WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously mapped escape

  1. Two examples of escaping harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira do Valle, A.; Verjovsky, A.

    1988-12-01

    This paper is part of a study on the existence of special harmonic maps on complete non-compact Riemannian manifolds. We generalize the notion of escaping geodesic and prove some results on the existence of escaping harmonic maps. 11 refs, 6 figs

  2. New constraints on the escape of ionizing photons from starburst galaxies using ionization-parameter mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, Jordan; Oey, M. S.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McDonald, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The fate of ionizing radiation in starburst galaxies is key to understanding cosmic reionization. However, the galactic parameters on which the escape fraction of ionizing radiation depend are not well understood. Ionization-parameter mapping provides a simple, yet effective, way to study the radiative transfer in starburst galaxies. We obtain emission-line ratio maps of [S III]/[S II] for six, nearby, dwarf starbursts: NGC 178, NGC 1482, NGC 1705, NGC 3125, NGC 7126, and He 2-10. The narrowband images are obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter at Las Campanas Observatory. Using these data, we previously reported the discovery of an optically thin ionization cone in NGC 5253, and here we also discover a similar ionization cone in NGC 3125. This latter cone has an opening angle of 40° ± 5° (0.4 sr), indicating that the passageways through which ionizing radiation may travel correspond to a small solid angle. Additionally, there are three sample galaxies that have winds and/or superbubble activity, which should be conducive to escaping radiation, yet they are optically thick. These results support the scenario that an orientation bias limits our ability to directly detect escaping Lyman continuum in many starburst galaxies. A comparison of the star formation properties and histories of the optically thin and thick galaxies is consistent with the model that high escape fractions are limited to galaxies that are old enough (≳3 Myr) for mechanical feedback to have cleared optically thin passageways in the interstellar medium, but young enough (≲5 Myr) that the ionizing stars are still present.

  3. How do Japanese escape from TSUNAMI? - Disaster Prevention Education through using Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Hiroaki

    2013-04-01

    After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by

  4. Spectral degeneracy and escape dynamics for intermittent maps with a hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froyland, Gary; Stancevic, Ognjen; Murray, Rua

    2011-01-01

    We study intermittent maps from the point of view of metastability. Small neighbourhoods of an intermittent fixed point and their complements form pairs of almost-invariant sets. Treating the small neighbourhood as a hole, we first show that the absolutely continuous conditional invariant measures (ACCIMs) converge to the ACIM as the length of the small neighbourhood shrinks to zero. We then quantify how the escape dynamics from these almost-invariant sets are connected with the second eigenfunctions of Perron–Frobenius (transfer) operators when a small perturbation is applied near the intermittent fixed point. In particular, we describe precisely the scaling of the second eigenvalue with the perturbation size, provide upper and lower bounds and demonstrate L 1 convergence of the positive part of the second eigenfunction to the ACIM as the perturbation goes to zero. This perturbation and associated eigenvalue scalings and convergence results are all compatible with Ulam's method and provide a formal explanation for the numerical behaviour of Ulam's method in this nonuniformly hyperbolic setting. The main results of the paper are illustrated with numerical computations

  5. DYNAMO: a Mars upper atmosphere package for investigating solar wind interaction and escape processes, and mapping Martian fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chassefiere, E.; Nagy, A.; Mandea, M.

    2004-01-01

    DYNAMO is a small multi-instrument payload aimed at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained, and improving gravity and magnetic field representations, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars. The internal structure...... of periapsis 170 km), and in a lesser extent 2a, offers an unprecedented opportunity to investigate by in situ probing the chemical and dynamical properties of the deep ionosphere, thermosphere, and the interaction between the atmosphere and the solar wind, and therefore the present atmospheric escape rate...

  6. Mapping Determinants of Virus Neutralization and Viral Escape for Rational Design of a Hepatitis C Virus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Le Keck

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to spread worldwide with an annual increase of 1.75 million new infections. The number of HCV cases in the U.S. is now greater than the number of HIV cases and is increasing in young adults because of the opioid epidemic sweeping the country. HCV-related liver disease is the leading indication of liver transplantation. An effective vaccine is of paramount importance to control and prevent HCV infection. While this vaccine will need to induce both cellular and humoral immunity, this review is focused on the required antibody responses. For highly variable viruses, such as HCV, isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies mediating broad virus neutralization are an important guide for vaccine design. The viral envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are the main targets of these antibodies. Epitopes on the E2 protein have been studied more extensively than epitopes on E1, due to higher antibody targeting that reflects these epitopes having higher degrees of immunogenicity. E2 epitopes are overall organized in discrete clusters of overlapping epitopes that ranged from high conservation to high variability. Other epitopes on E1 and E1E2 also are targets of neutralizing antibodies. Taken together, these regions are important for vaccine design. Another element in vaccine design is based on information on how the virus escapes from broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape mutations can occur within the epitopes that are involved in antibody binding and in regions that are not involved in their epitopes, but nonetheless reduce the efficiency of neutralizing antibodies. An understanding on the specificities of a protective B cell response, the molecular locations of these epitopes on E1, E2, and E1E2, and the mechanisms, which enable the virus to negatively modulate neutralizing antibody responses to these regions will provide the necessary guidance for vaccine design.

  7. Hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    Hydrodynamic escape is an important process in the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Due to the existence of a singularity point near the transonic point, it is difficult to find transonic steady state solutions by solving the time-independent hydrodynamic equations. In addition to that, most previous works assume that all energy driving the escape flow is deposited in one narrow layer. This assumption not only results in less accurate solutions to the hydrodynamic escape problem, but also makes it difficult to include other chemical and physical processes in the hydrodynamic escape models. In this work, a numerical model describing the transonic hydrodynamic escape from planetary atmospheres is developed. A robust solution technique is used to solve the time dependent hydrodynamic equations. The method has been validated in an isothermal atmosphere where an analytical solution is available. The hydrodynamic model is applied to 3 cases: hydrogen escape from small orbit extrasolar planets, hydrogen escape from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere, and nitrogen/methane escape from Pluto's atmosphere. Results of simulations on extrasolar planets are in good agreement with the observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD209458b. Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from other hypothetical close-in extrasolar planets are simulated and the influence of hydrogen escape on the long-term evolution of these extrasolar planets are discussed. Simulations on early Earth suggest that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere is about two orders magnitude slower than the diffusion limited escape rate. A hydrogen rich early Earth's atmosphere could have been maintained by the balance between the hydrogen escape and the supply of hydrogen into the atmosphere by volcanic outgassing. Origin of life may have occurred in the organic soup ocean created by the efficient formation of prebiotic molecules in the hydrogen rich early

  8. Early low-titer neutralizing antibodies impede HIV-1 replication and select for virus escape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Bar

    Full Text Available Single genome sequencing of early HIV-1 genomes provides a sensitive, dynamic assessment of virus evolution and insight into the earliest anti-viral immune responses in vivo. By using this approach, together with deep sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis, antibody adsorptions and virus-entry assays, we found evidence in three subjects of neutralizing antibody (Nab responses as early as 2 weeks post-seroconversion, with Nab titers as low as 1∶20 to 1∶50 (IC(50 selecting for virus escape. In each of the subjects, Nabs targeted different regions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env in a strain-specific, conformationally sensitive manner. In subject CH40, virus escape was first mediated by mutations in the V1 region of the Env, followed by V3. HIV-1 specific monoclonal antibodies from this subject mapped to an immunodominant region at the base of V3 and exhibited neutralizing patterns indistinguishable from polyclonal antibody responses, indicating V1-V3 interactions within the Env trimer. In subject CH77, escape mutations mapped to the V2 region of Env, several of which selected for alterations of glycosylation. And in subject CH58, escape mutations mapped to the Env outer domain. In all three subjects, initial Nab recognition was followed by sequential rounds of virus escape and Nab elicitation, with Nab escape variants exhibiting variable costs to replication fitness. Although delayed in comparison with autologous CD8 T-cell responses, our findings show that Nabs appear earlier in HIV-1 infection than previously recognized, target diverse sites on HIV-1 Env, and impede virus replication at surprisingly low titers. The unexpected in vivo sensitivity of early transmitted/founder virus to Nabs raises the possibility that similarly low concentrations of vaccine-induced Nabs could impair virus acquisition in natural HIV-1 transmission, where the risk of infection is low and the number of viruses responsible for transmission and productive clinical

  9. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2008-02-01

    The upper atmosphere of Titan is currently losing mass at a rate ˜(4-5)×10 amus, by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating by CH 4 absorption. The hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Their combined escape rates are restricted by power limitations from attaining their limiting rates (and limiting fluxes). Hence they must exhibit gravitational diffusive separation in the upper atmosphere with increasing mixing ratios to eventually become major constituents in the exosphere. A theoretical model with solar EUV heating by N 2 absorption balanced by HCN rotational line cooling in the upper thermosphere yields densities and temperatures consistent with the Huygens Atmospheric Science Investigation (HASI) data [Fulchignoni, M., and 42 colleagues, 2005. Nature 438, 785-791], with a peak temperature of ˜185-190 K between 3500-3550 km. This model implies hydrodynamic escape rates of ˜2×10 CHs and 5×10 Hs, or some other combination with a higher H 2 escape flux, much closer to its limiting value, at the expense of a slightly lower CH 4 escape rate. Nonthermal escape processes are not required to account for the loss rates of CH 4 and H 2, inferred by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements [Yelle, R.V., Borggren, N., de la Haye, V., Kasprzak, W.T., Niemann, H.B., Müller-Wodarg, I., Waite Jr., J.H., 2006. Icarus 182, 567-576].

  10. Black holes escaping from domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachi, Antonino; Sasaki, Misao; Pujolas, Oriol; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies concerning the interaction of branes and black holes suggested that a small black hole intersecting a brane may escape via a mechanism of reconnection. Here we consider this problem by studying the interaction of a small black hole and a domain wall composed of a scalar field and simulate the evolution of this system when the black hole acquires an initial recoil velocity. We test and confirm previous results, however, unlike the cases previously studied, in the more general set-up considered here, we are able to follow the evolution of the system also during the separation, and completely illustrate how the escape of the black hole takes place

  11. 30 CFR 57.11053 - Escape and evacuation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of principal air flow, location of escape routes and locations of existing telephones, primary fans... maps or diagrams shall be posted at all shaft stations and in underground shops, lunchrooms, and...

  12. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  13. Escape from the Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to elaborate on Romania’s specific agenda regarding the approach to the integration process in the EU as a project of modernization. The focus is on the functional aspects, the type of strategic solutions destined to consolidate the specific transformations belonging to post-communist transition seen as an internal transition, on the one hand and on the other hand to push convergence as the essence of integration, marked by the vision of EU integration as a continuation of change, which is the stage of external transition. Identifying the prominent factors and the pragmatic priorities of the escape from the peripheries of development by engaging in evolution by way of the second modernization constitutes as well a target for analysis. One particularity of the method of analysis is the review if the value-set of the bobsled effect of path dependency – the path of the peripheries – as well as of the set of values of the escape from the peripheries.

  14. THERMALLY DRIVEN ATMOSPHERIC ESCAPE: TRANSITION FROM HYDRODYNAMIC TO JEANS ESCAPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Alexey N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Tucker, Orenthal J.; Erwin, Justin T.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally driven escape from planetary atmospheres changes in nature from an organized outflow (hydrodynamic escape) to escape on a molecule-by-molecule basis (Jeans escape) with increasing Jeans parameter, λ, the ratio of the gravitational to thermal energy of the atmospheric molecules. This change is described here for the first time using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. When heating is predominantly below the lower boundary of the simulation region, R 0 , and well below the exobase of a single-component atmosphere, the nature of the escape process changes over a surprisingly narrow range of Jeans parameters, λ 0 , evaluated at R 0 . For an atomic gas, the transition occurs over λ 0 ∼ 2-3, where the lower bound, λ 0 ∼ 2.1, corresponds to the upper limit for isentropic, supersonic outflow. For λ 0 > 3 escape occurs on a molecule-by-molecule basis and we show that, contrary to earlier suggestions, for λ 0 > ∼6 the escape rate does not deviate significantly from the familiar Jeans rate. In a gas composed of diatomic molecules, the transition shifts to λ 0 ∼ 2.4-3.6 and at λ 0 > ∼4 the escape rate increases a few tens of percent over that for the monatomic gas. Scaling by the Jeans parameter and the Knudsen number, these results can be applied to thermally induced escape of the major species from solar and extrasolar planets.

  15. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Nagahata, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However

  16. Escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved technique for the generation of escape and transmission probabilities in cylindrical geometry was applied to the existing resonance cross section processing code ROLAIDS. The algorithm of Hwang and Toppel, [ANL-FRA-TM-118] (with modifications) was employed. The probabilities generated were found to be as accurate as those given by the method previously applied in ROLAIDS, while requiring much less computer core storage and CPU time

  17. Life events and escape in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T R; Aybek, S; Craig, T; Harris, T; Wojcik, W; David, A S; Kanaan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Psychological models of conversion disorder (CD) traditionally assume that psychosocial stressors are identifiable around symptom onset. In the face of limited supportive evidence such models are being challenged. Forty-three motor CD patients, 28 depression patients and 28 healthy controls were assessed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule in the year before symptom onset. A novel 'escape' rating for events was developed to test the Freudian theory that physical symptoms of CD could provide escape from stressors, a form of 'secondary gain'. CD patients had significantly more severe life events and 'escape' events than controls. In the month before symptom onset at least one severe event was identified in 56% of CD patients - significantly more than 21% of depression patients [odds ratio (OR) 4.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-13.70] and healthy controls (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.86-18.2). In the same time period 53% of CD patients had at least one 'high escape' event - again significantly higher than 14% in depression patients (OR 6.90, 95% CI 2.05-23.6) and 0% in healthy controls. Previous sexual abuse was more commonly reported in CD than controls, and in one third of female patients was contextually relevant to life events at symptom onset. The majority (88%) of life events of potential aetiological relevance were not identified by routine clinical assessments. Nine per cent of CD patients had no identifiable severe life events. Evidence was found supporting the psychological model of CD, the Freudian notion of escape and the potential aetiological relevance of childhood traumas in some patients. Uncovering stressors of potential aetiological relevance requires thorough psychosocial evaluation.

  18. A New Paradigm for Evaluating Avoidance/Escape Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Bouchekioua, Youcef; Mimura, Masaru; Tanaka, Kenji F

    2017-07-01

    Organisms have evolved to approach pleasurable opportunities and to avoid or escape from aversive experiences. These 2 distinct motivations are referred to as approach and avoidance/escape motivations and are both considered vital for survival. Despite several recent advances in understanding the neurobiology of motivation, most studies addressed approach but not avoidance/escape motivation. Here we develop a new experimental paradigm to quantify avoidance/escape motivation and examine the pharmacological validity. We set up an avoidance variable ratio 5 task in which mice were required to press a lever for variable times to avoid an upcoming aversive stimulus (foot shock) or to escape the ongoing aversive event if they failed to avoid it. We i.p. injected ketamine (0, 1, or 5 mg/kg) or buspirone (0, 5, or 10 mg/kg) 20 or 30 minutes before the behavioral task to see if ketamine enhanced avoidance/escape behavior and buspirone diminished it as previously reported. We found that the performance on the avoidance variable ratio 5 task was sensitive to the intensity of the aversive stimulus. Treatment with ketamine increased while that with buspirone decreased the probability of avoidance from an aversive stimulus in the variable ratio 5 task, being consistent with previous reports. Our new paradigm will prove useful for quantifying avoidance/escape motivation and will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of motivation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  19. Escape rate from strange sets as an eigenvalue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel, T.

    1986-06-01

    A new method is applied for calculating the escape rate from chaotic repellers or semi-attractors, based on the eigenvalue problem of the master equation of discrete dynamical systems. The corresponding eigenfunction is found to be smooth along unstable directions and to be, in general, a fractal measure. Examples of one and two dimensional maps are investigated. (author)

  20. Unravelling the escape dynamics and the nature of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds in tidally limited star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Jung, Christof

    2017-02-01

    The escape mechanism of orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit is investigated. A three degrees of freedom model is used for describing the dynamical properties of the Hamiltonian system. The gravitational field of the star cluster is represented by a smooth and spherically symmetric Plummer potential. We distinguish between ordered and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. The Smaller ALignment Index (SALI) method is used for determining the regular or chaotic nature of the orbits. The basins of escape are located and they are also correlated with the corresponding escape time of the orbits. Areas of bounded regular or chaotic motion and basins of escape were found to coexist in the (x, z) plane. The properties of the normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds (NHIMs), located in the vicinity of the index-1 Lagrange points L1 and L2, are also explored. These manifolds are of paramount importance as they control the flow of stars over the saddle points, while they also trigger the formation of tidal tails observed in star clusters. Bifurcation diagrams of the Lyapunov periodic orbits as well as restrictions of the Poincaré map to the NHIMs are deployed for elucidating the dynamics in the neighbourhood of the saddle points. The extended tidal tails, or tidal arms, formed by stars with low velocity which escape through the Lagrange points are monitored. The numerical results of this work are also compared with previous related work.

  1. Creating Engaging Escape Rooms for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Scott

    2018-01-01

    Escape rooms are "live-action team-based games where players discover clues, solve puzzles, and accomplish tasks in one or more rooms in order to accomplish a specific goal (usually escaping from the room) in a limited amount of time." Escape Rooms are one type of Escape Game, which are narrative-based challenges that use puzzles, tasks,…

  2. Prosthetic Mitral Valve Leaflet Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Darae; Hun, Sin Sang; Cho, In-Jeong; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik; Ju, Hyun Chul; Sohn, Jang Won

    2013-01-01

    Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. It is essential to make timely diagnosis in order to avoid mortality. Transesophageal echocardiography and cinefluoroscopy is usually diagnostic and the location of the missing leaflet can be identified by computed tomography (CT). Emergent surgical correction is mandatory. We report a case of fractured escape of Edward-Duromedics mitral valve 27 years after the surgery. The patient presented with symptoms of acute decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock. She was instantly intubated and mechanically ventilated. After prompt evaluation including transthoracic echocardiography and CT, the escape of the leaflet was confirmed. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. Eleven days after the surgery, the dislodged leaflet in iliac artery was removed safely and the patient recovered well. PMID:23837121

  3. Automated Escape Guidance Algorithms for An Escape Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, Ronald; Hammen, David; Ito, Daigoro; Rabalais, Bruce; Rishikof, Brian; Siebold, Karl

    2002-01-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The fust separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The fust challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver properly

  4. Escaping the tolerance trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudeh, S.; Madan, V.

    1994-01-01

    In order to examine the implications of the weakening of OPEC's responsiveness in adjusting its production levels, this paper explicitly incorporates rigidity in the quantity adjustment mechanism, thereby extending previous research which assumed smooth quantity adjustments. The rigidity is manifested in a tolerance range for the discrepancy between the declared target price and that of the market. This environment gives rise to a 'tolerance trap' which impedes the convergence process and inevitably brings the market to a standstill before its reaches the targeted price and revenue objectives. OPEC's reaction to the standstill has important implications for the achievement of the target-based equilibrium and for the potential collapse of the market price. This paper examines OPEC's policy options in the tolerance trap and reveals that the optional policy in order to break this impasse and move closer to the equilibrium point is gradually to reduce output and not to flood the market. (Author)

  5. Cnidoscolus (Euphorbiaceae) escaped in Malesia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Fernández-Casas, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    The genus Cnidoscolus, a species rich genus in the Americas, has been introduced in the Philippines. A cultivar of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is used as vegetable and has been collected from gardens in Manila and Pasay City and two times near Cebu City. It cannot be excluded that it has escaped

  6. Escaping carbon lock-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the climate policy implications of the arguments made in ''Understanding carbon lock-in'' (Unruh, 2000), which posited that industrial countries have become locked-into fossil fuel-based energy systems through path dependent processes driven by increasing returns to scale. Carbon lock-in arises through technological, organizational, social and institutional co-evolution, ''culminating'' in what was termed as techno-institutional complex (TIC). In order to resolve the climate problem, an escape from the lock-in condition is required. However, due to the self-referential nature of TIC, escape conditions are unlikely to be generated internally and it is argued here that erogenous forces are probably required. (author)

  7. EscapED: A Framework for Creating Educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Games to For Higher/Further Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Clarke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Game-based learning (GBL is often found to be technologically driven and more often than not, serious games for instance, are conceptualised and designed solely for digital platforms and state of the art technologies. To encourage a greater discussion on the potential benefits and challenges of a more holistic approach to developing GBL that promote human centered interactions and play for learning, the authors present the escapED programme. The escapED programme was conceived following the recent entertainment trend of escape rooms and is used for developing non-digital GBL approaches within education. escapED aids the design and creation of educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Gaming Experiences for staff and students in further/higher education settings. The paper first presents a pilot study that was used to assess the feasibility and acceptance of University teaching staff of embedding interactive GBL into a higher education environment. The authors then present the escapED theoretical framework that was used to create the prototype game for the pilot study as a tool to aid future design and development of on-site interactive experiences. The paper also presents an external developer report of using the escapED framework to develop a prototype game for teaching research methods to Southampton University students. Finally, the authors present a discussion on the use of the escapED framework so far and plans for future work and evaluation in order to provide engaging alternatives for learning and soft skills development amongst higher education staff andstudents.

  8. Malaria parasites: the great escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Rénia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  9. Partial control of chaotic transients using escape times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabuco, Juan; Zambrano, Samuel; Sanjuan, Miguel A F

    2010-01-01

    The partial control technique allows one to keep the trajectories of a dynamical system inside a region where there is a chaotic saddle and from which nearly all the trajectories diverge. Its main advantage is that this goal is achieved even if the corrections applied to the trajectories are smaller than the action of environmental noise on the dynamics, a counterintuitive result that is obtained by using certain safe sets. Using the Henon map as a paradigm, we show here the deep relationship between the safe sets and the sets of points with different escape times, the escape time sets. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to find certain extended safe sets that can be used instead of the safe sets in the partial control technique. Numerical simulations confirm our findings and show that in some situations, the use of extended safe sets can be more advantageous.

  10. Escape manoeuvres in the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Standen, Emily M; Levine, Robert P

    2004-06-01

    The locomotor performance of dogfish during escape responses was observed by means of high-speed video. Dogfish show C-type escape responses that are comparable with those shown previously in teleosts. Dogfish show high variability of turning rates of the anterior part of the body (head to centre of mass), i.e. with peak values from 434 to 1023 deg. s(-1). We suggest that this variability may be due to the presence of two types of escape manoeuvres, i.e. responses with high and low turning rates, as previously found in a teleost species. Fast responses (i.e. with high maximum turning rates, ranging between 766 and 1023 deg. s(-1)) showed significantly higher locomotor performance than slow responses (i.e. with low maximum turning rates, ranging between 434 and 593 deg. s(-1)) in terms of distance covered, speed and acceleration, although no differences were found in the turning radius of the centre of mass during the escape manoeuvres. The existence of two types of escape responses would have implications in terms of both neural control and muscular activation patterns. When compared with literature data for the locomotor performance of bony fishes, dogfish showed relatively low speed and acceleration, comparable turning rates and a turning radius that is in the low part of the range when compared with teleosts, indicating relatively high manoeuvrability. The locomotor performance observed in dogfish is consistent with their morphological characteristics: (1) low locomotor performance associated with low thrust developed by their relatively small posterior depth of section and (2) relatively high manoeuvrability associated with their high flexibility.

  11. Leaflet escape in a new bileaflet mechanical valve: TRI technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottio, Tomaso; Casarotto, Dino; Thiene, Gaetano; Caprili, Luca; Angelini, Annalisa; Gerosa, Gino

    2003-05-13

    Leaflet escape is a mode of structural valve failure for mechanical prostheses. This complication previously has been reported for both monoleaflet and bileaflet valve models. We report 2 leaflet escape occurrences observed in 2 patients who underwent valve replacement with a TRI Technologies valve prosthesis. At the University of Padua, between November 2000 and February 2002, 36 TRI Technologies valve prostheses (26 aortic and 10 mitral) were implanted in 34 patients (12 women and 22 men) with a mean age of 59.9+/-10.3 years (range, 30 to 75 years). There were 5 deaths: 3 in hospital, 1 early after discharge, and 1 late. Two patients experienced a catastrophic prosthetic leaflet escape; the first patient was a 52-year-old man who died 10 days after aortic valve and ascending aorta replacement, and the second was a 58-year-old man who underwent a successful emergency reoperation 20 months after mitral valve replacement. Examination of the explanted prostheses showed in both cases a leaflet escape caused by a leaflet's pivoting system fracture. Prophylactic replacement was then successfully accomplished so far in 12 patients, without evidence of structural valve failure in any of them. Among other significant postoperative complications, we observed 3 major thromboembolisms, 1 hemorrhage, and 1 paravalvular leak. These catastrophes prompted us to interrupt the implantation program, and they cast a shadow on the durability of the TRI Technologies valve prosthesis because of its high risk of structural failure.

  12. Physics escape room as an educational tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Alpár István Vita; Sárközi, Zsuzsa

    2017-12-01

    Escape rooms have flourished in the last decade. These are adventure games in which players work together to solve puzzles using hints, clues and a strategy to escape from a locked room. In many cases they use different phenomena related to physics. Hence the idea of using escape rooms in science centers or even in classroom activities. Escape rooms are designed for one single team of players, the method is more suitable for activities in a science centre. In our paper, we show that escape rooms' puzzle solving methods could be used in physics classroom activities as well, taking into account that several teams have to work together in the same room/place. We have developed an educational escape game for physics of fluids, as this topic is left out from the Romanian high-school curriculum. We have tried out our game during the project week called "Şcoala altfel" ("school in a different way") and in a physics camp for gifted students. We present the designed physics escape game and the results.

  13. A Model for SEP Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Masson, S.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection in the solar atmosphere is believed to be the driver of most solar explosive phenomena. Therefore, the topology of the coronal magnetic field is central to understanding the solar drivers of space weather. Of particular importance to space weather are the impulsive Solar Energetic particles that are associated with some CME/eruptive flare events. Observationally, the magnetic configuration of active regions where solar eruptions originate appears to agree with the standard eruptive flare model. According to this model, particles accelerated at the flare reconnection site should remain trapped in the corona and the ejected plasmoid. However, flare-accelerated particles frequently reach the Earth long before the CME does. We present a model that may account for the injection of energetic particles onto open magnetic flux tubes connecting to the Earth. Our model is based on the well-known 2.5D breakout topology, which has a coronal null point (null line) and a four-flux system. A key new addition, however, is that we include an isothermal solar wind with open-flux regions. Depending on the location of the open flux with respect to the null point, we find that the flare reconnection can consist of two distinct phases. At first, the flare reconnection involves only closed field, but if the eruption occurs close to the open field, we find a second phase involving interchange reconnection between open and closed. We argue that this second reconnection episode is responsible for the injection of flare-accelerated particles into the interplanetary medium. We will report on our recent work toward understanding how flare particles escape to the heliosphere. This work uses high-resolution 2.5D MHD numerical simulations performed with the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS).

  14. Narrow Escape of Interacting Diffusing Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranov, Tal; Meerson, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    The narrow escape problem deals with the calculation of the mean escape time (MET) of a Brownian particle from a bounded domain through a small hole on the domain's boundary. Here we develop a formalism which allows us to evaluate the nonescape probability of a gas of diffusing particles that may interact with each other. In some cases the nonescape probability allows us to evaluate the MET of the first particle. The formalism is based on the fluctuating hydrodynamics and the recently developed macroscopic fluctuation theory. We also uncover an unexpected connection between the narrow escape of interacting particles and thermal runaway in chemical reactors.

  15. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villalonga, Francisco J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of optimal evacuation of a naval ship. We propose the use of a dynamic escape-route system which employs a signaling system to adapt the emergency egress process to the instigating contingency...

  16. St.Petersburg Escape Experience Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Palagina, Mariia; Zhak, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    The growing popularity of Russia as a tourist destination and the high interest towards escape rooms and quests opens new business opportunities and market niches. The aim of this thesis is to develop a tourist product based on the new escape room tourism concept combining the historical, cultural and game experiences. The choice of the theme and destination was determined by the authors’ personal backgrounds and the destination proximity to Finland. The theoretical research was implement...

  17. Enhancing usability of augmented-reality-based mobile escape guidelines for radioactive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2013-01-01

    When radioactive accidents occur, modern tools in information technology for emergency response are good solutions to reduce the impact. Since few information-technology-based applications were developed for people during radioactive accidents, a previous study (Tsai et al., 2012) proposed augmented-reality-based mobile escape guidelines. However, because of the lack of transparent escape routes and indoor escape guidelines, the usability of the guidelines is limited. Therefore, this study introduces route planning and mobile three-dimensional (3D) graphics techniques to address the identified problems. The proposed approach could correctly present the geographical relationship from user locations to the anticipated shelters, and quickly show the floor-plan drawings as users are in the buildings. Based on the testing results, in contrast to the previous study, this study offered better escape routes, when the participants performed self-evacuation in outdoor and indoor environments. Overall, this study is not only a useful reference for similar studies, but also a beneficial tool for emergency response during radioactive accidents. -- Highlights: ► Enhancing the efficiency when people escape from radioactive accidents. ► The spatial relationship is transparently displayed in real time. ► In contrast to a previous study, this study offers better escape guidelines

  18. Exospheric density and escape fluxes of atomic isotopes on Venus and Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, M.K.

    1978-01-01

    Energetic neutrals in dissociative recombinations near or above the exobase provided an important component of exospheric density and escape fluxes. Plasma thermal velocities provide the main contribution to the velocity spread and an exact integral for the escape flux applicable in marginal cases is found for a simple atmosphere and collisional cut-off. Atomic fragments from recombination of diatomic oxygen and nitrogen ions in the Venus and Mars atmospheres are examined and density integrals derived. The oxygen escape flux on Mars is half that previously estimated and there is very little isotope preference supplementing diffusive separation. However, escape of the heavier 15 N isotope is low by a factor two. Reinterpretation of its 75% enrichment as detected by Viking leads to a range 0.4-1.4 mbar for the primeval nitrogen content on Mars. (author)

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Escape from Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesca; Gisslen, Magnus; Cinque, Paola; Price, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, secondary CSF escape, which may be even more uncommon, is defined by an increase of CSF HIV replication in association with a concomitant non-HIV infection, as a consequence of the local inflammatory response. Understanding these CSF escape settings not only is important for clinical diagnosis and management but also may provide insight into the CNS HIV reservoir.

  20. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10 24 Mx of net toroidal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed ∼2x10 45 Mx 2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx 2 cm -3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations

  1. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Tommi T; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J; Yelle, Roger V

    2014-04-28

    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres.

  2. Escapism among players of MMORPGs--conceptual clarification, its relation to mental health factors, and development of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, David; Kaldo, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that the concept of escapism needs to be clarified and that its relation to problematic online gaming and other factors needs further examination. This study uses well-established, basic learning theory to clarify the concept of escapism, and examines its relation to problematic gaming, psychological distress, and satisfaction with life among players of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). MMORPG players (n=201) answered an online questionnaire where these factors were measured and correlated with a previously developed scale on motivation to play (MTPI), including extra items to cover positive and negative aspects of escapism. Factor analysis and construct validation show that positive aspects of escapism are theoretically and empirically unstable and that escapism is best clarified as purely "negative escapism," corresponding to playing being negatively reinforced as a way of avoiding everyday hassles and distress. Negative escapism had a stronger relationship to symptoms of Internet addiction, psychological distress, and life satisfaction than other variables and other more positive motivations to play. Future studies should use the revised subscale for escapism (in the MTPI-R) presented in the present study, for example when screening for Internet addiction.

  3. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  4. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  5. Do the visual conditions at the point of escape affect European sea bass escape behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. PAPADAKIS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, an important species for the Mediterranean aquaculture industry, has been reported to escape from sea cage installations. Fish escapes are caused mainly by operational and technical failures that eventually result into a creation of a tear. Escapees may interact with wild stocks through interbreeding, transfer of pathogens and competition for food. The aim of this study was to examine at which extent the presence of a visible obstacle close to a tear on the net have an influence on sea bass propensity to escape. Fish were initially confined into small sea cages, with a tear at one side. The escape behavior was tested under experimental conditions. It is clearly demonstrated that sea bass was able to locate a tear on the net pen, immediately after its appearance. Crossings occurred in all cages, in singles or in a series of up to seven individuals. The presence of an obstacle close to the net tear altered the escape behavior of D. labrax resulting in a delay that eventually reduced the escape rate. Concluding, it is highly recommended that sea bass cages should be kept internally the culture array. Furthermore, the placement of artificial obstacles close to the sea cages could be an efficient practice that mitigates the escape risk after severe environmental conditions.

  6. Learning from escaped prescribed fire reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Dave Thomas; James Saveland; Jennifer D. Ziegler

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. wildland fire community has developed a number of innovative methods for conducting a review following escape of a prescribed fire (expanding on the typical regional or local reviews, to include more of a learning focus - expanded After Action Reviews, reviews that incorporate High Reliability Organizing, Facilitated Learning Analyses, etc). The stated purpose...

  7. Genomics of Stress Escape in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, D.

    2016-01-01

    In nature, two highly diverse environmental signals, flooding and shade, sensed through their own unique receptor systems, share physiological and molecular similarities in the context of accelerated shoot elongation in plants (a conserved stress-escape strategy), suggesting a possible cross-talk

  8. Centrifugally Stimulated Exospheric Ion Escape at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Dominique; Seki, K.; Terada, N.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the transport of ions in the low-altitude magnetosphere magnetosphere of Mercury. We show that, because of small spatial scales, the centrifugal effect due to curvature of the E B drift paths can lead to significant particle energization in the parallel direction. We demonstrate that because of this effect, ions with initial speed smaller than the escape speed such as those produced via thermal desorption can overcome gravity and escape into the magnetosphere. The escape route of this low-energy exosphere originating material is largely controlled by the magnetospheric convection rate. This escape route spreads over a narrower range of altitudes when the convection rate increases. Bulk transport of low-energy planetary material thus occurs within a limited region of space once moderate magnetospheric convection is established. These results suggest that, via release of material otherwise gravitationally trapped, the E B related centrifugal acceleration is an important mechanism for the net supply of plasma to the magnetosphere of Mercury.

  9. Pade approximant calculations for neutron escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakil, S.A.; Saad, E.A.; Hendi, A.A.

    1984-07-01

    The neutron escape probability from a non-multiplying slab containing internal source is defined in terms of a functional relation for the scattering function for the diffuse reflection problem. The Pade approximant technique is used to get numerical results which compare with exact results. (author)

  10. Net escapement of Antartic krill in trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, B.A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    This document describes the aims and methodology of a three year project (commenced in 2012) entitled Net Escapement of Antarctic krill in Trawls (NEAT). The study will include a morphology based mathematical modeling (FISHSELECT) of different sex and maturity groups of Antarctic krill (Euphausia...

  11. Quantifying factors determining the rate of CTL escape and reversion during acute and chronic phases of HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often evades cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses by generating variants that are not recognized by CTLs. However, the importance and quantitative details of CTL escape in humans are poorly understood. In part, this is because most studies looking at escape of HIV from CTL responses are cross-sectional and are limited to early or chronic phases of the infection. We use a novel technique of single genome amplification (SGA) to identify longitudinal changes in the transmitted/founder virus from the establishment of infection to the viral set point at 1 year after the infection. We find that HIV escapes from virus-specific CTL responses as early as 30-50 days since the infection, and the rates of viral escapes during acute phase of the infection are much higher than was estimated in previous studies. However, even though with time virus acquires additional escape mutations, these late mutations accumulate at a slower rate. A poor correlation between the rate of CTL escape in a particular epitope and the magnitude of the epitope-specific CTL response suggests that the lower rate of late escapes is unlikely due to a low efficacy of the HIV-specific CTL responses in the chronic phase of the infection. Instead, our results suggest that late and slow escapes are likely to arise because of high fitness cost to the viral replication associated with such CTL escapes. Targeting epitopes in which virus escapes slowly or does not escape at all by CTL responses may, therefore, be a promising direction for the development of T cell based HIV vaccines.

  12. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  13. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  14. Escape of atmospheres and loss of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunten, D.M.; Donahue, T.M.; Walker, J.C.G.; Kasting, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The properties and limitations of several loss processes for atmospheric gases are presented and discussed. They include thermal loss (Jeans and hydrodynamic); nonthermal loss (all processes involve charged particles); and impact erosion, including thermal escape from a molten body heated by rapid accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, or blowoff, is of particular interest because it offers the prospect of processing large quantities of gas and enriching the remainder in heavy elements and isotopes. In a second part, the water budgets and likely evolutionary histories of Venus, Earth and Mars are assessed. Although it is tempting to associate the great D/H enrichment on Venus with loss of a large initial endowment, a steady state with juvenile water (perhaps from comets) is equally probable

  15. Biomechanics of Tetrahymena escaping from dead ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Kikuchi, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Behaviors of swimming microorganisms in complex environments are important in understanding cells' distribution in nature and in industries. Although cell's swimming and spreading in an infinite fluid has been intensively investigated, that in a narrow region bounded by walls is still unclear. Thus, in this study, we used Tetrahymena thermophila as a model microorganism, and experimentally investigated its behavior between flat plates with an angle. The results showed that the cells tended to escape from the narrow region, and the swimming velocity and the radius of curvature of the trajectories decreased as they swam narrower region. We then developed a computational model of swimming Tetrahymena. The results showed that the escaping behavior could be well explained by fluid mechanics. The obtained knowledge is useful in understanding cells' behaviors in complex environments, such as in porous media and in a granular matter. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants, numbers 25000008 and 17H00853.

  16. Constraining Lyman continuum escape using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sambit K.; Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Cubo, Rubén; Mellema, Garrelt

    2018-05-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will observe the rest-frame ultraviolet/optical spectra of galaxies from the epoch of reionization (EoR) in unprecedented detail. While escaping into the intergalactic medium, hydrogen-ionizing (Lyman continuum; LyC) photons from the galaxies will contribute to the bluer end of the UV slope and make nebular emission lines less prominent. We present a method to constrain leakage of the LyC photons using the spectra of high redshift (z >~ 6) galaxies. We simulate JWST/NIRSpec observations of galaxies at z =6-9 by matching the fluxes of galaxies observed in the Frontier Fields observations of galaxy cluster MACS-J0416. Our method predicts the escape fraction fesc with a mean absolute error Δfesc ~ 0.14. The method also predicts the redshifts of the galaxies with an error .

  17. Measurement of the resonance escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, J.P.; Bacher, P.; Lheureux, L.; Moreau, J.; Schmitt, A.P.

    1957-01-01

    The average cadmium ratio in natural uranium rods has been measured, using equal diameter natural uranium disks. These values correlated with independent measurements of the lattice buckling, enabled us to calculate values of the resonance escape probability for the G1 reactor with one or the other of two definitions. Measurements were performed on 26 mm and 32 mm rods, giving the following values for the resonance escape probability p: 0.8976 ± 0.005 and 0.912 ± 0.006 (d. 26 mm), 0.8627 ± 0.009 and 0.884 ± 0.01 (d. 32 mm). The influence of either definition on the lattice parameters is discussed, leading to values of the effective integral. Similar experiments have been performed with thorium rods. (author) [fr

  18. Asymmetric Effects on Escape Rates of Bistable System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Canjun; Mei Dongcheng; Dai Zucheng

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric effects on the escape rates from the stable states x ± in the bistable system are analyzed. The results indicate that the multiplicative noise and the additive noise always enhance the particle escape from stable states x ± of bistable. However, the asymmetric parameter r enhances the particle escape from stable state x + , and holds back the particle escape from stable state x - . (general)

  19. Xenon Fractionation and Archean Hydrogen Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Xenon is the heaviest gas found in significant quantities in natural planetary atmospheres. It would seem the least likely to escape. Yet there is more evidence for xenon escape from Earth than for any element other than helium and perhaps neon. The most straightforward evidence is that most of the radiogenic Xe from the decay of (129)I (half-life 15.7 Myr) and (244)Pu (half-life 81 Myr) that is Earth's birthright is missing. The missing xenon is often attributed to the impact erosion of early atmospheres of Earth and its ancestors. It is obvious that if most of the radiogenic xenon were driven off by impacts, most of the rest of the atmophiles fared the same fate. The other line of evidence is in the nonradiogenic isotopes of xenon and its silent partner, krypton. Atmospheric xenon is strongly mass fractionated (at about 4% per amu) compared to any known solar system source (Figure 1). This is in stark contrast to krypton, which may not be fractionated at all: atmospheric Kr is slightly heavier than solar Kr (at about 0.5% per amu), but it is the same as in carbonaceous chondrites. Nonradiogenic xenon is also under abundant relative to krypton (the so-called "missing xenon" problem). Together these observations imply that xenon has been subject to fractionating escape and krypton not.

  20. Escape probabilities for fluorescent x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, D.R.; Day, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computation of the energy absorption efficiency of an x-ray photon detector involves consideration of the histories of the secondary particles produced in any initial or secondary interaction which may occur within the detector. In particular, the K or higher shell fluorescent x-rays which may be emitted following a photoelectric interaction can carry away a large fraction of the energy of the incident photon, especially if this energy is just above an absorption edge. The effects of such photons cannot be ignored and a correction term, depending upon the probability that the fluorescent x-rays will escape from the detector, must be applied to the energy absorption efficiency. For detectors such as x-ray intensifying screens, it has been usual to calculate this probability by numerical integration. In this note analytic expressions are derived for the escape probability of fluorescent photons from planar detectors in terms of exponential integral functions. Rational approximations for these functions are readily available and these analytic expressions therefore facilitate the computation of photon absorption efficiencies. A table is presented which should obviate the need for calculating the escape probability for most cases of interest. (author)

  1. Escape of O(3P), O(1D), and O(1S) from the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.; Hać, Aleksander B.

    2018-01-01

    We have computed here the escape probabilities, fluxes and rates for hot O atoms that are initially produced in the ground state and the first two excited metastable states, O(1D)and O(1S), in the Martian thermosphere by dissociative recombination of O2+. In order to compare our results with those of our previous calculations and with those of others, we have employed here the pre-MAVEN models that we have used previously. To compute the escape probabilities, we have employed the Monte Carlo escape code that has been described previously, but we here use for the first time energy-dependent elastic cross sections for collisions of the energetic O atoms with each of the twelve background species in our model. We also incorporate three mechanisms that interchange identities of the O(3P) and O(1D) atoms, including collisional excitation of O(3P) to O(1D), quenching of O(1D) to O(3P), and excitation exchange of O(1D) with O(3P). We find that the escape probabilities of O atoms that are produced initially as O(1D) are reduced compared to those in which these processes are not included, but the escape probabilities of O atoms that are initially produced as O(3P) are not significantly reduced. As a guide for our future research and those of other investigators, we review here what is known about the interactions of O atoms with other species in which the energies of the O atoms are altered, and several other sources of hot and escaping O, many of which have been suggested by other investigators. We will incorporate these data in a future MAVEN-like model.

  2. Risks incurred by hydrogen escaping from containers and conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Grilliot, E.S. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This paper is a discussion of a method for hydrogen leak classification. Leaks are classified as; gas escapes into enclosed spaces, gas escapes into partially enclosed spaces (vented), and gas escapes into unenclosed spaces. Each of the three enclosure classifications is further divided into two subclasses; total volume of hydrogen escaped and flow rate of escaping hydrogen. A method to aid in risk assessment determination in partially enclosed spaces is proposed and verified for several enclosure geometries. Examples are discussed for additional enclosure geometries.

  3. HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, Arvid; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Spudich, Serena; Svennerholm, Bo; Price, Richard W; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Occasional cases of viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA have been reported. We investigated CSF viral escape in subjects treated with commonly used antiretroviral therapy regimens in relation to intrathecal immune activation and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank. Sixty-nine neurologically asymptomatic subjects treated with antiretroviral therapy >6 months and plasma HIV-1 RNA penetration effectiveness rank was not a significant predictor of detectable CSF virus or CSF neopterin levels. Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients. Although these findings need extension in longitudinal studies, they suggest the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice.

  4. The cost of the sword: escape performance in male swordtails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Baumgartner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The handicap theory of sexual selection posits that male display traits that are favored in mate choice come at a significant cost to performance. We tested one facet of this hypothesis in the green swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri. In this species, the lower ray of male caudal fin is extended into a 'sword', which serves to attract potential mates. However, bearing a long sword may increase drag and thus compromise a male's ability to swim effectively. We tested escape performance in this species by eliciting C-start escape responses, an instinctive escape behavior, in males with various sword lengths. We then removed males' swords and retested escape performance. We found no relationship between escape performance and sword length and no effect of sword removal on escape performance. While having a large sword may attract a predator's attention, our results suggest that sword size does not compromise a male's escape performance.

  5. Strange culinary encounters::stranger fetichism in "Jamie's Italian escape" and "Gordon's great escape"

    OpenAIRE

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate the ‘other’ food cultures in these programs, paying special attention to how the encounter with the local Indian and Italian is imagined to be a gateway to an authentic and/or primitive experience. Our main...

  6. Room escape at class: Escape games activities to facilitate the motivation and learning in computer science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borrego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-life room-escape games are ludic activities in which participants enter a room in order to get out of it only after solving some riddles. In this paper, we explain a Room Escape teaching experience developed in the Engineering School at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The goal of this activity is to increase student’s motivation and to improve their learning on two courses of the second year in the Computer Engineering degree: Computer Networksand Information and Security.

  7. Room escape at class: escape games activities to facilitate the motivation and learning in computer science

    OpenAIRE

    Borrego, Carlos; Fernández, Cristina; Blanes, Ian; Robles, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Real-life room-escape games are ludic activities in which participants enter a room in order to get out of it only after solving some riddles. In this paper, we explain a Room Escape teaching experience developed in the Engineering School at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. The goal of this activity is to increase student’s motivation and to improve their learning on two courses of the second year in the Computer Engineering degree: Computer Networksand Information and Security Peer Revi...

  8. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  9. Non-thermal escape rates of atmospheric H and D from Mars using MAVEN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Geological evidence suggests that an ocean of liquid water existed on Mars until at least middle to late Noachian era (4.1 to 3.8 Ga) and possibly, at least episodically, as late as Hesperian. Between 67% and 87% of the total primordial amount of water, equal to about 70 to 110 meters equivalent (spread over the entire Mars' surface), is believed to have escape to space, while about 35 meters remains on or beneath the surface as water ice. Establishing better constraints on these numbers and identifying the responsible atmospheric loss processes remains the major objective of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. The ratio of atmospheric Deuterium and Hydrogen (D/H) on Mars is one of the best indicators of water loss to space. While majority of H and D escape through thermal Jeans escape, up to 10% of D can escape to space via non-thermal mechanisms, such as collisions with superthermal neutral atoms. In this study, we present new estimates of non-thermal escape rates of light molecules of interest to the water evolution, including H2, HD, OH, and OD, based on recent measurements of atmospheric density and temperature profiles by MAVEN. The escape mechanisms considered include photochemical sources of hot O, as well as collisions with energetic neutral atoms produced in charge-exchange of solar wind ions with atmospheric gases1,2. Energy transport and escape rates are modeled using quantum reactive scattering formalism3 and seasonal variations are illustrated. Finally, a simple estimate of the role of the non-thermal escape mechanisms in previous eras is given. We conclude that D escape rates can be affected by the non-thermal processes with consequences on the estimates of primordial water inventory based on the D/H ratio. [1] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014) [2] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, V. Kharchenko, Icarus 284, 90 (2017) [3] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012)

  10. Mars atmospheric escape and evolution; interaction with the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassefière, Eric; Leblanc, François

    2004-09-01

    This tutorial deals with the question of atmospheric escape on Mars. After a brief introduction describing the general context of Mars escape studies, we will present in Section 2 a simplified theory of thermal escape, of both Jeans and hydrodynamic types. The phenomenon of hydrodynamic escape, still hypothetical and not proved to have ever existed on terrestrial planets, will be treated with the help of two well known examples: (i) the isotopic fractionation of xenon in Mars and Earth atmospheres, (ii) the paradox of missing oxygen in Venus atmosphere. In Section 3, a simplified approach of non-thermal escape will be developed, treating in a specific way the different kinds of escape (photochemical escape, ion sputtering, ion escape and ionospheric outflow). As a matter of illustration, some calculations of the relative contributions of these mechanisms, and of their time evolutions, will be given, and the magnitude of the total amount of atmosphere lost by non-thermal escape will be estimated. Section 4 will present the state of knowledge concerning the constraints derived from Mars isotopic geochemistry in terms of past escape and evolution. Finally, a few conclusions, which are more interrogations, will be proposed.

  11. Molecular Dications in Planetary Atmospheric Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Falcinelli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental properties of multiply charged molecular ions, such as energetics, structure, stability, lifetime and fragmentation dynamics, are relevant to understand and model the behavior of gaseous plasmas as well as ionosphere and astrophysical environments. Experimental determinations of the Kinetic Energy Released (KER for ions originating from dissociations reactions, induced by Coulomb explosion of doubly charged molecular ions (molecular dications produced by double photoionization of CO2, N2O and C2H2 molecules of interest in planetary atmospheres, are reported. The KER measurement as a function of the ultraviolet (UV photon energy in the range of 28–65 eV was extracted from the electron-ion-ion coincidence spectra obtained by using tunable synchrotron radiation coupled with ion imaging techniques at the ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory Trieste, Italy. These experiments, coupled with a computational analysis based on a Monte Carlo trajectory simulation, allow assessing the probability of escape for simple ionic species in the upper atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. The measured KER in the case of H+, C+, CH+, CH2+, N+, O+, CO+, N2+ and NO+ fragment ions range between 1.0 and 5.5 eV, being large enough to allow these ionic species to participate in the atmospheric escape from such planets into space. In the case of Mars, we suggest a possible explanation for the observed behavior of the O+ and CO22+ ion density profiles.

  12. Escape from viscosity : the kinematics and hydrodynamics of copepod foraging and escape swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, LA; Videler, JJ

    Feeding and escape swimming in adult females of the calanoid copepod. Temora lopgicornis Muller were investigated and compared. Swimming velocities were calculated using a 3-D filming setup., Foraging velocities ranged between 2 and 6 min s(-1), while maximum velocities of up to 80 mm s(-1) were

  13. Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere: Escape rates and the structure of the exobase region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    2009-08-01

    In Strobel [Strobel, D.F., 2008. Icarus, 193, 588-594] a mass loss rate from Titan's upper atmosphere, ˜4.5×10 amus, was calculated for a single constituent, N 2 atmosphere by hydrodynamic escape as a high density, slow outward expansion driven principally by solar UV heating due to CH 4 absorption. It was estimated, but not proven, that the hydrodynamic mass loss is essentially CH 4 and H 2 escape. Here the individual conservation of momentum equations for the three major components of the upper atmosphere (N 2, CH 4, H 2) are solved in the low Mach number limit and compared with Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements to demonstrate that light gases (CH 4, H 2) preferentially escape over the heavy gas (N 2). The lightest gas (H 2) escapes with a flux 99% of its limiting flux, whereas CH 4 is restricted to ⩾75% of its limiting flux because there is insufficient solar power to support escape at the limiting rate. The respective calculated H 2 and CH 4 escape rates are 9.2×10 and 1.7×10 s, for a total of ˜4.6×10 amus. From the calculated densities, mean free paths of N 2, CH 4, H 2, and macroscopic length scales, an extended region above the classic exobase is inferred where frequent collisions are still occurring and thermal heat conduction can deliver power to lift the escaping gas out of the gravitational potential well. In this region rapid acceleration of CH 4 outflow occurs. With the thermal structure of Titan's thermosphere inferred from INMS data by Müller-Wodarg et al. [Müller-Wodarg, I.C.F., Yelle, R.V., Cui, J., Waite Jr., J.H., 2008. J. Geophys. Res. 113, doi:10.1029/2007JE003033. E10005], in combination with calculated temperature profiles that include sputter induced plasma heating at the exobase, it is concluded that on average that the integrated, globally average, orbit-averaged, plasma heating rate during the Cassini epoch does not exceed ˜5×10 eVcms ( ˜0.0008 ergcms).

  14. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  15. The atmospheric escape at Mars: complementing the scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, Jean; Simon, Cyril; Barthélémy, Mathieu; Thissen, Roland; Ehrenreich, David; Gronoff, Guillaume; Witasse, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In the recent years, the presence of dications in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan has been modeled and assessed. These studies also suggested that these ions could participate to the escape of the planetary atmospheres because a large fraction of them is unstable and highly ener- getic. When they dissociate, their internal energy is transformed into kinetic energy which may be larger than the escape energy. This study assesses the impact of the doubly-charged ions in the escape of CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres and to compare it to the escape of thermal photo-ions.We solve a Boltzmann transport equation at daytime taking into account the dissociative states of CO++ for a simplified single constituent atmosphere of a 2 case-study planet. We compute the escape of fast ions using a Beer-Lambert approach. We study three test-cases. On a Mars-analog planet in today's conditions, we retrieve the measured electron escape flux. When comparing the two mechanisms (i.e. excluding solar wind effects, sputtering ...), the escape due to the fast ions issuing from the dissociation of dications may account for up to 6% of the total and the escape of thermal ions for the remaining. We show that these two mechanisms cannot explain the escape of the atmosphere since the magnetic field vanished but complement the other processes and allow writing the scenario of the Mars escape. We show that the atmosphere of a Mars analog planet would empty in another giga years and a half. At Venus orbit, the contribution of the dications in the escape rate is negligible.When simulating the hot Jupiter HD209458b, the two processes cannot explain the measured escape flux of C+.

  16. Non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zhang, P.; Kharchenko, V.

    2012-05-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars induced by collisions with hot atomic oxygen from the Martian corona. To accurately describe the energy transfer in O + H2(v, j) collisions, we performed extensive quantum-mechanical calculations of state-to-state elastic, inelastic, and reactive cross sections. The escape flux of H2 molecules was evaluated using a simplified 1D column model of the Martian atmosphere with realistic densities of atmospheric gases and hot oxygen production rates for low solar activity conditions. An average intensity of the non-thermal escape flux of H2 of 1.9 × 105 cm-2s-1 was obtained considering energetic O atoms produced in dissociative recombinations of O2+ ions. Predicted ro-vibrational distribution of the escaping H2 was found to contain a significant fraction of higher rotational states. While the non-thermal escape rate was found to be lower than Jeans rate for H2 molecules, the non-thermal escape rates of HD and D2 are significantly higher than their respective Jeans rates. The accurate evaluation of the collisional escape flux of H2 and its isotopes is important for understanding non-thermal escape of molecules from Mars, as well as for the formation of hot H2 Martian corona. The described molecular ejection mechanism is general and expected to contribute to atmospheric escape of H2 and other light molecules from planets, satellites, and exoplanetary bodies.

  17. A riddled basin escaping crisis and the universality in an integrate-and-fire circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jun; He, Da-Ren; Xu, Xiu-Lian; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2018-06-01

    We investigate an integrate-and-fire model of an electronic relaxation oscillator, which can be described by the discontinuous and non-invertible composition of two mapping functions f1 and f2, with f1 being dissipative. Depending on a control parameter d, f2 can be conservative (for d =dc = 1) or dissipative (for d >dc). We find a kind of crisis, which is induced by the escape from a riddled-like attraction basin sea in the phase space. The averaged crisis transient lifetime (〈 τ 〉), the relative measure of the fat fractal forbidden network (η), and the measure of the escaping hole (Δ) show clear scaling behaviors: 〈 τ 〉 ∝(d -dc) - γ, η ∝(d -dc) σ, and Δ ∝(d -dc) α. Extending an argument by Jiang et al. (2004), we derive γ = σ + α, which agrees well with numerical simulation data.

  18. ON MIND MAPS: PREVIOUS IDEAS TO A RESEARCH PROPOUSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Flórez Miranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Después de un diagnóstico poco alentador sobre las competencias lecto-escritoras de los estudiantes, fenómeno al que llama: ";Síndrome del pensamiento inmaduro";, el autor propone el uso de los llamados ";signos-herramienta"; de la teoría socio-cultural de Vigotsky. Con base en sus ideas, acerca de la posibilidad de utilizar vías de rodeo para superar algunas dificultades cognitivas de los estudiantes, propone la herramienta de los mapas mentales, cuya eficacia ha probado, durante su práctica docente.

  19. Pleiotropic effects of hemagglutinin amino acid substitutions of H5 influenza escape mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudneva, Irina A.; Timofeeva, Tatiana A.; Ignatieva, Anna V.; Shilov, Aleksandr A.; Krylov, Petr S.; Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Kaverin, Nikolai V.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we assessed pleiotropic characteristics of the antibody-selected mutations. We examined pH optimum of fusion, temperatures of HA heat inactivation, and in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics of the previously obtained influenza H5 escape mutants. Our results showed that HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. Mutations of the escape mutants located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability (P<0.05). HA changes at positions 131, 144, 145, and 156 and substitutions at positions 131, 142, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 escape mutants in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Overall, a co-variation between antigenic specificity and different HA phenotypic properties has been demonstrated. We believe that the monitoring of pleiotropic effects of the HA mutations found in H5 escape mutants is essential for accurate prediction of mutants with pandemic potential. - Highlights: • HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. • Mutations located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability. • HA changes at positions 131, 142, 144, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 mutants. • Acquisition of glycosylation site could lead to the emergence of multiple pleiotropic effects

  20. Pleiotropic effects of hemagglutinin amino acid substitutions of H5 influenza escape mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudneva, Irina A.; Timofeeva, Tatiana A.; Ignatieva, Anna V.; Shilov, Aleksandr A.; Krylov, Petr S. [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilyushina, Natalia A., E-mail: Natalia.Ilyushina@fda.hhs.gov [FDA CDER, 29 Lincoln Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kaverin, Nikolai V., E-mail: nik.kaverin@gmail.com [D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, 123098 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    In the present study we assessed pleiotropic characteristics of the antibody-selected mutations. We examined pH optimum of fusion, temperatures of HA heat inactivation, and in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics of the previously obtained influenza H5 escape mutants. Our results showed that HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. Mutations of the escape mutants located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability (P<0.05). HA changes at positions 131, 144, 145, and 156 and substitutions at positions 131, 142, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 escape mutants in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Overall, a co-variation between antigenic specificity and different HA phenotypic properties has been demonstrated. We believe that the monitoring of pleiotropic effects of the HA mutations found in H5 escape mutants is essential for accurate prediction of mutants with pandemic potential. - Highlights: • HA1 N142K mutation significantly lowered the pH of fusion optimum. • Mutations located in the HA lateral loop significantly affected H5 HA thermostability. • HA changes at positions 131, 142, 144, 145, and 156 affected the replicative ability of H5 mutants. • Acquisition of glycosylation site could lead to the emergence of multiple pleiotropic effects.

  1. 30 CFR 75.382 - Mechanical escape facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with brakes that can stop the fully loaded platform, cage, or other device. (c) Mechanical escape facilities, including automatic elevators, shall be examined weekly. The weekly examination of this equipment... cages, platforms, or elevators. (e) Mechanical escape facilities shall have rated capacities consistent...

  2. Buying to blunt negative feelings : Materialistic escape from the self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Grant E.; Ksendzova, Masha; Howell, Ryan T.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that escape theory, which describes how individuals seek to free themselves from aversive states of self-awareness, helps explain key patterns of materialistic people's behavior. As predicted by escape theory, materialistic individuals may feel dissatisfied with their standard of living,

  3. Teachers Offering Healthy Escape Options for Teenagers in Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    2005-01-01

    "[T]wenty-five percent of today's teenagers have inordinate emotional baggage beyond the normal angst of adolescence." This burden can lead to unhealthy escapes, including substance abuse, sexual activity, violence, eating disorders, and suicide. One healthy escape, however, lies in books, where students can read about teenagers living in painful…

  4. Escape of protists in predator-generated feeding currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The ciliate Strobilidium sp. and 2 flagellates, Chrysochromulina simplex and Gymnodinium sp., were exposed to predator-generated feeding currents, and their escape responses were quantified using 2- and 3-dimensional video techniques. All 3 studied organisms responded by escaping at a defined dis...

  5. Immune escape strategies of malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Stephanie Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  6. Nonthermal atmospheric escape from Mars and Titan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, H.; Bauer, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy flux spectra and particle concentrations of the hot O and N coronae from Mars and Titan, respectively, resulting primarily from dissociative recombination of molecular ions, have been calculated by means of a Monte Carlo method. The calculated energy flux spectra lead to an escape flux null esc ∼ 6 x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 for Mars and null esc ∼ 2 x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 for Titan, corresponding to a mass loss of about 0.14 kg/s for Mars and about 0.3 kg/s for Titan. (The contribution of electron impact ionization on N 2 amounts to only about 25% of Titan's mass loss.) Mass loss via solar and magnetospheric wind is also estimated using newly calculated mass loading limits. The mass loss via ion pickup from the extended hot atom corona for Mars amounts to about 0.25 kg/s (O + ) and for Titan to about 50 g/s (N 2 + or H 2 CN + ). Thus, the total mass loss rate from Mars and Titan is about the same, i.e., 0.4 kg/s

  7. Leishmania Hijacks Myeloid Cells for Immune Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-López

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a group of neglected tropical diseases whose clinical manifestations vary depending on the infectious Leishmania species but also on host factors. Recognition of the parasite by host myeloid immune cells is a key to trigger an effective Leishmania-specific immunity. However, the parasite is able to persist in host myeloid cells by evading, delaying and manipulating host immunity in order to escape host resistance and ensure its transmission. Neutrophils are first in infiltrating infection sites and could act either favoring or protecting against infection, depending on factors such as the genetic background of the host or the parasite species. Macrophages are the main host cells where the parasites grow and divide. However, macrophages are also the main effector population involved in parasite clearance. Parasite elimination by macrophages requires the priming and development of an effector Th1 adaptive immunity driven by specific subtypes of dendritic cells. Herein, we will provide a comprehensive outline of how myeloid cells regulate innate and adaptive immunity against Leishmania, and the mechanisms used by the parasites to promote their evasion and sabotage. Understanding the interactions between Leishmania and the host myeloid cells may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches and improved vaccination to leishmaniases, an important worldwide health problem in which current therapeutic or preventive approaches are limited.

  8. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique, E-mail: karensalazar.1190@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (UniCarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  9. Escape route simulator utilizing augmented reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Karen Salazar Ribeiro de; Mó, Antônio Carlos de A.; Santo, André Cotelli do E.; Silva, Marcio Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing demand and interest in the interaction of technology platforms and integration of different types of systems and technologies, some tools are already providing practical ways to develop integrated applications. The tools explored by this article are Unity, a platform for game development, and Vuforia, an SDK, software development kit, for augmented reality creation. The coalition proposal of these resources is to create an intuitive escape route that can be used for the evacuation of buildings or open spaces in view of imminent danger, such as radiation leakage, and that can be accessed from a target available at the institution. It has also the intention of simulating situations that involve training of personnel in order to obtain methods that allow to save financial resources, and even to avoid that those who are involved are exposed to risks unnecessarily. The simulator is expected to help design, test, and improve ways to maintain the physical integrity of the facility and provide end users with a better sense of immersion and attractiveness. (author)

  10. Dications and thermal ions in planetary atmospheric escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, J.; Simon Wedlund, C.; Barthélémy, M.; Thissen, R.; Ehrenreich, D.; Gronoff, G.; Witasse, O.

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, the presence of dications in the atmospheres of Mars, Venus, Earth and Titan has been modeled and assessed. These studies also suggested that these ions could participate to the escape of the planetary atmospheres because a large fraction of them is unstable and highly energetic. When they dissociate, their internal energy is transformed into kinetic energy which may be larger than the escape energy. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the doubly-charged ions in the escape of CO2-dominated planetary atmospheres and to compare it to the escape of thermal photo-ions. We solve a Boltzmann transport equation at daytime taking into account the dissociative states of CO2++ for a simplified single constituent atmosphere of a case-study planet. We compute the escape of fast ions using a Beer-Lambert approach. We study three test-cases. On a Mars-analog planet in today's conditions, we retrieve the measured electron escape flux. When comparing the two mechanisms (i.e. excluding solar wind effects, sputtering, etc.), the escape due to the fast ions issuing from the dissociation of dications may account for up to 6% of the total and the escape of thermal ions for the remaining. We show that these two mechanisms cannot explain the escape of the atmosphere since the magnetic field vanished and even contribute only marginally to this loss. We show that with these two mechanisms, the atmosphere of a Mars analog planet would empty in another giga years and a half. At Venus orbit, the contribution of the dications in the escape rate is negligible. When simulating the hot Jupiter HD 209458 b, the two processes cannot explain the measured escape flux of C+. This study shows that the dications may constitute a source of the escape of planetary atmospheres which had not been taken into account until now. This source, although marginal, is not negligible. The influence of the photoionization is of course large, but cannot explain alone the loss of Mars

  11. Vaccine escape recombinants emerge after pneumococcal vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Angela B; Pai, Rekha; Crook, Derrick W; Beall, Bernard

    2007-11-01

    The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the United States (US) in 2000 and has significantly reduced invasive pneumococcal disease; however, the incidence of nonvaccine serotype invasive disease, particularly due to serotype 19A, has increased. The serotype 19A increase can be explained in part by expansion of a genotype that has been circulating in the US prior to vaccine implementation (and other countries since at least 1990), but also by the emergence of a novel "vaccine escape recombinant" pneumococcal strain. This strain has a genotype that previously was only associated with vaccine serotype 4, but now expresses a nonvaccine serotype 19A capsule. Based on prior evidence for capsular switching by recombination at the capsular locus, the genetic event that resulted in this novel serotype/genotype combination might be identifiable from the DNA sequence of individual pneumococcal strains. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the putative recombinational event(s) at the capsular locus that resulted in the change from a vaccine to a nonvaccine capsular type. Sequencing the capsular locus flanking regions of 51 vaccine escape (progeny), recipient, and putative donor pneumococci revealed a 39 kb recombinational fragment, which included the capsular locus, flanking regions, and two adjacent penicillin-binding proteins, and thus resulted in a capsular switch and penicillin nonsusceptibility in a single genetic event. Since 2003, 37 such vaccine escape strains have been detected, some of which had evolved further. Furthermore, two new types of serotype 19A vaccine escape strains emerged in 2005. To our knowledge, this is the first time a single recombinational event has been documented in vivo that resulted in both a change of serotype and penicillin nonsusceptibility. Vaccine escape by genetic recombination at the capsular locus has the potential to reduce PCV7 effectiveness in the longer term.

  12. Acute Mitral Valve Dysfunction Due to Escape of Prosthetic Mechanical Leaflet and Peripheral Leaftlet Embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Eyup Serhat; Limandal, Husnu Kamil; Arslan, Umit; Tort, Mehmet; Yildiz, Ziya; Bayram, Ednan; Dag, Ozgur; Kaygin, Mehmet Ali; Erkut, Bilgehan

    2015-12-14

    Leaflet escape of prosthetic valve is rare but potentially life threatening. Early diagnosis is essential on account of avoiding mortality, and emergency surgical correction is compulsory. This complication has previously been reported for both monoleaflet and bileaflet valve models. A 30-year-old man who had undergone mitral valve replacement with a bileaflet valve 8 years prior at another center was admitted with acute-onset with cardiogenic shock as an emergency case. Transthoracic echocardiograms showed acute-starting severe mitral regurgitation associated with prosthetic mitral valve. There was a suspicious finding of a single prosthetic mitral leaflet. But the problem related with the valve wasn't specifically determined. The patient underwent emergent surgery for replacement of the damaged prosthetic valves immediately. There was no tissue impingement and thrombosis, one of the two leaflets was absent, and there were no signs of endocarditis or pannus formation in the prosthetic valve. The missing leaflet could not be found within the cardiac cavity. The abdominal fluoroscopic study and plain radiography were unable to detect the escaped leaflet during surgery. The damaged valve was removed and a replacement 29 mm bileaflet mechanical valve was inserted by right lateral thoracotomy. After post-operative week one, the abdominal computed tomography scan and the ultrasound showed the escaped leaflet in the left femoral artery. Fifteen days after the surgery the escaped leaflet was removed safely from the left femoral artery and the patient made a complete recovery. The escaped leaflet showed a fracture of one of the pivot systems caused by structural failure. Early cardiac surgery should be applied because of life-threatening problems.

  13. Estimating Collisionally-Induced Escape Rates of Light Neutrals from Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2016-12-01

    Collisions of atmospheric gases with hot oxygen atoms constitute an important non-thermal mechanism of escape of light atomic and molecular species at Mars. In this study, we present revised theoretical estimates of non-thermal escape rates of neutral O, H, He, and H2 based on recent atmospheric density profiles obtained from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission and related theoretical models. As primary sources of hot oxygen, we consider dissociative recombination of O2+ and CO2+ molecular ions. We also consider hot oxygen atoms energized in primary and secondary collisions with energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced in charge-exchange of solar wind H+ and He+ ions with atmospheric gases1,2. Scattering of hot oxygen and atmospheric species of interest is modeled using fully-quantum reactive scattering formalism3. This approach allows us to construct distributions of vibrationally and rotationally excited states and predict the products' emission spectra. In addition, we estimate formation rates of excited, translationally hot hydroxyl molecules in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The escape rates are calculated from the kinetic energy distributions of the reaction products using an enhanced 1D model of the atmosphere for a range of orbital and solar parameters. Finally, by considering different scenarios, we estimate the influence of these escape mechanisms on the evolution of Mars's atmosphere throughout previous epochs and their impact on the atmospheric D/H ratio. M.G.'s research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. 1N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, "Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Escape Fluxes induced from the Mars Atmosphere", Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014) 2M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal production and escape of OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars", arXiv:1607

  14. Low LET radiolysis escape yields for reducing radicals and H2 in pressurized high temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterniczuk, Marcin; Yakabuskie, Pamela A.; Wren, J. Clara; Jacob, Jasmine A.; Bartels, David M.

    2016-04-01

    Low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiolysis escape yields (G values) are reported for the sum (G(radH)+G(e-)aq) and for G(H2) in subcritical water up to 350 °C. The scavenger system 1-10 mM acetate/0.001 M hydroxide/0.00048 M N2O was used with simultaneous mass spectroscopic detection of H2 and N2 product. Temperature-dependent measurements were carried out with 2.5 MeV electrons from a van de Graaff accelerator, while room temperature calibration measurements were done with a 60Co gamma source. The concentrations and dose range were carefully chosen so that initial spur chemistry is not perturbed and the N2 product yield corresponds to those reducing radicals that escape recombination in pure water. In comparison with a recent review recommendation of Elliot and Bartels (AECL report 153-127160-450-001, 2009), the measured reducing radical yield is seven percent smaller at room temperature but in fairly good agreement above 150 °C. The H2 escape yield is in good agreement throughout the temperature range with several previous studies that used much larger radical scavenging rates. Previous analysis of earlier high temperature measurements of Gesc(radOH) is shown to be flawed, although the actual G values may be nearly correct. The methodology used in the present report greatly reduces the range of possible error and puts the high temperature escape yields for low-LET radiation on a much firmer quantitative foundation than was previously available.

  15. The escape of Lyman photons from a young starburst: the case of Haro11†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Adamo, Angela

    2007-12-01

    Lyman α (Lyα) is one of the dominant tools used to probe the star-forming galaxy population at high redshift (z). However, astrophysical interpretations of data drawn from Lyα alone hinge on the Lyα escape fraction which, due to the complex radiative transport, may vary greatly. Here, we map the Lyα emission from the local luminous blue compact galaxy Haro11, a known emitter of Lyα and the only known candidate for low-z Lyman continuum emission. To aid in the interpretation, we perform a detailed ultraviolet and optical multiwavelength analysis and model the stellar population, dust distribution, ionizing photon budget, and star-cluster population. We use archival X-ray observations to further constrain properties of the starburst and estimate the neutral hydrogen column density. The Lyα morphology is found to be largely symmetric around a single young star-forming knot and is strongly decoupled from other wavelengths. From general surface photometry, only very slight correlation is found between Lyα and Hα, E(B - V), and the age of the stellar population. Only around the central Lyα bright cluster do we find the Lyα/Hα ratio at values predicted by the recombination theory. The total Lyα escape fraction is found to be just 3 per cent. We compute that ~90 per cent of the Lyα photons that escape do so after undergoing multiple resonance scattering events, masking their point of origin. This leads to a largely symmetric distribution and, by increasing the distance that photons must travel to escape, decreases the escape probability significantly. While dust must ultimately be responsible for the destruction of Lyα, it plays a little role in governing the observed morphology, which is regulated more by interstellar medium kinematics and geometry. We find tentative evidence for local Lyα equivalent width in the immediate vicinity of star clusters being a function of cluster age, consistent with hydrodynamic studies. We estimate the intrinsic production

  16. MAVEN Pickup Ion Constraints on Mars Neutral Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Cravens, T.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Halekas, J. S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Thiemann, E.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Espley, J. R.; Eparvier, F. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mars is currently losing its atmosphere mainly due to the escape of neutral hydrogen and oxygen. Directly measuring the rate of escaping neutrals is difficult, because the neutral density in the Mars exosphere is dominated, up to several Martian radii, by atoms that are gravitationally bound to the planet. Neutral atoms in the Martian exosphere, however, can get ionized, picked up, and accelerated by the solar wind motional electric field and energized to energies high enough for particle detectors to measure them. The MAVEN SEP instrument detects O+ pickup ions that are created at altitudes where the escaping part of the exosphere is dominant. Fluxes of these ions reflect neutral densities in the distant exosphere of Mars, allowing us to constrain neutral oxygen escape rates. The MAVEN SWIA and STATIC instruments measure pickup H+ and O+ created closer to Mars; comparisons of these data with models can be used to constrain exospheric hot O and thermal H densities and escape rates. In this work, pickup ion measurements from SEP, SWIA, and STATIC, taken during the first 3 Earth years of the MAVEN mission, are compared to the outputs of a pickup ion model to constrain the variability of neutral escape at Mars. The model is based on data from six MAVEN instruments, namely, MAG providing magnetic field used in calculating pickup ion trajectories, SWIA providing solar wind velocity as well as 3D pickup H+ and O+ spectra, SWEA providing solar wind electron spectrum used in electron impact ionization rate calculations, SEP providing pickup O+ spectra, STATIC providing mass resolved 3D pickup H+ and O+ spectra, and EUVM providing solar EUV spectra used in photoionization rate calculations. A variability of less than a factor of two is observed in hot oxygen escape rates, whereas thermal escape of hydrogen varies by an order of magnitude with Mars season. This hydrogen escape variability challenges our understanding of the H cycle at Mars, but is consistent with other

  17. Intertextuality in Novel: An Escape from Patriarchal Soliloquy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Bagheri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypertextuality is one of the intertextual relationships introduced by Gerard Genette. According to him, hypertextuality includes all the relationships which the hypertext has with the previous text, i.e. the hypotext. However, he does not consider the relationship between these two texts to be in such a way that the hypertext is the interpretation of the hypotext. On the other hand, other theorizers including Bakhtin, regard the conversation between texts a way to escape a one-voiced and dominant discourse. From this viewpoint, the intertextual relationships of Sadegh Hedayat’s The Blind Owl, with Shahrnoush Parsipour’s The Blue Mind and Abbas Maroufi’s The Body of Farhad are in such a way that The Blind Owl can be regarded as a hypotext for the other 2 novels but these two novels interpret the text differently. The present study aims to examine the intertextual relationships between these 3 novels and explore how a multiple-voiced conversation is formed between them.

  18. ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXIES: FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S.; Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jones, Tucker A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The fraction of ionizing photons escaping from high-redshift star-forming galaxies is a key obstacle in evaluating whether galaxies were the primary agents of cosmic reionization. We previously proposed using the covering fraction of low-ionization gas, measured via deep absorption-line spectroscopy, as a proxy. We now present a significant update, sampling seven gravitationally lensed sources at 4 < z < 5. We show that the absorbing gas in our sources is spatially inhomogeneous, with a median covering fraction of 66%. Correcting for reddening according to a dust-in-cloud model, this implies an estimated absolute escape fraction of ≃19% ± 6%. With possible biases and uncertainties, collectively we find that the average escape fraction could be reduced to no less than 11%, excluding the effect of spatial variations. For one of our lensed sources, we have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to demonstrate the presence of such spatial variations and scatter in its dependence on the Ly α equivalent width, consistent with recent simulations. If this source is typical, our lower limit to the escape fraction could be reduced by a further factor ≃2. Across our sample, we find a modest anticorrelation between the inferred escape fraction and the local star formation rate, consistent with a time delay between a burst and leaking Lyman continuum photons. Our analysis demonstrates considerable variations in the escape fraction, consistent with being governed by the small-scale behavior of star-forming regions, whose activities fluctuate over short timescales. This supports the suggestion that the escape fraction may increase toward the reionization era when star formation becomes more energetic and burst-like.

  19. Escape/Aggression Incidence in Sexually Abused Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, John W.; Gutierres, Sara E.

    1979-01-01

    Reports a continuation of prior research testing a theoretical model which predicts that juveniles subjected to abuse will not become aggressive but will engage in escape and social avoidance behaviors. Analysis supported the hypothesis. (Author)

  20. Amplitude modulation control of escape from a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón, R.; Martínez García-Hoz, A.; Miralles, J.J.; Martínez, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of periodic amplitude modulations in controlling (suppressing and enhancing) escape from a potential well through the universal model of a damped Helmholtz oscillator subjected to an external periodic excitation (the escape-inducing excitation) whose amplitude is periodically modulated (the escape-controlling excitation). Analytical and numerical results show that this multiplicative control works reliably for different subharmonic resonances between the two periodic excitations involved, and that its effectiveness is comparable to those of different methods of additive control. Additionally, we demonstrate the robustness of the multiplicative control against the presence of low-intensity Gaussian noise. -- Highlights: •Multiplicative control of escape from a potential well has been demonstrated. •Theoretical predictions are obtained from a Melnikov analysis. •It has been shown the robustness of the multiplicative control against noise.

  1. Escape panels in trawls – a consistent management tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    ), saithe (Pollachius virens), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). Thus the modification by fishers of certain gear properties not specified in the legislation can significantly influence the efficiency of an escape panel. We discuss...

  2. GREEN PEA GALAXIES REVEAL SECRETS OF Lyα ESCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan; Wang, Junxian [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China (China); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration (United States); Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo (Norway); Jaskot, Anne [Smith College, Northampton, MA (United States); Zheng, Zhenya, E-mail: yanghuan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: huan.y@asu.edu, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-04-01

    We analyze archival Lyα spectra of 12 “Green Pea” galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, model their Lyα profiles with radiative transfer models, and explore the dependence of the Lyα escape fraction on various properties. Green Pea galaxies are nearby compact starburst galaxies with [O iii] λ5007 equivalent widths (EWs) of hundreds of Å. All 12 Green Pea galaxies in our sample show Lyα lines in emission, with an Lyα EW distribution similar to high-redshift Lyα emitters. Combining the optical and UV spectra of Green Pea galaxies, we estimate their Lyα escape fractions and find correlations between Lyα escape fraction and kinematic features of Lyα profiles. The escape fraction of Lyα in these galaxies ranges from 1.4% to 67%. We also find that the Lyα escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. We compare their high-quality Lyα profiles with single H i shell radiative transfer models and find that the Lyα escape fraction anticorrelates with the derived H i column densities. Single-shell models fit most Lyα profiles well, but not the ones with the highest escape fractions of Lyα. Our results suggest that low H i column density and low metallicity are essential for Lyα escape and make a galaxy an Lyα emitter.

  3. The influence of panic on the efficiency of escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jia-Quan; Wang, Xu-Wen; Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2018-02-01

    Whenever we (such as pedestrians) perceive a high density or imminent danger in a confined space, we tend to be panic, which can lead to severe injuries even in the absence of real dangers. Although it is difficult to measure panics in real conditions, we introduced a simple model to study the collective behaviors in condition of fire with dense smoke. Owing to blocking the sight with dense smoke, pedestrians in this condition have two strategies to escape: random-walking or walking along the wall. When the pedestrians are in moderate panic that mean the two types of behaviors are mixed(random-walking and walking along the wall). Our simulation results show that moderate panic, meaning that two escape strategies are mixed, reduces the escape time. In addition, the results indicate that moderate panic can improve the efficiency of escape, this theory also can be useful in a real escape situation. We hope that our research provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of panic escape in the condition of poor sight.

  4. Ion escape fluxes from the terrestrial high-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.R.; Schunk, R.W.; Moore, T.E.; Waite, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled continuity and momentum equations for H + , O + , and electrons were solved for the terrestrial ionosphere in order to determine the limiting ion escape fluxes at high latitudes. The effects of solar cycle, season, geomagnetic activity, and the altitude of the acceleration region on the ion escape fluxes were studied for average conditions. In addition, a systematic parameter study was conducted to determine the extent to which variations in ionospheric conditions (for example, electron temperature, ion temperature, induced vertical ion drifts, etc.) can affect the results. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) as solar activity increases, the general trend is for an increase in the limiting O + escape flux and a decrease in the limiting H + escape flux; (2) in winter the limiting escape fluxes of both O + and H + are larger than those in summer, particularly for low geomagnetic activity; (3) the O + content of the ion outflow increases with increasing ''demand'' imposed on the ionosphere by a high-altitude acceleration process, with increasing solar activity, with increasing geomagnetic activity, with increasing solar elevation from winter to summer, and with a lowering of the altitude of the acceleration region; (4) when H + is in a near-diffusive equilibrium state and a selective mechanism accelerates O + , the limiting O + escape flux is significantly reduced compared to that obtained when an H + outflow also occurs; and (5) at a given time or location the general trends described above can be significantly modified or even reversed owing to natural variations of the ionospheric ion and electron temperatures, induced vertical ion drifts, etc. The general trends obtained for average conditions appear to mimic the qualitative behavior determined from statistically averaged data for comparable absolute escape flux magnitudes

  5. Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfano, Alessandra S; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Duarte, Ana P M; Villegas, Luis M; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Pinto, Luciana C; Campos, Keillen M M; Pinilla, Yudi T; Chaves, Bárbara; Barbosa Guerra, Maria G V; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Smith, Ryan C; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Secundino, Nágila F C; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-08-02

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected mosquito delivers Plasmodium sporozoites into a vertebrate host. There are many species of Plasmodium and, in general, the infection is host-specific. For example, Plasmodium gallinaceum is an avian parasite, while Plasmodium berghei infects mice. These two parasites have been extensively used as experimental models of malaria transmission. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most important agents of human malaria, a life-threatening disease of global importance. To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must traverse the mosquito midgut and form an oocyst that will divide continuously. Mature oocysts release thousands of sporozoites into the mosquito haemolymph that must reach the salivary gland to infect a new vertebrate host. The current understanding of the biology of oocyst formation and sporozoite release is mostly based on experimental infections with P. berghei, and the conclusions are generalized to other Plasmodium species that infect humans without further morphological analyses. Here, it is described the microanatomy of sporozoite escape from oocysts of four Plasmodium species: the two laboratory models, P. gallinaceum and P. berghei, and the two main species that cause malaria in humans, P. vivax and P. falciparum. It was found that sporozoites have species-specific mechanisms of escape from the oocyst. The two model species of Plasmodium had a common mechanism, in which the oocyst wall breaks down before sporozoites emerge. In contrast, P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites show a dynamic escape mechanism from the oocyst via polarized propulsion. This study demonstrated that Plasmodium species do not share a common mechanism of sporozoite escape, as previously thought, but show complex and species-specific mechanisms. In addition, the knowledge of this phenomenon in human Plasmodium can facilitate transmission-blocking studies and not those ones only based on the murine and avian models.

  6. Accounting for escape mortality in fisheries: implications for stock productivity and optimal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew R; Schindler, Daniel E; Essington, Timothy E; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have considered the management implications of mortality to target fish stocks caused by non-retention in commercial harvest gear (escape mortality). We demonstrate the magnitude of this previously unquantified source of mortality and its implications for the population dynamics of exploited stocks, biological metrics, stock productivity, and optimal management. Non-retention in commercial gillnet fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) is common and often leads to delayed mortality in spawning populations. This represents losses, not only to fishery harvest, but also in future recruitment to exploited stocks. We estimated incidence of non-retention in Alaskan gillnet fisheries for sockeye salmon (O. nerka) and found disentanglement injuries to be extensive and highly variable between years. Injuries related to non-retention were noted in all spawning populations, and incidence of injury ranged from 6% to 44% of escaped salmon across nine river systems over five years. We also demonstrate that non-retention rates strongly correlate with fishing effort. We applied maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches to stock-recruitment analyses, discounting estimates of spawning salmon to account for fishery-related mortality in escaped fish. Discounting spawning stock estimates as a function of annual fishing effort improved model fits to historical stock-recruitment data in most modeled systems. This suggests the productivity of exploited stocks has been systematically underestimated. It also suggests that indices of fishing effort may be used to predict escape mortality and correct for losses. Our results illustrate how explicitly accounting for collateral effects of fishery extraction may improve estimates of productivity and better inform management metrics derived from estimates of stock-recruitment analyses.

  7. To run or hide?: escape behaviour in a cryptic African snake | Maritz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal escape theory predicts that escape behaviour of an organism is best understood in terms of costs and benefits of escaping relative to risk of predation. However, risk of predation facing an organism is dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors. In order to better understand escape behaviour of an African snake, ...

  8. Improving escape panel selectivity in Nephrops directed fisheries by actively stimulating fish behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of escape panels inserted in trawls relies on fish actively attempting to escape through them. However, several studies indicate that most fish drift towards the aft end of the trawl, passing the escape panel through which they easily could have escaped, without making contact with...

  9. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Andrew; Venkatesan, Aparna; Shull, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  10. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Andrew [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Shull, J. Michael, E-mail: abenson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  11. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  12. Holocene earthquakes of magnitude 7 during westward escape of the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen; Wells, Ray; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Buck, Jason; Reitman, Nadine G.

    2017-01-01

    The Lake Creek–Boundary Creek fault, previously mapped in Miocene bedrock as an oblique thrust on the north flank of the Olympic Mountains, poses a significant earthquake hazard. Mapping using 2015 light detection and ranging (lidar) confirms 2004 lidar mapping of postglacial (≥14  km along a splay fault, the Sadie Creek fault, west of Lake Crescent. Scarp morphology suggests repeated earthquake ruptures along the eastern section of the Lake Creek–Boundary Creek fault and the Sadie Creek fault since ∼13  ka">∼13  ka. Right‐lateral (∼11–28  m">∼11–28  m) and vertical (1–2 m) cumulative fault offsets suggest slip rates of ∼1–2  mm/yr">∼1–2  mm/yr Stratigraphic and age‐model data from five trenches perpendicular to scarps at four sites on the eastern section of the fault show evidence of 3–5 surface‐rupturing earthquakes. Near‐vertical fault dips and upward‐branching fault patterns in trenches, abrupt changes in the thickness of stratigraphic units across faults, and variations in vertical displacement of successive stratigraphic units along fault traces also suggest a large lateral component of slip. Age models suggest two earthquakes date from 1.3±0.8">1.3±0.8 and 2.9±0.6  ka">2.9±0.6  ka; evidence and ages for 2–3 earlier earthquakes are less certain. Assuming 3–5 postglacial earthquakes, lateral and vertical cumulative fault offsets yield average slip per earthquake of ∼4.6  m">∼4.6  m, a lateral‐to‐vertical slip ratio of ∼10:1">∼10:1, and a recurrence interval of 3.5±1.0  ka">3.5±1.0  ka. Empirical relations yield moment magnitude estimates of M 7.2–7.5 (slip per earthquake) and 7.1–7.3 (56 km maximum rupture length). An apparent left‐lateral Miocene to right‐lateral Holocene slip reversal on the faults is probably related to overprinting of east‐directed, accretion‐dominated deformation in the eastern core of the Olympic

  13. Passive Facebook use, Facebook addiction, and associations with escapism: an experimental vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Young, LN; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Howard, CJ

    2017-01-01

    There is relatively little research considering motivations of passive Facebook use. However, research regarding motivations of general Facebook use indicates that people use Facebook to escape – and that escapism may motivate passive Facebook use. Research also suggests that using Facebook to escape is associated with Facebook addiction. Using an experimental vignette design, the present research investigated whether passive Facebook use is motivated by escapism and whether this escape motiv...

  14. An anticipative escape system for vehicles in water crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuanliang; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Qi; Zhu, Yantao; Yang, Jiawei; Liao, Mengdi; Yang, Liming

    2017-07-01

    In this article, it designs an escape system for vehicles in water crashes. The structure mainly contains sensors, control organs and actuating mechanism for both doors and windows. Sensors judge whether the vehicle falls into water or is in the falling process. The actuating mechanism accepts the signal delivered by the control organs, then open the electronic central lock on doors and meanwhile lower the window. The water escape system is able to anticipate drowning situations for vehicles and controls both doors and windows in such an emergency. Under the premise of doors staying in an undamaged state, it is for sure that people in the vehicle can open the door while drowning in the water and safely escape.

  15. Escaping and Falling into Poverty in India Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Amit; Vanneman, Reeve; Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2017-05-01

    The study examines the dynamic nature of movements into and out of poverty over a period when poverty has fallen substantially in India. The analysis identifies people who escaped poverty and those who fell into it over the period 2005 to 2012. The analysis identifies people who escaped poverty and those who fell into it over the period 2005 to 2012. Using panel data from the India Human Development Survey for 2005 and 2012, we find that the risks of marginalized communities such as Dalits and Adivasis of falling into or remaining in poverty were higher than those for more privileged groups. Some, but not all of these higher risks are explained by educational, financial, and social disadvantages of these groups in 2005. Results from a logistic regression show that some factors that help people escape poverty differ from those that push people into it and that the strength of their effects varies.

  16. Escape response of planktonic protists to fluid mechanical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2001-01-01

    The escape response to fluid mechanical signals was examined in 6 protists, 4 ciliates and 2 dinoflagellates. When exposed to a siphon flow. 3 species of ciliates, Balanion comatum, Strobilidium sp., and Mesodinium pulex, responded with escape jumps. The threshold deformation rates required...... times lower than that of a non-jumping similar sized protist when the predator was Temora longicornis, which captures prey entrained in a feeding current. However, when the predator was the ambush- feeding copepod Acartia tonsa, the predation mortalities of jumping and non-jumping protists were...... of similar magnitude. Escape responses may thus be advantageous in some situations. However, jumping behaviour may also enhance susceptibility to some predators, explaining the different predator avoidance strategies (jumping or not) that have evolved in planktonic protists....

  17. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  18. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  19. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  20. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-30

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  1. A quantitative quasispecies theory-based model of virus escape mutation under immune selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-June; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-08-07

    Viral infections involve a complex interplay of the immune response and escape mutation of the virus quasispecies inside a single host. Although fundamental aspects of such a balance of mutation and selection pressure have been established by the quasispecies theory decades ago, its implications have largely remained qualitative. Here, we present a quantitative approach to model the virus evolution under cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response. The virus quasispecies dynamics are explicitly represented by mutations in the combined sequence space of a set of epitopes within the viral genome. We stochastically simulated the growth of a viral population originating from a single wild-type founder virus and its recognition and clearance by the immune response, as well as the expansion of its genetic diversity. Applied to the immune escape of a simian immunodeficiency virus epitope, model predictions were quantitatively comparable to the experimental data. Within the model parameter space, we found two qualitatively different regimes of infectious disease pathogenesis, each representing alternative fates of the immune response: It can clear the infection in finite time or eventually be overwhelmed by viral growth and escape mutation. The latter regime exhibits the characteristic disease progression pattern of human immunodeficiency virus, while the former is bounded by maximum mutation rates that can be suppressed by the immune response. Our results demonstrate that, by explicitly representing epitope mutations and thus providing a genotype-phenotype map, the quasispecies theory can form the basis of a detailed sequence-specific model of real-world viral pathogens evolving under immune selection.

  2. Escape angles in bulk chi((2)) soliton interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Bang, Ole; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory for nonplanar interaction between two identical type I spatial solitons propagating at opposite, but arbitrary transverse angles in quadratic nonlinear (or so-called chi((2))) bulk, media. We predict quantitatively the outwards escape angle, below which the solitons turn around...

  3. EscapeScape: Simulating Ecopedagogy for the Tourist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshifumi

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education as a theory and practice of ecopedagogical simulation positively acknowledges various accidental happenings in the learner's experience. By working with and on the accidents, the learner is encouraged to imagine the real object that escapes his/her experience and thus cannot be and should not be reduced into human…

  4. 46 CFR 169.313 - Means of escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of escape. 169.313 Section 169.313 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... apart, uniform for the length of the ladder; (3) At least 3 inches from the nearest permanent object in...

  5. Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, Roger C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Ronald Reagan's use of inventional metaphors of entrapment and escape, language meshing with the American public's perception of the economy in the early 1980s. Notes that Reagan's reliance on inventional metaphors produced a rigidity in his approach to new situations, ultimately damaging his ability to lead the nation. (MM)

  6. The escape of brownian particle over potential barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yunxiao

    1985-01-01

    A convenient method is introduced to calculate the rate of escape of Brownian particle over potential barriers by exact solution of Smoluchowskian equation. This method is applied to calculate the nuclear fission probabilities. The results for four different cases are compared with the results of other theories

  7. Escape patterns due to ergodic magnetic limiters in tokamaks with reversed magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.; Da Silva, E.C.; Caldas, I.L.; Viana, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we study the ergodic magnetic limiters (EML) action on field lines from the point of view of a chaotic scattering process, considering the so-called exit basins, or sets of points in the chaotic region which originate field lines hitting the wall in some specified region. We divide the tokamak wall into three areas of equal poloidal angular length, corresponding to different exits for a chaotic field line. In order to obtain the exit basins we used a grid chosen inside a small rectangle which comprises a representative part of the chaotic region near the wall. Thus, exit basins were obtained for a tokamak wall with reversed magnetic shear. The no-twist mapping describes the perturbed magnetic field lines with two chains of magnetic islands and chaotic field lines in their vicinity. For a perturbing resonant magnetic field with a fixed helicity, the observed escape pattern changes with the perturbation intensity. (authors)

  8. Lyα Profile, Dust, and Prediction of Lyα Escape Fraction in Green Pea Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Dijkstra, Mark; Tilvi, V.; Wang, Junxian

    2017-08-01

    We studied Lyman-α (Lyα) escape in a statistical sample of 43 Green Peas with HST/COS Lyα spectra. Green Peas are nearby star-forming galaxies with strong [O III]λ5007 emission lines. Our sample is four times larger than the previous sample and covers a much more complete range of Green Pea properties. We found that about two-thirds of Green Peas are strong Lyα line emitters with rest-frame Lyα equivalent width > 20 \\mathringA . The Lyα profiles of Green Peas are diverse. The Lyα escape fraction, defined as the ratio of observed Lyα flux to intrinsic Lyα flux, shows anti-correlations with a few Lyα kinematic features—both the blue peak and red peak velocities, the peak separations, and the FWHM of the red portion of the Lyα profile. Using properties measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey optical spectra, we found many correlations—the Lyα escape fraction generally increases at lower dust reddening, lower metallicity, lower stellar mass, and higher [O III]/[O II] ratio. We fit their Lyα profiles with the H I shell radiative transfer model and found that the Lyα escape fraction is anti-correlated with the best-fit N H I . Finally, we fit an empirical linear relation to predict {f}{esc}{Lyα } from the dust extinction and Lyα red peak velocity. The standard deviation of this relation is about 0.3 dex. This relation can be used to isolate the effect of intergalactic medium (IGM) scatterings from Lyα escape and to probe the IGM optical depth along the line of sight of each z> 7 Lyα emission-line galaxy in the James Webb Space Telescope era.

  9. Statistical analysis of MMS observations of energetic electron escape observed at/beyond the dayside magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ian J.; Mauk, Barry H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Sibeck, David G.; Turner, Drew L.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Blake, J. Bern; Jaynes, Allison N.; Leonard, Trevor W.; Baker, Daniel N.; Spence, Harlan E.; Reeves, Geoff D.; Giles, Barbara J.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.

    2017-09-01

    Observations from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) instrument suite aboard the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft show that energetic (greater than tens of keV) magnetospheric particle escape into the magnetosheath occurs commonly across the dayside. This includes the surprisingly frequent observation of magnetospheric electrons in the duskside magnetosheath, an unexpected result given assumptions regarding magnetic drift shadowing. The 238 events identified in the 40 keV electron energy channel during the first MMS dayside season that exhibit strongly anisotropic pitch angle distributions indicating monohemispheric field-aligned streaming away from the magnetopause. A review of the extremely rich literature of energetic electron observations beyond the magnetopause is provided to place these new observations into historical context. Despite the extensive history of such research, these new observations provide a more comprehensive data set that includes unprecedented magnetic local time (MLT) coverage of the dayside equatorial magnetopause/magnetosheath. These data clearly highlight the common escape of energetic electrons along magnetic field lines concluded to have been reconnected across the magnetopause. While these streaming escape events agree with prior studies which show strong correlation with geomagnetic activity (suggesting a magnetotail source) and occur most frequently during periods of southward IMF, the high number of duskside events is unexpected and previously unobserved. Although the lowest electron energy channel was the focus of this study, the events reported here exhibit pitch angle anisotropies indicative of streaming up to 200 keV, which could represent the magnetopause loss of >1 MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt.

  10. Statistical analysis of MMS observations of energetic electron escape observed at/beyond the dayside magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Ian J.; Mauk, Barry H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Sibeck, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, observations from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) instrument suite aboard the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft show that energetic (greater than tens of keV) magnetospheric particle escape into the magnetosheath occurs commonly across the dayside. This includes the surprisingly frequent observation of magnetospheric electrons in the duskside magnetosheath, an unexpected result given assumptions regarding magnetic drift shadowing. The 238 events identified in the 40 keV electron energy channel during the first MMS dayside season that exhibit strongly anisotropic pitch angle distributions indicating monohemispheric field-aligned streaming away from the magnetopause. A review of the extremely rich literature of energetic electron observations beyond the magnetopause is provided to place these new observations into historical context. Despite the extensive history of such research, these new observations provide a more comprehensive data set that includes unprecedented magnetic local time (MLT) coverage of the dayside equatorial magnetopause/magnetosheath. These data clearly highlight the common escape of energetic electrons along magnetic field lines concluded to have been reconnected across the magnetopause. While these streaming escape events agree with prior studies which show strong correlation with geomagnetic activity (suggesting a magnetotail source) and occur most frequently during periods of southward IMF, the high number of duskside events is unexpected and previously unobserved. Although the lowest electron energy channel was the focus of this study, the events reported here exhibit pitch angle anisotropies indicative of streaming up to 200 keV, which could represent the magnetopause loss of >1 MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt.

  11. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. I. Flight kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    Hummingbirds are nature's masters of aerobatic manoeuvres. Previous research shows that hummingbirds and insects converged evolutionarily upon similar aerodynamic mechanisms and kinematics in hovering. Herein, we use three-dimensional kinematic data to begin to test for similar convergence of kinematics used for escape flight and to explore the effects of body size upon manoeuvring. We studied four hummingbird species in North America including two large species (magnificent hummingbird, Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g, and blue-throated hummingbird, Lampornis clemenciae, 8.0 g) and two smaller species (broad-billed hummingbird, Cynanthus latirostris, 3.4 g, and black-chinned hummingbirds Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g). Starting from a steady hover, hummingbirds consistently manoeuvred away from perceived threats using a drastic escape response that featured body pitch and roll rotations coupled with a large linear acceleration. Hummingbirds changed their flapping frequency and wing trajectory in all three degrees of freedom on a stroke-by-stroke basis, likely causing rapid and significant alteration of the magnitude and direction of aerodynamic forces. Thus it appears that the flight control of hummingbirds does not obey the 'helicopter model' that is valid for similar escape manoeuvres in fruit flies. Except for broad-billed hummingbirds, the hummingbirds had faster reaction times than those reported for visual feedback control in insects. The two larger hummingbird species performed pitch rotations and global-yaw turns with considerably larger magnitude than the smaller species, but roll rates and cumulative roll angles were similar among the four species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Library Lockdown: An escape room by kids for the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Thoegersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Hoping to bring the unexpected to Nebraska City, the Morton-James Public Library applied for an ALA Association for Library Service to Children Curiosity Creates grant to undertake an ambitious project: build an escape room. In a library storage room. With children. The hope was  by trying something completely different, we could increase interest in the library throughout the community and build a sense of ownership in the participants, while encouraging creativity and having a lot of fun. Library Lockdown was a four-month program that brought several dozen kids together—age 8 to 13—to build a fully-functioning escape room. Their creation, the Lab of Dr. Morton McBrains, is now open for business.

  13. Calculations of condensed moisture escape from a NPP spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratuta, Eh. G.; Yaroshenko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating water losses due to condensed moisture escape with a wind away from a spray pond used for cooling steam turbine condensator water and emergency nuclear reactor cooling is developed. The method is based on solving a three-dimensional equation of single drop motion, assuming that during the whole flight only gravity and aerodynamic resistance forces act on a drop. The basic parameter variation ranges are the following: 0-18 m/s wind velocity, 0.04-0.12 MPa pressure drop at the nozzle output, 1-2 m height of sprayers above the pond mirror. The given method permits to determine both the amount of circulation water loss and the local liquid flow rate distribution pattern as well as the area around the pond receiving the escaped moisture that is necessary for estimating the ecological situation near a NPP

  14. Fixation and escape times in stochastic game learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realpe-Gomez, John; Szczesny, Bartosz; Galla, Tobias; Dall’Asta, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics in finite populations is known to fixate eventually in the absence of mutation. We here show that a similar phenomenon can be found in stochastic game dynamical batch learning, and investigate fixation in learning processes in a simple 2×2 game, for two-player games with cyclic interaction, and in the context of the best-shot network game. The analogues of finite populations in evolution are here finite batches of observations between strategy updates. We study when and how such fixation can occur, and present results on the average time-to-fixation from numerical simulations. Simple cases are also amenable to analytical approaches and we provide estimates of the behaviour of so-called escape times as a function of the batch size. The differences and similarities with escape and fixation in evolutionary dynamics are discussed. (paper)

  15. Quantum and thermal phase escape in extended Josephson systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this work I examine phase escape in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions. The sine-Gordon equation governs the dynamics of the phase variable along the junction. This equation supports topological soliton solutions, which correspond to quanta of magnetic flux trapped in the junction barrier. For such Josephson vortices an effective potential is formed by an external magnetic field, while a bias current acts as a driving force. Both together form a metastable potential well, which the vortex is trapped in. When the driving force exceeds the pinning force of the potential, the vortex escapes and the junction switches to the voltage state. At a finite temperature the driving force fluctuates. If the junction's energy scale is small, the phase variable can undergo a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process at temperatures below the crossover temperature. Without a vortex trapped, the metastable state is not a potential minimum in space, but a potential minimum at zero phase difference. (orig.)

  16. The production and escape of nitrogen atoms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Updated rate coefficients and a revised ionosphere-thermosphere model are used to compute the production rates and densities of odd nitrogen species in the Martian atmosphere. Computed density profiles for N(4S), N(2D), N(2P), and NO are presented. The model NO densities are found to be about a factor of 2-3 less than those measured by the Viking 1 mass spectrometer. Revised values for the escape rates of N atoms from dissociative recombination and ionospheric reactions are also computed. Dissociative recombination is found to be comparable in importance to photodissociation at low solar activity, but it is still the most important escape mechanism for N-14 at high solar activity.

  17. Quantum and thermal phase escape in extended Josephson systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.

    2006-07-12

    In this work I examine phase escape in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions. The sine-Gordon equation governs the dynamics of the phase variable along the junction. This equation supports topological soliton solutions, which correspond to quanta of magnetic flux trapped in the junction barrier. For such Josephson vortices an effective potential is formed by an external magnetic field, while a bias current acts as a driving force. Both together form a metastable potential well, which the vortex is trapped in. When the driving force exceeds the pinning force of the potential, the vortex escapes and the junction switches to the voltage state. At a finite temperature the driving force fluctuates. If the junction's energy scale is small, the phase variable can undergo a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process at temperatures below the crossover temperature. Without a vortex trapped, the metastable state is not a potential minimum in space, but a potential minimum at zero phase difference. (orig.)

  18. UNESCO to blame:Reality or easy escape?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Roders, A Ana; Grigolon, AB Anna

    2015-01-01

    “UNESCO to blame” is a trend often observed in scholarly works. In those studies UNESCO is accused to privilege Eurocentric standards on heritage conservation. Is this reality or an easy escape? Can this trend be noted in other UNESCO reference texts? This article seeks to answer this question by studying the two main inscription-based conventions and their contribution to heritage management, while performing a data analysis on the countries behind these conventions, and their roles over tim...

  19. The escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability. (Auth.)

  20. Escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S S [Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA)

    1977-09-01

    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability.

  1. ESCAPE: an integrated climate model for the EC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotmans, J.

    1992-01-01

    A framework has been developed for the evaluation of policy options for climate change, called ESCAPE (Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions). ESCAPE consists of a suite of linked models which enables scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions to be constructed and their impact on global and regional climate and sea level and sectors of the European economy to be assessed. Conclusions resulting from simulations with the ESCAPE 1.1 model include: the major problem of a climate change for the EC is a sea level rise; Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain will be faced with higher costs in the agricultural sector; worldwide implementation of an EC carbon tax leads to about 12% lower worldwide CO 2 emissions; to stabilize CO 2 emissions an Ecotax of 18 dollars per barrel would be required; and in all cases the rate of global temperature increase will be above the rate of 0.1 degree C per decade for the coming 40 years. 2 figs

  2. Anomalous barrier escape: The roles of noise distribution and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Zhang, Jia-Ming; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2017-05-01

    We study numerically and analytically the barrier escape dynamics of a particle driven by an underlying correlated Lévy noise for a smooth metastable potential. A "quasi-monochrome-color" Lévy noise, i.e., the first-order derivative variable of a linear second-order differential equation subjected to a symmetric α-stable white Lévy noise, also called the harmonic velocity Lévy noise, is proposed. Note that the time-integral of the noise Green function of this kind is equal to zero. This leads to the existence of underlying negative time correlation and implies that a step in one direction is likely followed by a step in the other direction. By using the noise of this kind as a driving source, we discuss the competition between long flights and underlying negative correlations in the metastable dynamics. The quite rich behaviors in the parameter space including an optimum α for the stationary escape rate have been found. Remarkably, slow diffusion does not decrease the stationary rate while a negative correlation increases net escape. An approximate expression for the Lévy-Kramers rate is obtained to support the numerically observed dependencies.

  3. Transitions between three swimming gaits in Paramecium escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amandine; Fisch, Cathy; Combettes, Laurent; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale; Baroud, Charles N

    2011-05-03

    Paramecium and other protists are able to swim at velocities reaching several times their body size per second by beating their cilia in an organized fashion. The cilia beat in an asymmetric stroke, which breaks the time reversal symmetry of small scale flows. Here we show that Paramecium uses three different swimming gaits to escape from an aggression, applied in the form of a focused laser heating. For a weak aggression, normal swimming is sufficient and produces a steady swimming velocity. As the heating amplitude is increased, a higher acceleration and faster swimming are achieved through synchronized beating of the cilia, which begin by producing oscillating swimming velocities and later give way to the usual gait. Finally, escape from a life-threatening aggression is achieved by a "jumping" gait, which does not rely on the cilia but is achieved through the explosive release of a group of trichocysts in the direction of the hot spot. Measurements through high-speed video explain the role of trichocysts in defending against aggressions while showing unexpected transitions in the swimming of microorganisms. These measurements also demonstrate that Paramecium optimizes its escape pattern by taking advantage of its inertia.

  4. Effective climate-energy solutions, escape routes and peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2012-01-01

    Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective in the absence of serious environmental regulation. This holds, among others, for direct support of clean energy, voluntary energy conservation, technical standards on a limited set of products, unilateral stringent carbon pricing, and awaiting peak oil as a climate strategy. All of these suffer from “escape routes” that indirectly increase CO 2 emissions and thus make the original strategy ineffective. On the other hand, environmental regulation alone may lead to a myopia-bias, stimulating early dominance of cost-effective technologies and a focus on incremental innovations associated with such technologies rather than on radical innovations. Although adopting a partial viewpoint keeps the analysis simple, we urgently need a more inclusive systems perspective on climate solutions. This will allow the formulation of an effective climate policy package that addresses the various escape routes. - Highlights: ► Many well-intended climate-energy strategies are ineffective because of escape routes. ► In this context the relationship between peak oil and climate policy receives attention. ► Environmental regulation alone creates myopia-bias, the resolution of which requires technology-specific policies. ► To formulate an effective climate policy package an inclusive systems perspective is needed.

  5. Escape Geography--Developing Middle-School Students' Sense of Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rodney F.; Molina, Laurie E. S.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a social studies unit on escaping geography. Examines escape from dangerous places including an airliner, hotel fire, or war zone or from a social situation such as a boring speech or party. Describes historic escapes such as the Underground Railroad and the Berlin Wall. Lists learning strategies such as awareness of space and cognitive…

  6. Associators in generalized octonionic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, C.J.; Joshi, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    Generalizing previous work, it is shown that structural transitions are a general property of a large class of octonionic maps. They can thus be used as an indicator of non-associativity in an octonionic map. 7 refs., ills

  7. Neurovascular plexus theory for "escape pain phenomenon" in lower third molar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj Arakeri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain during extraction of impacted mandibular third molars which can occur despite adequate local anesthesia is termed as "escape pain phenomenon". Recently, it was described during elevation of a mesioangular impacted mandibular third molar and also while curetting an extracted third molar socket. This phenomenon has been overlooked, as it was previously considered secondary to pressure effect on the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB. However, it is unlikely that the pain impulses originate from direct pressure on the IANB, as the nerve is blocked more proximally at its entry into the mandible. The authors speculated that the occasional presence of a neurovascular plexus (NVP independent of the IANB causes the escape of a pain impulse upon stimulation by root pressure or instrumentation. To validate the presence of such a plexus, a meticulous literature search and review were performed. The search revealed evidence of the occasional presence of a NVP consisting of auriculotemporal and/or retromolar neural filaments. The plexus may be present around the inferior alveolar artery or embedded within the IANB, and does not innervate the tooth. This plexus likely propagates pain impulses only upon stimulation by compression or instrumentation in the apical area of the tooth socket. This theory explains the absence of pain during tooth sectioning and bone guttering in the presence of a complete inferior alveolar nerve block.

  8. An X-linked homologue of the autosomal inprinted gene ZNF127 escapes X inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longstreet, M.; Nicholls, R.D.; Willard, H.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The ZNF127 gene has been shown to be subject to parental imprinting in both humans and the mouse and maps to within the Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome critical region on chromosome 15. We have cloned two X-linked related loci, one of which, ZNFXp is a transcribed gene while the other, ZNFXq, is an untranscribed pseudogene. ZNFXp is 83.6% identical to ZNFXq and 65.4% identical to ZNF127 over 1.4 kb of open reading frame they share in common, Like ZNF127, the predicted protein sequence of ZNFXp contains a C{sub 3}HC{sub 4} zinc finger domain and C{sub 3}H zinc finger-like motifs. Whereas ZNF127 has three C{sub 3}H motifs, ZNFXp has four. A strong CpG island is located within 1 kb 5{prime} of the predicted amino terminus of ZNFXp. Expression of ZNFXp has been detected from mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing either an active (n=2) or an inactive (n=4) chromosome, and thus escapes X inactivation. Probes made from the 3{prime} UTR of ZNFXp detect a number of related loci in both human and murine DNA, none of which is the ZNF127 locus on chromosome 15. None of the detectable murine bands shows dosage differences between males and females as would be expected for X-linked loci. This raises the possibility that ZNFXp inserted into the human X chromosome after its divergence from a common ancestor with the murine X. We have mapped ZNFXp to Xp11.4 by Southern blotting and PCR of hybrid DNAs and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). ZNFXq maps within the X Inactivation Center (XIC) region on Xq13.2, approximately 300 kb distal to the XIST gene. We find it intriguing, and perhaps significant, that two members of this gene family are subject to epigenetic regulation -- one autosomal imprinting, and the other escape from X inactivation. These results could imply an evolutionary and mechanistic relationship between these two processes.

  9. The effects of escape from self and interpersonal relationship on the pathological use of Internet games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hye; Chung, Chung-Suk; Lee, Jung

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Baumeister's escape from self theory may account for the pathological use of Internet games among Korean adolescents. A sample of 1,136 junior high school students completed measures assessing Internet game addiction (IGA), real-ideal self discrepancy, escape from self, current mood, peer relationships, perceived parent-child relationship, and parental supervision. IGA was significantly correlated with all of these variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that escape from self best explained the adolescents' IGA. A path model yielded significant paths from self-discrepancy to negative mood, from negative mood to escape from self, and from escape from self to IGA. These results support the validity of using the escape from self theory to explain the adolescents' IGA, thereby suggesting that adolescents become addicted to Internet games in an attempt to escape from self and reality.

  10. Transmitted/Founder Viruses Rapidly Escape from CD8+ T Cell Responses in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rowena A; Leung, Preston; Gaudieri, Silvana; Deshpande, Pooja; Cameron, Barbara; Walker, Melanie; Chopra, Abha; Lloyd, Andrew R; Luciani, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cellular immune responses during very early infection is critical for disease outcome. To date, the impact of antigen-specific cellular immune responses on the evolution of the viral population establishing infection and on potential escape has not been studied. Understanding these early host-virus dynamics is important for the development of a preventative vaccine. Three subjects who were followed longitudinally from the detection of viremia preseroconversion until disease outcome were analyzed. The evolution of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses was undertaken using deep sequencing. CD8(+) T cell responses were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay using HLA class I-restricted T/F epitopes. T/F viruses were rapidly extinguished in all subjects associated with either viral clearance (n = 1) or replacement with viral variants leading to establishment of chronic infection (n = 2). CD8(+) T cell responses against 11 T/F epitopes were detectable by 33 to 44 days postinfection, and 5 of these epitopes had not previously been reported. These responses declined rapidly in those who became chronically infected and were maintained in the subject who cleared infection. Higher-magnitude CD8(+) T cell responses were associated with rapid development of immune escape variants at a rate of up to 0.1 per day. Rapid escape from CD8(+) T cell responses has been quantified for the first time in the early phase of primary HCV infection. These rapid escape dynamics were associated with higher-magnitude CD8(+) T cell responses. These findings raise questions regarding optimal selection of immunogens for HCV vaccine development and suggest that detailed analysis of individual epitopes may be required. A major limitation in our detailed understanding of the role of immune response in HCV clearance has been the lack of data on very early primary infection when the transmitted viral variants successfully establish

  11. Early Hydrodynamic Escape Limits Rocky Planets to Less Than or Equal to 1.6 Earth Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, O. R.; Catling, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade thousands of exoplanet candidates and hundreds of confirmed exoplanets have been found. For sub-Neptune-sized planets, those less than approx. 10 Earth masses, we can separate planets into two broad categories: predominantly rocky planets, and gaseous planets with thick volatile sheaths. Observations and subsequent analysis of these planets show that rocky planets are only found with radii less than approx. 1.6 Earth radii. No rocky planet has yet been found that violates this limit. We propose that hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen rich protoatmospheres, accreted by forming planets, explains the limit in rocky planet size. Following the hydrodynamic escape model employed by Luger et al. (2015), we modelled the XUV driven escape from young planets (less than approx.100 Myr in age) around a Sun-like star. With a simple, first-order model we found that the rocky planet radii limit occurs consistently at approx. 1.6 Earth radii across a wide range of plausible parameter spaces. Our model shows that hydrodynamic escape can explain the observed cutoff between rocky and gaseous planets. Fig. 1 shows the results of our model for rocky planets between 0.5 and 10 Earth masses that accrete 3 wt. % H2/He during formation. The simulation was run for 100 Myr, after that time the XUV flux drops off exponentially and hydrodynamic escape drops with it. A cutoff between rocky planets and gaseous ones is clearly seen at approx. 1.5-1.6 Earth radii. We are only interested in the upper size limit for rocky planets. As such, we assumed pure hydrogen atmospheres and the highest possible isothermal atmospheric temperatures, which will produce an upper limit on the hydrodynamic loss rate. Previous work shows that a reasonable approximation for an upper temperature limit in a hydrogen rich protoatmosphere is 2000-3000 K, consistent with our assumptions. From these results, we propose that the observed dichotomy between mini-Neptunes and rocky worlds is simply explained by

  12. Escaping the Self: Identity, Group Identification and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hardie-Bick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on the early work of Erich Fromm. In Escape from Freedom Fromm (1969 [1941] directly addressed the psychological mechanisms of escape modern individuals employ to protect themselves from feelings of ontological insecurity and existential estrangement. The article builds on Fromm’s analysis by discussing the significance of his escape mechanisms for understanding the dynamic psychological attractions of identifying with entitative groups. Fromm’s work will be discussed in relation to Hogg’s recent work on uncertainty-identity theory. The aim of the article is to examine the advantages of combining Fromm’s psychoanalytic analysis with Hogg’s uncertainty-identity theory and to highlight the potential this approach has for understanding why groups engage in violent and destructive behaviour. Este artículo se inspira en las primeras obras de Erich Fromm. En El miedo a la libertad, Fromm (1969 [1941] abordó directamente los mecanismos psicológicos de evasión que los individuos modernos emplean para protegerse de los sentimientos de inseguridad ontológica y distanciamiento existencial. Este artículo se basa en el análisis de Fromm exponiendo el significado de sus mecanismos de evasión para entender las atracciones psicológicas dinámicas de identificación con grupos entitativos. Se analizará la obra de Fromm en relación con la obra reciente de Hogg sobre la teoría de incertidumbre identitaria. El objetivo del artículo es examinar las ventajas de combinar el análisis psicoanalítico de Fromm con la teoría de incertidumbre identitaria de Hogg, y destacar el potencial que tiene esta aproximación para comprender por qué los grupos adoptan un comportamiento violento y destructivo. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2875737

  13. Escape trajectories of solar sails and general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F., E-mail: jvazquez-poritz@citytech.cuny.ed [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2009-11-16

    General relativity can have a significant impact on the long-range escape trajectories of solar sails deployed near the sun. For example, spacetime curvature in the vicinity of the sun can cause a solar sail traveling from about 4 solar radii to 2550 AU to be deflected by on the order of a million kilometers, and should therefore be taken into account at the beginning of the mission. There are a number of smaller general relativistic effects, such as frame dragging due to the slow rotation of the sun which can cause a deflection of more than one thousand kilometers.

  14. Diffusion escape through a cluster of small absorbing windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcman, D [Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Schuss, Z [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2008-04-18

    We study the first eigenvalue of the Laplace equation in a bounded domain in R{sup d} (d=2,3) with mixed Neumann-Dirichlet (Zaremba) boundary conditions. The Neumann condition is imposed on most of the boundary and the Dirichlet boundary consists of a cluster of small windows. When the windows are well separated the first eigenvalue is asymptotically the sum of eigenvalues of mixed problems with a single Dirichlet window. However, when two or more Dirichlet windows cluster tightly together they interact nonlinearly. We compare our asymptotic approximation of the eigenvalue to the escape rate of simulated Brownian particles through the small windows.

  15. Chases and escapes the mathematics of pursuit and evasion

    CERN Document Server

    Nahin, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We all played tag when we were kids. What most of us don't realize is that this simple chase game is in fact an application of pursuit theory, and that the same principles of games like tag, dodgeball, and hide-and-seek are also at play in military strategy, high-seas chases by the Coast Guard, and even romantic pursuits. In Chases and Escapes, Paul Nahin gives us the first complete history of this fascinating area of mathematics, from its classical analytical beginnings to the present day. Drawing on game theory, geometry, linear algebra, target-tracking algorithms, and much

  16. Experimental study of subsonic microjet escaping from a rectangular nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.; Mukhin, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    The first experiments on the subsonic laminar microjets escaping from the nozzles of rectangular shape are carried out. The nozzle size is 83.3x3823 microns. Reynolds number calculated by the nozzle height and the average flow velocity at the nozzle exit ranged from 58 to 154. The working gas was air at room temperature. The velocity decay and velocity fluctuations along the center line of the jet are determined. The fundamental difference between the laminar microjets characteristics and subsonic turbulent jets of macro size is shown. Based on measurements of velocity fluctuations it is shown the presence of laminar-turbulent transition in microjets and its location is determined.

  17. The age structure of selected countries in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1982-01-01

    The study objective was to examine the age structure of selected countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, using available data and frequently applied indices such as the population pyramid, aged-child ratio, and median age. Based on the overall picture of the age structure thus obtained, age trends and their implication for the near future were arrived at. Countries are grouped into 4 types based on the fertility and mortality levels. Except for Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, the age structure in the 18 ESCAP region countries changed comparatively little over the 1950-80 period. The largest structural change occurred in Singapore, where the proportion of children under age 15 in the population declined significantly from 41-27%, while that of persons 65 years and older more than doubled. This was due primarily to the marked decline in fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6.7-1.8 during the period. Hong Kong also had a similar major transformation during the same period: the proportion of the old age population increased 2 1/2 times, from 2.5-6.3%. The age structures of the 18 ESCAP countries varied greatly by country. 10 countries of the 2 high fertility and mortality types showed a similar young age structural pattern, i.e., they have higher dependency ratios, a higher proportion of children under 15 years, a lower proportion of population 65 years and older, lower aged-child ratios, and younger median ages than the average countries in the less developed regions of the world. With minimal changes over the 1950-80 period, the gap between these countries and the average of the less developed regions widened. Unlike these 10 (mostly South Asian) countries, moderately low fertility and mortality countries (China, Korea, and Sri Lanka) are located between the world average and the less developed region in most of the indices, particularly during the last decade. Although their rate of population aging is not

  18. Escape trajectories of solar sails and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F.

    2009-01-01

    General relativity can have a significant impact on the long-range escape trajectories of solar sails deployed near the sun. For example, spacetime curvature in the vicinity of the sun can cause a solar sail traveling from about 4 solar radii to 2550 AU to be deflected by on the order of a million kilometers, and should therefore be taken into account at the beginning of the mission. There are a number of smaller general relativistic effects, such as frame dragging due to the slow rotation of the sun which can cause a deflection of more than one thousand kilometers.

  19. International Environmental Agreements: Emissions Trade, Safety Valves and Escape Clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Larry; Zhao, Jinhua

    2010-01-01

    We explain how the structure of multi-national or multi-regional environmental agreements affect their chance of success. Trade in emissions permits has ambiguous and in some cases surprising effects on both the equilibrium level of abatement, and on the ability to persuade nations or regions to participate in environmental agreements. An escape clause policy and a safety valve policy have essentially the same properties when membership in environmental agreement is pre-determined, but they create markedly different effects on the incentives to join such an agreement. The two policies lead to a qualitative difference in the leverage that a potential member of the agreement exercises on other members

  20. The case of escape probability as linear in short time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2018-02-01

    We derive rigorously the short-time escape probability of a quantum particle from its compactly supported initial state, which has a discontinuous derivative at the boundary of the support. We show that this probability is linear in time, which seems to be a new result. The novelty of our calculation is the inclusion of the boundary layer of the propagated wave function formed outside the initial support. This result has applications to the decay law of the particle, to the Zeno behaviour, quantum absorption, time of arrival, quantum measurements, and more.

  1. Mechanisms of Pulmonary Escape and Dissemination by Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Denham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental saprophyte and human fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Similar to many environmentally acquired human fungal pathogens, C. neoformans initiates infection in the lungs. However, the main driver of mortality is invasive cryptococcosis leading to fungal meningitis. After C. neoformans gains a foothold in the lungs, a critical early step in invasion is transversal of the respiratory epithelium. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to pulmonary escape. We focus on fungal factors that allow C. neoformans to disseminate from the lungs via intracellular and extracellular routes.

  2. European SpaceCraft for the study of Atmospheric Particle Escape (ESCAPE): a planetary mission to Earth, proposed in response to the ESA M5-call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, I.; Yamauchi, M.; Rème, H.; De Keyser, J.; Marghitu, O.; Fazakerley, A.; Grison, B.; Kistler, L.; Milillo, A.; Nakamura, R.; Paschalidis, N.; Paschalis, A.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Sakanoi, T.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.; Yoshikawa, I.; Häggström, I.; Liemohn, M.; Tian, F.

    2017-09-01

    ESCAPE is a mission proposed in response to the ESA-M5 call that will quantitatively estimate the amount of escaping particles of the major atmospheric components (nitrogen and oxygen), as neutral and ionised species, escaping from the Earth as a magnetised planet. The goal is to understand the importance of each escape mechanism, its dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity, and to infer the history of the Earth's atmospheric composition over a long (geological scale) time period. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. The result will be used as a reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetised planets, which is essential for habitability.

  3. New insights on the collisional escape of light neutrals from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Zahnle, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Photodissociative recombination (PDR) of atmospheric molecules on Mars is a major mechanism of production of hot (suprathermal) atoms with sufficient kinetic energy to either directly escape to space or to eject other atmospheric species. This collisional ejection mechanism is important for evaluating the escape rates of all light neutrals that are too heavy to escape via Jeans escape. In particular, it plays a role in estimating the total volume of escaped water constituents (i.e., O and H) from Mars, as well as influences evolution of the atmospheric [D]/[H] ratio1. We present revised estimates of total collisional escape rates of neutral light elements including H, He, and H2, based on recent (years 2015-2016) atmospheric density profiles obtained from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission. We also estimate the contribution to the collisional escape from Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) produced in charge-exchange of solar wind H+ and He+ ions with atmospheric gases2,3. Scattering of hot oxygen and atmospheric species of interest is modeled using fully-quantum reactive scattering formalism1,3. The escape rates are evaluated using a 1D model of the atmosphere supplemented with MAVEN measurements of the neutrals. Finally, new estimates of contributions of these non-thermal mechanisms to the estimated PDR escape rates from young Mars4 are presented. [1] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars", Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012). [2] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, "Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Escape Fluxes induced from the Mars Atmosphere", Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014). [3] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal production and escape of OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars", Icarus 284, 90 (2017). [4] J. Zhao, F. Tian, Y. Ni, and X. Huang, "DR-induced escape of O and C from early Mars", Icarus 284, 305 (2017).

  4. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  5. Ultra-fast Escape of a Octopus-inspired Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, Gabriel; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The octopus, squid, and other cephalopods inflate with water and then release a jet to accelerate in the opposite direction. This escape mechanism is particularly interesting in the octopus because they become initially quite bluff, yet this does not hinder them in achieving impressive bursts of speed. We examine this somewhat paradoxical maneuver using a simple deflating spheroid model in both potential and viscous flow. We demonstrate that the dynamic reduction of the width of the body completely changes the flow and forces acting on the escaping rocket in three ways. First, a body which reduces in size can generate an added mass thrust which counteracts the added mass inertia. Second, the motion of the shrinking wall acts similar to suction on a static wall, reducing separation and drag forces in a viscous fluid, but that this effects depends on the rate of size change. Third, using a combination of these two features it is possible to initially load the fluid with kinetic energy when heavy and bluff and then recover that energy when streamlined and light, enabling ultra-fast accelerations. As a notable example, these mechanisms allow a shrinking spheroid rocket in a heavy inviscid fluid to achieve speeds greater than an identical rocket in the vacuum of space. Southampton Marine and Maritime Institute.

  6. Lionfish misidentification circumvents an optimized escape response by prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Mark I; Allan, Bridie J M

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish represent an unprecedented problem in the Caribbean basin, where they are causing major changes to foodwebs and habitats through their generalized predation on fishes and invertebrates. To ascertain what makes the red lionfish ( Pterois volitans ) such a formidable predator, we examined the reaction of a native damselfish prey, the whitetail damsel ( Pomacentrus chrysurus ), to a repeatable startle stimulus once they had been forewarned of the sight or smell of lionfish. Fast-start responses were compared with prey forewarned of a predatory rockcod ( Cephalopholis microprion ), a corallivorous butterflyfish ( Chaetodon trifasctiatus ) and experimental controls. Forewarning of the sight, smell or a combination of the two cues from a rockcod led to reduced escape latencies and higher response distances, speed and maximal speed compared with controls, suggesting that forewarning primed the prey and enabled a more effective escape response. In contrast, forewarning of lionfish did not affect the fast-start kinematics measured, which were the same as in the control and non-predatory butterflyfish treatments. Lionfish appear to be able to circumvent mechanisms commonly used by prey to identify predators and were misclassified as non-predatory, and this is likely to contribute to their success as predators.

  7. Escape of charged particles from a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of particle trajectories in an axisymmetric magnetic field, formulated by C. Stormer, can be extended to cover conservative force fields as well. As such, it is an ideal tool to study the escape of charged particles from a rapidly rotating neutron star, enabling one to determine the maximum range of their trajectories in space. With the aid of this theory, it is shown that a neutron star, rotating in a vacuum with rotation and magnetic axes aligned, will not evolve a perfectly conducting magnetosphere if the neutron star is the only source of charge. The sign of charge accelerated from the equatorial regions will be magnetically trapped to a toroidal region very near the star, and the opposite sign of charge, emerging from the polar regions, will escape from the magnetosphere until a critical stellar charge is reached, after which polar charges will be electrostatically bound to the magnetosphere. This selective magnetic trapping of one sign of charge, which prevents the formation of a stellar wind, is a consequence of the magnetic field's orientation relative to the internal charge density of the neutron star

  8. Orbital and escape dynamics in barred galaxies - III. The 3D system: correlations between the basins of escape and the NHIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.; Jung, Christof

    2018-01-01

    The escape dynamics of the stars in a barred galaxy composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar, a flat thin disc and a dark matter halo component is investigated by using a realistic three degrees of freedom (3-d.o.f.) dynamical model. Modern colour-coded diagrams are used for distinguishing between bounded and escaping motion. In addition, the smaller alignment index method is deployed for determining the regular, sticky or chaotic nature of bounded orbits. We reveal the basins of escape corresponding to the escape through the two symmetrical escape channels around the Lagrange points L2 and L3 and also we relate them with the corresponding distribution of the escape times of the orbits. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the stable manifolds, around the index-1 saddle points, accurately define the fractal basin boundaries observed in the colour-coded diagrams. The development scenario of the fundamental vertical Lyapunov periodic orbit is thoroughly explored for obtaining a more complete view of the unfolding of the singular behaviour of the dynamics at the cusp values of the parameters. Finally, we examine how the combination of the most important parameters of the bar (such as the semimajor axis and the angular velocity) influences the observed stellar structures (rings and spirals), which are formed by escaping stars guided by the invariant manifolds near the saddle points.

  9. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2012-01-01

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response.

  10. Integrating geographical information and augmented reality techniques for mobile escape guidelines on nuclear accident sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Kuan; Lee, Yung-Ching; Lu, Chung-Hsin; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Chou, Tien-Yin; Yau, Nie-Jia

    2012-07-01

    During nuclear accidents, when radioactive materials spread into the environment, the people in the affected areas should evacuate immediately. However, few information systems are available regarding escape guidelines for nuclear accidents. Therefore, this study constructs escape guidelines on mobile phones. This application is called Mobile Escape Guidelines (MEG) and adopts two techniques. One technique is the geographical information that offers multiple representations; the other is the augmented reality that provides semi-realistic information services. When this study tested the mobile escape guidelines, the results showed that this application was capable of identifying the correct locations of users, showing the escape routes, filtering geographical layers, and rapidly generating the relief reports. Users could evacuate from nuclear accident sites easily, even without relief personnel, since using slim devices to access the mobile escape guidelines is convenient. Overall, this study is a useful reference for a nuclear accident emergency response. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gamma-ray escape peak characteristics of radiation-damaged reverse-electrode germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.; Hull, E.L.; Madden, N.W.; Xing Jingshu; Friesel, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the characteristics of full-energy gamma-ray peaks and their corresponding escape peaks when high energy photons interact in radiation damaged reverse-electrode (n-type) germanium coaxial detectors is presented. Coaxial detector geometry is the dominant factor, causing charge collection to be dramatically better for interactions occurring near the outer periphery of the detector as well as increasing of the probability of escape events occurring in this region. It follows that the resolution of escape peaks is better than that of ordinary gamma-ray peaks. This is experimentally verified. A nearly identical but undamaged detector exhibited significant Doppler broadening of single escape peaks. Because double escape events preferentially occur at outer radii, energy shifts of double escape reflect extremely small amounts of charge trapping in undamaged detectors. (orig.)

  12. Escaping Electrons from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions as a Function of Laser Spot Size

    OpenAIRE

    Rusby, Dean; Gray, Ross; Butler, Nick; Dance, Rachel; Scott, Graeme; Bagnoud, Vincent; Zielbauer, Bernhard; McKenna, Paul; Neely, David

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of a high-intensity laser with a solid target produces an energetic distribution of electrons that pass into the target. These electrons reach the rear surface of the target creating strong electric potentials that act to restrict the further escape of additional electrons. The measurement of the angle, flux and spectra of the electrons that do escape gives insights to the initial interaction. Here, the escaping electrons have been measured using a differentially filtered imag...

  13. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. Howe...

  14. Antibody escape kinetics of equine infectious anemia virus infection of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elissa J; Nanda, Seema; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-07-01

    Lentivirus escape from neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is not well understood. In this work, we quantified antibody escape of a lentivirus, using antibody escape data from horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus. We calculated antibody blocking rates of wild-type virus, fitness costs of mutant virus, and growth rates of both viruses. These quantitative kinetic estimates of antibody escape are important for understanding lentiviral control by antibody neutralization and in developing NAb-eliciting vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Sharks modulate their escape behavior in response to predator size, speed and approach orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamone, Scott; Blaine, Tristan; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-12-01

    Escape responses are often critical for surviving predator-prey interactions. Nevertheless, little is known about how predator size, speed and approach orientation impact escape performance, especially in larger prey that are primarily viewed as predators. We used realistic shark models to examine how altering predatory behavior and morphology (size, speed and approach orientation) influences escape behavior and performance in Squalus acanthias, a shark that is preyed upon by apex marine predators. Predator models induced C-start escape responses, and increasing the size and speed of the models triggered a more intense response (increased escape turning rate and acceleration). In addition, increased predator size resulted in greater responsiveness from the sharks. Among the responses, predator approach orientation had the most significant impact on escapes, such that the head-on approach, as compared to the tail-on approach, induced greater reaction distances and increased escape turning rate, speed and acceleration. Thus, the anterior binocular vision in sharks renders them less effective at detecting predators approaching from behind. However, it appears that sharks compensate by performing high-intensity escapes, likely induced by the lateral line system, or by a sudden visual flash of the predator entering their field of view. Our study reveals key aspects of escape behavior in sharks, highlighting the modulation of performance in response to predator approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Decompression illness in goats following simulated submarine escape: 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Fisher, A S; Jurd, K M; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom Ministry of Defence commissioned work to define the relationship between the internal pressure of a distressed submarine (DISSUB), the depth from which escape is made and the risk of decompression illness (DCI). The program of work used an animal model (goat) to define these risks and this paper reports the incidence and type of DCI observed. A total of 748 pressure exposures comprising saturation only, escape only or saturation followed by escape were conducted in the submarine escape simulator between 1993 and 2006. The DCI following saturation exposures was predominantly limb pain, whereas following escape exposures the DCI predominantly involved the central nervous system and was fast in onset. There was no strong relationship between the risk of DCI and the range of escape depths investigated. The risk of DCI incurred from escape following saturation was greater than that obtained by combining the risks for the independent saturation only, and escape only, exposures. The output from this program of work has led to improved advice on the safety of submarine escape.

  17. On the relative contributions of positive reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Gulotta, Charles S; Sevin, Bari M; Layer, Stacy A

    2003-01-01

    We compared the effects of positive reinforcement alone, escape extinction alone, and positive reinforcement with escape extinction in the treatment of the food and fluid refusal of 4 children who had been diagnosed with a pediatric feeding disorder. Consumption did not increase when positive reinforcement was implemented alone. By contrast, consumption increased for all participants when escape extinction was implemented, independent of the presence or absence of positive reinforcement. However, the addition of positive reinforcement to escape extinction was associated with beneficial effects (e.g., greater decreases in negative vocalizations and inappropriate behavior) for some participants.

  18. On the relative contributions of noncontingent reinforcement and escape extinction in the treatment of food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gregory K; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Layer, Stacy A; Bachmeyer, Melanie H; Bethke, Stephanie D; Gutshall, Katharine A

    2004-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), escape extinction, and a combination of NCR and escape extinction as treatment for the feeding problems exhibited by 4 children. For each participant, consumption increased only when escape extinction was implemented, independent of whether NCR was present or absent. These results were consistent with prior research suggesting that positive reinforcement alone is insufficient for increasing consumption, and that escape extinction often is necessary to increase and maintain food acceptance. However, NCR appeared to decrease inappropriate behavior for some participants.

  19. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. An automatic recording system for the study of escape from fear in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; He, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Escape from fear (EFF) is an active response to a conditioned stimulus (CS) previously paired with an unconditioned fearful stimulus (US), which typically leads to the termination of the CS. In this paradigm, animals acquire two distinct associations: S-S [CS-US] and R-O [response-outcome] through Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning, respectively. The present study describes a computer controlled automatic recording system that captures the development of EFF and allows the determination of the respective roles of S-S and R-O associations in this process. We validated this system by showing that only rats subjected to a simultaneous CS-US conditioning (i.e., CS and US occur together at the beginning of each trial) acquired EFF, not those subjected to an unpaired CS-US conditioning. Paired rats had a progressively increased number of EFF and significantly shorter escape latencies than unpaired rats across the 5-trial blocks on the test day. However, during the conditioning phase, the unpaired rats emitted more 22kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, a validated measure of conditioned reactive fear responses. Our results demonstrate that the acquisition of EFF is contingent upon pairing of the CS with the US, not simply the consequence of a high level of generalized fear. Because this commercially available system is capable of examining both conditioned active and reactive fear responses in a single setup, it could be used to determine the relative roles of S-S and R-O associations in EFF, the neurobiology of conditioned active fear response and neuropharmacology of psychotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Pelindaba text and its previous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, O.

    1996-01-01

    The main body of the Treaty, the preamble, articles 1-22, and the map are reproduced in this issue in the section ''Documentation Relating to Disarmament and International Security''. The complete text, including annexes and protocols, is contained in document A/50/426

  2. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  3. Novel Anti-Melanoma Immunotherapies: Disarming Tumor Escape Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Sapoznik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune system fights cancer and sometimes temporarily eliminates it or reaches an equilibrium stage of tumor growth. However, continuous immunological pressure also selects poorly immunogenic tumor variants that eventually escape the immune control system. Here, we focus on metastatic melanoma, a highly immunogenic tumor, and on anti-melanoma immunotherapies, which recently, especially following the FDA approval of Ipilimumab, gained interest from drug development companies. We describe new immunomodulatory approaches currently in the development pipeline, focus on the novel CEACAM1 immune checkpoint, and compare its potential to the extensively described targets, CTLA4 and PD1. This paper combines multi-disciplinary approaches and describes anti-melanoma immunotherapies from molecular, medical, and business angles.

  4. The great escape: viral strategies to counter BST-2/tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Douglas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced BST-2 protein has the unique ability to restrict the egress of HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, Ebola virus, and other enveloped viruses. The observation that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as "tetherin". However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape from infected cells. Since the anti-viral function of BST-2 was discovered, there has been an explosion of research into several aspects of this intriguing interplay between host and virus. This review focuses on recent work addressing the molecular mechanisms involved in BST-2 restriction of viral egress and the species-specific countermeasures employed by various viruses.

  5. Will 3552 Don Quixote escape from the Solar System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadi Siregar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Asteroid 1983 SA, well known as 3552 Don Quixote, is one of Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs which is the most probable candidate for the cometary origin, or otherwise as Jupiter-Family-Comets (JFCs. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of 3552 Don Quixote to be ejected from the Solar System. This paper presents an orbital evolution of 100 hypothetical asteroids generated by cloning 3552 Don Quixote. Investigation of its orbital evolution is conducted by using the SWIFT subroutine package, where the gravitational perturbations of eight major planets in the Solar System are considered. Over very short time scales (220 kyr relative to the Solar System life time (10 Gyr, the asteroid 3552 Don Quixote gave an example of chaotic motion that can cause asteroid to move outward and may be followed by escaping from the Solar System. Probability of ejection within the 220 kyr time scale is 50%.

  6. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Miller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  7. Initiating a watch list for Ebola virus antibody escape mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig R; Johnson, Erin L; Burke, Aran Z; Martin, Kyle P; Miura, Tanya A; Wichman, Holly A; Brown, Celeste J; Ytreberg, F Marty

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa is the largest in recorded history and resulted in over 11,000 deaths. It is essential that strategies for treatment and containment be developed to avoid future epidemics of this magnitude. With the development of vaccines and antibody-based therapies using the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the 1976 Mayinga strain, one important strategy is to anticipate how the evolution of EBOV might compromise these efforts. In this study we have initiated a watch list of potential antibody escape mutations of EBOV by modeling interactions between GP and the antibody KZ52. The watch list was generated using molecular modeling to estimate stability changes due to mutation. Every possible mutation of GP was considered and the list was generated from those that are predicted to disrupt GP-KZ52 binding but not to disrupt the ability of GP to fold and to form trimers. The resulting watch list contains 34 mutations (one of which has already been seen in humans) at six sites in the GP2 subunit. Should mutations from the watch list appear and spread during an epidemic, it warrants attention as these mutations may reflect an evolutionary response from the virus that could reduce the effectiveness of interventions such as vaccination. However, this watch list is incomplete and emphasizes the need for more experimental structures of EBOV interacting with antibodies in order to expand the watch list to other epitopes. We hope that this work provokes experimental research on evolutionary escape in both Ebola and other viral pathogens.

  8. Quantum-Classical Phase Transition of the Escape Rate of Two-Sublattice Antiferromagnetic Large Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, Solomon Akaraka; Paranjape, M. B.

    2014-11-01

    The Hamiltonian of a two-sublattice antiferromagnetic spins, with single (hard-axis) and double ion anisotropies described by H = J {\\hat S}1...\\hatS 2-2Jz \\hat {S}1z\\hat {S}2z+K(\\hat {S}1z2 +\\hat {S}2z2) is investigated using the method of effective potential. The problem is mapped to a single particle quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian in terms of the relative coordinate and reduced mass. We study the quantum-classical phase transition of the escape rate of this model. We show that the first-order phase transition for this model sets in at the critical value Jc = (Kc+Jz, c)/2 while for the anisotropic Heisenberg coupling H = J(S1xS2x +S1yS2y) + JzS1zS2z + K(S1z2+ S2z2) we obtain Jc = (2Kc-Jz, c)/3. The phase diagrams of the transition are also studied.

  9. Exact area devil's staircase for the sawtooth map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Meiss, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    The sawtooth mapping is a family of uniformly hyperbolic, piecewise linear, area-preserving maps on the cylinder. We construct the resonances, cantori, and turnstiles of this family and derive exact formulas for the resonance areas and the escaping fluxes. These are of prime interst for an understanding of the deterministic transport which occurs the stochastic regime. The resonances are shown to fill the full measure of phase space. 9 refs., 4 figs

  10. European SpaceCraft for the study of Atmospheric Particle Escape (ESCAPE): a mission proposed in response to the ESA M5-call

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandouras, Iannis; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Rème, Henri; De Keyser, Johan; Marghitu, Octav; Fazakerley, Andrew; Grison, Benjamin; Kistler, Lynn; Milillo, Anna; Nakamura, Rumi; Paschalidis, Nikolaos; Paschalis, Antonis; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Wieser, Martin; Wurz, Peter; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Häggström, Ingemar; Liemohn, Mike; Tian, Feng

    2017-04-01

    ESCAPE is a mission proposed in response to the ESA-M5 call that will quantitatively estimate the amount of escaping particles of the major atmospheric components (nitrogen and oxygen), as neutral and ionised species, escaping from the Earth as a magnetised planet. The spatial distribution and temporal variability of the flux of these species and their isotopic composition will be for the first time systematically investigated in an extended altitude range, from the exobase/upper ionosphere (500 km altitude) up to the magnetosphere. The goal is to understand the importance of each escape mechanism, its dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity, and to infer the history of the Earth's atmosphere over a long (geological scale) time period. Since the solar EUV and solar wind conditions during solar maximum at present are comparable to the solar minimum conditions 1-2 billion years ago, the escaping amount and the isotope and N/O ratios should be obtained as a function of external forcing (solar and geomagnetic conditions) to allow a scaling to the past. The result will be used as a reference to understand the atmospheric/ionospheric evolution of magnetised planets. To achieve this goal, a slowly spinning spacecraft is proposed equipped with a suite of instruments developed and supplied by an international consortium. These instruments will detect the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere escaping populations by a combination of in-situ measurements and of remote-sensing observations.

  11. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  12. Escapement of Cape hakes under the fishing line of the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish whether Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus escape under the fishing line and to identify any species or length dependence of escape rates. Experiments were carried out in Namibian waters during two cruises in October 2002 and October 2003. A collection bag ...

  13. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J.

    2013-01-01

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most

  14. Behavioral analyses of wind-evoked escape of the cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanou, Masamichi; Konishi, Atsuko; Suenaga, Rie

    2006-04-01

    The wind-evoked escape behavior of the cricket Gryllodes sigillatus was investigated using an air puff stimulus. A high velocity air puff elicited the escape behavior in many crickets. The crickets tended to escape away from the stimulus source, but the direction was not accurately oriented 180 degrees from the stimulus. After bilateral cercal ablation, only a few crickets showed wind-evoked escape behavior, and their response rates did not increase even 19 days after ablation. Therefore, information on air motion detected by cercal filiform hairs is essential for triggering wind-evoked behavior. After unilateral cercal ablation, the 81.3% response rate of intact crickets decreased to 16.5%, that is, it decreased to almost 20% that of intact crickets. One week after unilateral cercal ablation, the response rate recovered to more than 60% that of intact crickets. However, the accuracy rate of the escape direction of G. sigillatus showed no change even immediately after the unilateral cercal ablation. Therefore, both cerci are not necessarily required to determine the escape direction. The behavioral characteristics of wind-evoked escape of G. sigillatus are compared with those of another species of cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. The two species of cricket employ different strategies for wind-evoked escape.

  15. A Substantial Plume of Escaping Planetary Ions in the MSE Northern Hemisphere Observed by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y.; Fang, X.; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, J. P.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Curry, S.; Harada, Y.; Luhmann, J. G.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from Mars through a number of processes, including pick-up by the electromagnetic fields. The Mars Atmospheric and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft has frequently detected strong escaping planetary ion fluxes in both tailward and upstream solar wind motional electric field directions since the beginning of its science phase in November 2014. Our statistical study using three-month MAVEN data from November 2014 through February 2015 illustrates a substantial plume-like escaping planetary ion population organized by the upstream electric field with strong fluxes widely distributed in the northern hemisphere of the Mars-Sun-Electric-field (MSE) coordinate system, which is generally consistent with model predictions. The plume constitutes an important planetary ion escape channel from the Martian atmosphere in addition to the tailward escape. The >25eV O+ escape rate through the plume is estimated to be ~35% of the tailward escape and ~25% of the total escape. We will compare the dynamics of the plume and tailward escaping ions based on their velocity-space distributions with respect to the electromagnetic fields. We will also discuss the variations of the plume characteristics between different ion species (O+, O2+, and CO2+) and from the effect of different solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions.

  16. Escaping blood-fed malaria mosquitoes minimize tactile detection without compromising on take-off speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Chang, S.W.; Veen, van W.G.; Spitzen, J.; Biemans, B.T.; Koehl, M.A.R.; Dudley, R.

    2017-01-01

    To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host’s skin. We studied this trade-off between escape speed and

  17. Computer Self-Efficacy, Competitive Anxiety and Flow State: Escaping from Firing Online Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Pei-Yu, Chiu; Shih, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Pei-Shin; Hong, Jon-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Flow state in game playing affected by computer self-efficacy and game competitive anxiety was studied. In order to examine the effect of those constructs with high competition, this study select "Escaping from firing online game" which require college students to escape from fire and rescue people and eliminate the fire damage along the way of…

  18. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  19. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  20. Plasma Clouds and Snowplows: Bulk Plasma Escape from Mars Observed by MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Ruhunusiri, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Harada, Y.; Hara, T.; Espley, J. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present initial Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) observations and preliminary interpretation of bulk plasma loss from Mars. MAVEN particle and field measurements show that planetary heavy ions derived from the Martian atmosphere can escape in the form of discrete coherent structures or "clouds." The ions in these clouds are unmagnetized or weakly magnetized, have velocities well above the escape speed, and lie directly downstream from magnetic field amplifications, suggesting a "snowplow" effect. This postulated escape process, similar to that successfully used to explain the dynamics of active gas releases in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosheath, relies on momentum transfer from the shocked solar wind protons to the planetary heavy ions, with the electrons and magnetic field acting as intermediaries. Fluxes of planetary ions on the order of 10(exp 7)/sq cm/s can escape by this process, and if it operates regularly, it could contribute 10-20% of the current ion escape from Mars.

  1. Antarctic krill; assessment of mesh size selectivity and escape mortality from trawls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krafft, Bjørn A.; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Herrmann, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Marine AS. The project will examine krill escape mortality from the codend during a full scale field experiment, model size selectivity and escape mortality in codends including different designs and assess the size selectivity in the trawl body forward of the codend. Based on end results from the preceding...... examinations we will be able to predict size selectivity and escape mortality from the entire trawl body with the appurtenant mortality for different trawl designs......This working paper presents the aims and methodology for a three-year-project (commenced in 2015) assessing size selectivity and escape mortality of Antarctic krill from trawl nets. The project is widely based on acquired experiences from a completed study Net Escapement of Antarctic krill...

  2. Highlights of the Global HIV-1 CSF Escape Consortium Meeting, 9 June 2016, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jeymohan; Cinque, Paola; Colosi, Deborah; Dravid, Ameet; Ene, Luminita; Fox, Howard; Gabuzda, Dana; Gisslen, Magnus; Beth Joseph, Sarah; Letendre, Scott; Mukerji, Shibani S; Nath, Avindra; Perez-Valero, Ignacio; Persaud, Deborah; Price, Richard W; Rao, Vasudev R; Sacktor, Ned; Swanstrom, Ronald; Winston, Alan; Wojna, Valerie; Wright, Edwina; Spudich, Serena

    2016-10-05

    CSF HIV escape is a recently recognised phenomenon that suggests that despite suppressive treatment, HIV RNA may be detected in the CNS compartment in some individuals. In rare cases this is associated with clinical neurological disease, while in most cases, neurological consequences are not apparent. Attempts at characterising the biological substrates of CSF escape and further investigating the neurological consequences need to be made to better understand the implications of this condition for the HIV cure agenda as well as for clinical outcomes. The Global CSF HIV-1 Escape Consortium meeting, convened by the US National Institute of Mental Health, was a first step to gather investigators from diverse sites to discuss opportunities for future collaborative work on this emerging issue. To better understand CSF HIV escape and allow cross-site data reconciliation, it will be useful to reach a consensus set of definitions of the distinct forms of CSF escape, without which concerted cross-site efforts are difficult.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of escape windows in directed Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawl fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the bycatch selectivity of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawls is required, particularly with respect to cod Gadus morhua , whose stocks are at low levels in several areas. Conventional escape windows are not adequate to properly release cod and other bycatch...... species caught in the trawls. To address this issue, we developed a novel sorting box concept consisting of a four-panel section with a window on the top in order to improve the escape of cod and other bycatch species through an escape window while retaining the target catch of Norway lobster. The concept....... The reduction in bycatch decreased with decreasing mesh size and increasing height of the sorting box. Escape of Norway lobster through the escape window was limited. A modified version of the sorting box concept was implemented in the Kattegat fishery from 2009 onwards...

  4. Mass fractionation during transonic escape and implications for loss of water from Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.J.; Kasting, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen from a planetary atmosphere can remove heavier gases as well as hydrogen, provided that the escape rate is sufficiently large. Analytic approximations for the degree of mass fractionation of a trace species during hydrodynamic escape are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the case of transonic outflow. The analytic approximations are most accurate when the ratio of molecular weights of the heavier and lighter constituents is large so that nonlinear terms in the momentum equation for the heavy constituent become small. The simplest analytic formula is readily generalized to the case where a heavy constituent is also a major species. Application of the generalized formula to hypothetical episodes of hydrodynamic escape from Venus and Mars suggests that both hydrogen and oxygen could have escaped; thus, substantial quantities of water may have been lost without the need to oxidize large amounts of the crust. 29 references

  5. Escape peak ratios in silicon X-ray charge coupled devices (CCDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.J.; Owens, A.; Keay, A.

    1997-01-01

    The intensity of the escape peak from the CCDs developed for the Joint European X-ray Telescope (JET-X) has been investigated over the energy range 2-10 keV. Both measured and calculated escape peak ratios (i.e., the ratio of counts in the escape peak to the sum of the counts in the escape and main peaks) are found to be in excellent agreement for all event sizes (i.e., single pixel events, 1 and 2 pixel events, etc.). Using a Monte Carlo simulation the escape peak ratio has been investigated as a function of pixel size and depletion depth. For completeness, we list the energy dependent parameterised forms for five CCDs used in three major astronomy missions. (orig.)

  6. The return of international labour migrants in the ESCAP Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    The social phenomenon of massive temporary international labor migration from the ESCAP region has emerged extremely rapidly. Within 10 years, the number of persons from ESCAP countries grew from a negligible one to 3.5 million. Related research and government policies have lagged behind this latest surge in migration. Most research conducted has been small-scale and lacks an analytical or theoretical framework. Policy formulation for temporary labor migration is difficult because most of the rapid growth in the industry has occurred as a result of private efforts, with a minimum of government intervention. It is now difficult, for the government to provide effective regulations or measures to stimulate and assist the process. Regulations on compulsory remittances or overseas minimum wages have proved to be unrealistic and, if not rescinded, are routinely circumvented. The most effective policies to assist return migrants may not be those which are intended to do so, but those which control the earlier stages of the migration process, such as recruitment, working conditions, and banking arrangements. The most valuable policies may also include those affecting education, training, employment, and general socioeconomic growth. Governments are recommended to provide social services for migrants and their families who are experiencing problems, and to institute community programs in areas with a large number of labor migrants. Governmental efforts to promote forms of labor migration beneficial to the workers would be valuable and should include measures to identify overseas labor markets for employing its nationals, government ot government labor contracts, and government participation in joint-venture projects. International migration should be analyzed in the context of theories and social change in order for governments to formulate effective measures for the reintegration of returning workers. Labor migration on the current scale has many social implications for

  7. Effects of metamorphosis on the aquatic escape response of the two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Emanuel; Landberg, Tobias

    2002-03-01

    Although numerous studies have described the escape kinematics of fishes, little is known about the aquatic escape responses of salamanders. We compare the escape kinematics of larval and adult Eurycea bislineata, the two-lined salamander, to examine the effects of metamorphosis on aquatic escape performance. We hypothesize that shape changes associated with resorption of the larval tail fin at metamorphosis will affect aquatic locomotor performance. Escape responses were recorded using high-speed video, and the effects of life stage and total length on escape kinematics were analyzed statistically using analysis of covariance. Our results show that both larval and adult E. bislineata use a two-stage escape response (similar to the C-starts of fishes) that consists of a preparatory (stage 1) and a propulsive (stage 2) stroke. The duration of both kinematic stages and the distance traveled during stage 2 increased with total length. Both larval and adult E. bislineata had final escape trajectories that were directed away from the stimulus. The main kinematic difference between larvae and adults is that adults exhibit significantly greater maximum curvature during stage 1. Total escape duration and the distance traveled during stage 2 did not differ significantly between larvae and adults. Despite the significantly lower tail aspect ratio of adults, we found no significant decrease in the overall escape performance of adult E. bislineata. Our results suggest that adults may compensate for the decrease in tail aspect ratio by increasing their maximum curvature. These findings do not support the hypothesis that larvae exhibit better locomotor performance than adults as a result of stronger selective pressures on early life stages.

  8. Evolutionary invasion and escape in the presence of deleterious mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Loverdo

    Full Text Available Replicators such as parasites invading a new host species, species invading a new ecological niche, or cancer cells invading a new tissue often must mutate to adapt to a new environment. It is often argued that a higher mutation rate will favor evolutionary invasion and escape from extinction. However, most mutations are deleterious, and even lethal. We study the probability that the lineage will survive and invade successfully as a function of the mutation rate when both the initial strain and an adaptive mutant strain are threatened by lethal mutations. We show that mutations are beneficial, i.e. a non-zero mutation rate increases survival compared to the limit of no mutations, if in the no-mutation limit the survival probability of the initial strain is smaller than the average survival probability of the strains which are one mutation away. The mutation rate that maximizes survival depends on the characteristics of both the initial strain and the adaptive mutant, but if one strain is closer to the threshold governing survival then its properties will have greater influence. These conclusions are robust for more realistic or mechanistic depictions of the fitness landscapes such as a more detailed viral life history, or non-lethal deleterious mutations.

  9. Human embryo immune escape mechanisms rediscovered by the tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Laura; Petrini, Massimiliano; Fiammenghi, Laura; Riccobon, Angela; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2009-01-01

    Towards the end of the 1990s, the two opposing theories on immunosurveillance and immunostimulation were extensively studied by researchers in an attempt to understand the complex mechanisms that regulate the relation between tumors and the host's immune system. Both theories probably have elements that would help us to comprehend how the host can induce anti-tumor clinical responses through stimulation of the immune system and which could also give us a deeper insight into the mechanisms of tumor immunosuppression. The model that most resembles the behavior of tumor cells in terms of growth, infiltration and suppression of the immune system of the environment in which they live is undoubtedly that of the embryonic cell. The fetus behaves like an allogenic transplant within the mother's body, using every means it has to escape from and defend itself against the mother's immune system. The majority of these mechanisms are the same as those found in tumor cells: antigenic loss, lack of expression of classic HLA-I molecules, production of immunosuppressive cytokines, induction of lack of expression of co-stimulatory molecules in antigen presenting cells, and induction of apoptosis in infiltrating lymphocytes, with activation of a type Th2 regulatory lymphocyte response. A careful and comparative study of key mechanisms capable of triggering tolerance or cytotoxicity in both embryonic and tumor cells could prove immensely valuable in designing new strategies for anti-tumor immunotherapy.

  10. Thermal and quantum escape of fractional Josephson vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehler, Hanna; Kienzle, Uta; Buckenmaier, Kai; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Goldobin, Edward [Physikalisches Institut, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    By using a pair of tiny current injectors one can create an arbitrary {kappa} discontinuity of the phase in a long Josephson junction (LJJ) and a fractional Josephson vortex (FJV), carrying a fraction {phi}/{phi}{sub 0}={kappa}/2{pi}{<=}1 of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 .10{sup -15} Wb, which is pinned at the discontinuity. If a bias current I, exceeds the critical value I{sub c}({kappa}), an integer fluxon is torn off the discontinuity and the LJJ switches to the voltage state. Due to thermal or quantum fluctuations this escape event may occur at I

  11. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of {approx} 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.

    1983-11-15

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm/sup 2/.

  13. Cellular Adhesion Promotes Prostate Cancer Cells Escape from Dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppender, Nazanin; Larson, Sandy; Lakely, Bryce; Kollath, Lori; Brown, Lisha; Coleman, Ilsa; Coleman, Roger; Nguyen, Holly; Nelson, Peter S; Corey, Eva; Snyder, Linda A; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm; Lam, Hung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Dissemination of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to the bone marrow is an early event in the disease process. In some patients, disseminated tumor cells (DTC) proliferate to form active metastases after a prolonged period of undetectable disease known as tumor dormancy. Identifying mechanisms of PCa dormancy and reactivation remain a challenge partly due to the lack of in vitro models. Here, we characterized in vitro PCa dormancy-reactivation by inducing cells from three patient-derived xenograft (PDX) lines to proliferate through tumor cell contact with each other and with bone marrow stroma. Proliferating PCa cells demonstrated tumor cell-cell contact and integrin clustering by immunofluorescence. Global gene expression analyses on proliferating cells cultured on bone marrow stroma revealed a downregulation of TGFB2 in all of the three proliferating PCa PDX lines when compared to their non-proliferating counterparts. Furthermore, constitutive activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a downstream effector of integrin-beta1 and TGF-beta2, in non-proliferating cells promoted cell proliferation. This cell proliferation was associated with an upregulation of CDK6 and a downregulation of E2F4. Taken together, our data provide the first clinically relevant in vitro model to support cellular adhesion and downregulation of TGFB2 as a potential mechanism by which PCa cells may escape from dormancy. Targeting the TGF-beta2-associated mechanism could provide novel opportunities to prevent lethal PCa metastasis.

  14. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of ∼ 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  15. Controlling ventilation for safe escape from coal mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wala, A M [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering Dept.

    1966-04-01

    If a fire occurs outby an underground coal mine section, the immediate safe evacuation of miners from the working section should always take precedence. Unfortunately, in many cases, the dedicated escapeway (escape routes) for the evacuation of the miners become contaminated by the byproducts of fire from the adjacent entries. The purpose of this paper is to present the ventilation-control process that would keep the escapeway free from contaminants and, thus, available for travel. A few scenarios of mine fires in longwall development panels are analysed and discussed. To perform these studies, a mine-fire simulator (MFS) was used. This (MFS) provides a dynamic representation of the fire`s progress (in real time) and gives a color-graphic visualization of the spready of oxygen, combustion products and temperature of the gases throughout the ventilation system. Also presented and discussed are ways in which the MFS can be used as a training and teaching tool for miners and particularly, for ventilation and safety specialists. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  16. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  17. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  18. Escaping Slavery: "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sue Ann

    This lesson uses the picture book "Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt" by Deborah Hopkinson and an interactive website to enhance third- through fifth-grade students' understanding of the Underground Railroad and slavery, development of reading comprehension skills, and application of mapping skills. During three 45-60 minute lessons,…

  19. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  20. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  1. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  2. Means of escape provisions and evacuation simulation of public building in Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Taib, Nooriati; Ying, Choo Siew

    2017-10-01

    The Uniform Building By-law 1984 of Malaysia is the legal document governing fire safety requirements in buildings. Its prescriptive nature has made the requirements out dated from the viewpoint of current performance based approach in most developed countries. The means of escape provisions is a critical requirement to safeguard occupants' safety in fire especially in public buildings. As stipulated in the UBBL 1984, the means of escape provisions includes sufficient escape routes, travel distance, protection of escape routes, etc. designated as means to allow occupants to escape within a safe period of time. This research aims at investigating the effectiveness of those provisions in public buildings during evacuation process involving massive crowd during emergencies. This research includes a scenario-based study on evacuation processes using two software i.e. PyroSim, a crowd modelling software to conduct smoke study and Pathfinder to stimulate evacuation model of building in Malaysia and Singapore as comparative study. The results show that the buildings used as case study were designed according to Malaysian UBBL 1984 and Singapore Firecode, 2013 respectively provide relative safe means of escape. The simulations of fire and smoke and coupled with simulation of evacuation have demonstrated that although there are adequate exits designated according to fire requirements, the impact of the geometry of atriums on the behavior of fire and smoke have significant effect on escape time especially for unfamiliar user of the premises.

  3. Measuring behaviours for escaping from house fires: use of latent variable models to summarise multiple behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, G B; Edwards, P; Kendrick, D

    2015-12-15

    This paper reports the development and testing of a construct measuring parental fire safety behaviours for planning escape from a house fire. Latent variable modelling of data on parental-reported fire safety behaviours and plans for escaping from a house fire and multivariable logistic regression to quantify the association between groups defined by the latent variable modelling and parental-report of having a plan for escaping from a house fire. Data comes from 1112 participants in a cluster randomised controlled trial set in children's centres in 4 study centres in the UK. A two class model provided the best fit to the data, combining responses to five fire safety planning behaviours. The first group ('more behaviours for escaping from a house fire') comprised 86% of participants who were most likely to have a torch, be aware of how their smoke alarm sounds, to have external door and window keys accessible, and exits clear. The second group ('fewer behaviours for escaping from a house fire') comprised 14% of participants who were less likely to report these five behaviours. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants allocated to the 'more behaviours for escaping from a house fire group were 2.5 times more likely to report having an escape plan (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.59-3.86) than those in the "fewer behaviours for escaping from a house fire" group. Multiple fire safety behaviour questions can be combined into a single binary summary measure of fire safety behaviours for escaping from a house fire. Our findings will be useful to future studies wishing to use a single measure of fire safety planning behaviour as measures of outcome or exposure. NCT 01452191. Date of registration 13/10/2011.

  4. Quantifying the impact of human immunodeficiency virus-1 escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich D Kadolsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 escape from the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL response leads to a weakening of viral control and is likely to be detrimental to the patient. To date, the impact of escape on viral load and CD4(+ T cell count has not been quantified, primarily because of sparse longitudinal data and the difficulty of separating cause and effect in cross-sectional studies. We use two independent methods to quantify the impact of HIV-1 escape from CTLs in chronic infection: mathematical modelling of escape and statistical analysis of a cross-sectional cohort. Mathematical modelling revealed a modest increase in log viral load of 0.051 copies ml(-1 per escape event. Analysis of the cross-sectional cohort revealed a significant positive association between viral load and the number of "escape events", after correcting for length of infection and rate of replication. We estimate that a single CTL escape event leads to a viral load increase of 0.11 log copies ml(-1 (95% confidence interval: 0.040-0.18, consistent with the predictions from the mathematical modelling. Overall, the number of escape events could only account for approximately 6% of the viral load variation in the cohort. Our findings indicate that although the loss of the CTL response for a single epitope results in a highly statistically significant increase in viral load, the biological impact is modest. We suggest that this small increase in viral load is explained by the small growth advantage of the variant relative to the wildtype virus. Escape from CTLs had a measurable, but unexpectedly low, impact on viral load in chronic infection.

  5. Escape of the martian protoatmosphere and initial water inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkaev, N V; Lammer, H; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Stökl, A; Odert, P; Marcq, E; Dorfi, E A; Kislyakova, K G; Kulikov, Yu N; Leitzinger, M; Güdel, M

    2014-08-01

    Latest research in planet formation indicates that Mars formed within a few million years (Myr) and remained as a planetary embryo that never grew to a more massive planet. It can also be expected from dynamical models that most of Mars' building blocks consisted of material that formed in orbital locations just beyond the ice line which could have contained [Formula: see text] of H 2 O. By using these constraints, we estimate the nebula-captured and catastrophically outgassed volatile contents during the solidification of Mars' magma ocean and apply a hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model for the study of the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven thermal escape of the martian protoatmosphere during the early active epoch of the young Sun. The amount of gas that has been captured from the protoplanetary disk into the planetary atmosphere is calculated by solving the hydrostatic structure equations in the protoplanetary nebula. Depending on nebular properties such as the dust grain depletion factor, planetesimal accretion rates and luminosities, hydrogen envelopes with masses [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] could have been captured from the nebula around early Mars. Depending on the before mentioned parameters, due to the planets low gravity and a solar XUV flux that was [Formula: see text] times stronger compared to the present value, our results indicate that early Mars would have lost its nebular captured hydrogen envelope after the nebula gas evaporated, during a fast period of [Formula: see text]. After the solidification of early Mars' magma ocean, catastrophically outgassed volatiles with the amount of [Formula: see text] H 2 O and [Formula: see text] CO 2 could have been lost during [Formula: see text], if the impact related energy flux of large planetesimals and small embryos to the planet's surface lasted long enough, that the steam atmosphere could have been prevented from condensing. If this was not the case, then our results suggest

  6. Escaping 1 MeV tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Strachan, J.D.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Mynick, H.E.; White, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    1 MeV tritons created by D-D reactions can simulate the 'single-particle' behavior expected with 3.5 MeV D-T alphas, since the gyroradii and slowing-down of these two particles are similar. This paper describes measurements of the flux of escaping 1 MeV tritons from the TFTR plasma during high power D 0 →D neutral beam injection, and shows that in most cases the observed triton loss is consistent with the classical (single-particle) first-orbit loss model. In this model tritons are lost if their first orbit intersects the wall due to their large banana width, while almost all tritons confined on their first orbit should stay confined until thermalized. The triton detectors are ZnS(Ag) scintillator screens housed in light-tight boxes located just outside the plasma boundary at the bottom of the TFTR vessel. They are particle 'pinhole' cameras which can resolve the triton flux vs. pitch angle (to ±5 o ), energy (to ±50 %), and time (to <20 μsec). The 2-D images of triton flux onto these scintillators are optically coupled to either an intensified TV camera or to photomultiplyer tubes for fast time resolution. The soft x-ray background in an earlier prototype has been eliminated. Although there are presently 8 such detectors in TFTR, this paper discusses results from only the detector located just below the vessel center (R=259 cm, r=102 cm). Note that the '1 MeV triton' signal discussed below also has about a 30 % contribution from 3 MeV protons; however, since these two particles have identical gyroradii they should behave alike. 5 refs., 5 figs

  7. An analytical evaluation for spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factor and escape probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Songhyun; Kim, Hong-Chul; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young; Noh, Jae Man

    2009-01-01

    The analytical evaluation of spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factors and their escape probabilities is pursued by the model developed in this study. Intra-pebble Dancoff factors and their escape probabilities are calculated as a function of fuel kernel radius, number of fuel kernels, and fuel region radius. The method in this study can be easily utilized to analyze the tendency of spatial-dependent intra-pebble Dancoff factor and spatial-dependent fuel region escape probability for the various geometries because it is faster than the MCNP method as well as good accuracy. (author)

  8. The Sunburst Arc: Direct Lyman α escape observed in the brightest known lensed galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. E.; Dahle, H.; Gronke, M.; Bayliss, M.; Rigby, J. R.; Simcoe, R.; Bordoloi, R.; Turner, M.; Furesz, G.

    2017-11-01

    We present rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy of the brightest lensed galaxy yet discovered, at redshift z = 2.4. The source reveals a characteristic triple-peaked Lyman α profile that has been predicted in various theoretical works, but to our knowledge has not been unambiguously observed previously. The feature is well fit by a superposition of two components: a double-peak profile emerging from substantial radiative transfer, and a narrow, central component resulting from directly escaping Lyman α photons, but it is poorly fit by either component alone. We demonstrate that the feature is unlikely to contain contamination from nearby sources, and that the central peak is unaffected by radiative transfer effects except for very slight absorption. The feature is detected at signal-to-noise ratios exceeding 80 per pixel at line center, and bears strong resemblance to synthetic profiles predicted by numerical models. Based on observations obtained at the Magellan-I (Baade) Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  9. Fifty years of chasing lizards: new insights advance optimal escape theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Diogo S M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often examine data from diverse taxa to identify general patterns of effect sizes. Meta-analyses that focus on identifying generalisations in a single taxon are also valuable because species in a taxon are more likely to share similar unique constraints. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic meta-analysis of flight initiation distance in lizards. Flight initiation distance (FID) is a common metric used to quantify risk-taking and has previously been shown to reflect adaptive decision-making. The past decade has seen an explosion of studies focused on quantifying FID in lizards, and, because lizards occur in a wide range of habitats, are ecologically diverse, and are typically smaller and differ physiologically from the better studied mammals and birds, they are worthy of detailed examination. We found that variables that reflect the costs or benefits of flight (being engaged in social interactions, having food available) as well as certain predator effects (predator size and approach speed) had large effects on FID in the directions predicted by optimal escape theory. Variables that were associated with morphology (with the exception of crypsis) and physiology had relatively small effects, whereas habitat selection factors typically had moderate to large effect sizes. Lizards, like other taxa, are very sensitive to the costs of flight. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  10. Escape and fractionation of volatiles and noble gases from Mars-sized planetary embryos and growing protoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odert, P.; Lammer, H.; Erkaev, N. V.; Nikolaou, A.; Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Johnstone, C. P.; Kislyakova, K. G.; Leitzinger, M.; Tosi, N.

    2018-06-01

    Planetary embryos form protoplanets via mutual collisions, which can lead to the development of magma oceans. During their solidification, significant amounts of the mantles' volatile contents may be outgassed. The resulting H2O/CO2 dominated steam atmospheres may be lost efficiently via hydrodynamic escape due to the low gravity of these Moon- to Mars-sized objects and the high stellar EUV luminosities of the young host stars. Protoplanets forming from such degassed building blocks after nebula dissipation could therefore be drier than previously expected. We model the outgassing and subsequent hydrodynamic escape of steam atmospheres from such embryos. The efficient outflow of H drags along heavier species like O, CO2, and noble gases. The full range of possible EUV evolution tracks of a young solar-mass star is taken into account to investigate the atmospheric escape from Mars-sized planetary embryos at different orbital distances. The estimated envelopes are typically lost within a few to a few tens of Myr. Furthermore, we study the influence on protoplanetary evolution, exemplified by Venus. In particular, we investigate different early evolution scenarios and constrain realistic cases by comparing modeled noble gas isotope ratios with present observations. Isotope ratios of Ne and Ar can be reproduced, starting from solar values, under hydrodynamic escape conditions. Solutions can be found for different solar EUV histories, as well as assumptions about the initial atmosphere, assuming either a pure steam atmosphere or a mixture with accreted hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula. Our results generally favor an early accretion scenario with a small amount of residual hydrogen from the protoplanetary nebula and a low-activity Sun, because in other cases too much CO2 is lost during evolution, which is inconsistent with Venus' present atmosphere. Important issues are likely the time at which the initial steam atmosphere is outgassed and/or the amount of CO2

  11. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  12. Never ever? Characteristics, outcomes and motivations of patients who abscond or escape: A 5-year review of escapes and absconds from two medium and low secure forensic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; Durkin, Catherine; Dodge, Liam; White, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Absconds and escapes by psychiatric patients from secure forensic psychiatric settings create public anxiety and are poorly understood. To describe secure hospital patients who escape from within the secure perimeter or abscond, and test for differences between these groups. Escapes and absconds between 2008 and 2012 from the medium and low secure forensic psychiatric inpatient units of two London National Health Service Trusts were identified through the Trusts' databases. Demographic, offending, mental health and incident data were extracted from records for each. Seventy-seven incidents, involving 54 patients, were identified over the five years. These were 13 escapes involving 12 patients, representing a rate of 0.04 per 1000 bed days, and 64 absconds involving 42 patients, a rate of 0.26 per 1000 bed days; 15 (28%) patients were absent without leave more than once. Over half of the patients came back voluntarily within 24 hours of leaving. Over 50% of them had drunk alcohol or taken drugs while away from the unit. Escapees were more likely to be transferred prisoners and to have planned their escape, less likely to return to the unit voluntarily and away longer than patients who absconded. Offending was rare during unauthorised leave--just three offences among the 77 incidents; self-harm was more likely. Motives for absconding included: wanting freedom or drink or drugs, family worries and/or dissatisfaction with aspects of treatment. Escapes or absconding from secure healthcare units have different characteristics, but may best be prevented by convergent strategies. Relational security is likely to be as important for foiling plans for the former as it is for reducing boredom, building strong family support and managing substance misuse in the latter. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Emergence of Ebola Virus Escape Variants in Infected Nonhuman Primates Treated with the MB-003 Antibody Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Kugelman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MB-003, a plant-derived monoclonal antibody cocktail used effectively in treatment of Ebola virus infection in non-human primates, was unable to protect two of six animals when initiated 1 or 2 days post-infection. We characterized a mechanism of viral escape in one of the animals, after observation of two clusters of genomic mutations that resulted in five nonsynonymous mutations in the monoclonal antibody target sites. These mutations were linked to a reduction in antibody binding and later confirmed to be present in a viral isolate that was not neutralized in vitro. Retrospective evaluation of a second independent study allowed the identification of a similar case. Four SNPs in previously identified positions were found in this second fatality, suggesting that genetic drift could be a potential cause for treatment failure. These findings highlight the importance selecting different target domains for each component of the cocktail to minimize the potential for viral escape.

  14. Trapped as a Group, Escape as a Team: Applying Gamification to Incorporate Team-building Skills Through an ‘Escape Room’ Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Rodriguez, Carlos; Rudner, Joshua; Chan, Teresa M; Papanagnou, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational ‘Escape Rooms’ have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively ‘escape the room’ in the time allotted. In this regard, escape rooms share many parallels with the multitasking and teamwork that is essential for a successful emergency department (ED) shift. A pilot group of nine emergency medicine (EM) residents and one senior EM faculty member underwent a commercial escape room as part of a team-building exercise in January 2018. The escape room required participants to practice teamwork, communication, task delegation, and critical thinking to tackle waves of increasingly complex puzzles, ranging from hidden objects, physical object assembly (i.e., jigsaw puzzles), and symbol matching. Activities required members to recognize and utilize the collective experiences, skills, knowledge base, and physical abilities of the group. After the game, players underwent a structured ‘game-master’ debriefing facilitated by an employee of the commercial escape room; this was followed by a post-event survey facilitated by a faculty member, which focused on participants’ feelings, experiences, and problem-solving techniques. Escape rooms afford learners the opportunity to engage in an activity that rewards teamwork and effective leadership through experiences that directly link to specific ACGME milestones and educational learning theories. EM participants were engaged in the activity and felt that the escape room reproduced an environment analogous to the ED. The debriefing

  15. Trapped as a Group, Escape as a Team: Applying Gamification to Incorporate Team-building Skills Through an 'Escape Room' Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Chi; Lee, Hyunjoo; Rodriguez, Carlos; Rudner, Joshua; Chan, Teresa M; Papanagnou, Dimitrios

    2018-03-02

    Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational 'Escape Rooms' have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively 'escape the room' in the time allotted. In this regard, escape rooms share many parallels with the multitasking and teamwork that is essential for a successful emergency department (ED) shift. A pilot group of nine emergency medicine (EM) residents and one senior EM faculty member underwent a commercial escape room as part of a team-building exercise in January 2018. The escape room required participants to practice teamwork, communication, task delegation, and critical thinking to tackle waves of increasingly complex puzzles, ranging from hidden objects, physical object assembly (i.e., jigsaw puzzles), and symbol matching. Activities required members to recognize and utilize the collective experiences, skills, knowledge base, and physical abilities of the group. After the game, players underwent a structured 'game-master' debriefing facilitated by an employee of the commercial escape room; this was followed by a post-event survey facilitated by a faculty member, which focused on participants' feelings, experiences, and problem-solving techniques. Escape rooms afford learners the opportunity to engage in an activity that rewards teamwork and effective leadership through experiences that directly link to specific ACGME milestones and educational learning theories. EM participants were engaged in the activity and felt that the escape room reproduced an environment analogous to the ED. The debriefing that followed

  16. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  17. Conceptual maps as evaluation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísio Borsato

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The following work shows the conceptual map as an evaluation tool. In this study, an opening text was used as a previous organizer, with a theme related to the students’ daily lives. The developed activity consisted in elaborating conceptual maps before and after the experimental works. The evaluation was applied to 21 students of the 1st grade and 22 of the 3rd grade of High School. The elaborated maps were scored according to hierarchy, propositions, linking words, cross linking and examples. The classification of the maps elaborated before and after the experimental activity, was obtained having as a parameter, a referential conceptual map. In this classification many differences were observed between the first and second maps of both grades and among the groups. The elaboration of conceptual maps showed great potential as evaluation resources.

  18. Inward contaminant leakage tests of the S-Tron Corporation emergency escape breathing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    At the request of S-Tron Corporation, to support their contract with the U.S. Navy, performance tests of the Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) were conducted in the Environmental Physiology Research Section contaminant leakage chamber. Sulfur ...

  19. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... of the codend selectivity was formulated to analyse the results and determine the effects of codend type, mesh size and other recorded variables. L50 and SR increased significantly with the mesh size. L50 was significantly increased and SR significantly reduced for a window codend with the same window mesh size...

  20. Optical escape factors for Doppler profiles in spherical, cylindrical and plane parallel geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masamoto.

    1977-12-01

    Optical escape factors for Doppler profiles in spherical, cylindrical and plane parallel geometries are tabulated over the range of optical depths from 10 -3 to 10 5 . Relations with the known formulae are discussed also. (auth.)

  1. Pizza or Pancake? Formation Models of Gas Escape Biosignatures in Terrestrial and Martian Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, L.; McKay, C. P.; Willson, D.

    2016-05-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary hollowed structures were imaged in Gale Crater, but no biomarkers identified to support biology. Our observation-based (gas escape) terrestrial model could inform on possible martian paleoenvironments at time of formation.

  2. The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, R

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region including southeast and south Asian countries and the Pacific island of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, and the Solomon Islands is discussed in terms of mobility transition and origin and destination factors. The changing patterns of mobility in Asia are further delineated in the discussion of internal movements and international movement. Emigration in the smaller countries of the Pacific are treated separately. Future predictions are that the Asia Pacific region will experience continued fertility decline and stabilization of low rates over the next 20 years. The declines will result in slow labor force growth, and increased demand for labor in traditional core and neocore countries as defined and presented in table form by Friedman will be heightened. International movements are likely to increase in large urban areas within destination countries. Tokyo and Singapore are the principal cities in Asia. Tokyo by restrictive government policy has limited immigration, but future labor shortages of unskilled labor from southeast Asia and China are expected. Singapore is already dependent on foreign labor by 10%. Current labor shortages have led to the creation of a growth triangle between Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Other cities expected to emerge as primary cities in international regional complexes with spillover into the hinterlands include the Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Macau triangle in the Pearl River delta, Taipei and Seoul, and possibly Kuala Lumpur. Internal migration is expected to increase in the capital cities of Bangkok, Manila,j and centers such as Shanghai, Beijing, and other large cities of southeast Asia. These cities will be linked through the flows of skilled international migrants, which began in the 1960s and is expected to become a future major flow. Recreational and resource niches will be left in much of the Pacific, the Himalayan Kingdoms, and

  3. Outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Gaku; Yoshida, Hideo; Sakoda, Naoya; Hattori, Shigeru; Kawabata, Takuya; Saiki, Munehiro; Fujita, Yasufumi; Yunoki, Keiji; Hisamochi, Kunikazu; Mine, Yoshinari

    2017-06-01

    Prosthetic valve fracture is a serious complication and may arise in patient post-valve replacement. We experienced an outlet strut fracture and leaflet escape of a Bjork-Shiley convexo-concave valve. We performed an emergency redo mitral valve replacement and successfully retrieved the fractured strut and escaped leaflet from superficial femoral artery and the abdominal aorta. The patient showed an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  4. Inhibition of chaotic escape from a potential well using small parametric modulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R.; Balibrea, F.; Lopez, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown theoretically for the first time that, depending on its period, amplitude, and initial phase, a periodic parametric modulation can suppress a chaotic escape from a potential well. The instance of the Helmholtz oscillator is used to demonstrate, by means of Melnikov close-quote s method, that parametric modulations of the linear or quadratic potential terms inhibit chaotic escape when certain resonance conditions are met. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. A Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Model Of Thermal Escape From Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert E.; Tucker, O. J.

    2008-09-01

    Recent analysis of density profiles vs. altitude from the Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) on Cassini (Waite et al. 2005) suggest Titan could have loss a significant amount of atmosphere in 4 Gyr at present escape rates (e.g., Johnson 2008). Strobel 2008 applied a slow hydrodynamic escape model to Titan's atmosphere using solar heating below the exobase to drive upward thermal conduction and power escape. However, near the exobase continuum models become problematic as a result of the increasing rarefaction in the atmosphere. The microscopic nature of DSMC is directly suitable to model atmosphere flow in nominal exobase region (e.g., Michael et. al. 2005). Our Preliminary DSMC models have shown no evidence for slow hydrodynamic escape of N2 and CH4 from Titan's atmosphere using boundary conditions normalized to the atmospheric properties in Strobel (2008). In this paper we use a 1D radial Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model of heating in Titan's upper atmosphere to estimate the escape rate as a function of the Jean's parameter. In this way we can test under what conditions the suggested deviations from Jeans escape would occur. In addition, we will be able to extract the necessary energy deposition to power the heavy molecule loss rates suggested in recent models (Strobel 2008; Yelle et. al. 2008). Michael, M. Johnson, R.E. 2005 Energy Deposition of pickup ions and heating of Titan's atmosphere. Planat. Sp. Sci. 53, 1510-1514 Johnson, R.E., "Sputtering and Heating of Titan's Upper Atmosphere", Proc Royal Soc. (London) (2008) Strobel, D.F. 2008 Titan's hydrodynamically escaping atmosphere. Icarus 193, 588-594 Yelle, R.V., J. Cui and I. C.F. Muller-Wodarg 2008 Methane Escape from Titan's Atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res in press Waite, J.H., Jr., Niemann, H.B., Yelle, R.V. et al. 2005 Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer Results from the First Flyby of Titan. Science 308, 982-986

  6. Efektivitas Celah Pelolosan (Escape Gap) Pada Alat Tangkap Pengilar Untuk Menunjang Kelestarian Sumberdaya Ikan

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeki, Silka Tria; Syofyan, Irwandy; ', Isnaniah

    2017-01-01

    The research was conducted during of March until June 2016 in Kampar River and Laboratory of Fishing Gear and Material Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science University of Riau. The study aim to determine the extent effectivenes of escape gap. The method used are survey and experiment method. The results of this study shown that the circles escape gap can pass the larva of fish with a value of the effectiveness has 0.89

  7. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  8. Escaping and repairing behaviors of the termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae in response to disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongpeng Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The escaping behavior of termites has been documented under laboratory conditions; however, no study has been conducted in a field setting due to the difficulty of observing natural behaviors inside wood or structures (e.g., nests, tunnels, etc.. The black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki, is a subterranean macrotermitine species which builds extensive mud tubes on tree trunks. In the present study, 41 videos (totaling ∼2,700 min were taken on 22 colonies/subcolonies of O. formosanus after their mud tubes were partially damaged by hand. In general, termites consistently demonstrated three phases of escape, including initiation (wandering near the mud-tube breach, individual escaping (single termites moving downward, and massive, unidirectional escaping flows (groups of termites moving downward. Downward moving and repairing were the dominant behavioral activities of individuals and were significantly more frequent than upward moving, turning/backward moving, or wandering. Interestingly, termites in escaping flows moved significantly faster than escaping individuals. Repairing behavior was observed shortly after the disturbance, and new mud tubes were preferentially constructed from the bottom up. When predators (i.e., ants were present, however, termites stopped moving and quickly sealed the mud-tube openings by capping the broken ends. Our study provides an interesting example that documents an animal (besides humans simultaneously carrying out pathway repairs and emergency evacuation without congestion.

  9. Escaping and repairing behaviors of the termite Odontotermes formosanus (Blattodea: Termitidae) in response to disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hongpeng; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Layne, Michael; Sun, Zhaohui; Ma, Tao; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2018-01-01

    The escaping behavior of termites has been documented under laboratory conditions; however, no study has been conducted in a field setting due to the difficulty of observing natural behaviors inside wood or structures (e.g., nests, tunnels, etc.). The black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki), is a subterranean macrotermitine species which builds extensive mud tubes on tree trunks. In the present study, 41 videos (totaling ∼2,700 min) were taken on 22 colonies/subcolonies of O. formosanus after their mud tubes were partially damaged by hand. In general, termites consistently demonstrated three phases of escape, including initiation (wandering near the mud-tube breach), individual escaping (single termites moving downward), and massive, unidirectional escaping flows (groups of termites moving downward). Downward moving and repairing were the dominant behavioral activities of individuals and were significantly more frequent than upward moving, turning/backward moving, or wandering. Interestingly, termites in escaping flows moved significantly faster than escaping individuals. Repairing behavior was observed shortly after the disturbance, and new mud tubes were preferentially constructed from the bottom up. When predators (i.e., ants) were present, however, termites stopped moving and quickly sealed the mud-tube openings by capping the broken ends. Our study provides an interesting example that documents an animal (besides humans) simultaneously carrying out pathway repairs and emergency evacuation without congestion.

  10. Heat-induced symmetry breaking in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kai Chung

    Full Text Available The collective egress of social insects is important in dangerous situations such as natural disasters or enemy attacks. Some studies have described the phenomenon of symmetry breaking in ants, with two exits induced by a repellent. However, whether symmetry breaking occurs under high temperature conditions, which are a common abiotic stress, remains unknown. In our study, we deposited a group of Polyrhachis dives ants on a heated platform and counted the number of escaping ants with two identical exits. We discovered that ants asymmetrically escaped through two exits when the temperature of the heated platform was >32.75°C. The degree of asymmetry increased linearly with the temperature of the platform. Furthermore, the higher the temperature of heated platform was, the more ants escaped from the heated platform. However, the number of escaping ants decreased for 3 min when the temperature was higher than the critical thermal limit (39.46°C, which is the threshold for ants to endure high temperature without a loss of performance. Moreover, the ants tended to form small groups to escape from the thermal stress. A preparatory formation of ant grouping was observed before they reached the exit, indicating that the ants actively clustered rather than accidentally gathered at the exits to escape. We suggest that a combination of individual and grouping ants may help to optimize the likelihood of survival during evacuation.

  11. Flowing water affects fish fast-starts: escape performance of the Hawaiian stream goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Kelly M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Walker, Jeffrey A; Blob, Richard W

    2016-10-01

    Experimental measurements of escape performance in fishes have typically been conducted in still water; however, many fishes inhabit environments with flow that could impact escape behavior. We examined the influences of flow and predator attack direction on the escape behavior of fish, using juveniles of the amphidromous Hawaiian goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni In nature, these fish must escape ambush predation while moving through streams with high-velocity flow. We measured the escape performance of juvenile gobies while exposing them to a range of water velocities encountered in natural streams and stimulating fish from three different directions. Frequency of response across treatments indicated strong effects of flow conditions and attack direction. Juvenile S. stimpsoni had uniformly high response rates for attacks from a caudal direction (opposite flow); however, response rates for attacks from a cranial direction (matching flow) decreased dramatically as flow speed increased. Mechanical stimuli produced by predators attacking in the same direction as flow might be masked by the flow environment, impairing the ability of prey to detect attacks. Thus, the likelihood of successful escape performance in fishes can depend critically on environmental context. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  13. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  14. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  15. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  16. Mapping racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Donald B

    2006-01-01

    The author uses the metaphor of mapping to illuminate a structural feature of racist thought, locating the degraded object along vertical and horizontal axes. These axes establish coordinates of hierarchy and of distance. With the coordinates in place, racist thought begins to seem grounded in natural processes. The other's identity becomes consolidated, and parochialism results. The use of this kind of mapping is illustrated via two patient vignettes. The author presents Freud's (1905, 1927) views in relation to such a "mapping" process, as well as Adorno's (1951) and Baldwin's (1965). Finally, the author conceptualizes the crucial status of primitivity in the workings of racist thought.

  17. Temporal and ontogenetic variation in the escape response of Ameiva festiva (Squamata, Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattanzio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors have been shown to affect lizard escape behavior (flight initiation distance or FID, the distance between predator and prey when the prey initiates escape. Patterns of daily activity, such as foraging or movement behavior, vary with respect to time of day, supporting that escape responses may vary temporally as well. However, there remains scant information regarding the effects of time of day on FID. During peak activity, FID may decrease due to increased cost of giving up resources (e.g., prey or potential mates. An alternative hypothesis is that FID may increase because lizard activity in general may serve to alert a predator in advance of its approach. A lizard in this scenario may be favored to flee sooner rather than later. Moreover, juvenile and adult lizards of multiple species may differ in behavioral, ecological, and morphological traits that could influence escape decisions. I tested the effects of time of day (in 30-min intervals and age (juvenile or adult on the FID of a tropical whiptail lizard, Ameiva festiva in Costa Rica. I found that A. festiva escape responses varied with time of day such that in general, their FID decreased throughout the day. In addition, I observed a peak in FID from mid to late-morning that matches published estimates of peak activity times for A. festiva. Overall, juvenile A. festiva initiated an escape response sooner than adults, which may be related to differences in perceived risk associated with differences in size and predator experience between the two age groups. I conclude that escape responses may be contingent on both the activity level of the animal at the time of approach and its age.

  18. Escape Excel: A tool for preventing gene symbol and accession conversion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Eric A; Stewart, Paul A; Kuenzi, Brent M; Eschrich, James A

    2017-01-01

    Microsoft Excel automatically converts certain gene symbols, database accessions, and other alphanumeric text into dates, scientific notation, and other numerical representations. These conversions lead to subsequent, irreversible, corruption of the imported text. A recent survey of popular genomic literature estimates that one-fifth of all papers with supplementary gene lists suffer from this issue. Here, we present an open-source tool, Escape Excel, which prevents these erroneous conversions by generating an escaped text file that can be safely imported into Excel. Escape Excel is implemented in a variety of formats (http://www.github.com/pstew/escape_excel), including a command line based Perl script, a Windows-only Excel Add-In, an OS X drag-and-drop application, a simple web-server, and as a Galaxy web environment interface. Test server implementations are accessible as a Galaxy interface (http://apostl.moffitt.org) and simple non-Galaxy web server (http://apostl.moffitt.org:8000/). Escape Excel detects and escapes a wide variety of problematic text strings so that they are not erroneously converted into other representations upon importation into Excel. Examples of problematic strings include date-like strings, time-like strings, leading zeroes in front of numbers, and long numeric and alphanumeric identifiers that should not be automatically converted into scientific notation. It is hoped that greater awareness of these potential data corruption issues, together with diligent escaping of text files prior to importation into Excel, will help to reduce the amount of Excel-corrupted data in scientific analyses and publications.

  19. Comparative pick-up ion distributions at Mars and Venus: Consequences for atmospheric deposition and escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Shannon M.; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan; Liemohn, Michael; Dong, Chuanfei; Hara, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    Without the shielding of a substantial intrinsic dipole magnetic field, the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are particularly susceptible to similar atmospheric ion energization and scavenging processes. However, each planet has different attributes and external conditions controlling its high altitude planetary ion spatial and energy distributions. This paper describes analogous test particle simulations in background MHD fields that allow us to compare the properties and fates, precipitation or escape, of the mainly O+ atmospheric pick-up ions at Mars and Venus. The goal is to illustrate how atmospheric and planetary scales affect the upper atmospheres and space environments of our terrestrial planet neighbors. The results show the expected convection electric field-related hemispheric asymmetries in both precipitation and escape, where the degree of asymmetry at each planet is determined by the planetary scale and local interplanetary field strength. At Venus, the kinetic treatment of O+ reveals a strong nightside source of precipitation while Mars' crustal fields complicate the simple asymmetry in ion precipitation and drive a dayside source of precipitation. The pickup O+ escape pattern at both Venus and Mars exhibits low energy tailward escape, but Mars exhibits a prominent, high energy 'polar plume' feature in the hemisphere of the upward convection electric field while the Venus ion wake shows only a modest poleward concentration. The overall escape is larger at Venus than Mars (2.1 ×1025 and 4.3 ×1024 at solar maximum, respectively), but the efficiency (likelihood) of O+ escaping is 2-3 times higher at Mars. The consequences of these comparisons for pickup ion related atmospheric energy deposition, loss rates, and detection on spacecraft including PVO, VEX, MEX and MAVEN are considered. In particular, both O+ precipitation and escape show electric field controlled asymmetries that grow with energy, while the O+ fluxes and energy spectra at selected spatial

  20. Variable fitness impact of HIV-1 escape mutations to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Troyer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA-restricted CD8(+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL target and kill HIV-infected cells expressing cognate viral epitopes. This response selects for escape mutations within CTL epitopes that can diminish viral replication fitness. Here, we assess the fitness impact of escape mutations emerging in seven CTL epitopes in the gp120 Env and p24 Gag coding regions of an individual followed longitudinally from the time of acute HIV-1 infection, as well as some of these same epitopes recognized in other HIV-1-infected individuals. Nine dominant mutations appeared in five gp120 epitopes within the first year of infection, whereas all four mutations found in two p24 epitopes emerged after nearly two years of infection. These mutations were introduced individually into the autologous gene found in acute infection and then placed into a full-length, infectious viral genome. When competed against virus expressing the parental protein, fitness loss was observed with only one of the nine gp120 mutations, whereas four had no effect and three conferred a slight increase in fitness. In contrast, mutations conferring CTL escape in the p24 epitopes significantly decreased viral fitness. One particular escape mutation within a p24 epitope was associated with reduced peptide recognition and high viral fitness costs but was replaced by a fitness-neutral mutation. This mutation appeared to alter epitope processing concomitant with a reduced CTL response. In conclusion, CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag p24 were associated with significant fitness costs, whereas most escape mutations in the Env gene were fitness neutral, suggesting a balance between immunologic escape and replicative fitness costs.

  1. Unsteady motion: escape jumps in planktonic copepods, their kinematics and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders; Langlois, Vincent J.; Jakobsen, Hans H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the kinematics of escape jumps in three species of 0.3–3.0 mm-sized planktonic copepods. We find similar kinematics between species with periodically alternating power strokes and passive coasting and a resulting highly fluctuating escape velocity. By direct numerical simulations, we estimate the force and power output needed to accelerate and overcome drag. Both are very high compared with those of other organisms, as are the escape velocities in comparison to startle velocities of other aquatic animals. Thus, the maximum weight-specific force, which for muscle motors of other animals has been found to be near constant at 57 N (kg muscle)−1, is more than an order of magnitude higher for the escaping copepods. We argue that this is feasible because most copepods have different systems for steady propulsion (feeding appendages) and intensive escapes (swimming legs), with the muscular arrangement of the latter probably adapted for high force production during short-lasting bursts. The resulting escape velocities scale with body length to power 0.65, different from the size-scaling of both similar sized and larger animals moving at constant velocity, but similar to that found for startle velocities in other aquatic organisms. The relative duration of the pauses between power strokes was observed to increase with organism size. We demonstrate that this is an inherent property of swimming by alternating power strokes and pauses. We finally show that the Strouhal number is in the range of peak propulsion efficiency, again suggesting that copepods are optimally designed for rapid escape jumps. PMID:20462876

  2. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly advanced genetics research. The improved quality of genetic data has reduced the time required to identify a ... cases, a matter of months or even weeks. Genetic mapping data generated by the HGP's laboratories is freely accessible ...

  3. Second site escape of a T20-dependent HIV-1 variant by a single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of the envelope glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.

  4. Extinction Correction Significantly Influences the Estimate of the Lyα Escape Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Fang Xia; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Hao, Cai-Na; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Yang

    2017-02-01

    The Lyα escape fraction is a key measure to constrain the neutral state of the intergalactic medium and then to understand how the universe was fully reionized. We combine deep narrowband imaging data from the custom-made filter NB393 and the {{{H}}}2S1 filter centered at 2.14 μm to examine the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at the same redshift z = 2.24. The combination of these two populations allows us to determine the Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24. Over an area of 383 arcmin2 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS), 124 Lyα emitters are detected down to NB393 = 26.4 mag at the 5σ level, and 56 Hα emitters come from An et al. Of these, four have both Lyα and Hα emissions (LAHAEs). We also collect the Lyα emitters and Hα emitters at z = 2.24 in the COSMOS field from the literature, and increase the number of LAHAEs to 15 in total. About one-third of them are AGNs. We measure the individual/volumetric Lyα escape fraction by comparing the observed Lyα luminosity/luminosity density to the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity/luminosity density. We revisit the extinction correction for Hα emitters using the Galactic extinction law with color excess for nebular emission. We also adopt the Calzetti extinction law together with an identical color excess for stellar and nebular regions to explore how the uncertainties in extinction correction affect the estimate of individual and global Lyα escape fractions. In both cases, an anti-correlation between the Lyα escape fraction and dust attenuation is found among the LAHAEs, suggesting that dust absorption is responsible for the suppression of the escaping Lyα photons. However, the estimated Lyα escape fraction of individual LAHAEs varies by up to ˜3 percentage points between the two methods of extinction correction. We find the global Lyα escape fraction at z = 2.24 to be (3.7 ± 1.4)% in the ECDFS. The variation in the color excess of the extinction causes a discrepancy of ˜1 percentage point

  5. Energy transfer in O collisions with He isotopes and helium escape from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, S.; Zhang, P.; Kharchenko, V.; Dalgarno, A.

    2010-12-01

    Helium is one of the dominant constituents in the upper atmosphere of Mars [1]. Thermal (Jeans’) escape of He is negligible on Mars [2] and major mechanism of escape is related to the collisional ejection of He atoms by energetic oxygen. Collisional ejection dominates over ion-related mechanisms [3] and evaluation of the escape flux of neutral He becomes an important issue. The dissociative recombination of O2+ is considered to be the major source of energetic oxygen atoms [4]. We report accurate data on energy-transfer collisions between hot oxygen atoms and the atmospheric helium gas. Angular dependent scattering cross sections for elastic collisions of O(3P) and O(1D) atoms with helium gas have been calculated quantum mechanically and found to be surprisingly similar. Cross sections, computed for collisions with both helium isotopes, 3He and 4He, have been used to construct the kernel of the Boltzmann equation, describing the energy relaxation of hot oxygen atoms. Computed rates of energy transfer in O + He collisions have been used to evaluate the flux of He atoms escaping from the Mars atmosphere at different solar conditions. We have identified atmospheric layers mostly responsible for production of the He escape flux. Our results are consistent with recent data from Monte Carlo simulations of the escape of O atoms: strong angular anisotropy of atomic cross sections leads to an increased transparency of the upper atmosphere for escaping O flux [5] and stimulate the collisional ejection of He atoms. References [1] Krasnopolsky, V. A., and G. R. Gladstone (2005), Helium on Mars and Venus: EUVE observations and modeling, Icarus, 176, 395. [2] Chassefiere E. and F. Leblanc (2004), Mars atmospheric escape and evolution; interaction with the solar wind, Planetary and Space Science, 52, 1039 [3] Krasnopolsky, V. (2010), Solar activity variations of thermospheric temperatures on Mars and a problem of CO in the lower atmoshpere, Icarus, 207, 638. [4] Fox, J. L

  6. Importance of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Multiple Antigenic Sites on the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein To Avoid Neutralization Escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingshu; Shi, Wei; Chappell, James D.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Zhang, Yi; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Becker, Michelle M.; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Fischer, Robert; Wang, Nianshuang; Corbett, Kizzmekia S.; Choe, Misook; Mason, Rosemarie D.; Van Galen, Joseph G.; Zhou, Tongqing; Saunders, Kevin O.; Tatti, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Lia M.; Kwong, Peter D.; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Kong, Wing-Pui; McLellan, Jason S.; Denison, Mark R.; Munster, Vincent J.; Mascola, John R.; Graham, Barney S.; Gallagher, Tom

    2018-03-07

    ABSTRACT

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a highly lethal pulmonary infection with ~35% mortality. The potential for a future pandemic originating from animal reservoirs or health care-associated events is a major public health concern. There are no vaccines or therapeutic agents currently available for MERS-CoV. Using a probe-based single B cell cloning strategy, we have identified and characterized multiple neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specifically binding to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or S1 (non-RBD) regions from a convalescent MERS-CoV-infected patient and from immunized rhesus macaques. RBD-specific MAbs tended to have greater neutralizing potency than non-RBD S1-specific MAbs. Six RBD-specific and five S1-specific MAbs could be sorted into four RBD and three non-RBD distinct binding patterns, based on competition assays, mapping neutralization escape variants, and structural analysis. We determined cocrystal structures for two MAbs targeting the RBD from different angles and show they can bind the RBD only in the “out” position. We then showed that selected RBD-specific, non-RBD S1-specific, and S2-specific MAbs given prophylactically prevented MERS-CoV replication in lungs and protected mice from lethal challenge. Importantly, combining RBD- and non-RBD MAbs delayed the emergence of escape mutations in a cell-based virus escape assay. These studies identify MAbs targeting different antigenic sites on S that will be useful for defining mechanisms of MERS-CoV neutralization and for developing more effective interventions to prevent or treat MERS-CoV infections.

    IMPORTANCEMERS-CoV causes a highly lethal respiratory infection for which no vaccines or antiviral therapeutic options are currently available. Based on continuing exposure from established reservoirs in dromedary camels and bats, transmission of MERS-CoV into humans and future outbreaks are expected. Using

  7. Injury rate in a helicopter underwater escape trainer (HUET) from 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Christopher J; MacDonald, Conor V; Gibbs, Peter N A

    2014-08-01

    Helicopter underwater escape training (HUET) carries a potential for injury and this paper identifies the injury rate. A marine survival training school registry of all students trained between 2005-2012 in HUET and the coinciding accident records were examined. There were 8902 students trained in a helicopter underwater escape simulator for a total of 59,245 underwater escapes. There were 40 cases where only first-aid was required and 3 serious injuries (a laceration requiring 5 sutures, 1 dislocated shoulder, and 1 water aspiration requiring hospitalization). There were no deaths and no problems reported with using the Emergency Breathing System (EBS) or Air Pocket. Of the injuries, 11 were due to the student using a poor escape technique. The overall probability of injury was 0.74 per 1000 ascents. In HUET training, there is a very low injury rate with almost no significant severity. Although not scientifically proven, this would suggest that the low incident rate is due to good medical screening and the attention given by instructors to anxious students. Compared to other training such as diving, parachute jumping, and submarine escape training, the rate of injury was considerably lower.

  8. Escape from Telomere-Driven Crisis Is DNA Ligase III Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon E. Jones

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Short dysfunctional telomeres are capable of fusion, generating dicentric chromosomes and initiating breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Cells that escape the ensuing cellular crisis exhibit large-scale genomic rearrangements that drive clonal evolution and malignant progression. We demonstrate that there is an absolute requirement for fully functional DNA ligase III (LIG3, but not ligase IV (LIG4, to facilitate the escape from a telomere-driven crisis. LIG3- and LIG4-dependent alternative (A and classical (C nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ pathways were capable of mediating the fusion of short dysfunctional telomeres, both displaying characteristic patterns of microhomology and deletion. Cells that failed to escape crisis exhibited increased proportions of C-NHEJ-mediated interchromosomal fusions, whereas those that escaped displayed increased proportions of intrachromosomal fusions. We propose that the balance between inter- and intrachromosomal telomere fusions dictates the ability of human cells to escape crisis and is influenced by the relative activities of A- and C-NHEJ at short dysfunctional telomeres.

  9. How Hospitable Are Space Weather Affected Habitable Zones? The Role of Ion Escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Glocer, Alex; Khazanov, George V.; Danchi, William C. [NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Loyd, R. O. P.; France, Kevin [University of Colorado/LASP, Boulder, CO (United States); Sojka, Jan [Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Liemohn, Michael W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Atmospheres of exoplanets in the habitable zones around active young G-K-M stars are subject to extreme X-ray and EUV (XUV) fluxes from their host stars that can initiate atmospheric erosion. Atmospheric loss affects exoplanetary habitability in terms of surface water inventory, atmospheric pressure, the efficiency of greenhouse warming, and the dosage of the UV surface irradiation. Thermal escape models suggest that exoplanetary atmospheres around active K-M stars should undergo massive hydrogen escape, while heavier species including oxygen will accumulate forming an oxidizing atmosphere. Here, we show that non-thermal oxygen ion escape could be as important as thermal, hydrodynamic H escape in removing the constituents of water from exoplanetary atmospheres under supersolar XUV irradiation. Our models suggest that the atmospheres of a significant fraction of Earth-like exoplanets around M dwarfs and active K stars exposed to high XUV fluxes will incur a significant atmospheric loss rate of oxygen and nitrogen, which will make them uninhabitable within a few tens to hundreds of Myr, given a low replenishment rate from volcanism or cometary bombardment. Our non-thermal escape models have important implications for the habitability of the Proxima Centauri’s terrestrial planet.

  10. Enhanced Endosomal Escape by Light-Fueled Liquid-Metal Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Lin, Yiliang; Chen, Zhaowei; Hu, Quanyin; Liu, Yang; Yu, Shuangjiang; Gao, Wei; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2017-04-12

    Effective endosomal escape remains as the "holy grail" for endocytosis-based intracellular drug delivery. To date, most of the endosomal escape strategies rely on small molecules, cationic polymers, or pore-forming proteins, which are often limited by the systemic toxicity and lack of specificity. We describe here a light-fueled liquid-metal transformer for effective endosomal escape-facilitated cargo delivery via a chemical-mechanical process. The nanoscale transformer can be prepared by a simple approach of sonicating a low-toxicity liquid-metal. When coated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the resulting nanospheres demonstrate the ability to absorb and convert photoenergy to drive the simultaneous phase separation and morphological transformation of the inner liquid-metal core. The morphological transformation from nanospheres to hollow nanorods with a remarkable change of aspect ratio can physically disrupt the endosomal membrane to promote endosomal escape of payloads. This metal-based nanotransformer equipped with GQDs provides a new strategy for facilitating effective endosomal escape to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery with enhanced efficacy.

  11. Escape rate for nonequilibrium processes dominated by strong non-detailed balance force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ying; Xu, Song; Ao, Ping

    2018-02-01

    Quantifying the escape rate from a meta-stable state is essential to understand a wide range of dynamical processes. Kramers' classical rate formula is the product of an exponential function of the potential barrier height and a pre-factor related to the friction coefficient. Although many applications of the rate formula focused on the exponential term, the prefactor can have a significant effect on the escape rate in certain parameter regions, such as the overdamped limit and the underdamped limit. There have been continuous interests to understand the effect of non-detailed balance on the escape rate; however, how the prefactor behaves under strong non-detailed balance force remains elusive. In this work, we find that the escape rate formula has a vanishing prefactor with decreasing friction strength under the strong non-detailed balance limit. We both obtain analytical solutions in specific examples and provide a derivation for more general cases. We further verify the result by simulations and propose a testable experimental system of a charged Brownian particle in electromagnetic field. Our study demonstrates that a special care is required to estimate the effect of prefactor on the escape rate when non-detailed balance force dominates.

  12. How Hospitable Are Space Weather Affected Habitable Zones? The Role of Ion Escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Glocer, Alex; Khazanov, George V.; Danchi, William C.; Loyd, R. O. P.; France, Kevin; Sojka, Jan; Liemohn, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheres of exoplanets in the habitable zones around active young G-K-M stars are subject to extreme X-ray and EUV (XUV) fluxes from their host stars that can initiate atmospheric erosion. Atmospheric loss affects exoplanetary habitability in terms of surface water inventory, atmospheric pressure, the efficiency of greenhouse warming, and the dosage of the UV surface irradiation. Thermal escape models suggest that exoplanetary atmospheres around active K-M stars should undergo massive hydrogen escape, while heavier species including oxygen will accumulate forming an oxidizing atmosphere. Here, we show that non-thermal oxygen ion escape could be as important as thermal, hydrodynamic H escape in removing the constituents of water from exoplanetary atmospheres under supersolar XUV irradiation. Our models suggest that the atmospheres of a significant fraction of Earth-like exoplanets around M dwarfs and active K stars exposed to high XUV fluxes will incur a significant atmospheric loss rate of oxygen and nitrogen, which will make them uninhabitable within a few tens to hundreds of Myr, given a low replenishment rate from volcanism or cometary bombardment. Our non-thermal escape models have important implications for the habitability of the Proxima Centauri’s terrestrial planet.

  13. Hydrogen escape from Mars enhanced by deep convection in dust storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Nicholas G.; Kleinböhl, Armin; Chaffin, Michael S.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kass, David M.; Hayne, Paul O.; McCleese, Daniel J.; Piqueux, Sylvain; Shirley, James H.; Schofield, John T.

    2018-02-01

    Present-day water loss from Mars provides insight into Mars's past habitability1-3. Its main mechanism is thought to be Jeans escape of a steady hydrogen reservoir sourced from odd-oxygen reactions with near-surface water vapour2, 4,5. The observed escape rate, however, is strongly variable and correlates poorly with solar extreme-ultraviolet radiation flux6-8, which was predicted to modulate escape9. This variability has recently been attributed to hydrogen sourced from photolysed middle atmospheric water vapour10, whose vertical and seasonal distribution is only partly characterized and understood11-13. Here, we report multi-annual observational estimates of water content and dust and water transport to the middle atmosphere from Mars Climate Sounder data. We provide strong evidence that the transport of water vapour and ice to the middle atmosphere by deep convection in Martian dust storms can enhance hydrogen escape. Planet-encircling dust storms can raise the effective hygropause (where water content rapidly decreases to effectively zero) from 50 to 80 km above the areoid (the reference equipotential surface). Smaller dust storms contribute to an annual mode in water content at 40-50 km that may explain seasonal variability in escape. Our results imply that Martian atmospheric chemistry and evolution can be strongly affected by the meteorology of the lower and middle atmosphere of Mars.

  14. Escape Distance in Ground-Nesting Birds Differs with Individual Level of Camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K; Troscianko, Jolyon T; Stevens, Martin; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-08-01

    Camouflage is one of the most widespread antipredator strategies in the animal kingdom, yet no animal can match its background perfectly in a complex environment. Therefore, selection should favor individuals that use information on how effective their camouflage is in their immediate habitat when responding to an approaching threat. In a field study of African ground-nesting birds (plovers, coursers, and nightjars), we tested the hypothesis that individuals adaptively modulate their escape behavior in relation to their degree of background matching. We used digital imaging and models of predator vision to quantify differences in color, luminance, and pattern between eggs and their background, as well as the plumage of incubating adult nightjars. We found that plovers and coursers showed greater escape distances when their eggs were a poorer pattern match to the background. Nightjars sit on their eggs until a potential threat is nearby, and, correspondingly, they showed greater escape distances when the pattern and color match of the incubating adult's plumage-rather than its eggs-was a poorer match to the background. Finally, escape distances were shorter in the middle of the day, suggesting that escape behavior is mediated by both camouflage and thermoregulation.

  15. Stochastic perturbations in open chaotic systems: random versus noisy maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bódai, Tamás; Altmann, Eduardo G; Endler, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the effects of random perturbations on fully chaotic open systems. Perturbations can be applied to each trajectory independently (white noise) or simultaneously to all trajectories (random map). We compare these two scenarios by generalizing the theory of open chaotic systems and introducing a time-dependent conditionally-map-invariant measure. For the same perturbation strength we show that the escape rate of the random map is always larger than that of the noisy map. In random maps we show that the escape rate κ and dimensions D of the relevant fractal sets often depend nonmonotonically on the intensity of the random perturbation. We discuss the accuracy (bias) and precision (variance) of finite-size estimators of κ and D, and show that the improvement of the precision of the estimations with the number of trajectories N is extremely slow ([proportionality]1/lnN). We also argue that the finite-size D estimators are typically biased. General theoretical results are combined with analytical calculations and numerical simulations in area-preserving baker maps.

  16. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  17. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod; Martins, Patricia; Croissant, Jonas G.; Patil, Sachin; Omar, Haneen; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  18. European policymaking on the tobacco advertising ban: the importance of escape routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamini, Sandra; Versluis, Esther; Maarse, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the European Union policymaking process regarding tobacco advertising. While others already highlighted the importance of intergovernmental bargaining between member states to explain the outcome of the tobacco advertising case, the main aim of this article is to identify the use of escape routes by the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council and interest groups that played an important role in overcoming the deadlock. When looking at the different institutions that structure policymaking, we argue that indeed focusing on escape routes provides a clear insight in the process and in what strategies were necessary to 'make Europe work'. In the end, it appears to be a combination of escape routes that resulted in the final decision.

  19. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-05-19

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  20. Mass fractionation of noble gases in diffusion-limited hydrodynamic hydrogen escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahnle, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The theory of mass fractionation by hydrogen is presently extended to atmospheres in which hydrogen is not the major constituent. This theoretical framework is applied to three different cases. In the first, it is shown that the fractionation of terrestrial atmospheric neon with respect to mantle neon is explainable as a consequence of diffusion-limited hydrogen escape from a steam atmosphere toward the end of the accretion process. In the second, the anomalously high Ar-38/Ar-36 ratio of Mars is shown to be due to hydrodynamic fractionation by a vigorously escaping and very pure hydrogen wind. In the last case, it is speculated that the currently high Martian D/H ratio emerged during the hydrodynamic escape phase which fractionated Ar. 35 refs

  1. Unsteady motion: escape jumps in planktonic copepods, their kinematics and energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Peter; Langlois, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    velocities in other aquatic organisms. The relative duration of the pauses between power strokes was observed to increase with organism size. We demonstrate that this is an inherent property of swimming by alternating power strokes and pauses. We finally show that the Strouhal number is in the range of peak......We describe the kinematics of escape jumps in three species of 0.3–3.0 mm-sized planktonic copepods. We find similar kinematics between species with periodically alternating power strokes and passive coasting and a resulting highly fluctuating escape velocity. By direct numerical simulations, we...... estimate the force and power output needed to accelerate and overcome drag. Both are very high compared with those of other organisms, as are the escape velocities in comparison to startle velocities of other aquatic animals. Thus, the maximum weight-specific force, which for muscle motors of other animals...

  2. Optimization of a Compton-suppression system by escape-peak ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, H.; Chao, J.H.; Wu, S.-C.

    1996-01-01

    A Compton-suppression system consisting of an HPGe central detector surrounded by eight BGO scintillators in an annular geometry was assembled. This system is dedicated to in-beam γ-ray measurements. The ratios of full-energy to single-escape peak and full-energy of double-escape peak, at γ-rays of 2754, 4443 and 6130 keV, were used to derive associated suppression factors in order to optimize detection conditions of the system. The suppression factors derived both from the escape peak ratios and the corresponding peak-to-Compton ratios of the γ-ray spectra are compared and discussed. This optimization technique may be of great significance for analyzing complicated spectra, where high-energy γ-rays are considered for analytical use. (Author)

  3. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  4. MAVEN Observations of Escaping Planetary Ions from the Martian Atmosphere: Mass, Velocity, and Spatial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yaxue; Fang, Xiaohua; Brain, D. A.; McFadden, James P.; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, Jack

    2015-04-01

    The Mars-solar wind interaction accelerates and transports planetary ions away from the Martian atmosphere through a number of processes, including ‘pick-up’ by electromagnetic fields. The MAVEN spacecraft has made routine observations of escaping planetary ions since its arrival at Mars in September 2014. The SupraThermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument measures the ion energy, mass, and angular spectra. It has detected energetic planetary ions during most of the spacecraft orbits, which are attributed to the pick-up process. We found significant variations in the escaping ion mass and velocity distributions from the STATIC data, which can be explained by factors such as varying solar wind conditions, contributions of particles from different source locations and different phases during the pick-up process. We also study the spatial distributions of different planetary ion species, which can provide insight into the physics of ion escaping process and enhance our understanding of atmospheric erosion by the solar wind. Our results will be further interpreted within the context of the upstream solar wind conditions measured by the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instrument and the magnetic field environment measured by the Magnetometer (MAG) instrument. Our study shows that the ion spatial distribution in the Mars-Sun-Electric-Field (MSE) coordinate system and the velocity space distribution with respect to the local magnetic field line can be used to distinguish the ions escaping through the polar plume and those through the tail region. The contribution of the polar plume ion escape to the total escape rate will also be discussed.

  5. Mapping of Rill Erosion of Arable Soils Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtanov, A. N.; Vernyuk, Yu. I.; Savin, I. Yu.; Shchepot'ev, V. V.; Dokukin, P. A.; Sharychev, D. V.; Li, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    Possibilities of using data obtained from unmanned aerial vehicles for detection and mapping of rill erosion on arable lands are analyzed. Identification and mapping of rill erosion was performed on a key plot with a predominance of arable gray forest soils (Greyzemic Phaeozems) under winter wheat in Tula oblast. This plot was surveyed from different heights and in different periods to determine the reliability of identification of rill erosion on the basis of automated procedures in a GIS. It was found that, despite changes in the pattern of rills during the warm season, only one survey during this season is sufficient for adequate assessment of the area of eroded soils. According to our data, the most reliable identification of rill erosion is based on the aerial survey from the height of 50 m above the soil surface. When the height of the flight is more than 200 m, erosional rills virtually escape identification. The efficiency of identification depends on the type of crops, their status, and time of the survey. The surveys of bare soil surface in periods with maximum possible interval from the previous rain or snowmelt season are most efficient. The results of our study can be used in the systems of remote sensing monitoring of erosional processes on arable fields. Application of multiand hyperspectral cameras can improve the efficiency of monitoring.

  6. MAPS of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    to show meaningful patterns of dispersal. We had previously published the functional map of the head and neck, but it was difficult to explain to either patients or surgeons because that view of our body did not resemble anatomy. This discrepancy between functional and physical maps is just a mathematical restatement of the well-known fact that some diseases, such as head and neck cancer, spread in complex patterns, not always to the next nearest site. We had discovered that a computer could re-arrange anatomy so that this particular disease spreads to the next nearest site. The functional map explains over 95% of the metastases in 1400 patients. In a sense, we had graphed what our body "looks like" to a tumor. The tumor readily travels between adjacent areas in the functional map. The functional map is a succinct visual display of trends that are not easily appreciated in tables of probabilities.

  7. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  8. Expression of Fas ligand by human gastric adenocarcinomas: a potential mechanism of immune escape in stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M W; O'connell, J; O'sullivan, G C; Roche, D; Brady, C; Kelly, J; Collins, J K; Shanahan, F

    1999-02-01

    Despite being immunogenic, gastric cancers overcome antitumour immune responses by mechanisms that have yet to be fully elucidated. Fas ligand (FasL) is a molecule that induces Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of activated immunocytes, thereby mediating normal immune downregulatory roles including immune response termination, tolerance acquisition, and immune privilege. Colon cancer cell lines have previously been shown to express FasL and kill lymphoid cells by Fas mediated apoptosis in vitro. Many diverse tumours have since been found to express FasL suggesting that a "Fas counterattack" against antitumour immune effector cells may contribute to tumour immune escape. To ascertain if human gastric tumours express FasL in vivo, as a potential mediator of immune escape in stomach cancer. Thirty paraffin wax embedded human gastric adenocarcinomas. FasL protein was detected in gastric tumours using immunohistochemistry; FasL mRNA was detected in the tumours using in situ hybridisation. Cell death was detected in situ in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Prevalent expression of FasL was detected in all 30 resected gastric adenocarcinomas examined. In the tumours, FasL protein and mRNA were co-localised to neoplastic gastric epithelial cells, confirming expression by the tumour cells. FasL expression was independent of tumour stage, suggesting that it may be expressed throughout gastric cancer progression. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumour. Human gastric adenocarcinomas express the immune downregulatory molecule, FasL. The results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune privilege in stomach cancer.

  9. 3-D mechanical modeling of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Since the last 50 million years, 2500km shorting of Indian Plate moving north collided with the Eurasian Plate has resulted in rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau shaped into the most intensive and extensive orogen on earth (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Li et al., 2013). Based on previous geological and geophysical investigations (Royden et al., 1997; Clark and Royden, 2000), two end-member models of the entire Tibetan Plateau are proposed: thin visous sheet model and lateral escape model. However, when we scope into a special local area, for example, Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, end-member models could change to lower crustal flow model and upper crust shorting model. Recently, with vigorous geophysical observations, more data such as differential traveltime tomography and seismic velocity structure in the Tibetan Plateau actually reveal that the eastward crustal flow from the central Tibetan plateau is expected to divert north-eastward and south-eastward around the rigid Sichuan basin (Royden et al., 1997, 2008; Clark and Royden, 2000). Moreover, both the P-wave polarization tomography and gravitational anomaly and the GPS data from the intensive crustal movement monitoring network in China show that the north-eastward crustal flow divide two direction due to the Ordos Block as a barrier with rigid, cold and stable crust. In order to investigate mechanical of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, especially along the Xi'an-Taiyuan-Datong, we construct 3-D geological finite element model with high resolution topography and non-homogeneous strata. For the uncertainties of computational parameters, such as the depth and width and viscosity coefficient of the middle-lower crust, and the pressure differences, several models were tested to analyze the spatial distribution of curst flow and try to known about the uplift of Datong in Shanxi Province.

  10. Expression of Fas ligand by human gastric adenocarcinomas: a potential mechanism of immune escape in stomach cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, M W

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Despite being immunogenic, gastric cancers overcome antitumour immune responses by mechanisms that have yet to be fully elucidated. Fas ligand (FasL) is a molecule that induces Fas receptor mediated apoptosis of activated immunocytes, thereby mediating normal immune downregulatory roles including immune response termination, tolerance acquisition, and immune privilege. Colon cancer cell lines have previously been shown to express FasL and kill lymphoid cells by Fas mediated apoptosis in vitro. Many diverse tumours have since been found to express FasL suggesting that a "Fas counterattack" against antitumour immune effector cells may contribute to tumour immune escape. AIM: To ascertain if human gastric tumours express FasL in vivo, as a potential mediator of immune escape in stomach cancer. SPECIMENS: Thirty paraffin wax embedded human gastric adenocarcinomas. METHODS: FasL protein was detected in gastric tumours using immunohistochemistry; FasL mRNA was detected in the tumours using in situ hybridisation. Cell death was detected in situ in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). RESULTS: Prevalent expression of FasL was detected in all 30 resected gastric adenocarcinomas examined. In the tumours, FasL protein and mRNA were co-localised to neoplastic gastric epithelial cells, confirming expression by the tumour cells. FasL expression was independent of tumour stage, suggesting that it may be expressed throughout gastric cancer progression. TUNEL staining disclosed a high level of cell death among lymphocytes infiltrating FasL positive areas of tumour. CONCLUSIONS: Human gastric adenocarcinomas express the immune downregulatory molecule, FasL. The results suggest that FasL is a prevalent mediator of immune privilege in stomach cancer.

  11. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1993-01-01

    The dependence of the response to γ-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  12. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs

  13. Tumor suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M.; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E.; Cleary, John P.; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Hess, Julian M.; Gimelbrant, Alexander A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X chromosome (chrX) genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative “Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressor” (EXITS) genes, we compared somatic alterations from >4100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) chrX genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) ...

  14. Four-channel ZnS scintillator measurements of escaping tritons in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1988-10-01

    A four-channel scintillation detector capable of measuring tritons, protons, and alphas escaping from a tokamak plasma was operated during the 1986 run period of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Signals consistent with the expected 1 MeV triton behavior have been observed during deuterium operation. Backgrounds associated with neutrons, gammas, and soft x-rays have been evaluated in situ. Such a detector should be capable of measuring escaping alphas during the D/T phase of TFTR. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Sound attenuation and preferred music in the treatment of problem behavior maintained by escape from noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Tracy L; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; LaRue, Robert H

    2018-06-06

    We examined the extent to which different sounds functioned as motivating operations (MO) that evoked problem behavior during a functional analysis for two participants. Results suggested that escape from loud noises reinforced the problem behavior for one participant and escape from arguing reinforced problem behavior for the other participant. Noncontingent delivery of preferred music through sound-attenuating headphones decreased problem behavior without the use of extinction for both participants. We discuss the results in terms of the abolishing effects of the intervention. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  17. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingzhao; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Babu, Mohan; Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Butland, Gareth; Yang, Wenhong; Pogoutse, Oxana; Guo, Xinghua; Phanse, Sadhna; Wong, Peter; Chandran, Shamanta; Christopoulos, Constantine; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Musso, Gabriel; Ali, Mehrab; Nazemof, Nazila; Eroukova, Veronika; Golshani, Ashkan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Greenblatt, Jack F; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Emili, Andrew

    2009-04-28

    One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  18. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  19. Necklace maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckmann, B.; Verbeek, K.A.B.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data associated with geographic regions is nowadays globally available in large amounts and hence automated methods to visually display these data are in high demand. There are several well-established thematic map types for quantitative data on the ratio-scale associated with regions:

  20. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  1. Escaping the crunch: Gravitational effects in classical transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Matthew C.; Yang, I-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    During eternal inflation, a landscape of vacua can be populated by the nucleation of bubbles. These bubbles inevitably collide, and collisions sometimes displace the field into a new minimum in a process known as a classical transition. In this paper, we examine some new features of classical transitions that arise when gravitational effects are included. Using the junction condition formalism, we study the conditions for energy conservation in detail, and solve explicitly for the types of allowed classical transition geometries. We show that the repulsive nature of domain walls, and the de Sitter expansion associated with a positive energy minimum, can allow for classical transitions to vacua of higher energy than that of the colliding bubbles. Transitions can be made out of negative or zero energy (terminal) vacua to a de Sitter phase, restarting eternal inflation, and populating new vacua. However, the classical transition cannot produce vacua with energy higher than the original parent vacuum, which agrees with previous results on the construction of pockets of false vacuum. We briefly comment on the possible implications of these results for various measure proposals in eternal inflation.

  2. Application of escape probability to line transfer in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; London, R.A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Haglestein, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors apply the escape probability method to treat transfer of optically thick lines in laser-produced plasmas in plan-parallel geometry. They investigate the effect of self-absorption on the ionization balance and ion level populations. In addition, they calculate such effect on the laser gains in an exploding foil target heated by an optical laser. Due to the large ion streaming motion in laser-produced plasmas, absorption of an emitted photon occurs only over the length in which the Doppler shift is equal to the line width. They find that the escape probability calculated with the Doppler shift is larger compared to the escape probability for a static plasma. Therefore, the ion streaming motion contributes significantly to the line transfer process in laser-produced plasmas. As examples, they have applied escape probability to calculate transfer of optically thick lines in both ablating slab and exploding foil targets under irradiation of a high-power optical laser

  3. Retrieval of a leaflet escaped in a Tri-technologies bileaflet mechanical prosthetic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciulli, Tomás F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; Guidoin, Robert; Salvado, César M; Fernández, Adrián J; Prezioso, Horacio A

    2008-01-01

    The escape of the prosthetic heart valve disc is one of the causes of prosthetic dysfunction that requires emergency surgery. The removal of the embolized disc should be carried out because of the risk of a progressive extrusion on the aortic wall. Several imaging techniques can be used for the detection of the missing disc localization. In this report we describe a 32-year-old man who underwent mitral valve replacement with a Tri-technologies bileaflet valve three years ago, and was admitted in cardiogenic shock. Transesophageal echocardiography showed acute-onset massive mitral regurgitation. The patient underwent emergency replacement of the prosthetic valve. Only one of the two leaflets remained in the removed prosthetic valve. The missing leaflet could not be found within the cardiac cavity. The abdominal fluoroscopic study and plain radiography were unable to detect the escaped leaflet. The abdominal computed tomography scan and the ultrasound showed the escaped leaflet in the terminal portion of the aortic bifurcation. To retrieve the embolized disc laparotomy and aortotomy were performed three months later. The escaped leaflet shows a fracture of one of the pivot systems caused by structural failure. This kind of failure mode is usually the result of high stress concentration.

  4. Extended exposure to elevated temperature affects escape response behaviour in coral reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald T. Warren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat of predation, and the prey’s response, are important drivers of community dynamics. Yet environmental temperature can have a significant effect on predation avoidance techniques such as fast-start performance observed in marine fishes. While it is known that temperature increases can influence performance and behaviour in the short-term, little is known about how species respond to extended exposure during development. We produced a startle response in two species of damselfish, the lemon damsel Pomacentrus moluccensis, and the Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, by the repeated use of a drop stimulus. We show that the length of thermal exposure of juveniles to elevated temperature significantly affects this escape responses. Short-term (4d exposure to warmer temperature affected directionality and responsiveness for both species. After long-term (90d exposure, only P. moluccensis showed beneficial plasticity, with directionality returning to control levels. Responsiveness also decreased in both species, possibly to compensate for higher temperatures. There was no effect of temperature or length of exposure on latency to react, maximum swimming speed, or escape distance suggesting that the physical ability to escape was maintained. Evidence suggests that elevated temperature may impact some fish species through its effect on the behavioural responses while under threat rather than having a direct influence on their physical ability to perform an effective escape response.

  5. On the escape transition of a tethered Gaussian chain; exact results in two conjugate ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvortsov, A.M.; Klushin, L.I.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Upon compression between two pistons an end-tethered polymer chain undergoes an abrupt transition from a confined coil state to an inhomogeneous flower-like conformation that is partially escaped from the gap. In the thermodynamic limit the system demonstrates a first-order phase transition. A

  6. Self-consciousness and binge eating in college women : an escape from rumination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon; Donofrio, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background: Binge-eating is a highly distressing symptom that has been found to co-occur with other symptoms of eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa. One perspective of binge eating is that it is an attempt to escape high levels of aversive self-consciousness. A primary aim of this study is to

  7. Race as/and the Trace of the Ghost: Jurisprudential Escapism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondly, how the escape from those legal texts evinces, or perhaps even facilitated, a certain evasion of, or anxiety towards the horizontal application of the Bill of Rights which explicitly proscribes overt (racial) discrimination by private non-state actors. And thirdly, how by following a formalist legal approach, one in which ...

  8. A trouser bag experiment that quantify by-catch species escaping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea fishing trials were conducted to quantify by-catch species escaping from a modified shrimp trawl codend and retained in a trouser bag. Modification was by inserting a rectangular aluminum frame excluder device with bar spacing of 20mm at the anterior bunt. Thirty replicate landings showed that; Drepane africana have ...

  9. Educational Gaming for Pharmacy Students - Design and Evaluation of a Diabetes-themed Escape Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eukel, Heidi N; Frenzel, Jeanne E; Cernusca, Dan

    2017-09-01

    Objective. To design an educational game that will increase third-year professional pharmacy students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and to evaluate their perceived value of the game. Methods. Faculty members created an innovative educational game, the diabetes escape room. An authentic escape room gaming environment was established through the use of a locked room, an escape time limit, and game rules within which student teams completed complex puzzles focused on diabetes disease management. To evaluate the impact, students completed a pre-test and post-test to measure the knowledge they've gained and a perception survey to identify moderating factors that could help instructors improve the game's effectiveness and utility. Results. Students showed statistically significant increases in knowledge after completion of the game. A one-sample t -test indicated that students' mean perception was statistically significantly higher than the mean value of the evaluation scale. This statically significant result proved that this gaming act offers a potential instructional benefit beyond its novelty. Conclusion. The diabetes escape room proved to be a valuable educational game that increased students' knowledge of diabetes mellitus disease management and showed a positive perceived overall value by student participants.

  10. The upstream escape of energized solar wind protons from the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, there have been some systematic observations of backstreaming protons at the Earth's bow shock with parallel velocity components and total energies much too high to be associated with the usual long-period upstream waves or to be produced by Sonnerup's simple reflection process (Lin et al., 1974), and these protons (30-100keV) were attributed to some unknown acceleration mechanism in the upstream region. The observations of Lof et al. involved protons in high pitch angle, and, although their reasons for favoring an upstream acceleration were quite different, it may seem intuitive that high pitch angle particles would have difficulty escaping the shock, especially at large field-normal angles. Such an inference would superficially support the notion of energization outside the bow shock. It seems worthwhile therefore to examine the extent to which the geometry of individual particle motion alone might select among reflected particles those that can escape upstream and those that cannot. In this paper the geometry of escape is described and some simple numerical examples are worked out for a few special cases. It is found that protons with rather high energies and pitch angles can escape the shock at only marginally quasi-parallel field orientations (i.e., thetasub(nB) approximately 50 0 ), even if they have quite moderate speeds parallel to B. (Auth.)

  11. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  12. A New Window into Escaping Exoplanet Atmospheres: 10830 Å Line of Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklopčić, Antonija; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    Observational evidence for escaping exoplanet atmospheres has been obtained for a few exoplanets to date. It comes from strong transit signals detected in the ultraviolet, most notably in the wings of the hydrogen Lyα (Lyα) line. However, the core of the Lyα line is often heavily affected by interstellar absorption and geocoronal emission, limiting the information about the atmosphere that can be extracted from that part of the spectrum. Transit observations in atomic lines that are (a) sensitive enough to trace the rarefied gas in the planetary wind and (b) do not suffer from significant extinction by the interstellar medium could enable more detailed observations, and thus provide better constraints on theoretical models of escaping atmospheres. The absorption line of a metastable state of helium at 10830 Å could satisfy both of these conditions for some exoplanets. We develop a simple 1D model of escaping planetary atmospheres containing hydrogen and helium. We use it to calculate the density profile of helium in the 23S metastable excited state and the expected in-transit absorption at 10830 Å for two exoplanets known to have escaping atmospheres. Our results indicate that exoplanets similar to GJ 436b and HD 209458b should exhibit enhanced transit depths at 10830 Å, with ∼8% and ∼2% excess absorption in the line core, respectively.

  13. Enhanced escape rate for Hg 254 nm resonance radiation in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, James E; Raizen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    The potential of the low-cost MAGIS isotopic separation method to improve fluorescent lamp efficacy is explored using resonance radiation transport simulations. New Hg isotopic mixes are discovered that yield escape rates for 254 nm Hg I resonance radiation equal to 117% to 122% of the rate for a natural isotopic mix under the same lamp conditions. (paper)

  14. Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xayarath, Bobbi; Alonzo, Francis; Freitag, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades mammalian cells and escapes from membrane-bound vacuoles to replicate within the host cell cytosol. Gene products required for intracellular bacterial growth and bacterial spread to adjacent cells are regulated by a transcriptional activator known as PrfA. PrfA becomes activated following L. monocytogenes entry into host cells, however the signal that stimulates PrfA activation has not yet been defined. Here we provide evidence for L. monocytogenes secretion of a small peptide pheromone, pPplA, which enhances the escape of L. monocytogenes from host cell vacuoles and may facilitate PrfA activation. The pPplA pheromone is generated via the proteolytic processing of the PplA lipoprotein secretion signal peptide. While the PplA lipoprotein is dispensable for pathogenesis, bacteria lacking the pPplA pheromone are significantly attenuated for virulence in mice and have a reduced efficiency of bacterial escape from the vacuoles of nonprofessional phagocytic cells. Mutational activation of PrfA restores virulence and eliminates the need for pPplA-dependent signaling. Experimental evidence suggests that the pPplA peptide may help signal to L. monocytogenes its presence within the confines of the host cell vacuole, stimulating the expression of gene products that contribute to vacuole escape and facilitating PrfA activation to promote bacterial growth within the cytosol. PMID:25822753

  15. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    The metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin were studied with 131I-labelled human albumin in nine patients with long-term diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy was present in all patients and nephropathy in four. Plasma albumin concentration and plasma volume were reduced (P...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 13 to Part 223 - Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single Grid Hard TED Escape Opening 13 Figure 13 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 13 Figure 13 to Part 223—Singl...

  18. X-ray escape effects in Si, Ge, and NaI detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, G.

    1989-01-01

    A 3-parameter representation of the type x = K 1 [1 -L(ln(1 + 1/L))] together with L = K 2 E K 3 is recommended for the escape to parent peak ratio. Parameter values are provided for Si, Ge, and NaI detectors. Scattering, which has been neglected up to now, is included. (author)

  19. Workshop on agricultural and agro-industrial residue utilization in the ESCAP region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimal, O P

    1980-02-01

    A summary of the workshop held at Pattaya, Thailand is given at which the present status of both technological and non-technical aspects of utilization of agricultural and industrial residues in the ESCAP region are reviewed. A course of action was recommended whereby national programmes could develop and international assistance be focussed through follow up activities.

  20. Genetic evidence of hybridization between Onothera wolfii (Wolf's evening primrose) and O. glaziovana, a garden escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer DeWoody; Leonel Arguello; David Imper; Robert D. Westfall; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2008-01-01

    Isozyme analysis of the rare Oenothera wolfii (Wolf's evening primrose) and the garden escape, O. glazioviana, indicates that hybridization between these species may be more widespread than morphological evidence indicates. Although both species contained low amounts of genetic variation, unique alleles were identified in...

  1. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF ACCELERATED PARTICLES ESCAPING A SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of gamma-ray emission from core-collapse supernovae (SNe) originating from the explosions of massive young stars. The fast forward shock of the supernova remnant (SNR) can accelerate particles by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in a cavern blown by a strong, pre-SN stellar wind. As a fundamental part of nonlinear DSA, some fraction of the accelerated particles escape the shock and interact with a surrounding massive dense shell producing hard photon emission. To calculate this emission, we have developed a new Monte Carlo technique for propagating the cosmic rays (CRs) produced by the forward shock of the SNR, into the dense, external material. This technique is incorporated in a hydrodynamic model of an evolving SNR which includes the nonlinear feedback of CRs on the SNR evolution, the production of escaping CRs along with those that remain trapped within the remnant, and the broadband emission of radiation from trapped and escaping CRs. While our combined CR-hydro-escape model is quite general and applies to both core collapse and thermonuclear SNe, the parameters we choose for our discussion here are more typical of SNRs from very massive stars whose emission spectra differ somewhat from those produced by lower mass progenitors directly interacting with a molecular cloud.

  2. Theoretical UV absorption spectra of hydrodynamically escaping O2/CO2-rich exoplanetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C. J.; Norman, R. B.; Maggiolo, R.; Wedlund, C. Simon; Bell, J.; Bernard, D.; Parkinson, C. J.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing Earth- and Venus-like exoplanets' atmospheres to determine if they are habitable and how they are evolving (e.g., equilibrium or strong erosion) is a challenge. For that endeavor, a key element is the retrieval of the exospheric temperature, which is a marker of some of the processes occurring in the lower layers and controls a large part of the atmospheric escape. We describe a method to determine the exospheric temperature of an O 2 - and/or CO 2 -rich transiting exoplanet, and we simulate the respective spectra of such a planet in hydrostatic equilibrium and hydrodynamic escape. The observation of hydrodynamically escaping atmospheres in young planets may help constrain and improve our understanding of the evolution of the solar system's terrestrial planets' atmospheres. We use the dependency of the absorption spectra of the O 2 and CO 2 molecules on the temperature to estimate the temperature independently of the total absorption of the planet. Combining two observables (two parts of the UV spectra that have a different temperature dependency) with the model, we are able to determine the thermospheric density profile and temperature. If the slope of the density profile is inconsistent with the temperature, then we infer the hydrodynamic escape. We address the question of the possible biases in the application of the method to future observations, and we show that the flare activity should be cautiously monitored to avoid large biases.

  3. DWARF GALAXIES WITH IONIZING RADIATION FEEDBACK. I. ESCAPE OF IONIZING PHOTONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Krumholz, Mark R.; Goldbaum, Nathan J.; Wise, John H.; Turk, Matthew J.; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method for simulating ionizing radiation and supernova feedback in the analogs of low-redshift galactic disks. In this method, which we call star-forming molecular cloud (SFMC) particles, we use a ray-tracing technique to solve the radiative transfer equation for ultraviolet photons emitted by thousands of distinct particles on the fly. Joined with high numerical resolution of 3.8 pc, the realistic description of stellar feedback helps to self-regulate star formation. This new feedback scheme also enables us to study the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming clumps and from a galaxy, and to examine the evolving environment of star-forming gas clumps. By simulating a galactic disk in a halo of 2.3 × 10 11 M ☉ , we find that the average escape fraction from all radiating sources on the spiral arms (excluding the central 2.5 kpc) fluctuates between 0.08% and 5.9% during a ∼20 Myr period with a mean value of 1.1%. The flux of escaped photons from these sources is not strongly beamed, but manifests a large opening angle of more than 60° from the galactic pole. Further, we investigate the escape fraction per SFMC particle, f esc (i), and how it evolves as the particle ages. We discover that the average escape fraction f esc is dominated by a small number of SFMC particles with high f esc (i). On average, the escape fraction from an SFMC particle rises from 0.27% at its birth to 2.1% at the end of a particle lifetime, 6 Myr. This is because SFMC particles drift away from the dense gas clumps in which they were born, and because the gas around the star-forming clumps is dispersed by ionizing radiation and supernova feedback. The framework established in this study brings deeper insight into the physics of photon escape fraction from an individual star-forming clump and from a galactic disk

  4. Automated guidance algorithms for a space station-based crew escape vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanary, R; Hammen, D G; Ito, D; Rabalais, B W; Rishikof, B H; Siebold, K H

    2003-04-01

    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The first separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The first challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver requires

  5. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  6. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  7. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: Fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, W.E.; Kramer, R.A.; Rice, A.; Weldon, W.C.; Niezgoda, M.; Faber, M.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, M.; Visser, T.J.; Jongeneelen, M.; Thijsse, S.; Throsby, M.; Kruif, de J.; Rupprecht, C.E.; Dietzschold, B.; Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, A.B.H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  8. Novel rabies virus-neutralizing epitope recognized by human monoclonal antibody: fine mapping and escape mutant analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Wilfred E.; Kramer, R. Arjen; Rice, Amy; Weldon, William C.; Niezgoda, Michael; Faber, Milosz; Slootstra, Jerry W.; Meloen, Rob H.; Clijsters-van der Horst, Marieke; Visser, Therese J.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Thijsse, Sandra; Throsby, Mark; de Kruif, John; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Goudsmit, Jaap; Bakker, Alexander B. H.

    2005-01-01

    Anti-rabies virus immunoglobulin combined with rabies vaccine protects humans from lethal rabies infections. For cost and safety reasons, replacement of the human or equine polyclonal immunoglobulin is advocated, and the use of rabies virus-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is recommended. We

  9. Evaluation of K x-ray escape and crosstalk in CdTe detectors and multi-channel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuchi, Tetsuro; Ohmori, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Baba, Sueki

    1995-01-01

    The simple structure of CdTe semiconductor detectors facilitates their downsizing, and their possible application to radiographic sensors has been studied. The escape of K X-rays from these detectors increases with reduction of their dimensions and affects the measurements of X- and gamma-ray spectra. K X-rays also produce crosstalk in multi-channel detectors with adjacent channels. Therefore, K X-rays which escape from the detector elements degrade both the precision of energy spectra and spatial resolution. The ratios of escape peak integrated counts to total photon counts for various sizes of CdTe single detectors were calculated for gamma rays using the Monte Carlo method. Also, escape and crosstalk ratios were simulated for the CdTe multi-channel detectors. The theoretical results were tested experimentally for 59.54-keV gamma rays from a 241 Am radioactive source. Results showed that escape ratios for single detectors were strongly dependent on element size and thickness. The escape and crosstalk ratios increased with closer channel pitch. The calculated results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculations made it clear that K X-rays which escaped to neighboring channels induced crosstalk more frequently at smaller channel pitch in multichannel detectors. A radiation shielding grid which blocked incident photons between the boundary channels was also tested by experiment and by calculation. It was effective in reducing the probability of escape and crosstalk

  10. Centering Single Cells in Microgels via Delayed Crosslinking Supports Long-Term 3D Culture by Preventing Cell Escape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, Tom; Henke, Sieger; Visser, Claas Willem; Karperien, Marcel; Leijten, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    Single-cell-laden microgels support physiological 3D culture conditions while enabling straightforward handling and high-resolution readouts of individual cells. However, their widespread adoption for long-term cultures is limited by cell escape. In this work, it is demonstrated that cell escape is

  11. Data from: Escaping blood-fed malaria mosquitoes minimize tactile detection without compromising on take-off speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijres, F.T.; Chang, S.W.; Veen, van W.G.; Spitzen, J.; Biemans, Bart; Koehl, M.A.R.; Dudley, R.

    2017-01-01

    To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host's skin. We studied this trade-off between escape speed and

  12. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  13. Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cyrys, J.; Eeftens, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028300; Heinrich, J.; Ampe, C.; Armengaud, A.; Beelen, R.; Bellander, T.; Beregszaszi, T.; Birk, M.; Cesaroni, G.; Cirach, M.; de Hoogh, K.; de Nazelle, A.; de Vocht, F.; Declercq, C.; Dėdelė, A.; Dimakopoulou, K.; Eriksen, K.; Galassi, C.; Grąulevičienė, R.; Grivas, G.; Gruzieva, O.; Gustafsson, A.H.; Hoffmann, B.; Iakovides, M.; Ineichen, A.; Krämer, U.; Lanki, T.; Lozano, P.; Madsen, C.; Meliefste, K.; Modig, L.; Mölter, A.; Mosler, G.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Nonnemacher, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Peters, A.; Pontet, S.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Quass, U.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Ranzi, A.; Sugiri, D.; Stephanou, E.G.; Taimisto, P.; Tsai, M-Y.; Vaskövi, É.; Villani, S.; Wang, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345480279; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475

    2012-01-01

    The ESCAPE study (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) investigates long-term effects of exposure to air pollution on human health in Europe. This paper documents the spatial variation of measured NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 ESCAPE study areas across Europe. In

  14. Characterization of extra-solar planets and their atmospheres (Spectroscopy of transits and atmospheric escape)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are exo-planets so close to their star that their atmosphere can lose gas because of hydrodynamic escape. Transiting gaseous giants are an excellent way to understand this mechanism, but it is necessary to study other types of planets to determine its impact on the exo-planetary population. This thesis aims at using transit spectroscopy to observe the atmosphere of several exo-planets, to study their properties and to contribute to the characterization of hydrodynamic escape. UV lines observed with the Hubble telescope are analyzed with the numerical model of upper atmospheres we developed. Using the Ly-α line we identify energetic and dynamical interactions between the atmospheres of the hot Jupiters HD209458b and HD189733b and their stars. We study the dependence of the escape on the environment of a planet and on its physical properties, through the observation of a super-Earth and a warm Jupiter in the 55 Cnc system. Using observations of HD209458b, we show that magnesium lines are a window on the region of formation of hydrodynamic escape. We study the potential of transit spectroscopy in the near-UV to detect new cases of atmospheric escape. This mechanism is fostered by the proximity of a planet to its star, which makes it even more important to understand the formation and migration processes that can be traced in the alignment of a planetary system. Using measures from the spectrographs HARPS-N and SOPHIE we study the alignments of 55 Cnc e and the Kepler candidate KOI 12.01, whose planetary nature we also seek to validate. (author)

  15. A convergent and essential interneuron pathway for Mauthner-cell-mediated escapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Alix M B; Schoppik, David; Robson, Drew N; Haesemeyer, Martin; Portugues, Ruben; Li, Jennifer M; Randlett, Owen; Wee, Caroline L; Engert, Florian; Schier, Alexander F

    2015-06-01

    The Mauthner cell (M-cell) is a command-like neuron in teleost fish whose firing in response to aversive stimuli is correlated with short-latency escapes [1-3]. M-cells have been proposed as evolutionary ancestors of startle response neurons of the mammalian reticular formation [4], and studies of this circuit have uncovered important principles in neurobiology that generalize to more complex vertebrate models [3]. The main excitatory input was thought to originate from multisensory afferents synapsing directly onto the M-cell dendrites [3]. Here, we describe an additional, convergent pathway that is essential for the M-cell-mediated startle behavior in larval zebrafish. It is composed of excitatory interneurons called spiral fiber neurons, which project to the M-cell axon hillock. By in vivo calcium imaging, we found that spiral fiber neurons are active in response to aversive stimuli capable of eliciting escapes. Like M-cell ablations, bilateral ablations of spiral fiber neurons largely eliminate short-latency escapes. Unilateral spiral fiber neuron ablations shift the directionality of escapes and indicate that spiral fiber neurons excite the M-cell in a lateralized manner. Their optogenetic activation increases the probability of short-latency escapes, supporting the notion that spiral fiber neurons help activate M-cell-mediated startle behavior. These results reveal that spiral fiber neurons are essential for the function of the M-cell in response to sensory cues and suggest that convergent excitatory inputs that differ in their input location and timing ensure reliable activation of the M-cell, a feedforward excitatory motif that may extend to other neural circuits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J. [Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics, Schöneckstraße 6, 79104 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Vir b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.

  17. Space Weathering of Super-Earths: Model Simulations of Exospheric Sodium Escape from 61 Virgo b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, M.; Berdyugina, S.; Kuhn, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rocky exoplanets are expected to be eroded by space weather in a similar way as in the solar system. In particular, Mercury is one of the dramatically eroded planets whose material continuously escapes into its exosphere and further into space. This escape is well traced by sodium atoms scattering sunlight. Due to solar wind impact, micrometeorite impacts, photo-stimulated desorption and thermal desorption, sodium atoms are released from surface regolith. Some of these released sodium atoms are escaping from Mercury’s gravitational-sphere. They are dragged anti-Sun-ward and form a tail structure. We expect similar phenomena on exoplanets. The hot super-Earth 61 Vir b orbiting a G3V star at only 0.05 au may show a similar structure. Because of its small separation from the star, the sodium release mechanisms may be working more efficiently on hot super-Earths than on Mercury, although the strong gravitational force of Earth-sized or even more massive planets may be keeping sodium atoms from escaping from the planet. Here, we performed model simulations for Mercury (to verify our model) and 61 Vir b as a representative super-Earth. We have found that sodium atoms can escape from this exoplanet due to stellar wind sputtering and micrometeorite impacts, to form a sodium tail. However, in contrast to Mercury, the tail on this hot super-Earth is strongly aligned with the anti-starward direction because of higher light pressure. Our model suggests that 61 Vir b seems to have an exo-base atmosphere like that of Mercury.

  18. Structural Basis for Escape of Human Astrovirus from Antibody Neutralization: Broad Implications for Rational Vaccine Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Perez, Edmundo I.; López, Tomás; Arias, Carlos F.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UNAM-Mexico); (UCSC)

    2017-10-25

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of viral diarrhea worldwide in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent astrovirus infection; however, antibodies developed by healthy individuals during previous infection correlate with protection from reinfection, suggesting that an effective vaccine could be developed. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which several strains of human astrovirus serotype 2 (HAstV-2) are resistant to the potent HAstV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2 (MAb PL-2). Sequencing of the HAstV-2 capsid genes reveals mutations in the PL-2 epitope within the capsid's spike domain. To understand the molecular basis for resistance from MAb PL-2 neutralization, we determined the 1.35-Å-resolution crystal structure of the capsid spike from one of these HAstV-2 strains. Our structure reveals a dramatic conformational change in a loop within the PL-2 epitope due to a serine-to-proline mutation, locking the loop in a conformation that sterically blocks binding and neutralization by MAb PL-2. We show that mutation to serine permits loop flexibility and recovers MAb PL-2 binding. Importantly, we find that HAstV-2 capsid spike containing a serine in this loop is immunogenic and elicits antibodies that neutralize all HAstV-2 strains. Taken together, our results have broad implications for rational selection of vaccine strains that do not contain prolines in antigenic loops, so as to elicit antibodies against diverse loop conformations.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. In this study, we investigated how several strains of HAstV are resistant to a virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. We determined the crystal structure of the capsid protein spike domain from one of these HAstV strains and found that

  19. Interchanging parameters and integrals in dynamical systems: the mapping case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, John A.G. [Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia) and School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)]. E-mail: jagr@maths.unsw.edu.au; Apostolos, Iatrou; Quispel, G.R.W. [Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia)]. E-mails: A.Iatrou@latrobe.edu.au; R.Quispel@latrobe.edu.au

    2002-03-08

    We consider dynamical systems with discrete time (maps) that possess one or more integrals depending upon parameters. We show that integrals can be used to replace parameters in the original map so as to construct a different map with different integrals. We also highlight a process of reparametrization that can be used to increase the number of parameters in the original map prior to using integrals to replace them. Properties of the original map and the new map are compared. The theory is motivated by, and illustrated with, examples of a three-dimensional trace map and some four-dimensional maps previously shown to be integrable. (author)

  20. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    morphometric analysis of these volcanoes has been conducted: they are up to about 115-160 m high and 500-1500 m wide. Most of them show very strongly inclined flanks with 30° of average slope. The SCV2 and SCV3 form the Graham Bank, 3.5X2.8 km wide, elongated in the NW-SE direction. At the top of SCV2 focused seepage plumes were observed in the entire water column, through the CHIRP data, where we calculated that they release, a volume of about 10950 m3 and 43960 m3of gases, respectively. In this work, we present the first results of a data collection that have got as main result the identification and mapping of the fluid escape structures revealing the relationship between the active tectonic with migration of fluids, to be used to assess the Submarine Geo-Hazard in the Sicily Channel. We identified two fluid escape fields whose genesis and evolution appear linked to the neotectonic and volcanic activities respectively, that represent the main controlling factors for the migration of fluid; considering the good correlation between pockmarks and the main identified fault systems. In conclusion, our results suggest that the degassing of fluids in this region is rooted at depth, and is mainly aligned with the NW-SE dip/strike slip fault systems, repeatedly reactivated, and linked to the volcanic activity.

  1. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  2. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms - e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness) through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs) toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK) is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw) and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload), as ΔK ˜ -mloadFloadu2sw/4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp) for Kp = 1-7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK) = 0.2 ṡ Kp + 2 ṡ log10(Kp + 1.2) + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy ΔK from the solar wind to the current system by the increased

  3. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  4. Using the Two-Burn Escape Maneuver for Fast Transfers in the Solar System and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert B.; Richardson, Georgia A.

    2010-01-01

    The two-burn maneuver to escape the gravitational pull of a central body is described. The maneuver, originally suggested by Hermann Oberth, improves efficiency considerably for a wide range of missions of interest in space exploration and scientific investigation. A clear delineation of when the maneuver is more effective is given, as are methods to extract the most advantage when using the maneuver. Some examples are given of how this maneuver can enable exploration of the outer solar system, near interstellar space, and crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The maneuver has the potential to halve the required infrastructure associated with a crewed mission to Mars and achieve increased solar escape velocities with existing spacecraft technologies.

  5. Estimating escapement of fish and invertebrates in a Danish anchor seine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noack, Thomas; Madsen, Niels; Mieske, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The codend is generally presumed to be the place where the main selectivity of fish occurs in towed fishing gears, but other parts of the net have been found to contribute to the selectivity process of several invertebrate species. This means that conventional selectivity or survival studies may......) invertebrates from the forward parts of the seine net. For seven species of demersal fish, most fish escaped through the lower panel close to the codend. All invertebrate species were found in higher numbers in the collecting bags than in the codend where many organisms escaped in the lower panel of the wings...... or the belly. Mean levels of visible damage ranged from 1.00 to 3.25 for collected invertebrates and were similar for all gear parts. Common starfish (Asterias rubens), however, showed highest damage in the extension part of the net....

  6. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin in hypertensive patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1993-01-01

    . The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary...

  7. Transition state theory approach to polymer escape from a one dimensional potential well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mökkönen, Harri; Ikonen, Timo; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Jónsson, Hannes

    2015-06-14

    The rate of escape of an ideal bead-spring polymer in a symmetric double-well potential is calculated using transition state theory (TST) and the results compared with direct dynamical simulations. The minimum energy path of the transitions becomes flat and the dynamics diffusive for long polymers making the Kramers-Langer estimate poor. However, TST with dynamical corrections based on short time trajectories started at the transition state gives rate constant estimates that agree within a factor of two with the molecular dynamics simulations over a wide range of bead coupling constants and polymer lengths. The computational effort required by the TST approach does not depend on the escape rate and is much smaller than that required by molecular dynamics simulations.

  8. Swimming and escape behavior of copepod nauplii: implications for predator-prey interactions among copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, Josefin

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on how prey behavior may affect predation risk through encounter rates and the escape success of the prey given an encounter. Temora longicornis nauplii require stronger hydrodynamic signals to elicit escape than Acartia tonsa nauplii (critical fluid deformation rates, Delta......* of 2.8 to 4.0 and 1.2 to 2.5 s(-1), respectively) suggesting that T. longicornis may be more susceptible to predation. Quantification of naupliar motility behavior and subsequent estimation of the hydrodynamic signals which the nauplii generate suggest that an adult female Centropages typicus may......, the behavior of A. tonsa acts predominantly at the post-encounter stage where its sensitivity to hydrodynamic signals (i,e., low Delta*) effectively compensates for the high predator encounter rate generated by its motility....

  9. Escape from metastable magnetic states: New results on Mn_12 acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Andrew D.

    2000-03-01

    The crossover from thermally assisted to pure quantum tunneling has been studied in Mn_12 acetate molecular crystals using micro-Hall effect magnetometry [1]. Several new features, intrinsic to the magnetization relaxation of this material, have been found. First, magnetic hysteresis measurements have been used to accurately identify the energy levels important to the magnetic relaxation (the ``escape levels’’) as a function of the magnetic field and temperature (0.3 to 3 K) [2]. These results indicate that the escape levels can change either smoothly or abruptly with temperature, depending upon the magnetic field magnitude and orientation. Second, relaxation experiments show evidence for a pure quantum relaxation regime at low temperature (Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4469 (1997)

  10. Atmospheric escape from the TRAPPIST-1 planets and implications for habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Jin, Meng; Lingam, Manasvi; Airapetian, Vladimir S; Ma, Yingjuan; van der Holst, Bart

    2018-01-09

    The presence of an atmosphere over sufficiently long timescales is widely perceived as one of the most prominent criteria associated with planetary surface habitability. We address the crucial question of whether the seven Earth-sized planets transiting the recently discovered ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 are capable of retaining their atmospheres. To this effect, we carry out numerical simulations to characterize the stellar wind of TRAPPIST-1 and the atmospheric ion escape rates for all of the seven planets. We also estimate the escape rates analytically and demonstrate that they are in good agreement with the numerical results. We conclude that the outer planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system are capable of retaining their atmospheres over billion-year timescales. The consequences arising from our results are also explored in the context of abiogenesis, biodiversity, and searches for future exoplanets. In light of the many unknowns and assumptions involved, we recommend that these conclusions must be interpreted with due caution.

  11. Atmospheric escape from the TRAPPIST-1 planets and implications for habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanfei; Jin, Meng; Lingam, Manasvi; Airapetian, Vladimir S.; Ma, Yingjuan; van der Holst, Bart

    2018-01-01

    The presence of an atmosphere over sufficiently long timescales is widely perceived as one of the most prominent criteria associated with planetary surface habitability. We address the crucial question of whether the seven Earth-sized planets transiting the recently discovered ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 are capable of retaining their atmospheres. To this effect, we carry out numerical simulations to characterize the stellar wind of TRAPPIST-1 and the atmospheric ion escape rates for all of the seven planets. We also estimate the escape rates analytically and demonstrate that they are in good agreement with the numerical results. We conclude that the outer planets of the TRAPPIST-1 system are capable of retaining their atmospheres over billion-year timescales. The consequences arising from our results are also explored in the context of abiogenesis, biodiversity, and searches for future exoplanets. In light of the many unknowns and assumptions involved, we recommend that these conclusions must be interpreted with due caution.

  12. Effect of field-dependent mobility on the escape probability. I. Electrons photoinjected in neopentane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozumder, A.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-01-01

    A general procedure is described for calculating the escape probability of an electron against neutralization in the presence of an external field after it has been ejected into a dielectric liquid from a planar surface. The present paper utilizes the field-dependent electron mobility measurement in neopentane by Bakale and Schmidt. The calculated escape probability, upon averaging over the initial distribution, is compared with the current efficiency measurement of Holroyd et al. The median thermalization legnth, inferred from this comparison, depends in general upon the assumed form of initial distribution. It is less than the value obtained when the field dependence of the mobility is ignored but greater than that applicable to the high energy irradiation case. A plausible explanation is offered

  13. Stochastic narrow escape in molecular and cellular biology analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holcman, David

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in the non-standard asymptotics of the mathematical narrow escape problem in stochastic theory, as well as applications of the narrow escape problem in cell biology. The first part of the book concentrates on mathematical methods, including advanced asymptotic methods in partial equations, and is aimed primarily at applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists who are interested in biological applications. The second part of the book is intended for computational biologists, theoretical chemists, biochemists, biophysicists, and physiologists. It includes a summary of output formulas from the mathematical portion of the book and concentrates on their applications in modeling specific problems in theoretical molecular and cellular biology. Critical biological processes, such as synaptic plasticity and transmission, activation of genes by transcription factors, or double-strained DNA break repair, are controlled by diffusion in structures that have both large and small sp...

  14. Bridging the gap between high and low acceleration for planetary escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrikis, Janis; Preble, Jeffrey C.

    With the exception of the often time consuming analysis by numerical optimization, no single orbit transfer analysis technique exists that can be applied over a wide range of accelerations. Using the simple planetary escape (parabolic trajectory) mission some of the more common techniques are considered as the limiting bastions at the high and the extremely low acceleration regimes. The brachistochrone, the minimum time of flight path, is proposed as the technique to bridge the gap between the high and low acceleration regions, providing a smooth bridge over the entire acceleration spectrum. A smooth and continuous velocity requirement is established for the planetary escape mission. By using these results, it becomes possible to determine the effect of finite accelerations on mission performance and target propulsion and power system designs which are consistent with a desired mission objective.

  15. An evaluation of two differential reinforcement procedures with escape extinction to treat food refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Meeta R; Piazza, Cathleen C; Martinez, Cheryl J; Volkert, Valerie M; Christine, M Santana

    2002-01-01

    Consumption of solids and liquids occurs as a chain of behaviors that may include accepting, swallowing, and retaining the food or drink. In the current investigation, we evaluated the relative effectiveness of differential reinforcement of the first behavior in the chain (acceptance) versus differential reinforcement for the terminal behavior in the chain (mouth clean). Three children who had been diagnosed with a feeding disorder participated. Acceptance remained at zero when differential reinforcement contingencies were implemented for acceptance or mouth clean. Acceptance and mouth clean increased for all 3 participants once escape extinction was added to the differential reinforcement procedures, independent of whether reinforcement was provided for acceptance or for mouth clean. Maintenance was observed in 2 children when escape extinction was removed from the treatment package. The mechanism by which consumption increased is discussed in relation to positive and negative reinforcement contingencies.

  16. MINING SECURITY PIPE© (TSM© WITH UNDERGROUND GPS GLOBAL© (RSPG© ESCAPE SECURITY DEVICE IN UNDERGROUND MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrionuevo GIMÉNEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TSM is escape pipe in case of collapse of terrain. The TSM is a passive security tool placed underground to connect the work area with secure area (mining gallery mainly. TSM is light and hand able pipe made with aramid (Kevlar, carbon fibre, or other kind of new material. The TSM will be placed as a pipe line network with many in/out entrances/exits to rich and connect problem work areas with another parts in a safe mode. Different levels of instrumentation could be added inside such as micro-led escape way suggested, temperature, humidity, level of oxygen, etc.. The open hardware and software like Arduino will be the heart of control and automation system.

  17. Multidimensional method of spatially coupled approximation to the transverse escape in nodal codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatuff, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    A natural extension of the polynomic development programmed in RHENO code is presented, which adds to the variable order one-dimensional functions sum, a number of terms that represent functions of production. These new terms, which provide a direct determination of transverse escapes, are calculated from the new variables coupling among nodes: the 4 fluxes in rectangle vortices (bidimensional Cartesian geometry) or the 12 fluxes half-way through the parallelepiped edges (tridimensional Cartesian geometry). (Author) [es

  18. TIGRESS: TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape-suppressed spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C. E.; Amaudruz, P.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chen, A. A.; Churchman, R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hyland, B.; Jones, B.; Kanungo, R.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J. P.; Morris, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Smith, M. B.; Starinsky, N.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Waddington, J. C.; Watters, L. M.

    2005-10-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC gamma-ray escape-suppressed spectrometer (TIGRESS) is a new γ-ray detector array being developed for use at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) radioactive ion beam facility. TIGRESS will comprise 12 32-fold segmented clover-type HPGe detectors coupled with 20-fold segmented modular Compton suppression shields and custom digital signal processing electronics. This paper provides an overview of the TIGRESS project and progress in its development to date.

  19. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game

    OpenAIRE

    Gündüz, Şafak

    2018-01-01

    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  20. [Negligent homicide caused by exhaust gas escaping from a manipulated chimney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Varchmin-schultheiss, Karin; Schmeling, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A chimney built and operated according to the instructions is supposed to ensure that the combustion gases coming from the fireplace can escape safely. If the operational reliability is impaired, this presents a risk of acute poisoning. The report deals with a negligently caused carbon monoxide poisoning of a married couple as a consequence of improper installation of a cover of the chimney opening. Various causes of fatal poisoning due to defective exhaust systems are discussed in connection with the presented case report.

  1. Impact of ocean acidification on the early development and escape behavior of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Song, Lulu; Chen, Yi; Ran, Haoyu; Song, Jiakun

    2017-10-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to affect a wide diversity of marine organisms. However, no studies have reported the effects of ocean acidification on Indian Ocean fish. We have used the Indian Ocean medaka (Oryzias melastigma) as a model species for a marine fish that lives in coastal waters. We investigated the impact of ocean acidification on the embryonic development and the stereotyped escape behavior (mediated by the Mauthner cell) in newly hatched larvae. Newly fertilized eggs of medaka were reared in seawater at three different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ): control at 450 μatm, moderate at 1160 μatm, and high at 1783 μatm. Hatch rates, embryonic duration, and larval malformation rates were compared and were not significantly different between the treatments and the control. In the high pCO 2 group, however, the yolks of larvae were significantly smaller than in the control group, and the newly hatched larvae were significantly longer than the larvae in the control. In the moderate pCO 2 group, the eye distance decreased significantly. No significantly negative growth effects were observed in the larvae when exposed to pCO 2 levels that are predicted as a result of ocean acidification in the next 100-200 years. Larvae reared under control conditions readily produced C-start escape behavior to mechanosensory stimuli; however, in the moderate and high pCO 2 experimental groups, the probabilities of C-start were significantly lower than those of the control group. Therefore, the sensory integration needed for the C-start escape behavior appears to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. Altered behavior in marine larval fish, particularly behaviors involved in escape from predation, could have potentially negative implications to fish populations, and, further, to the marine ecosystems at the levels of CO 2 projected for the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuber-Okrog, K.

    1996-04-01

    This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)

  3. Heat-conserving postures hinder escape: a thermoregulation–predation trade-off in wintering birds

    OpenAIRE

    Jennie M. Carr; Steven L. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Wintering birds may conserve body heat by adopting postures with minimal leg exposure or significant ptiloerection. However, maximally heat-conserving postures may hinder a bird's ability to escape attack, leading to a trade-off between predation risk and thermoregulation. Such a trade-off implies that birds should use the most heat-conserving postures only at very cold temperatures. Feeding in a relatively low-risk environment should also facilitate the use of such heat-conserving postures. ...

  4. Regularizing mappings of Lévy measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    the class of selfdecomposable laws onto the so called Thorin class . Further, partly motivated by our previous studies of infinite divisibility in free probability, we introduce a one-parameter family of one-to-one mappings , which interpolates smoothly between ( α=0 ) and the identity mapping on ( α=1...... ). We prove that each of the mappings shares many of the properties of . In particular, they are representable in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to associated Levy processes....

  5. Outgassing History and Escape of the Martian Atmosphere and Water Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Chassefière, Eric; Karatekin, Özgür; Morschhauser, Achim; Niles, Paul B.; Mousis, Olivier; Odert, Petra; Möstl, Ute V.; Breuer, Doris; Dehant, Véronique; Grott, Matthias; Gröller, Hannes; Hauber, Ernst; Pham, Lê Binh San

    2013-01-01

    The evolution and escape of the martian atmosphere and the planet's water inventory can be separated into an early and late evolutionary epoch. The first epoch started from the planet's origin and lasted ˜500 Myr. Because of the high EUV flux of the young Sun and Mars' low gravity it was accompanied by hydrodynamic blow-off of hydrogen and strong thermal escape rates of dragged heavier species such as O and C atoms. After the main part of the protoatmosphere was lost, impact-related volatiles and mantle outgassing may have resulted in accumulation of a secondary CO2 atmosphere of a few tens to a few hundred mbar around ˜4-4.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of the atmospheric surface pressure and water inventory of such a secondary atmosphere during the second epoch which lasted from the end of the Noachian until today was most likely determined by a complex interplay of various nonthermal atmospheric escape processes, impacts, carbonate precipitation, and serpentinization during the Hesperian and Amazonian epochs which led to the present day surface pressure.

  6. THE HYADES CLUSTER: IDENTIFICATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM AND ESCAPING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are ''polluted'' by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originate either from the interstellar medium or, less likely, from a gaseous circumstellar disk. If GD 31 was once a Hyades member, then it would be the first identified white dwarf Hyad with a cooling age >340 Myr.

  7. Therapeutics targeting tumor immune escape: towards the development of new generation anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato

    2008-05-01

    Despite the evidence that immune effectors can play a significant role in controlling tumor growth under natural conditions or in response to therapeutic manipulation, it is clear that malignant cells evade immune surveillance in most cases. Considering that anticancer vaccination has reached a plateau of results and currently no vaccination regimen is indicated as a standard anticancer therapy, the dissection of the molecular events underlying tumor immune escape is the necessary condition to make anticancer vaccines a therapeutic weapon effective enough to be implemented in the routine clinical setting. Recent years have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor immune escape. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed at reverting the immunosuppressive circuits that undermine an effective antitumor immune response. In this review, the best characterized mechanisms that allow cancer cells to evade immune surveillance are overviewed and the most debated controversies constellating this complex field are highlighted. In addition, the latest therapeutic strategies devised to overcome tumor immune escape are described, with special regard to those entering clinical phase investigation. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dynamic analysis of trapping and escaping in dual beam optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqiang; Hu, Huizhu; Su, Heming; Li, Zhenggang; Shen, Yu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we simulate the dynamic movement of a dielectric sphere in optical trap. This dynamic analysis can be used to calibrate optical forces, increase trapping efficiency and measure viscous coefficient of surrounding medium. Since an accurate dynamic analysis is based on a detailed force calculation, we calculate all forces a sphere receives. We get the forces of dual-beam gradient radiation pressure on a micron-sized dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime and utilize Einstein-Ornstein-Uhlenbeck to deal with its Brownian motion forces. Hydrodynamic viscous force also exists when the sphere moves in liquid. Forces from buoyance and gravity are also taken into consideration. Then we simulate trajectory of a sphere when it is subject to all these forces in a dual optical trap. From our dynamic analysis, the sphere can be trapped at an equilibrium point in static water, although it permanently fluctuates around the equilibrium point due to thermal effects. We go a step further to analyze the effects of misalignment of two optical traps. Trapping and escaping phenomena of the sphere in flowing water are also simulated. In flowing water, the sphere is dragged away from the equilibrium point. This dragging distance increases with the decrease of optical power, which results in escaping of the sphere with optical power below a threshold. In both trapping and escaping process we calculate the forces and position of the sphere. Finally, we analyze a trapping region in dual optical tweezers.

  9. Escape from R-peptide deletion in a γ-retrovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Irene C.; Eckhardt, Manon; Brynza, Julia; Collins, Mary K.; Cichutek, Klaus; Buchholz, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    The R peptide in the cytoplasmic tail (C-tail) of γ-retroviral envelope proteins (Env) prevents membrane fusion before budding. To analyse its role in the formation of replication competent, infectious particles, we developed chimeric murine leukaemia viruses (MLV) with unmodified or R-peptide deleted Env proteins of the gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV). While titres of these viruses were unaffected, R-peptide deficiency led to strongly impaired spreading. Most remarkably, we isolated an escape mutant which had restored an open reading frame for a C-terminal extension of the truncated C-tail. A reconstituted virus encoding this escape C-tail replicated in cell culture. In contrast to R-peptide deficient Env, particle incorporation of the escape Env was effective due to an enhanced protein expression and restored intracellular co-localisation with Gag proteins. Our data demonstrate that the R peptide not only regulates membrane fusion but also mediates efficient Env protein particle incorporation in γ-retrovirus infected cells.

  10. Neurological effects on startle response and escape from predation by medaka exposed to organic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.; Drummond, R.; Hammermeister, D.; Bradbury, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and behavioral studies were performed on juvenile Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to representative neurotoxic organic chemicals at sublethal concentrations. Non-invasive recordings were made of the electrical impulses generated within giant neuronal Mauthner cells, associated interneurons or motoneurons, and musculature, all of which initiate the startle or escape response in fish. Timing in milliseconds between these electrical sequelae was measured for each fish before and at 24 and 48 hours exposure to a chemical. Also noted was the number of startle responses to number of stimuli ratio (R/S). Other groups of medaka were fed to bluegills and consumption times recorded to assess their ability to escape predation. These results were compared to neurophysiological effect levels. Phenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, and 1-octanol impaired the ability of medaka to escape predation at all concentrations. Medaka were more susceptible to predation in high concentrations of carbaryl and strychnine, but less susceptible at low concentrations, whereas the reverse was true for endosulfan. The variety of neurological effects detected at these concentrations suggest that different mechanisms may be responsible. Phenol and strychnine affected Mauthner cell to motoneuron transmission, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl showed neuromuscular effects, and R/S was affected by most chemicals. Although a variety of neurotoxic mechanisms were examined, the exposure threshold for significant effects for each specific compound was found to be consistent for both the neurophysiological and behavioral endpoints.

  11. The double edge to parasite escape: invasive host is less infected but more infectable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Carolyn L; Miura, Osamu; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Byers, James E

    2017-09-01

    Nonnative species that escape their native-range parasites may benefit not only from reduced infection pathology, but also from relaxed selection on costly immune defenses, promoting reallocation of resources toward growth or reproduction. However, benefits accruing from a reduction in defense could come at the cost of increased infection susceptibility. We conducted common garden studies of the shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus from highly parasitized native (Japan) populations and largely parasite-free invasive (USA) populations to test for differences in susceptibility to infection by native-range rhizocephalan parasites, and to explore differences in host resource allocation. Nonnative individuals showed at least 1.8 times greater susceptibility to infection than their native counterparts, and had reduced standing metabolic rates, suggesting that less of their energy was spent on physiological self-maintenance. Our results support an indirect advantage to parasite escape via the relaxation of costly physiological defenses. However, this advantage comes at the cost of heightened susceptibility, a trade-off of parasite escape that is seldom considered. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Li

    Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  13. Escape of high-energy oxygen ions through magnetopause reconnection under northward IMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kasahara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During a storm recovery phase on 15 May 2005, the Geotail spacecraft repeatedly observed high-energy (>180 keV oxygen ions in the dayside magnetosheath near the equatorial plane. We focused on the time period from 11:20 UT to 13:00 UT, when Geotail observed the oxygen ions and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF was constantly northward. The magnetic reconnection occurrence northward and duskward of Geotail is indicated by the Walén analysis and convective flows in the magnetopause boundary layer. Anisotropic pitch angle distributions of ions suggest that high-energy oxygen ions escaped from the northward of Geotail along the reconnected magnetic field lines. From the low-energy particle precipitation in the polar cap observed by DMSP, which is consistent with magnetic reconnection occurring between the magnetosheath field lines and the magnetospheric closed field lines, we conclude that these oxygen ions are of ring current origin. Our results thus suggest a new escape route of oxygen ions during northward IMF. In the present event, this escape mechanism is more dominant than the leakage via the finite Larmor radius effect across the dayside equatorial magnetopause.

  14. Tumor suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M.; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E.; Cleary, John P.; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Hess, Julian M.; Gimelbrant, Alexander A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X chromosome (chrX) genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative “Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressor” (EXITS) genes, we compared somatic alterations from >4100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) chrX genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) more frequently harbored loss-of-function mutations in males (based on false discovery rate <0.1), compared to zero of 18,055 autosomal and PAR genes (P<0.0001). Male-biased mutations in genes that escape X-inactivation were observed in combined analysis across many cancers and in several individual tumor types, suggesting a generalized phenomenon. We conclude that biallelic expression of EXITS genes in females explains a portion of the reduced cancer incidence compared to males across a variety of tumor types. PMID:27869828

  15. Tumor-suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E; Cleary, John P; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hess, Julian M; Gimelbrant, Alexander A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X-chromosome genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative 'escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor' (EXITS) genes, we examined somatic alterations from >4,100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) X-chromosome genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) harbored loss-of-function mutations more frequently in males (based on a false discovery rate < 0.1), in comparison to zero of 18,055 autosomal and PAR genes (Fisher's exact P < 0.0001). Male-biased mutations in genes that escape X-inactivation were observed in combined analysis across many cancers and in several individual tumor types, suggesting a generalized phenomenon. We conclude that biallelic expression of EXITS genes in females explains a portion of the reduced cancer incidence in females as compared to males across a variety of tumor types.

  16. Quantitative calculations of helium ion escape fluxes from the polar ionospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitt, W.J.; Schunk, R.W.; Banks, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experimental measurements of He + outward fluxes have been obtained for winter and summer hemispheres. The observed fluxes indicate an average He + escape flux of 2 x 10 7 cm -2 s -1 in the winter hemisphere and a factor of 10-20 lower in the summer hemisphere. Earlier theoretical calculations had yielded winter fluxes a factor of 4 lower than the measured values and summer fluxes a further factor of 20 below the winter fluxes. We have attempted to reduce this discrepancy between our earlier theoretical model and the experimental observations by improving our theoretical model in the following ways. The helium photoionization cross sections used are accurate to 10%, the latest solar EUV fluxes measured by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites have been incorporated, and the most recent MSIS model of the neutral atmosphere is contained in the model. A range of conditions covering solar cycle, seasonal, and geomagnetic conditions were studied. The results show a maximum He + escape flux of 1.4 x 10 7 cm -2 s -1 for solar maximum, winter, low magnetic activity conditions, which is within the scatter of the measured fluxes. The computed summer He + escape flux is a factor of 20 lower than the winter value, a result which is in reasonable agreement with the summer experimental observations. Possible reasons for the slight discrepancy between theory and experiment in summer are discussed

  17. RUNAWAY STARS AND THE ESCAPE OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 30% of all massive stars in the Galaxy are runaways with velocities exceeding 30 km s –1 . Their high speeds allow them to travel ∼0.1-1 kpc away from their birthplace before they explode at the end of their several Myr lifetimes. At high redshift, when galaxies were much smaller than in the local universe, runaways could venture far from the dense inner regions of their host galaxies. From these large radii, and therefore low column densities, much of their ionizing radiation is able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Runaways may therefore significantly enhance the overall escape fraction of ionizing radiation, f esc , from small galaxies at high redshift. We present simple models of the high-redshift runaway population and its impact on f esc as a function of halo mass, size, and redshift. We find that the inclusion of runaways enhances f esc by factors of ≈1.1-8, depending on halo mass, galaxy geometry, and the mechanism of runaway production, implying that runaways may contribute 50%-90% of the total ionizing radiation escaping from high-redshift galaxies. Runaways may therefore play an important role in reionizing the universe.

  18. A method for ion distribution function evaluation using escaping neutral atom kinetic energy samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T.; Veshchev, E.A.; Sudo, S.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable method to evaluate the probability density function for escaping atom kinetic energies is required for the analysis of neutral particle diagnostic data used to study the fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. Digital processing of solid state detector signals is proposed in this paper as an improvement of the simple histogram approach. Probability density function for kinetic energies of neutral particles escaping from the plasma has been derived in a general form taking into account the plasma ion energy distribution, electron capture and loss rates, superposition along the diagnostic sight line and the magnetic surface geometry. A pseudorandom number generator has been realized that enables a sample of escaping neutral particle energies to be simulated for given plasma parameters and experimental conditions. Empirical probability density estimation code has been developed and tested to reconstruct the probability density function from simulated samples assuming. Maxwellian and classical slowing down plasma ion energy distribution shapes for different temperatures and different slowing down times. The application of the developed probability density estimation code to the analysis of experimental data obtained by the novel Angular-Resolved Multi-Sightline Neutral Particle Analyzer has been studied to obtain the suprathermal particle distributions. The optimum bandwidth parameter selection algorithm has also been realized. (author)

  19. Fuga dalla modernità (fuga verso il mito. L’Escape nelle opere di Tolkien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Assoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Lord of The Rings non è un romanzo per ragazzi o una saga fantasy di pura evasione, ma è un racconto epico di sopravvivenza alle ‘brutture’ del mondo moderno. In On Fairy-Stories Tolkien chiarisce il concetto di escape come molla propulsiva per la sub-creation, momento salvifico per l’essere umano, il cui prodotto è la creazione di un mondo alternativo, improntato alla Bellezza, collocato in un tempo mitico ed eterno. La fantasia ha per Tolkien tre funzioni: recovery, escape e consolation, tra loro indissolubilmente intrecciate. Tale fantasia ristoratrice permette all’essere umano di evadere dal carcere di una vita limitata da menzogne, vuote formalità e condizionamenti. E attraverso di essa l’uomo può ritrovare una freschezza della visione della realtà, depurata dalle scorie contingenti e immersa in un’aurea mitica; l’escape avvia un processo che si adempie e sublima nell’eucatastrophe, oramai non più solo semplice lieto fine delle favole, ma eco dell’Evangelium nel mondo reale.

  20. Bacteria exploit a polymorphic instability of the flagellar filament to escape from traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Marco J; Schmidt, Felix K; Eckhardt, Bruno; Thormann, Kai M

    2017-06-13

    Many bacterial species swim by rotating single polar helical flagella. Depending on the direction of rotation, they can swim forward or backward and change directions to move along chemical gradients but also to navigate their obstructed natural environment in soils, sediments, or mucus. When they get stuck, they naturally try to back out, but they can also resort to a radically different flagellar mode, which we discovered here. Using high-speed microscopy, we monitored the swimming behavior of the monopolarly flagellated species Shewanella putrefaciens with fluorescently labeled flagellar filaments at an agarose-glass interface. We show that, when a cell gets stuck, the polar flagellar filament executes a polymorphic change into a spiral-like form that wraps around the cell body in a spiral-like fashion and enables the cell to escape by a screw-like backward motion. Microscopy and modeling suggest that this propagation mode is triggered by an instability of the flagellum under reversal of the rotation and the applied torque. The switch is reversible and bacteria that have escaped the trap can return to their normal swimming mode by another reversal of motor direction. The screw-type flagellar arrangement enables a unique mode of propagation and, given the large number of polarly flagellated bacteria, we expect it to be a common and widespread escape or motility mode in complex and structured environments.

  1. Escaping Electrons from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions as a Function of Laser Spot Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusby Dean

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of a high-intensity laser with a solid target produces an energetic distribution of electrons that pass into the target. These electrons reach the rear surface of the target creating strong electric potentials that act to restrict the further escape of additional electrons. The measurement of the angle, flux and spectra of the electrons that do escape gives insights to the initial interaction. Here, the escaping electrons have been measured using a differentially filtered image plate stack, from interactions with intensities from mid 1020-1017 W/cm2, where the intensity has been reduced by defocussing to increase the size of the focal spot. An increase in electron flux is initially observed as the intensity is reduced from 4x1020 to 6x1018 W/cm2. The temperature of the electron distribution is also measured and found to be relatively constant. 2D particle-in-cell modelling is used to demonstrate the importance of pre-plasma conditions in understanding these observations.

  2. Escape of ionizing radiation from high redshift dwarf galaxies: role of AGN feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebitsch, Maxime; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan; Madau, Piero

    2018-05-01

    While low mass, star forming galaxies are often considered as the primary driver of reionization, their actual contribution to the cosmic ultraviolet background is still uncertain, mostly because the escape fraction of ionizing photons is only poorly constrained. Theoretical studies have shown that efficient supernova feedback is a necessary condition to create paths through which ionizing radiation can escape into the intergalactic medium. We investigate the possibility that accreting supermassive black holes in early dwarf galaxies may provide additional feedback and enhance the leakage of ionizing radiation. We use a series of high resolution cosmological radiation hydrodynamics simulations where we isolate the different sources of feedback. We find that supernova feedback prevents the growth of the black hole, thus quenching its associated feedback. Even in cases where the black hole can grow, the structure of the interstellar medium is strongly dominated by supernova feedback. We conclude that, in the dwarf galaxy regime, supermassive black holes do not appear to play a significant role in enhancing the escape fraction and in contributing to the early UV background.

  3. TRPM7 is required within zebrafish sensory neurons for the activation of touch-evoked escape behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sean E.; Amburgey, Kimberly; Horstick, Eric; Linsley, Jeremy; Sprague, Shawn M.; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Hirata, Hiromi; Saint-Amant, Louis; Hume, Richard I.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding TRPM7 (trpm7), a member of the TRP superfamily of cation channels that possesses an enzymatically active kinase at its carboxyl terminus, cause the touch-unresponsive zebrafish mutant touchdown. We identified and characterized a new allele of touchdown, as well as two previously reported alleles, and found that all three alleles harbor mutations which abolish channel activity. Through the selective restoration of TRPM7 expression in sensory neurons we found that TRPM7’s kinase activity, and selectivity for divalent cations over monovalent cations, were dispensable for touch-evoked activation of escape behaviors in zebrafish. Additional characterization revealed that sensory neurons were present and capable of responding to tactile stimuli in touchdown mutants, indicating that TRPM7 is not required for sensory neuron survival or mechanosensation. Finally, exposure to elevated concentrations of divalent cations was found to restore touch-evoked behaviors in touchdown mutants. Collectively these findings are consistent with a role for zebrafish TRPM7 within sensory neurons in the modulation of neurotransmitter release at central synapses, similar to that proposed for mammalian TRPM7 at peripheral synapses. PMID:21832193

  4. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito [ESCET (Edificio Departamental II), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain); Brenig, Leon [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP 231, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-02-13

    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper, the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given.

  5. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito; Brenig, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper, the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given

  6. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bermejo, Benito; Brenig, Léon

    2004-02-01

    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper [1], the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given.

  7. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Uebelhoer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms by which hepatitis C virus (HCV evades cellular immunity to establish persistence in chronically infected individuals are not clear. Mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I-restricted epitopes targeted by CD8(+ T cells are associated with persistence, but the extent to which these mutations affect viral fitness is not fully understood. Previous work showed that the HCV quasispecies in a persistently infected chimpanzee accumulated multiple mutations in numerous class I epitopes over a period of 7 years. During the acute phase of infection, one representative epitope in the C-terminal region of the NS3/4A helicase, NS3(1629-1637, displayed multiple serial amino acid substitutions in major histocompatibility complex (MHC anchor and T cell receptor (TCR contact residues. Only one of these amino acid substitutions at position 9 (P9 of the epitope was stable in the quasispecies. We therefore assessed the effect of each mutation observed during in vivo infection on viral fitness and T cell responses using an HCV subgenomic replicon system and a recently developed in vitro infectious virus cell culture model. Mutation of a position 7 (P7 TCR-contact residue, I1635T, expectedly ablated the T cell response without affecting viral RNA replication or virion production. In contrast, two mutations at the P9 MHC-anchor residue abrogated antigen-specific T cell responses, but additionally decreased viral RNA replication and virion production. The first escape mutation, L1637P, detected in vivo only transiently at 3 mo after infection, decreased viral production, and reverted to the parental sequence in vitro. The second P9 variant, L1637S, which was stable in vivo through 7 years of follow-up, evaded the antigen-specific T cell response and did not revert in vitro despite being less optimal in virion production compared to the parental virus. These studies suggest that HCV escape mutants emerging early in infection are not necessarily

  8. The escaping "pneuma" - gas of ancient earthquake concepts in relation to animal, atmospheric and thermal precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmut, Tributsch

    2013-04-01

    The escaping "pneuma" - gas of ancient earthquake concepts in relation to animal, atmospheric and thermal precursors Helmut Tributsch Present affiliation: Carinthian University for Applied Sciences, Bio-mimetics program, Europastrasse 4, 9524 Villach, Austria, helmut.tributsch@alice.it Retired from: Free University Berlin, Institute for physical and theoretical chemistry, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin, Germany. For two thousand years ancient European and medieval (including islamic) natural philosophers have considered a dry, warm gas, the "pneuma" ( breath, exhalation), escaping from the earth, as precursor and trigger of earthquakes. Also in China an escaping gas or breath (the qi) was considered the cause of earthquake, first in a document from 780 BC. We know today that escaping gas is not causing earthquakes. But it may be that natural phenomena that supported such a pneuma-concept have again and again been observed. The unpolluted environment and the largely absence of distracting artificial stimuli may have allowed the recognition of distinct earthquake precursors, such as described by ancient observers: (1) the sun becomes veiled and has a dim appearance, turns reddish or dark (2) a narrow long stretched cloud becomes visible, like a line drawn by a ruler, (3) earthquakes preceded by a thin streak of cloud stretching over a wide space. (4) earthquakes in the morning sometimes preceded by a still and a strong frost, (5) a surf - line of the air sea is forming (near the horizon). The described phenomena may be interpreted as a kind of smog forming above the ground prior to an earthquake, a smog exhaled from the ground, which is triggering water condensation, releasing latent heat, changing visibility, temperature, heat conduction and radiation properties. This could perfectly match the phenomenon, which is at the origin of satellite monitored temperature anomalies preceding earthquakes. Based on a few examples it will be shown that the time window of temperature

  9. [Socialist escapes. Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Socialist escapes: Breaking away from ideology and everday routine in Eastern Europe 1945-1989, co-edited with Cathleen M. Giustino and Catherine J. Plum (New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2013).

  10. Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Accumulation and Physiological Function in the Launch and Entry and Advanced Crew Escape Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip; Greenisen, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The Launch and Entry Suit (LES) and Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) are worn by astronauts for launch and entry. Previous work by Waligora, et al., 1992, Waligora and Gilbert, 1992, and Dalrymple 1996, have found that carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation in the LES/ACES helmet may be problematic. CO2 accumulation is important because high inspired levels of CO2 reduce physical function and pose a safety hazard (e.g. levels of CO2 accumulation of 3.6% in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit are sufficient to terminate Extra Vehicular Activities). My task was to design a suitable test protocol for determining the important physiological aspects of LES/ACES use. Three basic issues arose. First was the determination of the astronaut's CO2 inspiration during visor-down use at rest and during walking at 3.5 mph. A sub-issue was the impact of a pneumotach on CO2 since it has been previously observed that when the Aerosport pneumotach was used, performance seemed improved, which might be attributable to a lowered respiration rate when using the pneumotach. The second issue was the energy costs of waLking in the LES/ACES with various G-suit inflation levels, since G-suit inflation increases metabolic costs and metabolic costs influence the C02 production in the LES/ACES helmet. Since G-suit inflation improves orthostatic tolerance after space flight, but likely increases the energy costs of walking, the balance between G-suit inflation and C02 accumulation is an important safety consideration. The third issue which arose from pilot work was the substantial reduction in physical function after a 10 min visor-down period prior to walk.

  11. The geography of fear: a latitudinal gradient in anti-predator escape distances of birds across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Díaz

    Full Text Available All animals flee from potential predators, and the distance at which this happens is optimized so the benefits from staying are balanced against the costs of flight. Because predator diversity and abundance decreases with increasing latitude, and differs between rural and urban areas, we should expect escape distance when a predator approached the individual to decrease with latitude and depend on urbanization. We measured the distance at which individual birds fled (flight initiation distance, FID, which represents a reliable and previously validated surrogate measure of response to predation risk following a standardized protocol in nine pairs of rural and urban sites along a ca. 3000 km gradient from Southern Spain to Northern Finland during the breeding seasons 2009-2010. Raptor abundance was estimated by means of standard point counts at the same sites where FID information was recorded. Data on body mass and phylogenetic relationships among bird species sampled were extracted from the literature. An analysis of 12,495 flight distances of 714 populations of 159 species showed that mean FID decreased with increasing latitude after accounting for body size and phylogenetic effects. This decrease was paralleled by a similar cline in an index of the abundance of raptors. Urban populations had consistently shorter FIDs, supporting previous findings. The difference between rural and urban habitats decreased with increasing latitude, also paralleling raptor abundance trends. Overall, the latitudinal gradient in bird fear was explained by raptor abundance gradients, with additional small effects of latitude and intermediate effects of habitat. This study provides the first empirical documentation of a latitudinal trend in anti-predator behavior, which correlated positively with a similar trend in the abundance of predators.

  12. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  13. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  15. Stochastic Stabilityfor Contracting Lorenz Maps and Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, R. J.

    In a previous work [M], we proved the existence of absolutely continuous invariant measures for contracting Lorenz-like maps, and constructed Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measures f or the flows that generate them. Here, we prove stochastic stability for such one-dimensional maps and use this result to prove that the corresponding flows generating these maps are stochastically stable under small diffusion-type perturbations, even though, as shown by Rovella [Ro], they are persistent only in a measure theoretical sense in a parameter space. For the one-dimensional maps we also prove strong stochastic stability in the sense of Baladi and Viana[BV].

  16. MAP17, a ROS-dependent oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnero, Amancio

    2012-01-01

    MAP17 is a small 17 kDa non-glycosylated membrane protein previously identified as being overexpressed in carcinomas. Breast tumor cells that overexpress MAP17 show an increased tumoral phenotype with enhanced proliferative capabilities both in the presence or the absence of contact inhibition, decreased apoptotic sensitivity, and increased migration. MAP17-expressing clones also grow better in nude mice. The increased malignant cell behavior induced by MAP17 is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the treatment of MAP17-expressing cells with antioxidants results in a reduction in the tumorigenic properties of these cells. The MAP17-dependent increase in ROS and tumorigenesis relies on its PDZ-binding domain because disruption of this sequence by point mutations abolishes the ability of MAP17 to enhance ROS production and tumorigenesis. MAP17 is overexpressed in a great variety of human carcinomas, including breast tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of MAP17 during cancer progression demonstrates that overexpression of the protein strongly correlates with tumoral progression. Generalized MAP17 overexpression in human carcinomas indicates that MAP17 can be a good marker for tumorigenesis and, especially, for malignant progression.

  17. Seismic texture and amplitude analysis of large scale fluid escape pipes using time lapses seismic surveys: examples from the Loyal Field (Scotland, UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Fluid escape pipes are key features of primary interest for the analysis of vertical fluid flow and secondary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basin. Identified worldwide (Løset et al., 2009), they acquired more and more importance as they represent critical pathways for supply of methane and potential structure for leakage into the storage reservoir (Cartwright & Santamarina, 2015). Therefore, understanding their genesis, internal characteristics and seismic expression, is of great significance for the exploration industry. Here we propose a detailed characterization of the internal seismic texture of some seal bypass system (e.g fluid escape pipes) from a 4D seismic survey (released by the BP) recently acquired in the Loyal Field. The seal by pass structure are characterized by big-scale fluid escape pipes affecting the Upper Paleogene/Neogene stratigraphic succession in the Loyal Field, Scotland (UK). The Loyal field, is located on the edge of the Faroe-Shetland Channel slope, about 130 km west of Shetland (Quadrants 204/205 of the UKCS) and has been recently re-appraised and re developed by a consortium led by BP. The 3D detailed mapping analysis of the full and partial stack survey (processed using amplitude preservation workflows) shows a complex system of fluid pipe structure rooted in the pre Lista formation and developed across the paleogene and Neogene Units. Geometrical analysis show that pipes got diameter varying between 100-300 m and a length of 500 m to 2 km. Most pipes seem to terminate abruptly at discrete subsurface horizons or in diffuse termination suggesting multiple overpressured events and lateral fluid migration (through Darcy flows) across the overburden units. The internal texture analysis of the large pipes, (across both the root and main conduit zones), using near, medium and far offset stack dataset (processed through an amplitude preserved PSTM workflow) shows a tendency of up-bending of reflection (rather than pulls up artefacts

  18. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  19. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  20. Beebook: light field mapping app

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  1. What Will Science Gain From Mapping the World Ocean Floor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.

    2017-12-01

    It is difficult to estimate how much of the World Ocean floor topography (bathymetry) that has been mapped. Estimates range from a few to more than ten percent of the World Ocean area. The most recent version of the bathymetric grid compiled by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO) has bathymetric control points in 18% of the 30 x 30 arc second large grid cells. The depth values for the rest of the cells are obtained through interpolation guided by satellite altimetry in deep water. With this statistic at hand, it seems tenable to suggest that there are many scientific discoveries to be made from a complete high-resolution mapping of the World Ocean floor. In this presentation, some of our recent scientific discoveries based on modern multibeam bathymetric mapping will be highlighted and discussed. For example, how multibeam mapping provided evidence for a km-thick ice shelf covering the entire Arctic Ocean during peak glacial conditions, a hypothesis proposed nearly half a century ago, and how groundwater escape features are visible in high-resolution bathymetry in the Baltic Sea, with potential implications for the freshwater budget and distribution of nutrients and pollutants. Presented examples will be placed in the context of mapping resolution, systematic surveys versus mapping along transits, and scientific hypothesis driven mapping versus ocean exploration. The newly announced Nippon Foundation - GEBCO Seabed 2030 project has the vision to map 100% of the World Ocean floor mapped by 2030. Are there specific scientific areas where we can expect new discoveries from all mapping data collected through the Seabed 2030 project? Are there outstanding hypothesis that can be tested from a fully mapped World Ocean floor?

  2. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms – e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload, as ΔK ∼ −mloadFloadu2sw∕4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp for Kp = 1–7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK = 0.2 ⋅ Kp + 2 ⋅ log10(Kp + 1.2 + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy

  3. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  4. Baby Brain Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...

  5. Snapshots for Semantic Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Curtis W; Ricks, Bob; Goodrich, Michael A; Bruemmer, David; Few, Doug; Walton, Miles

    2004-01-01

    .... Semantic maps are a relatively new approach to information presentation. Semantic maps provide more detail about an environment than typical maps because they are augmented by icons or symbols that provide meaning for places or objects of interest...

  6. Ionospheric plasma escape by high-altitude electric fields: Magnetic moment ''pumping''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.; Hultqvist, B.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of electric fields and the composition of upward flowing ionospheric ions by the Viking spacecraft have provided further insight into the mass dependent plasma escape process taking place in the upper ionosphere. The Viking results of the temperature and mass-composition of individual ion beams suggest that upward flowing ion beams can be generated by a magnetic moment ''pumping'' mechanism caused by low-frequency transverse electric field fluctuations, in addition to a field aligned ''quasi-electrostatic'' acceleration process. Magnetic moment ''pumping'' within transverse electric field gradients can be described as a conversion of electric drift velocity to cyclotron velocity by the inertial drift in time-dependent electric field. This gives an equal cyclotron velocity gain for all plasma species, irrespective of mass. Oxygen ions thus gain 16 times as much transverse energy as protons. In addition to a transverse energy gain above the escape energy, a field-aligned quasi-electrostatic acceleration is considered primarily responsible for the collimated upward flow of ions. The field-aligned acceleration adds a constant parallel energy to escaping ionospheric ions. Thus, ion beams at high altitudes can be explained by a bimodal acceleration from both a transverse (equal velocity) and a parallel (equal energy) acceleration process. The Viking observations also show that the thermal energy of ion beams, and the ion beam width are mass dependent. The average O + /H + ''temperature ratio has been found to be 4.0 from the Viking observations. This is less than the factor of 16 anticipated from a coherent transverse electric field acceleration but greater than the factor of 1 (or even less than 1) expected from a turbulent acceleration process. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  7. Escape from the competence state in Streptococcus mutans is governed by the bacterial population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, D; Villemin, C; Perry, J A; Lévesque, C M

    2016-12-01

    Horizontal gene transfer through natural DNA transformation is an important evolutionary mechanism among bacteria. Transformation requires that the bacteria are physiologically competent to take and incorporate free DNA directly from the environment. Although natural genetic transformation is a remarkable feature of many naturally competent bacteria, the process is energetically expensive for the cells. Consequently, a tight control of the competence state is necessary. The objective of the present work was to help decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating the escape from the competence state in Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiological agent responsible for tooth decay in humans. Our results showed that the cessation of competence in S. mutans was abrupt, and did not involve the accumulation of a competence inhibitor nor the depletion of a competence activator in the extracellular environment. The competence state was repressed at high cell population density via concomitant repression of sigX gene encoding the master regulator of the competence regulon. Co-culture experiments performed with oral and non-oral bacteria showed that S. mutans assesses its own population density and also the microbial density of its surroundings to regulate its competence escape. Interestingly, neither the intra-species and extra-species quorum-sensing systems nor the other 13 two-component regulatory systems identified in S. mutans were involved in the cell-density-dependent escape of the competence state. Altogether, our results suggest a complex mechanism regulating the competence shut-off involving cell-density-dependent repression of sigX through an as yet undefined system, and possibly SigX protein stability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. ULTRAVIOLET ESCAPE FRACTIONS FROM GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS DURING EARLY CLUSTER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Corey; Pudritz, Ralph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Klessen, Ralf [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The UV photon escape fraction from molecular clouds is a key parameter for understanding the ionization of the interstellar medium and extragalactic processes such as cosmic reionization. We present the ionizing photon flux and the corresponding photon escape fraction ( f {sub esc}) arising as a consequence of star cluster formation in a turbulent, 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} giant molecular cloud, simulated using the code FLASH. We make use of sink particles to represent young, star-forming clusters coupled with a radiative transfer scheme to calculate the emergent UV flux. We find that the ionizing photon flux across the cloud boundary is highly variable in time and space due to the turbulent nature of the intervening gas. The escaping photon fraction remains at ∼5% for the first 2.5 Myr, followed by two pronounced peaks at 3.25 and 3.8 Myr with a maximum f {sub esc} of 30% and 37%, respectively. These peaks are due to the formation of large H ii regions that expand into regions of lower density, some of which reaching the cloud surface. However, these phases are short-lived, and f {sub esc} drops sharply as the H ii regions are quenched by the central cluster passing through high-density material due to the turbulent nature of the cloud. We find an average f {sub esc} of 15% with factor of two variations over 1 Myr timescales. Our results suggest that assuming a single value for f {sub esc} from a molecular cloud is in general a poor approximation, and that the dynamical evolution of the system leads to large temporal variation.

  9. Galaxy Properties and UV Escape Fractions during the Epoch of Reionization: Results from the Renaissance Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic reionization is thought to be primarily fueled by the first generations of galaxies. We examine their stellar and gaseous properties, focusing on the star formation rates and the escape of ionizing photons, as a function of halo mass, redshift, and environment using the full suite of the Renaissance Simulations with an eye to provide better inputs to global reionization simulations. This suite probes overdense, average, and underdense regions of the universe of several hundred comoving Mpc3, each yielding a sample of over 3000 halos in the mass range of 107-109.5 {M}⊙ at their final redshifts of 15, 12.5, and 8, respectively. In the process, we simulate the effects of radiative and supernova feedback from 5000 to 10,000 Population III stars in each simulation. We find that halos as small as 107 {M}⊙ are able to host bursty star formation due to metal-line cooling from earlier enrichment by massive Population III stars. Using our large sample, we find that the galaxy-halo occupation fraction drops from unity at virial masses above 108.5 {M}⊙ to ˜50% at 108 {M}⊙ and ˜10% at 107 {M}⊙ , quite independent of redshift and region. Their average ionizing escape fraction is ˜5% in the mass range of 108-109 {M}⊙ and increases with decreasing halo mass below this range, reaching 40%-60% at 107 {M}⊙ . Interestingly, we find that the escape fraction varies between 10%-20% in halos with virial masses of ˜3 × 109 {M}⊙ . Taken together, our results confirm the importance of the smallest galaxies as sources of ionizing radiation contributing to the reionization of the universe.

  10. Escaping blood-fed malaria mosquitoes minimize tactile detection without compromising on take-off speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, F T; Chang, S W; van Veen, W G; Spitzen, J; Biemans, B T; Koehl, M A R; Dudley, R

    2017-10-15

    To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host's skin. We studied this trade-off between escape speed and stealth in the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii using 3D motion analysis of high-speed stereoscopic videos of mosquito take-offs and aerodynamic modeling. We found that during the push-off phase, mosquitoes enhanced take-off speed using aerodynamic forces generated by the beating wings in addition to leg-based push-off forces, whereby wing forces contributed 61% of the total push-off force. Exchanging leg-derived push-off forces for wing-derived aerodynamic forces allows the animal to reduce peak force production on the host's skin. By slowly extending their long legs throughout the push-off, mosquitoes spread push-off forces over a longer time window than insects with short legs, thereby further reducing peak leg forces. Using this specialized take-off behavior, mosquitoes are capable of reaching take-off speeds comparable to those of similarly sized fruit flies, but with weight-normalized peak leg forces that were only 27% of those of the fruit flies. By limiting peak leg forces, mosquitoes possibly reduce the chance of being detected by the host. The resulting combination of high take-off speed and low tactile signals on the host might help increase the mosquito's success in escaping from blood-hosts, which consequently also increases the chance of transmitting vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, to future hosts. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Involvement of HLA class I molecules in the immune escape of urologic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, R; Gil-Julio, H; Vázquez-Alonso, F; Garrido, F; Castiñeiras, J; Cózar, J M

    2014-04-01

    To analyze the influence of different alterations in human leukocyte antigen class I molecules (HLA I) in renal cell carcinoma, as well as in bladder and prostate cancer. We also study the correlation between HLA I expression and the progression of the disease and the response after immunotherapy protocols. It has been shown, experimentally, that the immune system can recognize and kill neoplastic cells. By analyzing the expression of HLA I molecules on the surface of cancer cells, we were able to study the tumor escape mechanisms against the immune system. Alteration or irreversible damage in HLA I molecules is used by the neoplastic cells to escape the immune system. The function of these molecules is to recognize endogenous peptides and present them to T cells of the immune system. There is a clear relationship between HLA I reversible alterations and success of therapy. Irreversible lesions also imply a lack of response to treatment. The immune system activation can reverse HLA I molecules expression in tumors with reversible lesions, whereas tumors with irreversible ones do not respond to such activation. Determine the type of altered HLA I molecules in tumors is of paramount importance when choosing the type of treatment to keep looking for therapeutic success. Those tumors with reversible lesions can be treated with traditional immunotherapy; however, tumour with irreversible alterations should follow alternative protocols, such as the use of viral vectors carrying the HLA genes to achieve damaged re-expression of the protein. From studies in urologic tumors, we can conclude that the HLA I molecules play a key role in these tumors escape to the immune system. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of alpha fetoprotein on escape of Bel 7402 cells from attack of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengsen; Liu, Xinhua; Zhou, Sheng; Li, Pingfeng; Li, Gang

    2005-01-01

    Involvement of AFP against apoptosis of tumor cell has been implicated in its evasion of immune surveillance. However, the molecular events of immune escape mechanisms are still unknown. The major observations reported here relate to a possible mechanism by which heptoloma Bel 7402 cells escape immune surveillance in vitro. Western blotting and a well-characterized cofocal scanning image were performed to analyze the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3 in co-cultured Bel 7402 and Jurkat cells. After co-culture with Jurkat cells, up-regulated Fas and reduced FasL expression could be observed. Treatment with AFP could remarkably inhibit the elevated Fas and, whereas, induce the FasL expression in co-cultured Bel 7402 cells. Cells co-culture could induce the expression of caspase-3 in both cells line. The elevated caspase-3 in Bel 7402 cells was abolished following the treatment of AFP. The expression of caspase-3 was elevated in co-cultured Jurkat cells treated with AFP. No detectable change on the expression of survivin was examined in both cells line. Monoclonal antibody against AFP treatment alone did not obviously influence the growth of cells, as well as the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3. However, the effect of AFP could be blocked by antibody. our results provide evidence that AFP could promote the escape of liver cancer cells from immune surveillance through blocking the caspase signal pathway of tumor cells and triggering the Fas/FasL interaction between tumor cells and lymphocytes

  13. The combined application of biological therapy and methotrexate in case of escape phenomenon progressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponich E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study of the efficacy of methotrexate in patients with the "escape effect" during the ustekinumab therapy. Materials and Methods. The results of methotrexate at a dose of 15-20mg/week in treatment of 4 patients receiving biologic and developed "escape effect". Ustekinumab is used as a hypodermic injection at a dose of 45 mg for a body weight of a patient no more than 100 kg, and 90 mg of body weight over 100 kg, at the zero week, the 4th week and then every 12 weeks. Patients control meets the standard management of patients in biological therapy. Results. The study shows that in the case of the resistance progressing when applying preparations of biological therapy, methotrexate is useful at a dose of 15-20mg/week for up to 6 months. The combined use of biologic therapy and methotrexate in the treatment of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, "escape effect" contributes to the marked regression of clinical symptoms and allows to control the process long enough, which is confirmed by the dynamics of the index PASI, BRS and DLQI. The combined method is highly safe, as evidenced by the lack of inhibition of hematopoiesis, the normal level of hepatic transaminases and serum creatinine, which greatly improves patient compliance in this type of therapy. Conclusion. The article presents the data of the combined application of biological medication therapy (ustekinumab and methotrexate for the treatment of patients with the common form of psoriasis vulgaris. In the case of the development of resistance of biological therapy recommended the appointment of methotrexate. The combined use of methotrexate and biologic therapy in the treatment of patients with psoriasis vulgaris contributes to marked regression of clinical symptoms and allows to control the process for a long time.

  14. Modeling the Deep Impact Near-nucleus Observations of H2O and CO2 in Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Using Asymmetric Spherical Coupled Escape Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersch, Alan M.; A’Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M.

    2018-04-01

    We have applied our asymmetric spherical adaptation of Coupled Escape Probability to the modeling of optically thick cometary comae. Expanding on our previously published work, here we present models including asymmetric comae. Near-nucleus observations from the Deep Impact mission have been modeled, including observed coma morphology features. We present results for two primary volatile species of interest, H2O and CO2, for comet 9P/Tempel 1. Production rates calculated using our best-fit models are notably greater than those derived from the Deep Impact data based on the assumption of optically thin conditions, both for H2O and CO2 but more so for CO2, and fall between the Deep Impact values and the global pre-impact production rates measured at other observatories and published by Schleicher et al. (2006), Mumma et al. (2005), and Mäkinen et al. (2007).

  15. Investigating the Consequences of Interference between Multiple CD8+ T Cell Escape Mutations in Early HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection multiple CD8+ T cell responses are elicited almost simultaneously. These responses exert strong selective pressures on different parts of HIV's genome, and select for mutations that escape recognition and are thus beneficial to the virus. Some studies reveal that the later these escape mutations emerge, the more slowly they go to fixation. This pattern of escape rate decrease(ERD can arise by distinct mechanisms. In particular, in large populations with high beneficial mutation rates interference among different escape strains--an effect that can emerge in evolution with asexual reproduction and results in delayed fixation times of beneficial mutations compared to sexual reproduction--could significantly impact the escape rates of mutations. In this paper, we investigated how interference between these concurrent escape mutations affects their escape rates in systems with multiple epitopes, and whether it could be a source of the ERD pattern. To address these issues, we developed a multilocus Wright-Fisher model of HIV dynamics with selection, mutation and recombination, serving as a null-model for interference. We also derived an interference-free null model assuming initial neutral evolution before immune response elicitation. We found that interference between several equally selectively advantageous mutations can generate the observed ERD pattern. We also found that the number of loci, as well as recombination rates substantially affect ERD. These effects can be explained by the underexponential decline of escape rates over time. Lastly, we found that the observed ERD pattern in HIV infected individuals is consistent with both independent, interference-free mutations as well as interference effects. Our results confirm that interference effects should be considered when analyzing HIV escape mutations. The challenge in estimating escape rates and mutation-associated selective

  16. Escape routes, weak links, and desynchronization in fluctuation-driven networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Zhang, Xiaozhu

    2017-01-01

    Shifting our electricity generation from fossil fuel to renewable energy sources introduces large fluctuations to the power system. Here, we demonstrate how increased fluctuations, reduced damping, and reduced intertia may undermine the dynamical robustness of power grid networks. Focusing...... on fundamental noise models, we derive analytic insights into which factors limit the dynamic robustness and how fluctuations may induce a system escape from an operating state. Moreover, we identify weak links in the grid that make it particularly vulnerable to fluctuations. These results thereby not only...

  17. Pitch angle resolved measurements of escaping charged fusion products in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of charged fusion products escaping from the TFTR plasma have been made with a new type of detector which can resolve the particle flux vs. pitch angle, energy, and time. The design of this detector is described, and results from the 1987 TFTR run are presented. These results are roughly consistent with predictions from a simple first-orbit particle loss model with respect to the pitch angle, energy, time, and plasma current dependence of the signals. 11 refs., 9 figs

  18. Examples of the nonlinear dynamics of ballistic capture and escape in the earth-moon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbruno, Edward A.

    1990-01-01

    An example of a trajectory is given which is initially captured in an elliptic resonant orbit about the earth and then ballistically escapes the earth-moon system. This is demonstrated by a numerical example in three-dimensions using a planetary ephemeris. Another example shows a mechanism of how an elliptic orbit about the earth can increase its energy by performing a complex nonlinear transition to an elliptic orbit of a larger semi-major axis. Capture is also considered. An application of ballistic capture at the moon via an unstable periodic orbit using the four-body sun-earth-moon-S/C interaction is described.

  19. ZUT, Resonance Integrals in Resolved Region at Various Temperature, Escape Probability Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncir, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ZUT computes resonance integrals from resonance parameters for a wide variety of temperatures, compositions, and geometries for the resolved resonances. 2 - Method of solution: The form used permits specification of escape probability as a function of the lump dimension and the mean free path. The absorber term may be treated by the integral method, the narrow resonance or the infinite mass approximation. Moderator terms may be represented either by the full integral method (IM) or the asymptotic (NR) form

  20. Pitch angle resolved measurements of escaping charged fusion products in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of charged fusion products escaping from the TFTR plasma have been made with a new type of detector which can resolve the particle flux vs. pitch angle, energy, and time. The design of this detector is described, and results from the 1987 TFTR run are presented. These results are roughly consistent with predictions from a simple first-orbit particle loss model with respect to the pitch angle, energy, time, and plasma current dependence of the signals. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Interference of escape peaks from HPGe(LEPS) detector on characteristic X-ray spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimjun, S.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses for concentrations of iron, niobium and tantalum in valuable ores by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) method, characteristic X-rays of Fe was interfered by the escape peak of Nb from HPGe(LEPS) detector. To solve this problem, normalizations of Nb spectra with the computer program were used. The result analyzed for Fe, Nb and Ta concentration in the sample, compared to those with the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method, the corresponding errors about 5% were obtained satisfactorily. This method of XRF can be applied efficiently instead of NAA method during the reactor shut-down for a long period

  2. Theoretical Evaluation of the Escape Rate of Charged Particles Trapped in a Potential Energy Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    In various types of charged particle sources and traps, charged particles are temporarily trapped within a potential energy well. In the work reported, a theoretical evaluation of the escape rate of trapped charged particles is carried out. As a specific example, the loss rate is evaluated for trapped plasma particles that are undergoing both collisions among themselves and collisions with particles of a different plasma species having a different temperature. Conditions are considered in which both species are confined within a nested Penning trap

  3. Environmental effects on the ontogeny of exploratory and escape behaviors of Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M M; Galet, B G

    1982-03-01

    Mongolian gerbils reared in standard laboratory cages and gerbils reared in cages containing a burrowlike shelter did not differ in their rate of development of escape responses to sudden visual stimulation. The presence of shelter in the rearing environment did, however, markedly slow the development of adult-like patterns of exploration. Reduced exposure to illumination, experienced by shelter-reared subjects, proved responsible for this retardation of development. The effect of shelter-rearing on the development of exploratory behavior is interpreted as demonstrating an environmentally induced maintenance of an adaptive juvenile pattern of behavior.

  4. MODELS OF COVARIANCE FUNCTIONS OF GAUSSIAN RANDOM FIELDS ESCAPING FROM ISOTROPY, STATIONARITY AND NON NEGATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gregori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a survey of recent advances in modeling of space or space-time Gaussian Random Fields (GRF, tools of Geostatistics at hand for the understanding of special cases of noise in image analysis. They can be used when stationarity or isotropy are unrealistic assumptions, or even when negative covariance between some couples of locations are evident. We show some strategies in order to escape from these restrictions, on the basis of rich classes of well known stationary or isotropic non negative covariance models, and through suitable operations, like linear combinations, generalized means, or with particular Fourier transforms.

  5. Discussion on environment control technology of escaping cavern to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongkai

    2012-01-01

    As the important refuge of Uranium Mines, the environment of Escaping Cavern is important to the miner's life. In order to attain the standard of Environment Control, the paper gave the method of Environment Control to the fire danger, pervious, collapse; Gave the isolating prevention time; represented the scheme of compressed-air self-help system, high pressure oxygen system, emergency oxygen system; Introduced the air purge equipment to handle the CO, CO 2 , bacterium and other harmful gas. At the same time, gave the method to control the temperature with the phase-change materials and private prevention. (author)

  6. Immune Escape Variants of H9N2 Influenza Viruses Containing Deletions at the Hemagglutinin Receptor Binding Site Retain Fitness In Vivo and Display Enhanced Zoonotic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Thomas P; Benton, Donald J; James, Joe; Sadeyen, Jean-Remy; Chang, Pengxiang; Sealy, Joshua E; Bryant, Juliet E; Martin, Stephen R; Shelton, Holly; Barclay, Wendy S; Iqbal, Munir

    2017-07-15

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses are enzootic in poultry across Asia and North Africa, where they pose a threat to human health as both zoonotic agents and potential pandemic candidates. Poultry vaccination against H9N2 viruses has been employed in many regions; however, vaccine effectiveness is frequently compromised due to antigenic drift arising from amino acid substitutions in the major influenza virus antigen hemagglutinin (HA). Using selection with HA-specific monoclonal antibodies, we previously identified H9N2 antibody escape mutants that contained deletions of amino acids in the 220 loop of the HA receptor binding sites (RBSs). Here we analyzed the impact of these deletions on virus zoonotic infection characteristics and fitness. We demonstrated that mutant viruses with RBS deletions are able to escape polyclonal antiserum binding and are able to infect and be transmitted between chickens. We showed that the deletion mutants have increased binding to human-like receptors and greater replication in primary human airway cells; however, the mutant HAs also displayed reduced pH and thermal stability. In summary, we infer that variant influenza viruses with deletions in the 220 loop could arise in the field due to immune selection pressure; however, due to reduced HA stability, we conclude that these viruses are unlikely to be transmitted from human to human by the airborne route, a prerequisite for pandemic emergence. Our findings underscore the complex interplay between antigenic drift and viral fitness for avian influenza viruses as well as the challenges of predicting which viral variants may pose the greatest threats for zoonotic and pandemic emergence. IMPORTANCE Avian influenza viruses, such as H9N2, cause disease in poultry as well as occasionally infecting humans and are therefore considered viruses with pandemic potential. Many countries have introduced vaccination of poultry to try to control the disease burden; however, influenza viruses are able to

  7. A cGMP-dependent protein kinase gene, foraging, modifies habituation-like response decrement of the giant fiber escape circuit in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J E; Xie, X J; Sokolowski, M B; Wu, C F

    2000-01-01

    The Drosophila giant fiber jump-and-flight escape response is a model for genetic analysis of both the physiology and the plasticity of a sensorimotor behavioral pathway. We previously established the electrically induced giant fiber response in intact tethered flies as a model for habituation, a form of nonassociative learning. Here, we show that the rate of stimulus-dependent response decrement of this neural pathway in a habituation protocol is correlated with PKG (cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase) activity and foraging behavior. We assayed response decrement for natural and mutant rover and sitter alleles of the foraging (for) gene that encodes a Drosophila PKG. Rover larvae and adults, which have higher PKG activities, travel significantly farther while foraging than sitters with lower PKG activities. Response decrement was most rapid in genotypes previously shown to have low PKG activities and sitter-like foraging behavior. We also found differences in spontaneous recovery (the reversal of response decrement during a rest from stimulation) and a dishabituation-like phenomenon (the reversal of response decrement evoked by a novel stimulus). This electrophysiological study in an intact animal preparation provides one of the first direct demonstrations that PKG can affect plasticity in a simple learning paradigm. It increases our understanding of the complex interplay of factors that can modulate the sensitivity of the giant fiber escape response, and it defines a new adult-stage phenotype of the foraging locus. Finally, these results show that behaviorally relevant neural plasticity in an identified circuit can be influenced by a single-locus genetic polymorphism existing in a natural population of Drosophila.

  8. Stochastic acidification, activation of hemagglutinin and escape of influenza viruses from an endosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Thibault; Sieben, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Herrmann, Andreas; Holcman, David

    2017-06-01

    Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH concentration. The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub-acidic pH. We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes

  9. High Mortality without ESCAPE: The Registry of Heart Failure Patients Receiving Pulmonary Artery Catheters without Randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Larry A.; Rogers, Joseph G.; Warnica, J. Wayne; DiSalvo, Thomas G.; Tasissa, Gudaye; Binanay, Cynthia; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Califf, Robert M.; Leier, Carl V.; Shah, Monica R.; Stevenson, Lynne W.

    2008-01-01

    Background In ESCAPE, there was no difference in days alive and out of the hospital for patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) randomly assigned to therapy guided by pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) plus clinical assessment versus clinical assessment alone. The external validity of these findings is debated. Methods and Results ESCAPE sites enrolled 439 patients receiving PAC without randomization in a prospective registry. Baseline characteristics, pertinent trial exclusion criteria, reasons for PAC use, hemodynamics, and complications were collected. Survival was determined from the National Death Index and the Alberta Registry. On average, registry patients had lower blood pressure, worse renal function, less neurohormonal antagonist therapy, and higher use of intravenous inotropes as compared with trial patients. Although clinical assessment anticipated less volume overload and greater hypoperfusion among the registry population, measured filling pressures were similarly elevated in the registry and trial, while measured perfusion was slightly higher among registry patients. Registry patients had longer hospitalization (13 vs. 6 days, p <0.001) and higher 6-month mortality (34% vs. 20%, p < 0.001) than trial patients. Conclusions The decision to use PAC without randomization identified a population with higher disease severity and risk of mortality. This prospective registry highlights the complex context of patient selection for randomized trials. PMID:18926438

  10. Catch me if you can: Leukemia Escape after CD19-Directed T Cell Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is the revolution in cancer treatment of this last decade. Among multiple approaches able to harness the power of the immune system against cancer, T cell based immunotherapies represent one of the most successful examples. In particular, biotechnological engineering of protein structures, like the T cell receptor or the immunoglobulins, allowed the generation of synthetic peptides like chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies that are able to redirect non-tumor specific T cells to recognize and kill leukemic cells. The anti-CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody blinatumomab and anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CART19 have produced deep responses in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell acute leukemias. However, although the majority of these patients responds to anti-CD19 immunotherapy, a subset of them still relapses. Interestingly, a novel family of leukemia escape mechanisms has been described, all characterized by the apparent loss of CD19 on the surface of leukemic blasts. This extraordinary finding demonstrates the potent selective pressure of CART19/blinatumomab that drives extreme and specific escape strategies by leukemic blasts. Patients with CD19-negative relapsed leukemia have very poor prognosis and novel approaches to treat and ideally prevent antigen-loss are direly needed. In this review we discuss the incidence, mechanisms and therapeutic approaches for CD19-negative leukemia relapses occuring after CD19-directed T cell immunotherapies and present our future perspective.

  11. Unpredictability of escape trajectory explains predator evasion ability and microhabitat preference of desert rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Talia Y; Cooper, Kimberly L; Biewener, Andrew A; Vasudevan, Ramanarayan

    2017-09-05

    Mechanistically linking movement behaviors and ecology is key to understanding the adaptive evolution of locomotion. Predator evasion, a behavior that enhances fitness, may depend upon short bursts or complex patterns of locomotion. However, such movements are poorly characterized by existing biomechanical metrics. We present methods based on the entropy measure of randomness from Information Theory to quantitatively characterize the unpredictability of non-steady-state locomotion. We then apply the method by examining sympatric rodent species whose escape trajectories differ in dimensionality. Unlike the speed-regulated gait use of cursorial animals to enhance locomotor economy, bipedal jerboa (family Dipodidae) gait transitions likely enhance maneuverability. In field-based observations, jerboa trajectories are significantly less predictable than those of quadrupedal rodents, likely increasing predator evasion ability. Consistent with this hypothesis, jerboas exhibit lower anxiety in open fields than quadrupedal rodents, a behavior that varies inversely with predator evasion ability. Our unpredictability metric expands the scope of quantitative biomechanical studies to include non-steady-state locomotion in a variety of evolutionary and ecologically significant contexts.Biomechanical understanding of animal gait and maneuverability has primarily been limited to species with more predictable, steady-state movement patterns. Here, the authors develop a method to quantify movement predictability, and apply the method to study escape-related movement in several species of desert rodents.

  12. Consequences of haemogregarine infection on the escape distance in the lacertid lizard, Podarcis vaucheri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Damas-Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is widely accepted that parasites play a significant role in the community structures in which they occur, and ultimately upon ecosystems. Furthermore, infection by parasites might be associated with considerable deterioration of individual host fitness. While the apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Hepatozoon can provoke severe deleterious effects in some mammals, impact on other hosts, such as reptiles, is still unclear. We assessed the effect of Hepatozoon parasites on Podarcis vaucheri flight-initiation distance from a simulated predator, a behaviour that is determinant for a successful escape and is therefore likely to have major implications on a lizard’s survival. We found that flight-initiation distance was not dependent on the time of the day or tail condition. Subadults exhibited worse body condition than adults and females had worse body condition than males. Regarding intensity of parasitism, subadults showed higher parasitemia levels. Escape distance was not associated with parasitic load or any of the other studied features, which is indicative of limited impact of the parasite. This negligible effect might explain the remarkably high prevalence (more than 96% of this parasitic group within this P. vaucheri population.

  13. Symmetry associated with symmetry break: Revisiting ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Q.; Xin, C.; Tang, S. X.; Huang, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Crowd panic has incurred massive injuries or deaths throughout the world, and thus understanding it is particularly important. It is now a common knowledge that crowd panic induces "symmetry break" in which some exits are jammed while others are underutilized. Amazingly, here we show, by experiment, simulation and theory, that a class of symmetry patterns come to appear for ants and humans escaping from multiple-exit rooms while the symmetry break exists. Our symmetry pattern is described by the fact that the ratio between the ensemble-averaging numbers of ants or humans escaping from different exits is equal to the ratio between the widths of the exits. The mechanism lies in the effect of heterogeneous preferences of agents with limited information for achieving the Nash equilibrium. This work offers new insights into how to improve public safety because large public areas are always equipped with multiple exits, and it also brings an ensemble-averaging method for seeking symmetry associated with symmetry breaking.

  14. Background intercomparison with escape-suppressed germanium detectors in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas; Bemmerer, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A key requirement for underground nuclear astrophysics experiments is the very low background level in germanium detectors underground. The reference for these purposes is the world's so far only underground accelerator laboratory for nuclear astrophysics, LUNA. LUNA is located deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, shielded from cosmic rays by 1400 m of rock. The background at LUNA was studied in detail using an escape-suppressed Clover-type HPGe detector. Exactly the same detector was subsequently transported to the Felsenkeller underground laboratory in Dresden, shielded by 45 m of rock, and the background was shown to be only a factor of three higher than at LUNA when comparing the escape-suppressed spectra, with interesting consequences for underground nuclear astrophysics. As the next step of a systematic study of the effects of a combination of active and passive shielding on the cosmic ray induced background, this detector is now being brought to the ''Reiche Zeche'' mine in Freiberg/Sachsen, shielded by 150 m of rock. The data from the Freiberg measurement are shown and discussed.

  15. Jump if you can't take the heat: three escape gaits of Paramecium swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroud, Charles N.; Hamel, Amandine; Fisch, Cathy; Combettes, Laurent; Dupuys-Williams, Pascale

    2010-11-01

    Paramecium is able to swim at velocities reaching several times its body size per second, by beating its thousands of cilia in an organized fashion. Here we show that Paramecium has in fact three distinct swimming gaits to escape from an aggression in the form of localized heating, depending on the magnitude of the aggression: For a weak agression, normal swimming is sufficient and produces a steady swimming velocity through cilia beating. As the heating amplitude is increased, a higher acceleration and faster swimming are achieved through synchronized beating of the cilia, which later give way to the usual metachronal waves. The synchronized beating yields high initial accelerations but requires the cell to coast through the synchrnized recovery. Finally, escape from a life-threatening agression is achieved by a "jumping" gait which does not rely on the cilia but is achieved from the explosive release of a rod-like organelles in the direction of the hot spot. Measurements through high-speed video explain the role of these rods in defending Paramecium. They also show that the zero-Reynolds number assumption is unverified in most cases.

  16. MreB-Dependent Inhibition of Cell Elongation during the Escape from Competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirouze, Nicolas; Ferret, Cécile; Yao, Zhizhong; Chastanet, Arnaud; Carballido-López, Rut

    2015-06-01

    During bacterial exponential growth, the morphogenetic actin-like MreB proteins form membrane-associated assemblies that move processively following trajectories perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. Such MreB structures are thought to scaffold and restrict the movement of peptidoglycan synthesizing machineries, thereby coordinating sidewall elongation. In Bacillus subtilis, this function is performed by the redundant action of three MreB isoforms, namely MreB, Mbl and MreBH. mreB and mbl are highly transcribed from vegetative promoters. We have found that their expression is maximal at the end of exponential phase, and rapidly decreases to a low basal level upon entering stationary phase. However, in cells developing genetic competence, a stationary phase physiological adaptation, expression of mreB was specifically reactivated by the central competence regulator ComK. In competent cells, MreB was found in complex with several competence proteins by in vitro pull-down assays. In addition, it co-localized with the polar clusters formed by the late competence peripheral protein ComGA, in a ComGA-dependent manner. ComGA has been shown to be essential for the inhibition of cell elongation characteristic of cells escaping the competence state. We show here that the pathway controlling this elongation inhibition also involves MreB. Our findings suggest that ComGA sequesters MreB to prevent cell elongation and therefore the escape from competence.

  17. MreB-Dependent Inhibition of Cell Elongation during the Escape from Competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mirouze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During bacterial exponential growth, the morphogenetic actin-like MreB proteins form membrane-associated assemblies that move processively following trajectories perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. Such MreB structures are thought to scaffold and restrict the movement of peptidoglycan synthesizing machineries, thereby coordinating sidewall elongation. In Bacillus subtilis, this function is performed by the redundant action of three MreB isoforms, namely MreB, Mbl and MreBH. mreB and mbl are highly transcribed from vegetative promoters. We have found that their expression is maximal at the end of exponential phase, and rapidly decreases to a low basal level upon entering stationary phase. However, in cells developing genetic competence, a stationary phase physiological adaptation, expression of mreB was specifically reactivated by the central competence regulator ComK. In competent cells, MreB was found in complex with several competence proteins by in vitro pull-down assays. In addition, it co-localized with the polar clusters formed by the late competence peripheral protein ComGA, in a ComGA-dependent manner. ComGA has been shown to be essential for the inhibition of cell elongation characteristic of cells escaping the competence state. We show here that the pathway controlling this elongation inhibition also involves MreB. Our findings suggest that ComGA sequesters MreB to prevent cell elongation and therefore the escape from competence.

  18. Plasma volume, intravascular albumin and its transcapillary escape rate in patients with extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Worm, A M; Rossing, N

    1976-01-01

    Plasma volume and plasma concentration and transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, were determined using 125I-labelled human albumin in eight patients with extensive skin disease....... Plasma volume and plasma albumin concentration were reduced (P less than 0-05). Thus the intravascular albumin mass was moderately decreased to an average of 0-55 +/- 0-06 (s.d.) g/cm height compared with a normal mean value of 0-77 +/- 0-07 (s.d.) g/cm. This 29% decrease is statistically significant (P...... less than 0-001). The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb) was significantly elevated, mean 8-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, as compared to normal subjects, mean 5-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, (+54%, P less than 0-001). The same patients were studied again after a 1-week treatment with prednisone...

  19. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and IgG in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Jensen, H A; Westrup, M

    1977-01-01

    Transcapillary escape rates of albumin and IgG (fractions of intravascular mass of albumin and IgG that pass to the extravascular space per unit time) were determined simultaneously from the initial disappearance of intravenously injected 131I human albumin and 125I human IgG in seven untreated...... subjects suffering from essential hypertension. The average mean arterial blood pressure of these subjects 193/119 mmHg; four subjects had grade I-III funduscopic changes. Transcapillary escape rates of albumin (TERalb) and IgG (TERIgG) were found significantly increased in the hypertensive subjects......, average 7.8 +/- 0.9 (SD) and 4.7 +/- 1.0 (SD) %/h, respectively, compared with normal values of mean 5.2 +/- 1.0 (SD) and 3.0 +/- 0.7 (SD) %/h, respectively (P less than 0.01). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the mean arterial blood pressure and TER of albumin and of Ig...

  20. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Ranek, L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin during the first 60 min after injection...... in nine patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Six of the patients had ascites. The wedged hepatic venous pressure or splenic pulp pressure ranged from 20 to 30 mmHg, mean 26 mmHg. Plasma albumin concentration was low, but plasma volume was slightly enlarged, and thus the intravascular mass of albumin...... was only moderately reduced. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin was significantly elevated in all the cirrhotics, mean 10.2%/h, range 8.8 to 12.3%/h, in comparison to values for twenty-eight normal subjects 5.4%/h, range 3.5-7.2%/h. Our results can best be explained by increased filtration out...

  1. A Nuclease from Streptococcus mutans Facilitates Biofilm Dispersal and Escape from Killing by Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Sun, Luping; Liu, Wei; Guo, Lihong; Liu, Zhaohui; Wei, Xi; Ling, Junqi

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and occasionally infective endocarditis, with the ability to form biofilms and disperse cells into distal sites to exacerbate and spread infection. In this study, we identified a nuclease (DeoC) as a S. mutans biofilm dispersal modulating factor through microarray analysis. In vitro assays revealed a dispersal defect of a deoC deletion mutant, and functional studies with purified protein were indicative of the biofilm dispersal activity of DeoC. Neutrophils are a key host response factor restraining bacterial spreading through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which consist of a nuclear DNA backbone associated with antimicrobial peptides. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dispersed S. mutans might utilize DeoC to degrade NETs and escape killing by the immune system. It was found that S. mutans induced NET formation upon contact with neutrophils, while the presence of NETs in turn enhanced the deoC expression of S. mutans . Fluorescence microscopy inspection showed that deoC deletion resulted in a decreased NET degradation ability of S. mutans and enhanced susceptibility to neutrophil killing. Data obtained from this study assigned two important roles for DeoC in S. mutans : contributing to the spread of infection through mediating biofilm dispersal, and facilitating the escape of S. mutans from neutrophil killing through NET degradation.

  2. The Toxiscape Hunt: An Escape Room-Scavenger Hunt for Toxicology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Boysen-Osborn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scavenger hunt/escape room is a didactic activity for emergency medicine residents or fourth-year medical students rotating in emergency medicine. Introduction: Between 2008-2011, 1.1 million patients presented to U.S. emergency departments each year for poisonings,1 including acute ingestions, envenomations, occupational exposures, and overdoses. Toxicologic exposures are considered part of the core curriculum for emergency medicine (EM residents, who must understand the presentation and treatment of such patients.2 Educating residents in a unique, engaging format such as an “escape room” activity provides an alternative to the didactic format of teaching this material, which may build medical knowledge and team rapport amongst residents.3 Objectives: By the end of the activity, learners should be able to: Calculate an anion and osmolal gap. Recognize poisonings amenable to hemodialysis. Interpret EKG changes related to a variety of ingestions, including beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers, digitalis, and tricyclic antidepressants. Recognize poisonous plants and their clinical toxidromes. Calculate loading dose of N-acetylcysteine as antidote for acute acetaminophen ingestion. Collaborate as a team to arrive at solutions of problems. Recognize poisons that have available antidotes Know the clinical effect of various types of snake envenomations. Recognize the toxicity associated with at least four household chemicals. Know the antidotes for six common poisonings. Methods: This didactic exercise is a small group activity, utilizing puzzles to apply toxicology knowledge.

  3. HLA Class-II Associated HIV Polymorphisms Predict Escape from CD4+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Erdmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy, antibody and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses targeting human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 exert selection pressure on the virus necessitating escape; however, the ability of CD4+ T cells to exert selective pressure remains unclear. Using a computational approach on HIV gag/pol/nef sequences and HLA-II allelic data, we identified 29 HLA-II associated HIV sequence polymorphisms or adaptations (HLA-AP in an African cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals. Epitopes encompassing the predicted adaptation (AE or its non-adapted (NAE version were evaluated for immunogenicity. Using a CD8-depleted IFN-γ ELISpot assay, we determined that the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses to the predicted epitopes in controllers was higher compared to non-controllers (p<0.0001. However, regardless of the group, the magnitude of responses to AE was lower as compared to NAE (p<0.0001. CD4+ T cell responses in patients with acute HIV infection (AHI demonstrated poor immunogenicity towards AE as compared to NAE encoded by their transmitted founder virus. Longitudinal data in AHI off antiretroviral therapy demonstrated sequence changes that were biologically confirmed to represent CD4+ escape mutations. These data demonstrate an innovative application of HLA-associated polymorphisms to identify biologically relevant CD4+ epitopes and suggests CD4+ T cells are active participants in driving HIV evolution.

  4. Linking vertebral number to performance of aquatic escape responses in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Kerri L; Ward, Andrea B

    2015-12-01

    Environmental conditions during early development in ectothermic vertebrates can lead to variation in vertebral number among individuals of the same species. It is often seen that individuals of a species raised at cooler temperatures have more vertebrae than individuals raised at warmer temperatures, although the functional consequences of this variation in vertebral number on swimming performance are relatively unclear. To investigate this relationship, we tested how vertebral number in axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) affected performance of aquatic escape responses (C-starts). Axolotls were reared at four temperatures (12-24°C) encompassing their natural thermal range and then transitioned to a mean temperature (18°C) three months before C-starts were recorded. Our results showed variation in vertebral number, but that variation was not significantly affected by developmental temperature. C-start performance among axolotls was significantly correlated with caudal vertebral number, and individuals with more caudal vertebrae were able to achieve greater curvature more quickly during their responses than individuals with fewer vertebrae. However, our results show that these individuals did not achieve greater displacements or velocities, and that developmental temperature did not have any effect on C-start performance. We highlight that the most important aspects of escape swim performance (i.e., how far individuals get from a threat and how quickly they move the most important parts of the body away from that threat) are consistent across individuals regardless of developmental temperature and morphological variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Mutator suppression and escape from replication error-induced extinction in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J Herr

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells rely on a network of conserved pathways to govern DNA replication fidelity. Loss of polymerase proofreading or mismatch repair elevates spontaneous mutation and facilitates cellular adaptation. However, double mutants are inviable, suggesting that extreme mutation rates exceed an error threshold. Here we combine alleles that affect DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ proofreading and mismatch repair to define the maximal error rate in haploid yeast and to characterize genetic suppressors of mutator phenotypes. We show that populations tolerate mutation rates 1,000-fold above wild-type levels but collapse when the rate exceeds 10⁻³ inactivating mutations per gene per cell division. Variants that escape this error-induced extinction (eex rapidly emerge from mutator clones. One-third of the escape mutants result from second-site changes in Pol δ that suppress the proofreading-deficient phenotype, while two-thirds are extragenic. The structural locations of the Pol δ changes suggest multiple antimutator mechanisms. Our studies reveal the transient nature of eukaryotic mutators and show that mutator phenotypes are readily suppressed by genetic adaptation. This has implications for the role of mutator phenotypes in cancer.

  6. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused particul......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......, but no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box was higher...

  7. Investigating the Lyman photon escape in local starburst galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph ★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Leitherer, Claus; Boquien, Médéric; Buat, Véronique; Burgarella, Denis; Calzetti, Daniela; Noll, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    We present a study of 7 star-forming galaxies from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The galaxies are located at relatively low redshifts, z ˜0.3, with morphologies ranging from extended and disturbed to compact and smooth. To complement the HST observations we also analyze observations taken with the VIMOS spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). In our galaxy sample we identify three objects with double peak Lyman-α profiles similar to those seen in Green Pea compact galaxies and measure peak separations of 655, 374, and 275 km s-1. We measure Lyman-α escape fractions with values ranging between 5-13%. Given the low flux levels in the individual COS exposures we apply a weighted stacking approach to obtain a single spectrum. From this COS combined spectrum we infer upper limits for the absolute and relative Lyman continuum escape fractions of f_abs(LyC) = 0.4^{+10.1}_{-0.4}% and f_res(LyC) = 1.7^{+15.2}_{-1.7}%, respectively. Finally, we find that most of these galaxies have moderate UV and optical SFRs (SFRs ≲ 10 M⊙ yr-1).

  8. A supplemental device to return escaping particles to a magnetic mirror reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Mitsuaki [Nippon Electronic Engineering College, Noboribetsu-shi, Hokkaido (Japan); Sawada, Keiichi [Soft Creator Company, Kyoto (Japan)

    2018-12-15

    Cyclotron resonance is now applied as one of the important means for heating plasma in a fusion reactor. We examined this phenomenon from the viewpoint of electron gyration orbits through a solution of the linearized relativistic equation of motion. We found a powerful term that accelerates a relativistic charged particle largely at a resonance point when a magnetic field strength is very large. In this study, aiming an effect of this term, we consider applying a resonance phenomenon to reducing the number of charged particles that escape from a magnetic mirror reactor. We install a long supplemental device at the exit of a main magnetic bottle and make a cyclotron resonance space within the device, as shown in Fig. 7. If velocities (perpendicular to a magnetic field) of charged particles are accelerated largely within the cyclotron resonance space, the reflection efficiency of a magnetic mirror behind the resonance space ought to be improved. Based on this idea, we discuss such a supplemental device for recovering the maximum number of escaping charged particles. (orig.)

  9. Broad CTL response is required to clear latent HIV-1 due to dominance of escape mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Pertea, Mihaela; Rongvaux, Anthony; Wang, Leyao; Durand, Christine M.; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Lai, Jun; McHugh, Holly L.; Hao, Haiping; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph B.; Gurer, Cagan; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Strowig, Till; Kumar, Priti; Siliciano, Janet D.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Flavell, Richard A.; Shan, Liang; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persists in a stable latent reservoir1, 2, primarily in resting memory CD4+ T cells3, 4. This reservoir presents a major barrier to the cure of HIV-1 infection. To purge the reservoir, pharmacological reactivation of latent HIV-1 has been proposed5 and tested both in vitro and in vivo6–8. A key remaining question is whether virus-specific immune mechanisms including cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) can clear infected cells in ART-treated patients after latency is reversed. Here we show that there is a striking all or none pattern for CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag epitopes. Unless ART is started early, the vast majority (>98%) of latent viruses carry CTL escape mutations that render infected cells insensitive to CTLs directed at common epitopes. To solve this problem, we identified CTLs that could recognize epitopes from latent HIV-1 that were unmutated in every chronically infected patient tested. Upon stimulation, these CTLs eliminated target cells infected with autologous virus derived from the latent reservoir, both in vitro and in patient-derived humanized mice. The predominance of CTL-resistant viruses in the latent reservoir poses a major challenge to viral eradication. Our results demonstrate that chronically infected patients retain a broad spectrum viral-specific CTL response and that appropriate boosting of this response may be required for the elimination of the latent reservoir. PMID:25561180

  10. Effect of an anisotropic escape mechanism on elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amaresh; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim

    2018-04-01

    We study the effect of an anisotropic escape mechanism on elliptic flow in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We use the Glauber model to generate initial conditions and ignore hydrodynamic expansion in the transverse direction. We employ the Beer-Lambert law to allow for the transmittance of produced hadrons in the medium and calculate the anisotropy generated due to the suppression of particles traversing through the medium. To separate non-flow contribution due to surface bias effects, we ignore hydrodynamic expansion in the transverse direction and consider purely longitudinal boost-invariant expansion. We calculate the transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow, generated from an anisotropic escape mechanism due to surface bias effects, for various centralities in √{sN N}=200 GeV Au +Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and √{sN N}=2.76 TeV Pb +Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. We find that the surface bias effects make a sizable contribution to the total elliptic flow observed in heavy-ion collisions, indicating that the viscosity of the QCD matter extracted from hydrodynamic simulations may be underestimated.

  11. CCR5 Targeted Cell Therapy for HIV and Prevention of Viral Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gero Hütter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic transplantation with CCR5-delta 32 (CCR5-d32 homozygous stem cells in an HIV infected individual in 2008, led to a sustained virus control and probably eradication of HIV. Since then there has been a high degree of interest to translate this approach to a wider population. There are two cellular ways to do this. The first one is to use a CCR5 negative cell source e.g., hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to copy the initial finding. However, a recent case of a second allogeneic transplantation with CCR5-d32 homozygous stem cells suffered from viral escape of CXCR4 quasi-species. The second way is to knock down CCR5 expression by gene therapy. Currently, there are five promising techniques, three of which are presently being tested clinically. These techniques include zinc finger nucleases (ZFN, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9, transcription activator-like effectors nuclease (TALEN, short hairpin RNA (shRNA, and a ribozyme. While there are multiple gene therapy strategies being tested, in this review we reflect on our current knowledge of inhibition of CCR5 specifically and whether this approach allows for consequent viral escape.

  12. Augmenting the Efficacy of Immunotoxins and Other Targeted Protein Toxins by Endosomal Escape Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Fuchs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The toxic moiety of almost all protein-based targeted toxins must enter the cytosol of the target cell to mediate its fatal effect. Although more than 500 targeted toxins have been investigated in the past decades, no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date. Missing efficacy can be attributed in many cases to insufficient endosomal escape and therefore subsequent lysosomal degradation of the endocytosed toxins. To overcome this drawback, many strategies have been described to weaken the membrane integrity of endosomes. This comprises the use of lysosomotropic amines, carboxylic ionophores, calcium channel antagonists, various cell-penetrating peptides of viral, bacterial, plant, animal, human and synthetic origin, other organic molecules and light-induced techniques. Although the efficacy of the targeted toxins was typically augmented in cell culture hundred or thousand fold, in exceptional cases more than million fold, the combination of several substances harbors new problems including additional side effects, loss of target specificity, difficulties to determine the therapeutic window and cell type-dependent variations. This review critically scrutinizes the chances and challenges of endosomal escape enhancers and their potential role in future developments.

  13. Reconstructing community assembly in time and space reveals enemy escape in a Western Palearctic insect community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Sinclair, Frazer; Schönrogge, Karsten; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Nieves-Aldrey, Jose-Luis; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Tavakoli, Majide; Askew, Richard R; Hickerson, Michael J

    2012-03-20

    How geographically widespread biological communities assemble remains a major question in ecology. Do parallel population histories allow sustained interactions (such as host-parasite or plant-pollinator) among species, or do discordant histories necessarily interrupt them? Though few empirical data exist, these issues are central to our understanding of multispecies evolutionary dynamics. Here we use hierarchical approximate Bayesian analysis of DNA sequence data for 12 herbivores and 19 parasitoids to reconstruct the assembly of an insect community spanning the Western Palearctic and assess the support for alternative host tracking and ecological sorting hypotheses. We show that assembly occurred primarily by delayed host tracking from a shared eastern origin. Herbivores escaped their enemies for millennia before parasitoid pursuit restored initial associations, with generalist parasitoids no better able to track their hosts than specialists. In contrast, ecological sorting played only a minor role. Substantial turnover in host-parasitoid associations means that coevolution must have been diffuse, probably contributing to the parasitoid generalism seen in this and similar systems. Reintegration of parasitoids after host escape shows these communities to have been unsaturated throughout their history, arguing against major roles for parasitoid niche evolution or competition during community assembly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A poetic of silence: trauma, representation and language in Escape from Death, by Paul Celan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esther Torinho

    2014-10-01

    Paul Celan’s poem Escape from death presents situations lived by himself in a Nazi concentration camp, which inserts the poem in the context of the literature of testimony; it is a poem fulfilled with high amount of drama, in which content and structure combine to offer a dense reading, loaded with meaning. One can see, in the poem, that silence dominates the scenery, expressing, through the many gaps left by a fragmentary language, what is difficult for the poet to express, the feelings which are impossible to talk about, what leads the reader to an astonishing feeling, making contact with the meaning only through stages and amid the gaps. This article approaches the poem starting from concepts related to Literature of testimony and the impossibility of representing the real (Roland Barthes; in what concern the formal aspects, beside the Bakhtin’s ideas about polyphony, and Barros and Fiorin’s studies about dialogism, polyphony and interdiscursivity; furthermore, starting from the musical concept of escape, as suggested by the title of the poem and highlighted in the text, we discuss figurative language – metaphor and metonymy, irony and ellipses, as the author's strategies to face the hesitation between trauma and representation so one have a silence poetic, in which the ellipses and metaphors play an essential role.

  15. The great escape - II. Exoplanet ejection from dying multiple-star systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Tout, Christopher A.

    2012-05-01

    Extrasolar planets and belts of debris orbiting post-main-sequence single stars may become unbound as the evolving star loses mass. In multiple-star systems, the presence or co-evolution of the additional stars can significantly complicate the prospects for orbital excitation and escape. Here, we investigate the dynamical consequences of multi-phasic, non-linear mass loss and establish a criterion for a system of any stellar multiplicity to retain a planet whose orbit surrounds all of the parent stars. For single stars which become white dwarfs, this criterion can be combined with the Chandrasekhar Limit to establish the maximum allowable mass-loss rate for planet retention. We then apply the criterion to circumbinary planets in evolving binary systems over the entire stellar mass phase space. Through about 105 stellar evolutionary track realizations, we characterize planetary ejection prospects as a function of binary separation, stellar mass and metallicity. This investigation reveals that planets residing at just a few tens of au from a central concentration of stars are susceptible to escape in a wide variety of multiple systems. Further, planets are significantly more susceptible to ejection from multiple-star systems than from single-star systems for a given system mass. For system masses greater than about 2 M⊙, multiple-star systems represent the greater source of free-floating planets.

  16. Imaging the Extended Hot Hydrogen Exosphere at Mars to Determine the Water Escape Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dolon

    2017-08-01

    ACS SBC imaging of the extended hydrogen exosphere of Mars is proposed to identify the hot hydrogen population present in the exosphere of Mars. Determining the characteristics of this population and the underlying processes responsible for its production are critical towards constraining the escape flux of H from Mars, which in turn is directly related to the water escape history of Mars. Since the hot atoms appear mainly at high altitudes, these observations will be scheduled when Mars is far from Earth allowing us to image the hot hydrogen atoms at high altitudes where they dominate the population. The altitude coverage by HST will extend beyond 30,000 km or 8.8 Martian radii in this case, which makes it perfect for this study as orbiting spacecraft remain at low altitudes (MAVEN apoapse is 6000 km) and cannot separate hot atoms from the thermal population at those altitudes. The observations will also be carried out when Mars is near aphelion, the atmospheric temperature is low, and the thermal population has a small scale height, allowing the clear characterization of the hot hydrogen layer. Another advantage of conducting this study in this cycle is that the solar activity is near its minimum, allowing us to discriminate between changes in the hot hydrogen population from processes taking place within the atmosphere of Mars and changes due to external drivers like the solar wind, producing this non-thermal population. This proposal is part of the HST UV initiative.

  17. The first human epitope map of the alphaviral E1 and E2 proteins reveals a new E2 epitope with significant virus neutralizing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R Hunt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is responsible for VEE epidemics that occur in South and Central America and the U.S. The VEEV envelope contains two glycoproteins E1 (mediates cell membrane fusion and E2 (binds receptor and elicits virus neutralizing antibodies. Previously we constructed E1 and E2 epitope maps using murine monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs. Six E2 epitopes (E2(c,d,e,f,g,h bound VEEV-neutralizing antibody and mapped to amino acids (aa 182-207. Nothing is known about the human antibody repertoire to VEEV or epitopes that engage human virus-neutralizing antibodies. There is no specific treatment for VEE; however virus-neutralizing mMAbs are potent protective and therapeutic agents for mice challenged with VEEV by either peripheral or aerosol routes. Therefore, fully human MAbs (hMAbs with virus-neutralizing activity should be useful for prevention or clinical treatment of human VEE.We used phage-display to isolate VEEV-specific hFabs from human bone marrow donors. These hFabs were characterized by sequencing, specificity testing, VEEV subtype cross-reactivity using indirect ELISA, and in vitro virus neutralization capacity. One E2-specific neutralizing hFAb, F5n, was converted into IgG, and its binding site was identified using competitive ELISA with mMAbs and by preparing and sequencing antibody neutralization-escape variants.Using 11 VEEV-reactive hFabs we constructed the first human epitope map for the alphaviral surface proteins E1 and E2. We identified an important neutralization-associated epitope unique to the human immune response, E2 aa115-119. Using a 9 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of the Sindbis virus E2 protein, we showed the probable surface location of this human VEEV epitope.The VEEV-neutralizing capacity of the hMAb F5 nIgG is similar to that exhibited by the humanized mMAb Hy4 IgG. The Hy4 IgG has been shown to limit VEEV infection in mice both prophylactically and therapeutically. Administration

  18. Hit or Run: Exploring Aggressive and Avoidant Reactions to Interpersonal Provocation Using a Novel Fight-or-Escape Paradigm (FOE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Frederike; Buades-Rotger, Macià; Claes, Marie; Krämer, Ulrike M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal provocation presents an approach-avoidance conflict to the provoked person: responding aggressively might yield the joy of retribution, whereas withdrawal can provide safety. Experimental aggression studies typically measure only retaliation intensity, neglecting whether individuals want to confront the provocateur at all. To overcome this shortcoming of previous measures, we developed and validated the Fight-or-Escape paradigm (FOE). The FOE is a competitive reaction time (RT) task in which the winner can choose the volume of a sound blast to be directed at his/her opponent. Participants face two ostensible opponents who consistently select either high or low punishments. At the beginning of each trial, subjects are given the chance to avoid the encounter for a limited number of times. In a first experiment ( n = 27, all women), we found that fear potentiation (FP) of the startle response was related to lower scores in a composite measure of aggression and avoidance against the provoking opponent. In a second experiment ( n = 34, 13 men), we altered the paradigm such that participants faced the opponents in alternating rather than in random order. Participants completed the FOE as well as the Dot-Probe Task (DPT) and the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Subjects with higher approach bias scores in the AAT avoided the provoking opponent less frequently. Hence, individuals with high threat reactivity and low approach motivation displayed more avoidant responses to provocation, whereas participants high in approach motivation were more likely to engage in aggressive interactions when provoked. The FOE is thus a promising laboratory measure of avoidance and aggression.

  19. Hit or Run: Exploring Aggressive and Avoidant Reactions to Interpersonal Provocation Using a Novel Fight-or-Escape Paradigm (FOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederike Beyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal provocation presents an approach-avoidance conflict to the provoked person: responding aggressively might yield the joy of retribution, whereas withdrawal can provide safety. Experimental aggression studies typically measure only retaliation intensity, neglecting whether individuals want to confront the provocateur at all. To overcome this shortcoming of previous measures, we developed and validated the Fight-or-Escape paradigm (FOE. The FOE is a competitive reaction time (RT task in which the winner can choose the volume of a sound blast to be directed at his/her opponent. Participants face two ostensible opponents who consistently select either high or low punishments. At the beginning of each trial, subjects are given the chance to avoid the encounter for a limited number of times. In a first experiment (n = 27, all women, we found that fear potentiation (FP of the startle response was related to lower scores in a composite measure of aggression and avoidance against the provoking opponent. In a second experiment (n = 34, 13 men, we altered the paradigm such that participants faced the opponents in alternating rather than in random order. Participants completed the FOE as well as the Dot-Probe Task (DPT and the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Subjects with higher approach bias scores in the AAT avoided the provoking opponent less frequently. Hence, individuals with high threat reactivity and low approach motivation displayed more avoidant responses to provocation, whereas participants high in approach motivation were more likely to engage in aggressive interactions when provoked. The FOE is thus a promising laboratory measure of avoidance and aggression.

  20. Leaping lizards landing on leaves: escape-induced jumps in the rainforest canopy challenge the adhesive limits of geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Timothy E; Russell, Anthony P; Niklas, Karl J

    2017-06-01

    The remarkable adhesive capabilities of geckos have garnered attention from scientists and the public for centuries. Geckos are known to have an adhesive load-bearing capacity far in excess (by 100-fold or more) of that required to support their body mass or accommodate the loading imparted during maximal locomotor acceleration. Few studies, however, have investigated the ecological contexts in which geckos use their adhesive system and how this may influence its properties. Here we develop a modelling framework to assess whether their prodigious adhesive capacity ever comes under selective challenge. Our investigation is based upon observations of escape-induced aerial descents of canopy-dwelling arboreal geckos that are rapidly arrested by clinging to leaf surfaces in mid-fall. We integrate ecological observations, adhesive force measurements, and body size and shape measurements of museum specimens to conduct simulations. Using predicted bending mechanics of petioles and leaf midribs, we find that the drag coefficient of the gecko, the size of the gecko and the size of the leaf determine impact forces. Regardless of the landing surface, safety factors for geckos range from a maximum of just over 10 to a minimum of well under one, which would be the point at which the adhesive system fails. In contrast to previous research that intimates that gecko frictional adhesive capacity is excessive relative to body mass, we demonstrate that realistic conditions in nature may result in frictional capacity being pushed to its limit. The rapid arrest of the lizard from its falling velocity likely results in the maximal loading to which the adhesive system is exposed during normal activities. We suggest that such activities might be primary determinants in driving their high frictional adhesive capacity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  2. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  3. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  4. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  5. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  6. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  7. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  8. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  9. [The characteristics of RR-Lorenz plot in persistent atrial fibrillation patients complicating with escape beats and rhythm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunping; Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Ru; Jing, Yan; Shen, Jihong; Li, Zhongjian; Zhu, Huaijie

    2014-06-01

    To explore the characteristics of RR-Lorenz plot in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients complicating with escape beats and rhythm though ambulatory electrocardiogram. The 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram of 291 persistent AF patients in second affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou university from July 2005 to April 2013 were retrospectively analyzed and the RR interval and the QRS wave were measured. Patients were divided into two groups according to the distribution of the RR-Lorenz point [AF without escape beats and rhythm group (Group A, n = 259) and AF with escape beats and rhythm group (Group B, n = 32)]. The characteristics of RR-Lorenz plot between the two groups were compared. (1) Fan-shaped RR-Lorenz plots were evidenced in Group A. (2)In Group B, 30 cases showed fan-shaped with L-shaped and a short dense rods along 45° line. The proportion of escape beats and rhythm was 0.28% (275/98 369) -14.06% (11 263/80 112) . The other 2 cases in group B showed no typical RR-Lorenz plots features. RR-Lorenz plot could help to quickly diagnose persistent AF complicating with escape beats and rhythm according to the typical RR-Lorenz plot characteristics in 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram.

  10. Waiting times for the appearance of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutants in chronic HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Mullins, James I.; Mittler, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The failure of HIV-1 to escape at some cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes has generally been explained in terms of viral fitness costs or ineffective or attenuated CTL responses. Relatively little attention has been paid to the evolutionary time required for escape mutants to be detected. This time is significantly affected by selection, mutation rates, the presence of other advantageous mutations, and the effective population size of HIV-1 in vivo (typically estimated to be ∼10 3 in chronically infected patients, though one study has estimated it to be ∼10 5 ). Here, we use a forward simulator with experimentally estimated HIV-1 parameters to show that these delays can be substantial. For an effective population size of 10 3 , even highly advantageous mutants (s = 0.5) may not be detected for a couple of years in chronically infected patients, while moderately advantageous escape mutants (s = 0.1) may not be detected for up to 10 years. Even with an effective population size of 10 5 , a moderately advantageous escape mutant (s = 0.1) may not be detected in the population within 2 years if it has to compete with other selectively advantageous mutants. Stochastic evolutionary forces, therefore, in addition to viral fitness costs and ineffective or attenuated CTL responses, must be taken into account when assessing the selection of CTL escape mutations

  11. Effects of mesh size and escape gaps on discarding in an Australian giant mud crab (Scylla serrata trap fishery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt K Broadhurst

    Full Text Available In response to concerns over excessive discarding from Australian recreational round traps (with four funnel entrances used to target giant mud crabs, Scylla serrata, an experiment was done to assess the independent and cumulative utility of paired, bottom-located horizontal escape gaps (46×120 mm and increasing mesh size (from 51 to 101 mm. Compared to conventional traps comprising 51-mm mesh throughout, those with the same mesh size and escape gaps caught significantly fewer (by 95% undersize (<85 mm carapace length--CL crabs while maintaining legal catches. Traps made from 101-mm mesh (but with the same funnel entrances as conventional designs and with and without escape gaps similarly retained fewer undersize crabs and also yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (the key bycatch species by up to 94%, but there were concomitant reductions in fishing power for legal sizes of S. serrata. Although there were no immediate mortalities among any discarded crabs, there was a greater bias towards wounding among post molts than late inter-molts and less damage to individuals in the 101-mm conventional than 51-mm conventional traps (without escape gaps. The results support retrospectively fitting escape gaps in conventional S. serrata traps as a means for reducing discarding, but additional work is required to determine appropriate mesh sizes/configurations that maximize species and size selectivity.

  12. 2D collisional-radiative model for non-uniform argon plasmas: with or without ‘escape factor’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Tsankov, Tsanko Vaskov; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Collisional-radiative models for excited rare-gas atoms in low-temperature plasmas are a widely investigated topic. When these plasmas are optically thick, an ‘escape factor’ is introduced into the models to account for the reabsorption of photons (so-called radiation trapping process). This factor is usually obtained assuming a uniform density profile of the excited species; however, such an assumption is often not satisfied in a bounded plasma. This article reports for the first time a self-consistent collisional-radiative model without using an ad hoc ‘escape factor’ for excited Ar atoms in the 2p states (in Paschen’s notation). Rather, the rate balance equations—i.e. the radiation transfer equations—of the 2p states are numerically solved to yield the actual density profiles. The predictions of this self-consistent model and a model based on the escape factor concept are compared with spatially-resolved emission measurements in a low-pressure inductive Ar plasma. The self-consistent model agrees well with the experiment but the ‘escape factor’ model shows considerable deviations. By the comparative analysis the limitations and shortcomings of the escape factor concept as adopted in a significant number of works are revealed. (paper)

  13. 7. Annex II: Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Aeberli, Annina

    2012-01-01

    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-states-15-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb http://reliefweb.int/map/south-sudan-republic/republic-south-sudan-counties-16-july-2012-reference-map, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  14. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E.

    1989-01-01

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given

  15. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 1 (SRL1) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  16. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  17. Differential maps, difference maps, interpolated maps, and long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    1988-06-01

    Mapping techniques may be thought to be attractive for the long term prediction of motion in accelerators, especially because a simple map can approximately represent an arbitrarily complicated lattice. The intention of this paper is to develop prejudices as to the validity of such methods by applying them to a simple, exactly solveable, example. It is shown that a numerical interpolation map, such as can be generated in the accelerator tracking program TEAPOT, predicts the evolution more accurately than an analytically derived differential map of the same order. Even so, in the presence of ''appreciable'' nonlinearity, it is shown to be impractical to achieve ''accurate'' prediction beyond some hundreds of cycles of oscillation. This suggests that the value of nonlinear maps is restricted to the parameterization of only the ''leading'' deviation from linearity. 41 refs., 6 figs

  18. Data Assimilation with Optimal Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moselhy, T.; Marzouk, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Tarek El Moselhy and Youssef Marzouk Massachusetts Institute of Technology We present a new approach to Bayesian inference that entirely avoids Markov chain simulation and sequential importance resampling, by constructing a map that pushes forward the prior measure to the posterior measure. Existence and uniqueness of a suitable measure-preserving map is established by formulating the problem in the context of optimal transport theory. The map is written as a multivariate polynomial expansion and computed efficiently through the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. While our previous work [1] focused on static Bayesian inference problems, we now extend the map-based approach to sequential data assimilation, i.e., nonlinear filtering and smoothing. One scheme involves pushing forward a fixed reference measure to each filtered state distribution, while an alternative scheme computes maps that push forward the filtering distribution from one stage to the other. We compare the performance of these schemes and extend the former to problems of smoothing, using a map implementation of the forward-backward smoothing formula. Advantages of a map-based representation of the filtering and smoothing distributions include analytical expressions for posterior moments and the ability to generate arbitrary numbers of independent uniformly-weighted posterior samples without additional evaluations of the dynamical model. Perhaps the main advantage, however, is that the map approach inherently avoids issues of sample impoverishment, since it explicitly represents the posterior as the pushforward of a reference measure, rather than with a particular set of samples. The computational complexity of our algorithm is comparable to state-of-the-art particle filters. Moreover, the accuracy of the approach is controlled via the convergence criterion of the underlying optimization problem. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the map approach via data assimilation in

  19. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  20. Cultivation-based multiplex phenotyping of human gut microbiota allows targeted recovery of previously uncultured bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Gumpert, Heidi; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is linked to a variety of human health issues and implicated in antibiotic resistance gene dissemination. Most of these associations rely on culture-independent methods, since it is commonly believed that gut microbiota cannot be easily or sufficiently cultured. Here, we...... microbiota. Based on the phenotypic mapping, we tailor antibiotic combinations to specifically select for previously uncultivated bacteria. Utilizing this method we cultivate and sequence the genomes of four isolates, one of which apparently belongs to the genus Oscillibacter; uncultivated Oscillibacter...

  1. A molecular recombination map of Antirrhinum majus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Andrew

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic recombination maps provide important frameworks for comparative genomics, identifying gene functions, assembling genome sequences and for breeding. The molecular recombination map currently available for the model eudicot Antirrhinum majus is the result of a cross with Antirrhinum molle, limiting its usefulness within A. majus. Results We created a molecular linkage map of A. majus based on segregation of markers in the F2 population of two inbred lab strains of A. majus. The resulting map consisted of over 300 markers in eight linkage groups, which could be aligned with a classical recombination map and the A. majus karyotype. The distribution of recombination frequencies and distorted transmission of parental alleles differed from those of a previous inter-species hybrid. The differences varied in magnitude and direction between chromosomes, suggesting that they had multiple causes. The map, which covered an estimated of 95% of the genome with an average interval of 2 cM, was used to analyze the distribution of a newly discovered family of MITE transposons and tested for its utility in positioning seven mutations that affect aspects of plant size. Conclusions The current map has an estimated interval of 1.28 Mb between markers. It shows a lower level of transmission ratio distortion and a longer length than the previous inter-species map, making it potentially more useful. The molecular recombination map further indicates that the IDLE MITE transposons are distributed throughout the genome and are relatively stable. The map proved effective in mapping classical morphological mutations of A. majus.

  2. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  3. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  4. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  5. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  6. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  7. Light escape cones in local reference frames of Kerr-de Sitter black hole spacetimes and related black hole shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Charbulák, Daniel; Schee, Jan

    2018-03-01

    We construct the light escape cones of isotropic spot sources of radiation residing in special classes of reference frames in the Kerr-de Sitter (KdS) black hole spacetimes, namely in the fundamental class of `non-geodesic' locally non-rotating reference frames (LNRFs), and two classes of `geodesic' frames, the radial geodesic frames (RGFs), both falling and escaping, and the frames related to the circular geodesic orbits (CGFs). We compare the cones constructed in a given position for the LNRFs, RGFs, and CGFs. We have shown that the photons locally counter-rotating relative to LNRFs with positive impact parameter and negative covariant energy are confined to the ergosphere region. Finally, we demonstrate that the light escaping cones govern the shadows of black holes located in front of a radiating screen, as seen by the observers in the considered frames. For shadows related to distant static observers the LNRFs are relevant.

  8. 浅析现代人对自由的逃避%Talking about Modern Escape to Freedom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗光磊

    2012-01-01

    Fromm considered that individual became isolated under the action of multiple factors of economics, politics and warfare in the capitalist world, and many people chose to escape from fTeedom. The main way of escaping from freedom is authoritarianism. This article analyzed how to use this way to escape from freedom by the modem generation.%埃里希.弗罗姆是德裔美籍心理学家、社会学家,法兰克福学派的代表人物之一,本文将对他的《逃避自由》一书中现代人对自由的逃避这一问题展开分析。

  9. Impact of Antiretroviral Regimens on CSF Viral Escape in a Prospective Multicohort Study of ART-Experienced HIV-1 Infected Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerji, Shibani S; Misra, Vikas; Lorenz, David R; Uno, Hajime; Morgello, Susan; Franklin, Donald; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Gabuzda, Dana

    2018-04-03

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape occurs in 4-20% of HIV-infected adults, yet the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on CSF escape is unclear. Prospective study of 1063 participants with baseline plasma viral load (VL) ≤400 copies/ml between 2005-2016. Odds ratio for ART regimens (PI with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor [PI+NRTI] versus other ART) and CSF escape was estimated using mixed-effects models. Drug resistance mutation frequencies were calculated. Baseline mean age was 46, median plasma VL, CD4 nadir, and CD4 count were 50 copies/mL, 88 cells/μL, and 424 cells/μL, respectively; 48% on PI+NRTI, 33% on non-NRTI, and 6% on integrase inhibitors. During median follow-up of 4.4 years, CSF escape occurred in 77 participants (7.2%). PI+NRTI use was an independent predictor of CSF escape (OR 3.1 [95% CI 1.8-5.0]) in adjusted analyses and models restricted to plasma VL ≤50 copies/ml (pCSF viral escape than non-ATV PI+NRTI regimens. Plasma and CSF M184V/I combined with thymidine-analog mutations were more frequent in CSF escape versus no escape (23% vs. 2.3%). Genotypic susceptibility score-adjusted CNS penetration-effectiveness (CPE) values were calculated for CSF escape with M184V/I mutations (n=34). Adjusted CPE values were low (CSF and plasma in 27 (79%) and 13 (38%), respectively, indicating suboptimal CNS drug availability. PI+NRTI regimens are independent predictors of CSF escape in HIV-infected adults. Reduced CNS ART bioavailability may predispose to CSF escape in patients with M184V/I mutations. Optimizing ART regimens may reduce risk of CSF escape.

  10. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  11. The Effect of Solar Wind Variations on the Escape of Oxygen Ions From Mars Through Different Channels: MAVEN Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Pätzold, M.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J. S.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, F.; Brain, D.; Jakosky, B. M.; Vaisberg, O.; Zelenyi, L.

    2017-11-01

    We present multi-instrument observations of the effects of solar wind on ion escape fluxes on Mars based on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) data from 1 November 2014 to 15 May 2016. Losses of oxygen ions through different channels (plasma sheet, magnetic lobes, boundary layer, and ion plume) as a function of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field variations were studied. We have utilized the modified Mars Solar Electric (MSE) coordinate system for separation of the different escape routes. Fluxes of the low-energy (≤30 eV) and high-energy (≥30 eV) ions reveal different trends with changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure, the solar wind flux, and the motional electric field. Major oxygen fluxes occur through the tail of the induced magnetosphere. The solar wind motional electric field produces an asymmetry in the ion fluxes and leads to different relations between ion fluxes supplying the tail from the different hemispheres and the solar wind dynamic pressure (or flux) and the motional electric field. The main driver for escape of the high-energy oxygen ions is the solar wind flux (or dynamic pressure). On the other hand, the low-energy ion component shows the opposite trend: ion flux decreases with increasing solar wind flux. As a result, the averaged total oxygen ion fluxes reveal a low variability with the solar wind strength. The large standard deviations from the averages values of the escape fluxes indicate the existence of mechanisms which can enhance or suppress the efficiency of the ion escape. It is shown that the Martian magnetosphere possesses the properties of a combined magnetosphere which contains different classes of field lines. The existence of the closed magnetic field lines in the near-Mars tail might be responsible for suppression of the ion escape fluxes.

  12. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  13. Balancing Biomechanical Constraints: Optimal Escape Speeds When There Is a Trade-off between Speed and Maneuverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, C J; Wilson, R S

    2015-12-01

    The ability for prey to escape a pursuing predator is dependent both on the prey's speed away from the threat and on their ability to rapidly change directions, or maneuverability. Given that the biomechanical trade-off between speed and maneuverability limits the simultaneous maximization of both performance traits, animals should not select their fastest possible speeds when running away from a pursuing predator but rather a speed that maximizes the probability of successful escape. We explored how variation in the relationship between speed and maneuverability-or the shape of the trade-off-affects the optimal choice of speed for escaping predators. We used tablet-based games that simulated interactions between predators and prey (human subjects acting as predators attempting to capture "prey" moving across a screen). By defining a specific relationship between speed and maneuverability, we could test the survival of each of the possible behavioral choices available to this phenotype, i.e., the best combination of speed and maneuverability for prey fitness, based on their ability to escape. We found that the shape of the trade-off function affected the prey's optimal speed for success in escaping, the prey's maximum performance in escaping, and the breadth of speeds over which the prey's performance was high. The optimal speed for escape varied only when the trade-off between speed and maneuverability was non-linear. Phenotypes possessing trade-off functions for which maneuverability was only compromised at high speeds exhibited lower optimal speeds. Phenotypes that exhibited greater increases in maneuverability for any decrease in speed were more likely to have broader ranges of performance, meaning that individuals could attain their maximum performance across a broader range of speeds. We also found that there was a differential response of the subject's learning to these different components of locomotion. With increased experience through repeated trials

  14. Acceleration of planes segmentation using normals from previous frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavel; Gritsenko, Igor; Seidakhmet, Askar; Abduraimov, Azizbek

    2017-12-01

    One of the major problem in integration process of robots is to make them able to function in a human environment. In terms of computer vision, the major feature of human made rooms is the presence of planes [1, 2, 20, 21, 23]. In this article, we will present an algorithm dedicated to increase speed of a plane segmentation. The algorithm uses information about location of a plane and its normal vector to speed up the segmentation process in the next frame. In conjunction with it, we will address such aspects of ICP SLAM as performance and map representation.

  15. GATM, the human ortholog of the mouse imprinted Gatm gene, escapes genomic imprinting in placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The GATM gene encodes L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, which catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine into guanidinoacetate, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of creatine. Since, deficiencies in creatine synthesis and transport lead to certain forms of mental retardation in human, the human GATM gene appears to be involved in brain development. Recently it has been demonstrated that the mouse Gatm is expressed during development and is imprinted with maternal expression in the placenta and yolk sac, but not in embryonic tissues. We investigated the imprinting status of the human GATM by analyzing its expression in four human placentas. GATM was biallelically expressed, thus suggesting that this gene escapes genomic imprinting in placentas, differently from what has been reported in mouse extra-embryonic tissues.

  16. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic exposure to particulate matter and traffic related air pollution is associated with reduced survival. However, the effects on non-malignant respiratory mortality are less studied and those reported are less consistent. Objectives: We...... have investigated the relationship of long-term exposure to air pollution and non-malignant respiratory mortality in 16 cohorts with individual level data within the multi center European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Methods: Data from 16 ongoing cohort studies from Europe were...... used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from...

  17. DNA damage repair machinery and HIV escape from innate immune sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle eBregnard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have been long known to perturb cell cycle regulators and key players of the DNA damage response to benefit their life cycles. In the case of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the viral auxiliary protein Vpr activates the structure-specific endonuclease SLX4 complex to promote escape from innate immune sensing and, as a side effect, induces replication stress in cycling cells and subsequent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition. This novel pathway subverted by HIV to prevent accumulation of viral reverse transcription by-products adds up to facilitating effects of major cellular exonucleases that degrade pathological DNA species. Within this review we discuss the impact of this finding on our understanding of the interplay between HIV replication and nucleic acid metabolism and its implications for cancer-related chronic inflammation.

  18. Chandra Observations of Pluto's Escaping Atmosphere in Support of the New Horizons Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Ralph, Jr.

    2013-09-01

    Current models of Pluto's extended N2+CH4 atmosphere are still very uncertain, causing numerous difficulties in optimizing the New Horizons fast flyby operations plan for the dwarf planet. Applying knowledge gained from studying cometary X-ray emission, Chandra ACIS-S photometric imaging of X-rays produced by CXE between the solar wind and Pluto's atmosphere will address both the run of atmospheric density and the interaction of the solar wind with the extended Plutonian atmosphere. Determining the atmosphere's extent and amount of free molecular escape will aid the atmospheric sounding measurements of the NH ALICE instrument, while determining the x-ray luminosity will help the NH PEPSI instrument characterize the solar wind particle environment.

  19. Introduced, Captive, Caged and Escaped Exotic and Native Bird Species in the Littoral Area of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan -Jradi, G.; Ramadan -Jradi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Some introduced exotic bird species may cause damages to the ecosystem they are introduced to; others may have no effect or can be beneficial to humans and ecosystems.Whatever the case is, the exotic bird species remain an issue in Lebanon, especially that they are not given the appropriate priority at the national level. With the recent intentional or accidental introduction of exotic species,the problem is increasing and therefore necessitating comprehensive evaluation of the status and origin of these species in Lebanon.Since many of the introduced species are escapes from cages, it was necessary to also evaluate both status and origin of all caged birds in order to see whether they are introduced or native to the country. (author)

  20. Fusion yield rate recovery by escaping hot-spot fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, C. J.; Guo, Zehua; Berk, H. L.

    2014-02-01

    Free-streaming loss by fast ions can deplete the tail population in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. Escaping fast ions in the neighboring fuel layer of a cryogenic target can produce a surplus of fast ions locally. In contrast to the Knudsen layer effect that reduces hot-spot fusion reactivity due to tail ion depletion, the inverse Knudsen layer effect increases fusion reactivity in the neighboring fuel layer. In the case of a burning ICF target in the presence of significant hydrodynamic mix which aggravates the Knudsen layer effect, the yield recovery largely compensates for the yield reduction. For mix-dominated sub-ignition targets, the yield reduction is the dominant process.