8, to 10 nonabused controls. Results on language comprehension tests suggest that abused and severely neglected children show greater difficulty with language comprehension tasks than their…
Takamura, Yusaku; Imanishi, Maho; Osaka, Madoka; Ohmatsu, Satoko; Tominaga, Takanori; Yamanaka, Kentaro; Morioka, Shu; Kawashima, Noritaka
Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemispheric stroke. While most patients lack insight into their neglect behaviour and do not initiate compensatory behaviours in the early recovery phase, some patients recognize it and start to pay attention towards the neglected space. We aimed to characterize visual attention capacity in patients with unilateral spatial neglect with specific focus on cortical processes underlying compensatory gaze shift towards the neglected space during the recovery process. Based on the Behavioural Inattention Test score and presence or absence of experience of neglect in their daily life from stroke onset to the enrolment date, participants were divided into USN++ (do not compensate, n = 15), USN+ (compensate, n = 10), and right hemisphere damage groups (no neglect, n = 24). The patients participated in eye pursuit-based choice reaction tasks and were asked to pursue one of five horizontally located circular objects flashed on a computer display. The task consisted of 25 trials with 4-s intervals, and the order of highlighted objects was randomly determined. From the recorded eye tracking data, eye movement onset and gaze shift were calculated. To elucidate the cortical mechanism underlying behavioural results, electroencephalagram activities were recorded in three USN++, 13 USN+ and eight patients with right hemisphere damage. We found that while lower Behavioural Inattention Test scoring patients (USN++) showed gaze shift to non-neglected space, some higher scoring patients (USN+) showed clear leftward gaze shift at visual stimuli onset. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between Behavioural Inattention Test score and gaze shift extent in the unilateral spatial neglect group (r = -0.62, P attention to the neglected space) and its neural correlates in patients with unilateral spatial neglect. In conclusion, patients with unilateral spatial neglect who recognized
Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael
Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.
Anil K Jain
Full Text Available Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the "Pubmed" search with the keywords "NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture." A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG, (b closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective, classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu′s staging neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90
Bisiach, Edoardo; McIntosh, Robert D; Dijkerman, H Chris; McClements, Kevin I; Colombo, Mariarosa; Milner, A David
Previous studies have shown that many patients with spatial neglect underestimate the horizontal extent of leftwardly located shapes (presented on screen or on paper) relative to rightwardly located shapes. This has been used to help explain their leftward biases in line bisection. In the present study we have tested patients with right hemisphere damage, either with or without neglect, on a comparable length matching task, but using 3-dimensional objects. The task was executed first visually without tactile contact, and second through touch without vision. In both sense modalities, we found that patients with neglect, but not those without, tended to underestimate leftward located objects relative to rightward located objects, differing significantly in this regard from healthy subjects. However these lateral biases were not as frequent or as pronounced as in previous studies using 2-D visual shapes. Despite the similar asymmetries in the two sense modalities, we found only a small correlation between them, and clear double dissociations were observed among our patients. We conclude that leftward length underestimation cannot be attributed to any one single cause. First it cannot be entirely due to impairments in the visual pathways, such as hemianopia and/or processing biases, since the disorder is also seen in the tactile modality. At the same time, however, length underestimation phenomena cannot be fully explained as a disruption of a supramodal central size processor, since they can occur in either vision or touch alone. Our data would fit best with a multiple-factor model in which some patients show leftward length underestimation for modality-specific reasons, while others do so due to a more high-level disruption of size judgements.
Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie
control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...
Neglected diseases are largely infectious diseases that have burdened humanity for centuries, but currently receiving little attention. Infectious diseases in their long histories have resulted in considerable morbidities, disabilities and deformities, often subjecting to stigma. The magnitude of their impact on health and labor.
Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.
This document outlines the ideas of the Illinois Department of Aging on the implementation and management of the Elder Abuse and Neglect Intervention Program. These topics are addressed in order to provide a basis for discussion of key elements of the proposed program and serve as a guide in the development of rules, policies, and procedures for…
Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco
Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…
Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K
Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.
Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael
To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…
disease, and malaria have a devastating impact on humanity, yet R&D for new drugs for these diseases has been progressively marginalised because they are not considered a lucrative investment. DNDi, a needs-driven initiative, keeps the needs of patients suffering from neglected diseases paramount in its search for.
Stephen C Gammie
Full Text Available Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet the biological basis of maternal neglect is poorly understood and a rodent model is lacking.The current study characterizes a population of mice (MaD1 which naturally exhibit maternal neglect (little or no care of offspring at an average rate of 17% per generation. We identified a set of risk factors that can predict future neglect of offspring, including decreased self-grooming and elevated activity. At the time of neglect, neglectful mothers swam significantly more in a forced swim test relative to nurturing mothers. Cross-fostered offspring raised by neglectful mothers in turn exhibit increased expression of risk factors for maternal neglect and decreased maternal care as adults, suggestive of possible epigenetic contributions to neglect. Unexpectedly, offspring from neglectful mothers elicited maternal neglect from cross-fostered nurturing mothers, suggesting that factors regulating neglect are not solely within the mother. To identify a neurological pathway underlying maternal neglect, we examined brain activity in neglectful and nurturing mice. c-Fos expression was significantly elevated in neglectful relative to nurturing mothers in the CNS, particularly within dopamine associated areas, such as the zona incerta (ZI, ventral tegmental area (VTA, and nucleus accumbens. Phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker for dopamine production was significantly elevated in ZI and higher in VTA (although not significantly in neglectful mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase levels were unaltered, suggesting a dysregulation of dopamine activity rather than cell number. Phosphorylation of DARPP-32, a marker for dopamine D1-like receptor activation, was elevated within nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen in neglectful versus nurturing dams.These findings suggest that atypical dopamine activity within the maternal brain, especially within regions involved in reward, is involved in naturally
India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.
Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.
Harris, J C; Elcock, C; Sidebotham, P D; Welbury, R R
In this second part of a two-part report, further findings of a postal questionnaire sent in March 2005 to dentists with an interest in paediatric dentistry working in varied UK settings are presented and discussed in the context of current multi-agency good practice in safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. Using insights gained from a survey of self-reported management of children with neglected dentitions, this paper explores whether paediatric dentists neglect child dental neglect. The authors conclude that current practice already includes much that contributes to promoting children's oral health and wellbeing. However, in a society where children continue to suffer as a result of abuse and neglect, they warn that improvements are needed in communication between dentists and other health and social care professionals if children's welfare is to be safeguarded and promoted effectively and future tragedies avoided.
Sarri, G; Marcenes, W
This commentary focuses on the condition of dental neglect (DN) in children in the UK. It is divided into three sections: the first section defines DN in children and its consequences, the second section discusses who may be responsible for dental diseases in children as a result of neglect and the third section proposes a holistic approach to address DN in children in the UK.
Zehtiye Fusun Yasar
Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394
Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.
Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676
Marshall, W N
To describe the use of inpatient hospitalization for abused and neglected children living in a metropolitan area. Retrospective record review of abused and neglected children admitted in 1992 and 1993 to hospitals with 87% of metropolitan area pediatric admissions; comparison of these data with population, crisis nursery, and child protective services data. Thirty-four abused and neglected children were admitted to hospital, representing 0.3% (34/11,066; 95% confidence interval, 0%-1.2%) of pediatric admissions and 0.2% (34/19,950; 95% confidence interval, 0%-0.6%) of child protective services reports. This represents a rate of hospitalization for child abuse of 10 children (95% confidence interval, 0-46) per 100,000 child population per year. Seven hundred fifteen children were admitted to the crisis nursery by child protective services. Of those admitted to the hospital, 12 needed intensive care, 5 of whom died. Only 3 of 34 hospital-admitted children had private health insurance; 19 of 34 were younger than 1 year. Inpatient hospitalization for abuse represented a small fraction of total pediatric admissions and of child protective services reports. Comprehensive medical care for most abused children and medical education about child abuse must occur in outpatient settings.
Boxer, Gary H.; And Others
The study examined the extent to which child neglect and family dysfunction have contributed to the need for hospitalization of asthmatic children. Using a measure of global functioning, psychologic morbidity is associated with medical neglect. (Author/DB)
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... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the...
Reinhart, Stefan; Schunck, Alexander; Schaadt, Anna Katharina; Adams, Michaela; Simon, Alexandra; Kerkhoff, Georg
The neglect syndrome is frequently associated with neglect dyslexia (ND), which is characterized by omissions or misread initial letters of single words. ND is usually assessed with standardized reading texts in clinical settings. However, particularly in the chronic phase of ND, patients often report reading deficits in everyday situations but show (nearly) normal performances in test situations that are commonly well-structured. To date, sensitive and standardized tests to assess the severity and characteristics of ND are lacking, although reading is of high relevance for daily life and vocational settings. Several studies found modulating effects of different word features on ND. We combined those features in a novel test to enhance test sensitivity in the assessment of ND. Low-frequency words of different length that contain residual pronounceable words when the initial letter strings are neglected were selected. We compared these words in a group of 12 ND-patients suffering from right-hemispheric first-ever stroke with word stimuli containing no existing residual words. Finally, we tested whether the serially presented words are more sensitive for the diagnosis of ND than text reading. The severity of ND was modulated strongly by the ND-test words and error frequencies in single word reading of ND words were on average more than 10 times higher than in a standardized text reading test (19.8% vs. 1.8%). The novel ND-test maximizes the frequency of specific ND-errors and is therefore more sensitive for the assessment of ND than conventional text reading tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price
The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baas, Ulrike; de Haan, Bianca; Grässli, Tanja; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mueri, René; Perrig, Walter J; Wurtz, Pascal; Gutbrod, Klemens
The cognitive mechanisms underlying personal neglect are not well known. One theory postulates that personal neglect is due to a disorder of contralesional body representation. In the present study, we have investigated whether personal neglect is best explained by impairments in the representation of the contralesional side of the body, in particular, or a dysfunction of the mental representation of the contralesional space in general. For this, 22 patients with right hemisphere cerebral lesions (7 with personal neglect, 15 without personal neglect) and 13 healthy controls have been studied using two experimental tasks measuring representation of the body and extrapersonal space. In the tasks, photographs of left and right hands as well as left and right rear-view mirrors presented from the front and the back had to be judged as left or right. Our results show that patients with personal neglect made more errors when asked to judge stimuli of left hands and left rear-view mirrors than either patients without personal neglect or healthy controls. Furthermore, regression analyses indicated that errors in interpreting left hands were the best predictor of personal neglect, while other variables such as extrapersonal neglect, somatosensory or motor impairments, or deficits in left extrapersonal space representation had no predictive value of personal neglect. These findings suggest that deficient body representation is the major mechanism underlying personal neglect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anne Kristine Larsen, MD
Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.
Full Text Available The major arboviral diseases in mainland China include Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever, and tick-borne encephalitis. These and other newly found arbovirus infections due to Banna virus and Tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in China. Here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland China with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, phylogenetic associations, and the prevention programs associated with these agents in China.
Harper, Nancy S
Medical providers need to monitor growth at every visit. Weight status is influenced by genetics, medical conditions, socioeconomic status, and family environment. Screening for food security and psychosocial risk factors is an integral tool to identify families at risk for nutritional deficits and child maltreatment. Nutritional rehabilitation is best accomplished in an outpatient, multidisciplinary setting. Medical neglect should be considered in failure to thrive and obesity when there is a serious risk of harm from identified medical complications, additional or worsening medical complications occurring despite a multidisciplinary approach, and/or non-adherence with the treatment plan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The project “Problemes négligés du système de santé au Niger” focusses on a core set of often-neglected issues that nevertheless have an overall negative impact on health system effectiveness in Niger. For example, poor quality maternal health services result from challenges related to the midwifery profession and from pressures from addressing the effects of illegal termination of pregnancy. Overall health system governance is undermined by weak management of human resources and health information systems as well as problems related to decentralisation of health care provision and dependence on external funding for health projects. LASDEL applies a rapid assessment and qualitative research approach to working with patients and health care professionals to identify the scale and characteristics of these problems. The project goal is to develop an evidence base to support tackling these neglected issues. Développer des recherches sur les « problèmes négligés » dans la gouvernance de la santé, et sur cette base contribuer à des réformes des systèmes de santé permettant une meilleure qualité des soins pour les populations vulnérables. "Develop research on "neglected problems" in the provision of health systems, and through this work, contribute to health system reforms, that provide better quality of care for vulnerable populations." As can be seen above, many of these issues relate to reproductive health and more generally to health issues of disadvantaged groups. Some issues are neglected for political or social reasons meaning that they are not recognised or acknowledged and in some cases are criminalised. Therefore there are profound issues of participant privacy, protection and even safety for this project. Data sharing therefore requires thoughtful anonymisation and selection. The project group is Francophone with limited English language knowledge and the researchers and the context is largely in French. In common with
Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S
The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and
Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as ‘push’ or ‘pull’ programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency. PMID:23284648
Full Text Available Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D, to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.
Neglected diseases are typically characterized as those for which adequate drug treatment is lacking, and the potential return on effort in research and development (R&D), to produce new therapies, is too small for companies to invest significant resources in the field. In recent years various incentives schemes to stimulate R&D by pharmaceutical firms have been considered. Broadly speaking, these can be classified either as 'push' or 'pull' programs. Hybrid options, that include push and pull incentives, have also become increasingly popular. Supporters and critics of these various incentive schemes have argued in favor of their relative merits and limitations, although the view that no mechanism is a perfect fit for all situations appears to be widely held. For this reason, the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches has been important for policy decisions, but is dispersed in a variety of sources. With this in mind, the aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the economic determinants behind R&D investments for neglected diseases by comparing the relative strength of different incentive schemes within a simple economic model, based on the assumption of profit maximizing firms. The analysis suggests that co-funded push programs are generally more efficient than pure pull programs. However, by setting appropriate intermediate goals hybrid incentive schemes could further improve efficiency.
Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zlatev, Julian J; Daniels, David P; Kim, Hajin; Neale, Margaret A
Current theories suggest that people understand how to exploit common biases to influence others. However, these predictions have received little empirical attention. We consider a widely studied bias with special policy relevance: the default effect, which is the tendency to choose whichever option is the status quo. We asked participants (including managers, law/business/medical students, and US adults) to nudge others toward selecting a target option by choosing whether to present that target option as the default. In contrast to theoretical predictions, we find that people often fail to understand and/or use defaults to influence others, i.e., they show "default neglect." First, in one-shot default-setting games, we find that only 50.8% of participants set the target option as the default across 11 samples ( n = 2,844), consistent with people not systematically using defaults at all. Second, when participants have multiple opportunities for experience and feedback, they still do not systematically use defaults. Third, we investigate beliefs related to the default effect. People seem to anticipate some mechanisms that drive default effects, yet most people do not believe in the default effect on average, even in cases where they do use defaults. We discuss implications of default neglect for decision making, social influence, and evidence-based policy.
Knutson, John F; DeGarmo, David; Koeppl, Gina; Reid, John B
To understand the effects of neglectful parenting, poor supervision, and punitive parenting in the development of children's aggression, 218 children ages 4 to 8 years who were disadvantaged and their mothers were recruited from two states to develop a sample that was diverse with respect to degree of urbanization and ethnicity. Multimethod and multisource indices of the predictive constructs (Social Disadvantage, Denial of Care Neglect, Supervisory Neglect, and Punitive Discipline) and the criterion construct (Aggression) were used in a test of a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results established the role of care neglect, supervisory neglect, and punitive parenting as mediators of the role of social disadvantage in the development of children's aggression, the importance of distinguishing between two subtypes of neglect, and the need to consider the role of discipline in concert with neglect when attempting to understand the parenting in the development of aggression.
Ishiai, Sumio; Koyama, Yasumasa; Nakano, Naomi; Seki, Keiko; Nishida, Yoichiro; Hayashi, Kazuko
Patients with left unilateral spatial neglect following right hemisphere lesions usually err rightward when bisecting a horizontal line. For very short lines (e.g. 25 mm), however, leftward errors or seemingly 'right' neglect is often observed. To explain this paradox of crossover in the direction of errors, rather complicated models have been introduced as to the distribution of attention. Neglect may be hypothesized to occur in representational process of a line or estimation of the midpoint on the formed image, or both. We devised a line image task using a computer display with a touch panel and approached the representational image of a line to be bisected. Three patients with typical left neglect were presented with a line and forced to see its whole extent with cueing to the left endpoint. After disappearance of the line, they pointed to the right endpoint, the left endpoint, or the subjective midpoint according to their representational image. The line image between the reproduced right and left endpoints was appropriately formed for the 200 mm lines. However, the images for the shorter 25 and 100 mm lines were longer than the physical lengths with overextension to the left side. These results proved the context effect that short lines may be perceived longer when they are presented in combination with longer lines. One of our patients had an extensive lesion that involved the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, and the other two had a lesion restricted to the posterior right hemisphere. The image for a fully perceived line may be represented far enough into left space even when left neglect occurs after a lesion that involves the right parietal lobe. The patients with neglect placed the subjective midpoint rightward from the centre of the stimulus line for the 100 and 200 mm lines and leftward for the 25 mm lines. This crossover of bisection errors disappeared when the displacement of the subjective midpoint was measured from the centre of the
Seok Jong Chung
Full Text Available Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients.We made the computerized table setting test (CTST to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically.Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect.The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.
Amal K. Mitra
Full Text Available More than a billion people—one-sixth of the world’s population, mostly in developing countries—are infected with one or more of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Several national and international programs (e.g., the World Health Organization’s Global NTD Programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Global NTD Program, the United States Global Health Initiative, the United States Agency for International Development’s NTD Program, and others are focusing on NTDs, and fighting to control or eliminate them. This review identifies the risk factors of major NTDs, and describes the global burden of the diseases in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs.
Full Text Available Recent evidence from large cohort studies suggests that there exists a higher cancer incidence in people with type 2 diabetes (DM2. However, to date, the potential reasons for this association remain unclear. Hyperglycemia, the most important feature of diabetes, may be responsible for the excess glucose supply for these glucose-hungry cells, and it contributes to apoptosis resistance, oncogenesis, and tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy. Considering associations between diabetes and malignancies, the effect of hyperglycemia on cancer progression in cancer patients with abnormal blood glucose should not be neglected. In this paper, we describe the role that hyperglycemia plays in cancer progression and treatment and illustrate that hyperglycemia may contribute to a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells and lead to drug resistance. Therefore, controlling hyperglycemia may have important therapeutic implications in cancer patients.
Sarri, Margarita; Greenwood, Richard; Kalra, Lalit; Driver, Jon
Unilateral neglect involves deficits of spatial exploration and awareness that do not always affect a fixed portion of extrapersonal space, but may vary with current stimulation and possibly with task demands. Here, we assessed any ‘top-down’, task-related influences on visual neglect, with novel experimental variants of the cancellation test. Many different versions of the cancellation test are used clinically, and can differ in the extent of neglect revealed, though the exact factors determ...
Ronchi, Roberta; Algeri, Lorella; Chiapella, Laura; Gallucci, Marcello; Spada, Maria Simonetta; Vallar, Giuseppe
Right-brain-damaged patients may show a reading disorder termed neglect dyslexia. Patients with left neglect dyslexia omit letters on the left-hand-side (the beginning, when reading left-to-right) part of the letter string, substitute them with other letters, and add letters to the left of the string. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of association, if any, between error types in patients with left neglect dyslexia and recurrent perseveration (a productive visuo-motor deficit characterized by addition of marks) in target cancellation. Specifically, we aimed at assessing whether different productive symptoms (relative to the reading and the visuo-motor domains) could be associated in patients with left spatial neglect. Fifty-four right-brain-damaged patients took part in the study: 50 out of the 54 patients showed left spatial neglect, with 27 of them also exhibiting left neglect dyslexia. Neglect dyslexic patients who showed perseveration produced mainly substitution neglect errors in reading. Conversely, omissions were the prevailing reading error pattern in neglect dyslexic patients without perseveration. Addition reading errors were much infrequent. Different functional pathological mechanisms may underlie omission and substitution reading errors committed by right-brain-damaged patients with left neglect dyslexia. One such mechanism, involving the defective stopping of inappropriate responses, may contribute to both recurrent perseveration in target cancellation, and substitution errors in reading. Productive pathological phenomena, together with deficits of spatial attention to events taking place on the left-hand-side of space, shape the manifestations of neglect dyslexia, and, more generally, of spatial neglect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Jaehun; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Deog Young; Chang, Won Hyek; Shin, Dong Ik; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I
Patients with unilateral neglect have problems reporting, responding, or orienting to novel or meaningful stimuli that is presented to the side opposite to that of a brain lesion. This creates a serous problem in regards to daily living activities. However, the established methods for assessing and training of unilateral neglect patients have several deficits. Recently, virtual reality (VR) technologies have been used as an assessment and treatment tool for rehabilitation. Hence, this study designed a VR system to assess and train unilateral neglect patients. In addition, the suitability and feasibility of our VR system for unilateral neglect patients was verified.
Suchan, Julia; Rorden, Chris; Karnath, Hans-Otto
While unilateral spatial neglect after left brain damage is undoubtedly less common than spatial neglect after a right hemisphere lesion, it is also assumed to be less severe. Here we directly test this latter hypothesis using a continuous measure of neglect severity: the so-called Center of Cancellation (CoC). Rorden and Karnath (2010) recently validated this index for right brain damaged neglect patients. A first aim of the present study was to evaluate this new measure for spatial neglect after left brain damage. In a group of 48 left-sided stroke patients with and without neglect, a score greater than -0.086 on the Bells Test and greater than -0.024 on the Letter Cancellation Task turned out to indicate neglect behavior for acute left brain damaged patients. A second aim was to directly compare the severity of spatial neglect after left versus right brain injury by using the new CoC measure. While neglect is less frequent following left than right hemisphere injury, we found that when this symptom occurs it is of similar severity in acute left brain injury as in patients after acute right brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Arenas, Carmen; Kim, Jaeyop; Chan, Ko Ling
Although previous research has demonstrated larger households to be at higher risk of physical abuse and neglect of children, we argue that unilateral conceptualization of larger households as a risk factor is inappropriate. Application of resource dilution theory must capture the possibility that larger families may have more members with both the agency and will to intervene against child maltreatment. We hypothesized a negative interaction between household size and protective informal social control by family members in predicting abuse injuries and neglect. A three-stage probability proportional to size cluster sample representative of Novosibirsk, Russia, was collected from 306 cohabiting couples. One parent in each household was interviewed. A focal child was selected using most recent birthday. When responses limited to families with minor children (below age 18) were selected, 172 families remained in the data. Physical abuse and neglect were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). Protective informal social control by family members was measured using the Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment (ISC_CM) Scale. Models were tested using random effects regression and logistic regression. Nearly 7% of focal children were injured in the last year, 10% were neglected. Consistent with previous research, protective informal social control was associated with lower odds of injury and fewer instances of neglect. The significant negative interaction between household size and protective control is consistent with the idea that larger households may be protective when adult family members intervene against maltreatment to protect children. Replication and further investigation of protective ISC_CM in Western populations is much needed. Future research should not conceptualize or measure household size as a unilateral risk factor.
Ainhoa, Toro-Ibarguen; Moreno-Beamud, Jose Alberto; Martínez-Leocadio, Miguel-Ángel; Candel-García, Luciano; Díaz-Martín, Andrés; Delgado-Díaz, Emilio
We present a rare injury consisting of a neglected, irreducible, dislocation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that was diagnosed 4 months after the injury. An open reduction was necessary from the beginning. Patient returned to full activity without pain or disability, so a good prognosis despite the delayed diagnosis was achieved. We are unaware of previous reports in the literature describing this unusual variant. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Egeland, Jens; Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients. This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group) to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group). The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse. The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.
Full Text Available Previous studies that investigated the association of numbers and space in humans came to contradictory conclusions about the spatial character of the mental number magnitude representation and about how it may be influenced by unilateral spatial neglect. The present study aimed to disentangle the debated influence of perceptual versus representational aspects via explicit mapping of numbers onto space by applying the number line estimation paradigm with vertical orientation of stimulus lines. Thirty-five acute right-brain damaged stroke patients (6 with neglect were asked to place two-digit numbers on vertically oriented lines with 0 marked at the bottom and 100 at the top. In contrast to the expected, nearly linear mapping in the control patient group, patients with spatial neglect overestimated the position of numbers in the lower middle range. The results corroborate spatial characteristics of the number magnitude representation. In neglect patients, this representation seems to be biased towards the ipsilesional side, independent of the physical orientation of the task stimuli.
Bhandari, Apoorva; Duncan, John
Task complexity is critical in cognitive efficiency and fluid intelligence. To examine functional limits in task complexity, we examine the phenomenon of goal neglect, where participants with low fluid intelligence fail to follow task rules that they otherwise understand. Though neglect is known to increase with task complexity, here we show that - in contrast to previous accounts - the critical factor is not the total complexity of all task rules. Instead, when the space of task requirements can be divided into separate sub-parts, neglect is controlled by the complexity of each component part. The data also show that neglect develops and stabilizes over the first few performance trials, i.e. as instructions are first used to generate behaviour. In all complex behaviour, a critical process is combination of task events with retrieved task requirements to create focused attentional episodes dealing with each decision in turn. In large part, we suggest, fluid intelligence may reflect this process of converting complex requirements into effective attentional episodes. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.
Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…
Eckenrode, John; And Others
Neglected, or physically or sexually abused, children performed poorer on standardized tests, received lower grades, were more likely to repeat a grade and had more discipline referrals than nonmaltreated children. Among maltreated children, neglected children showed the poorest academic performance, and physically abused children had the most…
Fulmer, Terry; Paveza, Gregory; VandeWeerd, Carla; Fairchild, Susan; Guadagno, Lisa; Bolton-Blatt, Marguarette; Norman, Robert
Purpose: Neglect of older adults accounts for 60% to 70% of all elder-mistreatment reports made to adult protective services. The purpose of this article is to report data from research, using a risk-and-vulnerability model, that captures the independent contributions of both the elder and the caregiver as they relate to the outcome of neglect.…
Argues that contingency play as an intervention strategy can ameliorate abused and neglected children's alienation from adults, reduce stress, and develop positive modes of behavior. The argument is supported by a case study of a four-year-old girl in a day treatment center for abused and neglected children. (BB)
Finzi, Ricky; Ram, Anca; Har-Even, Dov; Shnit, Dan; Weizman, Abraham
Compared physically abused (n=41) and neglected (n=38) children with nonabused, nonneglected children (n=35) aged 6 to 12 years in terms of their attachment styles and their levels of aggression. Findings show that physically abused children are at risk of antisocial behavior and suspicion toward others, and neglected children are at risk of…
We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management. Keywords: Neglected epiphyseal injury; Cubitus varus; Diagnosis; Treatment Internet Journal of Medical Update ...
Christ, Sharon L; Kwak, Yoon Young; Lu, Ting
Psychological or emotional neglect is a recognized form of child maltreatment in the United States. However, neglect as a form of maltreatment and particularly psychological neglect as a subtype are understudied relative to other forms of maltreatment. One reason for this is that few measures of psychological (or emotional) neglect are available and there remains some uncertainty about how to define and measure it. In this article, we put forth a theoretical definition of psychological caregiving, including omission of care or psychological neglect of adolescents by their primary caregivers. We present an operationalization of psychological caregiving/neglect using adolescent self-reported survey items. A confirmatory latent variable modeling approach was used to measure and validate psychological caregiving/neglect in 2 adolescent (age 11 to 17) population cohorts involved with Child Protective Services (CPS) in the United States. The latent variable fits the samples well in both cohort populations indicating a valid construct, is mostly invariant across gender and age, is stable over time, and has good reliability. The measure also shows concurrent validity, associating strongly with all problem behavior domains. Questionnaire items similar to those used in this measure could be included along with other items in future studies of adolescent populations. We recommend further dialogue and development of this construct as a potential major contributing factor to the health and well-being of individuals and to advance research in the area of emotional care and neglect experiences in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Martin, Harold P.
This manual brings current knowledge about the needs of abused and neglected children together with practical ideas about what can be done to meet those needs. Designed primarily for use by child protective service (CPS) workers, the manual may also be used by other professionals dealing with child abuse and neglect. Chapter 1 briefly discusses…
A survey of 35 cases of reported abuse to individuals aged 60 and older in the state of Tennessee sought to determine demographic characteristics of the abused, perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect, types of abuse that occur, and any existence of relationships in elder abuse and neglect between urban and rural counties and eastern and western…
Thompson, Heather; Priest, Ronnie
Elder abuse and neglect are prevalent throughout the U.S. and are often unrecognized and untreated. It is projected that by the year 2030, the number of older adults (age 60 and older) will double, thereby increasing the likelihood that mental health practitioners will encounter instances of elder abuse and neglect. The authors address the…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neglect of children. 11.424 Section 11.424 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.424 Neglect of children. (a) A parent, guardian, or other person supervising the welfare of a child under 18 commits a misdemeanor if he or she knowingly endangers the child's...
Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen
Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…
Hines, Denise A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Holt, Melissa K.
Objective: Researchers and policymakers typically assume that within families, individual children are at an equivalent risk of neglectful behaviors. There is evidence that siblings experience differential parental treatment, and some research suggests that parents may maltreat their children to differing degrees. However, because neglect is…
Bibou-Nakou, I.; Markos, A.
The present paper focuses on teachers' experiences of child abuse/neglect cases, teachers' awareness of reporting or discounting, and their ways of responding to a hypothetical disclosure of abuse/neglect. A total of 1877 teachers in Greek public schools participated from a national teacher in-service training across the country; of them, 306…
Harris, Katherine Safford
Speaking is universally acknowledged as an important human talent, yet as a topic of educated common knowledge, it is peculiarly neglected. Partly, this is a consequence of the relatively recent growth of research on speech perception, production, and development, but also a function of the way that information is sliced up by undergraduate colleges. Although the basic acoustic mechanism of vowel production was known to Helmholtz, the ability to view speech production as a physiological event is evolving even now with such techniques as fMRI. Intensive research on speech perception emerged only in the early 1930s as Fletcher and the engineers at Bell Telephone Laboratories developed the transmission of speech over telephone lines. The study of speech development was revolutionized by the papers of Eimas and his colleagues on speech perception in infants in the 1970s. Dissemination of knowledge in these fields is the responsibility of no single academic discipline. It forms a center for two departments, Linguistics, and Speech and Hearing, but in the former, there is a heavy emphasis on other aspects of language than speech and, in the latter, a focus on clinical practice. For psychologists, it is a rather minor component of a very diverse assembly of topics. I will focus on these three fields in proposing possible remedies.
Innovation has frequently been described as the key to drug discovery. However, in the daily routine, medicinal chemists often tend to stick to the functional groups and structural elements they know and love. Blockbuster cancer drug Velcade (bortezomib), for example, was rejected by more than 50 companies, supposedly because of its unusual boronic acid function (as often repeated: "only a moron would put boron in a drug!"). Similarly, in the discovery process of the pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394, the unconventional proposal to introduce a sulfoximine group into the lead series also led to sneers and raised eyebrows, since sulfoximines have seldom been used in medicinal chemistry. However, it was the introduction of the sulfoximine group that finally allowed the fundamental issues of the project to be overcome, culminating in the identification of the clinical sulfoximine pan-CDK inhibitor BAY 1000394. This Minireview provides an overview of a widely neglected opportunity in medicinal chemistry--the sulfoximine group. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Even though there has been an increased concern over providing adequate security during the past decade, and even though some aspects of existing security systems have been enhanced during this period, much remains to be done to provide that balance which is so necessary to have all elements function as an effective unit. The area that primarily has been neglected is the delay element - the part of the system which makes possible the needed time for the security force to respond after an intrustion is detected and prior to the adversary attaining his desired goal. The purpose of this paper is to address the vulnerabilities of a security system which exist without the proper delay elements and to suggest how current technology can provide, through the use of activated barriers, that needed delay time to bring the system into balance. Security managers desire reliability and effectiveness; plant managers require safety, non-interference with operations, cost considerate capability, and aesthetic application - these characteristics will be addressed in the context of providing the required delay. This paper, hopefully, will set the stage for dialogue between developer and user, yielding a mutally acceptable approach to balanced security protection
Full Text Available Along with a growing elderly population in the world and in our country, elder abuse and neglect has been a major problem. The purpose of this study is to identify and systematically review the studies investigating elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. Evaluation of the studies on elder abuse and neglect in Turkey showed that the elderly are often abused by family members and they are often exposed to emotional, physical, economic and psychological abuse. All of the studies reviewed in this paper were descriptive cross-sectional studies investigating elder abuse and neglect. The studies reviewed presented significant results revealing the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in Turkey. In conclusion, this systematic review revealed that research on this issue in Turkey is insufficient and there is a need for studies conducted with larger samples covering an entire city. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 149-156
Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R
Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.
Horstick, Olaf; Tozan, Yesim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies
Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD). But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D) (2003-2013). NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a) poverty related, b) endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c) lacking public health attention, d) having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e) usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f) often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.
Full Text Available Dengue is currently listed as a "neglected tropical disease" (NTD. But is dengue still an NTD or not? Classifying dengue as an NTD may carry advantages, but is it justified? This review considers the criteria for the definition of an NTD, the current diverse lists of NTDs by different stakeholders, and the commonalities and differences of dengue with other NTDs. We also review the current research gaps and research activities and the adequacy of funding for dengue research and development (R&D (2003-2013. NTD definitions have been developed to a higher precision since the early 2000s, with the following main features: NTDs are characterised as a poverty related, b endemic to the tropics and subtropics, c lacking public health attention, d having poor research funding and shortcomings in R&D, e usually associated with high morbidity but low mortality, and f often having no specific treatment available. Dengue meets most of these criteria, but not all. Although dengue predominantly affects resource-limited countries, it does not necessarily only target the poor and marginalised in those countries. Dengue increasingly attracts public health attention, and in some affected countries it is now a high profile disease. Research funding for dengue has increased exponentially in the past two decades, in particular in the area of dengue vaccine development. However, despite advances in dengue research, dengue epidemics are increasing in frequency and magnitude, and dengue is expanding to new areas. Specific treatment and a highly effective vaccine remain elusive. Major research gaps exist in the area of integrated surveillance and vector control. Hence, although dengue differs from many of the NTDs, it still meets important criteria commonly used for NTDs. The current need for increased R&D spending, shared by dengue and other NTDs, is perhaps the key reason why dengue should continue to be considered an NTD.
Francesca F Norman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.
Luauté, Jacques; Villeneuve, Laurent; Roux, Adeline; Nash, Stuart; Bar, Jean-Yves; Chabanat, Eric; Cotton, François; Ciancia, Sophie; Sancho, Pierre-Olivier; Hovantruc, Patrick; Quelard, François; Sarraf, Thierry; Cojan, Yann; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Farné, Alessandro; Janoly-Dumenil, Audrey; Boisson, Dominique; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rode, Gilles; Rossetti, Yves
Spatial neglect is one of the main predictors of poor functional recovery after stroke. Many therapeutic interventions have been developed to alleviate this condition, but to date the evidence of their effectiveness is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to test whether combining prism adaptation (PA) and methylphenidate (MP) could enhance the recovery of neglect patients at a functional level. RITAPRISM is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing PA plus placebo (control) versus PA plus MP. 24 patients were prospectively enrolled (10 in the placebo group and 14 in the MP group). The main result is a long-term functional improvement (on the functional independence measure (FIM) and on Bergego's scale) induced by MP combined with PA. No serious adverse event occurred. The long-term benefit on activities of daily living (ADL) obtained in this randomized controlled trial set this intervention apart from previous attempts and supports with a high level of evidence the value of combining PA and MP in order to improve the autonomy of neglect patients. Further studies will be needed to clarify the mechanism of this improvement. Although not specifically assessed at this stage, a part of the improvement in ADL might be related to the collateral effect of MP on mood, executive functions or fatigue, and/or the combined effect of PA and MP on motor intentional bias of neglect patients. This study provides Class I evidence that adding MP to PA improves the functional outcome of neglect patients. EUCTR2008-000325-20-FR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary
This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…
Full Text Available We propose that neglect includes a disorder of representational updating. Representational updating refers to our ability to build mental models and adapt those models to changing experience. This updating ability depends on the processes of priming, working memory, and statistical learning. These processes in turn interact with our capabilities for sustained attention and precise temporal processing. We review evidence showing that all these non-spatial abilities are impaired in neglect, and we discuss how recognition of such deficits can lead to novel approaches for rehabilitating neglect.
After unilateral cortical or subcortical, often parieto-temporal lesions, patients exhibit a marked neglect of their contralateral space and/or body side. These patients are severely disabled in all daily activities, have a poor rehabilitation outcome and therefore require professional treatment. Unfortunately, effective treatments for neglect are just in the process of development. The present chapter reviews three aspects related to the rehabilitation of neglect. The first part summarizes findings about spontaneous recovery in patients and experimental animals with neglect. The second part deals with techniques and studies evaluating short-term sensory modulation effects in neglect. In contrast to many other neurological syndromes spatial neglect may be modulated transiently but dramatically in its severity by sensory (optokinetic, neck proprioceptive, vestibular, attentional, somatosensory-magnetic) stimulation. In part three, current treatment approaches are summarized, with a focus on three novel techniques: repetitive optokinetic stimulation, neck vibration training and peripheral somatosensory-magnetic stimulation. Recent studies of repetitive optokinetic as well as neck vibratory treatment both indicate significantly greater as well as multimodal improvements in neglect symptomatology as compared to the standard treatment of neglect. This clear superiority might result from the partial (re)activation of a distributed, multisensory vestibular network in the lesioned hemisphere. Somatosensory-magnetic stimulation of the neglected or extinguishing hand provides another feasible, non-invasive stimulation technique. It may be particularly suited for the rehabilitation of somatosensory extinction and unawareness of the contralesional body side. Finally, pharmacological approaches for the treatment of neglect are shortly addressed. Isolated drug treatment of neglect is currently no successful rehabilitation strategy due to inconsistent results as well as possible
Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina
Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.
Mennen, Ferol E; Kim, Kihyun; Sang, Jina; Trickett, Penelope K
The purpose of this study was to describe the nature of neglect in child welfare clients, to describe these experiences, to examine its typologies, and to understand how different types of neglect co-occurred with each other and with other types of maltreatment. Case record abstraction was conducted on the child welfare case records of an urban, ethnically-diverse sample of youths (n=303) identified as maltreated by a very large public child welfare agency. We utilized the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) which was based on the work of Barnett et al. (1993) as modified by English and LONGSCAN (1997). Thirteen items of parental behavior deemed neglectful were coded and organized into 5 subtypes of neglect (care neglect, environmental neglect, medical neglect, educational neglect, supervisory neglect). Neglect was present in 71.0% of the sample as compared to the 41.0% classified as neglected by CPS records. Neglect was accompanied by other types of maltreatment in 95% of the cases. Children who were neglected had more reports of maltreatment and experienced a greater number of different types of maltreatment than those who were maltreated, but not neglected. The most common type of neglect was supervisory neglect (72.5%) followed by environmental neglect (61.6%). With the exception of medical neglect, all types of neglect were significantly correlated with each other. The abstraction resulted in rich data showing that under a one-word label of neglect, the nature of neglect that the youngsters actually experienced was quite diverse and heterogeneous in its phenomenology. Furthermore, neglect is pervasive for children in the child welfare system and official classifications underestimate its occurrence. Neglect does not happen in isolation; children who are reported as neglected are likely to experience other forms of maltreatment. Official classifications should not be used in determining interventions for children and families. Interventions
Contrary to expectations, its control is unfortunately neglected ... and developing world and to deduce possible strategies ... source: (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, SARS, 2003; H5N1, 2006; Nipah, 1999; and Rift Valley Fever 2007).
Hecht, Michael; And Others
Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)
Broeren, J; Samuelsson, H; Stibrant-Sunnerhagen, K; Blomstrand, C; Rydmark, M
In this study a cancellation task in a virtual environment was applied to describe the pattern of search and the kinematics of hand movements in eight patients with right hemisphere stroke. Four of these patients had visual neglect and four had recovered clinically from initial symptoms of neglect. The performance of the patients was compared with that of a control group consisting of eight subjects with no history of neurological deficits. Patients with neglect as well as patients clinically recovered from neglect showed aberrant search performance in the virtual reality (VR) task, such as mixed search pattern, repeated target pressures and deviating hand movements. The results indicate that in patients with a right hemispheric stroke, this VR application can provide an additional tool for assessment that can identify small variations otherwise not detectable with standard paper-and-pencil tests. VR technology seems to be well suited for the assessment of visually guided manual exploration in space.
Full Text Available Parameter estimation uncertainty is often neglected in reliability studies, i.e. point estimates of distribution parameters are used for representative fractiles, and in probabilistic models. A numerical example examines the effect of this uncertainty on structural reliability using Bayesian statistics. The study reveals that the neglect of parameter estimation uncertainty might lead to an order of magnitude underestimation of failure probability.
Neglected tropical diseases are not exclusive to low-income countries. In the United States, such infections account for a sizable but largely hidden disease burden among minority populations living in poverty and among people of African descent in particular. Similar infections also occur in Europe. As efforts to control neglected tropical diseases expand throughout Africa, parallel efforts should also target poor and forgotten people in wealthy nations.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design and determine the psychometric properties of a checklist for assessing domestic elder neglect. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted in four phases. In the first phase, the meaning of domestic elder neglect explored using the qualitative method of phenomenology. In the second phase, a checklist was created, based on the results obtained in the first phase, in conjunction with the inductions from the expert panel. In the third and fourth phases, the psychometric properties including face validity, content validity, construct validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and Inter- rater reliability were measured. 110 elderly people participated in the this study. Results: The initial 26 item checklist designed using the results of first and second phases of study, reduced to 11 items and 2 factors including the health and care needs neglect, and neglect in providing healthy environment in the process of determining the face and content validity. Acceptable convergent validity was identified in the elder neglect checklist and care neglect scale of the domestic elder abuse questionnaire (r=0.862. The results of known groups' comparisons showed that this checklist could successfully discriminate between subgroups of elderly people in the index of re-hospitalization. The internal consistency (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was 0.824. Inter- rater reliability of the checklist was 0.850. Conclusion: The elder neglect checklist with 11 items appears to be a promising tool, providing reliable and valid data helping to detect neglect among elders in different settings such as clinical settings, homes and research environments by health care providers and researchers.
Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe
In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coleman, A Rand; Williams, J Michael
This study examined implicit semantic and rhyming cues on perception of auditory stimuli among nonaphasic participants who suffered a lesion of the right cerebral hemisphere and auditory neglect of sound perceived by the left ear. Because language represents an elaborate processing of auditory stimuli and the language centers were intact among these patients, it was hypothesized that interactive verbal stimuli presented in a dichotic manner would attenuate neglect. The selected participants were administered an experimental dichotic listening test composed of six types of word pairs: unrelated words, synonyms, antonyms, categorically related words, compound words, and rhyming words. Presentation of word pairs that were semantically related resulted in a dramatic reduction of auditory neglect. Dichotic presentations of rhyming words exacerbated auditory neglect. These findings suggest that the perception of auditory information is strongly affected by the specific content conveyed by the auditory system. Language centers will process a degraded stimulus that contains salient language content. A degraded auditory stimulus is neglected if it is devoid of content that activates the language centers or other cognitive systems. In general, these findings suggest that auditory neglect involves a complex interaction of intact and impaired cerebral processing centers with content that is selectively processed by these centers.
Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Assunção-Ramos, Adriana Valéria; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Wand-Del-Rey de Oliveira, Maria Leide; Heukelbach, Jorg
Leprosy is a public health problem and a neglected condition of morbidity and mortality in several countries of the world. We analysed time trends and spatiotemporal patterns of leprosy-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study using secondary mortality data. We included all deaths that occurred in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which leprosy was mentioned in any field of death certificates. Leprosy was identified in 7732/12 491 280 deaths (0.1%). Average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.43 deaths/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 0.40-0.46). The burden of leprosy deaths was higher among males, elderly, black race/colour and in leprosy-endemic regions. Lepromatous leprosy was the most common clinical form mentioned. Mortality rates showed a significant nationwide decrease over the period (annual percent change [APC]: -2.8%; 95% CI -4.2 to -2.4). We observed decreasing mortality rates in the South, Southeast and Central-West regions, while the rates remained stable in North and Northeast regions. Spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk clusters for leprosy-related deaths were distributed mainly in highly endemic and socio-economically deprived regions. Leprosy is a neglected cause of death in Brazil since the disease is preventable, and a cost-effective treatment is available. Sustainable control measures should include appropriate management and systematic monitoring of leprosy-related complications, such as severe leprosy reactions and adverse effects to multidrug therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E
Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were
Lee, Sang Won; Bae, Geum Ye; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Lee, Seung Jae; Chang, Sung Man; Kim, Byung-Soo; Won, Seunghee
Previous studies have reported that childhood maltreatment experiences could induce biological and psychological vulnerability in depressive disorders. However, it is still unclear that type-specific effects of childhood maltreatment on psychological resilience, depressive symptoms and interactions among childhood maltreatment experiences, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 438 medical students were included in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used for measuring childhood maltreatment experiences, psychological resilience, and depressive symptoms, respectively. We investigated the effects of childhood maltreatment experiences on resilience and depressive symptoms using correlation analysis. In addition, we analyzed the mediating effect of resilience on the association between childhood maltreatment and symptoms of depression. Among childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect was a significant predictor of the scores of low resilience and high depressive symptoms in both gender groups (all psresilience was found to be a mediator connecting emotional neglect experiences with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that emotional neglect has detrimental effects on mood and resilience, and clinicians need to focus on the recovery of resilience when they deal with depressive symptoms in victims of childhood maltreatment.
Naughton, Corina; Drennan, Jonathan; Lyons, Imogen; Lafferty, Attracta; Treacy, Margaret; Phelan, Amanda; O'Loughlin, Anne; Delaney, Liam
To measure the 12-month prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in community-dwelling older people in Ireland and examine the risk profile of people who experienced mistreatment and that of the perpetrators. Cross-sectional general population survey. Community. People aged 65 years or older living in the community. Information was collected in face-to-face interviews on abuse types, socioeconomic, health, and social support characteristics of the population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics and logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented. The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.41-2.94) in the previous 12 months. The frequency of mistreatment type was financial 1.3%, psychological 1.2%, physical abuse 0.5%, neglect 0.3%, and sexual abuse 0.05%. In the univariate analysis lower income OR 2.39 (95% CI: 1.01-5.69), impaired physical health OR 3.41 (95% CI: 1.74-6.65), mental health OR 6.33 (95% CI: 3.33-12.0), and poor social support OR 4.91 (95% CI: 2.1-11.5) were associated with a higher risk of mistreatment but only social support and mental health remained independent predictors. Among perpetrators adult children (50%) were most frequently identified. Unemployment (50%) and addiction (20%) were characteristics of this group.
Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.
Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation
Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos
Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935
Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E
Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.
Full Text Available Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD and social phobia (SP are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients.This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group.The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire.Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse.The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.
Blini, Elvio; Romeo, Zaira; Spironelli, Chiara; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco
Unilateral Spatial Neglect, the most dramatic manifestation of contralesional space unawareness, is a highly heterogeneous syndrome. The presence of neglect is related to core spatially lateralized deficits, but its severity is also modulated by several domain-general factors (such as alertness or sustained attention) and by task demands. We previously showed that a computer-based dual-task paradigm exploiting both lateralized and non-lateralized factors (i.e., attentional load/multitasking) better captures this complex scenario and exacerbates deficits for the contralesional space after right hemisphere damage. Here we asked whether multitasking would reveal contralesional spatial disorders in chronic left-hemisphere damaged (LHD) stroke patients, a population in which impaired spatial processing is thought to be uncommon. Ten consecutive LHD patients with no signs of right-sided neglect at standard neuropsychological testing performed a computerized spatial monitoring task with and without concurrent secondary tasks (i.e., multitasking). Severe contralesional (right) space unawareness emerged in most patients under attentional load in both the visual and auditory modalities. Multitasking affected the detection of contralesional stimuli both when presented concurrently with an ipsilesional one (i.e., extinction for bilateral targets) and when presented in isolation (i.e., left neglect for right-sided targets). No spatial bias emerged in a control group of healthy elderly participants, who performed at ceiling, as well as in a second control group composed of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment. We conclude that the pathological spatial asymmetry in LHD patients cannot be attributed to a global reduction of cognitive resources but it is the consequence of unilateral brain damage. Clinical and theoretical implications of the load-dependent lack of awareness for contralesional hemispace following LHD are discussed. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.
Varga, E.; Korom, I.; Kis, E.; Varga, J.; Olah, J.; Kemeny, L.; Rasko, Z.
Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the "ideal candidates"for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.
Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.
Full Text Available Even though intervertebral disc degeneration can be found in the natural course of alkaptonuria, detection of the disease by black disc color change in a patient without any other presentation of alkaptonuria is an exceptionally rare condition. We have reported a very rare case of alkaptonuria presented with low back pain and steppage gait in a 51-year-old male with a complaint of chronic low-back pain and steppage gait who was operated on for prolapsed lumbar disc herniation. Intraoperatively his lumbar disk was discovered to be black. The alkaptonuria diagnosis was considered after histopathological examination of the black disc material and elevated urinary concentration of homogentisic acid confirmed the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this presentation has not been reported previously in literature.
Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to mesaure the 12-months prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in private huousehold and to examine the relationship and community level risk factors for elder abuse and neglect. METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study. Nationally stratified quota sampling procedure was applied, through four stages. Information was collected in face-to face interview on socio-demographic, healthy life style, physical and mental health, and abuse and neglect types characteristics of elder population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and odd ratios (OR. Statistical significance was set up at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The respondents reported prevalence of psychological abuse 25.7%, followed by financial abuse 12 %, neglect 6.6%, physical abuse 5.7%, physical injury 3.1%, and sexual abuse 1.3% (reported only in female respondents in the previous 12-months. Living with close relatives, dissatisfaction with the household income, less equipped households, lacking property of house/flat are associated risk factors for elder maltreatment on relationship level. Living in the northeast, southeast, and Polog region are associated risk for elder maltreatment. CONCLUSION: Study findings emphasised the previous data obtained with regards to the community and relationships risk factors for elder maltreatment.
Scanlon, Michael L; MacNaughton, Gillian; Sprague, Courtenay
The laws, language, and tools of human rights have been instrumental in expanding access to lifesaving treatment for people living with HIV. Children, however, remain a neglected population, as evidenced by inadequate child-specific and child-friendly HIV treatment options. In this article, we explore the right to science, a potentially powerful but underdeveloped right in international law, and its application to research and development for pediatric HIV treatment. Drawing on reports of human rights bodies and scholars and applying the human rights typology of state obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill, we argue that states have five core obligations related to research and development for child-specific and child-friendly treatment: (1) adopting a public goods approach to science and science policy; (2) including and protecting children in research activities; (3) adopting legal and policy frameworks to support research and development through public funding and private sector incentives; (4) promoting international cooperation and assistance; and (5) ensuring the participation of marginalized communities in decision-making processes. In concluding, we make a number of recommendations for states, human rights bodies, international organizations, civil society, and private industry to further develop and implement the right to science.
Primary ankle arthrodesis used to treat a neglected open ankle fracture dislocation is a unique decision. A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 5-day-old open fracture dislocation of his right ankle. After thorough soft tissue debridement, primary arthrodesis of the tibiotalar joint was performed using initial Kirschner wire fixation and an external fixator. Definitive soft tissue coverage was later achieved using a latissimus dorsi free flap. The fusion was consolidated to salvage the limb from amputation. The use of primary arthrodesis to treat a compound ankle fracture dislocation has not been previously described.
Neglected or abused/neglected children (N=420) were compared with matched, nonmal-treated children on measures of school performance. Differences between the sexes in timing of academic difficulties was found for both math and English. Grades of neglected and abused/neglected students paralleled that of nonmal-treated students but were lower at…
Dietz, Martin; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Roepstorff, Andreas
A lesion to the right hemisphere of the brain often leads to perceptual neglect of the left side of the sensorium. The fact that lesions to different cortical regions lead to the same symptoms points to neglect as a dysconnection syndrome that may result from the dysconnection of a distributed...... network, rather than a disruption of computation in any particular brain region. To test this hypothesis, we used Bayesian analysis of effective connectivity based on electroencephalographic recordings in patients with left-sided neglect after a right-hemisphere lesion. While age-matched healthy controls...... connectivity in the left hemisphere when stimuli appeared on their right. Crucially, this parieto-frontal feedback connectivity was aggravated in patients with more severe symptoms. In contrast, patients and controls did not show differences in the local connectivity within regions. These findings suggest...
Jennissen, Charles A; Evans, Erin; Oral, Resmiye; Denning, Gerene
Only 14 states have laws or guidelines regarding the minimum age a child may be left home alone. These ages range from 6 to 14 years. Our objective was to identify factors that influence child neglect determination by experts with regards to parents leaving children home alone. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Child Abuse and Neglect members (N = 523) were surveyed from July-August, 2015. Respondents were asked whether scenarios involving a child of varying age knowingly left home alone for 4 h were neglect in the presence or absence of injury to the child and the legality of the situation. Comparisons were performed using the chi-square test. One hundred ninety-three members responded (36.9%). In the scenario where there were no relevant laws and the child was uninjured, nearly 100% of the child experts determined this as being child neglect when the child was 6 years old. For 8, 10, 12, and 14 year olds, this was 88, 48, 4, and 1%, respectively. However, a significantly higher percentage of experts considered it child neglect for most ages when there was a law making the scenario illegal as compared when there was no law, and when the child was injured versus when they were not. The only demographic variable that showed a difference in child neglect determination was that females were more likely to consider higher aged children as having been neglected when there were no laws but the child was injured. The vast majority of experts (85%) stated that leaving a child home alone for 4 h should be illegal if the child is < 9 years old, and nearly one-half (44%) said it should be illegal for children < 11 years old. A number of factors affect how experts view children being left home alone as potential child neglect. Our data suggests that such cases may be evaluated differently due to variations in state laws, even though the risk to the child is the same. These results call for child safety law reform to provide greater uniformity in the
Full Text Available In accordance with the 1997 documents of the World Health Organization (WHO, amoebiasis is defined as the infection by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica with or without clinical manifestations. The only known natural host of E. histolytica is the human with the large intestine as major target organ. This parasite has a very simple life cycle in which the infective form is the cyst, considered a resistant form of parasite: The asymptomatic cyst passers and the intestinal amoebiasis patients are the transmitters; they excrete cysts in their feces, which can contaminate food and water sources. E. histolytica sensu stricto is the potentially pathogenic species and E. dispar is a commensal non-pathogenic Entamoeba. Both species are biochemical, immunological and genetically distinct. The knowledge of both species with different pathogenic phenotypes comes from a large scientific debate during the second half of the 20 th century, which gave place to the rapid development of diagnostics technology based on molecular and immunological strategies. During the last ten years, knowledge of the new epidemiology of amoebiasis in different geographic endemic and non-endemic areas has been obtained by applying mostly molecular techniques. In the present work we highlight novelties on human infection and the disease that can help the general physician from both endemic and non-endemic countries in their medical practice, particularly, now that emigration is undoubtedly a global phenomenon that is modifying the previous geography of infectious diseases worldwide.
Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian
Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177
Aisha Mehnaz, A.; Mala, A.; Rai, K.; Arif, F.; Raj, R.; Shah, N.
Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)
Semrau, Jennifer A; Wang, Jeffery C; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P
After stroke, visuospatial and kinesthetic (sense of limb motion) deficits are common, occurring in approximately 30% and 60% of individuals, respectively. Although both types of deficits affect aspects of spatial processing necessary for daily function, few studies have investigated the relationship between these 2 deficits after stroke. We aimed to characterize the relationship between visuospatial and kinesthetic deficits after stroke using the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and a robotic measure of kinesthetic function. Visuospatial attention (using the BIT) and kinesthesia (using robotics) were measured in 158 individuals an average of 18 days after stroke. In the kinesthetic matching task, the robot moved the participant's stroke-affected arm at a preset direction, speed, and magnitude. Participants mirror-matched the robotic movement with the less/unaffected arm as soon as they felt movement in their stroke affected arm. We found that participants with visuospatial inattention (neglect) had impaired kinesthesia 100% of the time, whereas only 59% of participants without neglect were impaired. For those without neglect, we observed that a higher percentage of participants with lower but passing BIT scores displayed impaired kinesthetic behavior (78%) compared with those participants who scored perfect or nearly perfect on the BIT (49%). The presence of visuospatial neglect after stroke is highly predictive of the presence of kinesthetic deficits. However, the presence of kinesthetic deficits does not necessarily always indicate the presence of visuospatial neglect. Our findings highlight the importance of assessment and treatment of kinesthetic deficits after stroke, especially in patients with visuospatial neglect. © The Author(s) 2014.
Thompson, R C A
The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dr. Pankaj Kumar
Full Text Available Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury in children, which can be missed or misdiagnosed at initial presentation. Awareness of this injury and appropriate radiological assessment helps in proper management. Neglected cases because of inappropriate diagnosis can result in cubitus varus deformity. Full range of movements of elbow can be achieved if properly diagnosed and managed. We present two cases of neglected distal humeral epiphyseal injury in children that resulted in cubitus varus deformity in one case. Full range of movements was achieved in both cases after proper management.
The VizierR service of the Centres de Donnes Astronomiques de Strasbourg (France) offers amateur astronomers a treasure trove of resources, including access to the most current version of the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and links to tens of thousands of digitized sky survey plates. These plates allow the amateur to make accurate measurements of position angle and separation for many neglected pairs that fall within reasonable tolerances for the use of Aladin, the digitized sky survey add-in called by VizieR. This paper presents 221 measurements of 102 neglected pairs from the WDS.
The VizierR service of the Centres de Donnes Astronomiques de Strasbourg (France) offers amateur astronomers a treasure trove of resources, including access to the most current version of the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) and links to tens of thousands of digitized sky survey plates via the Aladin Java applet. These plates allow the amateur to make accurate measurements of position angle and separation for many neglected pairs that fall within reasonable tolerances for the use of Aladin. This paper presents 428 measurements of 251 neglected pairs from the WDS.
Ioset, Jean-Robert; Chang, Shing
The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) is a patients' needs-driven organization committed to the development of new treatments for neglected diseases. Created in 2003, DNDi has delivered four improved treatments for malaria, sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis. A main DNDi challenge is to build a solid R&D portfolio for neglected diseases and to deliver preclinical candidates in a timely manner using an original model based on partnership. To address this challenge DNDi has remodeled its discovery activities from a project-based academic-bound network to a fully integrated process-oriented platform in close collaboration with pharmaceutical companies. This discovery platform relies on dedicated screening capacity and lead-optimization consortia supported by a pragmatic, structured and pharmaceutical-focused compound sourcing strategy.
von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Bender, Max E; Regmi, Sadie; Tinnemann, Peter
Economic growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has raised interest in how disease burden patterns are related to economic development. Meanwhile, poverty-related diseases are considered to be neglected in terms of research and development (R&D). Developing intuitive and meaningful metrics to measure how different diseases are related to poverty and neglected in the current R&D system. We measured how diseases are related to economic development with the income relation factor (IRF), defined by the ratio of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants in LMIC versus that in high-income countries. We calculated the IRF for 291 diseases and injuries and 67 risk factors included in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We measured neglect in R&D with the neglect factor (NF), defined by the ratio of disease burden in DALYs (as percentage of the total global disease burden) and R&D expenditure (as percentage of total global health-related R&D expenditure) for 26 diseases. The disease burden varies considerably with the level of economic development, shown by the IRF (median: 1.38; interquartile range (IQR): 0.79-6.3). Comparison of IRFs from 1990 to 2010 highlights general patterns of the global epidemiological transition. The 26 poverty-related diseases included in our analysis of neglect in R&D are responsible for 13.8% of the global disease burden, but receive only 1.34% of global health-related R&D expenditure. Within this group, the NF varies considerably (median: 19; IQR: 6-52). The IRF is an intuitive and meaningful metric to highlight shifts in global disease burden patterns. A large shortfall exists in global R&D spending for poverty-related and neglected diseases, with strong variations between diseases.
Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P
To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.
Kala, G.; Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.
Elder self-neglect is a form of elder mistreatment. The systematic characterization of self-neglecting individuals is the goal of the CREST project. Reported here is the evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects were recruited and consented following referral from Adult Protective Services. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, as possible. We report here on 47 SN subjects (age 77 plus or minus 7, mean plus or minus SD; body weight 76 kg plus or minus 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 y plus or minus 7, 79 kg plus or minus 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of fat-soluble vitamin status. Plasma retinol (p less than 0.01) was lower in SN subjects. Plasma tocopherol tended (p less than 0.06) to be lower in SN subjects, while gamma-tocopherol was unchanged. SN subjects tended to have lower serum 25-OH vitamin D (p less than 0.11), and to be vitamin D deficient (26% below 23 mmol/L). Hypercalcemia occurred more often in SN subjects (23% had values above 2.56 mmol/L), as did elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations (p less than 0.05). These data demonstrate that many nutrients are affected in the self-neglecting elderly, and that long-term deficits are evident by the nature of changes in fat soluble vitamins.
Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Tavakoli, Marjaneh
The ability to comprehend and use metaphors in L2 which is referred to as metaphorical competence is an important issue in second language acquisition. Metaphors are so pervasive in our life that we might not realize their presence and simply neglect them even in our first language. Different models of communicative competence have been suggested…
This thesis presents a sequence of papers to illustrate selected aspects of the neglect of global oral health, highlights new approaches to describing the extent and impact of dental caries, explains the difficulties related to quality assurance of fluoride toothpastes; and, finally, describes a
Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Günther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; Peters, Georg; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Müller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.
The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in
Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg
The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in
Abstract. Like doctors and other healthcare professionals worldwide, many of us see children with injuries caused by physical violence and girls who have been raped. Sometimes we know that a child is malnourished, sick or traumatised because of abuse or neglect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse ...
Full Text Available Older refugees are often a neglected population, particularly when it comes to health. In Jordan, the specific health needs of older Syrian refugees tend to be overlooked, due in part to a lack of data, institutional biases and the nature of the humanitarian response.
A theory of the current distribution in triodes with positive grid is developed on the assumption that space charge and the initial velocities of both primary and secondary electrons may be neglected. This theory, which is originally due to De Lussanct de la Sablonière, has been put in a more lucid
... work brings to focus the determinants, which have been found to be particularly important for the perpetuation of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) in endemic communities: water and sanitation, housing and clustering, environment, migration, disasters and conflicts, socio-cultural factors and gender, and finally poverty.
Neglected diseases boost (Nature, 457: 772, 2009), which will become greater threat to human health especially in tropical regions. In my opinion, it is the inherent result of climate warming. An allometrical scaling is suggested to support my opinion, this can also explain why swine flu does not affect pigs very much, but ...
A.J. Houweling (Tanja); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike); M.C. Kulik (Margarete); W.A. Stolk (Wilma); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E.J. Lenk (Edeltraud J.); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); S.J. de Vlas (Sake)
markdownabstract__Background:__ Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are generally assumed to be concentrated in poor populations, but evidence on this remains scattered. We describe within-country socioeconomic inequalities in nine NTDs listed in the London Declaration for intensified control and/or
Antoine, Sophie; Ranzini, Mariagrazia; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Slama, Hichem; Bonato, Mario; Tousch, Ann; Dewulf, Myrtille; Bier, Jean-Christophe; Gevers, Wim
Working memory refers to our ability to actively maintain and process a limited amount of information during a brief period of time. Often, not only the information itself but also its serial order is crucial for good task performance. It was recently proposed that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition. Here, we compared performance of a group of right hemisphere-damaged patients with hemispatial neglect to healthy controls in verbal working memory tasks. Participants memorized sequences of consonants at span level and had to judge whether a target consonant belonged to the memorized sequence (item task) or whether a pair of consonants were presented in the same order as in the memorized sequence (order task). In line with this idea that serial order is grounded in spatial cognition, we found that neglect patients made significantly more errors in the order task than in the item task compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, this deficit seemed functionally related to neglect severity and was more frequently observed following right posterior brain damage. Interestingly, this specific impairment for serial order in verbal working memory was not lateralized. We advance the hypotheses of a potential contribution to the deficit of serial order in neglect patients of either or both (1) reduced spatial working memory capacity that enables to keep track of the spatial codes that provide memorized items with a positional context, (2) a spatial compression of these codes in the intact representational space. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Hotez, Peter J; Fujiwara, Ricardo T
Today, the nation of Brazil leads the Western Hemisphere in terms of the number of its citizens living with neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). These diseases continue to trap Brazil's "bottom 20 million" in extreme poverty. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
White, Patricia J.
Considers dilemma of juvenile and family court judges who decide whether it is in best interest of abused and neglected children to remain with parents or whether foster care or other substitute placement is necessary. Discusses changes in federal and state legislation over past decade. Includes views of children who have been in foster care. (NB)
Weinberg, Lois A.
Interviews and review of case files investigated reasons for the common failure to meet the educational needs of abused and neglected children with disabilities in foster care. Agency dysfunctions which negatively affected appropriate educational provisions were identified in such categories as eligibility, timeline violation, inappropriate…
Radford, Nola T.
Discusses the exceptional challenges that abused and neglected children may pose for early-intervention providers, particularly speech-language pathologists. It focuses on practical strategies regarding reporting child abuse, effectively assessing the children who have been abused, and managing the bizarre behavior they may exhibit. (Author/CR)
Greif, Geoffrey L.; Zuravin, Susan J.
Investigated 17 custodial and 18 noncustodial fathers of abused or neglected children to determine: (1) how fathers get custody; (2) how situations in which fathers get custody differ from those in which they do not; and (3) the degree to which father placements are satisfactory. (SAK)
McGloin, J M; Widom, C S
Although an extensive literature has accumulated documenting the maladaptive outcomes associated with childhood victimization, a limited body of knowledge addresses resilience. This paper sought to operationalize the construct of resilience across a number of domains of functioning and time periods and to determine the extent to which abused and neglected children grown up demonstrate resilience. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family social class with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995. 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hr in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment. Resilience requires meeting the criteria for success across six of eight domains of functioning: employment, homelessness, education, social activity, psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, and two domains assessing criminal behavior (official arrest and self-reports of violence). Results indicate that 22% of abused and neglected individuals meet the criteria for resilience. More females met the criteria for resilience and females were successful across a greater number of domains than males. We speculate on the meaning of these findings and discuss implications for the child maltreatment field. Limitations of the study are also acknowledged.
Widom, C S
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which childhood abuse and neglect increase a person's risk for subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to determine whether the relationship to PTSD persists despite controls for family, individual, and lifestyle characteristics associated with both childhood victimization and PTSD. Victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 in a Midwestern metropolitan county area were matched on the basis of age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic class with a group of nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Subjects (N = 1,196) were located and administered a 2-hour interview that included the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule to assess PTSD. Childhood victimization was associated with increased risk for lifetime and current PTSD. Slightly more than a third of the childhood victims of sexual abuse (37.5%), 32.7% of those physically abused, and 30.6% of victims of childhood neglect met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime PTSD. The relationship between childhood victimization and number of PTSD symptoms persisted despite the introduction of covariates associated with risk for both. Victims of child abuse (sexual and physical) and neglect are at increased risk for developing PTSD, but childhood victimization is not a sufficient condition. Family, individual, and lifestyle variables also place individuals at risk and contribute to the symptoms of PTSD.
Seagull, Elizabeth A. W.; Scheurer, Susan L.
Follow-up of 64 neglected and abused children, seen one to seven years earlier, with mentally retarded parent revealed that six children had been relinquished voluntarily for adoption; that courts had terminated parental rights for 34 children; and that nine had been placed in foster care. Cognitive limitations prevented parents from utilizing…
Plantinga, Arnoud; Krijnen, Job M.T.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M.
People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an
Plantinga, A.; Krijnen, J.M.T.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.
People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an
Wilms, Inge Linda
Abstract. Cognitive rehabilitation from a functional perspective often requires intensive training over a longer period of time. In the case of rehabilitation of unilateral neglect, the frequency and intensity needed is expensive and difficult to implement both for the therapists and the patients...
G.O. Hagestad (Gunhild); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl)
textabstractNorth American life course research has typically focused on micro/meso level contexts, and how these shape men’s and women’s lives. There has been less attention to societal laws and policies in analyses of gendered life courses. In contrast, Europeans have typically neglected gender
Women remain vulnerable to structural and social marginalization in spite of advances made since Beijing 1995 which has seen more women mainstreamed into public spaces. Although as a broad group, the marginalization of women is cross-cutting, the plight of girls and young women is often neglected in research and ...
The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…
Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a
Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean
Full Text Available Abstract Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe.
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
Considering such factors as disruption of Indian families caused by Anglo educational programs (missionary schools, BIA boarding schools), by Indian relocation programs, and other non-Indian institutions, many of today's abusive and neglectful Indian parents were victims as children in these same institutions. The 9-page information sheet offers a…
Tamara Pereira de Oliveira
Full Text Available Unilateral Neglect Syndrome is one of the consequences of cerebral vascular accident (CVA generally following right parietal lobe lesion, leading to the impairment of perceptive visual, spatial and attention functions. The patient affected does not realize the environmental stimuli on the contralesional hemibody. Occupational therapy plays an important role in caring for this patient, seeking the recovery of perception, attention and social engagement. This study aimed to describe and evaluate the results of occupational therapy intervention and treatment in a single Unilateral Neglect Syndrome post CVA patient. Data were obtained from a survey of the patient’s medical records and interviews of his therapist and caretaker. The analysis of the patient’s medical records and his therapist’s report showed that the patient responded satisfactorily to treatment, presenting a decrease of the left unilateral neglect at the end of the study period. The favorable outcome of the patient outlined the relevance of evaluating the effects of Occupational Therapy interventions for clinical unilateral neglect syndrome.
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen
Responds to the comments of LoSchiavo F. M. and Shatz M. A.; Webster G. D., Nichols A. L., and Schember T. O.; Stroebe W. and Nijstad B.; and Haeffel et al. on the author's original article regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The author…
In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Oral health issues can also be associated with bullying and are commonly seen in human trafficking victims. Some medical providers may receive less education pertaining to oral health and dental injury and disease and may not detect the mouth and gum findings that are related to abuse or neglect as readily as they detect those involving other areas of the body. Therefore, pediatric care providers and dental providers are encouraged to collaborate to increase the prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions in children.
Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Background: Road traffic accident is a major but neglected public health challenge. There is a paucity of published data on road traffic crashes in Amhara National Regional State. Objective: This study attempts to describe the main causes and consequences of road traffic accidents in the Amhara Region. Methods: This ...
Morey, C.C.; Elliott, E.M.; Wiggers, J.; Eaves, S.L.; Shelton, J.T.; Mall, Jonathan
Relationships between Stroop interference and working memory capacity may reflect individual differences in resolving conflict, susceptibility to goal neglect, or both of these factors. We compared relationships between working memory capacity and three Stroop tasks: a classic, printed color-word
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.
A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)
Peter J Hotez
Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.
Imbert, P; Guérin, N; Sorge, F
Each year hundreds of thousands of children leave France to travel to developing countries where they are exposed to infectious agents that can be prevented by vaccination. During the child's pre-travel check-up, practitioners should check that all mandatory immunizations are up-to-date and provide advice on relevant vaccines in function of the epidemiological situation at the chosen destination. However various factors hinder full compliance with this approach and some vaccines are underused. Underused vaccines are referred to as neglected vaccines. In the French vaccination schedule three vaccinations can be considered as neglected. The first is the hepatitis B vaccine that has a low coverage level in France due to strong reluctance to its use despite the fact that the virus is widespread in tropical areas. The second is pneumococcal vaccine that should be administered to all infants less than 2 years of age, especially for travel to areas where pneumonia and meningitis are frequent. The third is BCG vaccine that is now at greater risk of being neglected in child travellers because its use has been downgraded from a general requirement to a recommendation only for children at risk. A serious limitation on the use of travel vaccinations is cost that can lead families to neglect some infectious risk such as hepatitis A that is a major risk for child travellers as well as for their relatives during or after the trip and typhoid fever that is essentially an imported disease. Rabies vaccine is also underused due to its cost and to poor understanding of the risk by many practitioners and families. The purpose of this article is to underline the need to improve information and access to vaccines that are all too often neglected in child travellers.
Bernardi, Nicolò Francesco; Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Ronchi, Roberta; Maravita, Angelo; Bricolo, Emanuela; Zigiotto, Luca; Perucca, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe
The study assessed whether the auditory reference provided by a music scale could improve spatial exploration of a standard musical instrument keyboard in right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. As performing music scales involves the production of predictable successive pitches, the expectation of the subsequent note may facilitate patients to explore a larger extension of space in the left affected side, during the production of music scales from right to left. Eleven right-brain-damaged stroke patients with left spatial neglect, 12 patients without neglect, and 12 age-matched healthy participants played descending scales on a music keyboard. In a counterbalanced design, the participants' exploratory performance was assessed while producing scales in three feedback conditions: With congruent sound, no-sound, or random sound feedback provided by the keyboard. The number of keys played and the timing of key press were recorded. Spatial exploration by patients with left neglect was superior with congruent sound feedback, compared to both Silence and Random sound conditions. Both the congruent and incongruent sound conditions were associated with a greater deceleration in all groups. The frame provided by the music scale improves exploration of the left side of space, contralateral to the right hemisphere, damaged in patients with left neglect. Performing a scale with congruent sounds may trigger at some extent preserved auditory and spatial multisensory representations of successive sounds, thus influencing the time course of space scanning, and ultimately resulting in a more extensive spatial exploration. These findings offer new perspectives also for the rehabilitation of the disorder. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M
Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...
Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.
Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)
Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.
Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to
Guariglia, Cecilia; Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Iaria, Giuseppe; Incoccia, Chiara
Representational neglect, which is characterized by the failure to report left-sided details of a mental image from memory, can occur after a right hemisphere lesion. In this study, we set out to verify the hypothesis that two distinct forms of representational neglect exist, one involving object representation and the other environmental representation. As representational neglect is considered rare, we also evaluated the prevalence and frequency of its association with perceptual neglect. We submitted a group of 96 unselected, consecutive, chronic, right brain-damaged patients to an extensive neuropsychological evaluation that included two representational neglect tests: the Familiar Square Description Test and the O'Clock Test. Representational neglect, as well as perceptual neglect, was present in about one-third of the sample. Most patients neglected the left side of imagined familiar squares but not the left side of imagined clocks. The present data show that representational neglect is not a rare disorder and also support the hypothesis that two different types of mental representations (i.e. topological and non-topological images) may be selectively damaged in representational neglect. PMID:23874416
Burnett, Jason; Hochschild, Ann; Smith, Scott M.; Diamond, Pam; Stotts, Angela; Dyer, Carmel
Despite high mortality rates, elder self-neglect is characterized by refusal of medical and social interventions. To date there have been no tested clinical interventions in elders who self-neglect. Previous research from the TEAM Institute has shown significantly low vitamin D levels in this population. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of a clinical intervention. Replacement of vitamin D was chosen because of its ease of administration and favorable safety profile. Methods: A randomized clinical trial using directly observed therapy of vitamin D was conducted using 50 elders, >65 years of age, with Adult Protective Services (APS) validated self-neglect. A staggered intervention with waiting controls was used to maximize statistical power. One-third (n=17) of the group was administered 50,000 IU vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) monthly and the remainder (n=33) were administered 400 IU monthly. Serum 25-OH vitamin D was assessed at baseline and 5-months. Results: 69% agreed to participate in the study and of those n=40 (80%) remained at 5-months. At baseline, 12% (n=7) were deficient in vitamin D (vitamin D levels (vitamin D level was 59 nmol/L +25 (mean SD), and increased significantly to 72nmol/L +21 nmol/L at 5-months. Conclusion: These data are the first to provide evidence that clinical interventions are feasible in elders who self-neglect. The increase in vitamin D levels confirmed that the study personnel were able to successfully intervene community-dwelling elders with self-neglect. This study sets the precedent for future intervention and prevention studies
Vaessen, Maarten J; Saj, Arnaud; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Gschwind, Markus; Vuilleumier, Patrik
Spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome in which patients fail to perceive and orient to stimuli located in the space contralateral to the lesioned hemisphere. It is characterized by a wide heterogeneity in clinical symptoms which can be grouped into distinct behavioral components correlating with different lesion sites. Moreover, damage to white-matter (WM) fiber tracts has been suggested to disconnect brain networks that mediate different functions associated with spatial cognition and attention. However, it remains unclear what WM pathways are associated with functionally dissociable neglect components. In this study we examined nine patients with a focal right hemisphere stroke using a series of neuropsychological tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to disentangle the role of specific WM pathways in neglect symptoms. First, following previous work, the behavioral test scores of patients were factorized into three independent components reflecting perceptual, exploratory, and object-centered deficits in spatial awareness. We then examined the structural neural substrates of these components by correlating indices of WM integrity (fractional anisotropy) with the severity of deficits along each profile. Several locations in the right parietal and frontal WM correlated with neuropsychological scores. Fiber tracts projecting from these locations indicated that posterior parts of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), as well as nearby callosal fibers connecting ipsilateral and contralateral parietal areas, were associated with perceptual spatial deficits, whereas more anterior parts of SLF and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were predominantly associated with object-centered deficits. In addition, connections between frontal areas and superior colliculus were found to be associated with the exploratory deficits. Our results provide novel support to the view that neglect may result from disconnection lesions in distributed
Plantinga, Arnoud; Krijnen, Job M T; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M
People often neglect opportunity costs: They do not fully take into account forgone alternatives outside of a particular choice set. Several scholars have suggested that poor people should be more likely to spontaneously consider opportunity costs, because budget constraints should lead to an increased focus on trade-offs. We did not find support for this hypothesis in five high-powered experiments (total N = 2325). The experiments used different products (both material and experiential) with both high and low prices (from $8.50 to $249.99) and different methods of reminding participants of opportunity costs. High-income and low-income participants showed an equally strong decrease in willingness to buy when reminded of opportunity costs, implying that both the rich and the poor neglect opportunity costs. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pal, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Deepak; Sadana, Ashwani; Dinkar, Karuna Shankar
Traumatic dislocation of the hip in children is a rare injury. We report the outcome of 2 patients of neglected hip dislocation which were treated by open reduction and internal fixation by k-wires. We treat 2 children both girls (one was of 4 years and other was 7 years of age). In both cases dislocation was unilateral and was not associated with any facture. Both cases were of posterior dislocation. in both cases open reduction and internal fixation was done by k wires. Hip spica was applied post operatively in both cases. The k wire was removed at 3 to 4 weeks. Patients were allowed to bear weight from gradual to full weight bearing after 6 weeks. We conclude that open reduction is a satisfactory treatment for neglected hip dislocation. It prevents not only deformity but also maintains limb length.
Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Full Text Available Neglect dyslexia is a disturbance in the allocation of spatial attention over a letter string following unilateral brain damage. Patients with this condition may fail to read letters on the contralesional side of an orthographic string. In some of these cases, reading is better with words than with non-words. This word superiority effect has received a variety of explanations that differ, among other things, with regard to the spatial distribution of attention across the letter string during reading. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the interaction between attention and lexical processes by recording eye movements in a patient (F.C. with severe left neglect dyslexia who was required to read isolated word and non-word stimuli of various length.
Richard G. Erskine
Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 4th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference, April 17, 2009. In speaking to the conference theme of “Acute Trauma, Cumulative Neglect, and Chronic Stress” the article describes some of the principles of Relational Group Psychotherapy. The theory of methods is based on the concept that the healing of trauma, neglect and stress occurs through a contactful therapeutic relationship. Relational group psychotherapy draws from several developments in group therapy, particularly the cybernetic feedback and other-centered models. It emphasizes the healing power of relationships between group members and the importance of phenomenological inquiry, affective attunement, identification, and relational-needs. The leader’s tasks are to stimulate the flow of contactful dialogue and to teach about human needs and healthy relationships.
M.A. Statistics show an increase in the number of cases of abused and neglected children handled by the Child Protection Unit. These particular statistics indicate only the number of reported cases, which according to Lewis (1999) and Starke (1995) should be tripled to estimate the true number of children being abused every day. Action research was selected for this study to assist the parents and the children in extending their understanding of their situation and thus resolve problems th...
Lauder, W; Ludwick, R; Zeller, R; Winchell, J
From the perspective of the practising nurse self-neglect may best be understood in terms of a set of complex and often poorly defined clinical problems in which two key clinical issues are "how do I judge whether this person has the capacity to make decisions about their lifestyle?" and "do we need to treat this person using mental health legislation?" These are taxing questions as judging if a patient has the capacity to make decisions about their lifestyle choices is difficult for even the most experienced clinicians. Such determinations require nurses to form a judgement as to mental capacity of the patient. We do not know what patient characteristics and in what combination nurses use these when making these judgements. This factorial survey aimed to identify which patient characteristics influenced Registered Nurses' judgements on decision-making capacity and decisions on the use of interventions which require statutory interventions in cases of self-neglect. Judgements on decision-making capacity were overwhelmingly predicted by information of the patients' mental health status. Nurses place patients in one of three broad categories of no mental illness, minor mental illness and severe mental illness. This categorization appears to operate as a fast and frugal heuristic indicating that nurses may use mental status as a cognitive screen to work from in judging self-neglect. Although there is a correlation between the severity of mental illness and the capacity for making decisions they are not the same. This study shows the continued work that needs done in educating nurses not only about self-neglect but also about the role a patient's mental status may have in assessment of problems.
Full Text Available Hemi-spatial neglect is an attentional disorder in which the sufferer fails to acknowledge or respond to stimuli appearing in contralesional space. In recent years, it has become clear that a measurable reduction in contralesional neglect can occur during galvanic vestibular stimulation, a technique by which transmastoid, small amplitude current induces lateral, attentional shifts via asymmetric modulation of the left and right vestibular nerves. However, it remains unclear whether this reduction persists after stimulation is stopped. To estimate longevity of effect, we therefore conducted a double-blind, randomized, dose-response trial involving a group of stroke patients suffering from left-sided neglect (n=52, mean age=66 years. To determine whether repeated sessions of galvanic vestibular stimulation more effectively induce lasting relief than a single session, participants received 1, 5, or 10 sessions, each lasting 25mins, of sub-sensory, left-anodal right-cathodal noisy direct current (mean amplitude=1mA. Ninety five percent confidence intervals indicated that all three treatment arms showed a statistically significant improvement between the pre-stimulation baseline and the final day of stimulation on the primary outcome measure, the conventional tests of the Behavioural Inattention Test. More remarkably, this change (mean change=28%, SD=18 was still evident 1month later. Secondary analyses indicated an allied increase of 20% in median Barthel Index score, a measure of functional capacity, in the absence of any adverse events or instances of participant non-compliance. Together these data suggest that galvanic vestibular stimulation, a simple, cheap technique suitable for home-based administration, may produce lasting reductions in neglect that are clinically important. Further protocol optimization is now needed ahead of a larger effectiveness study.
Hotez, Peter J.; Bas??ez, Mar?a-Gloria; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Grillet, Maria Eugenia
Poverty remains the overriding social determinant for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), but over the last several decades, we have also seen how political destabilization or even outright conflict can hasten economic declines and promote a substantial uptick in NTD incidence and prevalence . Recent examples include the emergence of Ebola virus infection in West Africa , visceral leishmaniasis and other NTDs in East Africa [3, 4], and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East and ...
Yıldırım, Azad; Nas, Kemal
There are limited studies related to the rehabilitation of neglected Monteggia fracture-dislocations. This study reports the results of the rehabilitation of neglected Monteggia fractures and dislocations and the best treatment options available. Thirteen children were rehabilitated between 2009 and 2012. A retrospective chart review was conducted to record the following: age, gender, anatomic region of fractures, time delay from symptom onset to fracture, Bado classification, Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) which includes pain, range of motion and daily life comfort, surgeries, length of hospitalization, location and pattern of fracture, length of follow-up and complications. The study group included thirteen children and adolescents; eleven males and two females with a mean age of 8.5 (range 2-15) years. According to the Bado classification, 11 patients had type 1, one had type 3 and one had type 4 fracture-dislocations. For Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) scales, patients that were less than ten years old had greater mean scores. Two patients had superficial infection, one had subluxation, one had osteoarthritis, one had delayed bone union and two had rigidity at the elbow. The goals of elbow rehabilitation following Neglected Monteggia cases include restoring function by restoring motion and muscle performance; influencing scar remodeling and preventing joint contracture; and restoring or maintaining joint stability. Patients aged younger than 10 years and intervals of less than one-year, between trauma and diagnosis, as well as early and effective rehabilitation were found as important parameters regarding favorable outcomes.
Ting, Darren S J; Pollock, Alex; Dutton, Gordon N; Doubal, Fergus N; Ting, Daniel S W; Thompson, Michelle; Dhillon, Baljean
Visual neglect is a common, yet frequently overlooked, neurological disorder following stroke characterized by a deficit in attention and appreciation of stimuli on the contralesional side of the body. It has a profound functional impact on affected individuals. A assessment and management of this condition are hindered, however, by the lack of professional awareness and clinical guidelines. Recent evidence suggests that the underlying deficit in visual attention is due to a disrupted internalized representation of the outer world rather than a disorder of sensory inputs. Dysfunction of the cortical domains and white-matter tracts, as well as inter-hemispheric imbalance, have been implicated in the various manifestations of visual neglect. Optimal diagnosis requires careful history-taking from the patient, family, and friends, in addition to clinical assessment with the line bisection test, the star cancellation test, and the Catherine Bergego Scale. Early recognition and prompt rehabilitation employing a multidisciplinary approach is desirable. Although no treatment has been definitively shown to be of benefit, those with promise include prism adaptation, visual scanning therapy, and virtual reality-based techniques. Further high quality research to seek optimum short- and long-term rehabilitative strategies for visual neglect is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a “new” Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as “blue marble health.” Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs. PMID:29346369
Peter J Hotez
Full Text Available Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.
Benecke, Mark; Josephi, Eberhard; Zweihoff, Ralf
Wounds of living persons are a potential target for the same flies that live, or feed early on corpses. This can lead to complications in estimation of PMI but also allows to determine additional information that might be valuable in a trial, or during the investigations [e.g., M. Benecke, R. Lessig, Child neglect and forensic entomology, Forensic Sci. Int. 120 (2001) 155-159]. With forensic entomology, and forensic entomologists being more and more present, even lower profile cases like the neglect of elderly people (without violence being used against them; i.e., natural death) comes to our attention. Furthermore, much more people grow older than in the past years which leads to increased awareness of malpractice of caregivers in the professional, and personal environment [DPA (German Press Agency), Studie an 17000 Leichen: Jeder Siebte vor Tod falsch gepflegt (Every seventh elderly person not cared for sufficiently), German Press Agency dpa # 051402, Jan 3, Jan 5, 2003] . We briefly sketch three cases in which forensic entomology helped to better understand the circumstances of death, and the type and intensity of neglect before death.
Barrett, A M; Goedert, Kelly M; Basso, Julia C
Spatial neglect increases hospital morbidity and costs in around 50% of the 795,000 people per year in the USA who survive stroke, and an urgent need exists to reduce the care burden of this condition. However, effective acute treatment for neglect has been elusive. In this article, we review 48 studies of a treatment of intense neuroscience interest: prism adaptation training. Due to its effects on spatial motor 'aiming', prism adaptation training may act to reduce neglect-related disability. However, research failed, first, to suggest methods to identify the 50-75% of patients who respond to treatment; second, to measure short-term and long-term outcomes in both mechanism-specific and functionally valid ways; third, to confirm treatment utility during the critical first 8 weeks poststroke; and last, to base treatment protocols on systematic dose-response data. Thus, considerable investment in prism adaptation research has not yet touched the fundamentals needed for clinical implementation. We suggest improved standards and better spatial motor models for further research, so as to clarify when, how and for whom prism adaptation should be applied.
Sillevis Smitt, Henk; de Leeuw, Jenny; de Vries, Tjalling
In their maxillofacial practice, the authors have encountered some children with severe dental caries whose teeth had to be removed; many later appeared to be abused children. The authors hypothesized that in the group of children who underwent multiple tooth extractions for caries under general anesthesia, a larger percentage would be found to be abused compared with the normal population. The authors identified children who underwent multiple tooth extractions under general anesthesia in a well-defined region in the Netherlands in 2005 and 2006. Subsequently, they sought these children in the database of the Dutch national organization against domestic violence and child abuse (Veilig Thuis) in 2015. Of the total group of 376 children, 205 (55%) underwent the procedure because of caries during this period. Child abuse and neglect was established by Veilig Thuis in 47 of these children (23%; 95% confidence interval, 20-26), whereas the procedure occurred before the child abuse was established in 27. There appears to be a strong association between severe dental caries and child abuse and neglect. Hence, severe dental caries could be regarded as an early symptom of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue
Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.
D. V. Chugaev
Full Text Available Introduction. Subcutaneous rupture of achilles tendon is a frequent trauma and most patients with such pathology are men of working age. Even though it is not difficult to diagnose such ruptures, especially those that need surgical treatment, there are numerous cases when patients come to a surgeon with a big delay. In such cases, the rupture becomes «chronic» or «neglected» and can be no longer treated as an acute rupture. There are many techniques of operative treatment of chronic achilles tendon ruptures, but still there is no consensus on which technique is to be considered the most simple, effective and safe.The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using peroneus brevis tendon as a graft for treatment of achilles tendon defects type 3 in Kuwada classification. Will this technique bring good and excellent results that are comparable with end-to-end suture after acute achilles tendon ruptures?Materials and methods. The present study includes 13 patients in which peroneus brevis was used for treatment of neglected achilles tendon rupture (group I and 18 patients after end-to-end suture after acute achilles tendon rupture (group II. Group I consisted of patients with neglected rupture of achilles tendon that was not previously treated due to various reasons and with a significant defect.Results. Mean surgery duration in group I was 91.9±6.6 (Me — 100 min, in group II — 43.2±2.2 (Me — 45 (p = 0.0001. damaged limb was evaluated using achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score, mean post-op follow up was around 1 year. The results were: group I — 86.6±2.28 (Me — 87, group II — 93.4±1.01 (Me — 94 (p = 0.04. This means, that despite quite high scores in group I, they are still statistically worse than scores after suture of acute rupture in group II. There was no difference in post-operative complication rate between the groups (p>0.05. The most common complication for both groups was range of motion restriction in
Cottin, Vincent; Richeldi, Luca
In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), some facts or concepts based on substantial evidence, whilst implicit for learned subspecialists, have previously been neglected and/or not explicitly formulated or made accessible to a wider audience. IPF is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and is predominantly a disease of ageing. However, its cause(s) remain elusive and, thus, it is one of the most challenging diseases for the development of novel effective and safe therapies. With the approval of pirfenidone for patients with mild-to-moderate IPF, an earlier diagnosis of IPF is a prerequisite for earlier treatment and, potentially, improvement of the long-term clinical outcome of this progressive and ultimately fatal disease. An earlier diagnosis may be achieved in IPF by promoting thin-slice chest high-resolution computed tomography screening of interstitial lung disease as a "by-product" of large-scale lung cancer screening strategies in smokers, but other techniques, which have been neglected in the past, are now available. Lung auscultation and early identification of "velcro" crackles has been proposed as a key component of early diagnosis of IPF. An ongoing study is exploring correlations between lung sounds on auscultation obtained using electronic stethoscopes and high-resolution computed tomography patterns.
Kivistö, K; Alapulli, H; Tupola, S; Alaluusua, S; Kivitie-Kallio, S
To study the oral health and dental neglect of prenatally buprenorphine-exposed 3-year-old children. The study consisted of 51 children who as newborns tested positive for buprenorphine in a urine screen. The control group comprised 68 children previously unexposed to narcotics. The dentist examined the children and interviewed their guardians. Buprenorphine-exposed children exhibited significantly more early childhood caries than did the control group. Caries indices, the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or tooth surfaces and decayed teeth were greater in the buprenorphine-exposed children than the control children (p = 0.004, p = 0.004, p = 0.001, respectively). In the buprenorphine group, more children showed visible plaque (p = 0.003) and fewer children were caries-free (p = 0.009) than in the control group. The control children's teeth were also brushed more often than the buprenorphine-exposed children's teeth (p = 0.001) and the parents were more involved in their children's tooth brushing than were those in the buprenorphine-exposed group (p = 0.035). More caries and dental neglect were found in buprenorphine-exposed children than in controls. These findings highlight the importance of routine dental appointments, caries screening and preventive care for children in substance-abusing families.
Wittayer, Matthias; Dimova, Violeta; Birklein, Frank; Schlereth, Tanja
Neglect-like symptoms (NLS) are frequently observed in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). The clinical meaning of NLS, however, is largely unknown. Therefore, this study sets out to assess the importance of NLS for patient outcome and to explore their clinical correlates. We assessed NLS in a group of 53 patients with CRPS and compared the results to 28 healthy volunteers. To define the origin of the NLS reports, we tested the subjective visual midline, performed a limb-laterality recognition test, and quantitative sensory testing. In addition, psychological and pain assessment scales were completed. Tests were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. After 6 months, patients were reassessed and the influence of NLS on pain outcome was determined. Most patients reported NLS in the questionnaire, whereas subjective visual midline and limb-laterality recognition test in contrast to previous studies did not reveal perceptual disturbances. Neglect-like symptom scores were associated with pain and pain catastrophizing in acute CRPS and anxiety and thermal sensory loss in chronic CRPS. Furthermore, high NLS scores had a negative impact on pain outcome after 6 months. Our results indicate that NLS have a different meaning in acute and chronic CRPS and might be of prognostic value. Possibly, treatment should focus on reducing NLS.
Rosen, Tony; Lien, Cynthia; Stern, Michael E; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Mysliwiec, Regina; McCarthy, Thomas J; Clark, Sunday; Mulcare, Mary R; Ribaudo, Daniel S; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl; Flomenbaum, Neal E
Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers, who perform initial assessments of ill and injured patients, often in a patient's home, are uniquely positioned to identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect. Despite this, few organized programs exist to ensure that EMS concerns are communicated to or further investigated by other health care providers, social workers, or the authorities. To explore attitudes and self-reported practices of EMS providers surrounding identification and reporting of elder mistreatment. Five semi-structured focus groups with 27 EMS providers. Participants reported believing they frequently encountered and were able to identify potential elder mistreatment victims. Many reported infrequently discussing their concerns with other health care providers or social workers and not reporting them to the authorities due to barriers: 1) lack of EMS protocols or training specific to vulnerable elders; 2) challenges in communication with emergency department providers, including social workers, who are often unavailable or not receptive; 3) time limitations; and 4) lack of follow-up when EMS providers do report concerns. Many participants reported interest in adopting protocols to assist in elder protection. Additional strategies included photographically documenting the home environment, additional training, improved direct communication with social workers, a dedicated location on existing forms or new form to document concerns, a reporting hotline, a system to provide feedback to EMS, and community paramedicine. EMS providers frequently identify potential victims of elder abuse, neglect, and self-neglect, but significant barriers to reporting exist. Strategies to empower EMS providers and improve reporting were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Paul, Joaquin; Arruabarrena, M. Ignacia
This study investigated behavior problems in 66 school-aged physically abused, neglected, and control group children in the Basque Country, Spain. Abused and neglected children had higher subscale scores for social problems, delinquent behavior, and attention problems and showed lower school adjustment. Neglected children appeared more aggressive,…
Milot, Tristan; St-Laurent, Diane; Ethier, Louise S; Provost, Marc A
This study (a) assessed whether child neglect is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative symptoms in the preschool period and (b) examined the role of quality of mother-child affective communication in the development of trauma-related symptoms among neglected children. Participants were 33 neglected and 72 non-neglected preschoolers (mean age = 60 months). Neglected children were recruited from the Child Protection Agencies. Neglected and non-neglected children victims of other form of abuse were excluded from the study. Trauma symptoms were evaluated through mother and preschool teacher reports. Quality of mother-child affective communication was assessed in a lab visit during an unstructured task. According to teachers, neglected children displayed more PTSD and dissociative symptoms than non-neglected children. Quality of mother-child communication was lower in neglected dyads. Mother-child affective communication predicted teacher-reported child trauma symptomatology, over and above child neglect. Discussion focuses on the traumatic nature of child neglect and the underlying parent-child relational processes.
Venet, Michele; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Gosselin, Catherine; Capuano, France
A number of studies (see Ethier, 1999) have shown that neglect has a deleterious impact on children's development. However, the effect of neglect on a child's internal representations of their family still needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment patterns observed in a subsample of neglected children as…
Dunn, Marija G.; Mezzich, Ada; Janiszewski, Susan; Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E.
Paternal and maternal models of transmission of child neglect were tested separately in offspring of men with a substance use disorder (SUD). Child dysregulation was independently related to neglect severity. SUD in the mother directly correlated with severity of neglectful parenting. (Contains 51 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance Foster Care § 20.516 How are child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases to be handled? Reported child abuse, neglect or exploitation cases and the...
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159
Day, Mary Rose
Self-neglect is a worldwide and serious public health issue that can have serious adverse outcomes and is more common in older people. Cases can vary in presentation, but typically present as poor self-care, poor care of the environment and service refusal. Community nurses frequently encounter self-neglect cases and health and social care professionals play a key role in the identification, management and prevention of self-neglect. Self-neglect cases can give rise to ethical, personal and professional challenges. The aim of this article is to create a greater understanding of the concept of self-neglect among community nurses.
Yin Yafu; Li Xuena; Li Yaming; Gu Hui; Han Chunqi; Liu Hao
Objective: To explore the presence, clinical characteristics, anatomical foci in image and mechanism of hemispatial neglect (HSN), neglect test battery and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging were performed on patients with stroke. Methods: Thirty dextromanual patients who were diagnosed as having unilateral stroke clinically were recruited. A neglect test battery including line bisection test, star cancellation test and drawing test was performed on the subjects. The severity of neglect was measured on neglect tests. The lowest rCBF, the range with decreased rCBF, number of the foci with decreased rCBF, the flow deficit size and the total number of pixels in the foci were measured on SPECT rCBF imaging. Results: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed as having HSN by the neglect test battery. Contralateral neglect (CN) and ipsilateral neglect (IN) were observed in both right and left hemisphere strokes. On SPECT imaging, the patients with neglect had decreased rCBF in the frontal cortex most often; followed by the parietal, occipital and temporal cortices; and basal ganglia and thalamus in some cases. The patients who had two or more regions damaged showed neglect more often and severity. The correlation coefficients between rCBF in the foci, the decreased percentage of rCBF of the foci and the severity of neglect were -0.119 (P>.05) and 0.221 (P>.05). The correlation coefficients between the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size, the total number of pixels of the foci and the severity of neglect were 0.537 (P<.05), 0.493 (P<.05), 0.561 (P<.05), 0.466 (P<.05), respectively. No difference between CN and IN on SPECT images reached statistical significance. Conclusions: The severity of neglect did not correlate with rCBF and the decreased percentage of rCBF in the foci, while it was significantly correlated with the range, number of foci, the flow deficit size and the total numbers of pixels of the foci
Thomason, Katherine; Ramesh, Ashwanth; McGoldrick, Niall; Cove, Richard; Walsh, James C; Stephens, Michael M
Primary ankle arthrodesis used to treat a neglected open ankle fracture dislocation is a unique decision. A 63-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 5-day-old open fracture dislocation of his right ankle. After thorough soft tissue debridement, primary arthrodesis of the tibiotalar joint was performed using initial Kirschner wire fixation and an external fixator. Definitive soft tissue coverage was later achieved using a latissimus dorsi free flap. The fusion was consolidated to salvage the limb from amputation. The use of primary arthrodesis to treat a compound ankle fracture dislocation has not been previously described. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cooper, Claudia; Livingston, Gill
Elder abuse may be defined as a violation of a vulnerable older person's human and civil rights. Psychiatric illness is an important cause of vulnerability to abuse, especially when it is comorbid with other risk factors, such as physical frailty, sensory impairment, social isolation, and physical dependency. Health care providers are likely to encounter elder abuse regularly, and therefore have an important role in its detection and management, and in the treatment of subsequent psychiatric illness. This article reviews the relationships between psychiatric illnesses and elder abuse and neglect, examines the psychiatric consequences, and discusses how these may be treated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
in accordance with the UN Guiding Principles to avoid harm, including through affected-stakeholder engagement. Applying socio-legal regulatory theory along with organizational and accounting literature, the article finds that the Directive’s predominant focus on ex-post measures appears to be a neglected...... aiming at shaping business conduct. Analysing the EU’s 2014 Non-Financial Reporting Directive as an example of governmental regulation for promoting responsible business conduct, the article discusses conditions for HRDD and reporting as a communication process to stimulate organizational change...
in accordance with the UN Guiding Principles to avoid harm, including through affected-stakeholder engagement. Applying socio-legal regulatory theory along with organizational and accounting literature, the article finds that the Directive's predominant focus on ex-post measures appears to be a neglected...... aiming at shaping business conduct. Analysing the EU's 2014 Non-Financial Reporting Directive as an example of governmental regulation for promoting responsible business conduct, the article discusses conditions for HRDD and reporting as a communication process to stimulate organizational change...
Full Text Available Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs are responsible for millions of deaths and disabilities yearly, around the globe. The largest burden of these diseases falls on communities with poor access to basic sanitation, healthcare facilities, and educational programs. This review focuses on advances in vaccination, treatment and control programs over the past decade for the major NTDs of the Western Hemisphere: malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, ankylostomiasis, lymphatic filiariasis, Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis, and onchocerciasis. The discussion centers on challenges for NTD eradication and prospects for the future.
Chen, Xiao-Wei; Lin, Cheng-He; Zheng, Hua; Lin, Zhen-Lan
To observe clinical manifestations, behavioral characteristics, and effects of rehabilitation on a patient with pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect caused by right thalamic hemorrhage. Assessment of pusher syndrome was made by the Scale for Contraversive pushing (SCP), and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome was diagnosed using line cancellation, letter and star cancellation, line bisection tests and copy and continuation of graphic sequence test. Behavioral therapy, occupational therapy, reading training and traditional Chinese medicine methods were adopted for treatment of pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect. The patient showed typical pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect symptoms. The pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect symptoms were significantly improved following rehabilitation treatments. Pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome occurred simultaneously after right thalamic hemorrhage. Early rehabilitation therapy can reduce the symptoms of pusher syndrome and unilateral spatial neglect syndrome and improve motor function.
Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME
INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501
Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa
Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.
Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura
In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training. PMID:24937472
Upadhyaya, B P; Shakya, G; Adhikari, S; Rijal, N; Acharya, J; Maharjan, L; Marasini, B R
Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease and is under reported from Nepal. The objective of this study was to investigate the sero-epidemiology of scrub typhus in patients suffering from acute febrile illness. A total of 434 specimens collected from July to November 2015 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) were investigated for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody to Orientiatsutsugamushi.The Scrub Typhus Detect TM kit (InBios, USA) was used to detect the antibodies to O.tsutsugamushi in human serum. Randomly selected 10% positive specimens were used for confirmation by dot- enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the total, 175 (40.3%) were positive for IgM antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi. Positive results of scrub typhus were highest among female in 11-20 year followed by males in 41-50 years age group. The IgM antibodies to O. tsutusugamushi were positive in specimens of various geographical regions including 30 districts of Nepal. Positive cases were found in various ecological regions of Nepal. Scrub typhus is one of the neglected tropical diseases in Nepal. Patients with acute febrile illness should be investigated for scrub typhus with high priority. There is an urgent need of reliable and affordable diagnostic tests at all level of health facilities of Nepal. Surveillance and public health awareness about the disease transmission and preventive measures needs to be initiated.
Sunil Lingaraj Ajagannanavar
Full Text Available Introduction: Dental neglect (DN has been defined as behavior and attitudes which are likely to have detrimental consequences for the individual′s oral health, or more specifically as failure to take precautions to maintain oral health, failure to obtain needed dental care, and physical neglect of the oral cavity. Aim: The aim was to assess the association of DN with dental caries and oral hygiene among adolescents in Virajpet, India. Materials and Methods: A total of six hundred adolescents aged 15-18 years were selected. DN was recorded using self-administered questionnaire. Oral health status was clinically assessed using simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S and dental caries through dentition status as per WHO criteria. Results: The mean DN score for this population was 10.18. Sociodemographic variables and Dental Attendance pattern were significantly associated with DN. Mean decayed missing filled value and OHI-S values were also significantly associated with DN. Conclusion: The present study revealed that variations in DN exist in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and pattern of dental attendance. In addition, oral health status was significantly associated with DN among adolescents.
von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.
Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518
Weinberg, L A
This study considers whether Goerge and colleagues' (1992) thesis is correct--that the reason the special education needs of abused or neglected children in foster care are not being met appropriately is that the services provided to them revolve around their need for protection. A case study was done of 12 children with disabilities who were removed from the homes of their parents because of abuse or neglect. The primary data were the legal interventions made on the children's behalf with various agencies serving them by a legal services office. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a review of the children's case files. The number of dysfunctions identified in the various agencies serving the children that negatively affected the children's ability to receive an appropriate education were in the following categories: search and serve (3); eligibility (1); timeline violation (8); IEP violation (11); inappropriate program (17); inadequate resources (4); lack of knowledge (3); parent advocacy problem (3); lack of coordination (7); dependent status (8); mobility delay (9). In those instances where the child welfare agency did not take into account a child's educational needs when placing that child, but simply considered the appropriateness of the living situation to protect and care for the child, then the thesis appears to be borne out. However, some-dysfunctions appear to be part of routine lack of compliance with certain areas of special education law, and would seem to affect any child with similar disabilities and educational needs in the offending school districts.
Vallar, Giuseppe; Burani, Cristina; Arduino, Lisa S
Neglect dyslexia (ND) is reviewed, based on published single-patient and group studies. ND is frequently associated with right hemispheric damage and unilateral spatial neglect (USN), and typically involves the left side of the letter string. Left-brain-damaged patients showing ND, ipsilateral (left) or contralateral (right) to the side of the left-sided hemispheric lesion, have also been reported, as well as a few patients with bilateral damage, with more frequently left than right ND. As USN, ND is temporarily ameliorated by lateralized stimulations (vestibular caloric, visual prism adaptation). ND may occur independent of USN, suggesting the damage to specific visuospatial representational/attentional systems, supporting reading. ND errors comprise omission, substitution, and, less frequently, addition of letters on one side of the stimulus, resulting in words or nonwords, also with reference to the stimulus' linguistic features. Patients with ND may show preserved lexical-morphological effects and implicit processing, up to the semantic level, of the misread string. This preserved processing is a feature of ND, shared with the USN syndrome. The mechanisms modulating error type and lexical-morphological effects are partly independent of each other. Different levels of representation of the letter string may be affected, giving rise to egocentric, stimulus-centred, and word-centred patterns of impairment. The anatomical correlates of ND include the temporo-parieto-occipital regions.
Nii-Trebi, Nicholas Israel
Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases.
Kim, Jung Eun; Popp, David; Prag, Andrew
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides an institutional framework for developed countries to support projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. Are the technologies promoted those most needed by the recipient countries? We address this question by first reviewing Technology Needs Assessments prepared by developing countries, and then comparing the stated needs to the technologies most frequently promoted via CDM. While there appears to be a good match between requested technologies and those used in CDM, desired technologies such as solar energy for remote locations, biofuels, improved cooking stoves, and efficient lighting appear “neglected” by CDM. Nonetheless, a review of costs for these technologies suggests that many could be cost effective for developing countries. For projects requiring wide dispersal of household items, such as cooking stoves or lighting, the administrative burdens of CDM provide a hurdle. In other cases, difficulties quantifying the ancillary benefits of these projects hinder the promotion of these technologies. We conclude with possible explanations for why these technologies are neglected and suggestions for future research. - Highlights: ► We identify technologies desired by developing countries but not provided via CDM. ► Solar PV is neglected due to high costs. ► The CDM process provides a hurdle for improved cooking stoves and efficient lighting. ► Implications for CDM and climate policy are discussed
Bjoern Marcus von Reumont
Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.
The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. Perceived threat involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. Perceived neglect involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or investments. Scales measuring these 2 underlying concerns were developed in Study 1, where a sample of 1,224 married people rated a pool of 57 words describing oneself and perceptions of a partner during a specific episode of conflict. Factor analysis identified 2 dimensions, and 2 brief 8-item scales were created. In Study 2, a sample of 2,315 married people completed the resulting 16-item inventory along with 10 self-report scales measuring types of emotion, cognition, and behavior during conflict. A 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed, and measurement invariance was demonstrated across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Both perceived threat and perceived neglect correlated with relationship satisfaction and conflict communication. More importantly, each concern was associated with a different, and theoretically expected, set of variables regarding self emotion, emotion perceived in a partner, and cognition during conflict.
Klevens, Joanne; Ports, Katie A; Austin, Chelsea; Ludlow, Ivan J; Hurd, Jacqueline
Children around the world experience violence at the hands of their caregivers at alarming rates. A recent review estimates that a minimum of 50% of children in Asia, Africa, and North America experienced severe physical violence by caregivers in the past year, with large variations between countries. Identifying modifiable country-level factors driving these geographic variations has great potential for achieving population-level reductions in rates of child maltreatment. This study builds on previous research by focusing on caregiver-reported physical abuse and neglect victimisation, examining 22 societal factors representing 11 different constructs among 42 countries from 5 continents at different stages of development. Our findings suggest that gender inequity may be important for both child physical abuse and neglect. Indicators of literacy and development may also be important for child neglect. Given the limitations of the correlational findings and measurement issues, it is critical to continue to investigate societal-level factors of child maltreatment so that interventions and prevention efforts can incorporate strategies that have the greatest potential for population-level impact.
Barber, James G; Delfabbro, Paul H
This study compared the profile of neglected and abused children in the Australian foster care system as well as differences between maltreatment types in relation to parental contact, reunification and psychosocial progress in care. The case files of 235 children entering foster care were examined and their social workers were administered standardised questionnaires at the point of intake. All measures were repeated for those remaining in care 1 year and then again 2 years later. Neglected children were younger than non-neglected children, more likely to have a physical or mental disability, more likely to experience multiple forms of maltreatment and less likely to pose conduct problems for carers. Neglected children were more likely than non-neglected children to experience a decline in parental contact over time, and were less likely to be reunified with their families of origin. There was minimal difference between neglected and non-neglected in their psychosocial progress while in care. Aboriginal children were more likely to be reunified than non-Aboriginal children when neglect was attributable to transient factors (parental incapacity) but the reverse was true for non-neglected children. The fact that neglected children more often require a second form of maltreatment before being removed from home suggests that children's services workers are less inclined to remove children for neglect than for other forms of maltreatment. As a consequence, those neglected children who are in care tend to come from more dysfunctional families than non-neglected children do, as evidenced by the relatively poorer parental contact and reunification results of neglected children. Neglected children differ systematically from non-neglected children and suffer relative disadvantage in relation to multiple forms of maltreatment, parental contact, and reunification. The fact that declines in parental contact among neglected children in care occurred only when indirect contact
Full Text Available This year PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (PLOS NTDs celebrates its tenth anniversary following the publication of the first issue in 2007 . When PLOS NTDs was founded, the framework of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs as an alternative to "other diseases" (as they were then referred to in the Millennium Development Goals was just getting started-especially for Africa [2, 3]. In the decade since, PLOS NTDs has overseen enormous successes in NTD control and elimination. Here, we want to briefly review the ten year progress made towards the control or elimination of the diseases now identified by the WHO as NTDs. Many of the details are highlighted in PLOS NTDs papers cited here, but the summary information is based on the recently released Global Burden of Disease (GBD Study 2015 (also launched with Gates Foundation support that summarized past-decade changes in disease prevalence, mortality, or disability rates (from the years 2005 to 2015 [4-6], as well as the GBD Study 2013 that summarizes disease prevalence changes over a longer time horizon from 1990 to 2013 .
Full Text Available Introduction: Neglected hip dislocation is rare in today’s world and after prosthesis replacement even rarer finding. However such patients may not report to surgeons until they develop secondary complications. Management of such patient’s is a challenge to the treating surgeon and need to be tailored suiting to patient’s demands, expectations and constraints of financial resources. We did not find a similar case in the electronic and print media and therefore report this case which was innovatively managed. Case Report: A 60 year farmer presented with fracture shaft femur and ipsilateral dislocation prosthesis of right hip. He had a hemiarthroplasty done for fracture neck of femur in the past but used to walk with a lurch since he started to ambulate after discharge. However he was satisfied despite “some problems” which had caused shortening of his limb. The patient was informed of the various treatment options and their possible complications. He expressed his inability to afford a Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA at any stage and consented for other options discussed with him. The patient was positioned supine and adductor tenotomy done. Next he was positioned laterally and the fracture was fixed with heavy duty broad dynamic compression plate and screws. The wound was temporarily closed. Now through the previous scar via posterior approach the hip was exposed. The prosthesis was found to be firmly fixed to the proximal femur. The acetabulum was cleared with fibrous tissue. All attempts the prosthesis to relocate the prosthesis failed after several attempts and it was best decided to leave alone. Post operatively period was uneventful. At follow up he refused for any further manoeuvre in future inform of heavy traction and attempts to reduce the same. At one year when he was walking unaided and his X-rays showed that fracture had well united his SF-36 score was PCS – 49.6 and MCS – 51.9. Conclusion: Ipsilateral shaft femur fracture
Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Jindal, Nipun; Kamboj, Kulbhushan
No study has ever evaluated the causes and effect of neglect on the outcome of post burns contractures of hand in children. 66 hands in 61 children (mean age 12.22 years) with a mean neglect of 11.6 years (range 5-17 years) were assessed for the causes of neglect and the outcome of surgery. Average follow up was 6.6 years. The results were assessed in two groups of 5-10 years neglect as group I and >10 years neglect as group II. In a total number of 134 contracted rays in 66 hands, the surgical procedures included local Z/V-Y flap (51 rays), cross finger flap (48 rays), full thickness graft (35 rays). Additional external fixator with a distracter was used in 3 patients treated at a delay of 14, 16 and 17 years. 50 (81.96%) patients belonged to rural and slum areas. The reasons for delayed treatment included poverty - 33 patients, lack of awareness of surgical treatment - 16 patients; and indifference of parents - 12 patients. 44 (72.13%) children were illiterates. With treatment the average DASH score improved from 65.10 to 36.90 (p neglect in treatment of post burns contracture include poverty, lack of awareness and illiteracy. All the patients showed significant improvement in function after the surgery. Contractures with higher neglect had significantly inferior outcome.
Full Text Available Semimembranosus avulsion fracture is infrequently reported and is easy to miss on plain radiographs; the mechanism of injury is highly controversial. Initial reports linked it to anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscal tears. We report an osteochondral semimembranosus avulsion fracture of the posteromedial tibial plateau with associated posterior cruciate ligament rupture. Also described is a novel surgical fixation technique for such osteochondral fractures where the surgical exposure is limited due to the obliquity of the fracture line resulting in a greater involvement of the articular cartilage than the small bony component. The fixation technique described may be used for osteochondral fractures where the application of a conventional compression screw may not be feasible. Keywords: Osteochondral fracture, Semimembranosus avulsion fracture, Posteromedial tibial plateau, Neglected, Nonunion
MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the “classic” NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease. PMID:22761967
Various groups have attempted to set a monetary value on the externalities of fossil fuel usage based on damages caused by emissions of particulates, sulfur dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen and carbon. One externality that has been neglected in this type of analysis, however, is the cost of maintaining a secure supply of fossil fuels. Military expenditures for this purpose are relatively easy to quantify based on US Department of Defense and Office of Management and Budget figures, and amount to between $1 and more than $3 per million Btu, based on total fossil fuel consumption in the US. Open acknowledgment of such expenses would, at the very least, have a profound effect on the perceived competitiveness of all non-fossil fuel technologies. It should also provide a simple and easily comprehended rationale for an energy content (Btu) charge on all fossil fuels. (Author)
Justin, Renate G.
A court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of an abused and neglected child in court. An independent voice, the volunteer gathers information and reports to the court. The CASA volunteer works in close cooperation with other professionals, physicians, lawyers, social workers, and teachers to find the most suitable permanent placement for a victimized child, whether it be a foster home, parental home, or adoptive home. Another function for CASA volunteers is to be supportive to the child during a time of uncertainty in his or her life and to help the youngster adjust to new and changing situations; the CASA volunteer may be the only consistent adult presence during this difficult period of transition.
Peter J Hotez
Full Text Available Today, the World Health Organization recognizes 17 major parasitic and related infections as the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Despite recent gains in the understanding of the nature and prevalence of NTDs, as well as successes in recent scaled-up preventive chemotherapy strategies and other health interventions, the NTDs continue to rank among the world's greatest global health problems. For virtually all of the NTDs (including those slated for elimination under the auspices of a 2012 London Declaration for NTDs and a 2013 World Health Assembly resolution [WHA 66.12], additional control mechanisms and tools are needed, including new NTD drugs, vaccines, diagnostics, and vector control agents and strategies. Elimination will not be possible without these new tools. Here we summarize some of the key challenges in translational science to develop and introduce these new technologies in order to ensure success in global NTD elimination efforts.
Nenoff, Pietro; Simon, Jan Christoph; Muylowa, Grace K; Davey, Gail
Podoconiosis or mossy foot is a form of non-filarial lymphedema. This geochemical elephantiasis is a disabling condition caused by the passage of microparticles of silica and aluminum silicates through the skin of people walking barefoot in areas with a high content of soil of volcanic origin. Podoconiosis is widespread in tropical Africa, Central America and North India, yet it remains a neglected and under-researched condition. The disabling effects of podoconiosis cause great hardship to patients. It adversely affects the economic (reduced productivity and absenteeism), social (marriage, education, etc.) and psychological (social stigma) well-being of those affected. Podoconiosis can be prevented; the main primary preventive measure is protective footwear. Secondary measures include a strict hygiene regimen and compression therapy, which can reverse initial lesions. Tertiary approaches include surgical management, such as shaving operations to reduce hyperplastic and verrucous elephantiasis.
Dopp, Alex R; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Powell, Jennifer S
This study evaluated the economics of Multisystemic Therapy for Child Abuse and Neglect (MST-CAN) by applying the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (WSIPP) cost-benefit model to data from a randomized effectiveness trial with 86 families (Swenson et al. in JFP 24:497-507, 2010b). The net benefit of MST-CAN, versus enhanced outpatient treatment, was $26,655 per family at 16 months post-baseline. Stated differently, every dollar spent on MST-CAN recovered $3.31 in savings to participants, taxpayers, and society at large. Policymakers and public service agencies should consider these findings when making investments into interventions for high-need families involved with child protective services.
Eleftherios D. Spartalis
Full Text Available Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC is the most common epithelial thyroid tumor, accounting for more than 80% of all thyroid tumors. Recent advances in ultrasonographic screening and US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB have facilitated the early detection and diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinomas. In exceptionally rare cases, papillary thyroid tumors may assume enormous dimensions due to recurrent disease or the patient's negligence of the problem. We report an extremely rare case of a 72-year-old woman presented with a neglected giant exophytic papillary thyroid carcinoma with hemorrhagic ulcers. Computed tomography showed a mass measured 17×12 cm that caused a displacement of the trachea to the right side and reached the mediastinum. After bleeding management, patient was discharged. The patient was fully aware of her situation, but she denied any further therapeutic management.
Laplane, D; Escourolle, R; Degos, J D; Sauron, B; Massiou, H
Two cases of thalamic lesions with motor neglect are presented. The syndrome of motor neglect was complete in those cases with a) underutilization of left limbs, but good utilization upon verbal orders, b) loss of placement reaction, c) weakness of movement when hand was approaching the target, d) weakness of motor reaction to nociceptive stimuli. Those cases confirm that motor neglect exists after thalamic lesions and bring pathologic clues for topographic discussion. Motor neglect seems to be a particular case of partial unilateral neglect throwing some doubt on the hypothesis of a global trouble of hemispheric activation. Prevalence of left motor neglects suggests some linkage between propositional motility and language. One may suppose that in the right hemisphere language is able to have a vicarious action when spontaneous activation is lost; at the opposite, in the left hemisphere language and motility would be too linked to let this dissociation be generally possible.
Moreh, Elior; Malkinson, Tal Seidel; Zohary, Ehud; Soroker, Nachum
Patients with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) often show impaired performance in spatial working memory tasks, apart from the difficulty retrieving "left-sided" spatial data from long-term memory, shown in the "piazza effect" by Bisiach and colleagues. This study's aim was to compare the effect of the spatial position of a visual object on immediate and delayed memory performance in USN patients. Specifically, immediate verbal recall performance, tested using a simultaneous presentation of four visual objects in four quadrants, was compared with memory in a later-provided recognition task, in which objects were individually shown at the screen center. Unlike healthy controls, USN patients showed a left-side disadvantage and a vertical bias in the immediate free recall task (69% vs. 42% recall for right- and left-sided objects, respectively). In the recognition task, the patients correctly recognized half of "old" items, and their correct rejection rate was 95.5%. Importantly, when the analysis focused on previously recalled items (in the immediate task), no statistically significant difference was found in the delayed recognition of objects according to their original quadrant of presentation. Furthermore, USN patients were able to recollect the correct original location of the recognized objects in 60% of the cases, well beyond chance level. This suggests that the memory trace formed in these cases was not only semantic but also contained a visuospatial tag. Finally, successful recognition of objects missed in recall trials points to formation of memory traces for neglected contralesional objects, which may become accessible to retrieval processes in explicit memory.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has been reported that AIS rely much more on ankle proprioception to control the amplitude of the balance control commands as compared to age-matched healthy adolescents. Our hypothesis was that AIS do not neglect proprioceptive information to control posture probably because of their vestibular deficits. We investigated the proprioceptive contribution to postural control in AIS which expresses spinal deformity during a crucial transitional period of ontogenesis. METHODS: 10 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS with moderate spinal deformity (10° 35° and 10 control adolescents (CA had to maintain vertical stance while very slow oscillations in the frontal plane (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system were applied to the support with the eyes open and closed. Postural orientation and segmental stabilisation were analysed at head, shoulder, trunk and pelvis levels. RESULTS: Scoliosis did not affect vertical orientation control and segmental stabilization strategies. Vision improves postural control in both CA and AIS, which seem more dependent on visual cues than adults. CONCLUSIONS: AIS as CA were unable to control efficiently their postural orientation on the basis of the proprioceptive cues, the only sensory information available in the EC situation, whereas in the same condition healthy young adults present no difficulty to achieve the postural control. This suggests that AIS as CA transitory neglect proprioceptive information to control their posture. These results and previous studies suggest the existence of different afferent pathways for proprioceptive information subserving different parts in sensory integration of postural control. We conclude that the static proprioceptive system is not affected by the idiopathic scoliosis, while the dynamic proprioceptive system would be mainly affected.
Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro; Dormal, Valérie
Previous studies have shown that left neglect patients are impaired when they have to orient their attention leftward relative to a standard in numerical comparison tasks. This finding has been accounted for by the idea that numerical magnitudes are represented along a spatial continuum oriented from left to right with small magnitudes on the left and large magnitudes on the right. Similarly, it has been proposed that duration could be represented along a mental time line that shares the properties of the number continuum. By comparing directly duration and numerosity processing, this study investigates whether or not the performance of neglect patients supports the hypothesis of a mental time line. Twenty-two right brain-damaged patients (11 with and 11 without left neglect), as well as 11 age-matched healthy controls, had to judge whether a single dot presented visually lasted shorter or longer than 500 ms and whether a sequence of flashed dots was smaller or larger than 5. Digit spans were also assessed to measure verbal working memory capacities. In duration comparison, no spatial-duration bias was found in neglect patients. Moreover, a significant correlation between verbal working memory and duration performance was observed in right brain-damaged patients, irrespective of the presence or absence of neglect. In numerical comparison, only neglect patients showed an enhanced distance effect for numerical magnitude smaller than the standard. These results do not support the hypothesis of the existence of a mental continuum oriented from left to right for duration. We discuss an alternative account to explain the duration impairment observed in right brain-damaged patients. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Biehal, Nina; Sinclair, Ian; Wade, Jim
Little is known about decision-making regarding the reunification of children in care, or about the consequences of these decisions for the children concerned. This study compared decision-making and outcomes for 149 maltreated children in seven English authorities (68 reunified, 81 who remained in care). Children were followed up six months after their return home or, for those who were not reunified, six months after the 'effective decision' that they should remain in care. They were followed up again four years (on average) after the return or effective decision. Data were extracted from case files at baseline and six month follow-up and were gathered from surveys of social workers and teachers at final follow-up. The two key predictors of reunification were assessments that parental problems had improved and that risks to the child were not unacceptably high. Two-thirds returned to improved family circumstances, sometimes due to a change in the household they returned to, but others were reunified despite persisting concerns. However 35% re-entered care within six months and 63% re-entered at some point during the four-year follow-up period, often due to recurring abuse or neglect. At final follow-up remaining in care was the strongest predictor of positive outcomes on a range of dimensions, even once children's characteristics and histories were taken into account. Outcomes were especially poor for neglected children who were reunified, irrespective of whether reunification was stable or unstable. Results show the potential of the care system to produce positive outcomes for maltreated children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are remediable injustices of our times. Poverty is the starting point, and the ultimate outcome, of NTD. Ebola is just one of many NTDs that badly need attention. Ebola exacerbates West Africa's poverty crisis. The virus spreading in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone has led to food shortages and neglect of other devastating tropical illnesses. A health crisis that was ignored for months until it was out of control is now beginning to get the attention required, if not the resources. So far, the world´s nations have contributed far less than the $ 1 billion. The U.N. estimates would need to control the epidemic before it becomes endemic. Past outbreaks of Ebola have flared up in remote, forested communities, disconnected from much of the outside world. But the outbreak in West Africa has not slowed yet, and it worsens there the chances of it spreading to other countries. Ebola draws attention to NTD. Ebola is not only a health emergency, but also it´s a poverty crisis. The current Global Ebola crisis presents a multitude of challenges in terms of our capacity to respond; the future is even less predictable. Ebola outbreak represents inequity in health as the occurrence of health differences considered unnecessary, avoidable, unfair, and unjust, thus adding a moral and ethical dimension to health inequalities. Health equity does not refer only to the fairness in the distribution of health or the provision of health care; rather, it is linked with the larger issues of fairness and justice in social arrangements.
Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.
Full Text Available Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD. Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases.
Gorgoraptis, Nikos; Mah, Yee-Haur; Machner, Bjoern; Singh-Curry, Victoria; Malhotra, Paresh; Hadji-Michael, Maria; Cohen, David; Simister, Robert; Nair, Ajoy; Kulinskaya, Elena; Ward, Nick; Greenwood, Richard; Husain, Masud
Hemispatial neglect following right-hemisphere stroke is a common and disabling disorder, for which there is currently no effective pharmacological treatment. Dopamine agonists have been shown to play a role in selective attention and working memory, two core cognitive components of neglect. Here, we investigated whether the dopamine agonist rotigotine would have a beneficial effect on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled ABA design was used, ...
Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.
A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreat...
Purpose: This article aims to describe the status quo of abuse and neglected children in nursery school, and to analyze the factors affecting the conditions of those abused and neglected children. Method: Intensive interview to the directors of 9 nursery schools were conducted and data of 32 cases were collected. Results: 5 modified case episodes edited from collected data were presented to show the typical conditions of abused and neglected children in nursery schools. Some common characteri...
Flaherty, Annette Clare
This study set out to understand how child protection practitioners in the Northern Territory operationalise child neglect. It did so firstly because child neglect is a major reason such concerns are referred to the child protection service in the Northern Territory. Child neglect cases comprise 28 per cent of all substantiated child maltreatment cases in Australia, and 50 per cent in the Northern Territory (AIHW 2011). Secondly, as outlined in the Literature Review, child negl...
Full Text Available Two types of neglect are described: hemispatial and motivational neglect syndromes. Neglect syndrome is a neurophysiologic condition characterized by a malfunction in one hemisphere of the brain, resulting in contralateral hemispatial neglect in the absence of sensory loss and the right parietal lobe lesion being the most common anatomical site leading to it. In motivational neglect, the less emotional input is considered from the neglected side where anterior cingulate cortex harbors the most frequent lesions. Nevertheless, there are reports of injuries in the corpus callosum (CC causing hemispatial neglect syndrome, particularly located in the splenium. It is essential for a neurosurgeon to recognize this clinical syndrome as it can be either a primary manifestation of neurosurgical pathology (tumor, vascular lesion or as a postoperative iatrogenic clinical finding. The authors report a postoperative hemispatial neglect syndrome after a falcotentorial meningioma removal that recovered 10 months after surgery and performs a clinical, anatomical, and histological review centered in CC as key agent in neglect syndrome.
Full Text Available This article provides an overview of factors contributing to elder abuse and neglect within the informal caregiving setting from the perspective of ecological theory. This theory offers a deeper understanding of the complexity of elder abuse by considering the interactions that take place across a number of interrelated systems as well as the multiple risk factors that contribute to elder abuse and neglect. Researchers, policy makers and practitioners need to develop awareness of the risk factors regarding elder abuse and neglect, and to develop appropriate interventions in response to elder abuse and neglect.
Denis, Michel; Beschin, Nicoletta; Logie, Robert H; Della Sala, Sergio
In the majority of investigations of representational neglect, patients are asked to report information derived from long-term visual knowledge. In contrast, studies of perceptual neglect involve reporting the contents of relatively novel scenes in the immediate environment. The present study aimed to establish how representational neglect might affect (a) immediate recall of recently perceived, novel visual layouts, and (b) immediate recall of novel layouts presented only as auditory verbal descriptions. These conditions were contrasted with reports from visual perception and a test of immediate recall of verbal material. Data were obtained from 11 neglect patients (9 with representational neglect), 6 right hemisphere lesion control patients with no evidence of neglect, and 15 healthy controls. In the perception, memory following perception, and memory following layout description conditions, the neglect patients showed poorer report of items depicted or described on the left than on the right of each layout. The lateralised error pattern was not evident in the non-neglect patients or healthy controls, and there was no difference among the three groups on immediate verbal memory. One patient showed pure representational neglect, with ceiling performance in the perception condition, but with lateralised errors for memory following perception or following verbal description. Overall, the results indicate that representational neglect does not depend on the presence of perceptual neglect, that visual perception and visual mental representations are less closely linked than has been thought hitherto, and that visuospatial mental representations have similar functional characteristics whether they are derived from visual perception or from auditory linguistic descriptive inputs.
Laura M Jelsone-Swain
Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect exhibit a myriad of profound deficits. A hallmark of this syndrome is the patients' absence of awareness of items located in their contralesional space. Many studies, however, have demonstrated that neglect patients exhibit some level of processing of these neglected items. It has been suggested that unconscious processing of neglected information may manifest as a fast denial. This theory of fast denial proposes that neglected stimuli are detected in the same way as non-neglected stimuli, but without overt awareness. We evaluated the fast denial theory by conducting two separate visual search task experiments, each differing by the duration of stimulus presentation. Specifically, in Experiment 1 each stimulus remained in the participants' visual field until a response was made. In Experiment 2 each stimulus was presented for only a brief duration. We further evaluated the fast denial theory by comparing verbal to motor task responses in each experiment. Overall, our results from both experiments and tasks showed no evidence for the presence of implicit knowledge of neglected stimuli. Instead, patients with neglect responded the same when they neglected stimuli as when they correctly reported stimulus absence. These findings thus cast doubt on the concept of the fast denial theory and its consequent implications for non-conscious processing. Importantly, our study demonstrated that the only behavior affected was during conscious detection of ipsilesional stimuli. Specifically, patients were slower to detect stimuli in Experiment 1 compared to Experiment 2, suggesting a duration effect occurred during conscious processing of information. Additionally, reaction time and accuracy were similar when reporting verbally versus motorically. These results provide new insights into the perceptual deficits associated with neglect and further support other work that falsifies the fast denial account of non
Caceres, Billy A; Bub, Linda; Negrete, Maria Isabel; Giraldo Rodríguez, Liliana; Squires, Allison P
To describe healthcare professionals' perceptions of neglect of older people in Mexico. Mistreatment of older people, particularly neglect, has emerged as a significant public health concern worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to examine neglect of older people in low- and middle-income countries. Most research has focused on estimating the prevalence of neglect in older populations with little emphasis on the perceptions of healthcare professionals and their role in addressing neglect of older people. Qualitative secondary analysis. The parent study consisted of nine focus groups conducted with healthcare professionals at five public hospitals in Mexico. The purpose of the parent study was to perform a needs assessment to determine the feasibility of adapting the Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders programme to Mexico. A qualitative secondary analysis with directed content analysis approach was used to extract data related to neglect of older people. A total of 89 participants representing healthcare professionals from several disciplines were interviewed. Three themes emerged: (i) The main point is not here; (ii) We feel hopeless; and (iii) We need preparation. Participants reported distress and hopelessness related to neglect of older people. Lack of community-based resources was noted as contributing to neglect. Increased education regarding care of older people for both caregivers and healthcare professionals and greater interdisciplinary collaboration were identified as potential solutions to combat neglect. Community-based services and resource allocation need to be re-evaluated to improve the care of older Mexicans. Interdisciplinary models of care should be developed to address concerns related to neglect of older people. Neglect negatively impacts healthcare professionals' ability to adequately care for older patients. There is a need to invest in community-based services and models of care to address these concerns. © 2017
Roberts, Gretchen M; Wheeler, J Gary; Tucker, Nancy C; Hackler, Chris; Young, Karen; Maples, Holly D; Darville, Toni
To examine the results of an interventionist approach applied to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children for whom caregiver nonadherence was suspected as the cause of treatment failure. The medical records of a cohort of 16 perinatally HIV-infected children whose care was managed at the Arkansas Children's Hospital Pediatric HIV Clinic for an uninterrupted period of >or=3 years were reviewed through July 2003. Data collected included date of birth, dates of and explanations for clinic visits and hospitalizations, dates of laboratory evaluations, CD4(+) T cell percentages, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, antiretroviral medications, viral resistance tests (eg, phenotype and genotype), and physician-initiated interventions to enhance adherence to the medication regimen. A stepwise interventionist approach was undertaken when patients continued to demonstrate high viral loads, despite documented viral sensitivity to the medication regimen and caregivers' insistence that medications were being administered regularly. Step 1 was prescribing a home health nurse referral, step 2 was administering directly observed therapy (DOT) while the patient was hospitalized for 4 days, and step 3 was submitting a physician-initiated medical neglect report to the Arkansas Department of Human Services. The results for 6 patients for whom this stepwise approach was initiated are reported. Home health nurse referrals failed to result in sustained improvements in adherence in all 6 cases. Viral load assays performed before and after DOT provided an objective measure of the effect of adherence, with 12 hospitalizations resulting in a mean +/- SD decrease in HIV RNA levels of 1.09 +/- 0.5 log(10) copies per mL, with a range of 0.6 to 2.1 log(10) copies per mL. Four families responded to DOT hospitalization, and sustained decreases in the respective patients' viral loads were noted. In 2 cases, medical neglect reports were submitted when DOT did not result in improved adherence. These
Jannink, M.J.A.; Aznar Alonso, M.A.; de Kort, Alexander Cornelis; van de Vis, Wim; Veltink, Petrus H.; van der Kooij, Herman
One of the neuropsychological deficits that can result from a stroke is the neglect phenomenon. Neglect has traditionally been assessed with paper-and-pencil tasks, which are administered within the reaching space of a person. The purpose of this explorative study is to investigate whether it is
Asscher, J.J.; van der Put, C.E.; Stams, G.J.J.M.
The present study examines gender differences in the association between abuse and neglect during childhood, and sexual and violent offending in juvenile delinquents. Female juvenile delinquents were more frequently victim of sexual and physical abuse and had a history of neglect and maltreatment
Mackner, Laura M.; And Others
A study of 177 low-income children (ages 3-30 months) investigated the relationship among neglect, failure to thrive (FTT), and cognitive functioning. The cognitive performance of children who had been neglected and were FTT was significantly below that of children who had only one of the variables and typical children. (Author/CR)
Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse...: Notice. Authority: The Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation is authorized under... Services announces establishment of the Advisory Board on Elder Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation, as...
Stein, Karen F.
This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…
Khurshid, Shaan; Trupe, Lydia A; Newhart, Melissa; Davis, Cameron; Molitoris, John J; Medina, Jared; Leigh, Richard; Hillis, Argye E
To test the hypothesis that restoring blood flow to specific right cortical regions in acute stroke results in improvement in distinct forms of hemispatial neglect distinguished by reference frame: viewer-centered versus stimulus-centered neglect. Twenty five patients with acute right stroke were evaluated at Day 1 and Day 3-5 with a battery of neglect tests and Diffusion- and Perfusion-Weighted MR Imaging. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed Brodmann areas (BAs) where reperfusion predicted degree of improvement in scores on each type of neglect, independently of reperfusion of other areas, total change in the volume of infarct or hypoperfusion, and age. Reperfusion of dorsal frontoparietal cortex (including BAs 40, 46, and 4) independently predicted improvement in viewer-centered neglect, such as detecting stimuli on left in line cancellation and scene copying (r=.951; p<.0001). Reperfusion of a more ventral temporo-occipital cortex, including right BAs 37, 38, 21 and 18, independently contributed to improvement in stimulus-centered neglect, such as detecting left gaps in circles (r=.926; p<.0001). Reperfusion of right midfusiform gyrus (temporal occipital cortex), change in total volume of ischemia, change in volume of hypoperfusion and age predicted degree of improvement in reading (reduction in "neglect dyslexic" errors; r=.915; p<.0001). Results demonstrate that reperfusing specific cortical regions yields improvement in different types of neglect. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
Thareja, Tarika; Ballantyne, Angela O.; Trauner, Doris A.
This study was conducted to determine whether school-aged children who had experienced a perinatal stroke demonstrate evidence of persistent spatial neglect, and if such neglect was specific to the visual domain or was more generalized. Two studies were carried out. In the first, 38 children with either left hemisphere (LH) or right hemisphere…
Pylypyk, Katherine N.
The article deals with the attitudes of German scientists towards the levels and identification methods of pedagogical neglect. The experience of German scientists in self-development and skills' development of academic staff to conduct relationship with pedagogically neglected adolescents was studied for the first time. The aim of the study is to…
Heap, Kari Killen
A case analysis, predictive study, and follow-up study of 17 abused and/or neglected children found that the prognosis for abusive and/or neglectful parents is poorer when they are scored high on immaturity than when they are scored high on emotional problems. (BRM)
Burke, Judith; Chandy, Joseph; Dannerbeck, Anne; Watt, J. Wilson
Presents Parental Environment Cluster model of child neglect which identifies three clusters of factors involved in parents' neglectful behavior: (1) parenting skills and functions; (2) development and use of positive social support; and (3) resource availability and management skills. Model offers a focal theory for research, structure for…
Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.
Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…
Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph
Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…
Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela
Child abuse and neglect play a causal role in many mental health problems. Knowing whether users of mental health services were abused or neglected as children could be considered essential for developing comprehensive formulations and effective treatment plans. In the present study we report the findings of a systematic review, using independent searches of three databases designed to discover how often mental health staff find out whether their clients were abused or neglected as children. Twenty-one relevant studies were identified. Most people who use mental health services are never asked about child abuse or neglect. The majority of cases of child abuse or neglect are not identified by mental health services. Only 28% of abuse or neglect cases identified by researchers are found in the clients' files: emotional abuse, 44%; physical abuse, 33%; sexual abuse, 30%; emotional neglect, 17%; and physical neglect, 10%. Between 0% and 22% of mental health service users report being asked about child abuse. Men and people diagnosed with psychotic disorders are asked less than other people. Male staff ask less often than female staff. Some improvement over time was found. Policies compelling routine enquiry, training, and trauma-informed services are required. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
This report is an analysis of the child abuse and neglect cases that have been recorded in the Army Central Registry between 1989-1996. The following...were 30,551 initial substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect, or an average of about 3,80 cases per year. There were 2,336 subsequent incidents
Broadhurst, Diane D.; MacDicken, Robert A.
Intended primarily for persons or agencies responsible for providing training to professionals and interested citizens involved in delivery of services to abusive and neglectful families, the manual addresses the importance of training in the identification, reporting, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Chapters focus…
Hürlimann, Eveline; Schur, Nadine; Boutsika, Konstantina
After many years of general neglect, interest has grown and efforts came under way for the mapping, control, surveillance, and eventual elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Disease risk estimates are a key feature to target control interventions, and serve as a benchmark...
Musselwhite, Laura W.; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E.; Guillen, Ethan
Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughp...
Williams, Sasha Emma
While there has been an increasing professional and political focus on the prevalence and harmfulness of child neglect, little has been done to explore what child neglect means outside child protection circles. This qualitative study explores lay constructions of child neglect by thematically analyzing focus group discussions between 46 self-defined 'lay' people in England. Participants viewed neglect as extremely damaging for children and as arising when children's physical, emotional, training and supervisory needs were unmet due to abnormal parental behavior. Children with unmet needs were positioned as deprived, unloved, uncontrolled and escaping. They were only positioned as neglected when failure to meet their needs was attributable to a lack of parental knowledge and skill (clueless parents), a lack of appropriate parental disposition (underinvested parents) or both (unsuitable parents). 'Normal' parents - those with the appropriate parental disposition, skills and knowledge - who failed to meet their children's needs were not seen as neglectful but rather as overburdened. As 'normal parenting' has fragmented in late modernity, society wide consensus on child neglect was felt by participants to have retreated to child protection definitions, alienating lay understandings. If child neglect really is 'everybody's business', then it is important that lay people are included in forging new definitions of and responses to meeting the needs of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Wen
OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
This article reports the impact of environmental neglect on the Mexican population. Despite its participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Mexico is experiencing an environmental crisis. Being the first developing country to engage in the Green Revolution during the 1950s, the country experienced a four-fold increase in grain production. The population increased rapidly from 27 million to 92 million in the 1990s. Due to the increase in population and because the government was too preoccupied with its economic endeavors, the environment suffered, which in a way counteracted the benefits of the Green Revolution. Furthermore, environmental degradation (like loss of forests, less water supply to agricultural lands) had a chain effect. Large farmers engaging in capital-intensive cash cropping for export are buying out small farmers, which leads to many landless or near-landless peasants. Also, many marginalized farmers have long been forced to migrate into marginal lands. Because of the increase in migration in addition to the present population of 92 million, Mexico is showing inadequacy in securing food, employment, and houses. A realistic prognosis is that many Mexicans in the year 2000 could be poorer than they were in 1985; but with the help of the NAFTA free-trade zone, Mexico is hopeful to increase its employment opportunities and reverse its present situation.
M J Mosoge
Full Text Available The first aim of this paper is to clarify the concept "performance management" as an aspect of the Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS. The second is to report on an exploration into the experiences and perceptions of management teams in the implementation of performance management. As part of the qualitative research design, the individual interview was selectedfor use in this research. Fifteen participants drawn randomlyfrom 24 schools were interviewed. The findings revealed the weakness of integrating development with appraisal since it leads to the neglect of development in favour of appraisal which is linked to incentives. A lack of knowledge and expertise on the IQMS processes such as mentoring, coaching, and monitoring was found to hamper the zeal to implement performance management. Teachers, as co-developers of education policy on the ground, act as a driving force behind the actualisation of transformation in education. The development of teachers is therefore crucial in an education system that is in the grips of transformation.
Hofstraat, Karlijn; van Brakel, Wim H
People affected by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are frequently the target of social stigmatization. To date not much attention has been given to stigma in relation to NTDs. The objective of this review is to identify the extent of social stigma and the similarities and differences in the causes, manifestations, impact of stigma and interventions used between the NTDs. A systematic review was conducted in Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge. The search encompassed 17 NTDs, including podoconiosis, but not leprosy as this NTD has recently been reviewed. However, leprosy was included in the discussion. The 52 selected articles provided evidence on stigma related to lymphatic filariasis (LF), podoconiosis, Buruli ulcer, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and human African trypanosomiasis. The similarities predominated in stigma related to the various NTDs; only minimal differences in stigma reasons and measures were found. These similarities suggest that joint approaches to reduce stigmatization may be feasible. Lessons from leprosy and other stigmatized health conditions can be used to plan such joint approaches. Further research will be necessary to study the efficacy of joint interventions and to investigate stigma related to NTDs for which no evidence is available yet. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Daniel Paul Crewther
Full Text Available In addition to its core social deficits, autism is characterised by altered visual perception, with a preference for local percept in those high in autistic tendency. Here, the balance of global versus local percepts for the perceptually rivalrous diamond illusion was assessed between groups scoring high and low on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. The global percept of a diamond shape oscillating horizontally behind three occluders can as easily be interpreted as the local percept of four line elements, each moving vertically. Increasing the luminance contrast of the occluders with respect to background resulted in an increase of initial global percept in both groups, with no difference in sensitivity between groups. Presenting the target further into the periphery resulted in a marked increase in the percentage of global perception with visual field eccentricity. However, while the performance for centrally presented diamond targets was not different between AQ groups, the peripheral global performance of the High AQ group was significantly reduced compared with the Low AQ group. On the basis of other imaging studies, this peripheral but not foveal global perceptual neglect may indicate an abnormal interaction between striate cortex and the Lateral Occipital Complex, or to differences in the deployment of attention between the two groups.
George Laylson Da Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available The present work aimed to make a technological forecasting about the neoflavonoids and its implications in treatment of neglected diseases (NDs. Thus, this research was carried out through a comprehensive and systematic bibliographic search in articles and patents. The articles were searched in the database of the Periodical of CAPES, Science Direct, Scopus, Pub Med, Web of Science and ACS Publications. The patent research was performed in bases of the INPI, EPO, WIPO, USPTO and SIPO. According to the results obtained, it was possible to observe that the neoflavonoids may be a new source of medications for the treatment of NDs, since were found studies that attributed activity for the treatment of malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Large part of published documents was in the form of scientific articles and a small part in the form of deposit of record of patent applications. In this way, this work can serve as an incentive of technological innovation for the development of new research involving neoflavonoids, seen that the record number of deposits of patent applications is still relatively insufficient to meet the current demand for technological and scientific innovation with relation to NDs.
Deribe, Kebede; Kebede, Biruck; Mengistu, Belete; Negussie, Henok; Sileshi, Mesfin; Tamiru, Mossie; Tomczyk, Sara; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Davey, Gail; Fentaye, Amha
Podoconiosis is a geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil of volcanic origin. This Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) is highly prevalent in Ethiopia. According to the nationwide mapping in 2013, the disease is endemic in 345 districts, where an estimated 35 million people live. The government of Ethiopia prioritized podoconiosis as one of eight priority NTDs and included it in the national integrated master plan for NTDs. An integrated lymphoedema management guideline has been developed. Service expansion has continued in the last few years and lymphoedema management services have been expanded to over one hundred endemic districts. The last few years have been critical in generating evidence about the distribution, burden and effective interventions for podoconiosis in Ethiopia. Although the extent of the problem within Ethiopia is considerable, the country is well positioned to now scale-up elimination efforts. Given the extraordinary progress of the past ten years and the current commitment of government, private and third sectors, Ethiopia seems to be on course for the elimination of podoconiosis in our lifetime. We need continued strong partner commitment, evidence-building, and scale-up of activities to accomplish this.
Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Creucí Maria Caetano
Full Text Available Although a significant number of plant species to be recognized as food, only a small fraction meets the protein demand of the world population. Breeding crops, with a very narrow genetic base, most likely will not counteract the adverse effects of climate change. On the contrary, the crops named as underutilized, neglected, orphaned, obsolete or minor, may contain the answers in their genomes to ensure safety and nutrition and food sovereignty of populations. Duly adapted to extreme growing conditions, these local varieties, such as indigenous and landraces of Colombian maize, are part of the cultural heritage of many ethnic groups or original peoples, that select, use and conserve these varieties. Besides these, another concept refers to the promising resources, also little used, although for different reasons. Therefore, Participatory Plant Breeding is a tool to promote traditional local varieties or underutilized crops, to meet the needs of communities. In the PPB, members of the production chain (farmers, breeders, technicians and others work together in the process of development of varieties, in a decentralized and participatory process. A PB program with Colombian maize germplasm resulted in the promotion of some local varieties. Alongside, new maize landraces to Colombia were described.
Andrade, Carolina Horta; Neves, Bruno Junior; Melo-Filho, Cleber Camilo; Rodrigues, Juliana; Silva, Diego Cabral; Braga, Rodolpho Campos; Cravo, Pedro Vitor Lemos
Only ~1% of all drug candidates against Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) have reached clinical trials in the last decades, underscoring the need for new, safe and effective treatments. In such context, drug repositioning, which allows finding novel indications for approved drugs whose pharmacokinetic and safety profiles are already known, is emerging as a promising strategy for tackling NTDs. Chemogenomics is a direct descendent of the typical drug discovery process that involves the systematic screening of chemical compounds against drug targets in high-throughput screening (HTS) efforts, for the identification of lead compounds. However, different to the one-drug-one-target paradigm, chemogenomics attempts to identify all potential ligands for all possible targets and diseases. In this review, we summarize current methodological development efforts in drug repositioning that use state-of-the-art computational ligand- and structure-based chemogenomics approaches. Furthermore, we highlighted the recent progress in computational drug repositioning for some NTDs, based on curation and modeling of genomic, biological, and chemical data. Additionally, we also present in-house and other successful examples and suggest possible solutions to existing pitfalls. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
F. Gül KOÇSOY
Full Text Available In this study, the theme of “neglected child” in Henry James’ “The Pupil” (1891 is explored. Morgan is a neglected child with unscrupulous parents who hold strictly on the Victorian values which reflect American cultural consciousness in the last decades of 19th century. Although he is a brilliant boy, the family does not love him; because he reminds them of their vulgarity. They neglect him physically and emotionally, seeing him as a burden. Although his tutor tries to keep the boy from the family’s corruption, he contributes to his death; he neglects his illness and deserts him when he is most needy. As an interpreter, James draws attention to the situation of children that are not working but being tutored at home. He criticizes this culture’s general attitude towards children. It is a disturbing social reality and he shows how that materialistic culture victimizes children in terms of neglectful parenting
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel
Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.
Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967–1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003–2004 (N = 807). Results indicate that adults with documented histories of childhood abuse and/or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings, and fewer assets as adults, compared to matched control children. There is a 14% gap between individuals with histories of abuse/neglect and controls in the probability of employment in middle age, controlling for background characteristics. Maltreatment appears to affect men and women differently, with larger effects for women than men. These new findings demonstrate that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences. PMID:20425881
Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind
Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.
Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Driver, Jon; Mattingley, Jason B
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disorder of attention and spatial representation, in which early visual processes such as figure-ground segmentation have been assumed to be largely intact. There is evidence, however, that the spatial attention bias underlying neglect can bias the segmentation of a figural region from its background. Relatively few studies have explicitly examined the effect of spatial neglect on processing the figures that result from such scene segmentation. Here, we show that a neglect patient's bias in figure-ground segmentation directly influences his conscious recognition of these figures. By varying the relative salience of figural and background regions in static, two-dimensional displays, we show that competition between elements in such displays can modulate a neglect patient's ability to recognise parsed figures in a scene. The findings provide insight into the interaction between scene segmentation, explicit object recognition, and attention.
Reznick, Julia; Friedmann, Naama
This study examined whether and how the morphological structure of written words affects reading in word-based neglect dyslexia (neglexia), and what can be learned about morphological decomposition in reading from the effect of morphology on neglexia. The oral reading of 7 Hebrew-speaking participants with acquired neglexia at the word level—6 with left neglexia and 1 with right neglexia—was evaluated. The main finding was that the morphological role of the letters on the neglected side of the word affected neglect errors: When an affix appeared on the neglected side, it was neglected significantly more often than when the neglected side was part of the root; root letters on the neglected side were never omitted, whereas affixes were. Perceptual effects of length and final letter form were found for words with an affix on the neglected side, but not for words in which a root letter appeared in the neglected side. Semantic and lexical factors did not affect the participants' reading and error pattern, and neglect errors did not preserve the morpho-lexical characteristics of the target words. These findings indicate that an early morphological decomposition of words to their root and affixes occurs before access to the lexicon and to semantics, at the orthographic-visual analysis stage, and that the effects did not result from lexical feedback. The same effects of morphological structure on reading were manifested by the participants with left- and right-sided neglexia. Since neglexia is a deficit at the orthographic-visual analysis level, the effect of morphology on reading patterns in neglexia further supports that morphological decomposition occurs in the orthographic-visual analysis stage, prelexically, and that the search for the three letters of the root in Hebrew is a trigger for attention shift in neglexia. PMID:26528159
Gyawali, Narayan; Bradbury, Richard S; Aaskov, John G; Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W
The Australian Government is currently promoting the development of Northern Australia, with an associated increase in the local population. Consequent to this is the public health threat posed by heightened human exposure to many previously neglected arboviruses that are indigenous to the region. This initiative to support economic activity in the tropical north of the continent is leading to the accelerated expansion of an infection-naïve human population into hitherto un-encountered ecosystems inhabited by reservoir animals and vectors for these arboviruses. Combined with an apparent rise in the number and impact of dramatic climate events, such as tropical cyclones and floods caused by torrential monsoonal rainfall, this heightens the potential for viral transmission to humans. More than 75 arboviruses have been identified in Australia, some of which are associated with human disease but for which routine tests are not available to diagnose infection. Here, we describe briefly the neglected Australian arboviruses that are most likely to emerge as significant agents of human disease in the coming decades. We also advocate the establishment of a thorough surveillance and diagnostic protocol, including developing new pan-viral rapid tests for primary care use to assist in the early diagnosis and correct treatment of affected patients. We propose that the implementation of these activities will enhance our understanding of the geographical range, prevalence, identification and control of neglected Australian arboviruses. This would minimise and limit the possibility of large-scale outbreaks with these agents as population and economic growth expands further into Australia's tropical north.
Wu, Xuhang; Fu, Yan; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Runhui; Zheng, Wanpeng; Nie, Huaming; Xie, Yue; Yan, Ning; Hao, Guiying; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou
The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS) of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp) using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam). We identified 26,110 (83.47%) unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8%) coding sequences (CDS). Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis) and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum) showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of the biology of T. multiceps, and helps in the identification of drug targets and
Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia
The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Titeux, Nicolas; Henle, Klaus; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Regos, Adrián; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R; Cramer, Wolfgang; Verburg, Peter H; Brotons, Lluís
Efficient management of biodiversity requires a forward-looking approach based on scenarios that explore biodiversity changes under future environmental conditions. A number of ecological models have been proposed over the last decades to develop these biodiversity scenarios. Novel modelling approaches with strong theoretical foundation now offer the possibility to integrate key ecological and evolutionary processes that shape species distribution and community structure. Although biodiversity is affected by multiple threats, most studies addressing the effects of future environmental changes on biodiversity focus on a single threat only. We examined the studies published during the last 25 years that developed scenarios to predict future biodiversity changes based on climate, land-use and land-cover change projections. We found that biodiversity scenarios mostly focus on the future impacts of climate change and largely neglect changes in land use and land cover. The emphasis on climate change impacts has increased over time and has now reached a maximum. Yet, the direct destruction and degradation of habitats through land-use and land-cover changes are among the most significant and immediate threats to biodiversity. We argue that the current state of integration between ecological and land system sciences is leading to biased estimation of actual risks and therefore constrains the implementation of forward-looking policy responses to biodiversity decline. We suggest research directions at the crossroads between ecological and environmental sciences to face the challenge of developing interoperable and plausible projections of future environmental changes and to anticipate the full range of their potential impacts on biodiversity. An intergovernmental platform is needed to stimulate such collaborative research efforts and to emphasize the societal and political relevance of taking up this challenge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The larval stage of Taenia multiceps, a global cestode, encysts in the central nervous system (CNS of sheep and other livestock. This frequently leads to their death and huge socioeconomic losses, especially in developing countries. This parasite can also cause zoonotic infections in humans, but has been largely neglected due to a lack of diagnostic techniques and studies. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing provide an opportunity to explore the transcriptome of T. multiceps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained a total of 31,282 unigenes (mean length 920 bp using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and a new Trinity de novo assembler without a referenced genome. Individual transcription molecules were determined by sequence-based annotations and/or domain-based annotations against public databases (Nr, UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, UniProtKB/TrEMBL, InterPro and Pfam. We identified 26,110 (83.47% unigenes and inferred 20,896 (66.8% coding sequences (CDS. Further comparative transcripts analysis with other cestodes (Taenia pisiformis, Taenia solium, Echincoccus granulosus and Echincoccus multilocularis and intestinal parasites (Trichinella spiralis, Ancylostoma caninum and Ascaris suum showed that 5,100 common genes were shared among three Taenia tapeworms, 261 conserved genes were detected among five Taeniidae cestodes, and 109 common genes were found in four zoonotic intestinal parasites. Some of the common genes were genes required for parasite survival, involved in parasite-host interactions. In addition, we amplified two full-length CDS of unigenes from the common genes using RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides an extensive transcriptome of the adult stage of T. multiceps, and demonstrates that comparative transcriptomic investigations deserve to be further studied. This transcriptome dataset forms a substantial public information platform to achieve a fundamental understanding of
Ole F. Olesen
Full Text Available Neglected infectious diseases (NIDs are a persistent cause of death and disability in low-income countries. Currently available drugs and vaccines are often ineffective, costly or associated with severe side-effects. Although the scale of research on NIDs does not reflect their disease burden, there are encouraging signs that NIDs have begun to attract more political and public attention, which have translated into greater awareness and increased investments in NID research by both public and private donors. Using publicly available data, we analysed funding for NID research in the European Union's (EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7, which ran from 2007 to 2013. During FP7, the EU provided €169 million for 65 NID research projects, and thereby placed itself among the top global funders of NID research. Average annual FP7 investment in NID research exceeded €24 million, triple that committed by the EU before the launch of FP7. FP7 NID projects involved research teams from 331 different institutions in 72 countries on six continents, underlining the increasingly global nature of European research activities. NID research has remained a priority in the current EU Framework Programme for research and innovation, Horizon 2020, launched in 2014. This has most notably been reflected in the second programme of the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP, which provides unprecedented opportunities to advance the clinical development of new medical interventions against NIDs. Europe is thus better positioned than ever before to play a major role in the global fight against NIDs.
This article concerns a therapeutic intervention with a group of abandoned children living in a Romanian pediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one to ten years old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear the other abused children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The article focuses on the play-based methods that were employed to aid the children's recovery, while at the same time highlighting the general benefits of this very specific therapeutic approach to children's recovery and development. In particular, there is an exploration of concepts such as symbolic representation, negative capability, joining, and the significance of play cues. However, despite the clear value of these individually focused techniques, the article proposes the tentative hypothesis that the most powerful healing factor was the unfettered playful interaction between the children themselves. In other words, the children in a very real sense may have healed each other while playing.
Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann
Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Full Text Available This article concerns a therapeutic intervention with a group of abandoned children living in a Romanian pediatric hospital. The children, ranging in age from one to ten years old, had suffered chronic neglect and abuse. They had previously spent most of their lives tied in the same cot in the same hospital ward. They were poorly fed and their nappies were rarely changed. Although able to see and hear the other abused children, they experienced little in the way of social interaction. The article focuses on the play-based methods that were employed to aid the children’s recovery, while at the same time highlighting the general benefits of this very specific therapeutic approach to children’s recovery and development. In particular, there is an exploration of concepts such as symbolic representation, negative capability, joining, and the significance of play cues. However, despite the clear value of these individually focused techniques, the article proposes the tentative hypothesis that the most powerful healing factor was the unfettered playful interaction between the children themselves. In other words, the children in a very real sense may have healed each other while playing.
Since the first cases of Zika were identified and reported in Brazil, the magnitude and consequences of the outbreak in the Americas have increased tremendously, leading the World Health Organization to consider Zika and its link with clusters of microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Only a previous large outbreak in French Polynesia was known and no neurological anomalies have been reported. Differences in African and Asian lineage and differences in genetic evolution of the Zika virus may possibly provide an explanation for the development of the recent outbreaks and their variable presentation. However, the similar clinical presentation between Zika and other diseases like Dengue and Chikungunya can support that Zika has been circulating and spreading inadvertently. This hypothesis gains strength when rates of laboratory confirmation diagnosis for Dengue are observed in Brazil and Colombia, two of the most affected countries by Zika virus (ZIKV) infection.The lack of attention and resources on neglected diseases supposes a huge risk that new lethal pathogens camouflage themselves to spread into large areas and populations. © The Author(s) 2016.
Johnson, Christopher W.; Holloway, C. Michael
The increasing complexity of safety-critical applications has led to the introduction of decision support tools in the transportation and process industries. Automation has also been introduced to support operator intervention in safety-critical applications. These innovations help reduce overall operator workload, and filter application data to maximize the finite cognitive and perceptual resources of system operators. However, these benefits do not come without a cost. Increased computational support for the end-users of safety-critical applications leads to increased reliance on engineers to monitor and maintain automated systems and decision support tools. This paper argues that by focussing on the end-users of complex applications, previous research has tended to neglect the demands that are being placed on systems engineers. The argument is illustrated through discussing three recent accidents. The paper concludes by presenting a possible strategy for building and using highly automated systems based on increased attention by management and regulators, improvements in competency and training for technical staff, sustained support for engineering team resource management, and the development of incident reporting systems for infrastructure failures. This paper represents preliminary work, about which we seek comments and suggestions.
Sylvestre, Audette; Bussières, Ève-Line; Bouchard, Caroline
Research data show that exposure to abuse and neglect has detrimental effects on a child's language development. In this meta-analysis, we analyze studies (k = 23), to compare the language skills (receptive language, expressive language, pragmatics) of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect with the language skills of children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect and to examine whether age or type of maltreatment moderate the relationship between maltreatment and language skills. Results confirm that the language skills of children who have experienced abuse and/or neglect are delayed when compared to children who have not experienced abuse and/or neglect. Compared to older children, young children seem particularly vulnerable to abuse and neglect. No significant differences were demonstrated concerning the type of maltreatment suffered by the child. These findings support the necessity of early detection of language problems in abused and neglected children as well as early intervention in order to implement interventions that will positively stimulate their development. © The Author(s) 2015.
In the last 30 years, elder abuse and neglect has been recognized as a social and health-related problem. The aim of this paper is to describe the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in a separatist faith-based society (ultra-Orthodox Jewish society-UOJS). A qualitative-phenomenological study with 28 social workers who underwent in-depth semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide consisting of the following items: visibility of the elder abuse and neglect phenomenon in the ultra-Orthodox society, and dilemmas and sensitive issues that arise when working with this population. Three main themes emerged: (1) Between the commandment to honor one's parents and concealment patterns: Cultural barriers to exposing the abuse and neglect phenomenon; (2) "Life is demanding:" The unique expression of abusive and neglectful behavior in the UOJS; (3) Culturally related dilemmas when intervening with cases of elder abuse and neglect. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish cultural belief is a differentiating component in the context of elder abuse and neglect. Social workers need to develop a deep understanding of the unique characteristics of the phenomenon and cultural sensitivity to cope with it to address the well-being of older ultra-Orthodox Jews.
Veronelli, Laura; Arduino, Lisa S; Girelli, Luisa; Vallar, Giuseppe
The bisection of lines positioned radially (with the two ends of the line close and far, with respect to the participant's body) has been less investigated than that of lines placed horizontally (with their two ends left and right, with respect to the body's midsagittal plane). In horizontal bisection, patients with left neglect typically show a rightward bias for both lines and words, greater with longer stimuli. As for radial bisection, available data indicate that neurologically unimpaired participants make a distal error, while results from right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect are contradictory. We investigated the bisection of radially oriented words, with the prediction that, during bisection, linguistic material would be recoded to its canonical left-to-right format in reading, with the performance of neglect patients being similar to that for horizontal words. Thirteen right-brain-damaged patients (seven with left spatial neglect) and fourteen healthy controls were asked to manually bisect 40 radial and 40 horizontal words (5-10 letters), and 80 lines, 40 radial and 40 horizontal, of comparable length. Right-brain-damaged patients with spatial neglect exhibited a proximal bias in the bisection of short radial words, with the proximal part corresponding to the final right part of horizontally oriented words. This proximal error was not found in patients without neglect and healthy controls. For bisection, short radial words may be recoded to the canonical orthographic horizontal format, unveiling the impact of left neglect on radially oriented stimuli. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Read, John; Harper, David; Tucker, Ian; Kennedy, Angela
Child abuse and neglect are strongly associated with many subsequent mental health problems. This review summarizes the research on how adult mental health services respond when child abuse or neglect become known. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus were searched for studies with rates of responding in various ways to child abuse and neglect by mental health professionals. Thirteen studies were identified: seven case note reviews, three surveys of staff, and three sets of interviews with service users. Rates of inclusion of abuse or neglect in treatment plans ranged from 12% to 44%. Rates of referral to abuse-related therapy ranged from 8% to 23%. Rates were lower for neglect than for abuse and were also lower for men and people with a diagnosis of psychosis. Two per cent or less of all cases were referred to legal authorities. The studies varied in focus and methodology, but all indicated inadequate clinical practice. The rates of abused or neglected people referred for therapy are actually lower than indicated by this review because most users of adult mental health services are not asked about abuse or neglect in the first place. The barriers to good practice, and the need for trauma-informed services, are discussed. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Li, Qiwei; Kadhim, Muayad; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Xiangjun; Zhao, Qun; Li, Lianyong
Few reports are available describing knee changes in neglected developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to assess the radiographic morphology of knee joints in adults with neglected DDH. Thirty-seven patients (35 females and two males) with neglected DDH were prospectively recruited with an average age of 32.6 years. Twenty-three patients had unilateral and 14 patients had bilateral neglected DDH. Thirty-seven healthy individuals were recruited to form a matched control group. Three groups of knee joints were examined: affected knees (on the same side of the neglected DDH), unaffected knees (contralateral to the neglected DDH in patients with unilateral involvement), and control knees. A series of radiographic parameters of the knee joint were measured in the coronal and sagittal plane, and they were compared between patients and normal controls. In the coronal plane, the affected knees had increased valgus angulation related to increased height of the medial femoral condyle, decreased height of the lateral femoral condyle and decreased lateral distal femoral angle compared to control knees. In the sagittal plane, both distal femoral and proximal tibial joints of the affected knees developed a decrease in posterior angles. Additionally, the unaffected knees also developed radiographic changes compared to control knees. Patients with neglected DDH may develop changes in both knee joints. These changes should be considered during surgery to the hip, femur and knee to prevent potential complications. Level 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Left neglect following right hemisphere injury is a debilitating disorder that has proven extremely difficult to rehabilitate. Traditional models of neglect have focused on impaired spatial attention as the core deficit and as such, most rehabilitation methods have tried to improve attentional processes. However, many of these techniques (e.g., visual scanning training, caloric stimulation, neck muscle vibration produce only short-lived effects, or are too uncomfortable to use as a routine treatment. More recently, many investigators have begun examining the beneficial effects of prism adaptation for the treatment of neglect. Although prism adaptation has been shown to have some beneficial effects on both overt and covert spatial attention, it does not reliably alter many of the perceptual biases evident in neglect. One of the challenges of neglect rehabilitation may lie in the heterogeneous nature of the deficits. Most notably, a number of researchers have shown that neglect patients present with severe deficits in spatial working memory (SWM in addition to their attentional impairment. Given that SWM can be seen as a foundational cognitive mechanism, critical for a wide range of other functions, any deficit in SWM memory will undoubtedly have severe consequences. In the current review we examine the evidence for SWM deficits in neglect and propose that it constitutes a core component of the syndrome. We present preliminary data which suggest that at least one current rehabilitation method (prism adaptation has no effect on SWM deficits in neglect. Finally, we end by reviewing recent work that examines the effectiveness of SWM training and how SWM training may prove to be a useful avenue for future rehabilitative efforts in patients with neglect.
Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.
Clock drawings produced by right-brain-damaged (RBD) individuals with spatial neglect often contain an abundance of empty space on the left while numbers and hands are placed on the right. However, the clock perimeter is rarely compromised in neglect patients’ drawings. By analyzing clock drawings produced by 71 RBD and 40 healthy adults, this study investigated whether the geometric characteristics of the clock perimeter reveal novel insights to understanding spatial neglect. Neglect participants drew smaller clocks than either healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. While healthy participants’ clock perimeter was close to circular, RBD participants drew radially extended ellipses. The mechanisms for these phenomena were investigated by examining the relation between clock-drawing characteristics and performance on six subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT). The findings indicated that the clock shape was independent of any BIT subtest or the drawing placement on the test sheet and that the clock size was significantly predicted by one BIT subtest: the poorer the figure and shape copying, the smaller the clock perimeter. Further analyses revealed that in all participants, clocks decreased in size as they were placed farther from the center of the paper. However, even when neglect participants placed their clocks towards the center of the page, they were smaller than those produced by healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. These results suggest a neglect-specific reduction in the subjectively available workspace for graphic production from memory, consistent with the hypothesis that neglect patients are impaired in the ability to enlarge the attentional aperture. PMID:22390278
Matano, A; Iosa, M; Guariglia, C; Pizzamiglio, L; Paolucci, S
Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) after stroke is associated to severe disability and to a poor rehabilitation outcome. However it is still unclear if a reduction of USN after a specific neurophsycological treatment could also favor the functional recovery. The first aim of this study was to determine if low responders to neuropsychological treatment of unilateral spatial neglect may have a worse functional prognosis for activities of daily living. The second aim was to investigate which variables can predict a low response to neuropsychological treatment. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation hospital in Italy. Two hundred inpatients with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke were screened in this observational study. Inclusion criteria were: patients in subacute phase of first ischemic stroke in right hemisphere. Exclusion criteria were: presence of previous and/or other disabling pathologies, medical conditions contraindicating physical therapy. Data of 73 patients who performed neurorehabilitation and visual scanning training for reducing USN were analysed, while the remaining others were excluded for at least one of the following reasons: hemorrhagic lesions, presence of other chronic disabling pathologies, contraindications for therapy. USN was evaluated using: Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. According to the aim of the study, forward binary logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the effects of different factors on functional recovery. Three factors were identified as predictors of low effectiveness in terms of BI-score: older age (odds ratio OR=9.882, P=0.002), severity of disease at admission (OR=12.594, P=0.002) and being low responders to neuropsychological treatment (OR=3.847, P=0.027). Further, the initial barrage score (OR=3.313, P=0.027) and the initial BI-score (OR=3.252, P=0
Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping
Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P neglect (P abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse had a higher Injury Severity Score, longer duration of hospitalization, and more injuries of head, face, and neck compared with other types of abuse. The reported rate of neglect was highly elevated after the CPMSDC established during the study period. Recognition of neglect is not easy, but the consequent injury, especially
Mezzich, Ada C; Bretz, Walter A; Day, Bang-Shiuh; Corby, Patricia M; Kirisci, Levent; Swaney, Michelle; Cornelius, Jack R; Weyant, Robert J
This study examined (1) orodental (OD) problems in 10-19-year-old children of substance use disorder (SUD) (n = 127) and non-SUD fathers (n = 111) and (2) the moderating effect of child's substance use (SU) involvement in the associations of paternal SUD and neglectful parenting with OD problems in the offspring. The results showed that periodontal problems differentiated between groups and the interactions between child's SU involvement and paternal SUD and neglectful parenting were respectively associated with hard/soft tissue lesions and carious lesions in the offspring, indicating that SU involvement increases risk for OD due to paternal SUD and neglectful parenting.
Bashi, Ramin Haj Zargar; Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abdi, Reza; Aslani, Hossein
Congenital talipes equinovarus may be the most common congenital orthopedic condition requiring treatment. Nonoperative treatment including different methods is generally accepted as the first step in the deformity correction. Ignacio Ponseti introduced his nonsurgical approach to the treatment of clubfoot in the early 1940s. The method is reportedly successful in treating clubfoot in patients up to 9 years of age. However, whether age at the beginning of treatment affects the rate of effective correction and relapse is unknown. We have applied the Ponseti method successfully with some modifications for 11 patients with a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 6 to 19 years) with neglected and untreated clubbed feet. The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 36 months). Correction was achieved with a mean of nine casts (six to 13). Clinically, 17 out of 18 feet (94.4%) were considered to achieve a good result with no need for further surgery. The application of this method of treatment is very simple and also cheap in developing countries with limited financial and social resources for health service. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a modified method as a correction method for clubfoot in older children and adolescents has not been applied previously for neglected clubfeet in older children in the literature.
von Philipsborn, Peter; Steinbeis, Fridolin; Bender, Max E.; Regmi, Sadie; Tinnemann, Peter
Background Economic growth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) has raised interest in how disease burden patterns are related to economic development. Meanwhile, poverty-related diseases are considered to be neglected in terms of research and development (R&D). Objectives Developing intuitive and meaningful metrics to measure how different diseases are related to poverty and neglected in the current R&D system. Design We measured how diseases are related to economic development with the income relation factor (IRF), defined by the ratio of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) per 100,000 inhabitants in LMIC versus that in high-income countries. We calculated the IRF for 291 diseases and injuries and 67 risk factors included in the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We measured neglect in R&D with the neglect factor (NF), defined by the ratio of disease burden in DALYs (as percentage of the total global disease burden) and R&D expenditure (as percentage of total global health-related R&D expenditure) for 26 diseases. Results The disease burden varies considerably with the level of economic development, shown by the IRF (median: 1.38; interquartile range (IQR): 0.79–6.3). Comparison of IRFs from 1990 to 2010 highlights general patterns of the global epidemiological transition. The 26 poverty-related diseases included in our analysis of neglect in R&D are responsible for 13.8% of the global disease burden, but receive only 1.34% of global health-related R&D expenditure. Within this group, the NF varies considerably (median: 19; IQR: 6–52). Conclusions The IRF is an intuitive and meaningful metric to highlight shifts in global disease burden patterns. A large shortfall exists in global R&D spending for poverty-related and neglected diseases, with strong variations between diseases. PMID:25623607
Stathopoulou, Maria G; Petrelis, Alexandros M; Buxton, Jessica L; Froguel, Philippe; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
Telomere length is associated with a large range of human diseases. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants that are associated with leucocyte telomere length (LTL). However, these studies are limited to adult populations. Nevertheless, childhood is a crucial period for the determination of LTL, and the assessment of age-specific genetic determinants, although neglected, could be of great importance. Our aim was to provide insights and preliminary results on genetic determinants of LTL in children. Healthy children (n = 322, age range = 6.75-17 years) with available GWAS data (Illumina Human CNV370-Duo array) were included. The LTL was measured using multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, parental age at child's birth, and body mass index were used to test the associations of LTL with polymorphisms identified in adult GWAS and to perform a discovery-only GWAS. The previously GWAS-identified variants in adults were not associated with LTL in our paediatric sample. This lack of association was not due to possible interactions with age or gene × gene interactions. Furthermore, a discovery-only GWAS approach demonstrated six novel variants that reached the level of suggestive association (P ≤ 5 × 10(-5)) and explain a high percentage of children's LTL. The study of genetic determinants of LTL in children may identify novel variants not previously identified in adults. Studies in large-scale children populations are needed for the confirmation of these results, possibly through a childhood consortium that could better handle the methodological challenges of LTL genetic epidemiology field. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
To test the hypothesis that functional disturbance of the neural network involving the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), dorsolateral frontal lobe (DLF), and thalamus (TH) as components of the right hemisphere underlies the development of unilateral spatial neglect (USN), cerebral perfusion was measured by 123 I-IMP SPECT in 32 patients with cerebrovascular right brain damage, 20 of whom had USN and 12 of whom did not. In analyzing the SPECT data, RI uptake in the four component regions and cerebellum (serving as a control) were estimated by symmetrically placing 'regions of interest' from both hemispheres on SPECT slices, most suitable for each region. The 'regional to cerebellar ratio' (R/CE ratio) for each component region was calculated and the values were compared. In the USN group, R/CE ratio values for each component region in the right hemisphere were significantly lower than those in the left, whereas in the non-USN group there was no right-left difference. When R/CE ratio values for each component region in the right hemisphere were compared between the USN and non-USN group, those for the IPL, ACG and TH were significantly lower in the USN group; the value for the DLF was also lower in the USN group, although the difference was not significant. Significantly lower values of R/CE for each component region in the right hemisphere were noticed when the regions showed apparent involvement on X-ray CT/MRI. Furthermore, in seven of the USN patients where lesions revealed by CT/MRI did not involve network components, the R/CE ratio values for the components in the right hemisphere were lower than those in the left; the difference was significant for the IPL, ACG and TH, but not for the DLF. It is suggested that functional disturbance of the neural network involving the IPL, ACG, DLF and TH in the right hemisphere might underlie the development of USN. (author)
Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, Anindo
Fish parasitology has a long tradition in North America and numerous parasitologists have contributed considerably to the current knowledge of the diversity and biology of protistan and metazoan parasites of freshwater fishes. The Journal of Parasitology has been essential in disseminating this knowledge and remains a significant contributor to our understanding of fish parasites in North America as well as more broadly at the international level. However, with a few exceptions, the importance of fish parasites has decreased during the last decades, which is reflected in the considerable decline of funding and corresponding decrease of attention paid to these parasites in Canada and the United States of America. After the 'golden age' in the second half of the 20th Century, fish parasitology in Canada and the United States went in a new direction, driven by technology and a shift in priorities. In contrast, fish parasitology in Mexico has undergone rapid development since the early 1990s, partly due to extensive international collaboration and governmental funding. A critical review of the current data on the parasites of freshwater fishes in North America has revealed considerable gaps in the knowledge of their species composition, host specificity, life cycles, evolution, phylogeography, and relationships with their fish hosts. As to the key question, "Why so neglected?" this is probably because: (1) fish parasites are not in the forefront due to their lesser economic importance; (2) there is little funding for this kind of research, especially if a practical application is not immediately apparent; and (3) of shifting interests and a shortage of key personalities to train a new generation (they switched to marine habitats or other fields). Some of the opportunities for future research are outlined, such as climate change and cryptic species diversity. A significant problem challenging future research seems to be the loss of trained and experienced fish
Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NIS–4 data were collected to provide updated estimates of the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States and measure changes in incidence from the...
Burt, Marvin R.; Balyeat, Ralph
A demonstration program of a system coordinating the wide variety of services provided for neglected and abused children in a metropolitan area has produced many gains in the handling of such cases: notably, avoidance of institutionalization. (Author/CS)
Neglected rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure ... in patients with predisposing diseases such as gout, rheumatoid arthritis and ... disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 5 years.
Cocksedge, Karen A; Flynn, Adrian
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency and commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, but we describe the first case report resulting from self-neglect associated with depression.
Cocksedge, Karen A; Flynn, Adrian
Lesson Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency and commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, but we describe the first case report resulting from self-neglect associated with depression.
Lesson Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency and commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, but we describe the first case report resulting from self-neglect associated with depression. PMID:25057374
Besharov, Douglas J.
Presents highlights from the Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. The topic of child sexual abuse dominated the Congress; other topics included malnutrition, research problems, and concerns of Third World countries. Recommendations of the Congress are summarized.
Within a period of six months, three men were admitted following falls which had occurred more than one week previously. They had all sustained minor trauma but directly after the injury they were unable to bear weight on the affected limb. All three had Grade 1 posterior dislocations of the hip. Although the dislocation had ...
Hajsheikholeslami, Farhad; Yazdani, Shahrooz
Cardiac involvement infrequently occurs in hypopituitarism, and lethal cardiac arrhythmias are rarely reported. We present a middle age female who died as a consequence of refractory ventricular arrhythmia whose medical history and previous laboratory investigation were consistent with hypopituitarism. We conclude that hypopituitarism may lead to electrocardiographic changes and malignant ventricular arrhythmia and should be included in laboratory investigation and differential diagnosis of p...
Woodman, J; Lecky, F; Hodes, D; Pitt, M; Taylor, B; Gilbert, Ruth
Screening markers are used in emergency departments (EDs) to identify children who should be assessed for possible physical abuse and neglect. We conducted three systematic reviews evaluating age, repeat attendance and injury type as markers for physical abuse or neglect in injured children attending EDs. We included studies comparing markers in physically abused or neglected children and non-abused injured children attending ED or hospital. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) for age group, repeat attendance and injury type (head injury, bruises, fractures, burns or other). Given the low prevalence of abuse or neglect, we considered that an LR of 10 or more would be clinically useful. All studies were poor quality. Infancy increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured or admitted children (LRs 7.7-13.0, 2 studies) but was not strongly associated in children attending the ED (LR 1.5, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.8; one study). Repeat attendance did not substantially increase the risk of abuse or neglect and may be confounded by chronic disease and socio-economic status (LRs 0.8-3.9, 3 studies). One study showed no evidence that the type of injury substantially increased the risk of physical abuse or neglect in severely injured children. There was no evidence that any of the markers (infancy, type of injury, repeated attendance) were sufficiently accurate (i.e. LR >or= 10) to screen injured children in the ED to identify those requiring paediatric assessment for possible physical abuse or neglect. Clinicians should be aware that among injured children at ED a high proportion of abused children will present without these characteristics and a high proportion of non-abused children will present with them. Information about age, injury type and repeat attendances should be interpreted in this context.
Azar, Sandra T.; Stevenson, Michael T.; Johnson, David R.
Parents with intellectual disabilities (PID) are over-represented in the child protective services (CPS) system. This study examined a more nuanced view of the role of cognition in parenting risk. Its goal was to validate a social information processing (SIP) model of child neglect that draws on social cognition research and advances in neuroscience. Mothers who had CPS child neglect cases were compared with mothers with no CPS involvement on a set of SIP factors. Mothers with low IQs were ov...
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle
Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, yet little is known about how drinking context may be related to particular subtypes of child neglect. This study examines the relationship between parental drinking in multiple contexts and the use of supervisory and physical neglectful. A sample of 2152 parents of children 12 years or younger in 50 cities in California was obtained using a computer-assisted telephone interview. Past-year prevalence of child neglect was measured using the Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale. Information was collected on past month or past-year frequency of having at least one drink in five contexts, continued drinking measures (e.g. number of drinks after the first drink) and sociodemographics. Data were analyzed using multilevel random effects logit models. Frequency of drinking in various contexts was related to different neglect subtypes. Specifically, frequency of drinking with friends was positively related leaving a child home alone when an adult should be present. Parents who drank more frequently with family were less likely to leave their child home alone in the past year yet more likely to unsafely monitor their child in the past year. Drinking at parties more often was related to being more likely to leave a child alone in a car sometime during the past year. That no single drinking context is universally problematic for supervisory and physical neglect suggests that different social mechanisms may underlie the relationships observed between different drinking contexts and neglect subtypes. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
OF BACHELOR THESIS Title of bachelor thesis: Occupational therapy in patients after the brain injury with neglect syndrome This bachelor thesis is focused on summarizing the knowledge of the neglect syndrome, very interesting phenomenon accompanying brain injury. Thesis provides information about prevalence, etiopathogenesis, classification, clinical presentation and course of the disease. Special attention is devoted to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and description of occupational th...
Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E R; Towse, John N; Bradshaw, John L; Brugger, Peter
Spatial neglect can be characterized by a "magnetic attraction" towards the right side of a visual stimulus array and a selection of stimuli from that hemispace. This study examined whether these distinctive characteristics in visuo-motor space are also evident in representational number space. Given that numbers are thought to be represented along a left-to-right oriented mental number line, an affinity for the spontaneous selection of larger numbers was anticipated for neglect patients. Contrary to this expectation, neglect patients (n=20) picked a similar range of numbers compared to controls (n=17) when generating a number between 1000 and 10,000 and when playing an imaginary lottery game. There was, however, a positive correlation between the biases for the imaginary lottery, number generation and a number bisection task - demonstrating that exploration asymmetries along the mental number line are consistent within individuals across tasks. Some of the patients selected smaller numbers in all of these tasks, confirming reports of dissociations between physical and numerical-representational forms of neglect. Conversely, only four (20%) of the patients could reliably be classified as demonstrating a neglect in number space. When filling out a physical lottery ticket, the neglect patients showed the expected bias towards picking numbers placed on the right-hand side of the ticket. These results demonstrate that the magnetic attraction towards the right side of mental representations is rather weak and that representational forms of neglect only occasionally co-exist with neglect in physical space. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.
Osawa, Aiko; Maeshima, Shinichiro
Thalamic hemorrhages are associated with a variety of cognitive dysfunctions, and it is well known that such cognitive changes constitute a limiting factor of recovery of the activities of daily living (ADL). The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and hematomas is unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between aphasia/neglect and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. One hundred fifteen patients with thalamic hemorrhage (70 men and 45 women) were studied. Their mean age was 68.9 ± 10.3 years, and patients with both left and right lesions were included. We calculated hematoma volume and examined the presence or absence of aphasia/neglect and the relationships between these dysfunctions and hematoma volume, hematoma type, and the ADL. Fifty-nine patients were found to have aphasia and 35 were found to have neglect. Although there was no relationship between hematoma type and cognitive dysfunction, hematoma volume showed a correlation with the severity of cognitive dysfunction. The ADL score and ratio of patient discharge for patients with aphasia/neglect were lower than those for patients without aphasia/neglect. We observed a correlation between the hematoma volume in thalamic hemorrhage and cognitive dysfunction. Aphasia/neglect is found frequently in patients with acute thalamic hemorrhage and may influence the ADL.
Muenzenmaier, K; Meyer, I; Struening, E; Ferber, J
The purposes of the study were to determine the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women outpatients with severe and persistent mental illness; to examine patterns of co-occurrence of the various types of abuse; and to explore the relationships between childhood abuse and adult psychiatric symptomatology. Childhood histories of abuse and data on clinical characteristics of 78 women enrolled in a New York State outpatient clinic were elicited in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Sixty-five percent of the women reported histories of some type of abuse or neglect during childhood. Forty-five percent of the sample had been sexually abused, 51 percent had been physically abused, and 22 percent had experienced neglect. Seventy-four percent of the sexually abused women, 70 percent of the physically abused women, and 94 percent of the women who experienced neglect reported at least one additional form of abuse or neglect. Respondents who had been abused in childhood had higher levels of depressive and psychotic symptoms and higher rates of sexual victimization in adulthood than those who had not been abused. Women who experienced neglect as children had higher rates of homelessness in adulthood. Chronic mentally ill women seem to experience higher rates of abuse and more types of abuse than the general population. Clinicians should try to determine whether chronic mentally ill women have histories of abuse and to develop interventions to meet their special needs.
Gallagher, Bernard J; Jones, Brian J
There is evidence that genetic and environmental stressors contribute to the genesis of schizophrenia. However, the relevant impact of each factor remains unclear. We tested for an interactive effect between childhood neglect and family history of serious mental illness. Data were further analyzed for a possible connection to type of schizophrenic symptoms. Data for the study are taken from the medical records of 641 patients with schizophrenia from a large state hospital in the northeastern United States. Clinical assessments were divided into positive and negative symptomatology through application of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Detailed information about childhood neglect and family history of serious mental illness was obtained through Social Service Assessment interviews at intake and during hospital stay. Among clients with no family history of mental illness, childhood neglect does not meaningfully affect the risk of negative versus positive schizophrenia. For clients with such history, on the other hand, neglect significantly raises the risk of schizophrenia with negative symptomatology. Our central finding is that risk for negative symptoms of schizophrenia are elevated by childhood neglect combined with a history of serious mental illness within the family. This is the only report to combine schizophrenic symptoms, familial risk and childhood neglect to date. Implications for primary prevention and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Benedan, Laura; Powell, Martine B; Zajac, Rachel; Lum, Jarrad A G; Snow, Pamela
We administered the GSS-2, a standardised measure of suggestibility, to 5- to 12-year-old children to ascertain whether neglected children's responses to leading questions distinguish them from those of their non-neglected counterparts. Neglected children (n = 75) were more likely than an age-matched sample of non-neglected children (n = 75) to yield to leading questions, despite no difference in their ability to recall the test stimuli. Subsequent collection of individual difference data from the neglected sample revealed that this effect could not be attributed to intelligence, language ability, problem behaviours, age at onset of neglect, or time spent in out-of-home care. With respect to social skill, however, suggestibility was positively correlated with communicative skill, and marginally positively correlated with assertion and engagement. While on the surface our social skills findings seem counter-intuitive, it is possible that maltreated children with relative strengths in these areas have learned to comply with adults in their environment as a way to protect themselves or even foster belonging. Our data, while preliminary, raise interesting questions about whether targeted interventions could help these children to more actively participate in decisions about their lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dai, C-Y; Liu, W-M; Chen, S-W; Yang, C-A; Tung, Y-C; Chou, L-W; Lin, L-C
Anosognosia and neglect may coexist in stroke patients. Neglect patients often report poor quality of life (QOL), whereas patients suffering from other cognition disorders with poor insight report better QOL. This study investigates the relationship between anosognosia, neglect and QOL amongst stroke survivors. Stroke survivors who met the criteria were used as a sampling pool. Sixty stroke patients were observed in this study, amongst whom 20 patients with anosognosia and neglect (A+N+), 20 patients with neglect but not anosognosia (A-N+) and 20 patients with neither anosognosia nor neglect (A-N-) were selected from the sampling pool based on demographic characteristics matched with the A+N+ group. A questionnaire (SS-QOL) was used to collect the QOL perceived by the stroke survivors. The perceived QOL of the A+N+ group was significantly better than those of the other groups, including the subscales of self-care, mobility, work/productivity, upper extremity, mood, family role and social role. However, the A+N+ group had poor balance level and more fall incidents were reported. The A+N+ group perceived better QOL but had more falls and poorer balance than the other groups. Health providers should work with caregivers aggressively in preventing accidents. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EFNS.
Kwak, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jae Yop; Yoon, Yoe Won
The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the relationships with parents, peers, and teachers as a cause of adolescents' smartphone addiction, and to examine the effect of parental neglect on smartphone addiction and the mediating effect of relational maladjustment in school, especially focusing on the relational maladjustment with peers and teachers. For this purpose, a survey was conducted of students from middle schools and high schools in four regions of South Korea. A total of 1170 middle-school students who reported using smartphone took part in this study. A multiple mediator model was analyzed using the bootstrapping mediation methods Parental neglect was significantly associated with adolescents' smartphone addiction. Furthermore, in the relationship between parental neglect and smartphone addiction, parental neglect was not significantly associated with the relational maladjustment with peers, whereas the relational maladjustment with peers negatively influenced smartphone addiction. On the other hand, the relational maladjustment with teachers had a partial mediation effect between parental neglect and smartphone addiction. Based on the results of this study, some implications are suggested that include the need for (1) a customized program for adolescents who use smartphones addictively, (2) a family therapy program to strengthen family function, (3) an integrated case-management system to prevent the reoccurrence of parental neglect, (4) a program to improve relationships with teachers, and (5) expanding the leisure activity infrastructure to improve relationships with friends off-line. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bengwasan, Peejay D
Child abuse and neglect have been associated with cognitive deficits, among other effects on child development. This study explores the prediction that child abuse and neglect has an impact on Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 5th Edition (SB5) IQ scores, in relation to gender, age and type of abuse experienced. 300 children with experiences of abuse and neglect were included in the study, comprising 100 sexually abused, 100 physically abused and 100 neglected children. Overall, all scores on the SB5 were found to be significantly lower than the minimum average scores on the test. Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores were likewise found to be significantly lower than Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) scores. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores did not reveal heterogeneity when gender was factored in. Age and type of abuse (with a moderate effect size) on the other hand, showed significant differences among groups. Statistical analyses of SB5 Factor Index Scores revealed that abused children, in general, have significantly higher Visual-Spatial Processing (VS) and Quantitative Reasoning (QR) scores and lower scores in Knowledge (KN). There was a large effect size found in such an analysis. Age (with a large effect size), gender and type of abuse (with moderate effect sizes) give significant variations to this obtained profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Bazan, Rodrigo; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Resende, Luiz Antônio de Lima; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Z; El Dib, Regina
Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is characterized by the inability to report or respond to people or objects presented on the side contralateral to the lesioned side of the brain and has been associated with poor functional outcomes and long stays in hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Pharmacological interventions (medical interventions only, use of drugs to improve the health condition), such as dopamine and noradrenergic agonists or pro-cholinergic treatment, have been used in people affected by USN after stroke, and effects of these treatments could provide new insights for health professionals and policy makers. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of pharmacological interventions for USN after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (April 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (April 2015), MEDLINE (1946 to April 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to April 2015), EMBASE (1980 to April 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to April 2015) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1982 to April 2015). We also searched trials and research registers, screened reference lists, and contacted study authors and pharmaceutical companies (April 2015). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized controlled trials (quasi-RCTs) of pharmacological interventions for USN after stroke. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias in the included studies and extracted data. We included in the review two studies with a total of 30 randomly assigned participants. We rated the quality of the evidence as very low as the result of study limitations, small numbers of events, and small sample sizes, with imprecision in the confidence interval (CI). We were not able to perform meta-analysis because of heterogeneity related to the different interventions evaluated between included studies. Very low-quality evidence from one trial (20 participants
Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...
Background Child neglect is a pernicious child protection issue with adverse consequences that extend to adulthood. Simultaneously, though it remains prevalent, childhood dental caries is a preventable disease. Public health nurses play a pivotal role in assessing oral health in children as part of general health surveillance. However, little is known about how they assess dental neglect or what their thresholds are for initiating targeted support or instigating child protection measures. Understanding these factors is important to allow improvements to be made in care pathways. Methods We investigated public health nurses’ assessment of oral health in preschool children in relation to dental neglect and any associations they make with child neglect more broadly. A qualitative study was conducted in Scotland during 2011/12. Sixteen public health nurses were recruited purposively from one health region. Individual, semi-structured interviews were undertaken and data were analyzed inductively using a framework approach. Categories were subsequently mapped to the research questions. Results Public health nurses assess oral health through proxy measures, opportunistic observation and through discussion with parents. Dental neglect is rarely an isolated issue that leads on its own to child protection referral. It tends to be other presenting issues that initiate a response. Threshold levels for targeted support were based on two broad indicators: social issues and concerns about child (and parental) dental health. Thresholds for child protection intervention were untreated dental caries or significant dental pain. Barriers to intervention are that dental neglect may be ‘unseen’ and ‘unspoken’. The study revealed a communication gap in the care pathway for children where a significant dental problem is identified. Conclusions Public health nurses take their child protection role seriously, but rarely make a link between dental caries and child neglect. Clear
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...
Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Naval Medical Research Unit No. Six Venezuela Av. Block 36 Bellavista, Callao-Peru Asociacion Benefica...leading drug candidates identified in the previous experiments. Site 2: Naval Medical Research Unit No. Six (NAMRU-6), Venezuela Avenue block 36
Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald
A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.
Michael, Edwin; Madon, Shirin
The current global attempts to control the so-called "Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)" have the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity suffered by some of the world's poorest communities. However, the governance of these control programmes is driven by a managerial rationality that assumes predictability of proposed interventions, and which thus primarily seeks to improve the cost-effectiveness of implementation by measuring performance in terms of pre-determined outputs. Here, we argue that this approach has reinforced the narrow normal-science model for controlling parasitic diseases, and in doing so fails to address the complex dynamics, uncertainty and socio-ecological context-specificity that invariably underlie parasite transmission. We suggest that a new governance approach is required that draws on a combination of non-equilibrium thinking about the operation of complex, adaptive, systems from the natural sciences and constructivist social science perspectives that view the accumulation of scientific knowledge as contingent on historical interests and norms, if more effective control approaches sufficiently sensitive to local disease contexts are to be devised, applied and managed. At the core of this approach is an emphasis on the need for a process that assists with the inclusion of diverse perspectives, social learning and deliberation, and a reflexive approach to addressing system complexity and incertitude, while balancing this flexibility with stability-focused structures. We derive and discuss a possible governance framework and outline an organizational structure that could be used to effectively deal with the complexity of accomplishing global NTD control. We also point to examples of complexity-based management structures that have been used in parasite control previously, which could serve as practical templates for developing similar governance structures to better manage global NTD control. Our results hold important wider
White, M G; Bogdan, R; Fisher, P M; Muñoz, K E; Williamson, D E; Hariri, A R
Individual variation in physiological responsiveness to stress mediates risk for mental illness and is influenced by both experiential and genetic factors. Common polymorphisms in the human gene for FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), which is involved in transcriptional regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, have been shown to interact with childhood abuse and trauma to predict stress-related psychopathology. In the current study, we examined if such gene-environment interaction effects may be related to variability in the threat-related reactivity of the amygdala, which plays a critical role in mediating physiological and behavioral adaptations to stress including modulation of the HPA axis. To this end, 139 healthy Caucasian youth completed a blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging probe of amygdala reactivity and self-report assessments of emotional neglect (EN) and other forms of maltreatment. These individuals were genotyped for 6 FKBP5 polymorphisms (rs7748266, rs1360780, rs9296158, rs3800373, rs9470080 and rs9394309) previously associated with psychopathology and/or HPA axis function. Interactions between each SNP and EN emerged such that risk alleles predicted relatively increased dorsal amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN, even after correcting for multiple testing. Two different haplotype analyses confirmed this relationship as haplotypes with risk alleles also exhibited increased amygdala reactivity in the context of higher EN. Our results suggest that increased threat-related amygdala reactivity may represent a mechanism linking psychopathology to interactions between common genetic variants affecting HPA axis function and childhood trauma. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Zhang, Yan; Li, Aolin; Dai, Tianjiao; Li, Feifei; Xie, Hui; Chen, Lujun; Wen, Donghui
Cell-associated ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been concerned, however, cell-free ARGs in WWTPs was rarely studied. In this study, the abundances of four representative ARGs, sulII, tetC, bla PSE-1 , and ermB, in a large municipal WWTP were investigated in both cell-associated and cell-free fractions. Cell-associated ARGs was the dominant ARGs fraction in the raw wastewater. After biological treatment, sludge settling, membrane filtration, and disinfection, cell-associated ARGs were substantially reduced, though the ratios of ARG/16S rRNA gene were increased with disinfection. Cell-free ARGs persisted in the WWTP with a removal of 0.36 log to 2.68 logs, which was much lower than the removal of cell-associated ARGs (3.21 logs to 4.14 logs). Therefore, the abundance ratio of cell-free ARGs to cell-associated ARGs increased from 0.04-1.59% to 2.00-1895.08% along the treatment processes. After 25-day-storage, cell-free ARGs in both biological effluent and disinfection effluent increased by 0.14 log to 1.99 logs and 0.12 log to 1.77 logs respectively, reflecting the persistence and low decay rate of cell-free ARGs in the discharge water. Therefore, cell-free ARGs might be a kind of important but previously neglected pollutant from WWTPs, which added potential risks to the effluent receiving environments.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; DuMont, Kimberly; Czaja, Sally J
Few prospective longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between abuse or neglect in childhood and depression in adulthood. To determine whether abused and neglected children were at elevated risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and psychiatric comorbidity, compared with matched control subjects, when followed up into young adulthood. Prospective cohort design study. Midwestern metropolitan county area. Children with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect (before the age of 11 years) from January 1, 1967, to December 31, 1971 (n = 676) were matched based on age, race, sex, and approximate family social class with a group of non-abused and non-neglected children (n = 520) and followed up into young adulthood (mean age, 28.7 years). Between October 20, 1989, and December 22, 1995, 2-hour in-person interviews were conducted, using the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III Revised, to determine DSM-III-R MDD and other psychiatric diagnoses. Child abuse and neglect were associated with an increased risk for current MDD (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.14; PChildren who were physically abused (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.52; Pneglect increased risk for current MDD (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10-2.29; Pneglected children compared with controls. Among those with MDD, comorbidity was higher for abused and neglected individuals than for controls. These results support the need for clinicians to increase efforts to detect and treat depression in physically abused and neglected children.
Dyer, Carmel Bitondo; Franzini, Luisa; Watson, Mary; Sanchez, Luis; Prati, Laura; Mitchell, Stacy; Wallace, Robert; Pickens, Sabrina
In almost every U.S. jurisdiction, elder self-neglect is the most common allegation addressed by Adult Protective Service (APS) agencies. Not only is self-neglect common, but this form of mistreatment is an independent risk factor for death. A lack of understanding of the precipitating factors and root causes and of the effect on social and medical systems persists in this field. Research in this area has been limited, because the needs of these vulnerable elderly people are complex and diverse. Moreover, these factors encompass interrelated medical, psychiatric, economic, social, and functional problems. In 2004, the National Institutes of Health Interdisciplinary Roadmap Initiative provided the means for preliminary exploration of elder self-neglect through the formation of the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas (CREST). The goals of CREST include to conduct pilot studies, form interdisciplinary working groups, convene a national research conference, and appoint a national external advisory board. CREST orchestrated the work of 35 interdisciplinary investigators to achieve these goals. CREST researchers have begun to characterize the population of vulnerable elderly people who were reported to APS for neglecting themselves. The pilot studies provided a snapshot of 100 elderly people who had neglected themselves. A proposed next phase could involve a prospective longitudinal study of elderly people with severe self-neglect. This study of the clinical course, the death rate, the causes of death, the occurrence of acute and chronic medical or mental illness, and the costs to the healthcare and social systems would greatly inform the field of elder mistreatment.
In this paper we analyse the arguments for a strong association between spatial neglect and postural disorders and attempt to better understand the mechanisms which underlie that. We first provide a general overview of the available tools for a rational assessment of postural control in a clinical context. We then analyse the arguments in favour of a close relationship, although not necessarily causal, between spatial neglect and: 1) body orientation with respect to gravity (including verticality perception i.e. the visual vertical, the haptic vertical, and the postural vertical); 2) body stabilisation with respect to the base of support; 3) posturographic features of stroke patients; 4) and finally their postural disability in daily life. This second part of the paper is based both on the literature review and on results of our current research. Neglect patients show a dramatic postural disability, due both to problems in body orientation with respect to gravity and to problems in body stabilisation. It might be that these problems are partly caused by a neglect phenomenon bearing on graviceptive (somaesthetic > vestibular) and visual information serving postural control. This could correspond to a kind of postural neglect involving both the bodily and nonbodily domains of spatial neglect. The existence of distorsion(s) in the body scheme are also probably involved, especially to explain the weight-bearing asymmetry in standing, and probably an impaired multisegmental postural coordination leading to an impaired body stabilisation. The present paper explains why neglect patients show longer/worse recovery of postural-walking autonomy than other stroke patients.
Fordell, H; Bodin, K; Bucht, G; Malm, J
There is a need for improved screening methods for spatial neglect. To construct a VR-test battery and evaluate its accuracy and usability in patients with acute stroke. VR-DiSTRO consists of a standard desktop computer, a CRT monitor and eye shutter stereoscopic glasses, a force feedback interface, and software, developed to create an interactive and immersive 3D experience. VR-tests were developed and validated to the conventional Star Cancellation test, Line bisection, Baking Tray Task (BTT), and Visual Extinction test. A construct validation to The Rivermead Behavioral Inattention Test, used as criterion of visuospatial neglect, was made. Usability was assessed according to ISO 9241-11. Thirty-one patients with stroke were included, 9/31 patients had neglect. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 82% for the VR-DiSTRO to correctly identify neglect. VR-BTT and VR-Extinction had the highest correlation (r² = 0.64 and 0.78), as well as high sensitivity and specificity. The kappa values describing the agreement between traditional neglect tests and the corresponding virtual reality test were between 0.47-0.85. Usability was assessed by a questionnaire; 77% reported that the VR-DiSTRO was 'easy' to use. Eighty-eight percent reported that they felt 'focused', 'pleased' or 'alert'. No patient had adverse symptoms. The test session took 15 min. The VR-DiSTRO quickly and with a high accuracy identified visuospatial neglect in patients with stroke in this construct validation. The usability among elderly patients with stroke was high. This VR-test battery has the potential to become an important screening instrument for neglect and a valuable adjunct to the neuropsychological assessment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Toba, Monica N; Rabuffetti, Marco; Duret, Christophe; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Gainotti, Guido; Bartolomeo, Paolo
Visual neglect is a disabling consequence of right hemisphere damage, whereby patients fail to detect left-sided objects. Its precise mechanisms are debated, but there is some consensus that distinct component deficits may variously associate and interact in different patients. Here we used a touch-screen based procedure to study two putative component deficits of neglect, rightward "magnetic" attraction of attention and impaired spatial working memory, in a group of 47 right brain-damaged patients, of whom 33 had signs of left neglect. Patients performed a visual search task on three distinct conditions, whereby touched targets could (1) be tagged, (2) disappear or (3) show no change. Magnetic attraction of attention was defined as more left neglect on the tag condition than on the disappear condition, where right-sided disappeared targets could not capture patients' attention. Impaired spatial working memory should instead produce more neglect on the no change condition, where no external cue indicated that a target had already been explored, than on the tag condition. Using a specifically developed analysis algorithm, we identified significant differences of performance between the critical conditions. Neglect patients as a group performed better on the disappear condition than on the no change condition and also better in the tag condition comparing with the no change condition. No difference was found between the tag condition and the disappear condition. Some of our neglect patients had dissociated patterns of performance, with predominant magnetic attraction or impaired spatial working memory. Anatomical results issued from both grey matter analysis and fiber tracking were consistent with the typical patterns of fronto-parietal and occipito-frontal disconnection in neglect, but did not identify lesional patterns specifically associated with one or another deficit, thus suggesting the possible co-localization of attentional and working memory processes in
Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning.
Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Bennett, David S; Lewis, Michael
Neglected children's acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) reactivity in response to a laboratory visit was contrasted with that of a comparison group. The authors examined initial salivary cortisol response upon entering the laboratory and its trajectory following a set of tasks designed to elicit negative self-evaluation in 64 children (30 with a history of neglect and 34 demographically matched comparison children). Neglected, but not comparison, children showed higher initial cortisol responses. The cortisol response of both groups showed a decline from the sample taken at lab entry, with neglected children's cortisol exhibiting steeper decline. The groups, however, did not differ in their mean cortisol levels at 20 and 35 min post-task. The results are interpreted in terms of the meaning of initial responses as a "baseline" and as evidence for neglected children's heightened HPA-axis reactivity as either a reflection of differences in home levels or the consequence of stress/anxiety associated with arrival at the laboratory.
Tsirlin, Inna; Dupierrix, Eve; Chokron, Sylvie; Coquillart, Sabine; Ohlmann, Theophile
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling condition frequently occurring after stroke. People with neglect suffer from various spatial deficits in several modalities, which in many cases impair everyday functioning. A successful treatment is yet to be found. Several techniques have been proposed in the last decades, but only a few showed long-lasting effects and none could completely rehabilitate the condition. Diagnostic methods of neglect could be improved as well. The disorder is normally diagnosed with pen-and-paper methods, which generally do not assess patients in everyday tasks and do not address some forms of the disorder. Recently, promising new methods based on virtual reality have emerged. Virtual reality technologies hold great opportunities for the development of effective assessment and treatment techniques for neglect because they provide rich, multimodal, and highly controllable environments. In order to stimulate advancements in this domain, we present a review and an analysis of the current work. We describe past and ongoing research of virtual reality applications for unilateral neglect and discuss the existing problems and new directions for development.
Full Text Available Introduction: Abuse and neglect might cause multiple and long-term consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of children. The consequences that abuse and neglect cause on a child’s personality and functioning in adult life have particular importance. The aim: Determining the level of trauma, as well as differences in personality traits of adolescents who are on psychiatric treatment and has been registered in Department for the protection of children against abuse and neglect, comparing with children who are on psychiatric treatment but not abused, and control group of adolescents. Materials and methods: The study analysed three groups: abused group on psychiatric treatment, group on psychiatric treatment and not abused, and control healthy population. All subjects filled out General questionnaire with basic socio-demographical data, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Temperament and Character Adolescent Inventory (ATCI – 46. Results: There is statistically significant difference between groups in all types of abuse: physical, emotional, sexual, as well as emotional and physical neglect (p<0.001. Psychiatric group has significantly lower scores on Persistence (P (p<0.01, while abused group has lower scores on Harm avoidance (HA (p<0.05. Negative correlation between abuse and Self-transcendence (ST, and negative correlation between physical abuse and Self-directedness (SD has been shown. Conclusion: Abuse and neglect in children and adolescents are a significant cause of trauma and can cause different psychopathology, as well as changes on character and temperament traits.
Keller, Ingo; Volkening, Katharina; Garbacenkaite, Ruta
Patients with left-sided neglect frequently show omissions and repetitive behavior on cancellation tests. Using a touch-screen-based cancellation task, we tested how visual feedback and distracters influence the number of omissions and perseverations. Eighteen patients with left-sided visual neglect and 18 healthy controls performed four different cancellation tasks on an iPad touch screen: no feedback (the display did not change during the task), visual feedback (touched targets changed their color from black to green), visual feedback with distracters (20 distracters were evenly embedded in the display; detected targets changed their color from black to green), vanishing targets (touched targets disappeared from the screen). Except for the condition with vanishing targets, neglect patients had significantly more omissions and perseverations than healthy controls in the remaining three subtests. Both conditions providing feedback by changing the target color showed the highest number of omissions. Erasure of targets nearly diminished omissions completely. The highest rate of perseverations was observed in the no-feedback condition. The implementation of distracters led to a moderate number of perseverations. Visual feedback without distracters and vanishing targets abolished perseverations nearly completely. Visual feedback and the presence of distracters aggravated hemispatial neglect. This finding is compatible with impaired disengagement from the ipsilesional side as an important factor of visual neglect. Improvement of cancellation behavior with vanishing targets could have therapeutic implications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Finzi, Ricky; Har-Even, Dov; Weizman, Abraham
The nature and level of ego functioning were assessed in 41 recently detected physically abused children, and in two control groups of 38 neglected and 35 non-abused/non-neglected children (aged 6 to 12 years), using the Child Suicidal Potential Scales (CSPS). The results obtained in this study support the hypothesis that the influences of parental violence on the child's ego functions are detrimental, as reflected by significantly higher impairments in affect regulation (like irritability, anger, passivity, depression), low levels of impulse control, distortions in reality testing, and extensive operation of immature defense mechanisms in the physically abused children in comparison to the controls. Significant differences between the physically abused and the non-abused/non-neglected children were found for all mechanisms except displacement. The differences between the physically abused and neglected children for regression, denial and splitting, projection, and introjection (high scores for the physically abused children), and for compensation and undoing (higher scores for the neglected children) were also significant. It is suggested that physically abused children should be distinguished as a high-risk population for future personality disorders.
Full Text Available Background: Research has shown that orphans in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk for mental health problems. Exposure to maltreatment and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatization are related to orphans’ psychological distress. Yet, researchers stress the need for more research in low-income countries to identify which factors of being an orphan may lead to psychological distress. Objectives: The present study aims to systematically investigate orphans’ experiences of maltreatment and stigmatization to identify factors that relate to their psychological distress. Methods: In total, 89 Tanzanian children who had lost at least one parent were compared to 89 matched non-orphans (mean age: 11 years; 51% boys. We measured exposure to maltreatment and perceived stigmatization as an orphan. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Children's Depression Inventory, the UCLA PTSD Index for Children, and the Reactive–Proactive Questionnaire. Results: Orphans reported significantly more experiences of neglect, but not of abuse. A group comparison revealed more depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and aggressive behavior among orphans. Neglect, abuse, and stigmatization correlated with orphans’ internalizing and externalizing problems, yet only neglect and stigmatization were related to orphans’ depression severity. Perceived stigmatization moderated the relationship between neglect and depression. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that orphans in Tanzania are at increased risk of experiencing neglect. Maltreatment and perceived stigmatization may play a role in orphans’ psychological distress. Culturally appropriate and evidence-based interventions may help to prevent maltreatment and stigmatization of orphans.
Full Text Available Elbow dislocations are cases that have to be treated in emergency conditions. Neglected elbow dislocations are seen very rarely and the treatment of such cases are more complicated than acute cases. We present two cases of neglected elbow dislocations treated with open reduction and hinged external fixators. Case 1: 23 year old female patient had a neglected posterior dislocation of left elbow with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture caused by car accident. The patient was treated after 3 months of initial trauma. We have performed open reduction for the joint. After that we fixed the joint whit a hinged external fixator. The humeral shaft fracture was also fixed with the components of the external fixator. Case 2: 33 year male patient had a large bone and soft tissue defect around the left elbow accompanying with neglected medial elbow dislocation. He presented to our clinic with a delay of 2 months. The patient was treated with open reduction and hinged external fixator after reconstruction of bone defect of distal humerus. Conclusion: The treatment of neglected cases is quite challenging. Open reduction and external fixation has satisfactory results in treatment of late cases of elbow dislocation with the possibility of early rehabilitation. This method can be considered as an option for such cases. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446
Full Text Available Background: Child neglect is highly prevalent and associated with a series of biological and social consequences. Early neglect may alter the recognition of emotional faces, but its precise impact remains unclear. We aim to review and analyze data from recent literature about recognition and processing of facial expressions in individuals with history of childhood neglect. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, PsycINFO, ScIELO and EMBASE databases in the search of studies for the past 10 years. Results: In total, 14 studies were selected and critically reviewed. A heterogeneity was detected across methods and sample frames. Results were mixed across studies. Different forms of alterations to perception of facial expressions were found across 12 studies. There was alteration to the recognition and processing of both positive and negative emotions, but for emotional face processing there was predominance in alteration toward negative emotions. Conclusions: This is the first review to examine specifically the effects of early neglect experience as a prevalent condition of child maltreatment. The results of this review are inconclusive due to methodological diversity, implement of distinct instruments and differences in the composition of the samples. Despite these limitations, some studies support our hypothesis that individuals with history of early negligence may present alteration to the ability to perceive face expressions of emotions. The article brings relevant information that can help in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce the impact of neglect on the cognitive and emotional development of the child.
Kantor, Glenda Kaufman; Holt, Melissa K; Mebert, Carolyn J; Straus, Murray A; Drach, Kerry M; Ricci, Lawrence R; MacAllum, Crystal A; Brown, Wendy
This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale-Child Report (MNBS-CR). The measure is broadly conceptualized to tap child neglect across four core domains: cognitive, emotional, physical and supervisory neglect, and it assesses exposure to violence, alcohol-related neglect, abandonment, and children's appraisals of parenting. Features include pictorial items, audio computer-assisted testing, and programming by age and gender of the child and caregiver. A clinical sample of 144 children, age 6 to 15 years, and a comparison sample of 87 children were tested. Results showed that the MNBS-CR has high reliability, with higher reliability found for older children (alpha = .94) than for younger children (alpha = .66). Among older children, the MNBS-CR Supervisory scale was significantly associated with the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and total MNBS-CR scores were significantly associated with clinician reports of behavioral disorders. Younger and older neglected children scored significantly higher on the MNBS-CR than community children.
Oshri, Assaf; Kogan, Steve M; Kwon, Josephine A; Wickrama, K A S; Vanderbroek, Lauren; Palmer, Abraham A; MacKillop, James
Emerging developmental perspectives suggest that adverse rearing environments promote neurocognitive adaptations that heighten impulsivity and increase vulnerability to risky behavior. Although studies document links between harsh rearing environments and impulsive behavior on substance use, the developmental hypothesis that impulsivity acts as mechanism linking adverse rearing environments to downstream substance use remains to be investigated. The present study investigated the role of impulsivity in linking child abuse and neglect with adult substance use using data from (a) a longitudinal sample of youth (Study 1, N = 9,421) and (b) a cross-sectional sample of adults (Study 2, N = 1,011). In Study 1, the links between child abuse and neglect and young adult smoking and marijuana use were mediated by increases in adolescent impulsivity. In Study 2, indirect links between child abuse and neglect and substance use were evidenced via delayed reward discounting and impulsivity traits. Among impulsivity subcomponents, robust indirect effects connecting childhood experiences to cigarette use emerged for negative urgency. Negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking mediated the effect of child abuse and neglect on cannabis and alcohol use. Results suggest that child abuse and neglect increases risk for substance use in part, due to effects on impulsivity. Individuals with adverse childhood experiences may benefit from substance use preventive intervention programs that target impulsive behaviors.
Oprea, L; Braunack-Mayer, A; Gericke, C A
Neglected and tropical diseases, pervasive in developing countries, are important contributors to global health inequalities. They remain largely untreated due to lack of effective and affordable treatments. Resource-poor countries cannot afford to develop the public health interventions needed to control neglected diseases. In addition, neglected diseases do not represent an attractive market for pharmaceutical industry. Although a number of international commitments, stated in the Millennium Development Goals, have been made to avert the risk of communicable diseases, tropical diseases still remain neglected due to delays in international assistance. This delay can be explained by the form international cooperation has generally taken, which is limited to promoting countries' national interests, rather than social justice at a global level. This restricts the international responsibility for global inequalities in health to a humanitarian assistance. We propose an alternative view, arguing that expanding the scope of international cooperation by promoting shared health and economic value at a global level will create new opportunities for innovative, effective and affordable interventions worldwide. It will also promote neglected diseases as a global research priority. We build our argument on a proposal to replace the patenting system that currently regulates pharmaceutical research with a global fund to reward this research based on actual decreases in morbidity and mortality at a global level. We argue that this approach is beneficent because it will decrease global health inequalities and promote social justice worldwide.
Full Text Available According to Chinese Guideline of Prevention and Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B which is published in October, 2015, hepatitis B virus (HBV is mainly transmitted via injection, vertical transmission, and sexual contact, furthermore, invasive procedures including pedicure and tattooing as well as sharing shavers and toothbrushes are also regarded as risk factors. These traditional HBV transmission pathways are in accordance with the corresponding WHO guideline. However, some of the statements in the guidelines such as close contact with active HBV carriers like sharing hygiene facilities and dining together as well as bites by blood-sucking arthropod like mosquito do not transmit HBV need to be questioned because related previous studies did not support these statements.
Honarvar, B; Moghadami, M; Lankarani, K B; Davarpanah, M A; Ataolahi, M; Farbod, A; Eskandari, E; Panahi, M; Ghorbani, A; Zahiri, Z; Tabrizi, R; Pourjafar, M; Heidari, S M M
This study assessed the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran. Active brucellosis was defined as the combination of clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, night sweats, headache, low back pain, arthralgia, or myalgia, and positive laboratory testing, including either a serum agglutination test (SAT) ⩾1:80 with a 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test ⩾1:40, or a SAT brucellosis was detected in 54 cases, indicating a prevalence of 10% (95% confidence interval 8-12). In conclusion, we determined that brucellosis is a prevalent yet neglected disease in this nomadic population. Brucellosis control is not possible as long as these high-risk populations remain neglected.
Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F
As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental
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... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...
Drake, Gareth; Williams, Amanda C de C
Pain management for hospital inpatients remains suboptimal. Previously identified barriers to optimal pain management include staff communication difficulties, confusion around pain management roles and a lack of suitable resources for clinical staff. The emotional, relational and contextual complexities of gastrointestinal (GI) pain create particular challenges for frontline clinical staff attempting to implement a biopsychosocial approach to its management. The current study took place over 2 years, comprised an ethnographic and a feedback phase, and aimed to examine pain management processes with clinical staff in order to generate hypotheses and initiatives for improvement. This paper focuses on two overarching themes identified in the ethnographic phase of the study, centred on the neglected role of both staff and patient distress in GI pain management. Grounded theory and thematic analysis methods were used as part of action research, which involves collaborative working with clinical staff. The study took place on a 60 bed GI ward in a university hospital in London. Participants were clinical staff who were either ward-based or involved in the care of particular patients. This latter group included doctors, nurses, psychologists and physiotherapists from the Acute and Complex Pain Teams. Qualitative data on pain management processes was gathered from staff interviews, consultation groups, and observations of patient-staff interactions. Recruitment was purposive and collaborative in that early participants suggested targets and staff groups for subsequent enquiry. Following the identification of initial ethnographic themes, further analysis and the use of existing literature led to the identification of two overarching pain management processes. As such the results are divided into three sections: (i) illustration of initial ethnographic themes, (ii) summary of relevant theory used, (iii) exploration of hypothesised overarching processes. Initially, two
Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.
In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.
Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio
The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.
Musselwhite, Laura W; Maciag, Karolina; Lankowski, Alex; Gretes, Michael C; Wellems, Thomas E; Tavera, Gloria; Goulding, Rebecca E; Guillen, Ethan
Universities Allied for Essential Medicines organized its first Neglected Diseases and Innovation Symposium to address expanding roles of public sector research institutions in innovation in research and development of biomedical technologies for treatment of diseases, particularly neglected tropical diseases. Universities and other public research institutions are increasingly integrated into the pharmaceutical innovation system. Academic entities now routinely undertake robust high-throughput screening and medicinal chemistry research programs to identify lead compounds for small molecule drugs and novel drug targets. Furthermore, product development partnerships are emerging between academic institutions, non-profit entities, and biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to create diagnostics, therapies, and vaccines for diseases of the poor. With not for profit mission statements, open access publishing standards, open source platforms for data sharing and collaboration, and a shift in focus to more translational research, universities and other public research institutions are well-placed to accelerate development of medical technologies, particularly for neglected tropical diseases.
Mootha, Aditya Krishna; Mogali, Kasi Viswanadam
Post traumatic hip dislocations are very rare in children. Neglected anterior hip dislocations in children are not described in literature so far. Here, we present a case of 6 weeks old anterior hip dislocation successfully managed by open reduction. A 9-year-old male child presented with neglected anterior hip dislocation on left side. Open reduction carried out through direct anterior approach to hip. Congruent reduction is achieved. At final follow up of 1 year, the child had unrestricted activities of daily living and no radiological signs of osteonecrosis or any joint space reduction. There is paucity of literature over neglected post traumatic anterior hip dislocations in children. The treatment options vary from closed reduction after heavy traction to sub trochanteric osteotomy. However, we feel that open reduction through direct anterior approach is the preferred mode of management whenever considered possible.
Huang Lele; Yin Yafu; Li Yaming
Hemispatial neglect is a kind of cognitive impairment characterized by failure to report, respond or orient to stimuli presented in ipsi- or contra-lateral space after brain injury, which cannot be attributed to sensory or motor defects. Although there are various diagnosis and assessment methods, none is regarded as standard. The paper and pencil test is commonly used in routine clinical workup. The mechanism is controversial and the most accepted opinion is due to visuospatial attention defect. Imaging study focuses on exploring the functional regions leading to the hemispatial neglect. As functional imaging, SPECT and PET have capability to evaluate the perfusion, glucose metabolism and cellular vitality, which have been found increasingly useful and applicable clinically in the field of diagnosis for cognitive impairment diseases. They are likely to have potential for contribution in the study of hemispatial neglect. (authors)
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49
The recommendation that the criminal offence of wilful neglect be extended to protect all patient groups may seem a proactive way for the Government to begin to restore public confidence in nursing following the Mid Staffordshire NHS Trust Inquiry. However, the experience of the courts hearing cases of wilful neglect in relation to adults who lack capacity show that they are complex trials and, despite several appeals, still lack clear guidance that nurses can apply in practice to avoid prosecution while still promoting the autonomy of patients. In this article the author reviews recent cases of wilful neglect to come before the Court of Appeal and argues that rather than offering protection to patients, criminalising a failure to act is more likely to result in paternalistic interventions, with nurses insisting on providing care because they fear prosecution if they fail to do so.
Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung
Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B; Baril, Thomas E
Physician leaders in obstetrics and gynecology find themselves in complex power relationships with administrative subordinates, administrative peers, and administrative superiors. The ethical dimensions of these power relationships have not been examined previously. The authors draw on the work of 3 major historic figures (John Gregory, Thomas Hobbes, and Friedrich Hoffmann) to identify for the first time 3 major types of power relationships and organizational cultures. Gregorian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by shared fiduciary responsibility that advances the core mission of a health care organization. Hobbesian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by relentless self-interest in a zero-sum game. Hoffmannian power relationships and organizational cultures are characterized by enlightened self-interest in a win-win game. The authors analyze the ethical dimensions of power relationships of physician leaders with subordinates, peers, and superiors and of organizational cultures. The authors support transformational leadership toward Gregorian power relationships and organizational cultures, using, when necessary, Hoffmannian power relationships and organizational cultures as a way station.
Han, Suk Won
It is well known that attention is biased toward a stimulus matching working memory contents. However, it remains unknown whether the maintenance of information in working memory by itself is sufficient to create memory-driven attentional capture. Notably, in many previous studies showing the memory-driven attentional capture, the task settings might have explicitly or implicitly incentivized participants to strategically attend to a memory-matching stimulus. By innovating an experimental paradigm, the present study overcame this challenge and directly tested whether working memory contents capture attention in the absence of task-level attentional bias toward a memory-matching stimulus. I found that a stimulus that is usually outside the focus of attention, powerfully captured attention when it matched working memory contents, whereas a match between working memory and an inhibited stimulus suppressed attentional allocation toward the memory-matching stimulus. These findings suggest that in the absence of any task-level attentional bias toward memory-matching stimuli, attention is biased toward a memory-matching stimulus, but this memory-driven attentional capture is diminished when top-down inhibition is imposed on the stimulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abdullah, B; Ayub, S H; Mohd Zahid, A Z; Noorneza, A R; Isa, Mohamad Rodi; Ng, P Y
To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence among primigravida in the third trimester, its risk factors and its effect to quality of life. This is a cross sectional study involving primigravida in their third trimester of pregnancy, who attended the Patient Assessment Centre of a tertiary referral hospital in Klang Valley from July 2012 to June 2013. The participants were chosen randomly using convenience sampling. A face-to-face interview and a review of their antenatal record were done by trained interviewers. Data on sociodemographic and risk factors were obtained followed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form (ICIQ-SF). The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0. A total of 306 women were involved. The prevalence of urinary incontinence during third trimester was 34.3% (95%CI: 29.0, 39.7). Stress incontinence (64.8%) is the commonest followed by mixed incontinence (24.8%) and urge incontinence (6.7%). Childhood enuresis (p=0.003) and previous history of urinary incontinence (purinary incontinence. More than 50 percent of women with urinary incontinence in the third trimester felt that it did not affect their daily activities at all. Only 10% of women felt greatly affected by this problem. Urinary incontinence is not uncommon among primigravida however many women did not feel that it affected their quality of life. Childhood enuresis and history of urinary incontinence were proven risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a newly discovered, previously unreported endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in the Phulwaria village, under tehsil Sugauli, East Champaran, Bihar. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at village Phulwaria, following diagnosis of fasciolopsiasis in three children from the village. A total of 120 individuals, including all the children and adults who gave history of recent passage of red fleshy masses in their stool, were included in the study. The cases of fasciolopsiasis were treated with Praziquantel 25 mg/kg, three doses a day. Risk factors for the transmission of the parasite in the village were also studied. Results: Questionnaire revealed majority of the population suffering from abdominal discomfort and passage of red fleshy masses in stool. These fleshy masses were identified as Fasciolopsis buski. One hundred and eighteen individuals were presumably considered as cases of the parasitic infection. After treatment with Praziquantel, all of them passed the parasite in their stool for the next 2-3 days. On investigating, it was observed that all the conditions required for effective continuation of the life cycle of the parasite were present in this village. Conclusion: This study draws attention to a new endemic focus of fasciolopsiasis in Bihar, with a very high prevalence due to poverty, the lack of awareness about the parasite in villagers as well as ignorance among local medical practitioners. There is an urgent need for mass campaign around the region for its effective control.
Veronelli, Laura; Vallar, Giuseppe; Marinelli, Chiara V; Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S
Right-brain-damaged patients with left unilateral spatial neglect typically set the mid-point of horizontal lines to the right of the objective center. By contrast, healthy participants exhibit a reversed bias (pseudoneglect). The same effect has been described also when bisecting orthographic strings. In particular, for this latter kind of stimulus, some recent studies have shown that visuo-perceptual characteristics, like stimulus length, may contribute to both the magnitude and the direction bias of the bisection performance (Arduino et al. in Neuropsychologia 48:2140-2146, 2010). Furthermore, word stress was shown to modulate reading performances in both healthy participants, and patients with left spatial neglect and neglect dyslexia (Cubelli and Beschin in Brain Lang 95:319-326, 2005; Rusconi et al. in Neuropsychology 18:135-140, 2004). In Experiment I, 22 right-brain-damaged patients (11 with left visuo-spatial neglect) and 11 matched neurologically unimpaired control participants were asked to set the subjective mid-point of word letter strings, and of lines of comparable length. Most patients exhibited an overall disproportionate rightward bias, sensitive to stimulus length, and similar for words and lines. Importantly, in individual patients, biases differed according to stimulus type (words vs. lines), indicating that at least partly different mechanisms may be involved. In Experiment II, the putative effects on the bisection bias of ortho-phonological information (i.e., word stress endings), arising from the non-neglected right hand side of the stimulus were investigated. The orthographic cue induced a rightward shift of the perceived mid-point in both patients and controls, with short words stressed on the antepenultimate final sequence inducing a smaller rightward deviation with respect to short words stressed on the penultimate final sequence. In conclusion, partly different mechanisms, including both visuo-spatial and lexical factors, may support
Kim, Yong Mi; Chun, Min Ho; Yun, Gi Jeong; Song, Young Jin; Young, Han Eun
Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality training on unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients. Method Twenty-four stroke patients (14 males and 10 females, mean age=64.7) who had unilateral spatial neglect as a result of right hemisphere stroke were recruited. All patients were randomly assigned to either the virtual reality (VR) group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). The VR group received VR training, which stimulated the left side of their bodies. The control group rec...
Driver, J; Baylis, G C; Rafal, R D
A central controversy in current research on visual attention is whether figures are segregated from their background preattentively, or whether attention is first directed to unstructured regions of the image. Here we present neurological evidence for the former view from studies of a brain-injured patient with visual neglect. His attentional impairment arises after normal segmentation of the image into figures and background has taken place. Our results indicate that information which is neglected and unavailable to higher levels of visual processing can nevertheless be processed by earlier stages in the visual system concerned with segmentation.
Depression is a common disorder in youth, and 10% to 15% of individuals have a lifetime prevalence by 18 years of age. Youth who receive treatment typically have a positive outcome, but many remain undiagnosed and untreated. 1 There is a dearth of literature on parental refusal to consent to treatment for pediatric depression and the circumstances under which such refusal could be considered medical neglect. In general, it appears that mental health diagnoses are rarely reported in cases of medical neglect. 2 . Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Braveman, Paula; Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Rinki, Christine; Marchi, Kristen; Curtis, Mike
Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with ill-health in adulthood, but ACE literature has focused on family disruption or dysfunction (e.g., child abuse, parental separation), with less attention to economic adversity. We examined whether a mother's economic hardship in childhood (EHC) was associated with women's hardships and health-risk behaviors during/just before pregnancy. Methods We analyzed population-based survey data on 27,102 postpartum California women. EHC included respondents' reports that during childhood they/their families experienced hunger because of inability to afford food or moved because of problems paying rent/mortgage and the frequency of difficulty paying for basic needs. We examined six maternal hardships/behaviors during/just before pregnancy, including four hardships (poverty, food insecurity, homelessness/no regular place to sleep, intimate partner violence) and two behaviors (smoking, binge drinking). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated from sequential logistic regression models estimating associations between EHC (categorized by level of hardship) and each maternal hardship/behavior, first without adjustment, then adjusting for other childhood and current maternal factors, and finally adding family disruption/dysfunction. Results Before adjustment for family disruption/dysfunction, the highest and intermediate EHC levels were associated with each maternal hardship/behavior; after full adjustment, those associations persisted except with smoking. Higher EHC levels generally appeared associated with larger PRs, although confidence intervals overlapped. Conclusions for Policy/Practice These findings link childhood economic hardship with women's hardships, binge drinking, and possibly smoking around the time of pregnancy. Without establishing causality, they support previous research indicating that childhood economic adversity should be considered an ACE.
Full Text Available Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic disease but its progressive character, with structural damage, is insufficiently studied. Objectives: To analyze a group of patients without referral bias, regarding its clinical course, the morphological damage, and functional status. Methods: We evaluated UC patients diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004, living in the direct referral area of the hospital and determined the medication use, colectomy rate, structural damage (“lead pipe,” stenosis, pseudopolyps, fibrous bridges, and anorectal function (prospective evaluation with the Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score [CCIS] and the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale. Results: We identified 104 patients, 47% female, with a mean age at diagnosis of 38 ± 17 years, 24% with proctitis, 57% with left colitis, and 19% with pancolitis. In 3 patients, it was not possible to obtain follow-up data. Of the studied patients, 56% needed corticosteroid therapy, 38% immunosuppressants, and 16% anti-tumor necrosis factors (anti-TNFs. After a mean follow-up of 13 ± 2 years, we found structural damage in 25 patients (24%: 5% with proctocolectomy, 15% with “lead pipe,” 16% with pseudopolyps, and 3% with stenosis and fibrous bridges. Reference to functional anorectal disorders was identified in 49%, mostly previous and self-limited episodes of incontinence, but including persistent incontinence in 10% (CCIS 8 ± 4.8. There was an increased incidence of structural damage and anorectal dysfunction in patients who needed corticosteroid therapy (p = 0.001, immunosuppressants (p p = 0.002 and an association of structural damage with anorectal dysfunction (p Conclusions: UC is a disease with structural and functional consequences in a significant subset of patients. This should be incorporated when defining the therapeutic strategy.
Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo
The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.
This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed
Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.
Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...
Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...
Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique
Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.
Kim, Dong Eon; Lee, Ji Hee; Bae, Kung Eun; Kang, Min Jin; Kim, Jea Hyung; Cho, Woo Ho; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Soo Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Careful radiologic examination of the osteolytic lesion is important for patients with fracture. Differential diagnosis includes osteonecrosis, neoplasm and infections. In this report, we presented MRI findings of post-traumatic osteomyelitis following neglected open fracture of 3rd distal phalanx with open wound. Early suspicion and imaging of wound or soft tissue inflammation around osteolytic lesion could be helpful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis.
Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.; Crombez, G.
This study investigated whether lying requires executive control using a reaction-time based lie test. We hypothesized that (1) goal neglect induced by a long response-stimulus interval (RSI; 5-8 s) would make lying harder relative to a short RSI (.2 s) that promoted attentional focus, and (2)
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…
Azano, Amy Price
Rurality is rarely considered or oftentimes completely neglected in conversations about culturally relevant pedagogy. Yet, without a relevant curriculum, students both in and out of rural communities are left with dominant and deficiently positioned narratives about rural people. School librarians must provide counter and critical narratives for…
Sylvestre, Audette; Merette, Chantal
Objectives: This research sought to determine if the language delay (LD) of severely neglected children under 3 years old was better explained by a cumulative risk model or by the specificity of risk factors. The objective was also to identify the risk factors with the strongest impact on LD among various biological, psychological, and…
Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise
Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…
Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.
A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…
Full Text Available Patients with auditory neglect attend less to auditory stimuli on their left and/or make systematic directional errors when indicating sound positions. Rightward prismatic adaptation (R-PA was repeatedly shown to alleviate symptoms of visuospatial neglect and once to restore partially spatial bias in dichotic listening. It is currently unknown whether R-PA affects only this ear-related symptom or also other aspects of auditory neglect. We have investigated the effect of R-PA on left ear extinction in dichotic listening, space-related inattention assessed by diotic listening, and directional errors in auditory localization in patients with auditory neglect. The most striking effect of R-PA was the alleviation of left ear extinction in dichotic listening, which occurred in half of the patients with initial deficit. In contrast to nonresponders, their lesions spared the right dorsal attentional system and posterior temporal cortex. The beneficial effect of R-PA on an ear-related performance contrasted with detrimental effects on diotic listening and auditory localization. The former can be parsimoniously explained by the SHD-VAS model (shift in hemispheric dominance within the ventral attentional system; Clarke and Crottaz-Herbette 2016, which is based on the R-PA-induced shift of the right-dominant ventral attentional system to the left hemisphere. The negative effects in space-related tasks may be due to the complex nature of auditory space encoding at a cortical level.
Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…
Kim, Yong Mi; Chun, Min Ho; Yun, Gi Jeong; Song, Young Jin; Young, Han Eun
To investigate the effect of virtual reality training on unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients. Twenty-four stroke patients (14 males and 10 females, mean age=64.7) who had unilateral spatial neglect as a result of right hemisphere stroke were recruited. All patients were randomly assigned to either the virtual reality (VR) group (n=12) or the control group (n=12). The VR group received VR training, which stimulated the left side of their bodies. The control group received conventional neglect therapy such as visual scanning training. Both groups received therapy for 30 minutes a day, five days per week for three weeks. Outcome measurements included star cancellation test, line bisection test, Catherine Bergego scale (CBS), and the Korean version of modified Barthel index (K-MBI). These measurements were taken before and after treatment. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and initial values between the two groups. The changes in star cancellation test results and CBS in the VR group were significantly higher than those of the control group after treatment. The changes in line bisection test score and the K-MBI in the VR group were not statistically significant. This study suggests that virtual reality training may be a beneficial therapeutic technique on unilateral spatial neglect in stroke patients.
Selig, Lia; Geluda, Kátia; Junqueira, Túlio; Brito, Rossana; Trajman, Anete
The scope of this study was to understand the perceptions and feelings of physicians dealing with tuberculosis (TB) in Rio de Janeiro. Eleven physicians working in a large public hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The interpretation of the interviews was based on hermeneutic-dialectic phenomenology. The answers were analyzed in order to identify and understand their live TB-related experiences from their statements. Among the categories that emerged, neglect was chosen as the focus of this article in its four dimensions: respect, responsibility, conditions of care and discomfort. The boomerang effect of neglect was perceived during interviews with physicians: the one who neglects is also neglected. Other reported feelings included lack of motivation, anger, and frustration. The mental health of physicians is a preoccupation because of overwork in inadequate conditions. The question that arises is how health staff working in such environments can adequately care for their patients. We conclude that in order to achieve TB control as well as other health system goals, human resource policies that respond to physicians' job needs should be implemented.
Mustillo, Sarah A.; Dorsey, Shannon; Conover, Kate; Burns, Barbara J.
Using longitudinal data on 1,813 children and parents from a nationally representative child-welfare sample, National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), this study investigated physically abusive and neglectful parenting as mediating the effects of parent depression on child mental health by developmental stage. Findings from…
Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.
Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…
Full Text Available Behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data support the idea that numbers are represented along a mental number line (MNL, an analogical, visuo-spatial representation of number magnitude. The MNL is left-to-right oriented, with small numbers on the left and larger numbers on the right. Left neglect patients are impaired in processing the left side of the MNL and show a rightward deviation in the mental bisection of numerical intervals. In the present study we investigated the effects of optokinetic stimulation (OKS -a technique inducing spatial attention shifts by means of activation of the optokinetic nystagmus- on mental number interval bisection. One patient with left neglect following right hemisphere stroke (BG and four control patients with right hemisphere damage, but without neglect, performed the mental number interval bisection task in three experimental conditions of OKS: static, leftward, and rightward. In the static condition, BG misbisected to the right of the true midpoint. BG misbisected to the left following leftward OKS, but again to the right of the midpoint following rightward OKS. In contrast, the performance of controls was not significantly affected by the direction of OKS. We argue that shifts of visuospatial attention, induced by OKS, may affect the mental number interval bisection, suggesting the presence of an interaction between the processing of number magnitude and the processing of the perceptual space, in patients with neglect for the mental number space.
Full Text Available Background. Fewer studies have attempted to address elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh despite its widespread prevalence and fatal consequences. Objectives. To collect qualitative facts concerning the nature of elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh and to find out the causes and impacts of this malpractice. Material and methods . The study categorized older people into ten broader classes and selected four old persons purposively under each category for an in-depth case study. In addition, Focus Group Discussion, Key Informants Interview and observational methods were also used to draw supplementary data. Results. The results show that all old persons interviewed, irrespective of socio-economic status, came up against varying degrees of abuse and neglect by their families, relatives and communities that resulted in their physical ill-health and mental distress. Financial and physical abuses were found more frequent among poor and weaker sections, whereas psychological abuse appeared as severe among those belonging to the middle and affluent classes. Families having strong religious practices and a long tradition of taking care of the elderly were less subjected to elder mistreatment. As is revealed, along with various other factors, degradation of moral and religious values, new family structure and the lower socio-economic status of old people were associated with the maltreatment they faced. Conclusions. Socio-economic insecurity and a poor institutional mechanism for old persons cause a higher incidence of elder abuse and neglect in Bangladesh, which calls for immediate action from all levels.
Full Text Available Penile infection and abscess formation have been described in association with priapism, cavernosography, intracavernosal injection therapy, trauma and penile prosthesis. We report a case of penile abscess and necrotizing fasciitis of penile skin in a 37-year-old male, presented 3 weeks after neglected false penile fracture.
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…
Smits, Henk L.
The prospects for the control of neglected tropical diseases, including soil-transmitted helminthiasis, shistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma, through mass drug administration, are exemplified by the elimination of the trachoma as a public-health problem in Morocco. In
Rubin, Kenneth H.; Coplan, Robert J.
This commentary outlines the origins, history, and current status of research related to children's social withdrawal and social isolation. Early research related to children's peer relationships is first explored, followed by a discussion of the relative "neglect" of social withdrawal prior to the 1980s. Increased research attention since that…
Reay, A M; Browne, K D
This study investigates the prevalence of, and differences in, risk factor characteristics in a sample of two select populations of carers, one of which physically abused their elderly dependants and one of which neglected them. Nineteen carers (nine who had physically abused and 10 who had neglected their elderly relatives), who were referred to clinical psychology by either their general practitioner or their psychiatrist, were invited to take part in this study. A detailed history of risk factors was obtained, including history of alcohol dependency, type and history of mental ill health, history of maltreatment earlier in life, who they were caring for, how long they had been a carer and whether they felt isolated as a carer. Subjects were then given five assessments to determine whether there were any differences between the two groups. These were the Conflict Tactic Scale, Strain Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Cost of Care Index. An examination of the risk factors suggests that heavy alcohol consumption and past childhood abuse by fathers were likely to lead to physical abuse. Significantly higher conflict and depression scores were also present in the physical abuse group, while the neglect group had significantly higher anxiety scores. It is suggested that these findings should be incorporated into an assessment of future risk of abuse or neglect by the carer.
Teeuw, Arianne Hélène; Derkx, Bert H. F.; Koster, Willeke A.; van Rijn, Rick R.
The emergency room (ER) represents the main system entry for crises-based health care visits. It is estimated that 2% to 10% of children visiting the ER are victims of child abuse and neglect (CAN). Therefore, ER personnel may be the first hospital contact and opportunity for CAN victims to be
Gozli, Davood G; Wilson, Kristin E; Ferber, Susanne
Recent evidence suggests that visual working memory (VWM) load reduces performance accuracy on a concurrent visual recognition task, particularly for objects presented in the left hemifield. It has also been shown that high VWM load causes suppression of activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Given the resemblance of VWM load effects to symptoms of unilateral neglect (i.e., impaired perception on the left side and lesion to the right TPJ), we investigated whether VWM load effects are restricted to the left side of space or extend to object-centered reference frames. In other words, akin to object-centered neglect, can high VWM load cause a perceptual cost in attending to the left side of the stimulus? We addressed this question using an object recognition task (Experiment 1) and a visual search task (Experiment 2) showing that this transient left-neglect can indeed be modulated by an object-centered frame of reference. These findings suggest that load-induced impairments of visual attention are spatially asymmetric and can emerge within multiple spatial reference frames. Therefore, the attentional consequences of high VWM load on conscious perception may serve as a useful model of unilateral perceptual neglect.
Young, Joanna Cahall; Widom, Cathy Spatz
To determine whether child maltreatment has a long-term impact on emotion processing abilities in adulthood and whether IQ, psychopathology, or psychopathy mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing in adulthood. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood. Potential mediators (IQ, Post-Traumatic Stress [PTSD], Generalized Anxiety [GAD], Dysthymia, and Major Depressive [MDD] Disorders, and psychopathy) were assessed in young adulthood with standardized assessment techniques. In middle adulthood (Mage=47), the International Affective Picture System was used to measure emotion processing. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation models. Individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment were less accurate in emotion processing overall and in processing positive and neutral pictures than matched controls. Childhood physical abuse predicted less accuracy in neutral pictures and childhood sexual abuse and neglect predicted less accuracy in recognizing positive pictures. MDD, GAD, and IQ predicted overall picture recognition accuracy. However, of the mediators examined, only IQ acted to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and emotion processing deficits. Although research has focused on emotion processing in maltreated children, these new findings show an impact child abuse and neglect on emotion processing in middle adulthood. Research and interventions aimed at improving emotional processing deficiencies in abused and neglected children should consider the role of IQ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wasik, Barbara Hanna; Roberts, Richard N.
This report on a survey of 224 home visitation programs that provide services for abused and neglected children and their families presents data on program characteristics, characteristics of home visits, credentials of home visitors, and program documentation procedures. Programs reported that training in parenting skills and parent coping were…
This study of 29 adopted children examines the consequences of parental rights termination (PRT) for neglected or abused children in relation to antecedent characteristics of children, parents, and circumstances in the foster care process. Suggests alternative plans for children whose PRT has not been followed by permanent adoptive placement.…
Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N
To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.
Cooper, Carolyn S.
Examination of the placement history of 172 abused and/or neglected children found that children had a more disrupted foster care placement history if they: (1) had severe behavior problems; (2) were very young when first removed from the natural home; or (3) had drug-addicted and/or alcoholic parents. (Author/DB)
This manual for child welfare staff and foster/adoptive parents is intended to provide guidelines for serving abused and neglected children who are in family foster care and adoption. The first section is on substitute care and permanency planning and offers an historical perspective on substitute care and definitions of family foster care and…
Hoft, Mary; Haddad, Lisa
Child abuse and neglect occur in epidemic numbers in the United States and around the world, resulting in major physical and mental health consequences for abused children in the present and future. A vast amount of information is available on the signs and symptoms and short- and long-term consequences of abuse. A limited number of instruments have been empirically developed to screen for child abuse, with most focused on physical abuse in the context of the emergency department, which have been found to be minimally effective and lacking rigor. This literature review focuses on physical, sexual, and psychological abuse and neglect, occurring in one or multiple forms (polyabuse). A systematic, in-depth analysis of the literature was conducted. This literature review provides information for identifying children who have been abused and neglected but exposes the need for a comprehensive screening instrument or protocol that will capture all forms of child abuse and neglect. Screening needs to be succinct, user-friendly, and amenable for use with children at every point of care in the healthcare system.
Reyome, Nancy Dodge
Compared the school performance of sexually abused children and neglected children with the performance of two matched groups of nonmaltreated children, those from lower middle class families and from families receiving public assistance. Analyses of children's behavior ratings and school achievement indicated marked cognitive and behavioral…
Smetana, Judith G.; And Others
The effect of child maltreatment on children's social-cognitive development was examined by investigating abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children's judgments regarding the permissibility of social-conventional and moral transgressions pertaining to physical harm, psychological distress, and the unfair distribution of resources. (Author/RH)
Milaniak, Izabela; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. Method: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 676) were matched with children without such histories (n = 520) and assessed in young adulthood (average age 29). Official criminal records in conjunction with self-report data were used to assess violent outcomes. Results: Compared to the control group, individuals with histories of child abuse and/or neglect were significantly more likely to be poly-violence perpetrators, perpetrating violence in all three domains (relative risk = 1.26). All forms of childhood maltreatment (physical and sexual abuse and neglect) significantly predicted poly-violence perpetration. Conclusions: These findings expand the cycle of violence literature by combining the distinct literatures on criminal violence, child abuse, and partner violence to call attention to the phenomenon of poly-violence perpetration by maltreated children. Future research should examine the characteristics of maltreated children who become poly-violence perpetrators and mechanisms that lead to these outcomes. PMID:26191459
Littell, Julia H.; Girvin, Heather
Objective: To identify individual, family, and caseworker characteristics associated with problem recognition (PR) and intentions to change (ITC) in a sample of caregivers who received in-home child welfare services following substantiated reports of child abuse or neglect. Methods: Caregivers were interviewed at 4 weeks, 16 weeks, and 1 year…
Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.
Child welfare program standards based on current knowledge, children's developmental needs, and tested ways of meeting these needs most effectively provide benchmarks of excellence that can be used as goals to advance and guide contemporary practice. This book delineates standards for services for abused or neglected children and their families.…
Trocme, Nico; Caunce, Carrie
Examines the literature on the relationship between educational deficit and various risk and protective factors: history of abuse or neglect, foster placement, child age, and environmental conditions. Findings suggest interventions with preschoolers that focus on strengthening children's socioemotional competencies and differentiate between needs…
Chamberlain, William A.
Described are planning steps involved in developing programs for abused and neglected children in rural areas. Among barriers cited are economic factors and resistance to social planning. Emphasized is the need for congruence among local and regional agencies and organizations. Analyzed are six planning stages: entry, in which consultants gain…
Hald, Kasper; Knoche, Hendrik
neuropsychological tests and the nature of their lesions. A mixed ANOVA revealed that the average time going from one target to the next was significantly affected by the inter- action of their neglect scores and the goal position relative to the side of their lesion. The group testing positive for ne- glect had...
Prino, Claudia T.; Peyrot, Mark
This study investigated aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behavior in 21 physically abused, 26 nonabused-neglected, and 21 nonabused-nonneglected children, ages 5-8. No single dimension adequately discriminated children in each of the three groups. Full discrimination was achieved only when aggressive, withdrawn, and prosocial behaviors were…
Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Gassman-Pines, Jenny; Hill, Marissa B.
Policymakers are increasingly focusing on children exposed to domestic violence. The 1999 Minnesota legislature amended the definition of child neglect to include a child's exposure to family violence. What was initially seen as a simple change to bring more attention to children exposed to domestic violence resulted in great turmoil across…
Imbody, Bethany; Vandsburger, Etty
With our communities rapidly aging, there is always a clear need for greater knowledge on how to serve elders. Professionals must be able to recognize cases of abuse and neglect and provide appropriate follow up services. Through reviewing recent literature, this paper surveys existing assessment tools and interventions, describes characteristics…
Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska
CONCLUSIONS: Defining the phenomenon of elder abuse and neglect in the context of our country can facilitate support of abused older people and, most importantly, may help develop policy and programmes based on evidence-based practices, targeting prevention and response.
Gollub, Erica L.
Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…
Skin bleaching: A neglected form of injury and threat to global skin. JC Street, K Gaska, KM Lewis, ML Wilson. Abstract. Skin bleaching is the use of creams, gels, or soaps to lighten the skin and is known to cause a number of injuries, many of which are potentially life-threatening. Despite the growing body of research ...
Van Kessel, M.E.; Van Nes, I.J.W.; Brouwer, W.H.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Fasotti, L
Asymmetry in performance and an association with non-lateralized attention are often mentioned as two important aspects of the clinical manifestation of visuospatial neglect. Both these aspects were investigated in 21 left (LH) and 24 right hemisphere (RH) stroke patients and in 20 healthy subjects.
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…
Abou-El-Naga, Iman F
Egypt has been plagued by many neglected tropical diseases since Pharaonic time. These diseases are Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis beside the epidermal parasitic skin diseases. Indeed, theses diseases still persist as public health problem in the country by the influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental obstacles. This study seeks for understanding the contribution of each factor in each obstacle in neglected tropical diseases perpetuation which in turn could help the governorate in planning integrated control strategies. It was found that poverty, unregulated urbanization and inadequate sanitation are important socioeconomic factors that have great effect on the transmission dynamics of the diseases. The environmental factors which affect the epidemiology of these diseases in the country are scarcity of water, construction of dams, land reclamation for agriculture beside the climate factors. Unfortunately, the panic increase in the population growth rate minimizes the efforts done by the governorate to elevate the public health services. These conditions also affect the transmission of epidermal parasitic skin diseases including scabies, head lice and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. The control programs and the recommendations to combat the diseases were discussed. The present study showed that the ecological factors affecting each neglected tropical disease in Egypt are somewhat similar which makes it worthy to develop an integrated control approaches aiming at improving the leading factors of neglected tropical diseases circulation in the country. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this paper is to call attention to certain important aspects of self-concept which have been largely neglected in behavioral science research literature. Self-concept is defined as the totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings with reference to himself as an object. Three broad areas of self-concept are discussed. The first…
van Kessel, M. E.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Brouwer, W. H.; Fasotti, L.
Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might
Azar, Sandra T.; Stevenson, Michael T.; Johnson, David R.
Parents with intellectual disabilities (PID) are overrepresented in the child protective services (CPS) system. This study examined a more nuanced view of the role of cognition in parenting risk. Its goal was to validate a social information processing (SIP) model of child neglect that draws on social cognition research and advances in…