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Sample records for previously licensed smallpox

  1. Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smallpox KidsHealth / For Teens ... español La viruela What Is Smallpox? Smallpox is an infection caused by the variola virus. For centuries, epidemics ...

  2. Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been kept for research purposes. This has led to concerns that smallpox could someday be used ... effort to control the spread of the virus. Anyone who had contact with someone who developed an ...

  3. 75 FR 3244 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Monoclonal Antibodies Against Smallpox/Orthopoxviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Against Orthopoxviruses'', United States Patent Application 12/142,594, filed June 19, 2008 to BioFactura... assigned to the United States of America. DATES: Only written comments and/or application for a license... of widespread vaccination with vaccinia virus. While vaccination is generally safe and effective for...

  4. Mozart and smallpox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, Richard H. C.

    2007-01-01

    In 1767 at 11 years of age, composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart contracted smallpox, allegedly causing him temporary blindness. Although now eradicated, smallpox in those days had a high mortality rate, and the history of classical music would have been very different if Mozart had become permanently

  5. Mozart and smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C

    2007-01-01

    In 1767 at 11 years of age, composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart contracted smallpox, allegedly causing him temporary blindness. Although now eradicated, smallpox in those days had a high mortality rate, and the history of classical music would have been very different if Mozart had become permanently blind, or died, as a result of the disease.

  6. Small(pox) success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2011-02-01

    The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO) official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata) became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.

  7. Small(pox success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Emanuelle Birn

    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.

  8. Inoculating for smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jan

    2003-04-01

    In California, one hospital decided the time was right to inoculate staff volunteers with the smallpox vaccine. Weighing the same pros and cons--civic responsibility, health risk, cost and reluctance of staff--other hospitals opted out of inoculations, at least for now. What led these organizations to such divergent decisions?

  9. Surveillance guidelines for smallpox vaccine (vaccinia) adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Christine; Vellozzi, Claudia; Mootrey, Gina T; Chapman, Louisa E; McCauley, Mary; Roper, Martha H; Damon, Inger; Swerdlow, David L

    2006-02-03

    CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration rely on state and local health departments, health-care providers, and the public to report the occurrence of adverse events after vaccination to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. With such data, trends can be accurately monitored, unusual occurrences of adverse events can be detected, and the safety of vaccination intervention activities can be evaluated. On January 24, 2003, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) implemented a preparedness program in which smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine was administered to federal, state, and local volunteers who might be first responders during a biologic terrorism event. As part of the DHHS Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program, CDC in consultation with experts, established surveillance case definitions for adverse events after smallpox vaccination. Adverse reactions after smallpox vaccination identified during the 1960s surveillance activities were classified on the basis of clinical description and included eczema vaccinatum; fetal vaccinia; generalized vaccinia; accidental autoinoculation, nonocular; ocular vaccinia; progressive vaccinia; erythema multiforme major; postvaccinial encephalitis or encephalomyelitis; and pyogenic infection of the vaccination site. This report provides uniform criteria used for the surveillance case definition and classification for these previously recognized adverse reactions used during the DHHS Smallpox Preparedness and Response Program. Inadvertent inoculation was changed to more precisely describe this event as inadvertent autoinoculation and contact transmission, nonocular and ocular vaccinia. Pyogenic infection also was renamed superinfection of the vaccination site or regional lymph nodes. Finally, case definitions were developed for a new cardiac adverse reaction (myo/pericarditis) and for a cardiac adverse event (dilated cardiomyopathy) and are included in this report. The smallpox vaccine surveillance case

  10. Freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine prepared in cell culture "LC16-KAKETSUKEN": Post-marketing surveillance study on safety and efficacy compliant with Good Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yasumasa; Fujii, Tatsuya; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Shinmura, Yasuhiko; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, So

    2015-11-09

    In Japan, production of smallpox vaccine LC16m8 (named LC16-KAKETSUKEN) was restarted and was determined to be maintained as a national stockpile in March 2002. To conduct a post-marketing surveillance study of the vaccination of freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine prepared in cell culture LC16-KAKETSUKEN using attenuated vaccinia strain LC16m8. The study complied with Good Clinical Practice, focusing on a comparison between primary vaccinees and re-vaccinees. 268 personnel (261 males and 7 females) of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force were inoculated with LC16-KAKETSUKEN and thereafter adverse events and efficacy were evaluated. Among 268 vaccinee participants, the following vaccinees showed adverse events, none serious: 53 of 196 primary vaccinees (without previous smallpox vaccination), 4 of 71 re-vaccinees (with previous smallpox vaccination) and 1 vaccinee with unknown previous vaccination history. A breakdown of adverse events observed in this study (total 268 vaccinees) showed the following minor or mild adverse events: 52 (19.4%) swelling of axillary lymph node, 4 (1.5%) fever, 2 (0.7%) fatigue, 1 (0.4%) of rash, 14 (5.2%) erythema at the inoculation site, 1 (0.4%) swelling at the inoculation site and 1 (0.4%) autoinoculation. The incidence of adverse events for primary vaccinees (53/196; 27.0%) was significantly higher than for re-vaccinees (4/71; 5.6%). However, the proportion of vaccine take was significantly higher for primary vaccinees (185/196; 94.4%) than for re-vaccinees (58/71; 81.7%). Although the proportion of vaccine take of re-vaccinees was significantly lower than for primary vaccinees due to preexisting immunity by previous vaccination, no significant difference was found in neutralizing antibody titers between primary vaccinees and re-vaccinees at 1, 4 and 7 months after LC16-KAKETSUKEN vaccination. The present post-marketing surveillance study compliant with Good Clinical Practice demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the

  11. Logistics in smallpox: the legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickett, John; Carrasco, Peter

    2011-12-30

    Logistics, defined as "the time-related positioning of resources" was critical to the implementation of the smallpox eradication strategy of surveillance and containment. Logistical challenges in the smallpox programme included vaccine delivery, supplies, staffing, vehicle maintenance, and financing. Ensuring mobility was essential as health workers had to travel to outbreaks to contain them. Three examples illustrate a range of logistic challenges which required imagination and innovation. Standard price lists were developed to expedite vehicle maintenance and repair in Bihar, India. Innovative staffing ensured an adequate infrastructure for vehicle maintenance in Bangladesh. The use of disaster relief mechanisms in Somalia provided airlifts, vehicles and funding within 27 days of their initiation. In contrast the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) faces more complex logistical challenges. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does smallpox vaccination modify HIV disease progression among ART-naive people living with HIV in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, A; Trottier, H; Youbong, T J; Ngom-Guéye, N F; Ndiaye, O; Seck, A; Sarr, D; Diop, S; Seydi, M; Mboup, S; Nguyen, V K; Jaye, A

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between a history of smallpox vaccination and immune activation (IA) in a population of antiretroviral therapy-naïve people living with HIV (PLHIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Senegal from July 2015 to March 2017. Smallpox vaccination was ascertained by the presence of smallpox vaccine scar and IA by the plasma level of β-2-microglobulin (β2m). The association was analysed using logistic regression and linear regression models. The study population comprised 101 PLHIV born before 1980 with a median age of 47 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 42-55); 57·4% were women. Smallpox vaccine scar was present in 65·3% and the median β2m level was 2·59 mg/l (IQR = 2·06-3·86). After adjustment, the presence of smallpox vaccine scar was not associated with a β2m level ⩾2·59 mg/l (adjusted odds ratio 0·94; 95% confidence interval 0·32-2·77). This result was confirmed by the linear regression model. Our study does not find any association between the presence of smallpox vaccine scar and the β2m level and does not support any association between a previous smallpox vaccination and HIV disease progression. In this study, IA is not a significant determinant of the reported non-targeted effect of smallpox vaccination in PLHIV.

  13. Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Help Archive Site Map Información en español Employee Information Connect with NIAID Facebook Twitter Linkedin Google+ Youtube Flickr Instagram Pinterest Email Website Policies & Notices ...

  14. Smallpox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms most often occur about 12 to 14 days after you have been infected with the virus. They may include: Backache Delirium Diarrhea Excessive bleeding Fatigue High fever Malaise Raised pink rash, turns into sores that become crusty ...

  15. Experiences with smallpox eradication in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ciro A

    2011-12-30

    The smallpox eradication campaign operated in Ethiopia from 1970 until 1977. During this time Ethiopia had only 84 hospitals, 64 health centres and fewer than 400 physicians in a country of 25 million people. In 1970 smallpox vaccination was relatively unknown in the country, and the government actually contested the fact that smallpox was present in the country. Most of the resources of the Ministry of Health were used for malaria eradication. Initial pessimism from the Ministry of Health and others was eventually overcome as the smallpox eradication campaign continued to pick up steam but many remained unenthusiastic. Ethiopia was the first country in the world to start its smallpox eradication campaign from day one with the strategy of "Surveillance and Containment". Establishing a surveillance system in a country with a limited health infrastructure was a daunting challenge. At the end of the first year of the programme in 1971, 26,000 cases of smallpox had been registered through the growing surveillance system. Throughout revolution of 1974 the smallpox campaign was the only UN program to operate in the country; in fact it expanded with the hire of many locals leading to a "nationalized" program. This development ushered in the most successful final phase of the program. As the program progressed cases were diminishing in most regions, however transmission continued in the Ogaden desert. Over the course of the campaign approximately 14.3 million US dollars was spent. Working conditions were extremely challenging and a variety of chiefs, guerrillas, landowners and governments had to be appeased. The programme was successful due to the dedicated national and international staff on the ground and by having the full support of the WHO HQ in Geneva. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circulating smallpox knowledge: Guatemalan doctors, Maya Indians and designing Spain's smallpox vaccination expedition, 1780-1803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Martha

    2010-12-01

    Drawing on the rich but mostly overlooked history of Guatemala's anti-smallpox campaigns in the 1780s and 1790s, this paper interweaves an analysis of the contribution of colonial medical knowledges and practical experiences with the construction and implementation of imperial science. The history of the anti-smallpox campaigns is traced from the introduction of inoculation in Guatemala in 1780 to the eve of the Spanish Crown-sponsored Royal Maritime Vaccination Expedition in 1803. The paper first analyses the development of what Guatemalan medical physician José Flores called his 'local method' of inoculation, tailored to material and cultural conditions of highland Maya communities, and based on his more than twenty years of experience in anti-smallpox campaigns among multiethnic populations in Guatemala. Then the paper probes the accompanying transformations in discourses about health through the anti-smallpox campaigns as they became explicitly linked to new discourses of moral responsibility towards indigenous peoples. With the launch of the Spanish Vaccination Expedition in 1803, anti-smallpox efforts bridged the New World, Europe and Asia, and circulated on a global scale via the enactment of imperial Spanish health policy informed, in no small part, by New World and specifically colonial Guatemalan experiences with inoculation in multiethnic cities and highland Maya towns.

  17. An update on the development of drugs against smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching

    2008-08-01

    The smallpox virus can potentially be used as a biological weapon and pose a serious threat to human populations, thus rendering the development of measures against it particularly important. There is a lack of effective antiviral drugs for the treatment of smallpox and, as a result, a number of viral as well as host targets are being explored in preclinical and clinical studies to assess their efficacy as potential therapeutic agents. This review describes the latest approaches used to develop drugs against smallpox.

  18. Smallpox vaccination and all-cause infectious disease hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Villumsen, Marie; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence from observational studies and randomized trials in low-income countries that vaccinations have non-specific effects. Administration of live vaccines reduces overall child morbidity and mortality, presumably due to protection against non-targeted infections. In Denmark......, the live vaccine against smallpox was phased out in the 1970s due to the eradication of smallpox. We used the phasing-out period to investigate the effect of smallpox vaccination on the risk of hospitalization for infections....

  19. Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Akiko; Saito, Tomoya; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Kanatani, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-09

    LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models have shown that LC16m8 protects the host against viral challenge. The World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommended LC16m8, together with ACAM2000, as a stockpile vaccine in 2013. In addition, LC16m8 is expected to be a viable alternative to first-generation smallpox vaccines to prevent human monkeypox. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The recovery of smallpox virus from patients and their environment in a smallpox hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, A W; Meiklejohn, M; St Vincent, L; Rao, A R; Sundara Babu, B V; Kempe, C H

    1965-01-01

    Attempts had been made in 1961 to recover smallpox virus by air sampling in smallpox wards and close to the mouths of smallpox patients, but these had been largely unsuccessful, possibly owing to the air sampling method used. Further attempts were therefore made in 1963, with a fluid impinger for air sampling and with Petri dishes placed below the orifice of the impinger to collect large droplets or particulate matter that the impinger might miss.Air samples from near the patients' mouths yielded little virus, this being more readily recovered from the settling-plates. Patients' bedclothes sampled with the impinger yielded rather more virus, but again even more was obtained from the Petri dishes.The results suggest that contamination of the air in the vicinity of smallpox patients is due to relatively large particles of infected dust from the patients' bedclothes rather than from fine droplets or droplet nuclei coming from the upper respiratory tract. Secretions from the mouth and upper respiratory tract appear to be responsible for the early contamination of pillows and bedclothes.

  1. Molecular Smallpox Vaccine Delivered by Alphavirus Replicons Elicits Protective Immunity in Mice and Non-human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W.; Ferro, Anthony M.; Golden, Joseph W.; Silvera, Peter; Dudek, Jeanne; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Rivers, Bryan; Morris, John; Owens, Gary; Smith, Jonathan F.; Kamrud, Kurt I.

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring smallpox was eradicated as a result of successful vaccination campaigns during the 1960s and 70s. Because of its highly contagious nature and high mortality rate, smallpox has significant potential as a biological weapon. Unfortunately, the current vaccine for orthopoxviruses is contraindicated for large portions of the population. Thus, there is a need for new, safe, and effective orthopoxvirus vaccines. Alphavirus replicon vectors, derived from strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, are being used to develop alternatives to the current smallpox vaccine. Here, we demonstrated that virus-like replicon particles (VRP) expressing the vaccinia virus A33R, B5R, A27L, and L1R genes elicited protective immunity in mice comparable to vaccination with live-vaccinia virus. Furthermore, cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with a combination of the four poxvirus VRPs (4pox-VRP) developed antibody responses to each antigen. These antibody responses were able to neutralize and inhibit the spread of both vaccinia virus and monkeypox virus. Macaques vaccinated with 4pox-VRP, flu HA VRP (negative control), or live-vaccinia virus (positive control) were challenged intravenously with 5 × 106 PFU of monkeypox virus 1 month after the second VRP vaccination. Four of the six negative control animals succumbed to monkeypox and the remaining two animals demonstrated either severe or grave disease. Importantly, all 10 macaques vaccinated with the 4pox-VRP vaccine survived without developing severe disease. These findings revealed that a single-boost VRP smallpox vaccine shows promise as a safe alternative to the currently licensed live-vaccinia virus smallpox vaccine. PMID:19833247

  2. Disease, religion and medicine: smallpox in nineteenth-century Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumonni, Elisée

    2012-12-01

    The essay examines, with special reference to smallpox, the perception and interpretation of disease in pre-colonial Dahomey, present-day Republic of Benin. Because disease is seen primarily as a punishment from the gods and not just as a medical problem or a bodily disorder, traditional cult priests play a leading role in making diagnoses and prescribing remedies, mostly based on medicinal plants. The prominence of Sakpata, god of smallpox, coupled with the influence of its priests is evaluated within the context of Dahomey's political history and the spread of the disease. This pivotal position was to constitute a challenge to the French colonial campaign to vaccinate against smallpox.

  3. SWOT analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the Israeli Smallpox Revaccination Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Michael; Balicer, Ran D; Leventhal, Alex

    2003-01-01

    During September 2002, Israel began its current revaccination program against smallpox, targeting previously vaccinated "first responders" among medical and emergency workers. In order to identify the potential strengths and weaknesses of this program and the conditions under which critical decisions were reached, we conducted a SWOT analysis of the current Israeli revaccination program, designed to identify its intrinsic strengths and weaknesses, as well as opportunities for its success and threats against it. SWOT analysis--a practical tool for the study of public health policy decisions and the social and political contexts in which they are reached--revealed clear and substantial strengths and weaknesses of the current smallpox revaccination program, intrinsic to the vaccine itself. A number of threats were identified that may jeopardize the success of the current program, chief among them the appearance of severe complications of vaccination. Our finding of a lack of a generation of knowledge on smallpox vaccination highlights the need for improved physician education and dissipation of misconceptions that are prevalent in the public today.

  4. Pregnancy discovered after smallpox vaccination: Is vaccinia immune globulin appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Peter G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Grabenstein, John D

    2004-12-01

    Smallpox vaccination just before conception or during pregnancy can result, in rare instances, in fetal vaccinia from viral infection of the fetus. Approximately 50 cases have been documented, despite literally billions of people having been vaccinated. This live viral vaccine has a wider array of rare but serious medical side effects (eg, eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, encephalitis, myopericarditis) compared with other vaccines that are given currently to the public. In response to recent world events, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the United States Department of Defense established a preoutbreak smallpox vaccination program. Because no actual outbreak has yet occurred, some investigators have proposed prophylactic treatment with vaccinia immune globulin for pregnancies that are exposed to smallpox vaccine to prevent fetal vaccinia. We review the existing medical literature to access the risks of fetal vaccinia in these pregnancies and the controversy regarding the prophylactic use of vaccinia immune globulin.

  5. Characterization of Two Historic Smallpox Specimens from a Czech Museum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pajer, P.; Dresler, J.; Kabickova, H.; Píša, L.; Aganov, P.; Fucik, K.; Elleder, Daniel; Hron, Tomáš; Kuželka, V.; Velemínský, P.; Klimentová, J.; Fučíková, A.; Pejchal, J.; Hrabáková, Rita; Beneš, V.; Rausch, T.; Dundr, P.; Pilin, A.; Čabala, R.; Hubálek, Martin; Stříbrný, J.; Antwerpen, M.H.; Meyer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 200. ISSN 1999-4915 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : smallpox * variola virus * evolution * next generation suquencing * historic specimen * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology; Virology (UZFG-Y); Virology (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2016

  6. 42 CFR 102.21 - Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Injury Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for first symptom or manifestation of onset of injury after: (1) administration of smallpox (vaccinia... dermatitis. A person with EV may be quite ill with signs and symptoms that involve the whole body (systemic..., disorientation, delirium, drowsiness, seizures, language difficulties (aphasia), coma, muscular incoordination...

  7. Estimation of the duration of vaccine-induced residual protection against severe and fatal smallpox based on secondary vaccination failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, H; Eichner, M

    2006-10-01

    Understanding the loss of vaccine-induced immunity against smallpox is essential in determining the fraction of those who are still protected in the present population and in constructing effective countermeasures against bioterrorist attacks. Three small Australian outbreaks from the 1880s to early 1900s were investigated. Each documented individual age at infection. The case records for Launceston, 1903, further documented the age at vaccination and disease severity, enabling estimates of the duration of protection against severe and fatal smallpox. A significant association between vaccination and death was observed in the outbreak in Sydney, 1881 (odds ratio of death among vaccinated individuals = 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.8; p = 0.02), where the time since last vaccination was similar for all vaccinated cases. In Launceston, 1903, where the age at vaccination varied widely, the median duration of partial protection against severe and fatal smallpox was estimated to be 31.7 (95% CI: 13.2, 116.2) and 53.9 (95% CI: 25.6, 123.5) years after vaccination, respectively. Whereas those in their 20s are expected to have the highest frequency of vulnerability to smallpox death in the present population, infections among those in their 30s or 40s are expected to be much less fatal. Long lasting partial protection was suggested from the outbreak records, the estimated durations of which were roughly consistent with those reported previously. In the event of a bioterrorist attack, those involved in emergency tasks before emergency vaccination practices are re-established should ideally be previously vaccinated individuals in their 30s or 40s.

  8. An examination of John Fewster's role in the discovery of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, L; Williams, G

    2015-01-01

    Edward Jenner is recognised today as the father of vaccination but, as this paper explores, he was not the only Gloucestershire doctor to be linked to this discovery. John Fewster, a local surgeon and apothecary, is also said to have experimented with vaccination, many years before Jenner. This claim is made in a letter addressed to John Coakley Lettsom, written by John Player, a Quaker farmer. Player describes in detail Fewster's realisation that cowpox could be used to protect against smallpox. This letter is frequently cited but has not previously been subjected to critical analysis. We have identified several inconsistencies, including conflicting dates and a possible ulterior motive in that Player's son was to marry Fewster's daughter. We think it unlikely that Player, a devout Quaker, would have consciously fabricated evidence, but argue that the discrepancies in his account undermine the assumption that Fewster carried out vaccination experiments prior to Jenner. We also explore the assertion that Fewster presented a paper in 1765 on the subject of cowpox and its protective effect over smallpox. We conclude that, although there is no doubt that Fewster did pre-empt Jenner's discovery of vaccination, he did not realise the significance or importance of this momentous medical advance.

  9. Immunomodulator-based enhancement of anti smallpox immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmarie Martínez

    Full Text Available The current live vaccinia virus vaccine used in the prevention of smallpox is contraindicated for millions of immune-compromised individuals. Although vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine produces protective immunity, it might result in mild to serious health complications for some vaccinees. Thus, there is a critical need for the production of a safe virus-free vaccine against smallpox that is available to everyone. For that reason, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod (Toll-like receptors agonists, and the codon-usage optimization of the vaccinia virus A27L gene in the enhancement of the immune response, with intent of producing a safe, virus-free DNA vaccine coding for the A27 vaccinia virus protein.We analyzed the cellular-immune response by measuring the IFN-γ production of splenocytes by ELISPOT, the humoral-immune responses measuring total IgG and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios by ELISA, and the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles by ELISA, in mice immunized with our vaccine formulation.The proposed vaccine formulation enhanced the A27L vaccine-mediated production of IFN-γ on mouse spleens, and increased the humoral immunity with a TH1-biased response. Also, our vaccine induced a TH1 cytokine milieu, which is important against viral infections.These results support the efforts to find a new mechanism to enhance an immune response against smallpox, through the implementation of a safe, virus-free DNA vaccination platform.

  10. Should smallpox vaccine be made available to the general public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas; Silverman, Ross D

    2003-06-01

    In June 2002, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved draft recommendations concerning preparation for potential biological terror attacks that utilize the smallpox virus. ACIP recommends against both mandatory and voluntary vaccination of the general public. The present paper examines the moral and political considerations both for and against each of the general public vaccination options considered by the ACIP in the context of the state's authority over vaccination for the purposes of protecting public health. Although it is clear that compulsory mass vaccination is not justified at this time, the issues surrounding voluntary vaccination are more complex. Should smallpox vaccination prior to an outbreak be made available to the general public? The paper concludes that the vaccine should not be made available at this time. This conclusion, however, is based upon contingent features of current circumstances, which would change once an outbreak occurred. In the even of a terror-related outbreak of smallpox, the general public's access to voluntary vaccination would become justified, even in areas beyond where the outbreak has occurred.

  11. Fertility and early-life mortality: Evidence from smallpox vaccination in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter Sandholt

    2018-01-01

    The smallpox vaccination method was the paramount medical innovation of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. We exploit the introduction of the smallpox vaccine in Sweden to identify the causal effect of early-life mortality on fertility. Our analysis shows that parishes in counties with higher...

  12. 47 CFR 74.432 - Licensing requirements and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements and procedures. 74.432... Broadcast Stations § 74.432 Licensing requirements and procedures. (a) A license for a remote pickup station... previously-licensed transmitters within the system license. Applications submitted for system licensing prior...

  13. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie M Slike

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT of 250 to baseline (30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234. This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  14. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  15. [The late media emergency of smallpox vaccine, news coverage of Spanish press (1999-2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Pedro Javier; Tuells, José; Colmenar-Jarillo, Gema

    2015-06-01

    Discussions on the need for smallpox virus preservation in 1999 focused attention on an eradicated disease 20 years ago. Smallpox was replaced as a potential candidate to be used as a bioterrorist weapon because of the international alarm scenario produced after the 11/9 events in USA. The reactivation of a vaccine which remained forgotten was the direct consequence. The initial target groups were the security forces of America. Spain was also among the countries that were interested in acquiring the smallpox vaccine. The aim of this study is to analyze the considerable media coverage of smallpox obtained in our country. Systematic review of published news in the four largest national daily newspapers (ABC, El Mundo, El País and La Vanguardia) for the period 1999-2004 of the Dow Jones Factiva document database. "Smallpox" were used as a key word. From the obtained data, a qualitative and quantitative analysis was done. 416 reviews were analyzed; the newspaper El Mundo was the most interested in these news (158 citations, 37.98%). Most of the news were published in 2003 (152, 36.5%) The year with more news about smallpox (2003) coincides with the purchase of vaccines in Spain. The type of messages in the news was highly changeable over this six-year period. Those related to "politics and diplomacy", "epidemiological risk", "bioterrorism" and "vaccine" were predominant. The alarm raised around the smallpox vaccination was a media phenomenon due to political strategy issues rather than a real public health problem.

  16. Software Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Nygrýnová, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Software Licensing The thesis deals with different practical aspects of commercial software licensing from the perspective of the Czech legal system. The focus is put on software license agreement as the most important legal instrument granting rights of use for computer programs. The thesis opens with a summary of Czech legislation in force in this area in the context of European community law and international law. The legislation in effect is largely governed by the Copyright Act....

  17. Radiopharmaceutical licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent health service legislation, and especially the loss of crown immunity has once again focussed attention on the arrangements for licensing of radiopharmaceuticals. The aim of the article is to describe in general terms the UK licensing system and in particular to provide guidance to those responsible for the supply of radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. (author)

  18. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  19. The World Health Organization and global smallpox eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S

    2008-10-01

    This article examines the multifaceted structures and complex operations of the World Health Organization and its regional offices; it also reassesses the form and the workings of the global smallpox eradication programme with which these bodies were closely linked in the 1960s and 1970s. Using the case study of South Asia, it seeks to highlight the importance of writing nuanced histories of international health campaigns through an assessment of differences between official rhetoric and practice. The article argues that the detailed examination of the implementation of policy in a variety of localities, within and across national borders, allows us to recognise the importance of the agency of field managers and workers. This analytical approach also helps us acknowledge that communities were able to influence the shape and the timing of completion of public health campaigns in myriad ways. This, in turn, can provide useful pointers for the design and management of health programmes in the contemporary world.

  20. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  1. Flexible licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-01-01

    The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs) to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they ar...

  2. Risks of serious complications and death from smallpox vaccination: A systematic review of the United States experience, 1963–1968

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, Tomás J; Ulrich, Skylar; Fernyak, Susan; Rutherford, George W

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The United States (US) has re-instituted smallpox vaccinations to prepare for an intentional release of the smallpox virus into the civilian population. In an outbreak, people of all ages will be vaccinated. To prepare for the impact of large-scale ring and mass vaccinations, we conducted a systematic review of the complication and mortality risks of smallpox vaccination. We summarized these risks for post-vaccinial encephalitis, vaccinia necrosum (progressive vaccinia), e...

  3. Patent landscape of countermeasures against smallpox and estimation of grant attraction capability through patent landscape data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayburd, Anatoly L; Kedia, Govind; Evans, Haydn W; Kaslival, Pritesh C

    2010-11-01

    The study was concerned with countermeasures against a possible smallpox outbreak. In the process of assessment 18 landscaping sectors were defined and described, the advantages and drawbacks of the corresponding countermeasures being reviewed. The data of the previously published influenza landscape were revisited. The current economic climate of deficit cutting (austerity) also puts emphasis on the optimization of capital investment. We used the materials of the landscape to define and analyze metrics of capital placement optimization. Value score was obtained by fitting patent landscape internals to the sale price of individual patents. Success score was obtained as a product of a-priori parameters that measure likelihood of emergence of a marketable product in a technological sector. Both scores were combined in a qualitative metric. Our methodology defined weight as a product of the sector size by the success score. We hypothesized - based on the material of two landscapes- that a life cycle of a technology begins in IP space with a high patent quality low volume "bud" of low weight, reaches maximum weight and then weight falls again when the technology becomes outdated. The weight and the annual dynamic of weight can serve a measure of investment risk and return. In this report we modeled investment by issue of government grants or purchase of patents by government. In the smallpox landscape the number of patents purchased by government agencies was the highest in the sectors with the highest weight and the trend was confirmed by the count of NIH grants issued in support of the technological sectors. In the influenza landscape only grant issue count was statistically meaningful and the trend was also confirmed. To better fit the grant support levels, the weight expression was optimized by using training coefficients. We propose to use value scores for evaluation of individual patent publications/company portfolios and to use weights for assessment of

  4. Serological studies on an outbreak of smallpox in the State of Bahia - Brazil in 1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Azeredo Costa

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Four weeks after Containment Vaccination undertaken against the largest outbreak of smallpox occured in Brazil in 1969, that of the municipality of Utinga, Bahia, 99 samples of serum were collected from the local population. These samples were classified in four groups: a - Individuals with a history of variola prior to the beginning of present outbreak in town (15 sera; "Previous smallpox group"; b - Individuals with primary vaccination, with no record variola, at the time of containment measures (15 sera. "Primary vaccinated group"; c - Individuals with no previous record of variola revaccinated with "take" at the time of containment (15 sera0, "Revaccinated group"; d - Individuals who contracted variola in present outbreak (54 sera these were subdivided in four sub-groups, according to dates on which cases ocurred, "Variola in outbreak group". Serological study of samples was done by tests of hemagglutination inhibition, neutralization, and complement fixation. It was observed that HI titers were significantly lower in cases of previous smallpox than in other groups. Although they were slightly higher on revaccinated individuals than on primary vaccinated group and than in the group of variola in outbreak, this difference was not significant. Those same antibodies were present in all cases of variola in outbreak, and it was found that titers decreased in direct proportion to time elapsed from occurrence of cases. Neutralizing antibodies proved to be significantly higher on the revaccinated group than on variola in outbreak group, and higher on these than on primary vaccinated and on the previous smallpox groups. In cases from the variola in outbreak it was verified that neutralizing antibodies remained stable, although with great variation in titers. Tests of complement fixation could not be undertaken on all samples, because many of them proved to have anticomplementarity. However, it was found that complement fixing antibodies diminished

  5. Game theory of pre-emptive vaccination before bioterrorism or accidental release of smallpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Chai; Earn, David J D

    2015-06-06

    Smallpox was eradicated in the 1970s, but new outbreaks could be seeded by bioterrorism or accidental release. Substantial vaccine-induced morbidity and mortality make pre-emptive mass vaccination controversial, and if vaccination is voluntary, then there is a conflict between self- and group interests. This conflict can be framed as a tragedy of the commons, in which herd immunity plays the role of the commons, and free-riding (i.e. not vaccinating pre-emptively) is analogous to exploiting the commons. This game has been analysed previously for a particular post-outbreak vaccination scenario. We consider several post-outbreak vaccination scenarios and compare the expected increase in mortality that results from voluntary versus imposed vaccination. Below a threshold level of post-outbreak vaccination effort, expected mortality is independent of the level of response effort. A lag between an outbreak starting and a response being initiated increases the post-outbreak vaccination effort necessary to reduce mortality. For some post-outbreak vaccination scenarios, even modest response lags make it impractical to reduce mortality by increasing post-outbreak vaccination effort. In such situations, if decreasing the response lag is impossible, the only practical way to reduce mortality is to make the vaccine safer (greater post-outbreak vaccination effort leads only to fewer people vaccinating pre-emptively). © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  7. Data Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This talk is intended to help workshop participants decide how to apply a licence to their research data, and which licence would be most suitable. It covers why licensing data is important, the impact licences have on future research, and the potential pitfalls to avoid.

  8. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library

  9. A prospective study of the incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis and new onset cardiac symptoms following smallpox and influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata J M Engler

    Full Text Available Although myocarditis/pericarditis (MP has been identified as an adverse event following smallpox vaccine (SPX, the prospective incidence of this reaction and new onset cardiac symptoms, including possible subclinical injury, has not been prospectively defined.The study's primary objective was to determine the prospective incidence of new onset cardiac symptoms, clinical and possible subclinical MP in temporal association with immunization.New onset cardiac symptoms, clinical MP and cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT elevations following SPX (above individual baseline values were measured in a multi-center prospective, active surveillance cohort study of healthy subjects receiving either smallpox vaccine or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV.New onset chest pain, dyspnea, and/or palpitations occurred in 10.6% of SPX-vaccinees and 2.6% of TIV-vaccinees within 30 days of immunization (relative risk (RR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.3. Among the 1081 SPX-vaccinees with complete follow-up, 4 Caucasian males were diagnosed with probable myocarditis and 1 female with suspected pericarditis. This indicates a post-SPX incidence rate more than 200-times higher than the pre-SPX background population surveillance rate of myocarditis/pericarditis (RR 214, 95% CI 65-558. Additionally, 31 SPX-vaccinees without specific cardiac symptoms were found to have over 2-fold increases in cTnT (>99th percentile from baseline (pre-SPX during the window of risk for clinical myocarditis/pericarditis and meeting a proposed case definition for possible subclinical myocarditis. This rate is 60-times higher than the incidence rate of overt clinical cases. No clinical or possible subclinical myocarditis cases were identified in the TIV-vaccinated group.Passive surveillance significantly underestimates the true incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis after smallpox immunization. Evidence of subclinical transient cardiac muscle injury post-vaccinia immunization is a finding that requires further

  10. A prospective study of the incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis and new onset cardiac symptoms following smallpox and influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Renata J M; Nelson, Michael R; Collins, Limone C; Spooner, Christina; Hemann, Brian A; Gibbs, Barnett T; Atwood, J Edwin; Howard, Robin S; Chang, Audrey S; Cruser, Daniel L; Gates, Daniel G; Vernalis, Marina N; Lengkeek, Marguerite S; McClenathan, Bruce M; Jaffe, Allan S; Cooper, Leslie T; Black, Steve; Carlson, Christopher; Wilson, Christopher; Davis, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Although myocarditis/pericarditis (MP) has been identified as an adverse event following smallpox vaccine (SPX), the prospective incidence of this reaction and new onset cardiac symptoms, including possible subclinical injury, has not been prospectively defined. The study's primary objective was to determine the prospective incidence of new onset cardiac symptoms, clinical and possible subclinical MP in temporal association with immunization. New onset cardiac symptoms, clinical MP and cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) elevations following SPX (above individual baseline values) were measured in a multi-center prospective, active surveillance cohort study of healthy subjects receiving either smallpox vaccine or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). New onset chest pain, dyspnea, and/or palpitations occurred in 10.6% of SPX-vaccinees and 2.6% of TIV-vaccinees within 30 days of immunization (relative risk (RR) 4.0, 95% CI: 1.7-9.3). Among the 1081 SPX-vaccinees with complete follow-up, 4 Caucasian males were diagnosed with probable myocarditis and 1 female with suspected pericarditis. This indicates a post-SPX incidence rate more than 200-times higher than the pre-SPX background population surveillance rate of myocarditis/pericarditis (RR 214, 95% CI 65-558). Additionally, 31 SPX-vaccinees without specific cardiac symptoms were found to have over 2-fold increases in cTnT (>99th percentile) from baseline (pre-SPX) during the window of risk for clinical myocarditis/pericarditis and meeting a proposed case definition for possible subclinical myocarditis. This rate is 60-times higher than the incidence rate of overt clinical cases. No clinical or possible subclinical myocarditis cases were identified in the TIV-vaccinated group. Passive surveillance significantly underestimates the true incidence of myocarditis/pericarditis after smallpox immunization. Evidence of subclinical transient cardiac muscle injury post-vaccinia immunization is a finding that requires further study

  11. Why, which, how, who, when? A personal view of smallpox vaccination for the 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, P P

    2004-06-01

    The uncertainty about the extent of proliferation of smallpox virus holdings since the early 1990s, and particularly whether terrorist groups or so-called rogue states might now hold the virus, confronts potential target countries with a continuing dilemma. An increasingly large majority of their populations have never been vaccinated, and those who have been vaccinated may have become susceptible to smallpox again. Yet recent attempts by the United States and other governments to persuade large numbers of key personnel and others to accept vaccination have at least partially failed and a different long-term strategy is needed. This strategy should be based on surveillance of rash illnesses, improved public education, more refined contingency planning and a new approach to smallpox vaccination. The last should if possible be based on cell-grown, less reactogenic vaccines, even though it may be some years before these can become available. Meanwhile this article examines other expedients including the use of existing lymph vaccines.

  12. Borrowing, adapting, and learning the practices of smallpox: notes from colonial Goa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I will address colonial state policies toward smallpox in nineteenth-century Goa. The picture that emerges from the analysis of health services documents suggests a broad variety of coexisting practices. While the actions of some of the Portuguese head physicians epitomized the conflict between state-sponsored vaccination policies and local preferences for smallpox inoculation, others showed sympathy for and developed arguments in favor of inoculation as practiced by indigenous experts. Still others observed the existence among the population of hybrid practices combining elements of vaccination and inoculation. The diversity of Goan combinations along the violence/collaboration continuum should be interpreted within the context of current trends in the analysis of smallpox in British India--which replace the paradigm of vaccination: variolation :: state violence: native resistance with a more nuanced understanding of a variety of combinations throughout the subcontinent in the nineteenth century.

  13. The discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination in the United States, 1960-1976: an unlikely affirmation of biomedical hegemony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Miriam

    2011-02-01

    This article seeks to understand the discursive context of the cessation of routine smallpox vaccination in the United States in the early 1970s. The United States has a long tradition of opposition to compulsory smallpox vaccination, usually expressed in terms of concerns about personal liberties, the extent of state authority, and challenges to the hegemony of orthodox biomedicine. The practice of routine smallpox vaccination continued in the United States until its termination in the 1970s, following a 1971 recommendation against the practice issued by the United States Public Health Service. This history investigates the ways in which opposition to compulsory smallpox vaccination in the 1960s and 70s was articulated and understood by contemporaries through an analysis of the rhetoric used in leading medical journals and popular newspapers. It finds that this ultimately successful movement to end routine smallpox vaccination drew upon the language of biomedical authority rather than political protest.

  14. Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeden, Ellie; Fielding, Russel; Steinhouse, Kyle E; Rubin, Ilan N

    2015-07-01

    The smallpox antiviral tecovirimat has recently been purchased by the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile. Given significant uncertainty regarding both the contagiousness of smallpox in a contemporary outbreak and the efficiency of a mass vaccination campaign, vaccine prophylaxis alone may be unable to control a smallpox outbreak following a bioterror attack. Here, we present the results of a compartmental epidemiological model that identifies conditions under which tecovirimat is required to curtail the epidemic by exploring how the interaction between contagiousness and prophylaxis coverage of the affected population affects the ability of the public health response to control a large-scale smallpox outbreak. Each parameter value in the model is based on published empirical data. We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more than the number of initial infections). The first study to determine the relative importance of smallpox prophylaxis and treatment under a range of highly uncertain epidemiological parameters, this work provides public health decision-makers with an evidence-based guide for responding to a large-scale smallpox outbreak. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  16. Navigation and history of science: The smallpox Royal Expedition (Balmis and Salvany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 18th Century, smallpox killed about 400,000 citizens per year in Europe with a highest outbreak peak in 1796. This year, Edward Jenner discovered the smallpox vaccine and after being introduced in Spain, the King of Spain was asked to help American people against the disease. The transport of a fluid such delicate as the vaccine from a continent to another in extremely difficult sea voyages, which lasted several months, without electricity for keeping the cold chain, seemed impossible. Nevertheless Balmis and Salvany succeeded, by means of hundreds of orphans. Their bodies served as means of vaccine transport.

  17. Les hasards de la variole The hazards of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Rohrbasser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La nécessité d’un calcul ayant pour fin d’estimer un risque peut être révoquée en doute lorsqu’il s’agit de prendre une décision en situation d’incertitude, a fortiori lorsqu’il s’agit d’une question de vie ou de mort. Dans la controverse engagée sur l’opportunité d’inoculer la variole, la position de D’Alembert constitue un cas exemplaire de scepticisme portant sur l’application des mathématiques, et en l’occurrence du calcul des probabilités, à des décisions relatives à la vie humaine. D’Alembert, en effet, conteste aux mathématiques sociales le pouvoir de rendre compte de phénomènes humains en y cherchant des régularités et des formalisations sans dissocier les dimensions mathématiques et probabilistes des dimensions philosophiques et éthiques. En suivant le débat qui, au milieu du xviiie siècle, se déroule entre le mathématicien français et son homologue suisse Daniel Bernoulli, on assiste à l’un des épisodes de la lente gestation des notions de prise de risque, de décision et de rationalité.The necessity of a calculation aiming to evaluate a risk can be revoked in doubt when the question is to make a decision in a situation of uncertainty, all the more when the question is about life or death. In the controversy opened on the opportunity to inoculate the smallpox, D'Alembert’s position constitutes an exemplary case of scepticism concerning the application of the mathematics, and in this particular case the probability theory, to decisions relative to the human life. D’Alembert, indeed, disputes in the social mathematics the power to describe human phenomena by looking for regularities and for formalizations without separating the mathematical and probability dimensions of the philosophic and ethical ones. By following the debate which, in the middle of the 18th century, takes place between the French mathematician and his Swiss counterpart Daniel Bernoulli, we attend one of the

  18. Smallpox in the modern scientific and colonial contexts 1721–1840

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-09-23

    Sep 23, 2011 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 5. Smallpox in the modern scientific and colonial contexts 1721–1840. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 36 Issue 5 December 2011 pp 761-768. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Smallpox in the modern scientific and colonial contexts 1721–1840

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-09-23

    Sep 23, 2011 ... ... Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 5. Smallpox in the modern scientific and colonial contexts 1721–1840. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 36 Issue 5 December ... Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Sector 26, Chandigarh 160 019, India ...

  20. Smallpox Vaccination is Not Associated with Infertility in a Healthy Young Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Andre KA. Race, age, and cesarean delivery in a military population. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 88:530-3. 51. Magann EF, Winchester MI, Carter DP, Martin JN...4150-24. Jan 2003. 31. Fenner F, Henderson D, Arita I, Jezek Z, Ladnyi I. Smallpox and its eradication. History of International Health, Volume 6

  1. Graduated driver licensing. [previously called: The graduated driving licence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Young novice drivers have a very high risk of being involved in a road crash. In the United States (US), Canada, Australia and New Zealand this problem has been tackled by first letting learner drivers gain driving experience under safe conditions before allowing them to take the driving test. The

  2. License Agreements concerning trademarks

    OpenAIRE

    Dráb, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with license agreements in relation to trademarks, specially the trademark license agreement. The thesis contains in its theoretical interpretation of the concept and sources of the license agreement. There are also analyzed various types of license agreements, including modifying the license agreement in the new Civil Code, and related types of contracts as a franchising or merchandising. Another interpretation is more concerned with trademark and trademark license agreement...

  3. 2015 Business Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data displays all business license information for the year of 2015. This information details license classifications and status. This information will updated...

  4. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  5. Licensed Healthcare Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Licensed Healthcare Facilities point layer represents the locations of all healthcare facilities licensed by the State of California, Department of Health...

  6. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Operating Units Status Report --- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff on NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non- power reactors in the US

  7. Host range, growth property, and virulence of the smallpox vaccine: Vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qing; Yang Lin; Zhu Weijun; Liu Li; Wang Haibo; Yu Wenbo; Xiao Genfu; Tien Po; Zhang Linqi; Chen Zhiwei

    2005-01-01

    Vaccinia Tian Tan (VTT) was used as a vaccine against smallpox in China for millions of people before 1980, yet the biological characteristics of the virus remain unclear. We have characterized VTT with respect to its host cell range, growth properties in vitro, and virulence in vivo. We found that 11 of the 12 mammalian cell lines studied are permissive to VTT infection whereas one, CHO-K1, is non-permissive. Using electron microscopy and sequence analysis, we found that the restriction of VTT replication in CHO-K1 is at a step before viral maturation probably due to the loss of the V025 gene. Moreover, VTT is significantly less virulent than vaccinia WR but remains neurovirulent in mice and causes significant body weight loss after intranasal inoculation. Our data demonstrate the need for further attenuation of VTT to serve either as a safer smallpox vaccine or as a live vaccine vector for other pathogens

  8. Biological Warfare Improved Response Program (BW-IRP) CDC/DoD Smallpox Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    HIV) positive patients but also those who are taking steroid drugs, are transplant recipients, or have end-stage renal disease. Medical practitioners...are pregnant • Patients who are immunosuppressed, including those patients who are HIV-positive, are taking steroid drugs, are transplant recipients...recommended against assembling any of the suspected smallpox cases in a single area such as a school gym , warehouse, or even a hospital. The rationale

  9. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  10. Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease following Bacille Calmette-Guérin and Smallpox Vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie; Jess, Tine; Sørup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Childhood immunology has been suggested to play a role in development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) based on the studies of childhood vaccinations, infections, and treatment with antibiotics. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and smallpox vaccinations were gradually phased-out in Denmark...... for children born between 1965 and 1976, hence allowing the study of subsequent risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in a unique prospective design....

  11. Pre-event Smallpox Vaccination for Healthcare Workers Revisited – the Need for a Carefully Screened Multidisciplinary Cadre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, JD D.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract As healthcare institutions are a focus of smallpox transmission early in an epidemic, several mathematical models support pre-event smallpox vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs). The deciding factor for HCW voluntary vaccination is the risk of disease exposure versus the risk of vaccine adverse events. In a United States military population, with careful screening to exclude atopic dermatitis/eczema and immunosuppression, over 1 million vaccinia vaccinations were delivered with 1 fatality attributed to vaccination. Among 37,901 U.S. civilian volunteer healthcare workers vaccinated, 100 serious adverse events were reported including 10 ischemic cardiac episodes and six myocardial infarctions – 2 were fatal. This older population had a higher rate of adverse events due to age related coronary artery disease. T-cell mediated inflammatory processes, induced by live vaccinia vaccination, may have a role in the observed acute coronary artery events. With exclusion of individuals at risk for coronary artery disease, atopic dermatitis/eczema, and immunosuppression, HCWs can be smallpox vaccinated with minimal risk. A smallpox pre-vaccinated multidisciplinary cadre (physician, nurse, infection control practitioner, technician) will supply leadership to deal with fear and uncertainty while limiting spread and initial mortality of smallpox. Stochastic – from the Greek meaning “skillful in aiming” – is currently interpreted as arising from chance and involving probability. This issue’s article “Containing a large bioterrorist smallpox attack: a computer simulation approach” by Longini et al. is a discrete time, stochastic computer simulation model that offers additional planning guidance for a smallpox (variola virus) outbreak (1). Although interpretation of the model’s information may differ, Longini’s article concludes “Given that surveillance and containment measures are in place, preemptive vaccination of hospital workers would further

  12. [About smallpox and vaccination practices in Minas Gerais (Brazil) in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anny Jackeline Torres; Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-02-01

    This article discusses the impact of smallpox and vaccination practices used against the disease used in the province of Minas Gerais, in Brazil, during the Imperial Period (1822-1889). Despite the existence of services responsible for the organization and dissemination of the vaccine in the country since the early 19th century, some administrative and cultural factors, as identified in documents produced by the province's public health authorities at the time, had a negative impact upon the full implementation of both practice and organization of services aimed at the dissemination of smallpox vaccination. Based upon historiographic sources, it is argued that despite the trend towards centralization observed at different governmental spheres during the structuring of the Imperial State, in particular, in the provision of vaccination services, there was a prevailing disharmony between the different agencies responsible for the implementation and management of such services. A further contributor to the difficulties in the service implementation was the resistance of the population to submit to the vaccination, a phenomenon that can be best understood through examination of the social construction of perceptions about diseases and the vaccination method used against the smallpox.

  13. [The real philanthropic expedition of the smallpox vaccine: monarchy and modernity in 1803].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, José G

    2004-09-01

    Smallpox resulted in the death of 30 % of those who acquired it, so the preventive method discovered by Edward Jenner (London, 1798) spread very quickly. At the request in 1803 of Carlos IV, king of Spain, his government evaluated offers to carry smallpox vaccine to the colonies. The selected proposal, by doctor Francisco Xavier de Balmis, sought to take the lymph to America and Asia in a chain of arm to arm vaccination of foundlings. The Expedition set sail from Corunna on November 30, 1803, stopped in the Canary Isles, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela and after Caracas (1804) split in two groups. Balmis led some members of the Expedition to Cuba and Mexico. For the trip to the Philippines, in 1805, parents lent their children in exchange for economic compensation and the promise that the boys would be returned home. The Expedition returned to Mexico in August, 1807, but Balmis separately took vaccine to China and returned to Spain. Another contingent of the Expedition, under vice-director José Salvany, took vaccine to what we know as Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. His assistant Manuel Grajales reached the Chilean Patagonia in 1811. This article also comments on three principal themes - the institutional management of the scientific project, the conflicts that characterized its course, and the children's experience. The Vaccine Expedition was a brave and humanitarian endeavor, but also an extraordinary sanitary and administrative success. It was not until the twentieth century that a global eradication campaign eliminated smallpox in the world.

  14. DoD-Wide Medical Surveillance for Potential Long-Term Adverse Events Associated With Smallpox Vaccination, Hospitalizations, and Self-Reported Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Timothy S

    2005-01-01

    ...). The current revised protocol involves surveillance of electronic impatient and outpatient medical records, and evaluation of self-reported symptoms and conditions among smallpox-vaccinated and non...

  15. Licensing of nuclear and radioactive installations in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    1987-01-01

    In Peru, the Regulation for Ionizing Radiation Sources is applied, which establishes the norms and procedures to follow in the nuclear and radioactive installations of the country in order to assure their correct operation as concerns to the nuclear safety and radiological protection, allowing the emission of the respective licenses. As for the nuclear facilities, this authorization includes the Previous License, the Construction License and the Operation License (provisional and definitive) and for radioactive facilities and equipment generating ionizing radiations: the Construction License and the Operation License. The personnel also require a license that can be an operator license (as for nuclear reactors) or a supervisor license (for nuclear and radioactive facilities). In spite of the above mentioned regulation and its long enforcement period, less than 10% of radioactive facilities in this country are licensed, due to different problems which will be solved in the medium term. (Author)

  16. Technology licensing in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Li-Ying, Jason; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms of the n......We explore the landscape of technology licensing among Chinese entities in the period 2000–12, using a unique database on technological licensing from the State Intellectual Property Office of China. We find that: first, among Chinese licensee organizations, firms have dominated in terms...... of the number of licensed technologies; second, the geographical distribution of licensed technologies among the provinces has gradually reached a new quantitative balance; third, utility models are the most popular technologies to be licensed and the majority of technology licensing in China has been between...

  17. State Licenses & Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Starting a business? Confused about whether you need a business license or permit? Virtually every business needs some form of license or permit to operate legally....

  18. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  19. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  20. Licensing and Patent Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Aniruddha Bagchi; Arijit Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    We show the impact of technology licensing on optimal patent policy. Strong patent protection that eliminates imitation may not be the equilibrium outcome in the presence of licensing. Depending on the cost of innovation, licensing may either increase or reduce the strength of the patent protection.

  1. The age-dependent risk of postvaccination complications in vaccinees with smallpox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, E B

    1992-01-01

    The use of vaccinia virus in recombinant systems may result in the occurrence of complications observed following smallpox vaccination. The results are presented of a large survey carried out in the USSR between 1968 and 1979. High complication rates are reported, particularly in older primary vaccinees; for example, there were 312.5 cases of neurological complications per million in those aged greater than or equal to 5 years. The author concludes that this factor will limit the use of vaccinia virus in recombinant technology.

  2. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    THE OPERATING UNITS STATUS REPORT - LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US

  3. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  4. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  5. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1990-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  6. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  7. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes

  8. Nuclear reactor operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursey, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which was amended in 1974 by the Energy Reorganization Act, established the requirement that individuals who had the responsibility of operating the reactors in nuclear power plants must be licensed. Section 107 of the act states ''the Commission shall (1) prescribe uniform conditions for licensing individuals; (2) determine the qualifications of such individuals; and (3) issue licenses to such individuals in such form as the Commission may prescribe.'' The article discusses the types of licenses, the selection and training of individuals, and the administration of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing examinations

  9. Licensing the ACR-700 in Canada: progress on the pre-licensing review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, N.K.; Snell, V.G.; West, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The ACR-700 is an evolutionary adaptation of the CANDU reactor; based on the pressure-tube technology of current operating CANDU reactors, but using slightly enriched uranium fuel and light-water coolant. To ensure that the risk of changes due to licensing is small during the project phase, a pre-project licensing review is underway with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) in Canada. The CNSC is performing a pre-licensing review of the ACR-700 to assess the licensability of the design in Canada. In particular, the CNSC licensability assessment of the design during the pre-project phase has the purpose 'to determine if the ACR-700 design meets the Nuclear Safety and Control Act licensing requirements in Canada for a nuclear power plant design, and if there are fundamental barriers that would prevent licensing of the ACR-700'. It is anticipated that the Canadian licensing requirements for the ACR-700 will rely on the CNSC's extensive experience with the operating CANDU reactors and the previously completed, in-depth licensability assessment of the CANDU 9 design, and evolve to reflect the advanced safety characteristics of ACR- 700. This paper provides an overview of the ACR-700 pre-licensing programme in Canada. (author)

  10. Transcriptomic profiles of high and low antibody responders to smallpox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R B; Oberg, A L; Ovsyannikova, I G; Haralambieva, I H; Grill, D; Poland, G A

    2013-01-01

    Despite its eradication over 30 years ago, smallpox (as well as other orthopox viruses) remains a pathogen of interest both in terms of biodefense and for its use as a vector for vaccines and immunotherapies. Here we describe the application of mRNA-Seq transcriptome profiling to understanding immune responses in smallpox vaccine recipients. Contrary to other studies examining gene expression in virally infected cell lines, we utilized a mixed population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in order to capture the essential intercellular interactions that occur in vivo, and would otherwise be lost, using single cell lines or isolated primary cell subsets. In this mixed cell population we were able to detect expression of all annotated vaccinia genes. On the host side, a number of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines, complement factors and intracellular signaling molecules were downregulated upon viral infection, whereas genes encoding histone proteins and the interferon response were upregulated. We also identified a small number of genes that exhibited significantly different expression profiles in subjects with robust humoral immunity compared with those with weaker humoral responses. Our results provide evidence that differential gene regulation patterns may be at work in individuals with robust humoral immunity compared with those with weaker humoral immune responses.

  11. Vaccinations against smallpox and tuberculosis are associated with better long-term survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When vaccinations with vaccinia against smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against tuberculosis were phased out in some high-income countries around 1980, the impact on overall mortality was not examined. Recent studies from low-income countries have suggested that these vacc......BACKGROUND: When vaccinations with vaccinia against smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against tuberculosis were phased out in some high-income countries around 1980, the impact on overall mortality was not examined. Recent studies from low-income countries have suggested...... that these vaccines are associated with mortality reductions, not explained by specific disease protection. We examined whether vaccinia and BCG administered in childhood were associated with long-term mortality reductions in a high-income population. METHODS: In this case-cohort study, we followed 47 622...... schoolchildren from Copenhagen, Denmark, born 1965 to 1976, from their first health examination to 2010. This cohort experienced the phase-out of vaccinia and BCG vaccination programmes. RESULTS: A sub-cohort of 5 316 individuals (699 excluded) was followed for 164 450 person-years (0.2% were lost to follow...

  12. From smallpox eradication to contemporary global health initiatives: enhancing human capacity towards a global public health goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel; Foster, Stanley O

    2011-12-30

    The eradication of smallpox owes its success first and foremost to the thousands of lay health workers and community members who, throughout the campaign and across continents, took on the roles of advocates, educators, vaccinators, care providers and contributors to epidemic surveillance and containment. Bangladesh provides a good example where smallpox eradication and the capacity enhancement needed to achieve this goal resulted in a two-way mutually beneficial process. Smallpox-dedicated staff provided community members with information guidance, support and tools. In turn, communities not only created the enabling environment for smallpox program staff to perform their work but acquired the capacity to perform essential eradication tasks. Contemporary global health programmes can learn much from these core lessons including: the pivotal importance of supporting community aspirations, capacity and resilience; the critical need to enhance commitment, capacity and accountability across the workforce; and the high value of attentive human resources management and support. We owe to subsequent global disease control, elimination and eradication ventures recognition of the need for social and behavioural science to inform public health strategies; the essential roles that civil society organizations and public-private partnerships can play in public health discourse and action; the overall necessity of investing in broad-based health system strengthening; and the utility of applying human rights principles, norms and standards to public health policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  14. Trends in nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The development of nuclear safety and licensing is briefly reviewed in four stages namely: The Formative Period (1946-1959), The Expansive Period (1960-1969), The Mature Period (1970-1979) and the Apprehensive Period (1980-1989). Particular safety issues in the respective periods are highlighted to indicate the changing emphasis of nuclear licensing over the past thirty years or so. Against this background, nuclear licensing. (author)

  15. 78 FR 17943 - Draft Program-Specific Guidance About Fixed Gauge Licenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Draft Program-Specific Guidance About Fixed Gauge Licenses AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revising its licensing guidance for fixed gauge licenses. The NRC is requesting public comment on draft... Guidance About Fixed Gauge Licenses.'' The document has been updated from the previous revision to include...

  16. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes

  17. Libraries and licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Žumer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 90s, the abundance of various electronic publications exposed libraries to the problems of licensing electronic content. Various licensing principles have been prepared recently to help libraries in the process; it can be said that in general, the knowledge of licensing issues has improved in libraries of all types. Libraries form consortia in order to gain stronger negotiating positions and obtain better conditions.In the article, new licensing principles are presented in more detail, as well as some domestic and foreign experiences with consortia forming.

  18. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  19. License renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fable, D.; Prah, M.; Vrankic, K.; Lebegner, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about license renewal process, as defined by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Atomic Energy Act and NRC regulations limit commercial power reactor licenses to an initial 40 years but also permit such licenses to be renewed. This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected time period; however, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. The NRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements codified in 10 CFR Part 51 and 10 CFR Part 54, that are needed to assure safe plant operation for extended plant life. The timely renewal of licenses for an additional 20 years, where appropriate to renew them, may be important to ensuring an adequate energy supply during the first half of the 21st Century. License renewal rests on the determination that currently operating plants continue to maintain adequate levels of safety, and over the plant's life, this level has been enhanced through maintenance of the licensing bases, with appropriate adjustments to address new information from industry operating experience. Additionally, NRC activities have provided ongoing assurance that the licensing bases will continue to provide an acceptable level of safety. This paper provides additional discussion of license renewal costs, as one of key elements in evaluation of license renewal justifiability. Including structure of costs, approximately value and two different approaches, conservative and typical. Current status and position of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, related to license renewal process, will be briefly presented in this paper. NPP Krsko is designed based on NRC Regulations, so requirements from 10 CFR 51, and 10 CFR 54, are applicable to NPP Krsko, as well. Finally, this paper will give an overview of current status of

  20. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  1. The SLOWPOKE licensing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System (SES-10) is a 10 MW heating reactor that has been developed in Canada. It will be capable of running without a licensed operator in continuous attendance, and will be sited in urban areas. It has forgiving safety characteristics, including transient time-scales of the order of hours. A process called 'up-front' licensing has been evolved in Canada to identify, and resolve, regulatory concerns early in the process. Because of the potential market in Hungary for nuclear district heating, a licensing plan has been developed that incorporates Canadian licensing experience, identifies specific Hungarian requirements, and reduces the risk of licensing delays by seeking agreement of all parties at an early stage in the program. (orig.)

  2. The SLOWPOKE licensing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Takats, F.; Szivos, K.

    1989-08-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System (SES-10) is a 10 MW heating reactor that has been developed in Canada. It will be capable of running without a licensed operator in continuous attendance, and will be sited in urban areas. It has forgiving safety characteristics, including transient time-scales of the order of hours. A process called 'up-front' licensing has been evolved in Canada to identify, and resolve, regulatory concerns early in the process. Because of the potential market in Hungary for nuclear district heating, a licensing plan has been developed that incorporates Canadian licensing experience, identifies specific Hungarian requirements, and reduces the risk of licensing delays by seeking agreement of all parties at an early stage in the program

  3. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining and licensing of applicants for NRC operator licenses pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). They are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to understand the examination process better and to provide for equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants by NRC examiners. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator examination licensing policy changes. As appropriate, these standards will be revised periodically to accommodate comments and reflect new information or experience

  4. Genomic sequence and virulence of clonal isolates of vaccinia virus Tiantan, the Chinese smallpox vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qicheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1979, the potential bioterrorism threat from variola virus and the ongoing use of vaccinia virus (VACV as a vector for vaccine development argue for continued research on VACV. In China, the VACV Tiantan strain (TT was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. Its progeny strain is currently being used to develop a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine. Here we sequenced the full genomes of five TT clones isolated by plaque purification from the TT (752-1 viral stock. Phylogenetic analysis with other commonly used VACV strains showed that TT (752-1 and its clones clustered and exhibited higher sequence diversity than that found in Dryvax clones. The ∼190 kbp genomes of TT appeared to encode 273 open reading frames (ORFs. ORFs located in the middle of the genome were more conserved than those located at the two termini, where many virulence and immunomodulation associated genes reside. Several patterns of nucleotide changes including point mutations, insertions and deletions were identified. The polymorphisms in seven virulence-associated proteins and six immunomodulation-related proteins were analyzed. We also investigated the neuro- and skin- virulence of TT clones in mice and rabbits, respectively. The TT clones exhibited significantly less virulence than the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH strain, as evidenced by less extensive weight loss and morbidity in mice as well as produced smaller skin lesions and lower incidence of putrescence in rabbits. The complete genome sequences, ORF annotations, and phenotypic diversity yielded from this study aid our understanding of the Chinese historic TT strain and are useful for HIV vaccine projects employing TT as a vector.

  5. DoD-Wide Medical Surveillance for Potential Long-Term Adverse Events Associated With Smallpox Vaccination, Hospitalizations, and Self-Reported Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wells, Timothy S

    2005-01-01

    ...-wide smallpox vaccination program. It is designed to complement the collaborative monitoring effort for short-term adverse events associated with the administration of vaccines known as the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS...

  6. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units are provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the ERRATA page. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  7. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  8. Licensing by modification Licensing by modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Dayal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general interest.Licensing by modification Abstract: This paper looks at the phenomena of licensing by modification, whereby an unacceptable noun phrase is redeemed by the presence of a modifier or an unavailable reading for a noun phrase is made available with the addition of a modifier. It argues that an optimal account of such phenomena should derive these effects from the interaction of the meanings of individual expressions in the sentence rather than by positing a formal licensing relation between the modifier and the noun it modifies. The general approach is explicated by considering the distribution of bare plurals in Italian and the availability of generic readings for plural definites in English. The overall goal is a modest one. It seeks to draw attention to properties of modification that go beyond set intersection by focusing on phenomena that have not so far been closely scrutinized in the literature. It uses the particular results to draw some conclusions about questions of general

  9. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderholm, K., E-mail: kristina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    The SMR licensing process has been under discussion in the USA and this trend is to be seen also in Europe. The current licensing practices in European countries vary from one another and some harmonization will be needed in the future for SMR licensing. This study goes through SMR specific features affecting the licensing process. Licensing processes in selected countries are studied in high level, trying to indicate the features that could be suitable for SMR licensing. (author)

  10. Product Licenses Database Application

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkovikj, Petar

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to organize and centralize the data about software tools available to CERN employees, as well as provide a system that would simplify the license management process by providing information about the available licenses and their expiry dates. The project development process is consisted of two steps: modeling the products (software tools), product licenses, legal agreements and other data related to these entities in a relational database and developing the front-end user interface so that the user can interact with the database. The result is an ASP.NET MVC web application with interactive views for displaying and managing the data in the underlying database.

  11. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  12. License to build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntelaar, Mark; Vos, Renate de; Roobol, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A new license under the nuclear power act is applied for at the Dutch Government for the building of a High Active Repackaging Unit (HAVA-VU in Dutch) at NRG in Petten, The Netherlands. This new building is necessary to comply with our nuclear license to dispose of high active nuclear waste at Petten to the intermediate storage facility (COVRA). In the first part of this paper attention is given to the formal procedure followed by the Government, what type of documents are to be submitted, what time frames are followed, how citizen participation is organized, and as final result a new license. In the second part more detailed information is given about the present license renewal needed for the High Active Repackaging Unit

  13. Credentialing, Licensing, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Credentialing, Licensing, and Education Share: On This Page Introduction Key Points Keep ... their patients, while other states specifically prohibit it. Education and Training Professional organizations offer certification examinations to ...

  14. Nuclear facilities licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.J.M. de.

    1978-01-01

    The need for the adoption of a legal and normative system, defining objectives, pescriptions and the process of nuclear licensing and building of nuclear power plants in Brazil is enphasized. General rules for the development of this system are presented. The Brazilian rules on the matter are discussed. A general view of the German legal system for nuclear power plant licensing and the IAEA recommendations on the subject are finally presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  15. Patent Licensing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Doh-Shin Jeon; Yassine Lefouili

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the patent licensing networks formed by competing firms. Assuming that licensing agreements can involve the payment of fixed fees only and that firms compete à la Cournot, we show that the complete network is always bilaterally efficient and that the monopoly network is bilaterally efficient if the patents are complementary enough. In the case of independent patents, we fully characterize the bilaterally efficient networks and find that when the cost reduction resultin...

  16. Problems of Trademark Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Želvys, Arūnas

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of dissertation is focused on problematic aspects of trademark license agreement that exist throughout the conclusion, validity and termination of a contract. Problematic aspects are understood as legal interpretation cases where common and special norms have to be interpreted taking into account specifics of a contract object (right to a trademark). Problematic aspects are conditioned by two reasons: non comprehensive regulation of trademark license and sui generis nature of a contr...

  17. Operator licensing examiner standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Operator Licensing Examiner Standards provide policy and guidance to NRC examiners and establish the procedures and practices for examining licensees and applicants for reactor operator and senior reactor operator licenses at power reactor facilities pursuant to Part 55 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 55). The Examiner Standards are intended to assist NRC examiners and facility licensees to better understand the initial and requalification examination processes and to ensure the equitable and consistent administration of examinations to all applicants. These standards are not a substitute for the operator licensing regulations and are subject to revision or other internal operator licensing policy changes. Revision 7 was published in January 1993 and became effective in August 1993. Supplement 1 is being issued primarily to implement administrative changes to the requalification examination program resulting from the amendment to 10 CFR 55 that eliminated the requirement for every licensed operator to pass an NRC-conducted requalification examination as a condition for license renewal. The supplement does not substantially alter either the initial or requalification examination processes and will become effective 30 days after its publication is noticed in the Federal Register. The corporate notification letters issued after the effective date will provide facility licensees with at least 90 days notice that the examinations will be administered in accordance with the revised procedures

  18. E3L and F1L Gene Functions Modulate the Protective Capacity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Immunization in Murine Model of Human Smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asisa Volz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here, we tested MVA vaccine preparations on the basis of the deletion mutant viruses MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L for efficacy against ectromelia virus (ECTV challenge infections in mice. In non-permissive human tissue culture the MVA deletion mutant viruses produced reduced levels of the VACV envelope antigen B5. Upon mousepox challenge at three weeks after vaccination, MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L exhibited reduced protective capacity in comparison to wildtype MVA. Surprisingly, however, all vaccines proved equally protective against a lethal ECTV infection at two days after vaccination. Accordingly, the deletion mutant MVA vaccines induced high levels of virus-specific CD8+ T cells previously shown to be essential for rapidly protective MVA vaccination. These results suggest that inactivation of the anti-apoptotic genes F1L or E3L modulates the protective capacity of MVA vaccination most likely through the induction of distinct orthopoxvirus specific immunity in the absence of these viral regulatory proteins.

  19. Drivers license display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  20. Nuclear licensing in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prah, M.; Spiler, J.; Vojnovic, D.; Pristavec, M.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents the approach to nuclear licensing in Slovenia. The paper describes, the initialization, internal authorization and review process in the Krsko NPP. The overall process includes preparation, internal independent evaluation, the Krsko Operating Committee and the Krsko Safety Committee review and internal approval. In addition, the continuation of the licensing process is discussed which includes independent evaluation by an authorized institution and a regulatory body approval process. This regulatory body approval process includes official hearing of the licensee, communication with the licensee, and final issuance of a license amendment. The internal evaluation, which follows the methodology of US NRC (defined in 10 CFR 50.59 and NUMARC 125) is described. This concept is partially implemented in domestic legislation.(author)

  1. License to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Boccardelli, Paolo; Reichstein, Toke

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the distinction between thin and thick contracts to the investigation of licensing-in as a mechanism for technological learning. Thick contracts include a clause specifying that the licensors are obligated to assist the licensees in assimilating and integrating the technol......This article introduces the distinction between thin and thick contracts to the investigation of licensing-in as a mechanism for technological learning. Thick contracts include a clause specifying that the licensors are obligated to assist the licensees in assimilating and integrating....... Licensees that are more familiar with the licensed technology are in less need of assistance from the licensors to assimilate and integrate the knowledge. However, this substitution effect is neutralized once the hurdle of invention has been overcome, meaning that the licensees have succeeded to ignite...

  2. Software licenses: Stay honest!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Do you recall our article about copyright violation in the last issue of the CERN Bulletin, “Music, videos and the risk for CERN”? Now let’s be more precise. “Violating copyright” not only means the illegal download of music and videos, it also applies to software packages and applications.   Users must respect proprietary rights in compliance with the CERN Computing Rules (OC5). Not having legitimately obtained a program or the required licenses to run that software is not a minor offense. It violates CERN rules and puts the Organization at risk! Vendors deserve credit and compensation. Therefore, make sure that you have the right to use their software. In other words, you have bought the software via legitimate channels and use a valid and honestly obtained license. This also applies to “Shareware” and software under open licenses, which might also come with a cost. Usually, only “Freeware” is complete...

  3. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  4. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  5. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  6. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome,...

  7. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  8. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    -legislative) initiatives, which support the facilitation of multi-territorial licensing and cross-border access to content. It investigates the regulation of two online markets, which have recently been subject to scrutiny by the EU institutions: the audiovisual and the music sector, both addressed by ex ante sector...

  9. Biography and License

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitz, David

    2001-01-01

    What are the moral limits of artistic license? A strong case can be made for the view that there are none; that in viewing works of art people should resist ethical criticism, and, "a fortiori," resist moral strictures on the artist's inventiveness. This view has recently been defended by Richard Posner, who argues that people should not expect…

  10. Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States--response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R

    2006-11-10

    Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military sources and as a function of passive versus active surveillance. A report by Sejvar et al was examined closely for accuracy with respect to the reporting of neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States. Rates for headaches were reported by several scholarly sources, in addition to Sejvar et al, permitting a comparison of reporting rates as a function of source and type of surveillance. Several major errors or omissions were identified in Sejvar et al. The count of civilian subjects vaccinated and the totals of both civilians and military personnel vaccinated were reported incorrectly by Sejvar et al. Counts of headaches reported in VAERS were lower (n = 95) for Sejvar et al than for Casey et al (n = 111) even though the former allegedly used 665,000 subjects while the latter used fewer than 40,000 subjects, with both using approximately the same civilian sources. Consequently, rates of nearly 20 neurologic adverse events reported by Sejvar et al were also incorrectly calculated. Underreporting of headaches after smallpox vaccination appears to increase for military samples and for passive adverse event reporting systems. Until revised or corrected, the rates of neurologic adverse events after smallpox vaccinated reported by Sejvar et al must be deemed invalid. The concept of determining overall rates of adverse events by combining small civilian samples with large military samples appears to be invalid. Reports of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination appear to be have occurred much less

  11. Neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States – response and comment on reporting of headaches as adverse events after smallpox vaccination among military and civilian personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumm Walter R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate reporting of adverse events occurring after vaccination is an important component of determining risk-benefit ratios for vaccinations. Controversy has developed over alleged underreporting of adverse events within U.S. military samples. This report examines the accuracy of adverse event rates recently published for headaches, and examines the issue of underreporting of headaches as a function of civilian or military sources and as a function of passive versus active surveillance. Methods A report by Sejvar et al was examined closely for accuracy with respect to the reporting of neurologic adverse events associated with smallpox vaccination in the United States. Rates for headaches were reported by several scholarly sources, in addition to Sejvar et al, permitting a comparison of reporting rates as a function of source and type of surveillance. Results Several major errors or omissions were identified in Sejvar et al. The count of civilian subjects vaccinated and the totals of both civilians and military personnel vaccinated were reported incorrectly by Sejvar et al. Counts of headaches reported in VAERS were lower (n = 95 for Sejvar et al than for Casey et al (n = 111 even though the former allegedly used 665,000 subjects while the latter used fewer than 40,000 subjects, with both using approximately the same civilian sources. Consequently, rates of nearly 20 neurologic adverse events reported by Sejvar et al were also incorrectly calculated. Underreporting of headaches after smallpox vaccination appears to increase for military samples and for passive adverse event reporting systems. Conclusion Until revised or corrected, the rates of neurologic adverse events after smallpox vaccinated reported by Sejvar et al must be deemed invalid. The concept of determining overall rates of adverse events by combining small civilian samples with large military samples appears to be invalid. Reports of headaches as adverse events

  12. 31 CFR 596.309 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.309 Specific license. The term specific license means any license or...

  13. [Seeds against smallpox: Joaquim Vás and the scientific translation of bananeira brava seeds in Goa, India (1894-1930)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    In 1914, in the former Portuguese colony of Goa, India, the physician António Joaquim Vás announced the discovery of a wonderful treatment for smallpox, entailing clinical application of seeds from the bananeira brava (Heliconia biabi Sw.m.), a plant remedy allegedly derived from Indian medical practices. The present article explores the circumstances surrounding the successes and failures of this discovery. The concept of scientific translation is used to interpret the transformation of bananeira brava seeds into an early twentieth-century remedy for smallpox. This transfer from indigenous use to scientific therapeutic constitutes the creation of a quasi-medicine, that is, a case of 'medium translation'. Although these seeds occupy a problematic place within the program of scientific translation, they enjoyed active circulation within science and remained a part of medical practices for combating smallpox.

  14. Safeguarding slaves: smallpox, vaccination, and governmental health policies among the enslaved population in the Danish West Indies, 1803-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2009-01-01

    During the first half of the nineteenth century, a unique system of vaccination against smallpox was developed in the island of St. Croix in the Danish West Indies. The primary intention was to protect the population of enslaved workers, which was of fundamental importance to the economy of the colony. However, because the Danish abolition of the slave trade in 1803 had stopped the imports of new enslaved workers from Africa, the population was also decreasing. The vaccination system's success was due to a high degree of governmental control of the enslaved population that was virtually unseen anywhere else in the Caribbean.

  15. US Military Service Members Vaccinated Against Smallpox in 2003 and 2004 Experience a Slightly Higher Risk of Hospitalization Postvaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    with smallpox vaccination status, including several mental disor- ders, disorders of lipoid metabolism , and other and unspecified anemias . These...conditions 18 0.0 7 0.0 1.92 0.79, 4.69 280 Iron deficiency anemias 16 0.0 7 0.0 1.52 0.60, 3.84 288 Diseases of white blood cells 11 0.0 6 0.0 1.43...the 14 broad ICD-9-CM diagnostic categories: endocrine and metabolic disorders , mental disorders , diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the

  16. Licensing in an International Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2008-09-01

    We study the effects of entry of a foreign firm on domestic welfare in the presence of licensing, when the entrant is technologically superior to the incumbent. We show that foreign entry increases domestic welfare for sufficiently large technological differences between the firms under both fixed-fee licensing and royalty licensing.

  17. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  18. How to Reform Business Licenses

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Reforming business licenses is part of a suite of products delivered by the World Bank group's investment climate advisory services, under the business operations practice. The approach to reforms highlighted in this handbook fits into the broader policy framework for business licensing reform and simplification. The framework paper provides the context for business licensing practices; es...

  19. License to Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    on a research tradition that views communication as constitutive of organization to emphasize the significance of communicative mechanisms that stimulate organizational openness in the application of standards. With the notion of “license to critique,” we present a managerial philosophy designed to involve...... managers and employees, mobilize and develop their knowledge about sustainability and bring it forward for the benefit of both the organization and the environment....

  20. Problems of licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Heřman, Karel

    2009-01-01

    This work concerns with possibilities of licensing. There are mentioned advantages and disadvantages of particular models. Further on, the prediction of future situation in the IT market, new techniques, trends and reasons of these changes are introduced. Work addresses to both types of software -- proprietary software and Open Source software. Next part of work deals with software piracy and problems, which are connected with it. In second part of the work are theoretical knowledge converted...

  1. Reflexivity: Licensing or enforcing

    OpenAIRE

    Schadler, D.

    2014-01-01

    During my research I looked at 117 languages and their anaphoric systems. The main goal of this study was to analyse reflexivization, its reasons and effects, by covering cross-linguistic data and by taking into account the variation we find on a macro- and micro-level. To be more precise, throughout this dissertation I investigated: whether we find indeed some special marking for reflexivity, i.e. licensing of reflexivity, across languages. whether there are complex reflexives that do not ha...

  2. 31 CFR 596.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 596.500 Section... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 596.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken...

  3. 31 CFR 597.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 597.500 Section... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 597.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken...

  4. 31 CFR 540.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 540.500 Section... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 540.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions...

  5. 31 CFR 585.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 585.500 Section... Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken...

  6. Part-construction licenses and preliminary licenses issued within the licensing procedure under atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    The author elaborates a delimitation in terms of law of various licenses available under atomic energy law within the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, such as the part-construction license, preliminary license and preliminary approval of the overall concept, preliminary conceptual approval and conceptual license, preliminary conceptual approval subject to subsequent examinations and decisions, preliminary site ruling and site approval, advance permits and subsequent partial licenses. Such a delimitation becomes particularly significant in case of the plant conceptual design or the site being the subject under review, and the definitions stated also have considerable impact on administrative court proceedings. In this review the author tries to bear in mind the various interests of all parties involved in the licensing procedure. (HSCH) [de

  7. Postulated licensing schedule for an independent spent-fuel-storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.D.

    1982-11-01

    A review of licensing requirements, processes, and anticipated actions for independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) was conducted in order to develop an estimated schedule and sequence of events for licensing a new ISFSI. This estimate will be useful to potential ISFSI owners in planning for the licensing of their facilities. It is concluded that, although many uncertainties exist with respect to such things as legal appeals, about 29 months are estimated to elapse between license application and license issuance for an ISFSI. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with a previous time estimate for licensing an ISFSI, and, taking into account the special circumstances involved, with the actual licensing schedule for the GE-Morris ISFSI. However, individual portions of the licensing schedule from each case studied sometimes vary significantly

  8. Validation, acceptance and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wene, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    The licensing process requires communication of complex scientific and technical information. In this paper transfer of such information is discussed using concepts and ideas from systems analysis, cybernetics and argumentation theory. A simple model for the decision process is developed. The analysis stresses the need for careful design of the communication channels between the three systems involved: the political system, the judicial-regulatory system and the scientific-technical community. The Dialogue - Scenario project initiated by the Swedish nuclear Inspectorate is briefly presented

  9. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. Since all of the data concerning operation of the units is provided by the utility operators less than two weeks after the end of the month, necessary corrections to published information are shown on the errata page

  10. Technology Licensing and Firm Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon

    that facilitate or constrain firms' ability to deal with licensed-in technologies have received little attention. This paper starts investigating in a longitudinal setting the effect of technology licensing on the number of patents produced by the licensee within the three years subsequent to the technology...... acquisition. The findings indicate that technology licensing is positively related to the number of inventions produced by the licensee in the years subsequent to the licensing deal. Subsequently, I investigate the moderating effect that organizational slack and myopia have on this main relationship....... The findings also suggest that high levels of Organizational Slack (available financial resources) strengthen the positive effect of licensing on innovation. However, higher levels of Organizational Myopia (the extent to which a firm draws on its own knowledge) can decrease the main effect of licensing....

  11. Technology Licensing and Firm Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon

    acquisition. The findings indicate that technology licensing is positively related to the number of inventions produced by the licensee in the years subsequent to the licensing deal. Subsequently, I investigate the moderating effect that organizational slack and myopia have on this main relationship...... that facilitate or constrain firms' ability to deal with licensed-in technologies have received little attention. This paper starts investigating in a longitudinal setting the effect of technology licensing on the number of patents produced by the licensee within the three years subsequent to the technology....... The findings also suggest that high levels of Organizational Slack (available financial resources) strengthen the positive effect of licensing on innovation. However, higher levels of Organizational Myopia (the extent to which a firm draws on its own knowledge) can decrease the main effect of licensing....

  12. Legal foundations of adaptive licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V

    2013-09-01

    In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.

  13. Presentation of reports for licensing of industrial irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NE.6.02. 'Licensing of Radioactive Facilities', expressed in the section 6 related to the information for Previous Approval, in the subsection 7.2 related to the information for the Construction Licensing and in the subsection 9.2, related to the information for the Authorization for operation, for the specific case of industrial irradiators

  14. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  15. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  16. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  17. Brand Licensing Processes and Workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Törmä, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis project is to provide an end-to-end brand licensing workflow mapping and give the reader understanding of the brand licensing workflows and how they are connected in the overall process. Brand licensing business is not too familiar in Finland and could offer an opportunity for a new income stream for many companies. To manage the brand licensing program, the company needs to understand the processes associated in the business model. The goal is to res...

  18. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  19. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  20. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis. This summary report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the operating reactors licensing actions program. Its content will change based on NRC management informational requirements

  1. Gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola Gel-electrophoresis in the smallpox diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Mesquita

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de gel-eletroforese no diagnóstico da varíola, demonstrou ser ao menos trinta vezes (30X mais sensível que o teste de agar-gel, nas condições descritas (tabela I. Doze (12 espécimes, cujos testes convencionais de inoculação em ovos embrionados e de agar-gel resultaram positivos, foram testados em suas diluições originais congeladas por mais de um ano, sendo seis deles revelados por gel-eletroforese enquanto nenhum o foi por agar-gel (tabela II. Trinta e três (33 amostras isoladas no laboratório, foram testadas com material colhido de membrana cório-alantóica da primeira inoculação para o diagnóstico, conservado em glicerina 50%, resultando 15 positivas em gel-eletroforese e apenas 3 em agar-gel (tabela II. Os últimos 60 espécimes recebidos para diagnóstico, através a Campanha de Erradicação da Varíola, também resultaram negativos em gel-eletroforese, que não mostrou falsos-positivos nas condições descritas.The test of gel-electrophoresis applied to the pox virus group showed to be at least thirth times (30X more sensitive than agar-gel test on the described conditions (Table I. Twelve specimens, which were positives form Smallpox in the conventional tests of egg inoculation and agar-gel difusion test, have been screened in their original dilutions frozen for more than 1 year and six of them were still detectable by gel-eletrophoresis, while by agar-gel test any of them was positive (Table II. Thirty three Smallpox isolates have been tested with material from first egg inoculation (chorioallantoic membranes which have been stored in glycerin 50%, at - 15ºC. Fifteen of them were still positive by gel-electrophoresis and only 3 by agar-gel (Table II. The last 60 specimens received for diagnosis from Smallpox Erradication Campaign (CEV, were negatives by both tests. The gel-electrophoresis, did not show false-positives on described conditions.

  2. To License or Not to License Revisited: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Lonardo; Doug White; Alan Rea

    2009-01-01

    In this update to the previous year's study, the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners. After contacting all state agencies the authors present a distinct grouping organizing state approaches to professional Digital Examiner lice...

  3. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of high level Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing processes in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their different licensing processes and recent actions in new NPP construction. After discussing their similarities and differences, suitable features for Small Modular Reactor licensing can be emphasized and suggested. Some of the studied licensing processes have elements that are already quite well suited for application to SMRs, but all of these different national processes can benefit from studying and implementing lessons learned from SMR specific licensing needs. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are standardization of the design, modularity, mass production and serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single unit facility constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g., construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second is a facility structure composed of many reactor modules where modules are manufactured in factories and installed into the facility as needed (e.g., NuScale Power SMR design). Short construction schedules will not be fully benefited from if the long licensing process prolongs the commissioning and approach to full-power operation. The focus area of this study is to better understand the possibility of SMR deployment in small nuclear countries, such as Finland, which currently has four operating NPPs. The licensing process needs to be simple and clear to make SMR deployment feasible from an economical point of view. This paper uses public information and interviews with experts to establish the overview of the different licensing processes and their main steps. A high-level comparison of the licensing steps has been carried out. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and certain

  4. Challenges of SMR licensing practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soderholm, K., E-mail: kristiina.soderholm@fortum.com [Fortum Power, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    This paper aims to increase the understanding of high level Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) licensing processes in Finland, France, the UK, Canada and the USA. These countries have been selected for this study because of their different licensing processes and recent actions in new NPP construction. After discussing their similarities and differences, suitable features for Small Modular Reactor licensing can be emphasized and suggested. Some of the studied licensing processes have elements that are already quite well suited for application to SMRs, but all of these different national processes can benefit from studying and implementing lessons learned from SMR specific licensing needs. The main SMR features to take into account in licensing are standardization of the design, modularity, mass production and serial construction. Modularity can be divided into two different categories: the first category is simply a single unit facility constructed of independently engineered modules (e.g., construction process for Westinghouse AP-1000 NPP) and the second is a facility structure composed of many reactor modules where modules are manufactured in factories and installed into the facility as needed (e.g., NuScale Power SMR design). Short construction schedules will not be fully benefited from if the long licensing process prolongs the commissioning and approach to full-power operation. The focus area of this study is to better understand the possibility of SMR deployment in small nuclear countries, such as Finland, which currently has four operating NPPs. The licensing process needs to be simple and clear to make SMR deployment feasible from an economical point of view. This paper uses public information and interviews with experts to establish the overview of the different licensing processes and their main steps. A high-level comparison of the licensing steps has been carried out. Certain aspects of the aviation industry licensing process have also been studied and certain

  5. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's annual summary of licensed nuclear power reactor data is based primarily on the report of operating data submitted by licensees for each unit for the month of December because that report contains data for the month of December, the year to date (in this case calendar 1990) and cumulative data, usually from the date of commercial operation. The data is not independently verified, but various computer checks are made. The report is divided into two sections. The first contains summary highlights and the second contains data on each individual unit in commercial operation. Section 1 capacity and availability factors are simple arithmetic averages. Section 2 items in the cumulative column are generally as reported by the licensee and notes as to the use of weighted averages and starting dates other than commercial operation are provided

  6. Waste management and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1980-01-01

    It is the Court's consideration of the repercussions the regulation on waste management of Sect. 9a of the Atomic Energy Law will have, relating to the licensing of a plant according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law which is noteworthy. Overruling its former legal conception, the Administrative Court Schleswig now assumes, together with the public opinion, that the problem of waste management being brought to a point only with the initial operation of a nuclear power station is accordingly to be taken into account in line with the discretion of licensing according to Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. In addition, the Administrative Court expressed its opinion on the extent to the right of a neighbour to a nuclear power station to file suit. According to the Sections 114 and 42 (2) of the rules of Administrative Courts it is true that a plaintiff cannot take action to set aside the licence because public interests have not been taken into account sufficiently, but he may do so because his own interests have not been included in the discretionary decision. The Administrative Court is reserved when qualifying the regulation on waste management with regard to the intensity of legal control. The Court is not supposed to replace controversial issues of technology and natural sciences on the part of the executive and its experts by its own assessment. According to the proceedings, the judicial review refers to the finding as to whether decisions made by authorities are suited - according to the way in which they were made - to guarantee the safety standard prescribed in Subdivision 3 of Sect. 7 (2) of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de

  7. 7 CFR 6.33 - License fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Where the license at issue is a historical license, this will result, pursuant to § 6.23(b), in the person's loss of historical eligibility for such license. (d) Licensees may elect not to accept certain... License fee. (a) A fee will be assessed each quota year for each license to defray the Department's costs...

  8. 10 CFR 60.43 - License specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License specification. 60.43 Section 60.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Issuance and Amendment § 60.43 License specification. (a) A license issued under this part shall...

  9. 31 CFR 575.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 575.500 Section..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 575.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken pursuant to part 501...

  10. 31 CFR 595.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 595.500 Section..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 595.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken pursuant to part 501...

  11. 31 CFR 545.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 545.500 Section..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 545.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken pursuant to part 501...

  12. 31 CFR 538.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 538.500 Section..., and Statements of Licensing Policy § 538.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken pursuant to part 501...

  13. 31 CFR 501.801 - Licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing. 501.801 Section 501.801... § 501.801 Licensing. (a) General licenses. General licenses have been issued authorizing under... either will be specified by the statement of licensing policy in the part under which the registration...

  14. 31 CFR 560.500 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 560.500 Section..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.500 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken pursuant to part 501...

  15. GM-CSF Production Allows the Identification of Immunoprevalent Antigens Recognized by Human CD4+ T Cells Following Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkowski, Valeria; Bunying, Alcinette; Ge, Feng; Appel, Jon R.; Law, Kingyee; Sharma, Atima; Raja- Gabaglia, Claudia; Norori, Patricia; Santos, Radleigh G.; Giulianotti, Marc A.; Slifka, Mark K.; Douek, Daniel C.; Graham, Barney S.; Pinilla, Clemencia

    2011-01-01

    The threat of bioterrorism with smallpox and the broad use of vaccinia vectors for other vaccines have led to the resurgence in the study of vaccinia immunological memory. The importance of the role of CD4+ T cells in the control of vaccinia infection is well known. However, more CD8+ than CD4+ T cell epitopes recognized by human subjects immunized with vaccinia virus have been reported. This could be, in part, due to the fact that most of the studies that have identified human CD4+ specific protein-derived fragments or peptides have used IFN-γ production to evaluate vaccinia specific T cell responses. Based on these findings, we reasoned that analyzing a large panel of cytokines would permit us to generate a more complete analysis of the CD4 T cell responses. The results presented provide clear evidence that TNF-α is an excellent readout of vaccinia specificity and that other cytokines such as GM-CSF can be used to evaluate the reactivity of CD4+ T cells in response to vaccinia antigens. Furthermore, using these cytokines as readout of vaccinia specificity, we present the identification of novel peptides from immunoprevalent vaccinia proteins recognized by CD4+ T cells derived from smallpox vaccinated human subjects. In conclusion, we describe a “T cell–driven” methodology that can be implemented to determine the specificity of the T cell response upon vaccination or infection. Together, the single pathogen in vitro stimulation, the selection of CD4+ T cells specific to the pathogen by limiting dilution, the evaluation of pathogen specificity by detecting multiple cytokines, and the screening of the clones with synthetic combinatorial libraries, constitutes a novel and valuable approach for the elucidation of human CD4+ T cell specificity in response to large pathogens. PMID:21931646

  16. GM-CSF production allows the identification of immunoprevalent antigens recognized by human CD4+ T cells following smallpox vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Judkowski

    Full Text Available The threat of bioterrorism with smallpox and the broad use of vaccinia vectors for other vaccines have led to the resurgence in the study of vaccinia immunological memory. The importance of the role of CD4+ T cells in the control of vaccinia infection is well known. However, more CD8+ than CD4+ T cell epitopes recognized by human subjects immunized with vaccinia virus have been reported. This could be, in part, due to the fact that most of the studies that have identified human CD4+ specific protein-derived fragments or peptides have used IFN-γ production to evaluate vaccinia specific T cell responses. Based on these findings, we reasoned that analyzing a large panel of cytokines would permit us to generate a more complete analysis of the CD4 T cell responses. The results presented provide clear evidence that TNF-α is an excellent readout of vaccinia specificity and that other cytokines such as GM-CSF can be used to evaluate the reactivity of CD4+ T cells in response to vaccinia antigens. Furthermore, using these cytokines as readout of vaccinia specificity, we present the identification of novel peptides from immunoprevalent vaccinia proteins recognized by CD4+ T cells derived from smallpox vaccinated human subjects. In conclusion, we describe a "T cell-driven" methodology that can be implemented to determine the specificity of the T cell response upon vaccination or infection. Together, the single pathogen in vitro stimulation, the selection of CD4+ T cells specific to the pathogen by limiting dilution, the evaluation of pathogen specificity by detecting multiple cytokines, and the screening of the clones with synthetic combinatorial libraries, constitutes a novel and valuable approach for the elucidation of human CD4+ T cell specificity in response to large pathogens.

  17. Licensing procedures for older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the driver licensing procedures in all 50 States as they apply to the older (65+) driver. A literature review examined reports of possible declines in older driver capabilities and the ability of a driver licensing agency to scree...

  18. Responsibilities of NARM Licensing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapert, Allan C.; Bailey, Edgar D.

    1978-01-01

    There are 30 Licensing States of Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Materials (NARM) in the U.S. In these States NARM is licensed in a similar manner as is by-product material in the Agreement States. Each Licensing State has the responsibility to identify and evaluate NARM products including informing other State and Federal radiation control agencies of potential problems encountered during the lifetime of the product. Licensing States have authority to perform on-site inspections of manufacturers, enforce radiation regulations, require compliance with all conditions of the license, and amend or terminate the license for possession and use of NARM. A Licensing State also has the responsibility to accept the recommendation on NARM products evaluated by other Licensing States. To assist States in the evaluation of NARM products the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors developed a report entitled 'Guides for Naturally Occurring and Accelerator-Produced Radioactive Materials (NARM).' The NARM Guides report (HEW Publication (FDA) 77-8025) was published by the Bureau of Radiological Health/FDA in July 1977. The NARM Guides establish uniform criteria for evaluating the manufacture, assembly and distribution of NARM products in the U.S. The Radioactive Materials Reference Manual which is coordinated by BRH/FDA is the medium for communicating NARM information with the radiation control agencies of the 50 States, certain Federal and local agencies. (author)

  19. Licensing Process for Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes how the licensing process should be applied at the various stages of the lifetime of a nuclear installation, with discussion of topics and required documents to be considered at each stage. Recommendations on the application by a regulatory body of a graded approach in the licensing process are also provided. It also describes the processes that should be undertaken to meet the regulatory and legal requirements in a Member State to authorize the establishment of a nuclear installation and/or initiation of its activities. While this Safety Guide focuses on safety at nuclear installations, it is noted that integration of safety and security aspects should be considered and evaluated by the regulatory body in the licensing process. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. General recommendations for the licensing process; 3. Steps of the licensing process; Appendix I: Examples of documents to be submitted to the regulatory body.

  20. Effectiveness of Oregon's teen licensing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in Oregons teen licensing laws went into effect on March 1, 2000. The new laws expanded the provisional driving license program which had been in effect since October 1989 and established a graduated driver licensing (GDL) prog...

  1. 31 CFR 596.306 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.306 License. Except as otherwise specified, the term license means any license or...

  2. 31 CFR 596.305 - General license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.305 General license. The term general license means any license or authorization...

  3. Graduated Driver Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  4. Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerman, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded

  5. Regulatory guidance for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed 10 CFR Part 54 rule proceduralizes the process for license renewal by identifying both the administrative and technical requirements for a renewal application. To amplify and support this regulation, written guidance has been provided in the form of a draft Regulatory Guide (DG 1009) and a draft Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (NUREG 1299). This guidance is scheduled to be finalized in 1992. Similar guidance will be provided for the proposed revisions to 10 CFR Part 51 concerning the environmental aspects of license renewal. (author)

  6. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    -analysis (aOR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.96). Data from Guinea-Bissau indicated a stronger effect of multiple smallpox vaccination scars (aOR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.75) as follows: women, aOR = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.05-0.64); men, aOR = 0.52 (95% CI, 0.12-2.33); sex-differential effect, P = .29. CONCLUSIONS...

  7. Improving the Care and Treatment of Monkeypox Patients in Low-Resource Settings: Applying Evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary G. Reynolds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations—including complications and sequelae—as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes. Experimental and natural infection of non-human primates with monkeypox virus can inform the approach to improving patient care, and may suggest options for pharmaceutical intervention. These studies have traditionally been performed to address the threat of smallpox bioterrorism and were designed with the intent of using MPX as a disease surrogate for smallpox. In many cases this necessitated employing high-dose, inhalational or intravenous challenge to recapitulate the severe manifestations of illness seen with smallpox. Overall, these data—and data from biomedical research involving burns, superficial wounds, herpes, eczema vaccinatum, and so forth—suggest that MPX patients could benefit from clinical support to mitigate the consequences of compromised skin and mucosa. This should include prevention and treatment of secondary bacterial infections (and other complications, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, and protecting vulnerable anatomical locations such as the eyes and genitals. A standard of care that considers these factors should be developed and assessed in different settings, using clinical metrics specific for MPX alongside consideration of antiviral therapies.

  8. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  9. Licensing of nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Recommendations are presented for the licensing of nuclear reactor operators in units licensed according to the legislation in effect. They apply to all physical persons designated by the Operating Organization of the nuclear reactor or reactors to execute any of the following functional activities: a) to manipulate the controls of a definite reactor b) to direct the authorized activities of the reactor operators licesed according to the present recommendations. (F.E.) [pt

  10. The USNCR license renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Pao-Tsin

    2002-01-01

    The US Congress promulgated a law in 1954, entitled 'Atomic Energy Act'. This Act states that operating licenses for commercial nuclear power plants are limited to a fixed term of 40 years, but they may be renewed for a period not to exceed 20 years. The terms were established mainly for economic considerations, not based on technical limitations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the license renewal rule, Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 54 (10 CFR Part 54), in December, 1991. The rule has since been amended in May, 1995. The underlying principle of the rule is that the regulatory process is adequate for ensuring safety of operating plants. The regulatory process includes NRC's issuance of Orders, Bulletins, Generic Letters, and Information Notices, as well as a number of special inspections in addition to the continuous oversight and routine inspection activities performed by on-site inspectors. Because of this comprehensive regulatory process, compilation of the current license basis or re-verification of the current licensing basis is not considered necessary for a license renewal review. The USNRC also determined on the basis of the findings of its research programs that active structures and components are well maintained by the existing programs. Therefore, the focus of the license renewal review is on passive, long-lived structures and components and on time-limited ageing analyses. The time-limited ageing analyses are for those structures and components which were originally designed to a 40 year service life

  11. Small(pox success? Erradicação da varíola: medida do sucesso?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Emanuelle Birn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.O 30º aniversário da certificação oficial da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS da erradicação da varíola foi marcado por uma série de eventos que saudaram a dramática história do triunfo tecnológico e organizacional contra este antigo flagelo. Todavia, as comemorações também servem como momentos para uma reflexão crítica. Este artigo questiona os aplausos excessivos para a erradicação da varíola como o único e absoluto sucesso na história da saúde pública. Examina como e por que a erradicação da varíola e a abordagem da atenção básica de saúde orientada para a justiça social (de acordo com a Declaração de Alma-Ata se tornaram paradigmas concorrentes. Sintetiza críticas sobre as deficiências da erradicação e busca desvelar alguns dos mitos que envolvem a campanha de erradicação global como uma prioridade e necessidade da saúde pública, e como uma vitória da

  12. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Rønde, Thomas; Fosfuri, Andrea

    the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend upon product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...

  13. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea; Rønde, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend on product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...

  14. 31 CFR 536.100 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Licensing procedures. 536.100 Section... This Part to Other Laws and Regulations § 536.100 Licensing procedures. For provisions relating to licensing procedures, see part 501, subpart E, of this chapter. Licensing actions taken pursuant to part 501...

  15. 37 CFR 404.6 - Nonexclusive licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonexclusive licenses. 404.6 Section 404.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.6 Nonexclusive licenses. Nonexclusive licenses may...

  16. To License or Not to License Remanufacturing Business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Jun Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs face the choice of whether to license an independent remanufacturer (IR to remanufacture their used products. In this paper, we develop closed-loop supply chain models with licensed and unlicensed remanufacturing operations to analyze the competition and cooperation between an OEM and an IR. The OEM sells new products and collects used products through trade-ins, while the IR intercepts the OEM’s cores to produce remanufactured products and sell them in the same market. We derive optimal decisions for each of the two types of firms in licensed and unlicensed remanufacturing scenarios and identify conditions under which the OEM and the IR would be most likely to cooperate with each other in implementing remanufacturing. The results show although it is beneficial for an OEM to license an IR to remanufacture its cores, it is not always necessary for an IR to accept OEM’s authorization. Moreover, we contrast the result for licensed remanufacturing scenario in the decentralized system with that in the centrally coordinated system to quantify potential inefficiency resulting from decentralization of decision making.

  17. 27 CFR 478.95 - Certified copy of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Conduct of Business § 478.95 Certified copy of license. The license furnished to each person licensed... copies of the license to the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center. The request must set forth the...

  18. Evaluation of Terminated Nuclear Material Licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.M.; Zeighami, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-year project that reviewed material licenses that had been terminated during the period from inception of licensing until approximately late-1994. The material licenses covered in the review project were Part 30, byproduct material licenses; Part 40, source material licenses; and Part 70, special nuclear material licenses. This report describes the methodology developed for the project, summarizes the findings of the license file inventory process, and describes the findings of the reviews or evaluations of the license files. The evaluation identified nuclear material use sites that need review of the licensing material or more direct follow-up of some type. The review process also identified licenses authorized to possess sealed sources for which there was incomplete or missing documentation of the fate of the sources

  19. 10 CFR 171.15 - Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel storage licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (non-power) reactor licensed under part 50 of this chapter, unless the reactor is exempted from fees... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual fees: Reactor licenses and independent spent fuel... REACTOR LICENSES AND FUEL CYCLE LICENSES AND MATERIALS LICENSES, INCLUDING HOLDERS OF CERTIFICATES OF...

  20. 47 CFR 1.767 - Cable landing licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning the application is to be addressed; (4) A description of the submarine cable, including the type... license to construct and operate a submarine cable system or to modify the construction of a previously approved submarine cable system, applicants must determine whether they are required to certify that their...

  1. A case of exemplarity: C. F. Rottböll's history of smallpox inoculation in Denmark-Norway, 1766.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Smallpox inoculation was one of the great discoveries of the 18th century and has been written into the grand narrative of medical progress, describing the taming of epidemic disease. Setting the perspective of progress aside, the article explores how this medical innovation was situated in 18th-century society and culture. The aim is to investigate how medical practice was intertwined with social structure and cultural patterns. The article takes its case from a book published in Copenhagen in 1766 by Professor C. F. Rottböll, former Head Physician of the Royal Inoculation House in Copenhagen. Being the first medical treatise on inoculation in Denmark-Norway, the book also has a historical section followed by a collection of reports and letters written by a number of other authors from various parts of the kingdom. Through close reading, the article explores how the introduction of the new technique was described in the texts. The reports were written to present practice and discuss cases. In doing so, they also presented a variety of other concerns so that a diversity of aims and intentions are added to the medical ones. The social and rhetorical strategies employed illuminate social ambition and systems of patronage, as well as understandings of history and of truth.

  2. Long term recall of memory CD8 T cells in mice to first and third generation smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sharone; Ennis, Francis A; Mathew, Anuja

    2011-02-11

    Since long-term immunity is a critical component of any effective vaccine, we compared over a 15-month period, the strength, durability and specificity of immunity of an attenuated smallpox vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) to the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) vaccine. The frequencies of CD8(+) T cells to an immunodominant CD8 T cell epitope B8R(20-27) remained remarkably stable in mice given either MVA or NYCBH. Both groups were also protected from a lethal intranasal challenge with Western Reserve strain of vaccinia virus (VACV-WR). Cytokine responses to virus-specific peptides were detectable with significant boosting upon challenge. Expression of most phenotypic markers that define antigen-specific memory CD8 T cells was similar while CD27 was differentially expressed on lung-specific T cells compared to the spleen. Our data indicate robust vaccinia-specific CD8(+) T cell recall responses to lethal secondary challenge in protected mice with no apparent effect of age on T cell pools established much earlier in life. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  5. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, W.J.; O'Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with 90 Sr or 238 Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with 3 H, 85 Kr, or 147 Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process

  6. NRC licensing requirements: DOD options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, W.J.; O' Reilly, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes the licensing process (both safety and environmental) that would apply if the Department of Defense (DOD) chooses to obtain licenses from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for using nuclear energy for power and luminous sources. The specific nuclear energy sources being considered include: small or medium-size nuclear power reactors; radioisotopic thermoelectric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; radioisotopic dynamic electric generators with /sup 90/Sr or /sup 238/Pu; and applications of radioisotopes for luminous sources (lights) with /sup 3/H, /sup 85/Kr, or /sup 147/Pm. The steps of the licensing process are summarized in the following sections, with particular attention given to the schedule and level of effort necessary to support the process.

  7. Conditions for licensing workers exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This entrance speaking on conditions of license workers in the areas of employment ionizing radiation addresses two aspects, the first aspect: industrial applications: speak for the workers in this area by a supervisor to portray industrial and industrial photographer and a supervisor sounding wells and a Nuclear Gauges Supervisor and the previous and subsequent Practices of the law The second aspect: about the medical applications and describes the general conditions of the licenses in this area and those working in this area of professional diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine technician and technician treatment of radiotherapy and radiation protection officers at large and small institutions

  8. EPRI support of license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, Jeff; Carey, John J.

    1991-01-01

    During the early 1980's, the US utility industry recognized that Light Water Reactors (LWRs) could have a useful life substantially in excess of the current licensed term of 40 years service. These observations were confirmed by two plant specific studies and have led to a major initiative undertaken by EPRI and DOE to demonstrate the technical and institutional basis for a predictable, rational, and stable life extension option. The primary objective of the lead plants project is to establish and demonstrate, by the end of 1993, nuclear plant license renewal as a viable option. As part of this initiative, the lead plants project will result in a complete license renewal application to the NRC and will document the license renewal process for use by other utilities. A number of EPRI and DOE sponsored projects are providing technical support for the license renewal process. These projects are identifying deteriorating service environments for key components, systems, and structures and are establishing methods of assessing consequences and remedial actions. Other projects include economic evaluations and life cycle management assessment tools to address deterioration mechanisms. However, the principal means for providing technical support for license renewal is the generic Industry Reports (IRs), which as of October 1990, have all been submitted to the NRC for review. The IRs discussed in this paper are intended to identify and resolve key technical issues associated with extended operation of major LWR components, structures, and systems. The principle means of providing technical support for license renewal is the IRs whose objective is to document results of generic component, structure, or system evaluations to support life extension by addressing potential impacts of aging on components, structures, or systems as it relates to the plant's performance for extended service. Ten IRs on major components or systems have been completed and submitted to the NRC. The

  9. EXPORT CONTROLS: Change in Export Licensing Jurisdiction for Two Sensitive Dual-Use Items

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, F

    1997-01-01

    This report examines the jurisdiction shift of two items, previously controlled by the State Department to the Department of Commerce, and the implications of this change to export licensing jurisdiction...

  10. Licensing Process for International Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christan

    2014-01-01

    Christan Raetzke, lawyer, then outlined why nuclear constructions were always international projects and in which cases it would make sense to also make the licensing process be international. His law consulting firm CONLAR focuses specifically on design review so he could adequately present why an international process would make a lot of sense without being a loss of sovereignty

  11. Enfrentando el bioterrorismo: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y preventivos de la viruela Confronting bioterrorism: epidemiologic, clinical, and preventive aspects of smallpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Franco-Paredes

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes logros de la salud pública mundial, la erradicación de la viruela, puede verse mermado por el posible riesgo de bioterrorismo. El debate acerca de la destrucción de los restos del virus en los dos laboratorios de referencia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud ha cambiado diametralmente debido a los eventos terroristas y a la dispersión intencional de Bacillus anthracis ocurridos en poblaciones civiles en Estados Unidos de América en el año 2001. La liberación del virus Variola con fines terroristas constituye un riesgo mínimo no cuantificable, pero desafortunadamente real. El impacto podría ser devastador debido a la elevada morbimortalidad de la enfermedad aunada al pánico y a la desestabilización social que podría ocasionar. Es por ello que el establecimiento de un plan de respuesta, sumado a disponibilidad de vacuna para ser utilizada pos-exposición, es importante dentro de los planes de contingencia contra el bioterrorismo. El reiniciar un programa limitado de vacunación contra la viruela, como parte de dicho plan, ha sido recientemente recomendado por el Comité Asesor de Vacunación, del Centro para el Control de las Enfermedades, pero la vacuna disponible puede causar complicaciones graves e incluso la muerte, por lo que dicha recomendación no ha sido universalmente aceptada. No obstante, el personal médico y de salud pública requiere de información actualizada sobre la viruela y su prevención, ya que ellos son la primera línea de defensa en caso de un posible brote a consecuencia de un ataque bioterrorista. El presente artículo presenta una revisión dirigida a proporcionar al personal de salud un enfoque clínico, epidemiológico y preventivo sobre la viruela.The worldwide eradication of smallpox, a major achievement in public health, is currently threatened by the risk of bioterrorism. The debate on the destruction of the Variola virus in the two reference laboratories of the World Health

  12. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  13. Guide to request license for teletherapy practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this work the steps to request license for teletherapy practice are described , among these steps they it continued it plows to request the qualified personnel's yams, the operation authorization, application purpose, license type

  14. Eczema vaccinatum resulting from the transmission of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccinee: an investigation of potential fomites in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Edith; Miramontes, Roque; Openshaw, John; Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Marcinak, John; Panares, Rodrigo; Staggs, Wayne; Allen, Donna; Weber, Stephen G; Vora, Surabhi; Gerber, Susan I; Hughes, Christine M; Regnery, Russell; Collins, Limone; Diaz, Pamela S; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger

    2009-01-14

    On March 3, 2007, a 2-year-old boy was hospitalized with eczema vaccinatum. His two siblings, one with eczema, were subsequently removed from the home. Swabs of household items obtained on March 13th were analyzed for orthopoxvirus DNA signatures with real-time PCR. Virus culture was attempted on positive specimens. Eight of 25 household samples were positive by PCR for orthopoxvirus; of these, three yielded viable vaccinia virus in culture. Both siblings were found to have serologic evidence of orthopoxvirus exposure. These findings have implications for smallpox preparedness, especially in situations where some household members are not candidates for vaccination.

  15. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    -Bissau including 1751 individuals and (2) a case-base study with a background population of 46239 individuals in Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, HIV-1 transmission was almost exclusively sexually transmitted. In Denmark, we excluded intravenous drug users. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacillus......: The studies from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, 2 very different settings, both suggest that the BCG and smallpox vaccines could be associated with a decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. It might be informative to pursue this observation and explore possible protective mechanisms as part of the search...

  16. The influence of occupational licensing and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Morris M.

    2017-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, occupational licensing has been one of the fastest growing labor market institutions in the developed world. The economics literature suggests that licensing can influence wage determination, the speed at which workers find employment, pension and health benefits, and prices. Moreover, there is little evidence to show that licensing improves service quality, health, or safety in developed nations. So, why is occupational licensing is growing when there are such ...

  17. 15 CFR 17.1 - Licensing rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensing rules. 17.1 Section 17.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT-OWNED INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Licensing of Rights in Domestic Patents and Patent Applications § 17.1 Licensing rules. (a) The...

  18. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Arora; Andrea Fosfuri; Thomas Roende

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, companies have paid greater attention to the management of their intellectual assets. We build a model that helps understand how licensing activity should be organized within large corporations. More specifically, we compare decentralization--where the business unit using the technology makes licensing decisions--to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewar...

  19. Bargaining and delay in patent licensing

    OpenAIRE

    MAULEON, Ana; VANNETELBOSCH, Vincent; VERGARI, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model of licensing of a non-drastic innovation in which the patent holder (an outside innovator) negotiates either up-front fixed fees or per-unit royal- ties with two firms producing horizontally differentiated brands and competing à la Cournot. We investigate how licensing schemes (fixed fee or per-unit royalty) and the number of licenses sold (exclusive licensing or complete technology diffusion) affect price agreements and delays in reaching an agreement. We show that the pa...

  20. Application of up-front licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, S.D.; Snell, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    AECL has been pioneering 'up-front' licensing of new reactor designs. The CANDU 3 design has been formally reviewed by AECB staff for a number of years. The CANDU 9 design has just started the up-front licensing process. The process gives designers, regulators and potential customers early confidence in the licensability of future plants. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  1. 7 CFR 1530.103 - License eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... license held by an affiliated person. (c) Notwithstanding paragraph (b) of this section, a person who owns one or more wholly-owned subsidiary corporations manufacturing sugar containing products or producing... license. The sum total of license limits for the parent corporation and its wholly-owned subsidiary...

  2. 10 CFR 81.20 - Nonexclusive licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The license may extend to wholly-owned subsidiaries of the licensee but shall be nonassignable, or... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonexclusive licenses. 81.20 Section 81.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE GRANTING OF PATENT LICENSES Nrc-Owned...

  3. 47 CFR 73.731 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 73.731 Section 73.731 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.731 Licensing requirements. (a) A license for an international broadcasting station will be issued...

  4. 47 CFR 90.1307 - Licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing. 90.1307 Section 90.1307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1307 Licensing. The 3650-3700 MHz band is licensed on the basis of no...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1207 - Licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing. 90.1207 Section 90.1207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 4940-4990 MHz Band § 90.1207 Licensing. (a) A 4940-4990 MHz band...

  6. 9 CFR 166.10 - Licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensing. 166.10 Section 166.10... HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.10 Licensing. (a) Application. Any... regulations. (1) Prior to licensing, each applicant shall demonstrate during an inspection of the premises...

  7. Alcohol licensing in Scotland: a historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James

    2012-08-01

      This paper provides a historical overview of licensing law in Scotland. It seeks to put important contemporary policy developments into their historical context and to draw attention to key themes in licensing policy debates across the United Kingdom.   Based on a survey of statutes, commissions of enquiry and consumption and retail data, this paper draws together historical evidence to present a synopsis of Scottish licensing history.   The article focuses on Scotland, but also discusses UK-wide licensing policy over a 250-year period.   Scottish licensing has diverged from licensing in England and Wales and has addressed some historical licensing weaknesses, including problems of accountability, overprovision and systemic oversight regarding off-sales. Distinctive features of current Scottish legislation include public health protection as a statutory licensing objective; local Licensing Forums and Licensing Standards Officers; a requirement for explicit policies on the 'overprovision' of licensed premises; mandatory restrictions on price promotions in the on- and off-trades; and limitations on opening hours for off-licences.   Scotland has developed alcohol policies several times addressing long-standing licensing weaknesses throughout the United Kingdom. Some Scottish alcohol policies have later become the norm in England and Wales. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. 47 CFR 74.632 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 74.632 Section 74.632 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.632 Licensing requirements. (a) Licenses for television pickup, television STL, television...

  9. 25 CFR 140.12 - License renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.12 License...-054, through the superintendent, at least 30 days prior to the expiration of the existing license, and the superintendent must report as to the record the applicant has made as a trader and his fitness to...

  10. 25 CFR 11.601 - Marriage licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any...

  11. Licensing management system prototype system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immerman, W.H.; Arcuni, A.A.; Elliott, J.M.; Chapman, L.D.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a design document for a prototype implementation of a licensing management system (LMS) as defined in SAND83-7080. It describes the concept of operations for full implementation of an LMS in accordance with the previously defined functional requirements. It defines a subset of a full LMS suitable for meeting prototype implementation goals, and proposes a system design for this subset. The report describes overall system design considerations consistent with, but more explicit than the general characteristics required by the LMS functional definition. A high level design is presented for just those functions selected for prototype implementation. The report also provides a data element dictionary describing the structured logical data elements required to implement the selected functions

  12. Music Licensing Rights and Wrongs

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Rasmus; Kustková, Zuzana; Løvås, Johanna; Manniche, Ósk; Petersen, Maria; Sandermann, Wiebke; Veitová, Kristyna

    2014-01-01

    The project revolves around the issue of copyright and more specifically playing music in public. To shed light on the issue it uses an exemplary case to illustrate its points. The case is an episode that occurred in 1995 where the American Girl Scouts were asked to pay licenses for public performances at their camps. The specific case was chosen because it has clear contradictions between the aspect of law and the aspect of morality. The ideas of several both contemporary and ...

  13. Licensing of the Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1991 State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) has regulated Ignalina NPP operation by issuing annual operating permits. Those have been issued following submission of specified documents by the Ignalina NPP that have been reviewed by VATESI. However, according to to the procedures that are now established in the Law on Nuclear Energy and subordinate regulations the use of nuclear energy in the Republic of Lithuania is subject to strict licensing. Therefore a decision about the licence for continued operation of unit 1 should be taken. Licence would be granted by VATESI in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment and the institutions of local authorities. Ignalina NPP presented to the VATESI safety analysis report (SAR) with other documents. SAR was made mainly by foreign experts and financed by European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). VATESI in this process is supported by western regulators. A special project LAP - Licensing Assistance Project was launched to help VATESI perform licensing according western practices

  14. DECISION MAKING ON STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY LICENSING: FIXED-FEE VERSUS ROYALTY LICENSING METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    MING-CHUNG CHANG; JIN-LI HU; GWO-HSHIUNG TZENG

    2009-01-01

    Because of a deterioration in the quality of the environment, this paper studies the effects of the environment and the economy on environmental technology licensing in a homogeneous Cournot duopoly model in order to reduce environmental pollution and hence improve social welfare. To this end, two licensing methods — namely, a fixed-fee licensing method and a royalty licensing method — are compared. It is found that a high emission tax rate induces the innovator to not license the environment...

  15. NUMARC view of license renewal criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act and the implementing regulations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) permit the renewal of nuclear plant operating licenses upon expiration of their 40-year license term. However, the regulatory process by which license renewal may be accomplished and the requirements for the scope and content of renewal applications are yet to be established. On August 29, 1988, the NRC published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding the subject of license renewal. This Advanced Notice and the NUREG which it references, NUREG-1317, Regulatory Options for Nuclear Plant License Renewal, provide the most recent regulatory thought on this issue. The basic issue addressed by NUREG-1317 is the definition of an adequate licensing basis for the renewal of a plant license. The report contemplates three alternatives in this regard. This paper discusses each of these three proposals. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working Group endorses a license renewal process based on a plant's current licensing basis along with an evaluation of the pertinent components, systems, and structures affected by age-related degradation. The NUMARC NUPLEX Working group believes that an appropriate scope for NRC review of the license renewal application should focus on those safety-significant structures systems, and components subject to significant age-related degradation that are not subject to existing recognized effective replacement, refurbishment, or inspection programs. The paper also briefly discusses NUMARC's view of the role of the Backfit Rule in the license renewal process

  16. Risk of lymphoma and leukaemia after bacille Calmette-Guérin and smallpox vaccination: a Danish case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Marie; Sørup, Signe; Jess, Tine

    2009-01-01

    . In a background cohort (N=47,622) from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, cases of leukaemia (N=20) and lymphoma (N=51) were identified through the Danish Cancer Registry. The vaccination status of the cases was compared with the vaccination status of a 5% random sample (N=2073) of the background......Vaccines may have non-specific effects as suggested mainly in mortality studies from low-income countries. The objective was to examine the effects of BCG and smallpox vaccinations on subsequent risk of lymphoma and leukaemia in a Danish population experiencing rapid out-phasing of these vaccines...... cohort and analysed in a case-cohort design. BCG vaccination reduced the risk of lymphomas (HR=0.49 (95% CI: 0.26-0.93)), whereas smallpox vaccination did not (HR=1.32 (0.56-3.08)). With the small number of leukaemia cases, the analysis of leukaemia had limited power (BCG vaccination HR=0.81 (0...

  17. Licensing plan for UMTRA project disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office developed a plan to define UMTRA Project licensing program objectives and establish a process enabling the DOE to document completion of remedial actions in compliance with 40 CFR 1 92 and the requirements of the NRC general license. This document supersedes the January 1987 Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1987). The plan summarizes the legislative and regulatory basis for licensing, identifies participating agencies and their roles and responsibilities, defines key activities and milestones in the licensing process, and details the coordination of these activities. This plan provides an overview of the UMTRA Project from the end of remedial actions through the NRC's acceptance of a disposal site under the general license. The licensing process integrates large phases of the UMTRA Project. Other programmatic UMTRA Project documents listed in Section 6.0 provide supporting information

  18. The need for legislative framework (licensing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krech, H.

    1977-01-01

    For reasons of public acceptance the basis of a licensing system should be laid down in a law, details can be fixed in regulations below the law-level. The competence for licensing nuclear installations should be attributed to one body, which is not a the same time charged with the promotion of nuclear energy. The licensing authority has to be provided with sufficient technical advice, given by experts organized in advisory bodies. Normally a licensing procedure is split into several steps (site approval, construction permit, operation licence), each step can be subdivided. Some general aspects of licensing conditions (personal, technical and financial) as well as of the licensing procedure are outlined. The participation of the public is of particular importance but also involves most intricate problems. The paper concludes with some critical remarks on the role of administrative courts with respect to the licensing of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  19. Identification of the Current Licensing Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, E.F.; Kaskie, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Current Licensing Basis (CLB) is the combination of regulatory requirements and the related licensee commitments to implement those requirements. Knowledge of these requirements could significantly influence the utility in resources expenditure and regulatory posture. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issues regulatory requirements after reviewing licensing commitments to address specific regulations. All other commitments not addressed in regulatory requirement documents are within a utility's span of control for commercial application (i.e., cost, personnel safety, power production, etc.). The purpose of the paper will be to inform non-licensing personnel as to the benefits of understanding Current Licensing Basis, as well as providing a basic background. This paper discusses the concept of Current Licensing Basis, how the development of Current Licensing Basis is useful to the utility from a resource allocation and safety improvement perspective, how the Current Licensing Basis is compiled, and what benefits can be derived from it

  20. Streamlining the license renewal review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, J.; Lee, S.; Kuo, P.T.

    2001-01-01

    The staff of the NRC has been developing three regulatory guidance documents for license renewal: the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report, Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (SRP-LR), and Regulatory Guide (RG) for Standard Format and Content for Applications to Renew Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses. These documents are designed to streamline the license renewal review process by providing clear guidance for license renewal applicants and the NRC staff in preparing and reviewing license renewal applications. The GALL report systematically catalogs aging effects on structures and components; identifies the relevant existing plant programs; and evaluates the existing programs against the attributes considered necessary for an aging management program to be acceptable for license renewal. The GALL report also provides guidance for the augmentation of existing plant programs for license renewal. The revised SRP-LR allows an applicant to reference the GALL report to preclude further NRC staff evaluation if the plant's existing programs meet the criteria described in the GALL report. During the review process, the NRC staff will focus primarily on existing programs that should be augmented or new programs developed specifically for license renewal. The Regulatory Guide is expected to endorse the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guideline, NEI 95-10, Revision 2, entitled 'Industry Guideline for Implementing the Requirements of 10 CFR Part 54 - The License Renewal Rule', which provides guidance for preparing a license renewal application. This paper will provide an introduction to the GALL report, SRP-LR, Regulatory Guide, and NEI 95-10 to show how these documents are interrelated and how they will be used to streamline the license renewal review process. This topic will be of interest to domestic power utilities considering license renewal and international ICONE participants seeking state-of-the-art information about license renewal in the United States

  1. ACR: Licensing and design readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text The Canadian nuclear technology has a long history dating back to the 1940s. In this regard, Canada is in a unique situation, shared only by a very few countries, where original nuclear power technology has been invented and further developed. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), then called AECB, was established in 1946. CNSC focuses on nuclear security, nuclear safety, establishing health and safety regulations, and has also played an instrumental role in the formation of the IAEA. CNSC has provided assistance to the establishment of regulatory authorities in AECL's client countries such as Korea, Argentina, China and Romania. AECL has developed the Gen III+ ACR 1000 as evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor. ACR-1000 has evolved from AECL's in depth experience with CANDU systems, components, and materials, as well as the feedback received from owners and operators of CANDU plants. The ACR-1000 design retains the proven strengths and features of CANDU reactors, while incorporating innovations and state-of-the-art technology. It also features major improvements in economics, inherent safety characteristics, and performance. ACR-1000 has completed its Basic Engineering, has advanced in the licensing process in Canada, and is ready for deployment in Canadian and world markets. EC6 is an evolution of CANDU 6 and is a Gen III natural uranium fuelled reactor. Its medium size and potential for fuel localization and advanced fuel cycles is an optimal strategic solution in many markets.AECL's reactor products are shown to be compliant with a variety of licensing and regulatory requirements. These include the new CNSC DRD-337, IAEA NS-R1, and EUR. This allows the countries interested in CANDU reactor products to be confident of its licensing in their own regulatory regimes.

  2. International aspects of nuclear installations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunth, B.

    1987-01-01

    International collaboration, eg on the Superphenix and SNR 300 fast breeder reactors, is seen as a good thing. However, the question is asked whether the collaboration extends to the licensing procedure. Is this the reason why in some countries nuclear programmes flourish, whereas in others there are delays? The structure of the licensing procedures in the United Kingdom, France and West Germany is compared. The different licensing procedures only have a limited effect on the outcome of the fast breeder programme. The differences lie in the centralised or federal government structure and different socio-political aspects. However, these are reflected in licensing procedures. Means of international collaboration within the licensing framework are suggested, but may be difficult to achieve yet. A major step forward would be to develop uniform safety standards for the licensing procedure and to make sure each country complies with them. (U.K.)

  3. Cask development, testing, and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Haelsig, R.T.; Warrant, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The NuPac 125-B Rail Cask was developed to provide a safe means of transporting the damaged core of Three Mile Island Unit 2 from the TMI site at Middletown, PA, to the Idaho National Engineering laboratory (INEL) at Idaho Falls, ID. The development of the NuPac 125-B Rail Cask posed two engineering and technical management challenges; Licensing Strategy - The NuPac 125-B Rail Cask represented the first irradiated fuel rail cask developed within the United States in the past decade, a decade characterized by changing nuclear regulations, and Accelerated Schedule - The TMI-2 defueling schedule demanded a cask development schedule one-third as long as normally required. These challenges governed the overall development and licensing process for the cask. First, a high degree of conservation was incorporated into the design to allow quick, simplified demonstrations of adequacy to regulatory staff. Second, redundant design techniques were employed in all areas of uncertainty. The testing program eliminated performance uncertainties and validated predictions and predictive models. Drop tests of a quarter-scale model of the cask were conducted, and results were correlated with analytic predictions to verify structural and mechanical performance of the cask. Full-scale tests of the canisters were conducted to verify structural behavior of canister internals which provide criticality control. This paper describes the testing program for the NuPac 125-B Rail Cask, presents results therefrom, and correlates findings with Regulation 10 CFR 71 of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  4. Reproductive 'surrogacy' and parental licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Christine

    2015-06-01

    A serious moral weakness of reproductive 'surrogacy' is that it can be harmful to the children who are created. This article presents a proposal for mitigating this weakness. Currently, the practice of commercial 'surrogacy' operates only in the interests of the adults involved (the gestator and the commissioning individuals who employ her), not in the interests of the child who is created. Whether 'surrogacy' is seen as the purchase of a baby, the purchase of parental rights, or the purchase of reproductive labor, all three views share the same significant flaws. They endorse the transfer, for a fee, of the infant from the woman who gestated it to those who commissioned it, but without justifying such a transfer; they fail to demonstrate that the commissioners have any entitlement to the infant, or, for that matter, suitability to be the infant's parents; and they fail to take any notice of the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing. A mere genetic connection is not enough to establish that the commissioners are entitled to receive the baby or that they are competent to raise it. Their good intentions, however caring, are not enough. Therefore, just as in the practice of adoption, there should be a formal institutionalized system for screening and licensing the prospective social parents, which would make the infant's needs, interests, and wellbeing paramount. I reply to several potential objections to this proposal, including the objection that genetic parents who raise their own child are not screened and licensed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. New fast license plate location method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Xinhan; Wang, Min; Chen, Xi

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents a new fast license plate location method based on gray-scale image. According to the vertical edge features of the characters on Chinese license plate, it applies the threshold iteration to realize license plate location in complicated background. The algorithm satisfies the requirements of a real-time system and has good robustness. The precision of segmentation has been close to 98%.

  6. Review process for license renewal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, John W.; Kuo, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In preparation for license renewal reviews, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently published for public review and comment a proposed rule for license renewal and a draft Standard Review Plan as well as a draft Regulatory Guide relating to the implementation of the proposed rule. In support of future license renewal applications, the nuclear industry has also submitted 11 industry reports for NRC review and approval. This paper briefly describe how these parallel regulatory and industry activities will be factored into the NRC review process for license renewal. (author)

  7. Overview of the Yucca Mountain Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wisenburg

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the licensing process for a Yucca Mountain repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the steps in the licensing proceeding, the roles of the participants, the licensing and hearing requirements contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. A description of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff acceptance and compliance reviews of the Department of Energy (DOE) application for a construction authorization and a license to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is provided. The paper also includes a detailed description of the hearing process

  8. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  9. Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant......-back clause, shifting incentives from licensee to licensor. Also, the effect is significantly reduced if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology. The effect of the grant-back clause is offset if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology, suggesting that the licensee retains...

  10. Yankee nuclear power station license renewal assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are initially licensed to operate for 40 years. Recent changes to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations allow licenses to be renewed for up to 20 additional years. The new regulations require a comprehensive plant assessment to ensure continued effective aging management of equipment important to license renewal (ILR). Under the industry's lead plant program, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has assisted with development and demonstration of a generic license renewal assessment process. The generic assessment process developed under the lead plant program is the Nuclear Management and Resources Council methodology

  11. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994......This paper investigates the matching of firms on the market for technology. The paper forwards two dimensions along which license formation occurs: technology and product-market. Both sides of the market search for a partner representing potential for high technology synergies to maximize licensing...

  12. Whom to Choose as License Partner?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Trombini, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the matching of firms on the market for technology. The paper forwards two dimensions along which license formation occurs: technology and product-market. Both sides of the market search for a partner representing potential for high technology synergies to maximize licensing...... between technology and market forces: if partners are market distant, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnership decreases with partners’ technological distance. Using data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994...

  13. Licensing documentation and licensing process for dismantling and decontamination projects in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uspuras, Eugenijus; Rimkevicius, Sigitas; Babilas, Egidijus [Lithuanian Energy Institute (LEI), Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    One of the main tasks of any decommissioning project is the licensing process which allows implementation of developed strategies in real NPP. The Lithuanian laws on nuclear energy and on radioactive waste management require that the dismantling and decontamination (D and D) projects shall be licensed by the Lithuanian State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) and other Authorities. Licensing is an inseparable part of the Lithuania regulatory and supervisory system for safety of nuclear facilities. The licensing process starts when NPP submits the first licensing document(s) to the Authorities. It is completed when all the licensing documents are approved by the Authorities and authorization to start D and D works is received by NPP. Current paper will discuss one of the main steps in D and D projects implementation process - Licensing and will provide information about D and D licensing approach used in Lithuania. (orig.)

  14. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    phogenic proteolysis is crucial for simple RNA viruses such as poliovirus and HIV, and also appears to play a central role in the assembly of more...al particles [14]; unidirectional packaging of bacteriophage T4 DNA [15]; completion of the infectious poliovirus virion in a flexible configuration...effects of an antiviral both in vitro and in vivo. Some viruses have not been adapted to grow in tissue culture cells or due to their genetic makeup are

  15. Smallpox Antiviral Drug

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hruby, Dennis E; Bolken, Tove C

    2005-01-01

    ...) as a model system, the goal of our currently funded work is to determine whether the 17L cysteine proteinase or the 17L metalloproteinase encoded by VV is the pox virus core protein proteinase (vCPP...

  16. Brand Licensing : Once you pop you can’t stop: When brand licensing goes too far

    OpenAIRE

    Dementev, Kirill; Lukyanchenko, Yuliya; Emilsson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate consumer’s attitude towards licensed products in relation to the parent brand, with respect to perceived quality, likelihood to buy and associations’ transferability. Background: Brand licensing has become one of an increasingly popular ways of stretching a brand into new product categories to reach more consumers in new markets. Despite the fact that brand licensing is less risky than building a brand from scratch, the odds that licensed p...

  17. Why trash don't pass? pharmaceutical licensing and safety performance of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tannista; Nayak, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how asymmetric information in pharmaceutical licensing affects the safety standards of licensed drugs. Pharmaceutical companies often license potential drug molecules at different stages of drug development from other pharmaceutical or biotechnology companies and complete the remaining of research stages before submitting the new drug application(NDA) to the food and drug administration. The asymmetric information associated with the quality of licensed molecules might result in the molecules which are less likely to succeed to be licensed out, while those with greater potential of success being held internally for development. We identify the NDAs submitted between 1993 and 2004 where new molecular entities were acquired through licensing. Controlling for other drug area specific and applicant firm specific factors, we investigate whether drugs developed with licensed molecules face higher probability of safety based recall and ultimate withdrawal from the market than drugs developed internally. Results suggest the opposite of Akerlof's (Q J Econ 84:488-500, 1970) lemons problem. Licensed molecules rather have less probability of facing safety based recalls and ultimate withdrawal from the market comparing to internally developed drug molecules. This suggests that biotechnology and small pharmaceutical firms specializing in pharmaceutical research are more efficient in developing good potential molecules because of their concentrated research. Biotechnology firms license out good potential molecules because it increases their market value and reputation. In addition, results suggest that both the number of previous approved drugs in the disease area, and also the applicant firms' total number of previous approvals in all disease areas reduce the probability that an additional approved drug in the same drug area will potentially be harmful.

  18. Westinghouse AP1000 licensing maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T.; Vijuk, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at making available a nuclear power plant that is economical in the U.S deregulated electrical power industry in the near-term. The AP1000 is two-loop 1000 MWe pressurizer water reactor (PWR). It is an up rated version of the AP600. The AP1000 uses passive safety systems to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 35 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 received Final Design Approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) in September 2004. The AP1000 meets the US utility requirements. The AP1000 and its sister plant the AP600 have gone through a very through and complete licensing review. This paper describes the U.S. NRC review efforts of both the AP600 and the AP1000. The detail of the review and the independent calculations, evaluations and testing is discussed. The AP600 licensing documentation was submitted in 1992. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in 1999. During the intervening 7 years, the U.S. NRC asked thousands of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. For the AP1000 Westinghouse first engaged the U.S. NRC in pre-certification discussions to define the extent of the review required, since the design is so similar to the AP600. The AP1000 licensing documentation was submitted in March 2002. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in September 2004. During the intervening 2 1/2 years, the U.S. NRC asked hundreds of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. The implications of this review and approval on AP1000 applications in

  19. 27 CFR 478.92 - How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition..., armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity ammunition feeding devices? (a)(1) Firearms. You, as a... (bases). (b) Armor piercing ammunition—(1) Marking of ammunition. Each licensed manufacturer or licensed...

  20. 76 FR 17840 - Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... Palm Beach, Florida 33401-6976. The inventions to be licensed are U.S. Patent No. 6,051,189 issued... entitled ``Method and system for detecting and recording submicron sized particles,'' and U.S. Patent No. 7... Department of the Army Notice of Intent To License Government-Owned Inventions; Intent To License Exclusively...

  1. [Strategies, actors, promises and fears in the smallpox vaccinations campaigns in Mexico: from the Porfiriato to the Post-revolution (1880-1940)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Claudia

    2011-02-01

    The article examines some of the strategies employed by the Mexican health authorities that led to the organization of massive and obligatory smallpox vaccination campaigns from the late 1880s to the 1940s, a period of Mexican history that corresponds to the Porfirio Díaz regime (1877-1911), to the armed phase of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), and to the first two decades of the Post-revolutionary governments (1920-1940). Attention will be placed of the vaccination programs in the main urban settings, notably in Mexico City, as well as the gradual but decisive organization and regulation of vaccination campaigns in the heterogeneous rural milieu. Furthermore, the importance that hygienic education acquired will be explored, as well as the divergent and contested responses that emerged due to the obligatory vaccination campaigns, responses that included resistance, fear, uncertainty and widespread acceptance.

  2. Subset relations in ellipsis licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Murphy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide arguments for the claim that ellipsis licensing requires elided material to constitute a subset of its antecedent. On the empirical side, I focus on deriving Ross’ (1970 generalization that backward gapping is restricted to OV contexts. A new operation 'Total Impoverishment' is proposed for ellipsis, which involves insertion of null morphemes into the ellipsis site in a late insertion framework such as Distributed Morphology. This approach is developed as a possible alternative to Merchant’s (2001 account based on the formal [E]-feature. It will be shown that the correlation between word order and the directionality of gapping falls out under the present approach, and in addition more general arguments for the role of the subset in ellipsis will be presented, as well as a critique of the [E]-feature approach from the perspective of alternatives to formal features.

  3. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  4. 10 CFR 60.45 - Amendment of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of license. 60.45 Section 60.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Issuance and Amendment § 60.45 Amendment of license. (a) An application for amendment of a license...

  5. 10 CFR 61.26 - Amendment of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of license. 61.26 Section 61.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.26 Amendment of license. (a) An application for amendment of a license must be filed in accordance...

  6. 10 CFR 110.42 - Export licensing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Export licensing criteria. 110.42 Section 110.42 Energy... License Applications § 110.42 Export licensing criteria. (a) The review of license applications for export... licensing criteria in § 110.42(a). Exports of nuclear reactor components, as specified in paragraphs (5...

  7. 27 CFR 555.49 - Issuance of license or permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... satisfaction of the Chief, Firearms and Explosives Licensing Center, that the business or operations to be... Chief, Firearms and Explosives Licensing Center, will issue a license or permit if— (i) A properly..., Firearms and Explosives Licensing Center, will approve a properly executed application for a license or...

  8. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  9. Minimum Licensing Requirements for Day Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Human Services, Little Rock. Div. of Social Services.

    The standards outlined in this document compose the minimum licensing requirements for persons or organizations operating a child care facility in Arkansas. Sections of the guide concern the licensing authority and definition of units covered by the authority, center organization and administration, staff, program, discipline, records, nutrition,…

  10. Current status of the PBMR licensing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysen, A.; Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    The CNS is currently reviewing the PBMR conceptual design from a licensibility point of view. The PBMR concept is based on a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor - pebble bed reactor type. It is anticipated that the PBMR design will rely on inherent safety characteristics to contain fission products within fuel over the full range of design basis events. This feature combined with the high temperature integrity of the fuel and structural graphite, allows the safe use of a high coolant temperature, which allows consideration of the future development of this reactor for non-electrical applications of nuclear heat for industrial use. The CNS licensing approach requires that the licensing and design basis of the plant should respect prevailing international norms and practices and that a quantitative risk assessment should demonstrate compliance with the CNS fundamental safety standards. The first stage of the licensing process is now ongoing; this is a pre-application phase, which will result in a statement on licensibility being issued. Identification of the specific documentation requirements and information needed is required across every step of the licensing process. Top level regulatory requirements have been established for the PBMR. They include the CNS fundamental safety standard and basic licensing criteria, which describes requirements on licensees of nuclear installations regarding risk assessment and compliance with the safety criteria and define classification of licensing basis events. (author)

  11. 77 FR 31894 - Portable Gauge Licenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... COMMISSION Portable Gauge Licenses AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for... guidance for portable gauge licensees. The NRC is requesting public comment on NUREG-1556, Volume 1... Gauge Licenses.'' The document has been updated to include safety culture, security of radioactive...

  12. Licensing of ''grandfather's'' facilities: Ukrainian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolaitchouk, H.; Bogdan, L.; Steinberg, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the former USSR, unlike most countries, radioactive waste management activities including waste disposal needed no license. But after the USSR breakdown the Ukrainian Parliament -- Verkhovna Rada -- invoked the revised Law on Business activities. According to Article 4 of the Law, in order to treat or to dispose radioactive waste every enterprise has to get a special permission or license. In compliance with the Law, the Cabinet of Ministers by its Ordinance of January 13, 1993, authorized the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (UkrSCNRS) to issue special permissions or licenses for waste treatment and disposal. And that requirement was valid not only for future activities but also for existing facilities in operation. Taking into account the undergoing legislative process, SCNRS began to develop its licensing process without waiting for the special nuclear laws to be passed. On the basis of the legislation already in effect, first of all the Law on Enterprises (full responsibility of enterprises for their activities) and Law on Business activities (requirement to have a license for special types of activities), the newly formed national regulatory body had to identify all the enterprises that needed to be licensed, to establish relevant procedures, to develop related regulatory documents, to implement these procedures and documents at operating enterprises, and for each case to make a decision concerning feasibility of issuing a license, period of validity and license conditions

  13. 10 CFR 60.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 60.3 Section 60.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.3 License required. (a) DOE shall not receive or possess source, special nuclear, or...

  14. 10 CFR 61.3 - License required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License required. 61.3 Section 61.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General... containing source, special nuclear, or byproduct material at a land disposal facility unless authorized by a...

  15. Licensing aspects regarding the RBMN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Sacramento, Arivaldo M.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The licensing process of a waste disposal facility is a complex and demanding undertaking. It proceeds in phases, starting with the site selection and ending many decades later, when the radionuclides decayed and no longer offer possible hazard. That is one of the reasons why the licensing process for the Brazilian repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (RBMN Project) is a challenge for all the technicians involved. Besides that, the only national experience associated to this subject arose after a radiological accident in the State of Goias, in 1987. Two different institutions are involved in this licensing process: IBAMA, for environmental licensing, and CNEN, for nuclear licensing. Both of them will evaluate the possible impacts caused by the waste disposal, so it is essential to avoid conflicts and duplications of activities. The RBMN project has different teams for each main activity, and one of them is the Licensing group. This team has been planning the licensing activities for the repository, studying the legal framework and estimating costs and execution time for each step. This paper presents the status of the licensing activities regarding to the RBMN project done by the CNEN staff. (author)

  16. 32 CFR 552.56 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Licensing requirements. 552.56 Section 552.56 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Solicitation on Military Reservations § 552.56 Licensing requirements. To transact...

  17. Licensing aspects regarding the RBMN project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Sacramento, Arivaldo M.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: ams@cdtn.br, E-mail: bla@cdtn.br, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The licensing process of a waste disposal facility is a complex and demanding undertaking. It proceeds in phases, starting with the site selection and ending many decades later, when the radionuclides decayed and no longer offer possible hazard. That is one of the reasons why the licensing process for the Brazilian repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (RBMN Project) is a challenge for all the technicians involved. Besides that, the only national experience associated to this subject arose after a radiological accident in the State of Goias, in 1987. Two different institutions are involved in this licensing process: IBAMA, for environmental licensing, and CNEN, for nuclear licensing. Both of them will evaluate the possible impacts caused by the waste disposal, so it is essential to avoid conflicts and duplications of activities. The RBMN project has different teams for each main activity, and one of them is the Licensing group. This team has been planning the licensing activities for the repository, studying the legal framework and estimating costs and execution time for each step. This paper presents the status of the licensing activities regarding to the RBMN project done by the CNEN staff. (author)

  18. Nuclear powerplant licensing: need for additional improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staats, E.B.

    1978-01-01

    In this report GAO reviews the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's management process for evaluating nuclear powerplant designs and sites and makes recommendations for improvements. The report also discusses the Commission staff's perspective on the adequacy of the licensing process, Commission staff's ability to raise dissenting technical opinions without experiencing adverse personnel actions, and administration's proposed legislation to streamline the licensing process

  19. 22 CFR 96.30 - State licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State licensing. 96.30 Section 96.30 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Standards for Convention Accreditation and Approval Licensing and Corporate Governance § 96.30...

  20. 42 CFR 431.705 - Licensing authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing authority. 431.705 Section 431.705 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION State Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.705...

  1. Neutrophils Induced Licensing of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keishiro Amano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells acquire effector function through a licensing process and exert anti-leukemia/tumor effect. However, there is no means to promote a licensing effect of allogeneic NK cells other than cytomegalovirus reactivation-induced licensing in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in human. In mice, a licensing process is mediated by Ly49 receptors which recognize self-major histocompatibility complex class I. The distribution of four Ly49 receptors showed similar pattern in congenic mice, B10, B10.BR, and B10.D2, which have B10 background. Forty Gy-irradiated 2×106 B10.D2 cells including splenocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells in untreated mice, or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treated mice were injected intraperitoneally into B10 mice. We found that murine NK cells were effectively licensed by intraperitoneal injection of donor neutrophils with its corresponding NK receptor ligand in B10 mice as a recipient and B10.D2 as a donor. Mechanistic studies revealed that NK cells showed the upregulation of intracellular interferon-γ and CD107a expression as markers of NK cell activation. Moreover, enriched neutrophils enhanced licensing effect of NK cells; meanwhile, licensing effect was diminished by depletion of neutrophils. Collectively, injection of neutrophils induced NK cell licensing (activation via NK receptor ligand interaction.

  2. Overdragelse af immaterielle licenser ved virksomhedsoverdragelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Birgit; Bülow, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen belyser mulighederhne for at overdrage immaterielle licenser i forbindelse med virksomhedsoverdragelser i og uden for konkurs, herunder med hjemmel i konkuslovens § 14 c, stk. 2, fra virksomheder under rekonstruktionsbehandling.......Artiklen belyser mulighederhne for at overdrage immaterielle licenser i forbindelse med virksomhedsoverdragelser i og uden for konkurs, herunder med hjemmel i konkuslovens § 14 c, stk. 2, fra virksomheder under rekonstruktionsbehandling....

  3. NEG-shift, Licensing, and Repair Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2008-01-01

    I entertain the idea that the cross-linguistic variation in the licensing of NEG-shift, the movement of negative objects to spec-NegP, can be accounted for by a few representational constraints that are not directly related to case licensing or feature checking, and which potentially conflict...

  4. 47 CFR 74.532 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements. 74.532 Section 74.532 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... § 74.532 Licensing requirements. (a) An aural broadcast STL or an aural broadcast intercity relay...

  5. 10 CFR 110.5 - Licensing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensing requirements. 110.5 Section 110.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General Provisions § 110.5 Licensing requirements. Except as provided under subpart B of this part, no person may export...

  6. 15 CFR 335.5 - Licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licenses. 335.5 Section 335.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS IMPORTS OF WORSTED WOOL FABRIC § 335.5 Licenses...

  7. Compulsory licensing often did not produce lower prices for antiretrovirals compared to international procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed F; Kuhn, Randall; Attaran, Amir

    2015-03-01

    Compulsory licensing has been widely suggested as a legal mechanism for bypassing patents to introduce lower-cost generic antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Previous studies found that compulsory licensing can reduce procurement prices for drugs, but it is unknown how the resulting prices compare to procurements through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; UNICEF; and other international channels. For this study we systematically constructed a case-study database of compulsory licensing activity for antiretrovirals and compared compulsory license prices to those in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Price Reporting Mechanism and the Global Fund's Price and Quality Reporting Tool. Thirty compulsory license cases were analyzed with 673 comparable procurements from WHO and Global Fund data. Compulsory license prices exceeded the median international procurement prices in nineteen of the thirty case studies, often with a price gap of more than 25 percent. Compulsory licensing often delivered suboptimal value when compared to the alternative of international procurement, especially when used by low-income countries to manufacture medicines locally. There is an ongoing need for multilateral and charitable actors to work collectively with governments and medicine suppliers on policy options. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified

  9. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  10. Learning-by-Licensing: How Chinese Firms Benefit From Licensing-In Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuandi; Roijakkers, N.; Vanhaverbeke, W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how interfirm variations in their in-licensed technology portfolios influence subsequent innovation performance. Existing studies mainly assume licensed technologies are homogeneously accessible to firms, and a prevailing explanation as to why firms vary in their innovation...... performance lies in differences of absorptive capacity. In this study, we intend to relax this assumption and use data about 186 Chinese indigenous firms to investigate how differences in in-licensing portfolios lead to different effects on innovation performance. We find that firms benefit from prior in-licensing...... technologies and the result is related to four dimensions of their licensing portfolios. We find that 1) the scale of firms' technology in-licensing has an inverted-U relationship with their subsequent innovation performance; 2) firms that license-in foreign technologies tend to outperform those...

  11. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  12. 77 FR 5014 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary license has... regulations of the Commission pertaining to the licensing of Ocean Transportation Intermediaries, 46 CFR part...

  13. 77 FR 5014 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Reissuance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Reissuance Notice is hereby given that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been reissued by the Federal... regulations of the Commission pertaining to the licensing of Ocean Transportation Intermediaries, 46 CFR part...

  14. Effectiveness of Oregon's teen licensing program : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Significant changes in Oregons teen licensing laws went into effect on March 1, 2000. The new laws expanded the provisional driving license program which had been in effect since October 1989 and established a graduated driver licensing (GDL) prog...

  15. 78 FR 57665 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ..., Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below assigned to the National... are available for licensing. DATES: September 19, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward K...

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  18. ITER safety and licensing update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Iseli, Markus; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ITER preliminary safety report has been submitted to the French nuclear regulator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Safety analyses have shown how the key safety functions will be achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design contains multiple provisions for the confinement of radioactive material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyses have addressed external hazards (e.g. earthquake) and loss of all power. - Abstract: Safety files were submitted by the ITER Organization to the French nuclear safety authorities in March 2010 as a part of the licensing process. These included the preliminary safety report (RPrS) which presents the extensive safety analyses performed for ITER. The report has been the subject of examination by the authorities and their advisors, and discussions with them have been held on many topics. In the light of this process, this paper discusses some of the topics that remain prominent in the safety analysis of ITER. In particular, the provision of the two safety functions, confinement of radioactive material and limitation of exposure to radiation, is explained and some of the potential challenges to them are identified. Amongst these are the risks of fire and explosion, and external events such as earthquake and loss of all electric power. Provisions in the ITER design, together with the characteristics of fusion, ensure that a very good safety performance will be achieved.

  19. 77 FR 27457 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ..., Manager (Qualifying Individual), Alejandro Tortorella, Manager, Application Type: New NVO & OFF License..., President (Qualifying Individual), Man C. Soo, Treasurer, Application Type: New NVO & OFF License. Warehouse...

  20. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  1. Licensing and decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Working Group 1 (Licensing and Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations) investigated the question, 'Should it be recommended to work out international principles and rules on the licensing and decommissioning of nuclear installations and to make them subject to international instruments'. It was found that the legal systems in the countries examined are still too disparate to allow for a recommendation aiming at harmonizing the provisions for licensing. With respect to decommissioning, the WG considers the IAEA three-stage-plan to be a valuable first step towards standardisation. (CW) [de

  2. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  3. PBMR-SA licensing project organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapisson, G.A.; Metcalf, P.E.; Mysen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The South African nuclear regulatory authority, the Council for Nuclear Safety (CNS), is beginning the safety review of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design under development by the South African National Electrical Utility, Eskom. This paper describes the CNS licensing process, including the establishment of basic licensing criteria, general design criteria, and specific design rules, as well the safety assessment to be conducted in accordance with the established structure. It also summarises the CNS PBMR review project activities, including the overall organisational arrangements, licensing basis, safety and risk assessment, general operating rules and plant design engineering, and pre-operational testing. (author)

  4. Licensing of ANSTO'S OPAL reactor during construction and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.W.; Ordonez, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents a general description of the ongoing licensing activities associated with the construction and commissioning of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation's (ANSTO) Open Pool Australian Light-water (OPAL) Reactor at their Lucas Heights site. It addresses the following aspects: The Construction Licence - what it is and what impact it had on the construction of the OPAL Reactor, specifically the various Construction Licence Conditions; The interface between ANSTO, INVAP and ARPANSA during the construction of the OPAL Reactor, particularly in relation to ARPANS Regulation 54; Specific licensing issues that have arisen during the construction and commissioning process and how they have been resolved; The Operating Licence Application - what it is and how it interfaces with the construction and commissioning of the OPAL Reactor. These aspects are all addressed from the point of view of the licensee ANSTO and the RRR Project. Particular emphasis will be given to the way in which the licensing process is integrated into the overall project program and the lessons learnt that may be of benefit to other licensees and regulators. Note that this paper is an update of a presentation given at IGORR10 and follows on from a paper previously presented at PNBC12 in October 2002

  5. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  6. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimbron E, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Santa Fe, Av. Carlos Lazo No. 100, Santa Fe, 01389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Puente E, F., E-mail: erick.zimbron@gmail.com [ININ, Direccion de Investigacion Cientifica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  7. Small modular reactors: current status, economic aspects and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimbron E, E.; Puente E, F.

    2014-10-01

    Interest for nuclear energy had resurgence since the beginning of the new century. This was a consequence of the new world conditions and needs: increasing energy demands (mainly from developing countries), awareness of the importance of energetic security and the necessity of limiting carbon emissions. In this nuclear boom, Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) develop and start to consolidate as a viable option for the present energy market. Their modular characteristics, lower initial capital cost, passive safety features and their niche applications, situate them as a technology with various advantages. The following study will present and analysis that will help to comprehend the SMRs present status. Information will show planned reactors, reactors in construction and in operation, advantages and challenges of their implementation, relevant economic aspects and important licensing factors that need to be highlighted. The analysis showed that the SMR technology is still in an initial stage that could reach and important development point in the next ten years. In this period, many of the reactors that are in design stage or that are through their licensing process might be constructed and could be getting ready for a commercial status. On the other hand, it has been observed that there are two main economic factors that need to be considered for any SMRs implementation project. First, the costs (initial, operation, maintenance, fuel and decommissioning) and second their possible niche market applications. Additionally, it has been noted that the licensing process is one of the greatest challenges for SMR general development. Licensing is mainly related to topic such as Emergency Planning Zone, first-of-a-kind engineering, passive safety features, proliferation resistance, multiple module designs and staffing. Previous information will serve as a base for carrying out a feasibility assessment analysis for SMR in Mexico. This part will be the last section of the project

  8. Consolidated guidance about materials licenses: Program-specific guidance about portable gauge licenses. Final report; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacca, P.C.; Whitten, J.E.; Pelchat, J.M.; Arredondo, S.A.; Matson, E.R.; Lewis, S.H.; Collins, D.J.; Santiago, P.A.; Tingle, W.

    1997-05-01

    As part of its redesign of the materials licensing process, NRC is consolidating and updating numerous guidance documents into a single comprehensive repository as described in NUREG-1539 and draft NUREG-1541. NUREG-1556, Vol. 1, is the first program-specific guidance developed for the new process and will serve as a template for subsequent program-specific guidance. This document is intended for use by applicants, licensees, and NRC staff and will also be available to Agreement States. This document supersedes the guidance previously found in draft Regulatory Guide DG-0008, ''Applications for the Use of Sealed Sources in Portable Gauging Devices,'' and in NMSs Policy and guidance Directive 2-07, ''Standard Review Plan for Applications for Use of Sealed Sources in Portable Gauging Devices.'' This final report takes a more risk-informed, performance-based approach to licensing portable gauges, and reduces the information(amount and level of detail) needed to support an application to use these devices. It incorporates many suggests submitted during the comment period on draft NUREG-1556, Volume 1. When published, this final report should be used in preparing portable gauge license applications. NRC staff will use this final report in reviewing these applications

  9. Establishment of the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a novel animal model for comparing smallpox vaccines administered preexposure in both high- and low-dose monkeypox virus challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M S; Carroll, D S; Gallardo-Romero, N F; Lash, R R; Salzer, J S; Weiss, S L; Patel, N; Clemmons, C J; Smith, S K; Hutson, C L; Karem, K L; Damon, I K

    2011-08-01

    The 2003 monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak and subsequent laboratory studies demonstrated that the black-tailed prairie dog is susceptible to MPXV infection and that the ensuing rash illness is similar to human systemic orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infection, including a 7- to 9-day incubation period and, likely, in some cases a respiratory route of infection; these features distinguish this model from others. The need for safe and efficacious vaccines for OPVX in areas where it is endemic or epidemic is important to protect an increasingly OPXV-naïve population. In this study, we tested current and investigational smallpox vaccines for safety, induction of anti-OPXV antibodies, and protection against mortality and morbidity in two MPXV challenges. None of the smallpox vaccines caused illness in this model, and all vaccinated animals showed anti-OPXV antibody responses and neutralizing antibody. We tested vaccine efficacy by challenging the animals with 10(5) or 10(6) PFU Congo Basin MPXV 30 days postvaccination and evaluating morbidity and mortality. Our results demonstrated that vaccination with either Dryvax or Acambis2000 protected the animals from death with no rash illness. Vaccination with IMVAMUNE also protected the animals from death, albeit with (modified) rash illness. Based on the results of this study, we believe prairie dogs offer a novel and potentially useful small animal model for the safety and efficacy testing of smallpox vaccines in pre- and postexposure vaccine testing, which is important for public health planning.

  10. Establishment of the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a Novel Animal Model for Comparing Smallpox Vaccines Administered Preexposure in both High- and Low-Dose Monkeypox Virus Challenges ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M. S.; Carroll, D. S.; Gallardo-Romero, N. F.; Lash, R. R.; Salzer, J. S.; Weiss, S. L.; Patel, N.; Clemmons, C. J.; Smith, S. K.; Hutson, C. L.; Karem, K. L.; Damon, I. K.

    2011-01-01

    The 2003 monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak and subsequent laboratory studies demonstrated that the black-tailed prairie dog is susceptible to MPXV infection and that the ensuing rash illness is similar to human systemic orthopoxvirus (OPXV) infection, including a 7- to 9-day incubation period and, likely, in some cases a respiratory route of infection; these features distinguish this model from others. The need for safe and efficacious vaccines for OPVX in areas where it is endemic or epidemic is important to protect an increasingly OPXV-naïve population. In this study, we tested current and investigational smallpox vaccines for safety, induction of anti-OPXV antibodies, and protection against mortality and morbidity in two MPXV challenges. None of the smallpox vaccines caused illness in this model, and all vaccinated animals showed anti-OPXV antibody responses and neutralizing antibody. We tested vaccine efficacy by challenging the animals with 105 or 106 PFU Congo Basin MPXV 30 days postvaccination and evaluating morbidity and mortality. Our results demonstrated that vaccination with either Dryvax or Acambis2000 protected the animals from death with no rash illness. Vaccination with IMVAMUNE also protected the animals from death, albeit with (modified) rash illness. Based on the results of this study, we believe prairie dogs offer a novel and potentially useful small animal model for the safety and efficacy testing of smallpox vaccines in pre- and postexposure vaccine testing, which is important for public health planning. PMID:21632764

  11. GNU General Public License v3: A Legal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Guadamuz González

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a first-look legal analysis of the draft version 3 of the GNU General Public License, and will also look at the debate that it has generated in the Free and Open Source community. The paper will answer the following vital questions: Is the GPL v3 different in any fundamental way from GPL v2? What are the main differences? What will be the impact of the new GPL to the problem of software patents? Is there an incompatibility problem with previous versions of the licence? How does it compare with other existing licences?

  12. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.R.; Orvis, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented. (author)

  13. The case against a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Collin

    Full Text Available Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  14. The case for a smoker's license.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  15. The case for a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  16. The case against a smoker's license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers designed to limit access to tobacco products and encourage cessation. Key elements of the smoker's license include smokers setting daily limits, financial incentives for permanent license surrender, and a test of health risk knowledge for commencing smokers. Collin argues against the proposal, saying that it would shift focus away from the real vector of the epidemic--the tobacco industry--and that by focusing on individuals it would censure victims, increase stigmatization of smokers, and marginalize the poor.

  17. Recent Supreme Court decisions and licensing power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano-Coltart, Jennifer; Calkins, Charles W

    2008-02-01

    The recently decided eBay and MedImmune cases interject both reassurance and uncertainty into the present patent licensing landscape, affecting the strategic decisions to be considered during negotiations.

  18. 7 CFR 46.6 - License fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING OF PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES REGULATIONS (OTHER... commission merchants, brokers, and dealers (other than grocery wholesalers and retailers) the annual license...

  19. Regulation and Licensing Aspect. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    The NORM industries must apply the Envionmental Quality Act 1974 (Act 127), Safety Act and Occupational Safety and Health Act (514), Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304) and others related act depend on the industries nature and situation.

  20. License Agreements | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) licenses the discoveries of NCI and nine other NIH Institutes so new technologies can be developed and commercialized, to convert them into public health benefits.

  1. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  2. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  3. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  4. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  5. Current safety issues of CANDU licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.; Natalizio, A.

    1994-01-01

    As requested by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), the status of five generic licensing issues has been examined and their potential impact on a new plant that would be constructed in Canada has been evaluated. The results and conclusions of this evaluation are summarized as follows: steam explosion in calandria, hydrogen explosion in containment, use of PSA in reactor licensing, human factors, safety critical software

  6. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  7. The Case against a Smoker's License

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background to the debate: Tobacco continues to kill millions of people around the world each year and its use is increasing in some countries, which makes the need for new, creative, and radical efforts to achieve the tobacco control endgame vitally important. One such effort is discussed in this PLOS Medicine Debate, where Simon Chapman presents his proposal for a "smoker's license" and Jeff Collin argues against. Chapman sets out a case for introducing a smart card license for smokers desig...

  8. Improving the Business Trade Licensing Reform Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gamser, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    This case study of Kenyan business trade licensing shows that red-tape costs can be cut if reform is championed strongly and there is a strong case in terms of costs and benefits. The reform of business registration, trade licensing and other business entry procedures is a cost effective and progressive way to promote indigenous private sector development. But, reform needs more than good cost-benefit analysis and legal drafting; it also requires building constituencies and continuous advocacy.

  9. Regulations and the licensing process in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulla, Herbert U.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the licensing process which took place from 1971 to 1978 shows which laws, regulations and standards were used in checking the safety aspects of the nuclear power plant and which organisations participated in the licensing process. The internal organisation of the Austrian main-expert in the procedure is illustrated. Examples of detail-work are explained. The importance of intensive co-operation of the different technical groups and the problems of comparable examination depth are underlined. (author)

  10. Nuclear licensing and supervision in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The legal instrument for implementing the licensing and supervisory procedure is specified by statutory ordinances, guidelines and provisions. The licensing requirements for nuclear power plants on the final storage of radioactive wastes in the federal republic of germany are described. The nuclear facilities are subject to continuous state supervision after they have been granted. The appendix gives a brief account of the most important ordinances relating to the AtG and extracts from the Nuclear Safety Convention. (HP)

  11. U.S. licensing requirements and recommendations on international principles and rules on licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrick, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    In the USA, the basic law concerning licensing requirements and recommendations on international principles and rules on licensing is set forth in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Act is implemented through regulations issued by the NRC, which prescribes the standards for licensing including safety standards. The recommendations concern the exchange of technical information, operating experience, and the development of certain minimum safety guidelines. (CW) [de

  12. Establishing a safety and licensing basis for generation IV advanced reactors. License by test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2001-01-01

    The license by test approach to licensing is a novel method of licensing reactors. It provides an opportunity to deal with innovative non-water reactors in a direct way on a time scale that could permit early certification based on tests of a demonstration reactor. The uncertainties in the design and significant contributors to risk would be identified in the PRA during the design. Deterministic analysis computer codes could be tested on a real reactor. Scaling effects and associated uncertainties would be minimized. License by test is an approach that has sufficient merit to be developed and tested

  13. Young driver licensing: examination of population-level rates using New Jersey's state licensing database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R; Kim, Konny H

    2015-03-01

    Recent surveys have provided insight on the primary reasons why US teens delay licensure but are limited in their ability to estimate licensing rates and trends. State administrative licensing data are the ideal source to provide this information but have not yet been analyzed for this purpose. Our objective was to analyze New Jersey's (NJ) licensing database to: (1) describe population-based rates of licensure among 17- to 20-year-olds, overall and by gender and zip code level indicators of household income, population density, and race/ethnicity; and (2) examine recent trends in licensure. We obtained records on all licensed NJ drivers through June 2012 from the NJ Motor Vehicle Commission's licensing database and determined each young driver's age at the time of intermediate and full licensure. Data from the US Census and American Community Survey were used to estimate a fixed cohort of NJ residents who turned 17 years old in 2006-2007 (n=255,833). Licensing data were used to estimate the number of these drivers who obtained an intermediate license by each month of age (numerators) and, among those who obtained an intermediate license, time to graduation to full licensure. Overall, 40% of NJ residents-and half of those who ultimately obtained a license by age 21-were licensed within a month of NJ's minimum licensing age of 17, 64% by their 18th birthday, and 81% by their 21st birthday. Starkly different patterns of licensure were observed by socioeconomic indicators; for example, 65% of 17-year-olds residing in the highest-income zip codes were licensed in the first month of eligibility compared with 13% of residents living in the lowest-income zip codes. The younger an individual obtained their intermediate license, the earlier they graduated to a full license. Finally, the rate and timing of licensure in NJ has been relatively stable from 2006 to 2012, with at most a 1-3% point decline in rates. These findings support the growing body of literature suggesting

  14. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  15. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  16. License - Trypanosomes Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pliance with the terms and conditions of the license described below. The license s...List Contact us Trypanosomes Database License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2014/02/04 You may use this database in com

  17. 10 CFR 61.30 - Transfer of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of license. 61.30 Section 61.30 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61... maintenance, the licensee may apply for an amendment to transfer the license to the disposal site owner. The...

  18. 10 CFR 61.31 - Termination of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of license. 61.31 Section 61.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61... of the disposal site and a copy has been sent to the Commission immediately prior to license...

  19. 7 CFR 6.32 - Globalization of licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Globalization of licenses. 6.32 Section 6.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.32 Globalization of licenses. If the Licensing Authority determines that entries of an article...

  20. 47 CFR 74.832 - Licensing requirements and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements and procedures. 74.832... Stations § 74.832 Licensing requirements and procedures. (a) A license authorizing operation of one or more... to the same community. Licensing of low power auxiliary stations for use with a specific broadcast...

  1. 10 CFR 110.43 - Import licensing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import licensing criteria. 110.43 Section 110.43 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Review of License Applications § 110.43 Import licensing criteria. The review of license applications for imports...

  2. 7 CFR 6.28 - Transfer of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.28 Transfer of license. (a) If a licensee sells or conveys its business involving articles covered... Licensing Authority will transfer to such other person the historical, nonhistorical or designated license...

  3. 27 CFR 478.45 - Renewal of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....45 Renewal of license. If a licensee intends to continue the business or activity described on a... otherwise notified in writing by the Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, execute and file with ATF... license or permit lawfully issued in the United States; waiver). The Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing...

  4. Policy Framework Paper on Business Licensing Reform and Simplification

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation; Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency; World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This paper includes an overall introduction to the uses (and abuses) of business licenses, and to the way business licensing reforms can be organized. It also provides a broad overview and framework for licensing reforms. This paper is supported by more detailed case studies of licensing reform in particular sectors, and other guidance for facilities and field operations. This includes a d...

  5. Global Analysis of General Trade and Operational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation; Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the general purpose licensing imposed by central or local authorities, and the need to eliminate unnecessary licensing regulations imposed on businesses. This paper does not address the issue of reform of sector-specific or professional licensing regulation, but provides criteria and tools for identifying unnecessary licensing regulations, and their elimination or, in s...

  6. 77 FR 47393 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...: Voluntary surrender of license. License No.: 12454N. Name: Federation Exports-Imports Inc. Address: 747...: Natco International Transports USA, L.L.C. Address: 12415 SW 136th Avenue, Bay 4, Miami, FL 33186 Date...: Voluntary surrender of license. License No.: 022773F. Name: WLI (USA) Inc. Address: 175-01 Rockaway Blvd...

  7. Graduated licensing laws and fatal crashes of teenage drivers: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R; Fields, Michele; Braitman, Keli A; Hellinga, Laurie A

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of the strength of US state graduated driver licensing laws and specific licensing components on the rate of teenage driver fatal crash involvements per 100,000 teenagers during 1996-2007. The strengths of state laws were rated good, fair, marginal, or poor based on a system developed previously by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Analysis was based on quarterly counts of drivers involved in fatal crashes. Associations of overall ratings and individual licensing components with teenage crash rates were evaluated using Poisson regression, with the corresponding fatal crash rate for drivers ages 30-59 controlling for state- or time-dependent influences on crash rates unrelated to graduated licensing laws. Compared with licensing laws rated poor, laws rated good were associated with 30 percent lower fatal crash rates among 15- to 17-year-olds. Laws rated fair yielded fatal crash rates 11 percent lower. The longer the permit age was delayed, or the longer the licensing age was delayed, the lower the estimated fatal crash rates among 15- to 17-year-olds. Stronger nighttime restrictions were associated with larger reductions, and reductions were larger for laws limiting teenage passengers to zero or one than laws allowing two or more teenage passengers or laws without passenger restrictions. After the effects of any related delay in licensure were accounted for, an increase in the minimum learner's permit holding period showed no association with fatal crash rates. An increase in required practice driving hours did not appear to have an independent association with fatal crash rates. Graduated licensing laws that include strong nighttime and passenger restrictions and laws that delay the learner's permit age and licensing age are associated with lower teenage fatal crash rates. States that adopt such laws can expect to achieve substantial reductions in crash deaths.

  8. Oops I Did it Again: Examining Self-Licensing Effects in a Subsequent Self-Regulation Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Sosja; Evers, Catharine; de Ridder, Denise

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have mainly examined the immediate effects of self-licensing on self-regulation failure. The present vignette studies examined what happens when a second self-regulation dilemma is encountered. In Studies 1 (N = 52) and 2 (N = 166), participants read a vignette in which the protagonist chooses to buy a treat while being on a diet, which was preceded by a license (License condition) or not (Control condition). The self-reported likelihood of indulging again when a second dilemma was presented in the same situation served as the dependent variable. Study 2 included measures of self-regulatory ability (motivation and self-efficacy) and also presented the dilemma in a new situation. Study 1 showed that participants were more likely to indulge again after an initial indulgent choice with a license. This was replicated in Study 2, which also showed that self-licensing had no effect on goal re-engagement in a new situation. A marginally significant positive effect of self-licensing was found for self-efficacy. The results obtained suggest that self-licensing negatively affects goal re-engagement in the same situation, but not in a new situation. Whether self-licensing maintains or increases feelings of self-efficacy needs to be validated in future studies. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  9. Assessment of the licensing aspects of HTGR in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varazdinec, Z.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals not only with the licensing procedure in Yugoslavia, but also reflects the Utility/Owner approach to the assessment of the licensability of the HTGR during the site selection process and especially during bid evaluation process. Besides the description of the existing procedure which was implemented on licensing of LWR program, the assessment of some licensing aspects of HTGR has been presented to describe possible implementation on licensing procedure. (author)

  10. Trademark Licensing Agreements in Light of the EC Competition Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Machnicka, Agnieszka A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Part I.- The notion of trademark licensing agreements and their uses: 1. Definition of trademark licensing agreements. 1.2. EC Trademark licensing provisions. 1.3. Other trademark agreements ¿ mention. 1.4. Relevant competition law provisions. Part II.- 2. Individual contractual clauses within the prohibition of art. 81(1) EEC Treaty: 2.1. Territorial protection, exclusive licensing 2.1.1. Exclusivity in trademark licensing ¿ general remarks. 2.1.2. Specific ci...

  11. 77 FR 25753 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... designated by the Commission or by the Chief Administrative Judge of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, will rule on the request and/or petition; and the Secretary or the Chief Administrative Judge of... License, Appendix A, Technical Specifications (TS) to revise the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Suppression...

  12. 78 FR 70589 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... Administrative Judge of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, will rule on the request and/or petition; and the Secretary or the Chief Administrative Judge of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board will... determination on the issue of no significant hazards consideration. The final determination will serve to decide...

  13. 77 FR 24538 - Fukushima-Related Orders Modifying Licenses; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... Reactor Licensees With Mark I and Mark II Containments: Order Modifying Licenses With Regard to Reliable... Holders of Construction Permits in Active or Deferred Status: Order Modifying Licenses With Regard To... issued to all operating boiling water reactor licensees with Mark I and Mark II Containments directing...

  14. Notable licensing deals in the biopharma industry in the third quarter of 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P

    2017-10-01

    During the third quarter of 2017, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence registered 949 new deals (excluding mergers and acquisitions) added as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity compared to 1,007 in Q2 this year and 1,023 in Q3 the previous year.

  15. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Arai, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  16. RM - ODP to express nuclear licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, E.A.; Martucci, M. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of CNEN (Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear) is established by standards and procedures, which allow one context where several activities for nuclear licensing are realized by persons, machines and other entities of real world and by software systems. The CNEN objectives for licensing nuclear installations can be specified and they define how the systems are consisted, its nature, and which important elements were considered relevant for its constitution. The behavior, where the software will be operated, was likely defined in this paper through all aspects of its business process, which means from its licensing context. The concepts and definition showed here defined one specifics business domain, through ODP context. The functionalities of nuclear licensing process, the relationship scope and the rules of interaction that contributed for to specify the nuclear licensing process were defined, too. Therefore, the definition of the domain follows the orientation of architecture concepts and allows to implement the reflection model, where, with the auxiliary from IDEF0 (Integration Definition for Function Modeling) diagrams, the interactions between extern domains were mapped

  17. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C.; Arai, K.; Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B.

    2015-09-01

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  18. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  19. NRC materials licensing business process reengineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued 6550 active licenses that authorize possession and use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear material. In October 1994, the NRC staff began to examine the process used to issue these licenses to identify ways to improve the process. In addition to examining the current process, the staff was directed to develop a new process design that would accomplish the following goals: (1) Maintain or raise the level of public safety achieved by the current process, (2) Perform licensing reviews and associated tasks an order of magnitude faster than the current process, (3) Exploit modern information technology as a fundamental part of the new process, and (4) Reduce the resources needed to carry out the licensing program to meet the projected 1997-1999 staffing levels. The method used for this examination is called Business Process Reengineering (BPR). BPR is the process of fundamentally changing the way work is performed so as to achieve radical performance improvements in speed, cost, and quality. Features of the new licensing process, scheduled to begin in 1996, are outlined in this paper

  20. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  1. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  2. The Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Through the Atomic Energy Act, Congress made is possible for the public to get a full and fair hearing on civilian nuclear matters. Individuals who are directly affected by any licensing action involving a facility producing or utilizing nuclear materials may participate in a formal hearing, on the record, before independent judges on the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (ASLBP or Panel). Frequently, in deciding whether a license, permit, amendment, or extension should be granted to a particular applicant, the Panel members must be more than mere umpires. If appropriate, they are authorized to go beyond the issues the parties place before them in order to identify, explore, and resolve significant questions involving threats to the public health and safety that come to a board's attention during the proceedings. This brochure explains the purpose of the panel. Also addressed are: type of hearing handled; method of public participation; formality of hearings; high-level waste; other panel responsibilities and litigation technology

  3. Nuclear power plant licensing: opportunities for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    On April 20, 1977, the Commission directed that recently completed licensing actions be reviewed by the staff for the purpose of identifying ways to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of NRC nuclear power plant licensing activities. This report summarizes the results of a study undertaken by an internal ad hoc Study Group established in response to that directive. The Study Group limited its considerations to safety and environmental review activities. The background, scope, assumptions and objectives of the study are discussed. A prime assumption of this study was that improvements in the efficiency should not be permitted to reduce the current quality achieved in the licensing process. This consideration underlies the conclusions and recommendations of the study

  4. Local licensers and recovering in VP ellipsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cyrino

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The core properties of VP ellipsis in English and Portuguese may be captured assuming that the elliptical constituent is licensed under local c-command by a verbal element in a sentence functional head. However, the lack of VP ellipsis in most Romance languages and in German, despite the existence of verb movement to sentence functional projections in these languages, suggests that a parameter is involved. Empirical evidence indicates that this parametric variation should not be attributed to a specific functional head because the functional head occupied by the verbal licenser may vary across languages and language varieties. So we will claim that the existence vs. absence of VP ellipsis in the languages considered in this study is due to the features of the functional head that intervenes between the verbal licenser and the elliptical vP phase.

  5. Partner Selection in Technological Licensing Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Trombini, Giulia

    This paper investigates the matching of seller and buyer firms in the market for technology licensing. By combining organizational learning theory with the industrial organization approach, we propose a matching model in which technological similarities in terms of relatedness and familiarity wor...... with partners’ technological relatedness. We use data on the formation of license partnerships in the global biopharmaceutical industry over the period 1994-2004 and find that, on the whole, there is empirical support for our theoretical predictions....... that is technologically unrelated, ex ante familiarity with the licensors’ technology is required. We contend also that there is interdependence between technological learning and market competition: if partners are in the same product markets, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnerships decreases...

  6. Partner Selection in Technological Licensing Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Trombini, Giulia

    This paper investigates the matching of seller and buyer firms in the market for technology licensing. By combining organizational learning theory with the industrial organization approach, we propose a matching model in which technological similarities in terms of relatedness and familiarity work...... as attractors, and market competition and potential involuntary spillovers act as repellants. Firms seek potential licensing partners by trying to maximize technological synergies while attempting to minimize the competitive downsides. We hypothesize that when licensees engage in matches involving a partner...... that is technologically unrelated, ex ante familiarity with the licensors’ technology is required. We contend also that there is interdependence between technological learning and market competition: if partners are in the same product markets, the likelihood of technology license contractual partnerships decreases...

  7. Technology Licensing Strategy for Network Product in a Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpei Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology licensing has gained significant attention in literature and practice as a rapid and effective way to improve firm’s capability of technology innovation. In this paper, we investigate a duopolistic service provider competition market, where service providers develop and sell a kind of network product. In this setting, we analyze the innovating service provider’s four licensing strategies: no licensing, fixed fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The literature suggests that when the network products can be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is the optimal strategy of the innovating service provider. We find that when the network products cannot be completely substituted, two-part tariff licensing is not always optimal. The degree of the product differentiation, the intensity of the network effects, and the R&D cost of the potential licensee play a key role in determining the innovating service provider’s optimal licensing strategies.

  8. Stability in licensing requirements: a technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The serious difficulties encountered in the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants in the United States have resulted in the elaboration of a Bill on the siting and licensing of nuclear installations for the purpose of reforming the present system. The author fears, however, that this Bill will not reduce the complexity of present regulations and will be unable to reach the object sought which is to reduce the length of the procedure; he analyses the technical and political reasons underlying this situation, and in particular the role of the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (NEA) [fr

  9. The Optimal Licensing Contract in a Differentiated Stackelberg Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xianpei; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Huaige; Zhao, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Wang (2002) by considering a differentiated Stackelberg model, when the leader firm is an inside innovator and licenses its new technology by three options, that is, fixed-fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The main contributions and conclusions of this paper are threefold. First of all, this paper derives a very different result from Wang (2002). We show that, with a nondrastic innovation, royalty licensing is always better than fixed-fee licensing for the innovator; with a drastic innovation, royalty licensing is superior to fixed-fee licensing for small values of substitution coefficient d; however when d becomes closer to 1, neither fee nor royalty licensing will occur. Secondly, this paper shows that the innovator is always better off in case of two-part tariff licensing than fixed-fee licensing no matter what the innovation size is. Thirdly, the innovator always prefers to license its nondrastic innovation by means of a two-part tariff instead of licensing by means of a royalty; however, with a drastic innovation, the optimal licensing strategy can be either a two-part tariff or a royalty, depending upon the differentiation of the goods. PMID:24683342

  10. The Optimal Licensing Contract in a Differentiated Stackelberg Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpei Hong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the work of Wang (2002 by considering a differentiated Stackelberg model, when the leader firm is an inside innovator and licenses its new technology by three options, that is, fixed-fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The main contributions and conclusions of this paper are threefold. First of all, this paper derives a very different result from Wang (2002. We show that, with a nondrastic innovation, royalty licensing is always better than fixed-fee licensing for the innovator; with a drastic innovation, royalty licensing is superior to fixed-fee licensing for small values of substitution coefficient d; however when d becomes closer to 1, neither fee nor royalty licensing will occur. Secondly, this paper shows that the innovator is always better off in case of two-part tariff licensing than fixed-fee licensing no matter what the innovation size is. Thirdly, the innovator always prefers to license its nondrastic innovation by means of a two-part tariff instead of licensing by means of a royalty; however, with a drastic innovation, the optimal licensing strategy can be either a two-part tariff or a royalty, depending upon the differentiation of the goods.

  11. The optimal licensing contract in a differentiated Stackelberg model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xianpei; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Huaige; Zhao, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the work of Wang (2002) by considering a differentiated Stackelberg model, when the leader firm is an inside innovator and licenses its new technology by three options, that is, fixed-fee licensing, royalty licensing, and two-part tariff licensing. The main contributions and conclusions of this paper are threefold. First of all, this paper derives a very different result from Wang (2002). We show that, with a nondrastic innovation, royalty licensing is always better than fixed-fee licensing for the innovator; with a drastic innovation, royalty licensing is superior to fixed-fee licensing for small values of substitution coefficient d; however when d becomes closer to 1, neither fee nor royalty licensing will occur. Secondly, this paper shows that the innovator is always better off in case of two-part tariff licensing than fixed-fee licensing no matter what the innovation size is. Thirdly, the innovator always prefers to license its nondrastic innovation by means of a two-part tariff instead of licensing by means of a royalty; however, with a drastic innovation, the optimal licensing strategy can be either a two-part tariff or a royalty, depending upon the differentiation of the goods.

  12. Licensing in the Patent Thicket - Timing and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Ralph; Von Graevenitz, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Licensing can be a solution for hold-up in patent thickets. In this paper we study whether licensing is an effective solution for hold-up. To do this we distinguish between ex ante and ex post licensing. A theoretical model shows that firms’ expectations of blocking in a patent thicket determine whether they license ex ante while ex post licensing arises if expected blocking was low but realized blocking turns out to be high. It can also be shown that ex ante licensing will allow firms to ...

  13. Public perspectives on proposed license renewal regulations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, D.; Hughes, A.; Seth, S.

    1991-01-01

    On 17 July 1990, the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued for public comment its proposed rule for renewing the operating licenses of nuclear power plants (55 FR 29043). This solicitation marked the fourth time that NRC has Invited public comments on its efforts to develop regulatory requirements for re licensing nuclear power plants. Previously, NRC solicited public comments on establishing a policy statement on plant life extension, and on the issues and options for license renewal discussed in NUREG-1317. On 13-14 November 1989, NRC held a public workshop where the NRC staff discussed a conceptual approach to the rule and solicited written comments on the regulatory philosophy, conceptual rule, and on certain questions. NRC is taking into account all comments received in its development of the final rule which is scheduled for issuance in the summer of 1991

  14. Notable licensing deals in the biopharma industry in the second quarter of 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P

    2017-08-01

    During the second quarter of 2017, Cortellis Competitive Intelligence added 967 new licensing deals (excluding mergers and acquisition deals) as part of its ongoing coverage of pharmaceutical licensing activity. This meant an 8% decrease on the previous quarter (1,050) and a 3% decrease from the same quarter in 2016 (993). This quarter also showed a significant decline in the number of deals worth more than USD 0.5 billion from the last quarter (7 vs. 17). This article will highlight a number of the most valuable and notable deals forged during the quarter, as well as a selection of deals from some of the most prolific deal makers in the life sciences. An update on milestone, options and terminated deals of significance will also be presented, along with an early outlook on the next quarter's pharmaceutical licensing activity.

  15. Obtaining Your License: Careers in Real Estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Robert

    Two steps are required to obtain a real estate salesperson's license in Texas: (1) selecting a broker to serve as an advisor, and (2) meeting personal requirements (at least 18 years old, a Texas resident, completion of a minimum of 12 semester hours of real estate and related courses, application, acceptable score on state exam, and payment of…

  16. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  17. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  18. Information Technology Trends, Creative Commons Licenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Creative Commons licenses, also known as CC, allow the authors to retain the copyright over the works while granting some right to the others, like the permission to modify or to use the work for commercial purposes.

  19. 31 CFR 595.305 - General license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General license. 595.305 Section 595.305 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  20. 31 CFR 595.312 - Specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specific license. 595.312 Section 595.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  1. 31 CFR 595.308 - License.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false License. 595.308 Section 595.308 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.308...

  2. Licensing systems and inspection of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The systems of each country member of the OECD is described according to a plan standardised to the extent possible, so as to facilitate comparison between the National systems. In most cases, the descriptions are supplemented by flow charts illustrating the steps in the licensing procedure and the intervention of the various bodies concerned

  3. US EPA SmartWay License Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SmartWay Tractor and Trailer trademark license agreement is for manufacturers who intend to display the SmartWay designated logo (brand) in the interior of eligible trucks and trailers (e.g. having met the SmartWay specifications established by EPA).

  4. Is Licensing Public Protection of Professional Protectionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Daniel B.

    1979-01-01

    Granting of licenses to practice has long been linked to academic credentials, but this system offers more protection to the professions than to the public. There is an immediate need to break the credentials monopoly by opening up alternative routes to obtaining credentials. (Author/MLW)

  5. The 'licensing' of public sector information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; van Eechoud, M.; Morando, F.; Tziavos, P.; Ferrao, L.

    2011-01-01

    The licensing policies adopted by public sector information holders (PSIHs) directly affect two of the items expressly mentioned in Art. 13(2) of the EU Directive 2003/98: the extent of re-use of public sector information and its increase rate. Moreover the optimization of rules and policies also

  6. 7 CFR 868.81 - Licensing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensing procedures. 868.81 Section 868.81 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES...

  7. Compulsory licensing and access to drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulou, Charitini; Valletti, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Compulsory licensing allows the use of a patented invention without the owner's consent, with the aim of improving access to essential drugs. The pharmaceutical sector argues that, if broadly used, it can be detrimental to innovation. We model the interaction between a company in the North that holds the patent for a certain drug and a government in the South that needs to purchase it. We show that both access to drugs and pharmaceutical innovation depend largely on the Southern country's ability to manufacture a generic version. If the manufacturing cost is too high, compulsory licensing is not exercised. As the cost decreases, it becomes a credible threat forcing prices down, but reducing both access and innovation. When the cost is low enough, the South produces its own generic version and access reaches its highest value, despite a reduction in innovation. The global welfare analysis shows that the overall impact of compulsory licensing can be positive, even when accounting for its impact on innovation. We also consider the interaction between compulsory licensing and the strength of intellectual property rights, which can have global repercussions in other markets beyond the South.

  8. 47 CFR 74.787 - Digital licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital licensing. 74.787 Section 74.787 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.787 Digital...

  9. Role of the NRC in export licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The current role of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the export licensing of nuclear materials is seen as being very uncertain. The primary purpose of nuclear licensing is seen as threefold: (1) to determine if the proposed export falls within the scope of the agreement for cooperation, (2) to review any changed circumstances since the negotiation of the agreement for cooperation, and (3) to serve as leverage for national proliferation objectives. The placing of this licensing authority in the NRC by Congress is seen as being in contradiction to the generally accepted idea that a constructive foreign policy is necesssary if the U.S. nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. The author's opinion of the proper role of the NRC as one of consultation rather than one of veto on international issues is expounded. The idea that the time now spent by the NRC on export licensing activities should be spent on domestic activities having international implications within its expertise - i.e. reprocessing and waste management - is set forth

  10. 50 CFR 300.32 - Vessel licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS... Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, who, on behalf of the license holder, will receive and respond to any... vessels of the United States engaged in joint venture arrangements, specifically: Vessels engaged in...

  11. Disease, religion and medicine: smallpox in nineteenth-century Benin Doenças, religião e medicina: a varíola no Benim, século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisée Soumonni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines, with special reference to smallpox, the perception and interpretation of disease in pre-colonial Dahomey, present-day Republic of Benin. Because disease is seen primarily as a punishment from the gods and not just as a medical problem or a bodily disorder, traditional cult priests play a leading role in making diagnoses and prescribing remedies, mostly based on medicinal plants. The prominence of Sakpata, god of smallpox, coupled with the influence of its priests is evaluated within the context of Dahomey's political history and the spread of the disease. This pivotal position was to constitute a challenge to the French colonial campaign to vaccinate against smallpox.O ensaio examina - com especial atenção à varíola - as percepções e interpretações das doenças no Daomé pré-colonial, atual República do Benim. Uma vez que as doenças eram vistas antes de tudo como punição divina, e não como problema ou distúrbio do corpo, os sacerdotes tradicionais exerciam papel central no seu diagnóstico e na prescrição de remédios, com base principalmente em plantas medicinais. A importância do culto a Sakpata, deus da varíola, juntamente com a influência dos sacerdotes é avaliada dentro do contexto da história política do Daomé e da disseminação das doenças. A posição crucial desse culto constituiu-se como um desafio para a campanha colonial francesa de vacinação contra a varíola.

  12. NRC Licensing Status Summary Report for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, is based on research and development activities supported by the Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. The NGNP will be licensed for construction and operation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, not all elements of current regulations (and their related implementation guidance) can be applied to HTGR technology at this time. Certain policies established during past LWR licensing actions must be realigned to properly accommodate advanced HTGR technology. A strategy for licensing HTGR technology was developed and executed through the cooperative effort of DOE and the NRC through the NGNP Project. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the current status of the still evolving pre-license application regulatory framework relative to commercial HTGR technology deployment in the U.S. The following discussion focuses on (1) describing what has been accomplished by the NGNP Project up to the time of this report, and (2) providing observations and recommendations concerning actions that remain to be accomplished to enable the safe and timely licensing of a commercial HTGR facility in the U.S.

  13. Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current licenses. This determination is based on an economic test that assumes an investment of $150/kW will be required after 30 yr of operation for plants with older designs. This expenditure is intended to be equivalent to the cost that would be associated with any of several needs such as a one0time investment to replace aging equipment (steam generators), a series of investments to fix age-related degradation, increases in operating costs, or costs associated with decreased performance. This investment is compared with the cost of building and operating the lowest-cost new plant over the same 10-yr period. If a plant fails this test, it is assumed to be retired after 30 yr of service. All other plants are then considered candidates for license renewal. The method used to determine if it is economic to apply for license renewal and operate plants for an additional 20 yr is to assume that plants face an investment of $250 million after 40 yr of operation to refurbish aging components. This investment is compared with the lowest-cost new plant alternative evaluated over the same 20 yr that the nuclear plant would operate. If the nuclear plant is the lowest cost option, it is projected to continue to operate. EIA projects that it would be economic to extend the operating licenses for 3.7 GW of capacity (6 units)

  14. Groundfish/Crab License Limitation Program (LLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As of January 1, 2000 a Federal License Limitation Program (LLP) license is required for vessels participating in directed fishing for LLP groundfish species in the...

  15. 77 FR 37044 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    .... License Number: 022238F. Name: Grimes Supply Chain Services, Inc. Address: 600 North Ellis Road... a valid bond. License Number: 021899NF. Name: Trans World Logistics Corporation. Address: 702 Penny...

  16. License - SAHG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...ut notice. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - SAHG | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Research notes : Oregon teen licensing changes have safety benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Changes in Oregons teen licensing laws that went into effect in March 2000 significantly strengthened the provisional driver license program, which had been in place since October 1989. Nearly all states and Canadian provinces have some form of a ...

  18. 76 FR 10594 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    .... Address: 7150 Troy Hill Drive, Elkridge, MD 21075. Date Revoked: January 21, 2011. Reason: Surrendered...: January 19, 2011. Reason: Surrendered license voluntarily. License Number: 019544NF. Name: Japan Star...

  19. Operating reactors licensing actions summary. Vol.4, No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors

  20. 77 FR 40882 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...: Voluntarily surrendered license. License Number: 021243NF. Name: Cargo Logistics & Trade Solutions, Limited Liability Company. Address: 13367 NW 47th Avenue, Opa Locka, FL 33054. Date Revoked: May 26, 2012. Reason...

  1. 77 FR 43600 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Reissuances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    .... License No.: 017267NF. Name: Just In Time Services, Inc. Address: 11380 NW 34th Street, Suite 100, Doral... to section 40901 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40101). License No.: 016201N. Name: Delta...

  2. 22 CFR 129.6 - Requirement for license/approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LICENSING OF BROKERS § 129.6 Requirement for license/approval. (a) No person may engage in the business of... member country of that Organization, Australia, Japan, New Zealand, or South Korea, except in the case of...

  3. 76 FR 71035 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives notice.... License Number: 4346F. Name: Reefco Logistics, Inc. dba Reefco Transport dba Foodcareplus. Address: 314...

  4. 76 FR 67731 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation The Federal Maritime Commission hereby gives... corresponding date shown below: License Number: 020542n. Name: Overseas Transport USA Corp. Address: 3107...

  5. 10 CFR 81.32 - Terms of exclusive license grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wholly owned subsidiaries of the licensee but shall be nonassignable and otherwise nontransferable... LICENSES Nrc-Owned Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.32 Terms of exclusive license grant. (a) NRC...

  6. Licensing criteria for HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.A.; Williams, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    The HTGR concept is briefly described and the philosophy behind HTGR licensing review is discussed. A brief history of principal actions and considerations affecting HTGR licensing criteria is presented

  7. 76 FR 28780 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... maintain a valid bond. License Number: 020656F. Name: Dulce Auto Import & Export, Inc. Address: 15316 SW... to maintain a valid bond. License Number: 019868N. Name: Zenith Logistic (USA) Inc. Address: 175-01...

  8. 36 CFR 264.3 - Licensing for commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Official Forest Service Insignia § 264.3 Licensing for commercial use. (a) Each... definite expiration date shall be specified. (3) The license shall be nonexclusive. (4) Licensees are not...

  9. An ontology based trust verification of software license agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenhuan; Li, Xiaoqing; Gan, Zengqin; Wei, Jianguo

    2017-08-01

    When we install software or download software, there will show up so big mass document to state the rights and obligations, for which lots of person are not patient to read it or understand it. That would may make users feel distrust for the software. In this paper, we propose an ontology based verification for Software License Agreement. First of all, this work proposed an ontology model for domain of Software License Agreement. The domain ontology is constructed by proposed methodology according to copyright laws and 30 software license agreements. The License Ontology can act as a part of generalized copyright law knowledge model, and also can work as visualization of software licenses. Based on this proposed ontology, a software license oriented text summarization approach is proposed which performances showing that it can improve the accuracy of software licenses summarizing. Based on the summarization, the underline purpose of the software license can be explicitly explored for trust verification.

  10. License - AT Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available might be changed without notice. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - AT Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  11. License - TP Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available might be changed without notice. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - TP Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  12. License - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available might be changed without notice. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - RGP caps | LSDB Archive ...

  13. License - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ts might be changed without notice. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - RED | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Compulsory licensing, price controls, and access to patented foreign products

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Saggi; Saggi Saggi

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by existing multilateral rules regarding intellectual property, we develop a North-South model to highlight the dual roles price controls and compulsory licensing play in determining Southern access to a patented Northern product. The Northern patent-holder chooses whether and how to work its patent in the South (either via entry or voluntarily licensing) while the South determines the price control and whether to issue a compulsory license. The threat of compulsory licensing benefi...

  15. Recent developments in Canadian nuclear power plant licensing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchildon, P.

    1985-06-01

    This paper examines the dominant factors which have influenced the safety evaluation and licensing process of current 600 MW reactors. It describes possible modifications to the process which are being considered for the licensing of a second 600 MW reactor at Point Lepreau. The key element is a firm licensing agreement covering the entire licensing cycle, to be established between the proponent and the AECB before a construction licence is issued. Progress accomplished to date in reaching such an agreement is described

  16. Some aspects of licensing procedures for NPP operation in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Structure of the Code of Federal Regulations of USA is reviewed, aspects of licensing for NPP operation in USA associated with licensing procedures for service of NPP, prolongation of license as well as introduction of changes in prevailing licenses using risk-informed decisionmaking method are outlined. Fundamental stages of decision making with risk assessment for the particular station as well as values of acceptability for the frequency evaluation of reactor core disruption and large early discharges are presented [ru

  17. Dark Sides of Patent Pools with Compulsory Independent Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Akifumi Ishihara; Noriyuki Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines roles of patent pools with compulsory independent licensing. A seminal work by Lerner and Tirole (2004) have shown that requiring independent licensing or compulsory independent licensing is a useful tool to select only desirable patent pools. In this paper, however, we are going to show that their argument is not always true, If there are users who demand only a part of the pooled technologies, the compulsory independent licensing gives a tool for price discrimination for...

  18. Four Essays on Technology Licensing and Firm Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Solon

    much to be investigated. Furthermore, with few exceptions, neither organizational nor contractual characteristics related to the licensing deals have received enough attention as determinants of the capacity of the acquiring firm to benefit from licensing in a new technology. The purpose...... perspectives connected to the licensing literature. The dissertation consists of a general introduction, four papers, and a conclusion. Although all the papers build on the same main dataset related to licensing contracts in the global pharmaceutical industry, supplementary information from different data...

  19. Licensing and decommissioning of nuclear installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derche, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear licensing procedure in France is characterized by a great number of different kinds of licensing procedures with the possibility of mutual control and intervention. The effectiveness is achieved through centralisation of the licensing decisions. Only the degree of December 11, 1963 contains a regulation for decommissioning, still there exist practical experiences with decommissioning. (CW) [de

  20. Safety Regulation of Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Qi, Yuan; Yang, LiLi

    2018-01-01

    China’s regulations stipulate that a nuclear power plant license is valid for a design life period (generally 30 or 40 years). Whether the nuclear power plant’s license is renewed after the expiration of the license is to be determined based on the safety and economy of the nuclear power plant..

  1. Experience acquired by Furnas for licensing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.J.C. da; Xavier, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The system for licensing of Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Plant-Unit 1 is presented. The process phases for reactor construction and operation are described: preliminary site approval; bases for safety review; partial construction permits; final construction permits; emission of final report of safety analysis; initial operation license and permanent operation license. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. 19 CFR 360.108 - Loss of electronic licensing privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.108 Loss of electronic licensing privileges. Should Commerce determine... system, Commerce may revoke its electronic licensing privileges without prior notice. The filer will then... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of electronic licensing privileges. 360.108...

  3. 24 CFR 3286.203 - Installation license required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... performance of the installation work in compliance with the requirements of this part. (3) A license is not required for individuals working as direct employees of a licensed installer or for the company that... and competent performance of all employees working under the licensed installer's supervision and for...

  4. 75 FR 76757 - Licensing Support System Advisory Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Licensing Support System Advisory Review Panel AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear... Review Panel (LSNARP). SUMMARY: The Licensing Support System Advisory Review Panel was established by the... system to be used to store and retrieve documents relating to the licensing of a geologic repository for...

  5. 10 CFR 34.11 - Application for a specific license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.11 Application for a... industrial radiography on NRC Form 313, “Application for Material License,” in accordance with the provisions...

  6. 78 FR 3425 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocations The Commission gives notice that the following Ocean Transportation Intermediary licenses have been revoked pursuant to section 19 of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S.C. 40101) effective on the date shown. License No.: 013253N...

  7. 10 CFR 61.24 - Conditions of licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of licenses. 61.24 Section 61.24 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61... licensee's receipt, possession, and disposal of source, special nuclear or byproduct material as it deems...

  8. 10 CFR 60.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License amendment for permanent closure. 60.51 Section 60.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Permanent Closure § 60.51 License amendment for permanent closure. (a) DOE...

  9. 78 FR 48458 - Notice of Reinstatement of Customs Broker License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Reinstatement of Customs Broker License AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Reinstatement of customs broker license. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a customs broker's license has...

  10. 25 CFR 558.4 - Granting a gaming license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granting a gaming license. 558.4 Section 558.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS GAMING LICENSES FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY...

  11. License - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nse Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - RGP physicalmap | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RGP physi...calmap License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/07/07 You may use t

  12. 77 FR 9657 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...: Voluntarily surrendered license. License Number: 2452F. Name: R.C. Shipping Company, Inc. Address: 5811 Green...: 018356N. Name: Americar Global Logistics, Inc. Address: 6931 NW 87th Avenue, Miami, FL 33178. Date Revoked... bond. License Number: 022750NF. Name: Viva Logistics Inc. Address: 1338 64th Street, Brooklyn, NY 11219...

  13. 48 CFR 227.7103-4 - License rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License rights. 227.7103-4..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7103-4 License rights. (a) Grant of license. The Government obtains rights in technical data...

  14. 48 CFR 227.7203-4 - License rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false License rights. 227.7203-4..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Computer Software and Computer Software Documentation 227.7203-4 License rights. (a) Grant of license. The...

  15. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel mill products are subject to the import licensing...

  16. 47 CFR 73.853 - Licensing requirements and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing requirements and service. 73.853 Section 73.853 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.853 Licensing requirements and service. (a) An LPFM station may be licensed only...

  17. 18 CFR 5.16 - Preliminary licensing proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary licensing proposal. 5.16 Section 5.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.16 Preliminary licensing proposal. (a)...

  18. 47 CFR 80.43 - Equipment acceptable for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment acceptable for licensing. 80.43 Section 80.43 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.43 Equipment acceptable for licensing. Transmitters listed in § 80.203 must b...

  19. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80.51 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission...

  20. 47 CFR 87.39 - Equipment acceptable for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment acceptable for licensing. 87.39 Section 87.39 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.39 Equipment acceptable for licensing. Transmitters listed in this part must be certificated...

  1. 75 FR 28664 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned... Trademark Office, and are available for licensing. DATES: May 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  2. 47 CFR 22.949 - Unserved area licensing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unserved area licensing process. 22.949 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.949 Unserved area licensing process. This section sets forth the process for licensing unserved areas in cellular markets on channel blocks for which the...

  3. 75 FR 50767 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... licensing in the U.S. in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 207 to achieve expeditious commercialization of results... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES...

  4. 75 FR 54656 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ..., Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: The inventions listed below assigned to the National... are available for licensing. DATES: September 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward K. Fein...

  5. 78 FR 13906 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ..., Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned... Trademark Office, and are available for licensing. DATES: March 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  6. 75 FR 28663 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ..., Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned... Trademark Office, and are available for licensing. DATES: May 21, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  7. 76 FR 44939 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... licensing in the U.S. in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 207 to achieve expeditious commercialization of results... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES...

  8. 78 FR 13905 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ..., Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of Availability of Inventions for Licensing. SUMMARY: Patent applications on the inventions listed below assigned... Trademark Office, and are available for licensing. DATES: March 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  9. 75 FR 22118 - Notice of Invention Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of invention available for licensing. SUMMARY: The invention listed below is owned by the U.S. Government, as... for licensing in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 207 and 37 CFR part 404 to achieve expeditious...

  10. 76 FR 45838 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... licensing in the U.S. in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 207 to achieve expeditious commercialization of results... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES...

  11. 32 CFR 746.5 - Government inventions available for licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government inventions available for licensing... PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY, PATENTS, AND CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.5 Government inventions available for licensing. Government inventions normally...

  12. 75 FR 39545 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...; Availability for Licensing AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice... licensing in the U.S. in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 207 to achieve expeditious commercialization of results... inventions to extend market coverage for companies and may also be available for licensing. ADDRESSES...

  13. 25 CFR 141.10 - License fees for reservation businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License fees for reservation businesses. 141.10 Section 141.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.10 License...

  14. 46 CFR 515.16 - Revocation or suspension of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... LICENSING, FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS, AND GENERAL DUTIES FOR OCEAN TRANSPORTATION INTERMEDIARIES Eligibility and Procedure for Licensing § 515.16 Revocation or suspension of license. (a) Grounds for... other statute or Commission order or regulation related to carrying on the business of an ocean...

  15. 25 CFR 141.8 - License period for reservation businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License period for reservation businesses. 141.8 Section 141.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Licensing Requirements and Procedures § 141.8 License...

  16. LicenseScript: A Logical Language for Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, C.N.; Corin, R.J.; Doumen, J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Law, Y.W.; Tokmakoff, Andrew

    We propose LicenseScript, a language for digital rights management (DRM) based on multiset rewriting and logic programming. LicenseScript enjoys a precise syntax and semantics, and it is rich enough to embed other rights expression languages (REL). We show that LicenseScript is expressive and

  17. 37 CFR 404.8 - Application for a license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for a license. 404.8 Section 404.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.8 Application for a license. An...

  18. 75 FR 28664 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... United States Patent and Trademark office, and are available for licensing. DATES: May 21, 2010. FOR... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 77 FR 54934 - Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... been filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and are available for licensing. DATES... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Government-Owned Inventions, Available for Licensing AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of availability of inventions for licensing. SUMMARY: Patent...

  20. Advanced CANDU reactor pre-licensing progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, N.K.; West, J.; Snell, V.G.; Ion, R.; Archinoff, G.; Xu, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) is an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6 reactor, aimed at producing electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) staff are currently reviewing the ACR design to determine whether, in their opinion, there are any fundamental barriers that would prevent the licensing of the design in Canada. This CNSC licensability review will not constitute a licence, but is expected to reduce regulatory risk. The CNSC pre-licensing review started in September 2003, and was focused on identifying topics and issues for ACR-700 that will require a more detailed review. CNSC staff reviewed about 120 reports, and issued to AECL 65 packages of questions and comments. Currently CNSC staff is reviewing AECL responses to all packages of comments. AECL has recently refocused the design efforts to the ACR-1000, which is a larger version of the ACR design. During the remainder of the pre-licensing review, the CNSC review will be focused on the ACR-1000. AECL Technologies Inc. (AECLT), a wholly-owned US subsidiary of AECL, is engaged in a pre-application process for the ACR-700 with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and resolve major issues prior to entering a formal process to obtain standard design certification. To date, the USNRC has produced a Pre-Application Safety Assessment Report (PASAR), which contains their reviews of key focus topics. During the remainder of the pre-application phase, AECLT will address the issues identified in the PASAR. Pursuant to the bilateral agreement between AECL and the Chinese nuclear regulator, the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) and its Nuclear Safety Center (NSC), NNSA/NSC are reviewing the ACR in seven focus areas. The review started in September 2004, and will take three years. The main objective of the review is to determine how the ACR complies

  1. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  2. Teenagers' licensing decisions and their views of licensing policies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2011-08-01

    One objective was to determine teenage licensing rates on a national basis, interest in early licensure, and reasons for delay. A second objective was to learn teenagers' opinions about licensing policies, important in states considering ways to upgrade their current licensing systems. One thousand three hundred eighty-three 15- to 18-year-olds completed an online survey in November 2010. They were drawn from a nationally representative panel of US households recruited using probability-based sampling. The panel included cell phone-only households, and Internet access was provided to those without it. Weighting procedures were applied so that the study population represented the national US population of 15- to 18-year-olds. Most teens said that they were interested in getting a license as soon as legally possible, but many had not started the process. At 16, teens were about equally divided among those who had not started, those in the learner stage, and those with a restricted or full license. At 18, 62 percent had full licenses; 22 percent had not started. For those old enough to start, lack of a car, costs, parent availability, ability to get around without a car, and being busy with other activities were leading reasons for delay. The majority of teens were not in favor of higher licensing ages. Forty-six percent thought the minimum learner age should be 16; 30 percent thought the full license age should be 18 or older. The majority approved of night (78%) and passenger (57%) restrictions, and 85 and 93 percent endorsed cell phone and texting bans, respectively. When these policies were packaged together in a single law that included an age 16 start, night, passenger, cell phone and texting bans, and a full license at age 18, 74 percent of teens were in favor. Teenagers are not as supportive of strong licensing policies as parents of teens, but there is evidence that they will support comprehensive policies likely to lead to further reductions in teen crash

  3. To License or Not to License: An Examination of State Statutes Regarding Private Investigators and Digital Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lonardo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors examine statutes that regulate, license, and enforce investigative functions in each US state. After identification and review of Private Investigator licensing requirements, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly differentiate between Private Investigators and Digital Examiners. After contacting all state agencies the authors present a distinct grouping organizing state approaches to professional Digital Examiner licensing. The authors conclude that states must differentiate between Private Investigator and Digital Examiner licensing requirements and oversight.

  4. Reactor licensing process: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in its review of applications for licenses to construct and operate nuclear power plants, is required to consider those measures necessary to ensure the protection of the health and safety of the public and the environment. The article discusses the NRC staff procedures and policies for conducting the detailed safety, environmental, and antitrust reviews that provide the basis for these assurances. Included is a discussion of the improvements to the licensing process currently being proposed or implemented to enhance its stability and predictability for the benefit of all involved with the regulation of nuclear power. The views and opinions expressed in the article are those of the author alone and do not represent positions of the NRC

  5. Licensing of the proposed PBMR-SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapisson, G.A.; Henderson, N.R.; Hill, T.F.; Keenan, N.H.; Metcalf, P.E.; Mysenkov, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary criteria, which are intended to be used by the South African regulatory authority (CNS), for licensing of the ESKOM proposed - South African high temperature gas-cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-SA). The CNS intends to apply the existing CNS licensing approach together with some international design criteria used for advanced reactors as well as international experience gained from the safety evaluation of the MHTGR, THTR, etc. A major requirement to this type of reactor is that it should comply with the current CNS risk criteria and provide, as a minimum, the same degree of protection to the operator, public and environment that is required for the current generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  6. Software licenses: Good fences make good neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, J.G.; Woodyard, A.

    1995-01-01

    The basis for a good contract is that it is beneficial to both parties. A good foundation will cement the responsibilities and obligations of the parties after areas of agreement have been negotiated. Unfortunately, software licenses do not always reflect what is best for all. Some clauses are definitely for the benefit of the vendor, while others are required by a prudent client. The resulting contract is then a matter of reasonable compromise to achieve a good business relationship. Major issues of warranty, liability, training, support, and payment may be in conflict. Such topics as maintenance, testing, patents, extent of use, and return of software are often overlooked or addressed unevenly. This paper addresses these subjects and provides guidelines for software licenses. An understanding of legal phrases is of value. A better understanding of the viewpoints of both the vendor and the client results in a better working relationship

  7. The time factor in environmental licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombach, P.

    2000-01-01

    The speed of planning and licensing procedures play a large part in the severity of Germany an attractive business location. A comparison is made between licensing procedures in Germany and abroad, whether they take longer and if so, how much; case studies one used as comparable illustrations of construction-, emission-, and waste-regulatory procedures in Germany, France and the USA. The second main part concerns the analysis of the fundamental delaying factors and comentional acceleration instruments in Germany. Applications, effectiveness and reliability of the new concepts (official Projectmanagenment, conflicts of interest, updating of the InvErl- and WohnbaulandG) as well as alternative proposals are developed on the basis of experiences in France and the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Radiation control through licensing and intensive training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.-H.; Yang, Y.-C.; Wu, T.-Y.; Weng, P.-S.

    1982-01-01

    Various types of intensive training courses to suit radiation workers in different fields were sponsored by both the Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan and the National Health Administration of Executive Yuan, Republic of China during the past seven years. During the years 1974-79, the number of radiation workers attending each training course, their age, sex and educational background are presented in detail. The typical course contents for both medical and non-medical radiation workers are given. A summary of the percentage of passes and failures of the final examination given at the end of each training course is also given. The present status of licensing for radiation facilities and workers is described, and its results are indicated. The successful control of ionizing radiation through this kind of intensive training and licensing is evidenced in the film badge records given by a centralized service laboratory located at the National Tsing Hua University. (author)

  9. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC`s competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC`s antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission`s antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC`s antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  10. NRC antitrust licensing actions, 1978--1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.J.; Simpson, J.J.

    1997-09-01

    NUREG-0447, Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants, was published in May 1978 and includes a compilation and discussion of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) proceedings and activity involving the NRC's competitive review program through February 1978, NUREG-0447 is an update of an earlier discussion of the NRC's antitrust review of nuclear power plants, NR-AIG-001, The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Antitrust Review of Nuclear Power Plants: The Conditioning of Licenses, which reviewed the Commission's antitrust review function from its inception in December 1970 through April 1976. This report summarizes the support provided to NRC staff in updating the compilation of the NRC's antitrust licensing review activities for commercial nuclear power plants that have occurred since February 1978. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Changing mobility patterns and road mortality among pre-license teens in a late licensing country : an epidemiological study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Bos, N.M. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the safety of teens in early licensing countries has been extensively studied, little is known about the safety of pre-license teens in late licensing countries, where these teens also may be at risk. This risk exists because of the combination of a) increasing use of travel modes with a

  12. 76 FR 22912 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION: General notice... cancelled due to the death of the broker: Name License No. Port name Leandro U. Guevarra 16332 Los Angeles...

  13. 77 FR 45648 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... individual Customs broker licenses and any and all permits have been cancelled due to the death of the broker...

  14. 78 FR 48456 - Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death of the License Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    .... ACTION: Customs broker license cancellation due to death of the broker. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses Due to Death... death of the license holders. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to...

  15. 77 FR 13376 - Notice of License Termination for the University of Arizona Research Reactor, License No. R-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... the University of Arizona Research Reactor, License No. R-52 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is noticing the termination of Facility Operating License No. R-52, for the University of Arizona... Operating License No. R-52 is terminated. For further details with respect to the proposed action, see the...

  16. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is noticing the termination of Facility Operating License No. R-115, for the University of Illinois... Operating License No. R-115 is terminated. The above referenced documents may be examined, and/or copied for...

  17. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  18. A licensing discussion: SMRs in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The CNSC (Canadian AECB) is ready to regulate Small Modular Reactors (SMR) facilities in Canada. The CNSC is well situated to engage with proponents of SMR reactors in design reviews or licensing discussions. A risk-informed (graded) approach is possible in many instances for reactors but it is not a relaxation of requirements. The vendor design review process helps reduce regulatory risks by encouraging early engagement.

  19. Safety and licensing issues for Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.R.; Das, M.

    1997-01-01

    India has achieved competency in design, construction, commissioning and operation of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor based Nuclear Power Plants and has completed more than 120 reactor operating years with an extremely satisfactory safety record. In this paper, the safety management in NPCIL and operational safety aspects are discussed, licensing and regulatory approach is described and some of the main safety issues for Indian PHWRs are brought out. (author)

  20. International Harmonization of Reactor Licensing Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, Dietmar.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of a harmonization policy for reactor licensing regulations on the basis of already considerable experience is to attain greater rationalisation in this field, in the interest of economic policy and healthy competition, and most important, radiation protection and safety of installations. This paper considers the legal instruments for such harmonization and the conditions for their implementation, in particular within the Communities framework. (NEA) [fr

  1. A licensing discussion: SMRs in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, M. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The CNSC (Canadian AECB) is ready to regulate Small Modular Reactors (SMR) facilities in Canada. The CNSC is well situated to engage with proponents of SMR reactors in design reviews or licensing discussions. A risk-informed (graded) approach is possible in many instances for reactors but it is not a relaxation of requirements. The vendor design review process helps reduce regulatory risks by encouraging early engagement.

  2. Why licensing is just the first step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arfon M.

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a license for your software is an important part of sharing your work with others but just because your project is open source doesn't mean that you're guaranteed to receive contributions from others. In this talk I'll highlight some strategies employed by popular open source projects and offer some guidance on how to bootstrap your project to maximise your chance of creating a successful open source collaboration.

  3. Trademark Licensing in a Monopolistically Competitive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martin K. Perry; Robert H. Groff

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the efficacy of intrabrand rivalry in a monopolistically competitive industry. Intrabrand rivalry through trademark licensing would result in lower prices for consumers, but would also reduce product diversity because all brands would be less profitable. Using both the constant elasticity of substitution and the spatial models of product differentiation, we find that when fixed costs are specific to each firm, the welfare losses on product diversity dominate the welfare ...

  4. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  5. The system of licensing doctors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyi, Ge

    2008-06-01

    This article gives an overview of the history and current system of licensing doctors in China. It first reviews the progress of medical legislation since 1949 and then explains reforms in the regulation of the medical practice of licensed doctors and their registration for entrance into the profession. In order to explore a way to adapt the system of licensing doctors presently in use in China to an international standard, the author proposes five strategies to reform policy, including internationalization based on the Chinese situation. Equal importance is to be placed on general practitioners and specialists, optimizing administration at different levels and in different categories, improving the quality of countryside doctors, and establishing a promotion system based on accreditation. The author concludes that for reference China should introduce the international standard of medical education and experience in medical training to raise the quality of doctors, regularize medical administration, develop a balanced professional force of general practitioners and specialists, and involve China in the global system of recognition of doctors.

  6. Licensing of ANSTO's Replacement Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerfield, M.W.; Garea, V.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general description of the licensing of the 20 MW Pool-type Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) currently being built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) at their Lucas Heights site. The following aspects will be addressed: 1) The influence of ARPANSA's (the Australian regulator) Regulatory Assessment Principles and Design Criteria on the design of the RRR. 2) The Site Licence Application, including the EIS and the supporting siting documentation. 3) The Construction Licence Application, including the PSAR and associated documentation. 4) The review process, including the IAEA Peer Review and the Public Submissions as well as ARPANSA's own review. 5) The interface between ANSTO, INVAP and ARPANSA in relation to the ongoing compliance with ARPANS Regulation 51 and 54. 6) The future Operating Licence Application, including the draft FSAR and associated documentation. These aspects are all addressed from the point of view of the licensee ANSTO and the RRR Project. Particular emphasis will be given to the way in which the licensing process is integrated into the overall project program and how the licensing and regulatory regime within Australia influenced the design of the RRR. In particular, the safety design features that have been incorporated as a result of the specific requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator will be briefly described. The paper will close with a description of how the RRR meets, and in many aspects exceeds the requirements of ANSTO and the Australian regulator. (author)

  7. Scaling analysis in bepu licensing of LWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' auria, Francesco; Lanfredini, Marco; Muellner, Nikolaus [University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    'Scaling' plays an important role for safety analyses in the licensing of water cooled nuclear power reactors. Accident analyses, a sub set of safety analyses, is mostly based on nuclear reactor system thermal hydraulics, and therefore based on an adequate experimental data base, and in recent licensing applications, on best estimate computer code calculations. In the field of nuclear reactor technology, only a small set of the needed experiments can be executed at a nuclear power plant; the major part of experiments, either because of economics or because of safety concerns, has to be executed at reduced scale facilities. How to address the scaling issue has been the subject of numerous investigations in the past few decades (a lot of work has been performed in the 80thies and 90thies of the last century), and is still the focus of many scientific studies. The present paper proposes a 'roadmap' to scaling. Key elements are the 'scaling-pyramid', related 'scaling bridges' and a logical path across scaling achievements (which constitute the 'scaling puzzle'). The objective is addressing the scaling issue when demonstrating the applicability of the system codes, the 'key-to-scaling', in the licensing process of a nuclear power plant. The proposed 'road map to scaling' aims at solving the 'scaling puzzle', by introducing a unified approach to the problem.

  8. Scaling analysis in bepu licensing of LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'auria, Francesco; Lanfredini, Marco; Muellner, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    'Scaling' plays an important role for safety analyses in the licensing of water cooled nuclear power reactors. Accident analyses, a sub set of safety analyses, is mostly based on nuclear reactor system thermal hydraulics, and therefore based on an adequate experimental data base, and in recent licensing applications, on best estimate computer code calculations. In the field of nuclear reactor technology, only a small set of the needed experiments can be executed at a nuclear power plant; the major part of experiments, either because of economics or because of safety concerns, has to be executed at reduced scale facilities. How to address the scaling issue has been the subject of numerous investigations in the past few decades (a lot of work has been performed in the 80thies and 90thies of the last century), and is still the focus of many scientific studies. The present paper proposes a 'roadmap' to scaling. Key elements are the 'scaling-pyramid', related 'scaling bridges' and a logical path across scaling achievements (which constitute the 'scaling puzzle'). The objective is addressing the scaling issue when demonstrating the applicability of the system codes, the 'key-to-scaling', in the licensing process of a nuclear power plant. The proposed 'road map to scaling' aims at solving the 'scaling puzzle', by introducing a unified approach to the problem.

  9. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  10. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  11. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  12. Development of standard design licensing system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. K.; Yun, Y. K.; Kim, W. S.; Lee, J. H.; Baek, M.

    2001-01-01

    The design of the APR 1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is being developed based on the concept of a standard design so that the APR 1400 can be constructed repetitively without major design change. Therefore, in order to avoid repetitive licensing review for the portion of the standard design of the APR 1400, it is necessary to introduced a new licensing system for a standard design. Since the Korean government has acknowledged this necessity, it is now pursuing the legislation of a standard design licensing system. In this technical report, procedural requirements and the format and contents of licensing basis documents considered for the adaption of a standard design licensing system are introduced

  13. License - TMFunction | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us TMFunction License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2017/01/23 You may use this database...e license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attributio...n-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...ion-Share Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely

  14. License - CREATE portal | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us CREATE portal License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2016/03/16 You may use this database... the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribu...tion-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database...hare Alike 4.0 International is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely acces

  15. License - Society Catalog | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Society Catalog License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2012/01/17 You may use this database...es the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attri...bution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as...is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this database

  16. Licensing of away-from-reactor (AFR) installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Storage of spent fuel at Away-From-Reactor (AFR) installations will allow reactors to continue to operate until reprocessing or other fuel disposal means are available. AFR installations must be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Although wide experience in licensing reactors exists, the licensing of an AFR installation is a relatively new activity. Only one has been licensed to date. This paper delineates the requirements for licensing an AFR installation and projects a licensing schedule. Because the NRC is developing specific AFR requirements, this schedule is based primarily on draft NRC documents. The major documents needed for an AFR license application are similar to those for a reactor. They include: a Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and Environmental Report (ER), safeguards and security plans, decommissioning plans, proposed technical specifications, and others. However, the licensing effort has one major difference in that for AFR installations it will be a one-step effort, with follow-up, rather than the two-step process used for reactors. The projected licensing schedule shows that the elapsed time between filing an application and issuance of a license will be about 32 months, assuming intervention. The legal procedural steps will determine the time schedule and will override considerations of technical complexity. A license could be issued in about 14 months in the absence of intervention

  17. Licensing Strategies of the Entreprising - But Vulnerable - `Intellectual property' Vendors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.

    This paper investigates in an exploratory manner the licensing strategies pursued by firms whose business model is based on developing and licensing out their intellectual property rights (IPRs). These are not traditional suppliers, since they do not engage in production or commercialization......, but focus solely on invention. While considerable anecdotal evidence exists about these IP vendors, there has been no systematic investigation of how they use licensing to appropriate value from their investments in R&D. In this paper, we suggest that the licensing strategies they pursue can....... On this basis, four main licensing strategies are identified. We investigate the relative benefits and costs of these four strategies, and the factors affecting licensing choices.Key words: Intellectual property, licensing, strategyJEL Codes: O31, OO34...

  18. Development of licensing requirements for LMFBRs: a reactor designer's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, P.; Huang, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The framework of rules and regulations for nuclear power plant licensing in the U.S. has been developed and established mainly through the experience in LWR licensing. Because of the important differences in technology and design between LMFBR and LWR plants, development of specific new requirements and criteria and appropriate modification of old ones must be undertaken such that the established licensing regulations can be equally and fairly implemented for commercial LMFBR licensing. The paper presents a broad overview of U.S. licensing rules and regulations and provides a review of licensing criteria, standards and ongoing development effort, with a focus on commercial LMFBR licensing needs. The review results are presented and discussed. In addition, the selection of design basis accidents and the treatment of events beyond Design Base are also reviewed and discussed

  19. Materials licensing study, Phase 1. Volume 2. Findings and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.M.; Arcuni, A.A.; Immerman, W.H.; Welles, B.W.; Varnado, G.B.

    1983-11-01

    This is one of a series of seven reports which describe a study of nuclear material licensing conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Material Safety and Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purposes of this project are to analyze the process used by NRC to license nuclear materials, and based upon this analysis to recommend measures to improve the efficiency of such license application review. This report presents summary findings and recommendations relevant to the data collection effort documented in SAND83-7081/1 of 3. Recommendations are based upon findings derived from review of deficiency letters, dockets, application guides, the license application review process, and the license renewal process. Several of the eleven (11) recommendations address the need for an improved regulatory base which would integrate and streamline all the diverse regulatory documents and procedures. In addition, the report proposes implementation of a computer based nuclear materials licensing support system to aid in all phases of materials license review

  20. Patenting and licensing in genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymé, S; Matthijs, G; Soini, S

    2008-04-01

    Patents for inventions can be beneficial for society, if they drive innovation and promote progress. In most areas, the patenting system works satisfactorily. However, it must be recognized that in some instances it can also be problematic; this is the case in the field of genetics, and particularly in the area of genetic testing. As patents should serve their original purpose (promoting innovation through a fair reward system for the inventors), the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG) suggests ways to improve the mechanisms that already form part of the patents system as a whole. In brief, the ESHG recommends limiting the breadth of the claims in genetic patents and, more practically, to reduce the number of patents by limiting the patentable subject matter, thereby improving the quality of the patents that will eventually be granted. There is also a suggestion to redefine the concept of utility in patent law, by taking account of downstream clinical experience. The ESHG sees no harm in the patenting of novel technical tools for genetic testing (eg PCR or chip technologies), as they can promote investment and still allow for invention around them. Many disputes between supporters of the patenting system and the public revolve around ethical issues. The European Patent Office should consider the benefit of having an ethics committee to consider issues of major interest, such as patents applied to genes. The problem of licensing should also be addressed. Practically, this means supporting the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines, which prescribe that licenses should be non-exclusive and easily obtainable, both in practical and in financial terms. To promote this, the practical exploration of alternative models for licensing, like patent pools and clearinghouses, is a prerequisite. To better track developments in this field, the establishment of a voluntary reporting system, whereby geneticists could report on any issues related to