WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously learned information

  1. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  3. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Börner, D., Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presentation for the Education in the Wild: contextual and location-based mobile learning in action workshop at the STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. November, 30-December, 3, 2009, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

  4. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach......Longitudinal research projects into social practices are both subject to and capture changes in society, meaning that research is conducted in a fluid context and that new research questions appear during the project’s life cycle. In the present study emerging new performances and uses of ICT....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  5. Formalized informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a large-scale longitudinal, qualitative study - Project ICT and Learning (PIL) - that engaged the participation of eight primary schools in Denmark, and was conducted between 2006 and 2008. The research design was based on action research, involving teachers...... and other relevant stakeholders, as well as participant observations in the classroom documented by thick descriptions, formal and informal interviews and focus group interviews. The aim of the study was to explore and identify relations between designs for teaching and learning and the students' learning...... of school subjects within defined learning goals and curricula, along with various implementations of ICT in the pedagogical everyday practice (Levinsen & Sørensen 2008). However, another research strand - the topic of this paper - emerged during the project's life cycle as a consequence of ongoing changes...

  6. Learning Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehm, Rae-Anne; Lupton, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on university students' experiences of learning information literacy. Method: Phenomenography was selected as the research approach as it describes the experience from the perspective of the study participants, which in this case is a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate students studying education at an…

  7. Workplace Learning in Informal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison; Margaryan, Anoush

    2014-01-01

    Learning does not stop when an individual leaves formal education, but becomes increasingly informal, and deeply embedded within other activities such as work. This article describes the challenges of informal learning in knowledge intensive industries, highlighting the important role of personal learning networks. The article argues that…

  8. Learning to organize digital information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, Jaap; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Martens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Walhout, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Martens, R. (2011, August). Learning to organize digital information. Poster presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  9. Learning&Information Technologies Cartography

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Naranjo, Pamela Catherine; Medinilla Martinez, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, many researches focus their efforts in studies and applications on the Learning area. However, there is a lack of a reference system that permits to know the positioning and the existing links between Learning and Information Technologies. This paper proposes a Cartography where explains the relationships between the elements that compose the Learning Theories and Information Technologies, considering the own features of the learner and the Information Technologies Properties. This ...

  10. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  11. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour.

  12. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... information for the following individual who was previously designated pursuant to the Order: GRAJALES PUENTES...; Cedula No. 52455790 (Colombia) (individual) [SDNT] The listing now appears as follows: GRAJALES PUENTES...

  13. Learning Conditional Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, I.E.J.

    Some of the information we receive comes to us in an explicitly conditional form. It is an open question how to model the accommodation of such information in a Bayesian framework. This paper presents data suggesting that there may be no strictly Bayesian account of updating on conditionals.

  14. Informal Learning in Youth Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsleer, Janet R.

    2008-01-01

    Designed to develop the reader's knowledge and skills, this book explores key issues such as communication, power relations, ethics, gender exclusion, sexuality, race discrimination, and social class in informal education in the youth work setting. The author places emphasis on conversation as a key means of promoting informal learning and…

  15. Information Literacy and Digital Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.J.M. van de Ven; G. Goris (Gert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Information literacy is a crucial factor in renewing our educational programmes. Gradually, the educational process is changing from prescribed learning paths and materials to situations that appeal to the creativity of students. We have developed an online Information Literacy

  16. Informal learning with mobile devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette

    The paper describes the progression of a learning experiment with high school students producing moblogs (mobile weblogs) outside of the school environment and focuses especially on the reflective aspects of the moblogs as an expression of the reflective practicum (Schön 1987, DESECO 2003). Through...... an analysis of my data I will centre my discussion around the value of this informal approach for learning purposes and discuss what kind of reflective competencies come into play here (Nesta Futurelab 2004a, 2004b). The theoretical framework for this article also draws on social learning theory (Lave...

  17. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Enacting Informal Science Learning: Exploring the Battle for Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Informal Science Learning (ISL) is a policy narrative of interest in the United Kingdom and abroad. This paper explores how a group of English secondary school science teachers, enacted ISL science clubs through employing the Periodic Table of Videos. It examines how these teachers "battled" to enact ISL policy in performative conditions…

  19. Participation in Informal Science Learning Experiences: The Rich Get Richer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jennifer; Archer, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Informal science learning (ISL) experiences have been found to provide valuable opportunities to engage with and learn about science and, as such, form a key part of the STEM learning ecosystem. However, concerns remain around issues of equity and access. The Enterprising Science study builds upon previous research in this area and uses the…

  20. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  1. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-06-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  2. TU-CD-BRD-01: Making Incident Learning Practical and Useful: Challenges and Previous Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, G.

    2015-01-01

    aside for audience members to contribute to the discussion. Learning Objectives: Learn how to promote the use of an incident learning system in a clinic. Learn how to convert “event reporting” into “incident learning”. See examples of practice changes that have come out of learning systems. Learn how the RO-ILS system can be used as a primary internal learning system. Learn how to create succinct, meaningful reports useful to outside readers. Gary Ezzell chairs the AAPM committee overseeing RO-ILS and has received an honorarium from ASTRO for working on the committee reviewing RO-ILS reports. Derek Brown is a director of http://TreatSafely.org . Brett Miller has previously received travel expenses and an honorarium from Varian. Phillip Beron has nothing to report

  3. Blending Formal and Informal Learning Networks for Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerkawski, Betül C.

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of social software and the advance of web-based technologies, online learning networks provide invaluable opportunities for learning, whether formal or informal. Unlike top-down, instructor-centered, and carefully planned formal learning settings, informal learning networks offer more bottom-up, student-centered participatory…

  4. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  6. Designing informal learning spaces using student perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Riddle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectives and principles developed through applied research in teaching and learning can inform real world learning space design projects in a higher education context.

  7. Learning by Doing: Twenty Successful Active Learning Exercises for Information Systems Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alanah; Petter, Stacie; Harris, Albert L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS) courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students' attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online.…

  8. Refreshing Information Literacy: Learning from Recent British Information Literacy Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Models play an important role in helping practitioners implement and promote information literacy. Over time models can lose relevance with the advances in technology, society, and learning theory. Practitioners and scholars often call for adaptations or transformations of these frameworks to articulate the learning needs in information literacy…

  9. Applications of Machine Learning in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Witten, Ian H.; Littin, James

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the basic ideas that underpin applications of machine learning to information retrieval. Describes applications of machine learning to text categorization. Considers how machine learning can be applied to the query-formulation process. Examines methods of document filtering, where the user specifies a query that is to be applied to an…

  10. Flexible Learning in an Information Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Flexible Learning in an Information Society uses a flexible learning framework to explain the best ways of creating a meaningful learning environment. This framework consists of eight factors--institutional, management, technological, pedagogical, ethical, interface design, resource support, and evaluation--and a systematic understanding of these…

  11. Informal interprofessional learning: Visualizing the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagter, J.M.; van de Bunt, G.G.; Honing, M.; Eckenhausen, M.; Scherpbier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Daily collaboration of senior doctors, residents and nurses involves a major potential for sharing knowledge between professionals. Therefore, more attention needs to be paid to informal learning to create strategies and appropriate conditions for enhancing and effectuating informal learning in the

  12. TRAILER: A Tool for Managing Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas, Maria C.; Marques, Maria A.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Mykowska, Aleksandra; Galanis, Nikolas; Alier, Marc; Brouns, Francis; Janssen, José; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.; García-Holgado, Alicia; Zangrando, Valentina; Conde, Miguel Á.

    2014-01-01

    Even though informal learning plays an important role in everyone’s life, not everyone is aware of its importance. These informal activities contribute to the development of self-regulated learning that can help productivity in different environments. As this kind of apprentices grow, the need to

  13. Music and Informal Learning in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Denora, Tia

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on informal learning as it is situated in and derived from everyday life experience (Lave, 1988; Lave and Wenger, 1991). Their concern is with informal musical learning and its link to health, well-being and the care of self, an area that has already received some attention from research in music therapy,…

  14. 76 FR 206 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Renewal of a Previously Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    .... Respondents: 52 State Transportation Departments, including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.... and 5 p.m. ET, Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title...

  15. 76 FR 3934 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Request for Renewal of a Previously Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    .... Respondents: 50 State Transportation Departments, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Frequency: As...., Washington, DC 20590; Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title...

  16. 75 FR 62857 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Extension With Change of a Previously Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ..., administrators, school resource officers, or school nurses); law enforcement personnel; treatment providers... SENTRY Geographic Information System map accessible to the public that includes color-coded substance...

  17. Blending formal and informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Gro

    Defence College (RDDC) revealed that resistance to online courses with collaborative activities is common. Through learning theory, motivational theory and practical examples, this paper will explore how we can succeed in tapping into the existing culture of collaboration. A deeper understanding......The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities collaboration offers in the virtual learning environments of the armed forces. I will argue that for reasons of culture and structure in the armed forces, the opportunities created by collaborative learning activities in e-learning and blended...... learning are especially fruitful here. Collaboration is a pervasive, foundational form of activity in our armies, air forces and navies. It expresses itself in cultural traits such as never leaving a soldier behind, taking your share and being someone you can count on, to name a few. Moreover, most armed...

  18. Blending formal and informal learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølund, Gro

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities collaboration offers in the virtual learning environments of the armed forces. I will argue that for reasons of culture and structure in the armed forces, the opportunities created by collaborative learning activities in e-learning and blended...... learning are especially fruitful here. Collaboration is a pervasive, foundational form of activity in our armies, air forces and navies. It expresses itself in cultural traits such as never leaving a soldier behind, taking your share and being someone you can count on, to name a few. Moreover, most armed...... forces activities are structured forms of collaboration; staff work, tactical planning, active duty and so forth are all day-to-day examples. Collaborative activities in virtual learning spaces tap into that culture. However, and perhaps confusingly, a study I conducted last year at the Royal Danish...

  19. Introduction to KHNP's Informal Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jang Soo; Kim, Duck Nyoun; Goo, Ja Sung; Jeong, Yeon Oh

    2011-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has developed digital learning content for e-Learning, based on existing offline training materials since 2003. As a result, e-Learning content for basic training subjects have almost been developed, and the company is running e-Learning courses separately from offline training. This has allowed KHNP personnel to do self study to catch up on the fields they are in, without having to leave their work. Accordingly, KHNP is attempting to bring about numerous changes to the existing courses comprised of only offline training. All basic knowledge included in each training course contains e-Learning content. And offline training is focusing more on solving problems, which will eventually help enhance work performance

  20. 78 FR 77203 - Agency Requests for Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Previously Approved Information Collection(s): War Risk Insurance, Applications and Related Information... determine the eligibility of the applicant and the vessel(s) for participation in the war risk insurance... Control Number: 2133-0011. Title: War Risk Insurance, Applications and Related Information. Form Numbers...

  1. 78 FR 64262 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments of a Previously Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs. This request for a renewal of the information collection for... workplace. The MIS form includes employer specific drug and alcohol testing information such as the reason... those with limited computer skills); programing challenges associated with each DOT Agency; and agency...

  2. 77 FR 69924 - Request for Comments on a Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Parts 531 and 533 Passenger Car Average Fuel Economy Standards--Model Years 2016-2025; Light Truck... year MY 2012 through MY 2025 passenger cars and light trucks and the assumptions underlying those plans... information on respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information...

  3. 78 FR 9035 - Renewal and Revision of a Previously Approved Information Collection; Comment Request; State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). DATES: Written comments must be... businesses use the data to identify where broadband is available, the advertised speeds and other information. Despite the importance of broadband to the U.S. economy, information about broadband availability was not...

  4. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  5. 78 FR 57351 - A Reinstatement of a Previously Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ``Administrative Manual for the Evans-Allen Cooperative Agricultural Research Program,'' and the ``Administrative... burden of the proposed collection of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity...

  6. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manuel; Chaves, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik's Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students' acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in…

  7. Examining Informal Learning Using Mobile Devices in the Healthcare Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Dorothy

    2013-01-01

    The study of workplace learning and informal learning are not new to adult education and pedagogy. However, the use of mobile devices as learning tools for informal learning in the workplace is an understudied area. Using theories on informal learning and constructivism as a framework, this paper explores informal learning of registered nurses…

  8. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Márquez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik’s Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students’ acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in different practices has made students understand, at a basic level, the functioning of this language.

  9. 77 FR 11188 - Request for Comments of a Reinstatement of a Previously Approved Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... 205 contains the minimum requirements for air carrier accident liability insurance to protect the... Remo, Air Carrier Fitness Division (X-56), Office of Aviation Analysis, Office of the Secretary... INFORMATION: Title: Aircraft Accident Liability Insurance, 14 CFR Part 205. OMB Control Number: 2106-0030...

  10. Previous Experiences with Epilepsy and Effectiveness of Information to Change Public Perception of Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.; Seydel, E.R.; Wiegman, O.

    1986-01-01

    Differences with regard to the effectiveness of health information and attitude change are suggested between people with direct, behavioral experiences with a health topic and people with indirect, nonbehavioral experiences. The effects of three different methods of health education about epilepsy,

  11. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  12. Mapping Students’ Informal Learning Using Personal Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Anđelković Labrović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments are a widely spared ways of learning, especially for the informal learning process. The aim of this research is to identify the elements of studens’ personal learning environment and to identify the extent to which students use modern technology for learning as part of their non-formal learning. A mapping system was used for gathering data and an analysis of percentages and frequency counts was used for data analysis in the SPSS. The results show that students’ personal learning environment includes the following elements: Wikipedia, Google, YouTube and Facebook in 75% of all cases, and an interesting fact is that all of them belong to a group of Web 2.0 tools and applications.

  13. 36 CFR 1260.72 - Can previously released White House originated information be reclassified or have its...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... House originated information be reclassified or have its classification restored? 1260.72 Section 1260... DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Reclassification § 1260.72 Can previously released White House... close, review, and possibly reclassify or restore the classification of White House originated...

  14. Blogging for Informal Learning: Analyzing Bloggers' Perceptions Using Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Lee, Romee

    2011-01-01

    This study defines a blog as a contemporary web-based environment that can make a difference in adult informal learning practice. An online survey with 70 adult bloggers in Korea was undertaken to understand the nature of adults' blogging and its meanings in terms of learning. This study investigates (a) adults' blogging experiences related to…

  15. Data-Informed Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Although data collection has been used in language learning settings for some time, it is only in recent decades that large corpora have become available, along with efficient tools for their use. Advances in natural language processing (NLP) have enabled rich tagging and annotation of corpus data, essential for their effective use in language…

  16. Divulging Personal Information within Learning Analytics Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Schumacher, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if students are prepared to release any personal data in order to inform learning analytics systems. Besides the well-documented benefits of learning analytics, serious concerns and challenges are associated with the application of these data driven systems. Most notably, empirical evidence regarding…

  17. Machine Learning Approaches for Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Shao, Bo; DingdingWang,

    2009-01-01

    We discussed the following machine learning approaches used in music information retrieval: (1) multi-class classification methods for music genre categorization; (2) multi-label classification methods for emotion detection; (3) clustering methods for music style identification; and (4) semi-supervised learning methods for music recommendation. Experimental results are also presented to evaluate the approaches.

  18. Embedded Managers in Informal Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisin, Victoria; Fennewald, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have decided to invest in updating their informal learning spaces. One decision to be made in planning the space is how to staff it. The researchers carried out a qualitative case study to better understand the perspective of learning space managers who work in offices within their assigned space. The research generated six…

  19. Learning Communities and School Library Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the learning organization contained in Peter Senge's text, "The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization," and how it applies to schools. The school library information professional's potential role as a practitioner of systems thinking, which Senge defines as the fifth discipline, is…

  20. Informal Learning of Women Small Business Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate women small business owners' informal learning behaviour. There is limited qualitative research that examines women small business owners' learning process and this study aims to address this gap. The study was driven by the following research questions: "Do women small business owners…

  1. Transductive Pattern Learning for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    .... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...

  2. Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    information spreads in social networks and whether the information is efficiently aggregated in large societies. The models developed in this thesis allow us...network). We characterize equilibria for arbitrary stochastic and deterministic social networks and characterize the conditions under which there will be...beliefs there will be asymptotic learning in almost all reasonable social networks . Furthermore we provide bounds on the speed of learning for some

  3. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning by Doing: Twenty Successful Active Learning Exercises for Information Systems Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanah Mitchell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper provides a review of previously published work related to active learning in information systems (IS courses. Background: There are a rising number of strategies in higher education that offer promise in regards to getting students’ attention and helping them learn, such as flipped classrooms and offering courses online. These learning strategies are part of the pedagogical technique known as active learning. Active learning is a strategy that became popular in the early 1990s and has proven itself as a valid tool for helping students to be engaged with learning. Methodology: This work follows a systematic method for identifying and coding previous research based on an aspect of interest. The authors identified and assessed research through a search of ABI/Inform scholarly journal abstracts and keywords, as well as additional research databases, using the search terms “active learning” and “information systems” from 2000 through June 2016. Contribution: This synthesis of active learning exercises provides guidance for information technology faculty looking to implement active learning strategies in their classroom by demonstrating how IS faculty might begin to introduce more active learning techniques in their teaching as well as by presenting a sample teaching agenda for a class that uses a mix of active and passive learning techniques to engage student learning. Findings: Twenty successful types of active learning exercises in IS courses are presented. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: This paper offers a “how to” resource of successful active learning strategies for IS faculty interested in implementing active learning in the classroom. Recommendation for Researchers: This work provides an example of a systematic literature review as a means to assess successful implementations of active learning in IS. Impact on Society: An updated definition of active learning is presented as well as a meaningful

  5. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  6. Informal Learning through Science Media Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michaela; Rothmund, Tobias; Retzbach, Andrea; Otto, Lukas; Besley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews current research on informal science learning through news media. Based on a descriptive model of media-based science communication we distinguish between (a) the professional routines by which journalists select and depict scientific information in traditional media and (b) the psychological processes that account for how…

  7. Information Systems in University Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe SABAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this article are going to bring into light the significance, the place and the role of information systems in the university education process. At the same time they define the objectives and the target group of the subject named Economic Information Systems and state the competence gained by students by studying this subject. Special attention is given to the curriculum to be taught to students and to a suggestive enumeration of a series of economic applications that can be themes for laboratory practice and for students’ dissertation (graduation thesis.

  8. [Information technology in learning sign language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cesar; Pulido, Jose L; Arias, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    To develop a technological tool that improves the initial learning of sign language in hearing impaired children. The development of this research was conducted in three phases: the lifting of requirements, design and development of the proposed device, and validation and evaluation device. Through the use of information technology and with the advice of special education professionals, we were able to develop an electronic device that facilitates the learning of sign language in deaf children. This is formed mainly by a graphic touch screen, a voice synthesizer, and a voice recognition system. Validation was performed with the deaf children in the Filadelfia School of the city of Bogotá. A learning methodology was established that improves learning times through a small, portable, lightweight, and educational technological prototype. Tests showed the effectiveness of this prototype, achieving a 32 % reduction in the initial learning time for sign language in deaf children.

  9. Youth equity pathways in informal science learning

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, L.; Seakins, A.; Dawson, E.; Calabrese Barton, A.; Greenberg, D.; Dierking, L.

    2015-01-01

    This infographic reports findings from the Youth Access & Equity in Informal Science Learning (ISL) project, a UK-US researcher-practitioner partnership funded by the Science Learning+ Phase 1 scheme. Our project focuses on young people aged 11-14 primarily from under-served and non-dominant communities and includes researchers and practitioners from a range of ISL settings: designed spaces (eg museums, zoos), community-based (eg afterschool clubs) and everyday science spaces (eg science media).

  10. Informal Learning from Error in Hospitals: What Do We Learn, How Do We Learn and How Can Informal Learning Be Enhanced? A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feijter, Jeantine M.; de Grave, Willem S.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Scherpbier, Albert J. J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Learning from error is not just an individual endeavour. Organisations also learn from error. Hospitals provide many learning opportunities, which can be formal or informal. Informal learning from error in hospitals has not been researched in much depth so this narrative review focuses on five learning opportunities: morbidity and mortality…

  11. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Information literacy experiencies inside virtual learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hernández Salazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suggest the use of virtual learning environments as an Information Literacy (IL alternative. Method. Analysis of the main elements of web sites. To achieve this purpose the article includes the relationship between IL and the learning virtual environment (by defining both phrases; phases to create virtual IL programs; processes to elaborate didactic media; the applications that may support this plan; and the description of eleven examples of learning virtual environments IL experiences from four countries (Mexico, United States of America, Spain and United Kingdom these examples fulfill the conditions expressed. Results. We obtained four comparative tables examining five elements of each experience: objectives; target community; institution; country; and platform used. Conclusions. Any IL proposal should have a clear definition; IL experiences have to follow a didactic systematic process; described experiences are based on IL definition; the experiences analyzed are similar; virtual learning environments can be used as alternatives of IL.

  13. professional development through informal learning' : workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr.ir. Quinta Kools

    2013-01-01

    professional development through informal learning In planning professional development for teachers or teacher educators, very often a formal course or training is offered. There is a lack of attention for the fact that a lot of professional development takes place at work through so-called

  14. Informal learning from error in hospitals: what do we learn, how do we learn and how can informal learning be enhanced? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Feijter, Jeantine M; de Grave, Willem S; Koopmans, Richard P; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2013-10-01

    Learning from error is not just an individual endeavour. Organisations also learn from error. Hospitals provide many learning opportunities, which can be formal or informal. Informal learning from error in hospitals has not been researched in much depth so this narrative review focuses on five learning opportunities: morbidity and mortality conferences, incident reporting systems, patient claims and complaints, chart review and prospective risk analysis. For each of them we describe: (1) what can be learnt, categorised according to the seven CanMEDS competencies; (2) how it is possible to learn from them, analysed against a model of informal and incidental learning; and (3) how this learning can be enhanced. All CanMEDS competencies could be enhanced, but there was a particular focus on the roles of medical expert and manager. Informal learning occurred mostly through reflection and action and was often linked to the learning of others. Most important to enhance informal learning from these learning opportunities was the realisation of a climate of collaboration and trust. Possible new directions for future research on informal learning from error in hospitals might focus on ways to measure informal learning and the balance between formal and informal learning. Finally, 12 recommendations about how hospitals could enhance informal learning within their organisation are given.

  15. Examining Informal Learning in Commercial Airline Pilots' Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A pragmatic sequential mixed methods research methodology was used to examine commercial airline pilots' (N =156) types and frequencies of informal learning activities, perceptions of workplace informal learning, and opinions on how organizations should support workplace informal learning outside of the formal learning environment. This study…

  16. Exploring Representativeness and Informativeness for Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bo; Wang, Zengmao; Zhang, Lefei; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Wei; Shen, Jialie; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-01-01

    How can we find a general way to choose the most suitable samples for training a classifier? Even with very limited prior information? Active learning, which can be regarded as an iterative optimization procedure, plays a key role to construct a refined training set to improve the classification performance in a variety of applications, such as text analysis, image recognition, social network modeling, etc. Although combining representativeness and informativeness of samples has been proven promising for active sampling, state-of-the-art methods perform well under certain data structures. Then can we find a way to fuse the two active sampling criteria without any assumption on data? This paper proposes a general active learning framework that effectively fuses the two criteria. Inspired by a two-sample discrepancy problem, triple measures are elaborately designed to guarantee that the query samples not only possess the representativeness of the unlabeled data but also reveal the diversity of the labeled data. Any appropriate similarity measure can be employed to construct the triple measures. Meanwhile, an uncertain measure is leveraged to generate the informativeness criterion, which can be carried out in different ways. Rooted in this framework, a practical active learning algorithm is proposed, which exploits a radial basis function together with the estimated probabilities to construct the triple measures and a modified best-versus-second-best strategy to construct the uncertain measure, respectively. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm consistently achieves superior performance over the state-of-the-art active learning algorithms.

  17. The impact of personality and approaches to learning on information behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown how personality influences learning strategies and learning outcome. In this study this will be taken further by combining personality and approaches to learning with information behaviour. The aim of this study is to show how the five traits of the Five-Factor Inventory related to the approaches to learning of the ASSIST-test affect information behaviour. The subjects will be approximately 500 university students writing their dissertation. In a pilot study it was shown that personality traits can be related to approaches to learning. Moreover they seem to form distinctive information behaviour.

  18. Preschoolers prefer to learn causal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubry eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Young children, in general, appear to have a strong drive to explore the environment in ways that reveal its underlying causal structure. But are they really attuned specifically to casual information in this quest for understanding, or do they show equal interest in other types of non-obvious information about the world? To answer this question, we introduced 20 three-year-old children to two puppets who were anxious to tell the child about a set of novel artifacts and animals. One puppet consistently described causal properties of the items while the other puppet consistently described carefully matched non-causal properties of the same items. After a familiarization period in which children learned which type of information to expect from each informant, children were given the opportunity to choose which they wanted to hear describe each of eight pictured test items. On average, children chose to hear from the informant that provided causal descriptions on 72% of the trials. This preference for causal information has important implications for explaining the role of conceptual information in supporting early learning and may suggest means for maximizing interest and motivation in young children.

  19. Using Facebook as an informal learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff; Policastri, Anne

    2011-12-15

    To create, implement, and assess the effectiveness of an optional Facebook activity intended to expose students to contemporary business issues not covered in the core content of a pharmacy management and leadership course and to perspectives of experts and thought leaders external to their university. An informal learning strategy was used to create a Facebook group page and guest experts were identified and invited to submit posts pertaining to business-related topics. Students were given instructions for joining the Facebook group but informed that participation was optional. A mixed-methods approach using a student questionnaire, results on examination questions, and a student focus group was used to assess this activity. The informal design with no posting guidelines and no participation requirement was well received by students, who appreciated the unique learning environment and exposure to external experts. Facebook provides an informal learning environment for presenting contemporary topics and the thoughts of guest experts not affiliated with a college or school, thereby exposing students to relevant "real world" issues.

  20. Information Theory, Inference and Learning Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, David J. C.

    2003-10-01

    Information theory and inference, often taught separately, are here united in one entertaining textbook. These topics lie at the heart of many exciting areas of contemporary science and engineering - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics, and cryptography. This textbook introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems, such as arithmetic coding for data compression and sparse-graph codes for error-correction. A toolbox of inference techniques, including message-passing algorithms, Monte Carlo methods, and variational approximations, are developed alongside applications of these tools to clustering, convolutional codes, independent component analysis, and neural networks. The final part of the book describes the state of the art in error-correcting codes, including low-density parity-check codes, turbo codes, and digital fountain codes -- the twenty-first century standards for satellite communications, disk drives, and data broadcast. Richly illustrated, filled with worked examples and over 400 exercises, some with detailed solutions, David MacKay's groundbreaking book is ideal for self-learning and for undergraduate or graduate courses. Interludes on crosswords, evolution, and sex provide entertainment along the way. In sum, this is a textbook on information, communication, and coding for a new generation of students, and an unparalleled entry point into these subjects for professionals in areas as diverse as computational biology, financial engineering, and machine learning.

  1. Improving Information Technology Curriculum Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick L Anderson

    2017-06-01

    The case study research methodology has been selected to conduct the inquiry into this phenomenon. This empirical inquiry facilitates exploration of a contemporary phenomenon in depth within its real-life context using a variety of data sources. The subject of analysis will be two Information Technology classes composed of a combination of second year and third year students; both classes have six students, the same six students. Contribution It is the purpose of this research to show that the use of improved approaches to learning will produce more desirable learning outcomes. Findings The results of this inquiry clearly show that the use of the traditional behaviorist based pedagogic model to achieve college and university IT program learning outcomes is not as effective as a more constructivist based andragogic model. Recommendations Instruction based purely on either of these does a disservice to the typical college and university level learner. The correct approach lies somewhere in between them; the most successful outcome attainment would be the product of incorporating the best of both. Impact on Society Instructional strategies produce learning outcomes; learning outcomes demonstrate what knowledge has been acquired. Acquired knowledge is used by students as they pursue professional careers and other ventures in life. Future Research Learning and teaching approaches are not “one-size-fits-all” propositions; different strategies are appropriate for different circumstances and situations. Additional research should seek to introduce vehicles that will move learners away from one the traditional methodology that has been used throughout much of their educational careers to an approach that is better suited to equip them with the skills necessary to meet the challenges awaiting them in the professional world.

  2. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Tryus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider conceptual approaches to creation of information systems, learning management school, which uses modern methods of decision-making and simulational modeling, web-technologies. The main criteria for the selection of development tools of the system are: openness, free of charge, easy to use and independence from system software and hardware. The chosen technology and the system itself satisfies such requirements as: focus on national and international standards in the field of higher education, adherence to service-oriented architecture, ensuring stable operation with a large number of users, support for a clear division of user rights to obtain and change information resources, software modularity the final product and its ability to integrate into the corporate information system of the university

  3. Motivational Factors in Self-Directed Informal Learning from Online Learning Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donggil; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2016-01-01

    Learning is becoming more self-directed and informal with the support of emerging technologies. A variety of online resources have promoted informal learning by allowing people to learn on demand and just when needed. It is significant to understand self-directed informal learners' motivational aspects, their learning goals, obstacles, and…

  4. Integrating the Supervised Information into Unsupervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Ling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assembling unsupervised learning framework that adopts the information coming from the supervised learning process and gives the corresponding implementation algorithm. The algorithm consists of two phases: extracting and clustering data representatives (DRs firstly to obtain labeled training data and then classifying non-DRs based on labeled DRs. The implementation algorithm is called SDSN since it employs the tuning-scaled Support vector domain description to collect DRs, uses spectrum-based method to cluster DRs, and adopts the nearest neighbor classifier to label non-DRs. The validation of the clustering procedure of the first-phase is analyzed theoretically. A new metric is defined data dependently in the second phase to allow the nearest neighbor classifier to work with the informed information. A fast training approach for DRs’ extraction is provided to bring more efficiency. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets verify that the proposed idea is of correctness and performance and SDSN exhibits higher popularity in practice over the traditional pure clustering procedure.

  5. Study to Investigate Learning Motivation Factors within Formal and Informal Learning Environments and their influence upon Web-Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Mushtaq; Dayang Rohaya Rambli; Rohani Salleh; Sadia Riaz

    2010-01-01

    Learning is a process that takes place in our brain, in response to our experiences in formal and informal learning environments. Both of these environments have their distinctive characteristics which instigate learning process and research has also established that learning process is mediated by external and internal factors; and one such factor is learning motivation. This paper investigates learning motivation factors within formal and informal learning environments, processes and their ...

  6. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A

    1999-06-01

    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  7. Information model for learning nursing terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytun, Jan Pettersen; Fossum, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Standardized terminologies are introduced in healthcare with the intention of improving information quality, which is important for enhancing the quality of healthcare itself. The International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®) is a unified language system that presents an ontology for nursing terminology; it is meant for documentation of nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions and patient outcomes. This paper presents an information model and an application for teaching nursing students how to use ICNP to assist in the planning of nursing care. The model is an integration of ICNP and our catalog ontology, patient journal ontology, and ontology defining task sets. The application for learning nursing terminology offers descriptions of patient situations and then prompts the student to supply nursing statements for diagnoses, goals and interventions. The nursing statements may be selected from catalogues containing premade solutions based on ICNP, or they may be constructed directly by selecting terms from ICNP.

  8. Online learning to rank for information retrieval: SIGIR 2016 tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Grotov, A.; de Rijke, M.

    2016-01-01

    During the past 10--15 years offline learning to rank has had a tremendous influence on information retrieval, both scientifically and in practice. Recently, as the limitations of offline learning to rank for information retrieval have become apparent, there is increased attention for online learning to rank methods for information retrieval in the community. Such methods learn from user interactions rather than from a set of labeled data that is fully available for training up front. Below w...

  9. Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D. (2010, 19-21 March). Ambient Learning Displays Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. Presented at the IADIS International Conference Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal.

  10. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Learning to Rank for Information Retrieval from User Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.; Whiteson, S.; Schuth, A.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we give an overview of our recent work on online learning to rank for information retrieval (IR). This work addresses IR from a reinforcement learning (RL) point of view, with the aim to enable systems that can learn directly from interactions with their users. Learning directly from

  12. Types of Informal Learning in Cross-Organizational Collegial Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel Gray; Hartung, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to gather empirical evidence for what colleagues from different organizations reported they learned from informal professional learning conversations. Informal learning conversations with colleagues is a powerful yet understudied source of self-directed, professional development. Design/methodology/approach: This study of…

  13. Assuring Integrity of Information Utility in Cyber-Learning Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Stein, Linda L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a cyber-learning project for the World Wide Web developed by faculty and librarians at the University of Delaware that combined discovery learning with problem-based learning to develop critical thinking and quality management for information. Undergraduates were to find, evaluate, and use information to generate an Internet marketing…

  14. Information Literacy (IL) teaching and learning: a literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is largely based on review of existing literature on teaching and learning Information Literacy (IL), both online and in print. It reports on studies about the teaching and learning of IL in some institutions of higher learning. It also discusses lists of competencies, and descriptions of information literacy programmes ...

  15. Informal Learning through the Internet: A Learning Journey through the World of Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Danny; Wyn-Lewis, Eleri; Andrews, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Informal learning involves a wide variety of activities and pursuits which extend beyond conventional classrooms or lifelong learning courses. In this article one application of informal learning is explored in detail: the use of a sports theme, which deploys various multimedia applications in order to encourage adult learning. The article builds…

  16. Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Qiang; Sun, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning. The results showed that visuospatial working memory interferes with rule-based but not information-integration category learning. In Experiment 2, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was used, in which the categorization task was integrated into the visuospatial working memory task. The results indicated that visuospatial working memory affects information-integration category learning but not rule-based category learning. In Experiment 3, the dual-task paradigm with simultaneous presentation was employed, in which visuospatial working memory was integrated into the category learning task. The results revealed that visuospatial working memory interferes with both rule-based and information-integration category learning. Through these three experiments, we found that, regarding the rule-based category learning, working memory load is the main mechanism by which visuospatial working memory influences the discovery of the category rules. In addition, regarding the information-integration category learning, visual resources mainly operates on the category representation.

  17. Has Web 2.0 Revitalized Informal Learning? The Relationship between Web 2.0 and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D.; Lee, J.

    2014-01-01

    Learning is becoming increasingly self-directed and often occurs away from schools and other formal educational settings. The development of a myriad of new technologies for learning has enabled people to learn anywhere and anytime. Web 2.0 technology allows researchers to shed a new light on the importance and prevalence of informal learning.…

  18. How AASL Learning Standards Inform ACRL Information Literacy Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2013-01-01

    ACRL and other academic librarians are currently re-examining the tough questions of learning, literacy, and education--and the librarians' role in addressing these issues. They can use AASL's learning standards as one springboard for thought, particularly in terms of articulating learning. The result is a developmentally appropriate set of…

  19. Analysing Information Systems Security In Higher Learning Institutions Of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugyenyi Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of information systems security in Uganda. Citations related management of information systems security and policies have been identified and analysed. A proposed model illustrating the effective management of information in higher learning institutions have been developed. Relevant recommendations and conclusions have also been developed.

  20. The Influence of Multigenerational Workforce in Effective Informal Team Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Marsaulina Sibarani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of this research arises from the convergence of two dynamics that are transforming the workplace and impacting organization performance. The first is multigenerational workforce work side by side in the same organization even in the same team. The second is informal learning, a major mode of learning in an organization. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the influence of generational background of Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in relation to informal team learning in the Indonesian business environment. Both, qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted with 21 interviewees and 184 survey respondents representing a total of 191 multigenerational teams participating in this research. The findings suggest that generational background influence informal learner and effective informal team learning, but have no direct impact on team climate. Understanding generational differences will enable individuals to learn informally and create a conducive team climate that will lead to effective informal team learning.

  1. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Jiang

    Full Text Available The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs, where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects.We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer's dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain.When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer's dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is significant because we have increasingly

  2. Analysing Information Systems Security In Higher Learning Institutions Of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mugyenyi Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Information communication technology has increased globalisation in higher learning institution all over the world. This has been achieved through introduction of systems that ease operations related to information handling in the institutions. The paper assessed and analysed the information systems security performance status in higher learning institutions of Uganda. The existing policies that govern the information security have also been analysed together with the current status of inform...

  3. Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H. (2009). Navigation Support for Learners in Informal Learning Networks. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Oktober, 16, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands/CELSTEC.

  4. Workplace Learning - How We Keep Track of Relevant Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Kerstin; Herder, Eelco; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    At the workplace, learning is often a by-product of working on complex projects, requiring self-steered, need-driven and goal-oriented retrieval of information just in time from documents or peers. The personal desktop provides one rich source for learning material and for adaptation of learning

  5. Seeking and Providing Assistance while Learning to Use Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Lisa-Marie; Tricot, Andre; Marine, Claudette

    2009-01-01

    Throughout their lives, people are faced with various learning situations, for example when they learn how to use new software, services or information systems. However, research in the field of Interactive Learning Environments shows that learners needing assistance do not systematically seek or use help, even when it is available. The aim of the…

  6. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  7. Organisational Learning as an Emerging Process: The Generative Role of Digital Tools in Informal Learning Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Za, Stefano; Spagnoletti, Paolo; North-Samardzic, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing attention is paid to organisational learning, with the success of contemporary organisations strongly contingent on their ability to learn and grow. Importantly, informal learning is argued to be even more significant than formal learning initiatives. Given the widespread use of digital technologies in the workplace, what requires…

  8. Designing Mobile Learning Environments to Support Teacher-Led Field Trips within Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices have become increasingly more visible within classrooms and informal learning spaces. The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of mobile learning (m-learning) tools to support student learning during teacher-led field trips. Specifically, the research questions for this study are: (a) What conditions affect student…

  9. Supporting and frustrating organizational learning : Exploring the role of information systems in processes of organizational learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysman, M.H.; van der Blonk, Heico

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we aim to gain insight in the effects information systems have on organizational learning. A theoretical framework is proposed that may serve to explore the role of information systems in processes of organizational learning. Based on the sociology of knowledge, learning is conceived

  10. Information Literacy (IL) learning experiences: A literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a review of extant literature on information literacy. The study reports literature on IL learning experiences in institutions across the globe. It also discusses the spectrum of literacy to give information literacy a context. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of IL learning initiatives in academic ...

  11. Instructed fear learning, extinction, and recall: additive effects of cognitive information on emotional learning of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Arash; Duval, Elizabeth R; Cisneros, Maria E; Taylor, Stephan F; Kessler, Daniel; Liberzon, Israel

    2017-08-01

    The effects of instruction on learning of fear and safety are rarely studied. We aimed to examine the effects of cognitive information and experience on fear learning. Fourty healthy participants, randomly assigned to three groups, went through fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall with two conditioned stimuli (CS+). Information was presented about the presence or absence of conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingency at different stages of the experiment. Information about the CS-US contingency prior to fear conditioning enhanced fear response and reduced extinction recall. Information about the absence of CS-US contingency promoted extinction learning and recall, while omission of this information prior to recall resulted in fear renewal. These findings indicate that contingency information can facilitate fear expression during fear learning, and can facilitate extinction learning and recall. Information seems to function as an element of the larger context in which conditioning occurs.

  12. Improvement of Self-regulated Learning in Mathematics through a Hypermedia Application: Differences based on Academic Performance and Previous Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueli, Marisol; Rodríguez, Celestino; Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma

    2017-12-04

    Self-regulation on behalf of the student is crucial in learning Mathematics through hypermedia applications and is an even greater challenge in these IT environments. Two aims are formulated. First, to analyze the effectiveness of a hypermedia tool in improving perceived knowledge of self-regulatory strategies and the perceived usage of the planning, executing and assessment strategy on behalf of students with low, medium and high levels of academic performance. Second, to analyze the effectiveness of the hypermedia tool in improving perceived usage of the strategy for planning, monitoring and evaluating on behalf of students with a perceived knowledge (low, medium and high). Participants were 624 students (aged 10-13), classified into a treatment group (TG; 391) and a comparative group (CG; 233). They completed a questionnaire on perceived knowledge (Perceived Knowledge of Self-Regulatory Strategies) and another one on perceived usage of the strategy for planning, performing and evaluating (Inventory of Self-regulatory Learning Processes). Univariate covariance analyses (ANCOVAs) and Student-t tests were used. ANCOVA results were not statistically significant. However, the linear contrast indicated a significant improvement in perceived knowledge of strategies among the TG with low, medium and high academic performance (p ≤ .001). Results are discussed in the light of past and future research.

  13. Learning classification models with soft-label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang; Valizadegan, Hamed; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Learning of classification models in medicine often relies on data labeled by a human expert. Since labeling of clinical data may be time-consuming, finding ways of alleviating the labeling costs is critical for our ability to automatically learn such models. In this paper we propose a new machine learning approach that is able to learn improved binary classification models more efficiently by refining the binary class information in the training phase with soft labels that reflect how strongly the human expert feels about the original class labels. Two types of methods that can learn improved binary classification models from soft labels are proposed. The first relies on probabilistic/numeric labels, the other on ordinal categorical labels. We study and demonstrate the benefits of these methods for learning an alerting model for heparin induced thrombocytopenia. The experiments are conducted on the data of 377 patient instances labeled by three different human experts. The methods are compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score. Our AUC results show that the new approach is capable of learning classification models more efficiently compared to traditional learning methods. The improvement in AUC is most remarkable when the number of examples we learn from is small. A new classification learning framework that lets us learn from auxiliary soft-label information provided by a human expert is a promising new direction for learning classification models from expert labels, reducing the time and cost needed to label data.

  14. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  15. Interprofessional team meetings: Opportunities for informal interprofessional learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Gillian; Dunn, Stewart; Lincoln, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the potential for workplace interprofessional learning, specifically the learning that occurs between health professionals as part of their attendance at their regular interprofessional team meetings. While most interprofessional learning research to date has focused on formal structured education programs, this study adds to our understanding of the complexities of the learning processes occurring between health professionals as part of everyday practice. Through observations of team meetings and semi-structured interviews, we found that the interprofessional team meeting provided a practical, time-efficient, and relevant means for interprofessional learning, resulting in perceived benefits to individuals, teams, and patients. The learning process, however, was influenced by members' conceptions of learning, participation within the meeting, and medical presence. This study provides a basis for further research to assist health professionals capitalize on informal learning opportunities within the interprofessional meeting.

  16. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  17. Connecting Formal and Informal Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Timothy Kieran

    The learning study reports on part of a larger project being lead by the author. In this dissertation I explore one goal of this project---to understand effects on student learning outcomes as a function of using different methods for connecting out-of-school experiential learning with formal school-based instruction. There is a long history of assuming that "experience is the best teacher"(e.g. Aristotle, 360 BC; Dewey, 1934; Kolb, 1997; Pliny, AD 77). As a practical geographer I endorsed that assumption throughout my teaching career, paying attention to local topography, physical features, and natural resources in the geographic hinterland. I was particularly interested in understanding the impact of the physical landscape on humankind, and reciprocally, noting humankind's widespread impressions on the natural world. Until I began this research project, I assumed that everyone else paid a similar attention to immediate surroundings. The work that I describe in this dissertation emerges out of a conviction that there are many degrees of truth to the idea that experience is a great teacher. Its effectiveness seems to depend on how one's "experience" is mediated, and how "learning from it" is defined. This motivated me to think about design principles for linking people's experiences to learning. I began to explore, experimentally, how I might enhance people's abilities to notice, represent, and discuss their experiences in order to better learn from them. This study investigated how different ways of connecting outdoor learning experiences to formal schooling impacts students' performance. I studied high-school students in outdoor settings as they engaged in evocative issues of learning pertaining to consequential everyday life encounters. Different kinds of "expert mediation" were introduced and tested as the students engaged in investigative activities around the science of dam removal and habitat restoration. I measured outcomes with the aid of pre- and

  18. Information theoretic learning Renyi's entropy and Kernel perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, Jose C

    2010-01-01

    This book presents the first cohesive treatment of Information Theoretic Learning (ITL) algorithms to adapt linear or nonlinear learning machines both in supervised or unsupervised paradigms. ITL is a framework where the conventional concepts of second order statistics (covariance, L2 distances, correlation functions) are substituted by scalars and functions with information theoretic underpinnings, respectively entropy, mutual information and correntropy. ITL quantifies the stochastic structure of the data beyond second order statistics for improved performance without using full-blown Bayesi

  19. Scholarly information discovery in the networked academic learning environment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, LiLi

    2014-01-01

    In the dynamic and interactive academic learning environment, students are required to have qualified information literacy competencies while critically reviewing print and electronic information. However, many undergraduates encounter difficulties in searching peer-reviewed information resources. Scholarly Information Discovery in the Networked Academic Learning Environment is a practical guide for students determined to improve their academic performance and career development in the digital age. Also written with academic instructors and librarians in mind who need to show their students how to access and search academic information resources and services, the book serves as a reference to promote information literacy instructions. This title consists of four parts, with chapters on the search for online and printed information via current academic information resources and services: part one examines understanding information and information literacy; part two looks at academic information delivery in the...

  20. Curriculum Infusion of the Social Norms Approach: Information Only vs. Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mark A.; Carter, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A two-group pretest-post-test quasi-experiment was conducted to analyze the impact of curriculum infusion of the social norms approach on students' alcohol perceptions and behaviors. This study extended previous research by examining two types of curriculum infusion, information only (IO) and service learning (SL). Also, owing to variations in…

  1. Women Entrepreneurs Reflect on Informal/Self-Directed Learning in Business and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Yvonne Biedron

    2010-01-01

    Research studies about women business owners or women entrepreneurs are few, and previous research has focused on gender differences of business owners, traits of entrepreneurs, and reasons for and success of entrepreneurship. Very little research exists on female business owners/entrepreneurs discussing their informal learning and experiences'…

  2. Improving the Unreliability of Competence Information: an Argumentation to Apply Information Fusion in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., Hummel, H., & Koper, R. (2009). Improving the Unreliability of Competence Information: an Argumentation to Apply Information Fusion in Learning Networks [Special issue]. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning (IJCEELL), 19(4/5/6),

  3. Information Presentation for Effective E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordel, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In moving information onto a computer, people generally assume that the format and presentation have little effect on the information itself. Every online educator should consider the effect on students of the electronic presentation of information, however, as that assumption is questionable. Although many writers have investigated the computer…

  4. Promoting Learning in Libraries through Information Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; Ford, Barbara J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses information literacy and describes activities under the sponsorship of the National Forum on Information Literacy (NFIL) that promotes information literacy in schools and libraries. Activities of member organizations of the NFIL are described, including policy formation, publications, and programs; and the role of the American Library…

  5. Spatiotemporal information during unsupervised learning enhances viewpoint invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Moqian; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing objects is difficult because it requires both linking views of an object that can be different and distinguishing objects with similar appearance. Interestingly, people can learn to recognize objects across views in an unsupervised way, without feedback, just from the natural viewing statistics. However, there is intense debate regarding what information during unsupervised learning is used to link among object views. Specifically, researchers argue whether temporal proximity, motion, or spatiotemporal continuity among object views during unsupervised learning is beneficial. Here, we untangled the role of each of these factors in unsupervised learning of novel three-dimensional (3-D) objects. We found that after unsupervised training with 24 object views spanning a 180° view space, participants showed significant improvement in their ability to recognize 3-D objects across rotation. Surprisingly, there was no advantage to unsupervised learning with spatiotemporal continuity or motion information than training with temporal proximity. However, we discovered that when participants were trained with just a third of the views spanning the same view space, unsupervised learning via spatiotemporal continuity yielded significantly better recognition performance on novel views than learning via temporal proximity. These results suggest that while it is possible to obtain view-invariant recognition just from observing many views of an object presented in temporal proximity, spatiotemporal information enhances performance by producing representations with broader view tuning than learning via temporal association. Our findings have important implications for theories of object recognition and for the development of computational algorithms that learn from examples. PMID:26024454

  6. A case study for measuring Informal Learning in PLEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García-Peñalvo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The technological support for learning and teaching processes is constantly changing. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT applied to education, cause changes that affect the way in which people learn. This application introduces new software systems and solutions to carry out teaching and learning activities. Connected to ICT application, the emergence of Web 2.0 and its use in learning contexts enables an online implementation of the student-centred learning paradigm. In addition, 2.0 trends provide “new” ways to exchange, making easier for informal learning to become patent. Given this context, open and user-centered learning environments are needed to integrate such kinds of tools and trends and are commonly described as Personal Learning Environments. Such environments coexist with the institutional learning management systems and they should interact and exchange information between them. This interaction would allow the assessment of what happens in the personal environment from the institutional side. This article describes a solution to make the interoperability possible between these systems. It is based on a set of interoperability scenarios and some components and communication channels. In order to test the solution it is implemented as a proof of concept and the scenarios are validated through several pilot experiences. In this article one of such scenarios and its evaluation experiment is described to conclude that functionalities from the institutional environments and the personal ones can be combined and it is possible to assess what happens in the activities based on them.

  7. Predicting Contextual Informativeness for Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Soterwood, Jeanine; Nessaiver, Shalev; Adlof, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is essential to educational progress. High quality vocabulary instruction requires supportive contextual examples to teach word meaning and proper usage. Identifying such contexts by hand for a large number of words can be difficult. In this work, we take a statistical learning approach to engineer a system that predicts…

  8. Informal Learning in a Formal Educational System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents findings related to a research study which aims to describe and understand some of the essential learning processes involved in changing a first-year physics student into a research scientist. One part of this study explores a common feature of most undergraduate studies in sc...

  9. Addressing Information Literacy through Student-Centered Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes several courses that resulted from a teaching partnership between an instructional technologist/professor and a librarian that evolved over several semesters, and the information literacy implications of the course formats. In order to increase student engagement, active learning and inquiry-based learning techniques were…

  10. Evaluation of the information servicing in a distributed learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors' main idea is to organize a distributed learning environment (DLE) based on information and communication resources of global network in combination with the technologies for virtual reality and 3D simulation. In this reason a conceptual model of the DLE architecture and learning processes is defined, and ...

  11. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  12. Label Information Guided Graph Construction for Semi-Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Liansheng; Zhou, Zihan; Gao, Shenghua; Yin, Jingwen; Lin, Zhouchen; Ma, Yi

    2017-09-01

    In the literature, most existing graph-based semi-supervised learning methods only use the label information of observed samples in the label propagation stage, while ignoring such valuable information when learning the graph. In this paper, we argue that it is beneficial to consider the label information in the graph learning stage. Specifically, by enforcing the weight of edges between labeled samples of different classes to be zero, we explicitly incorporate the label information into the state-of-the-art graph learning methods, such as the low-rank representation (LRR), and propose a novel semi-supervised graph learning method called semi-supervised low-rank representation. This results in a convex optimization problem with linear constraints, which can be solved by the linearized alternating direction method. Though we take LRR as an example, our proposed method is in fact very general and can be applied to any self-representation graph learning methods. Experiment results on both synthetic and real data sets demonstrate that the proposed graph learning method can better capture the global geometric structure of the data, and therefore is more effective for semi-supervised learning tasks.

  13. Informed Faith and Reason: A Perspective on Learning Community Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeIuliis, David

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum of each learning community at Duquesne University is integrated around a shared theme. The integrated classes equip students to articulate their biases in reference to the theme. The residual effect of the thematic communities is a byproduct of pedagogy informed by theory and embodied in service. The learning communities at Duquesne…

  14. Enriching Formal Language Learning with an Informal Social Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettori, Giuliana; Torsani, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an informal component that we added to an online formal language learning environment in order to help the learners reach relevant Internet pages they can freely use to complement their learning activity. Thanks to this facility, each lesson is enriched, at run time, with a number of links automatically retrieved from social…

  15. Utilization of Information and Communication Technologies in Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Farzaneh; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Therefore, many innovations in teaching and learning have been technology-driven. The study attempted to examine what is engineering students' perception regarding the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)…

  16. Efficacy-Information for Implementing Learning in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesan, L. Jawahar

    2004-01-01

    This paper, while emphasizing the linkage between the concepts of "empowerment" and "learning", argues that empowerment provides the most appropriate base to effectively implement learning in construction organizations. It is argued that "efficacy-information", being a derivative of empowerment, helps influence…

  17. Mentoring and Informal Learning as Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the role of mentoring in continuing professional education from a critical perspective, addressing informal and formal mentoring relationships while highlighting their potential to encourage critical reflection, learning, and coconstruction of knowledge.

  18. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...

  19. Teach Them How They Learn: Learning Styles and Information Systems Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Casey G.; Hazen, Benjamin T.; Rainer, R. Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The rich, interdisciplinary tradition of learning styles is markedly absent in information systems-related research. The current study applies the framework of learning styles to a common educational component of many of today's information systems curricula--object-oriented systems development--in an effort to answer the question as to whether…

  20. Informal Learning Spaces and Their Impact on Learning in Higher Education: Framing New Narratives of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Craig; Alterator, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating informal learning spaces in higher education institutions needs to respond to the complex conceptual orientation underpinning their intention and design. This article outlines a model of participatory analysis that accounts for the conceptual complexity, lived experience and broad intentions of informal learning space. Further, the…

  1. Gamification and the Quality of Informal Post-Experiential Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Lambert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As corporate learning moves out of the classroom into the hands of learners, the responsibilities of those who provide guidance in this process are changing. The overall prevalence of learning tools creates a need for competent learning leaders who make decisions about the development of the workforce. With special focus on the least used gamified learning tool, the aim of the study was to investigate the enablement of gamified learning tools determined by certain attributes of this research. A questionnaire survey had been conducted on a selected sample of 100 high-level learning leaders from 28 countries to examine if there are significant correlations between the usage of gamified learning tools and corporate learning leaders’ minds, their competences and the organizational culture profiles of companies. Results had been analysed with the SPSS statistical software package and indicated that relationships between these variables cannot be categorically proven, so no predictions can be made about the future of gamified learning based on these attributes. It is the highest time to conduct an extensive research to examine relationships between the quality of informal learning and learning tools in the ICT domain.

  2. Information Security in eLearning: A Discussion of Empirical Data on Information Security and eLearning

    OpenAIRE

    Alwi, Najwa Hayaati Mohd; Fan, Ip-Shing

    2010-01-01

    ELearning systems are increasingly used by educational institutions to support their academic activities. A simple use of an eLearning system is to make materials and notes available to students at anytime and anywhere; more sophisticated uses of eLearning support the interaction and assessment processes. Depending on how eLearning systems are used, information security issues such as intellectual property protection, personal data protection and continuity of service can become significant f...

  3. Warfighter information services: lessons learned in the intelligence domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, S. E.

    2014-05-01

    A vision was presented in a previous paper of how a common set of services within a framework could be used to provide all the information processing needs of Warfighters. Central to that vision was the concept of a "Virtual Knowledge Base". The paper presents an implementation of these ideas in the intelligence domain. Several innovative technologies were employed in the solution, which are presented and their benefits explained. The project was successful, validating many of the design principles for such a system which had been proposed in earlier work. Many of these principles are discussed in detail, explaining lessons learned. The results showed that it is possible to make vast improvements in the ability to exploit available data, making it discoverable and queryable wherever it is from anywhere within a participating network; and to exploit machine reasoning to make faster and better inferences from available data, enabling human analysts to spend more of their time doing more difficult analytical tasks rather than searching for relevant data. It was also demonstrated that a small number of generic Information Processing services can be combined and configured in a variety of ways (without changing any software code) to create "fact-processing" workflows, in this case to create different intelligence analysis capabilities. It is yet to be demonstrated that the same generic services can be reused to create analytical/situational awareness capabilities for logistics, operations, planning or other military functions but this is considered likely.

  4. Personal Learning Environments, Social Media, and Self-Regulated Learning: A Natural Formula for Connecting Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Nada; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    A Personal Learning Environment or PLE is a potentially promising pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning using social media and supporting student self-regulated learning in higher education contexts. The purpose of this paper is to (a) review research that support this claim, (b) conceptualize the connection…

  5. What's the VALUE of Information Literacy? Comparing Learning Community and Non-Learning Community Student Learning Outomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapchak, Marcia E.; Brungard, Allison B.; Bergfelt, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Information Literacy VALUE Rubric provided by the AAC&U, this study compares thirty final capstone assignments in a research course in a learning community with thirty final assignments in from students not in learning communities. Results indicated higher performance of the non-learning community students; however, transfer skills…

  6. Robust recognition via information theoretic learning

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ran; Yuan, Xiaotong; Wang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief represents a comprehensive review of information theoretic methods for robust recognition. A variety of information theoretic methods have been proffered in the past decade, in a large variety of computer vision applications; this work brings them together, attempts to impart the theory, optimization and usage of information entropy.The?authors?resort to a new information theoretic concept, correntropy, as a robust measure and apply it to solve robust face recognition and object recognition problems. For computational efficiency,?the brief?introduces the additive and multip

  7. Learning to rank for information retrieval and natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Learning to rank refers to machine learning techniques for training a model in a ranking task. Learning to rank is useful for many applications in information retrieval, natural language processing, and data mining. Intensive studies have been conducted on its problems recently, and significant progress has been made. This lecture gives an introduction to the area including the fundamental problems, major approaches, theories, applications, and future work.The author begins by showing that various ranking problems in information retrieval and natural language processing can be formalized as tw

  8. Lifelong Learning and the Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    Society is currently in the process of shifting its central focus from the production and distribution of material goods to the production and distribution of information. Indeed, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics reveal that the majority of people are now involved in occupations that center around information rather than around industry.…

  9. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparova, Dinara; Nolan, Nathanial S

    2016-01-01

    Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositories-such as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipedia-for their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON INFORMAL LEARNING: DIFFERENT CONCEPTS AND THEIR DIMENSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene, Ramune; Zydziunaite, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    The definition of “informal learning” is ambiguous and thus distinguished by the diverse interpretations. The article aims to reveal identical learning dimensions (process, activity, context, interactions and outcomes), which set up different concepts of “informal learning”. The research question refers to the content of dimensions for distinct concepts of “informal learning”. The analysis has disclosed the “informal learning” to be continuum between “self-directed learning”, “self-regulated ...

  11. Australian Academic Leaders' Perceptions of the Teaching-Research-Industry-Learning Nexus in Information and Communications Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tanya; Armarego, Jocelyn; Koppi, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening the teaching-research-industry-learning (TRIL) nexus in information, communications and technology (ICT) education has been proposed as a way of achieving improvements in student learning (Koppi & Naghdy, 2009). The research described in this paper builds on previous work to provide a broader understanding of the potential…

  12. Music in Informal and formal learning situations in ECEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Sæther

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is, through theory, research and practical experiences, to discuss how informal teaching and learning situations exemplified by activities including music plays a part in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC. The theoretical frame in this article is based on perspectives on informal teaching and learning in music and in general (Green 2002, 2008; Henze, 2009; Folkestad, 2006; Mak, 2007. The tradition in Norwegian ECEC centers has been based on informal learning processes mainly through social interaction, play, dialogs, aesthetical and outdoor activities in everyday life. ECEC teachers challenged to articulate Informal teaching and learning as professional educators. In light of that statement it is introduced, theoretical perspectives and studies of professions (Abbott, 1988; Grimen, 2008; Heggen, 2008; Polanyi, 2002. The author describes and discusses opportunities of music in ECEC centers and how music can contribute learning in informal learning situations. The discussion refers narrative episodes from observations of ECEC practice. Methodology is based on thematic analysis inspired of  Riessman (2008 and Polkinghorne (1995.

  13. Interfering effects of retrieval in learning new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bridgid; Roediger, Henry L

    2013-11-01

    In 7 experiments, we explored the role of retrieval in associative updating, that is, in incorporating new information into an associative memory. We tested the hypothesis that retrieval would facilitate incorporating a new contextual detail into a learned association. Participants learned 3 pieces of information-a person's face, name, and profession (in Experiments 1-5). In the 1st phase, participants in all conditions learned faces and names. In the 2nd phase, participants either restudied the face-name pair (the restudy condition) or were given the face and asked to retrieve the name (the test condition). In the 3rd phase, professions were presented for study just after restudy or testing. Our prediction was that the new information (the profession) would be more readily learned following retrieval of the face-name association compared to restudy of the face-name association. However, we found that the act of retrieval generally undermined acquisition of new associations rather than facilitating them. This detrimental effect emerged on both immediate and delayed tests. Further, the effect was not due to selective attention to feedback because we found impairment whether or not feedback was provided after the Phase 2 test. The data are novel in showing that the act of retrieving information can inhibit the ability to learn new information shortly thereafter. The results are difficult to accommodate within current theories that mostly emphasize benefits of retrieval for learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of positive vicarious learning and verbal information for reducing vicariously learned fear

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Guler; Askew, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children’s acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research ha...

  15. Learning to merge search results for efficient Distributed Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2010-01-01

    Merging search results from different servers is a major problem in Distributed Information Retrieval. We used Regression-SVM and Ranking-SVM which would learn a function that merges results based on information that is readily available: i.e. the ranks, titles, summaries and URLs contained in the

  16. Information Technologies and Globalization: New Perspectives of Teaching Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Irshad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how information technologies and globalization have opened new avenues and horizons for educators and learners. It discusses different experiences of using information and communication technologies (ICTs) in teaching learning process the world over in the age of globalization. It focuses on the ways these new trends have…

  17. Information Design with Teaching and Learning in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune; Avgerinou, Maria D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the existing research from Cognitive Psychology, Information Design, Instructional Design, and Multimedia Design, it is possible to develop recommendations for the design of learning experiences that facilitate, support and enrich student academic performance. This article concentrates on the role of the teacher as information designer in…

  18. Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Blessing F., Ed.; Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As computers and Internet connections become widely available in schools and classrooms, it is critical to examine cross-cultural issues in the utilization of information and communication technologies. "Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and Learning" examines issues concerning emerging multimedia…

  19. Memory for Everyday Information in Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John K.; Wong, Bernice

    2003-01-01

    This study compared students with (n=20) and without (n=40) learning disabilities (LD) on their recall of academic information and information encountered in their everyday lives. Students with LD performed poorly on both types of recall, suggesting that they may have problems with retrieval and working memory. The availability of cues…

  20. 21st Century Learning and Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    2005-01-01

    The faces of immigrant children who had come through Ellis Island with their parents in search of better futures stare out at me from a set of black and white photographs near my desk. The children, frozen in time, are lined up for blocks, waiting for the doors of a public library to open. Access to information was their pathway to a future of…

  1. Library Learning: Undergraduate Students’ Informal, Self-directed, and Information Sharing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Ann Murphy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A focus group study of fourteen University of Saskatchewan second to fourth year humanities and social science undergraduate students was conducted in the fall of 2011. The purpose of the research was to determine how students learn about library resources and services. Findings indicate that the participants often use a variety of informal, self-directed and information sharing strategies. Seeking help from professors, peers, friends, and family members is a common practice. Convenience, familiarity, and perceived knowledge are key factors that determine who and how these students learn about the library. Formal instruction and seeking assistance from librarians did not resonate for participants as a typical approach for learning about the library. The author suggests that undergraduate students engage in informal learning and information sharing as many ‘adult learners’ do, similar to an employment setting. The library, within the formal educational structure, lends itself to a more informal learning context. The study concludes that libraries must continue to develop resources, services, and innovative programs that support students’ informal learning styles, while also providing formal instruction as part of the undergraduate curriculum ensuring students are exposed early on to core foundational skills that contribute to their success as informal and self-directed learners.

  2. Shoulder to Shoulder? Masculinities and Informal Learning in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Fragoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Portuguese researchers are increasingly interested in studying ageing processes, adult education has not been giving older citizen's learning the attention it deserves. At the same time, while discourse on informal learning has been present for a long time, not many investigations have chosen it as a central theme. During the OMAL project, we wanted to first have an exploratory approach to older men's learning in the community which, at a certain point, needs a theoretical focus on masculinities. In this article, we present the results of two case studies related to fishing. Our findings point to some interesting comments both on the importance of informal learning and of symbolic spaces in the community, as well as promising results on the issue of masculinities. Our provisional conclusions allow us to redirect our future investigational efforts.

  3. Resource-Bounded Information Acquisition and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    sincerely thank Avrim Blum, Sridhar Mahadevan, Arnold Rosen- berg, Richard Lawrence, Claudia Perlich, Andrew McGregor, Gideon Mann, Gerald Tesauro, Laura...entities from the web using unsupervised information extraction. In Web Search and Data Mining. [20] Daskalakis, Constantinos, Karp , Richard M., Mossel...extraction in knowitall. In Proceedings of the International WWW Conference, New York (May 2004), ACM. [29] Etzioni, O., Hanks, S., Jiang, T., Karp , R. M

  4. Learning Through Quests and Contests: Games in Information Literacy Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Maura A Smale

    2011-01-01

    Games-based learning is an innovative pedagogical strategy employed at all levels of education, and much research in education, psychology, and other disciplines supports its effectiveness in engaging and motivating students, as well as increasing student learning. Many libraries have incorporated games into their collections and programming. College and university libraries have begun to use games for information literacy and library instruction. Academic librarians use commercially-produ...

  5. Improve Biomedical Information Retrieval using Modified Learning to Rank Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Lin, Yuan; Ma, Yunlong; Yang, Liang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

    2016-06-14

    In these years, the number of biomedical articles has increased exponentially, which becomes a problem for biologists to capture all the needed information manually. Information retrieval technologies, as the core of search engines, can deal with the problem automatically, providing users with the needed information. However, it is a great challenge to apply these technologies directly for biomedical retrieval, because of the abundance of domain specific terminologies. To enhance biomedical retrieval, we propose a novel framework based on learning to rank. Learning to rank is a series of state-of-the-art information retrieval techniques, and has been proved effective in many information retrieval tasks. In the proposed framework, we attempt to tackle the problem of the abundance of terminologies by constructing ranking models, which focus on not only retrieving the most relevant documents, but also diversifying the searching results to increase the completeness of the resulting list for a given query. In the model training, we propose two novel document labeling strategies, and combine several traditional retrieval models as learning features. Besides, we also investigate the usefulness of different learning to rank approaches in our framework. Experimental results on TREC Genomics datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework for biomedical information retrieval.

  6. Informal Learning as Performance: Toward a Hermeneutic Phenomenology of Museum Learning in "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Kathleen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how avid users of "Second Life" ("SL") experience and make meaning of informal learning activities in virtual art museums and similar cultural spaces through their avatars. While recent literature has laid the groundwork for studying student engagement and formal learning, the lacuna of research bound by the…

  7. Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays - Distributed Mixed Reality Information Mash-ups to support Ubiquitous Learning. 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Ubiquitous Technology in Education (pp. 337-338). March, 27-30, 2012, Takamatsu, Japan: IEEE Computer

  8. The Interactions among Information Technology Organizational Learning, Project Learning, and Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Donald S., II

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge gained from completed information technology (IT) projects was not often shared with emerging project teams. Learning lessons from other project teams was not pursued because people lack time, do not see value in learning, fear a potentially painful process, and had concerns that sharing knowledge will hurt their career. Leaders could…

  9. Informal Learning on "YouTube": Exploring Digital Literacy in Independent Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a project conducted in 2011, exploring the use of "YouTube" in the classroom. The project conducted a number of focus groups for which highlighted a number of issues surrounding independent informal learning environments. The questions posed by this research are concerned with what constitutes learning in these…

  10. Using Information Technology in the Navy Lessons Learned System to Improve Organizational Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...). The purpose of this thesis is to examine the various factors that influence organizational learning such as structure, environment, and culture and to examine how Information Technology can be used...

  11. A cross-sectional survey assessing factors associated with reading cancer screening information: previous screening behaviour, demographics and decision-making style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Renzi, Cristina; Waller, Jo

    2017-04-18

    There is broad agreement that cancer screening invitees should know the risks and benefits of testing before deciding whether to participate. In organised screening programmes, a primary method of relaying this information is via leaflets provided at the time of invitation. Little is known about why individuals do not engage with this information. This study assessed factors associated with reading information leaflets provided by the three cancer screening programmes in England. A cross-sectional survey asked screening-eligible members of the general population in England about the following predictor variables: uptake of previous screening invitations, demographic characteristics, and 'decision-making styles' (i.e. the extent to which participants tended to make decisions in a way that was avoidant, rational, intuitive, spontaneous, or dependent). The primary outcome measures were the amount of the leaflet that participants reported having read at their most recent invitation, for any of the three programmes for which they were eligible. Associations between these outcomes and predictor variables were assessed using binary or ordinal logistic regression. After exclusions, data from 275, 309, and 556 participants were analysed in relation to the breast, cervical, and bowel screening programmes, respectively. Notable relationships included associations between regularity of screening uptake and reading (more of) the information leaflets for all programmes (e.g. odds ratio: 0.16 for participants who never/very rarely attended breast screening vs. those who always attended previously; p = .009). Higher rational decision-making scores were associated with reading more of the cervical and bowel screening leaflets (OR: 1.13, p screening uptake may also increase subsequent engagement with information. Future research could investigate how to improve engagement at initial invitations. There may also be scope to reduce barriers to accessing non-English information and

  12. Learning from others mistakes: how social media etiquette distorts informal learning online.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Informal learning and information exchange form an important part of interactions between professionals in social media spaces but these spaces also trigger complex performances of self (Goffman 1959, Barbour and Marshall 2012). This paper, drawing upon research investigating the nature and efficacy of collaborative learning between professional participants within social media spaces, expands upon key findings on the roles of self-presentation, and emerging etiquette practices around peer co...

  13. Environmental scanning as information seeking and organizational learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental scanning is the acquisition and use of information about events, trends, and relationships in an organization's external environment, the knowledge of which would assist management in planning the organization's future course of action. Depending on the organization's beliefs about environmental analyzability and the extent that it intrudes into the environment to understand it, four modes of scanning may be differentiated: undirected viewing, conditioned viewing, enacting, and searching. We analyze each mode of scanning by examining its characteristic information needs, information seeking, and information use behaviours. In addition, we analyze organizational learning processes by considering the sensemaking, knowledge creating and decision making processes at work in each mode.

  14. UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Saadati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention to integrate technology in teaching and learning has provided a major transformation in the landscape of education. Therefore, many innovations in teaching and learning have been technology-driven. The study attempted to examine what is engineering students’ perception regarding the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in mathematics learning as well as investigate their opinion about how ICT can be integrated to improve teaching and learning processes. The subjects were Iranian engineering students from two universities. The finding showed they are fully aware of importance of ICT in teaching and learning mathematics. Whilst, they were feeling comfortable and confident with technology, they do not have more experience of using technology in mathematics classes before. The findings supported the other studies, which indicated the potentials of ICT to facilitate students’ learning, improve teaching, and enhance institutional administration as established in the literature.Keywords: Technology, Mathematics Learning, Facebook, Attitude Toward ICT DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.2.1498.138-147

  15. How ideas of transformative learning can inform academic blogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammond Michael

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at blogging by academics and argues that there is a niche role for an academic blog informed by principles of transformative learning. I begin by describing my experiences of blogging, first, as a reader while carrying out my own doctoral research, next, as a teacher introducing blogs to my students, then as a writer of my own journal blog. I suggest that transformative learning principles provide a frame of reference for understanding these experiences, in particular, by offering an idea of autonomy which puts subjective experience in social contexts. I then suggest that academics interested in transformative learning might learn a more engaging style of writing from bloggers.

  16. User observations on information sharing (corporate knowledge and lessons learned)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Ronald A.; Gregg, Lawrence A.; Martin, Shirley A.; Underwood, Leroy H.; Mcgee, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The sharing of 'corporate knowledge' and lessons learned in the NASA aerospace community has been identified by Johnson Space Center survey participants as a desirable tool. The concept of the program is based on creating a user friendly information system that will allow engineers, scientists, and managers at all working levels to share their information and experiences with other users irrespective of location or organization. The survey addresses potential end uses for such a system and offers some guidance on the development of subsequent processes to ensure the integrity of the information shared. This system concept will promote sharing of information between NASA centers, between NASA and its contractors, between NASA and other government agencies, and perhaps between NASA and institutions of higher learning.

  17. A cross-sectional survey assessing factors associated with reading cancer screening information: previous screening behaviour, demographics and decision-making style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ghanouni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is broad agreement that cancer screening invitees should know the risks and benefits of testing before deciding whether to participate. In organised screening programmes, a primary method of relaying this information is via leaflets provided at the time of invitation. Little is known about why individuals do not engage with this information. This study assessed factors associated with reading information leaflets provided by the three cancer screening programmes in England. Methods A cross-sectional survey asked screening-eligible members of the general population in England about the following predictor variables: uptake of previous screening invitations, demographic characteristics, and ‘decision-making styles’ (i.e. the extent to which participants tended to make decisions in a way that was avoidant, rational, intuitive, spontaneous, or dependent. The primary outcome measures were the amount of the leaflet that participants reported having read at their most recent invitation, for any of the three programmes for which they were eligible. Associations between these outcomes and predictor variables were assessed using binary or ordinal logistic regression. Results After exclusions, data from 275, 309, and 556 participants were analysed in relation to the breast, cervical, and bowel screening programmes, respectively. Notable relationships included associations between regularity of screening uptake and reading (more of the information leaflets for all programmes (e.g. odds ratio: 0.16 for participants who never/very rarely attended breast screening vs. those who always attended previously; p = .009. Higher rational decision-making scores were associated with reading more of the cervical and bowel screening leaflets (OR: 1.13, p < .0005 and OR: 1.11, p = .045, respectively. Information engagement was also higher for White British participants compared with other ethnic groups for breast (OR: 3.28, p = .008

  18. Reinforcement Learning for Constrained Energy Trading Games With Incomplete Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiwei; Huang, Tingwen; Liao, Xiaofeng; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Chen, Guo

    2017-10-01

    This paper considers the problem of designing adaptive learning algorithms to seek the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the constrained energy trading game among individually strategic players with incomplete information. In this game, each player uses the learning automaton scheme to generate the action probability distribution based on his/her private information for maximizing his own averaged utility. It is shown that if one of admissible mixed-strategies converges to the NE with probability one, then the averaged utility and trading quantity almost surely converge to their expected ones, respectively. For the given discontinuous pricing function, the utility function has already been proved to be upper semicontinuous and payoff secure which guarantee the existence of the mixed-strategy NE. By the strict diagonal concavity of the regularized Lagrange function, the uniqueness of NE is also guaranteed. Finally, an adaptive learning algorithm is provided to generate the strategy probability distribution for seeking the mixed-strategy NE.

  19. Information Literacy and the Serious Leisure Participant: Variation in the Experience of Using Information to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demasson, Andrew; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study reports an investigation into the ways in which people engaged in a serious leisure activity can experience using information to learn (also known as information literacy). Method: Data were collected through twenty-two semi-structured, one-on-one, phenomenographic interviews conducted with identified serious leisure…

  20. Open Courses, Informal, Social Learning and Mobile Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and contextualizes them within the broader trends of open, informal and mobile learning. It then discuss Phonar Nation, a free, open, non-credit five-week photography course that was offered twice in 2014 using mobile media to reach youth from 12-18 years of age. The author…

  1. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  2. Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Mooij, T., & Smeets, E. (2011, 13-16 September). Information Literacy and technology to improve learning and education. Presentation and discussion in a cross-network symposium of networks 16 and 12 at the ‘European Conference on Educational Research’ of the “European Educational Research

  3. How Ideas of Transformative Learning Can Inform Academic Blogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at blogging by academics and argues that there is a niche role for an academic blog informed by principles of transformative learning. I begin by describing my experiences of blogging, first, as a reader while carrying out my own doctoral research, next, as a teacher introducing blogs to my students, then as a writer of my own…

  4. Using cooperative learning for a drug information assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Grace L

    2009-11-12

    To implement a cooperative learning activity to engage students in analyzing tertiary drug information resources in a literature evaluation course. The class was divided into 4 sections to form expert groups and each group researched a different set of references using the jigsaw technique. Each member of each expert group was reassigned to a jigsaw group so that each new group was composed of 4 students from 4 different expert groups. The jigsaw groups met to discuss search strategies and rate the usefulness of the references. In addition to group-based learning, teaching methods included students' writing an independent research paper to enhance their abilities to search and analyze drug information resources. The assignment and final course grades improved after implementation of the activity. Students agreed that class discussions were a useful learning experience and 75% (77/102) said they would use the drug information references for other courses. The jigsaw technique was successful in engaging students in cooperative learning to improve critical thinking skills regarding drug information.

  5. Pairing Books for Learning: The Union of Informational and Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Allison L.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present an annotated bibliography of paired books--one fiction and one informational--about multiple topics in history and social studies that, when read together, can help support students' learning through experiencing the topic from multiple perspectives and voices. It begins with a brief rationale for pairing fiction and…

  6. Yahoo! Answers as a Space for Informal Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Dettori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social spaces, where users can exchange information, opinions and resources, have achieved wide popularity and are gaining attention in many research fields, including education. Their actual potential support to learning, however, still requires investigation, especially because portals can widely differ as concerns purpose and internal structure. This paper aims to contribute in this respect, by concentrating on question answering, a kind of social space not yet widely discussed in education. We analyzed a small corpus of posts from the Languages section of Yahoo! Answers Italy, checking if the questions reveal some inclination to learning or just the desire to obtain a service and if the answers provided by the community members can be considered as reliable sources of knowledge. Our analysis highlights the presence of a variety of question/answer types, from mere information exchange or help for task completion, up to language-related questions prompting valuable short lessons. The quality of answers may widely vary as concerns pertinence, correctness and richness of supporting elements. We found a high number of purely task-oriented questions and answers, but also a higher number of learning-oriented questions and correct, informative answers. This suggests that this kind of social space actually has valuable potential for informal learning.

  7. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  8. The Development of Informal Learning and Museum Pedagogy in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tišliar, Pavol

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of the history and the current orientation of informal learning in museums, museum pedagogy. This is the result of a lengthy process over the last two centuries, which became particularly intensive from the 1960s, in which museums looked for deeper ways to communicate with visitors, starting from basic presentation…

  9. Blogging for Information Management, Learning, and Social Support during Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Samuel K. W.; Kwan, Alvin C. M.; Warning, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The functions and possibilities afforded by blogging have been suggested to be relevant to learning and information management. Its increasing use in the business and education sectors is documented, but currently its use in professional education or internship is limited. The social nature of blogging appears to support the applicability of blogs…

  10. "Facebook" for Informal Language Learning: Perspectives from Tertiary Language Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Antonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of "Facebook" for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish) completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1) their perceptions of "Facebook" as a multilingual environment, (2) their online writing…

  11. Instructional Design and Professional Informal Learning: Practices, Tensions, and Ironies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Stephen C.; Hawkley, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the nature of informal learning in professional instructional designers' everyday work activities. Based on intensive interviews with six full-time practitioners, and using a hermeneutic form of data analysis, this study produced seven themes concerning the practices, tensions, and ironies associated with this…

  12. Information systems supported organizational learning as a competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Arias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the characteristics that make information systems useful in gathering and processing information with the aim of organizational learning and subsequent structural adaptation for better fitting to market requirements. Design/methodology/approach: Adaptation is a must when turning to foster the competitiveness and sustainability of the organization. Findings and Originality/value: It is clear that information systems can really create a difference in the way an organization acquires information from its environment and from itself in order to achieve a high-quality decision taking process. Research limitations/implications: Organizations have to look inside themselves in order to ensure the comprehension of their core competencies and the way they carry them out. Practical implications: Organizational learning is one of the means employed by organizations to get adapted to their surrounding environment. Social implications: Systems engineering techniques can be applied in order to leverage these core competencies and make organizations adaptable to the organizational environment requirements through the use of information systems. Originality/value: To obtain competitive advantages in the market. Keywords: competitive advantage, information systems, knowledge management, & the learning organization.

  13. The communicative action and information: a learning to learn transdisciplinary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marques

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the communicative action and information model for social networking in digital environments, a transdisciplinary articulation of knowledge and learning that guides the collective and collaborative construction of inclusive communication strategies and ongoing development of competencies to promote understanding between the players, members of a social network. Information Science, Communication itself and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT promote this articulation in transdisciplinary mode. This model is the basis for the diagnosis and action planning herein: for the collective construction of communication relationships negotiated between participants of the network; for the creation of digital environments that provide spaces for learning to cope with information and communication; so that public communication experts may promote transparency of information as stated in the Constitution and the Law on Access to Information in Brazil. The model articulates methodologies for analyses of the individual and the network (Users Study, Social Network Analysis, multivoicedness to obtain diagnosis and elaborate communication and information action planning.

  14. A comparison of positive vicarious learning and verbal information for reducing vicariously learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Wasely, David; Dunne, Güler; Askew, Chris

    2017-10-19

    Research with children has demonstrated that both positive vicarious learning (modelling) and positive verbal information can reduce children's acquired fear responses for a particular stimulus. However, this fear reduction appears to be more effective when the intervention pathway matches the initial fear learning pathway. That is, positive verbal information is a more effective intervention than positive modelling when fear is originally acquired via negative verbal information. Research has yet to explore whether fear reduction pathways are also important for fears acquired via vicarious learning. To test this, an experiment compared the effectiveness of positive verbal information and positive vicarious learning interventions for reducing vicariously acquired fears in children (7-9 years). Both vicarious and informational fear reduction interventions were found to be equally effective at reducing vicariously acquired fears, suggesting that acquisition and intervention pathways do not need to match for successful fear reduction. This has significant implications for parents and those working with children because it suggests that providing children with positive information or positive vicarious learning immediately after a negative modelling event may prevent more serious fears developing.

  15. Situated Learning: The Feasibility of an Experimental Learning of Information Technology for Academic Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ayala; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Sharon, Dganit; Amzalag, Meital

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Bachelor's degree of nursing education, nursing students are exposed to the increasingly complex world of Information Technology. Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of a situated learning approach for Information Technology course by assessing students' perceptions at the end of the course. Methods: Course participants completed a pre…

  16. Sex differences in dogs' social learning of spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugazza, Claudia; Mongillo, Paolo; Marinelli, Lieta

    2017-07-01

    We used a modified version of the Do as I Do paradigm to investigate dogs' preference and flexibility in the acquisition of different types of spatial information in social learning situations. When required to match the location of the demonstration, dogs (N = 16) preferentially relied on allocentric information, i.e., the relationship between the location of the demonstration and the various objects surrounding it. However, when allocentric cues were inadequate to solve the task, dogs learned to rely on egocentric information, i.e., the direction-left/right-taken by the human demonstrator. The ease of resorting to the non-preferred egocentric strategy was sex-dependent with males acquiring the egocentric strategy in fewer trials than females. This study shows that dogs rely preferentially on allocentric cues when recalling socially acquired spatial information. However, they are impressively flexible in switching to egocentric strategies according to the task requirements. Whether preference for the allocentric strategy in processing spatial information is embedded in the nature of social learning or restricted to our paradigm is an open question. This study also supports the idea that sex differences in cognitive domains are widespread among mammals and calls for further investigations aimed at shedding light on the evolution, function and mechanisms of such differences.

  17. mLearning Scaffolding Model for Undergraduate English Language Learning: Bridging Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim; Hussin, Zaharah; Asra; Zakaria, Abd Razak

    2013-01-01

    Learning using mobile devices also known as mLearning is the current buzz word in the present debates over the use of technology in education. Although mLearning has a high prospect for future education, it is yet to be

  18. Informal Learning Activities for Learners of English and for Learners of Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Marsenille, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the informal learning activities which French-speaking higher education students in Brussels engage in while learning English and Dutch. The informal learning of English was investigated in 2012, while the informal learning of Dutch was studied in 2015 and then compared to the informal…

  19. Information-Based Approach to Unsupervised Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ages into more complex frames—a Japanese charac- ter ‘mountain’, a smiley - face shape, and a ‘777’ digit shape. The results depicted in Figure 6 show...Final Report Title: Information-Based Approach to Unsupervised Machine Learning AFOSR/AOARD Reference Number: FA2386-11-1-4059 AFOSR/AOARD Program ...Unsupervised Machine Learning 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861114059 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Masashi Sugiyama 5d

  20. Critical connections: personal learning environments and information literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal learning environments (PLEs and critical information literacies (CILs are two concepts that have been presented as responses to the challenges of the rich and complex information landscape. While both approaches support learners’ critical engagement with new information environments, each was developed within a different field. This paper connects and contrasts PLEs and CILs in order to explore the design of pedagogical responses to the information environment. Through a careful examination of PLE and CIL literature, the paper demonstrates that information literacy education intersects with the concepts and goals of PLEs. As such, the authors suggest that PLE scholarship informed by CIL scholarship, and vice versa, will yield a deeper understanding of modern learning contexts as well as a more holistic and responsive learner framework. The example of the research assignment will be used to demonstrate the viability of this approach. With these propositions, the authors invite educators, librarians and information technologists to engage in a dialogue about these concepts and the potential for pedagogical change.

  1. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi He

    Full Text Available Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain.A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and prediction accuracy (PA through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients.A total of61 (61.0% patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173 in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, p<0.001 among different combination approaches for subsequent shocks. Sensitivity (76.5% vs. 35.3%, p<0.001, NPV (90.2% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.007 and PA (86.1% vs. 74.0%, p = 0.005were greatly improved compared with AMSA based single feature prediction with a threshold of 90% specificity.In this retrospective study, combining AMSA with previous shock information using neural networks greatly improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  2. Measuring Dynamic and Kinetic Information in the Previously Inaccessible Supra-tc Window of Nanoseconds to Microseconds by Solution NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghan Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool that has enabled experimentalists to characterize molecular dynamics and kinetics spanning a wide range of time-scales from picoseconds to days. This review focuses on addressing the previously inaccessible supra-τc window (defined as τc < supra-τc < 40 μs; in which τc is the overall tumbling time of a molecule from the perspective of local inter-nuclear vector dynamics extracted from residual dipolar couplings (RDCs and from the perspective of conformational exchange captured by relaxation dispersion measurements (RD. The goal of the first section is to present a detailed analysis of how to extract protein dynamics encoded in RDCs and how to relate this information to protein functionality within the previously inaccessible supra-τc window. In the second section, the current state of the art for RD is analyzed, as well as the considerable progress toward pushing the sensitivity of RD further into the supra-τc scale by up to a factor of two (motion up to 25 ms. From the data obtained with these techniques and methodology, the importance of the supra-τ c scale for protein function and molecular recognition is becoming increasingly clearer as the connection between motion on the supra-τc scale and protein functionality from the experimental side is further strengthened with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  3. Facebook for informal language learning: Perspectives from tertiary language students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonie Alm

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of Facebook for out-of-class, informal language learning. 190 New Zealand university language students (Chinese, German, French, Japanese and Spanish completed an anonymous online questionnaire on (1 their perceptions of Facebook as a multilingual environment, (2 their online writing practices and (3 their views on the educational value of their experiences. Findings indicate that language students are using a range of Facebook features to expose themselves to the languages they study (L2 and to communicate in their L2 with native speaker Facebook friends. The use of the social networking site varied according to proficiency-levels of the participants (beginner, intermediate and advanced levels, strength of social ties with native speaker Facebook friends and personal attitudes towards the site. Learning experiences on Facebook were not perceived as useful for the formal language learning context which suggests the need for bridging strategies between informal and formal learning environments.

  4. Challenges of information security incident learning: An industrial case study in a Chinese healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Johnson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    Security incidents can have negative impacts on healthcare organizations, and the security of medical records has become a primary concern of the public. However, previous studies showed that organizations had not effectively learned lessons from security incidents. Incident learning as an essential activity in the "follow-up" phase of security incident response lifecycle has long been addressed but not given enough attention. This paper conducted a case study in a healthcare organization in China to explore their current obstacles in the practice of incident learning. We interviewed both IT professionals and healthcare professionals. The results showed that the organization did not have a structured way to gather and redistribute incident knowledge. Incident response was ineffective in cycling incident knowledge back to inform security management. Incident reporting to multiple stakeholders faced a great challenge. In response to this case study, we suggest the security assurance modeling framework to address those obstacles.

  5. A Synthesis of Research on Informational Text Reading Interventions for Elementary Students With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Lo, Yu-Ling Sabrina; Wanzek, Jeanne; Reed, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    This research synthesis was conducted to understand the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve learning from informational text for students with learning disabilities in elementary school (K-5). The authors identified 18 studies through a comprehensive search. The interventions were evaluated to determine treatment effects and to understand implementation and methodological variables that influenced outcomes. Moderate to large effect sizes on researcher-developed measures for cognitive strategy interventions were reported. Interventions that utilized graphic organizers as study guides to support social studies learning were also associated with improved outcomes. The findings are considered within the context of limited implementation of standardized measures. The authors extend findings from previous research by reporting a paucity of interventions to enhance higher-level cognitive and comprehension skills. The majority of reviewed studies targeted fact acquisition and main idea identification, and overall encouraging findings were noted for these skills. Implications for future research are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  6. Role of e-learning information systems in regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ANDRONIE

    2010-09-01

    The Information Communication Technology – ICT, an useful strategy for the education system improvement, is a means enabling the students develop their fundamental knowledge and the necessary competences in various fields in a knowledge-based economy. Computer skills become a “must”. We need to understand the way to improve the education system of an institution by implementing these technologies, in general, and the e-Learning systems, in particular. In this context, the information systems are the driver of a global education.

  7. LEARNING COMMUNITIES: CULTURAL PROJECT OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Fernández Antón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Learning Communities, social and cultural project that tries that all people have the same opportunities in contemporary society or information society. To this purpose, project tries to overcome social inequalities that suffer by people with less academic knowledge. We also provide information that allows this project is in schools of all stages. These data are the phases (sensitization, decision-making, phase of the dream, priority selection phase, planning phase, research, formation and evaluation and implantation principles (dialogic seven principles, community participation, community formation and positive expectations.

  8. Construction and Evaluation of an Integrated Formal/Informal Learning Environment for Foreign Language Learning across Real and Virtual Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waragai, Ikumi; Ohta, Tatsuya; Kurabayashi, Shuichi; Kiyoki, Yasushi; Sato, Yukiko; Brückner, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a foreign language learning space, based on the construction of an integrated formal/informal learning environment. Before the background of the continued innovation of information technology that places conventional learning styles and educational methods into new contexts based on new value-standards,…

  9. Ontology-Based User Profiling for Personalized Acces to Information within Collaborative Learning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amine Alimam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of modern educational technology methods has become an important area of research in order to support learning as well as collaboration. This is especially evident with the rise of internet and web 2.0 platforms that have transformed users’ role from mere content consumers to fully content consumers-producers. Furthermore, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalize on one another’s resources and skills, unlike individual learning. This paper proceeds with a categorization of the main tools and functions that characterize the personalization learning aspect, in order to discuss their trade-offs with collaborative learning systems. It proposes a framework of a personalized information research (IR within a collaborative learning system, incorporating the characterization of the research type carried by the query, as well as modeling and constructing semantic users’ profiles. We use the context of the user query into a prediction mechanism of the search type, based on a previous identification of users’ levels and interests. The paper is concluded by presenting experiment results, revealing that the use of the subject ontology extension approach satisfyingly contributes to improvement in the accuracy of system recommendations.

  10. Exposure therapy augmentation: A review and extension of techniques informed by an inhibitory learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2018-02-01

    Although exposure therapy is often considered a gold standard behavioral intervention for pathological anxiety, questions remain surrounding the mechanisms underlying exposure interventions, and some individuals are characterized by suboptimal treatment outcomes. Recently, a formulation known as the inhibitory learning theory, which is grounded in basic science principles of extinction learning and memory, has been proposed to provide a more parsimonious mechanistic explanation for the effects of exposure than previous, habituation-based models [Craske, M.G., Kircanski, K., Zelikowsky, M., Mystkowski, J., Chowdhury, N., & Baker, A. 2008. Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 5-27; Craske, M.G., Treanor, M., Conway, C.C., Zbozinek, T., & Vervliet, B. 2014. Maximizing exposure therapy: An inhibitory learning approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 10-23]. Strategies informed by this theory are proposed to maximize extinction learning by fostering the development of new, non-threat associations between stimuli in memory and enhancing the accessibility and retrieval of these safety-based associations. This comprehensive review serves as a critical examination of the empirical literature regarding major tenets of inhibitory learning theory and the potential for such techniques to augment exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Limitations of the extant research, as well as potential future directions, are explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Obstacle of Team Teaching and Collaborative Learning in Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marn-Ling Shing

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of information security includes diverse contents such as network security and computer forensics which are highly technical-oriented topics. In addition, information forensic requires the background of criminology. The information security also includes non-technical content such as information ethics and security laws. Because the diverse nature of information security, Shing et al. has proposed the use of team teaching and collaborative learning for the information security classes. Although team teaching seems to be efficient in information security, practically it needs a few challenges. The Purdue's case mentioned in Shing's paper has funding support of National Security Agency (NSA. However, a vast amount of resources may not be available for an instructor in a normal university. In addition, many obstacles are related to the administration problems. For example, how are the teaching evaluations computed if there are multiple instructors for a single course? How will instructors in a computer forensics class prepare students (criminal justice majors and information technology majors before taking the same class with diverse background? The paper surveyed approximately 25 students in a university in Virginia concerning the satisfaction of team-teaching. Finally, this paper describes ways to meet those challenges.

  12. Supporting Case-Based Learning in Information Security with Web-Based Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wu; Yuan, Xiaohong; Yang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Case-based learning has been widely used in many disciplines. As an effective pedagogical method, case-based learning is also being used to support teaching and learning in the domain of information security. In this paper, we demonstrate case-based learning in information security by sharing our experiences in using a case study to teach security…

  13. Motivation to learn and learning strategies: IT courses in a library and information science department

    OpenAIRE

    Τόγια, Ασπασία; Κορομπίλη-Ξαντίδου, Στέλλα; Μάλλιαρη, Αφροδίτη; Togia, Aspasia; Korobili - Xantinidou, Stella; Malliari, Aphrodite

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give an insight to the motivation processes and learning strategies of the students of the Library and Information Systems (LIS) Department of Alexander Technological Educational Institute (ATEI), Thessaloniki, in courses encompassing Information Technology (IT). Design/methodology/approach – The students participated in the study between the 10th and 12th week of a 13-week semester.Data were collected with the ScienceMotivationQuestion...

  14. Learning from picture books: Infants’ use of naming information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A.; Ganea, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants’ transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object’s non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object’s newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants’ performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object’s non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object’s label before learning about the object’s hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds’ performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object’s non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ learning and transfer from picture books. PMID:24611058

  15. Learning from picture books: Infants’ use of naming information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eKhu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants’ transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object’s nonobvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object’s newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-colour exemplar. Infants’ performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to elicit the object’s nonobvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object’s label before learning about the object’s hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds’ performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object’s nonobvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-colour exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ learning and transfer from picture books.

  16. Learning from picture books: Infants' use of naming information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khu, Melanie; Graham, Susan A; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether naming would facilitate infants' transfer of information from picture books to the real world. Eighteen- and 21-month-olds learned a novel label for a novel object depicted in a picture book. Infants then saw a second picture book in which an adult demonstrated how to elicit the object's non-obvious property. Accompanying narration described the pictures using the object's newly learnt label. Infants were subsequently tested with the real-world object depicted in the book, as well as a different-color exemplar. Infants' performance on the test trials was compared with that of infants in a no label condition. When presented with the exact object depicted in the picture book, 21-month-olds were significantly more likely to attempt to elicit the object's non-obvious property than were 18-month-olds. Learning the object's label before learning about the object's hidden property did not improve 18-month-olds' performance. At 21-months, the number of infants in the label condition who attempted to elicit the real-world object's non-obvious property was greater than would be predicted by chance, but the number of infants in the no label condition was not. Neither age group nor label condition predicted test performance for the different-color exemplar. The findings are discussed in relation to infants' learning and transfer from picture books.

  17. Writing learning cases for an information literacy tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunhild Austrheim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research and writing processes are often hidden mysteries to our students. A key point in the online tutorial Search and Write (Søk and Skriv has been to supply our students with tools to handle these processes. Learning cases embedded in the tutorial allow us to demonstrate a variety of working techniques and to better cater for a diverse student population. The tutorial can be used as an independent resource for students and as a teaching aid for both library sessions on information literacy and for faculty-led sessions on academic writing. Our tutorial is available in Norwegian and in English and thereby the tutorial can be used with both local and international students. An online tutorial is aimed at all students and therefore the information literacy content is of a general kind. The pedagogical foundation for the Search and Write tutorial is in contextual learning. Adding context to our general content has been important to us and we decided to develop learning cases for this purpose. In our online tutorial we have developed three sample student blogs, Kuhlthau’s information search process functions as a template in structuring the students’ stories. The blogs are learning cases, developed with the intent of illustrating various aspects of academic writing tasks. The blog stories are idealized and touch upon many of the known stumbling stones for student writers. Contextualising the search and write process like this let us explore the diversity of student assignments and from various fields of study. When our real-life students use Search and Write they may use their own research question as a point of departure. They can read the blog stories and relate these stories to their own experiences. They can use the How to brainstorm-tips provided in Sofie’s blog. Christian’s use of tutors, library staff and his writing group can provide guidance on who to ask for help. For students writing literature reviews Oda’s systematic

  18. Twitter as an informal learning space for teachers!? : The role of social capital in Twitter conversations among teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehm, Martin; Notten, Ad

    2016-01-01

    Twitter can contribute to the continuous professional development of teachers by initiating and fostering informal learning. Social capital theory can aid to analyze the underlying communication processes and outcomes. Yet, previous research has largely neglected teachers and the role of social

  19. Problem-Based Learning and Information Literacy: A Natural Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Wenger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to student overreliance on search engines and the time constraints of one-shot instruction sessions, librarians struggle to teach many of the information literacy skills that students need to conduct successful research. Problem-based learning (PBL provides a way to integrate information literacy naturally into an assignment or course by guiding students through the research process as they work to find a solution to a problem. This article first explains the PBL process, then describes the design and implementation of a PBL project in a required first-year general education course. Finally, it details the Association of College & Research Libraries’ (ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education addressed by the project, as well as possible future modifications.

  20. Information Society, Teaching, and Learning: Education Reforms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA MARÍA SAWAYA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the subject matter of learning within the context of information society, through an inquiry concerning both the reforms in education adopted in Brazil in the last thirty years and their results. It provides a revision on the explanations of school failure based on assumptions of learning problems due to cognitive and linguistic deficits. From the guidelines related with written school forms as well as the constant cultural oppression accomplished inside the school, the article claims the necessity of changing the psychological and pedagogic views that, under the label of democratic practices, determine school institutions and its daily life, by means of instrumental relations with knowledge that disregard the reading practices which are congenial to popular culture.

  1. Machine Learning with Squared-Loss Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sugiyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutual information (MI is useful for detecting statistical independence between random variables, and it has been successfully applied to solving various machine learning problems. Recently, an alternative to MI called squared-loss MI (SMI was introduced. While ordinary MI is the Kullback–Leibler divergence from the joint distribution to the product of the marginal distributions, SMI is its Pearson divergence variant. Because both the divergences belong to the ƒ-divergence family, they share similar theoretical properties. However, a notable advantage of SMI is that it can be approximated from data in a computationally more efficient and numerically more stable way than ordinary MI. In this article, we review recent development in SMI approximation based on direct density-ratio estimation and SMI-based machine learning techniques such as independence testing, dimensionality reduction, canonical dependency analysis, independent component analysis, object matching, clustering, and causal inference.

  2. The Impact of National Culture on Informal Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; McLean, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to identify how differing cultural factors affect informal learning in the workplace. We have introduced concepts and reviewed studies on informal learning and national culture based on an extensive literature review on the factors influencing informal learning, particularly based on five Hofstede's dimensions of…

  3. Designing a Personalized Guide Recommendation System to Mitigate Information Overload in Museum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yi; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-01-01

    Museum learning has received a lot of attention in recent years. Museum learning refers to people's use of museums to acquire knowledge. However, a problem with information overload has caused in engaging in such learning. Information overload signifies that users encounter a mass of information and need to determine whether certain information…

  4. A Review of Informal Learning Literature, Theory and Implications for Practice in Developing Global Professional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Informal learning's roots emerged from educational philosophers John Dewey, Kurt Lewin and Mary Parker Follett to theorists Malcolm Knowles and other successive researchers. This paper explores the background and definitions of informal learning and applications to the global workplace. Informal learning's challenges are applied to developing…

  5. Informal Learning in Professional and Personal Life: Implications for Instructional Design and Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Moore, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on informal learning and its implications for instructional design and performance improvement. The authors begin by sharing a story of how a novice instructional designer employs informal learning strategies in her professional and personal life. Next, they offer a definition of informal learning that encompasses both…

  6. Writing learning cases for an information literacy tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Gunhild Austrheim

    2010-01-01

    The research and writing processes are often hidden mysteries to our students. A key point in the online tutorial Search and Write (Søk and Skriv) has been to supply our students with tools to handle these processes. Learning cases embedded in the tutorial allow us to demonstrate a variety of working techniques and to better cater for a diverse student population. The tutorial can be used as an independent resource for students and as a teaching aid for both library sessions on inform...

  7. Novel machine learning methods based on information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Porto Díaz, Iago

    2016-01-01

    [Resumo] A aprendizaxe automática é a área da intelixencia artificial e da ciencia da computación que estuda algoritmos que aprenden a partir de datos, fan prediccións e producen comportamentos baseados en exemplos. Esta tesis desenvolve novos métodos de aprendiza.xe automática baseados en teoría da información [TI) e en information Iheoretic learning (ITL): (1) En primeiro lugar, utilizase TI para selección de características. Específicamente, se desenvolveo dous novos algo...

  8. Heterogeneity, learning and information stickiness in inflation expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfajfar, Damjan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose novel techniques for the empirical analysis of adaptive learning and sticky information in inflation expectations. These methodologies are applied to the distribution of households’ inflation expectations collected by the University of Michigan Survey Research Center....... To account for the evolution of the cross-section of inflation forecasts over time and measure the degree of heterogeneity in private agents’ forecasts, we explore time series of percentiles from the empirical distribution. Our results show that heterogeneity is pervasive in the process of inflation...

  9. Connectivism: Its Place in Theory-Informed Research and Innovation in Technology-Enabled Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Bell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sociotechnical context for learning and education is dynamic and makes great demands on those trying to seize the opportunities presented by emerging technologies. The goal of this paper is to explore certain theories for our plans and actions in technology-enabled learning. Although presented as a successor to previous learning theories, connectivism alone is insufficient to inform learning and its support by technology in an internetworked world. However, because of its presence in massive open online courses (MOOCs, connectivism is influential in the practice of those who take these courses and who wish to apply it in teaching and learning. Thus connectivism is perceived as relevant by its practitioners but as lacking in rigour by its critics. Five scenarios of change are presented with frameworks of different theories to explore the variety of approaches educators can take in the contexts for change and their associated research/evaluation. I argue that the choice of which theories to use depends on the scope and purposes of the intervention, the funding available to resource the research/evaluation, and the experience and philosophical stances of the researchers/practitioners.

  10. Fostering reflective thinking about information in 5th graders with blogs: how helpful are learning supports?

    OpenAIRE

    Thoss, Jennifer; Reuter, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study is about fostering media and information literacy and, more precisely, reflective thinking about information in 5th graders. A learning scenario integrating weblogs into a class by providing learning tasks, learning supports and learning resources was elaborated and tested. The class was divided into a test group and a control group, which did not receive learning supports. Over five weeks the pupil´s degree of reflection was measured by analysing their blog posts by means of pre-d...

  11. Sticking with the nice guy: trait warmth information impairs learning and modulates person perception brain network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2014-12-01

    Social learning requires inferring social information about another person, as well as evaluating outcomes. Previous research shows that prior social information biases decision making and reduces reliance on striatal activity during learning (Delgado, Frank, & Phelps, Nature Neuroscience 8 (11): 1611-1618, 2005). A rich literature in social psychology on person perception demonstrates that people spontaneously infer social information when viewing another person (Fiske & Taylor, 2013) and engage a network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporal parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, and precuneus (Amodio & Frith, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(4), 268-277, 2006; Haxby, Gobbini, & Montgomery, 2004; van Overwalle Human Brain Mapping, 30, 829-858, 2009). We investigate the role of these brain regions during social learning about well-established dimensions of person perception-trait warmth and trait competence. We test the hypothesis that activity in person perception brain regions interacts with learning structures during social learning. Participants play an investment game where they must choose an agent to invest on their behalf. This choice is guided by cues signaling trait warmth or trait competence based on framing of monetary returns. Trait warmth information impairs learning about human but not computer agents, while trait competence information produces similar learning rates for human and computer agents. We see increased activation to warmth information about human agents in person perception brain regions. Interestingly, activity in person perception brain regions during the decision phase negatively predicts activity in the striatum during feedback for trait competence inferences about humans. These results suggest that social learning may engage additional processing within person perception brain regions that hampers learning in economic contexts.

  12. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  13. Technology and informal education: what is taught, what is learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Patricia M

    2009-01-02

    The informal learning environments of television, video games, and the Internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills. This profile features widespread and sophisticated development of visual-spatial skills, such as iconic representation and spatial visualization. A pressing social problem is the prevalence of violent video games, leading to desensitization, aggressive behavior, and gender inequity in opportunities to develop visual-spatial skills. Formal education must adapt to these changes, taking advantage of new strengths in visual-spatial intelligence and compensating for new weaknesses in higher-order cognitive processes: abstract vocabulary, mindfulness, reflection, inductive problem solving, critical thinking, and imagination. These develop through the use of an older technology, reading, which, along with audio media such as radio, also stimulates imagination. Informal education therefore requires a balanced media diet using each technology's specific strengths in order to develop a complete profile of cognitive skills.

  14. Implementing Team Based Learning in an Information Literacy Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Post

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivating students to improve their Information Literacy (IL skills can be a challenge. As a pilot, we implemented Team Based Learning (TBL in our IL lessons. TBL is an interactive learning approach based on the “flipped classroom” concept, offering students opportunities to gather skills via immediate feedback during individual and team activities. Moreover, TBL promises to be an attractive and activating way of learning. We were interested if TBL, A indeed activates students and B improves their IL skills more than with lectures and self-tuition. Methods: TBL was implemented in a first year bachelor IL course in the year 2015-2016. Student were asked to study three IL e-learning modules before class. The obtained knowledge was assessed individually during an Individual Readiness Assessment test (IRAT and in a team via a Team Readiness Assessment test (TRAT using “scratch and win cards”. After this, teams were given an IL case and the members had to come to a consensus about the best solution out of a couple options provided. Finally, students took a written exam, which was the same as used in this course in the year 2014-2015, when TBL was not applied yet. We compared the grades of the written exam between the two academic years using a Mann Whitney U test (P<0.05. Students’ opinion about TBL was polled using a 34 question student survey. Results: The mean written exam grades were significantly higher in the TBL year than in the preceding year without TBL (respectively, 7.6 ± 1.42 vs 6.5 ± 1.31, P<0.001. The student survey showed that students were positive about the IRATs and TRATs, but neutral about other TBL parts. Conclusion: TBL seems to be a good didactical method to motivate students and enhance their IL skills.

  15. Simultaneous processing of information on multiple errors in visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Shoko; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    The proper association between planned and executed movements is crucial for motor learning because the discrepancies between them drive such learning. Our study explored how this association was determined when a single action caused the movements of multiple visual objects. Participants reached toward a target by moving a cursor, which represented the right hand's position. Once every five to six normal trials, we interleaved either of two kinds of visual perturbation trials: rotation of the cursor by a certain amount (±15°, ±30°, and ±45°) around the starting position (single-cursor condition) or rotation of two cursors by different angles (+15° and -45°, 0° and 30°, etc.) that were presented simultaneously (double-cursor condition). We evaluated the aftereffects of each condition in the subsequent trial. The error sensitivity (ratio of the aftereffect to the imposed visual rotation) in the single-cursor trials decayed with the amount of rotation, indicating that the motor learning system relied to a greater extent on smaller errors. In the double-cursor trials, we obtained a coefficient that represented the degree to which each of the visual rotations contributed to the aftereffects based on the assumption that the observed aftereffects were a result of the weighted summation of the influences of the imposed visual rotations. The decaying pattern according to the amount of rotation was maintained in the coefficient of each imposed visual rotation in the double-cursor trials, but the value was reduced to approximately 40% of the corresponding error sensitivity in the single-cursor trials. We also found a further reduction of the coefficients when three distinct cursors were presented (e.g., -15°, 15°, and 30°). These results indicated that the motor learning system utilized multiple sources of visual error information simultaneously to correct subsequent movement and that a certain averaging mechanism might be at work in the utilization process.

  16. Bimanual Coordination Learning with Different Augmented Feedback Modalities and Information Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau-Chuen Chiou

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that bimanual coordination learning is more resistant to the removal of augmented feedback when acquired with auditory than with visual channel. However, it is unclear whether this differential "guidance effect" between feedback modalities is due to enhanced sensorimotor integration via the non-dominant auditory channel or strengthened linkage to kinesthetic information under rhythmic input. The current study aimed to examine how modalities (visual vs. auditory and information types (continuous visuospatial vs. discrete rhythmic of concurrent augmented feedback influence bimanual coordination learning. Participants either learned a 90°-out-of-phase pattern for three consecutive days with Lissajous feedback indicating the integrated position of both arms, or with visual or auditory rhythmic feedback reflecting the relative timing of the movement. The results showed diverse performance change after practice when the feedback was removed between Lissajous and the other two rhythmic groups, indicating that the guidance effect may be modulated by the type of information provided during practice. Moreover, significant performance improvement in the dual-task condition where the irregular rhythm counting task was applied as a secondary task also suggested that lower involvement of conscious control may result in better performance in bimanual coordination.

  17. ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Pecceu, Dries; Arts, Tanja; Hutten, Edwin; Rutledge, Lloyd; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Peccau, D., Arts, T., Hutten, E., Rutledge, L., Van Rosmalen, P., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2009). ReMashed – Recommendation Approaches for Mash-Up Personal Learning Environments in Formal and Informal Learning Settings. Presentation at the 2nd Workshop Mash-Up Personal Learning

  18. Learning for Work and Professional Development: The Significance of Informal Learning Networks of Digital Media Industry Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Informal learning networks play a key role in the skill and professional development of professionals, working in micro-businesses within Australia's digital media industry, as they do not have access to learning and development or human resources sections that can assist in mapping their learning pathway. Professionals working in this environment…

  19. Learning Information Systems: Designing Education Programs Using Letrinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Gonçalo Marques

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Letrinhas information system contributes to the improvement of students' reading literacy combining the potential of mobile devices and the specific needs of students and teachers. This information system has emerged within the framework of a partnership established between the Instituto Politécnico de Tomar (IPT and the Artur Gonçalves Cluster of Schools, in Torres Novas, Portugal. After three years of the creation of the tool and its use in a real learning environment, the evaluation already carried out suggests a high degree of satisfaction on the part of teachers and students, as well as a very positive impact on improving the reading skills of the students involved in the project. The latest version of Letrinhas has new features which lead to the specific challenges and needs of the teachers in the above-mentioned cluster of schools. Being so, in addition to the evaluation and improvement of reading skills, the new version provides features that enable the creation of educational scenarios promoting learning environments that enhance, not only the autonomy of students, but also their motivation.

  20. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Student Learning in the Information Age. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…

  2. What can marketers learn from DSM information systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabo, C.A.; Collins, G.F.

    1994-12-31

    A comprehensive information system can support a number of DSM functions simultaneously, including DSM resource planning, program planning and development, program administration, and evaluation. In addition, related functions such as load forecasting, market research, market planning, load research, system planning, system operations, customer service, and load research can contribute to and benefit from systematic collection. analysis, and reporting of customer information. Further, these DSM information systems can evolve into full-service information systems to meet today`s changing needs for more information to support marketing efforts. DSM programs, like any other offerings, require a thorough understanding of the market and the most effective ways to reach that market. Today, many utilities have committed to meeting significant portions of their future load growth with demand-side resources. Meanwhile, many customers, particularly large industrials, have become very sensitive to the cost of DSM programs and their impacts on utilities` rates. Consequently, many utilities have undertaken large-scale market research projects to learn more about their customers` energy use patterns, needs, desires, characteristics, future plans, and financial requirements. This information can be used for a variety of purposes, but the overriding concern in recent years has become, {open_quotes}How can we gain more customer participation at the lowest possible marketing cost?{close_quotes} The industry is now bracing for a much more competitive future. Competitive wholesale markets prompted by the National Energy Policy Act (NEPACT), the prospect of retail wheeling, traditional competition from other fuels, and well-funded providers of energy services or DSM services have all become sources of concern for utility management. Knowledge about customers gained from implementing DSM programs can provide a tremendous boost to developing competitive strategies for the future.

  3. The Role of Unconscious Information Processing in the Acquisition and Learning of Instructional Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Bakar, Zainudin Abu; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates how the unconscious information processing can create satisfactory learning outcomes, and can be used to ameliorate the challenges of teaching students to regulate their learning processes. The search for the ideal model of human information processing as regards achievement of teaching and learning objectives is a…

  4. An Information Processing Perspective on Divergence and Convergence in Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorczak, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of collaborative learning that takes an information processing perspective of learning by social interaction. The collaborative information processing model provides a theoretical basis for understanding learning principles associated with social interaction and explains why peer-to-peer discussion is potentially more…

  5. Integrating Web 2.0-Based Informal Learning with Workplace Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Kemp, Linzi J.

    2012-01-01

    Informal learning takes place in the workplace through connection and collaboration mediated by Web 2.0 applications. However, little research has yet been published that explores informal learning and how to integrate it with workplace training. We aim to address this research gap by developing a conceptual Web 2.0-based workplace learning and…

  6. A knowledge based platform to support informal learning in do-it-yourself retail stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukosch, H.K.; de Vries, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is about an innovative approach to informal, workplace related learning in do-ityourself retail stores. Most organizations ignore informal learning as a strategic tool, although this kind of learning dominates the workplace in many organizations. The objective of the project described

  7. Informal Learning and Meta-Pedagogy in Initial Teacher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, John; Philpott, Chris

    2010-01-01

    How do student teachers learn to use informal learning and pedagogy in their teaching? Through focusing on Initial Teacher Education (ITE) in England, this paper will explore the possibility of developing a meta-pedagogy which embraces informal learning and pedagogy in music. The paper is in two parts, the first of which examines the background to…

  8. Lifelong Learning on the Knowledge Highway. Access to Lifelong Learning Opportunities on Canada's Information Highway. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Ron

    This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…

  9. Situated student learning and spatial informational analysis for environmental problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Timothy Paul

    Ninth and tenth grade high school Biology student research teams used spatial information analysis tools to site a prairie restoration plot on a 55 acre campus during a four-week environment unit. Students made use of innovative technological practices by applying geographic information systems (GIS) approaches to solving environmental and land use problems. Student learning was facilitated by starting with the students' initial conceptions of computing, local landscape and biological environment, and then by guiding them through a problem-based science project process. The project curriculum was framed by the perspective of legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1991) where students were provided with learning opportunities designed to allow them to act like GIS practitioners. Sociocultural lenses for learning were employed to create accounts of human mental processes that recognize the essential relationship between these processes and their cultural, historical, and institutional settings (Jacob, 1997; Wertsch, 1991). This research investigated how student groups' meaning-making actions were mediated by GIS tools on the periphery of a scientific community of practice. Research observations focused on supporting interpretations of learners' socially constructed actions and the iterative building of assertions from multiple sources. These included the artifacts students produced, the tools they used, the cultural contexts that constrained their activity, and how people begin to adopt ways of speaking (speech genres) of the referent community to negotiate meanings and roles. Students gathered field observations and interpreted attributes of landscape entities from the GIS data to advocate for an environmental decision. However, even while gaining proficiencies with GIS tools, most students did not begin to appropriate roles from the GIS community of practice. Students continued to negotiate their project actions simply as school exercises motivated by

  10. D.E.E.P. Learning: Promoting Informal STEM Learning through a Popular Gaming Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, E.; Rohrlick, D.; Layman, C.; Peach, C. L.; Orcutt, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The research and development of educational games, and the study of the educational value of interactive games in general, have lagged far behind efforts for games created for the purpose of entertainment. But evidence suggests that digital simulations and games have the "potential to advance multiple science learning goals, including motivation to learn science, conceptual understanding, science process skills, understanding of the nature of science, scientific discourse and argumentation, and identification with science and science learning." (NRC, 2011). It is also generally recognized that interactive digital games have the potential to promote the development of valuable learning and life skills, including data processing, decision-making, critical thinking, planning, communication and collaboration (Kirriemuir and MacFarlane, 2006). Video games are now played in 67% of American households (ESA, 2010), and across a broad range of ages, making them a potentially valuable tool for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) learning among the diverse audiences associated with informal science education institutions (ISEIs; e.g., aquariums, museums, science centers). We are attempting to capitalize on this potential by developing games based on the popular Microsoft Xbox360 gaming platform and the free Microsoft XNA game development kit. The games, collectively known as Deep-sea Extreme Environment Pilot (D.E.E.P.), engage ISEI visitors in the exploration and understanding of the otherwise remote deep-sea environment. Players assume the role of piloting a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to explore ocean observing systems and hydrothermal vent environments, and are challenged to complete science-based objectives in order to earn points under timed conditions. The current games are intended to be relatively brief visitor experiences (on the order of several minutes) that support complementary exhibits and programming, and promote interactive visitor

  11. Implications of writing, reading, and tagging on the web for reflection support in informal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C. (2008). Implications of writing, reading and tagging on the web for reflection support in informal learning. Presented at the Third European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2008. September, 17, 2008, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  12. Optimizing adaptive learning through testing, diagnostic reflection and learner-controlled information selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, Kim; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Dirkx, K. J. H., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010, 25 February). Optimizing adaptive learning through testing, diagnostic reflection and learner-controlled information selection. Presentation at the Learning & Cognition meeting, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  13. A Learning Outcome-Oriented Approach towards Classifying Pervasive Games for Learning Using Game Design Patterns and Contextual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Klemke, Roland; Specht, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Mobile and in particular pervasive games are a strong component of future scenarios for teaching and learning. Based on results from a previous review of practical papers, this work explores the educational potential of pervasive games for learning by analysing underlying game mechanisms. In order to determine and classify cognitive and affective…

  14. Achieving meaningful learning in health information management students: the importance of professional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Anne; McIntosh, Jean

    Learning is a complex process, not merely a transfer of information from teacher to student. for learning to be meaningful, students need to adopt a deep approach, and in the case of vocational students, to be given the opportunity to learn experientially. Health information management is a practice profession for which students are educated through theory at university and professional experience in the workplace. This article discusses how, through the process of experiential learning, professional experience can promote reflective thinking and thus deep learning, that is, the ability to integrate theory and practice, as well as professional and personal development in health information management students.

  15. Information Literacy in the Tension between School's Discursive Practice and Students' Self-Directed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärdén, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-guided learning has had a major impact on adult education, where information seeking and use are key aspects of learning. With their lack of experience in study contexts, the students are nevertheless assumed to develop information literacy. Method: The paper aims to create an understanding of how information literacy can be…

  16. Online discussion compensates for suboptimal timing of supportive information presentation in a digitally supported learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Busstra, M.C.; Mulder, M.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Geelen, A.; Veer, van 't P.; Chizari, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a sequential set-up to investigate the consecutive effects of timing of supportive information presentation (information before vs. information during the learning task clusters) in interactive digital learning materials (IDLMs) and type of collaboration (personal discussion vs.

  17. Informal Online Learning Practices: Implications for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawn Winterwood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic study examines five American teenagers’ historical and current digitally-mediated multiliteracy practices within digital popular culture. The participants included three male and two female students of a private high school in the Midwestern United States. The study is framed by the notion that literacy is a socially, culturally, and historically situated discursive construct rather than a purely individualized cognitive endeavor. This social constructivist theory of literacy emphasizes the social conditions necessary to navigate the economic, social, and political worlds of the 21st century. The purpose of the study was to explore the students’ multiliteracy practices that they enact through their activities within digital popular culture. Data collection methods included synchronous interviews facilitated by video conferencing tools as well as observation of the participants’ online activities and member checks conducted via email and instant messaging. The analytic strategy employed during this study was informed by Clarke’s (2005 situational analysis method. The study’s findings indicate that literacy practices in which the study participants have engaged through informal learning activities within digital youth culture have had a much greater impact on enabling them to cultivate the multimodal literacies necessary within a postmodern digital era than have their formal educational experiences

  18. Informal Online Learning Practices: Implications for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawn Winterwood

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative ethnographic study examines five American teenagers’ historical and current digitally-mediated multiliteracy practices within digital popular culture. The participants included three male and two female students of a private high school in the Midwestern United States. The study is framed by the notion that literacy is a socially, culturally, and historically situated discursive construct rather than a purely individualized cognitive endeavor. This social constructivist theory of literacy emphasizes the social conditions necessary to navigate the economic, social, and political worlds of the 21st century. The purpose of the study was to explore the students’ multiliteracy practices that they enact through their activities within digital popular culture. Data collection methods included synchronous interviews facilitated by video conferencing tools as well as observation of the participants’ online activities and member checks conducted via email and instant messaging. The analytic strategy employed during this study was informed by Clarke’s (2005 situational analysis method. The study’s findings indicate that literacy practices in which the study participants have engaged through informal learning activities within digital youth culture have had a much greater impact on enabling them to cultivate the multimodal literacies necessary within a postmodern digital era than have their formal educational experiences.

  19. Conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of development ICT, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries setting out the previous new theoretical model and preliminary findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Smyrnova-Trybulska, Eugenia; Morze, Natalia; Issa, Tomayess; Issa, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper, prepared by an international team of authors focuses on the conceptual aspects: analyses law, ethical, human, technical, social factors of ICT development, e-learning and intercultural development in different countries, setting out the previous and new theoretical model and preliminary

  20. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in Student Experiential Learning on Climate Change and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Prakash, A.; San Juan, F.

    2016-12-01

    Consortium of minority serving institutions including Delaware State University, Virginia State University, Morgan State University, University of Alaska Fairbanks, and Elizabeth City State University have collaborated on various student experiential learning programs to expand the technology-based education by incorporating Geographic Information System (GIS) technique to promote student learning on climate change and sustainability. Specific objectives of this collaborative programs are to: (i) develop new or enhance existing courses of Introduction to Geographic Information System (GIS) and Introduction to Remote Sensing, (ii) enhance teaching and research capabilities through faculty professional development workshops, (iii) engage minority undergraduates in GIS and remote sensing research via experiential learning activities including summer internship, workshop, and work study experience. Ultimate goal is to prepare pipeline of minority task force with skills in GIS and remote sensing application in climate sciences. Various research projects were conducted on topics such as carbon footprint, atmospheric CO2, wildlife diversity, ocean circulation, wild fires, geothermal exploration, etc. Students taking GIS and remote sensing courses often express interests to be involved in research projects to enhance their knowledge and obtain research skills. Of about 400 students trained, approximately 30% of these students were involved in research experience in our programs since 2004. The summer undergraduate research experiences (REU) have offered hands-on research experience to the students on climate change and sustainability. Previous studies indicate that students who are previously exposed to environmental science only by a single field trip or an introductory course could be still at risk of dropping out of this field in their early years of the college. The research experience, especially at early college years, would significantly increase the participation

  1. The role of information and communication technologies in improving teaching and learning processes in primary and secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Sangrà

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse what is happening at schools regarding the integration and use of information and communication technologies (ICT and to examine teachers' perceptions about what teaching and learning processes can be improved through the use of ICT. A multiple-case-study research methodology was applied. From a previous exploratory research, four different types of schools were determined. Data show there is a widespread view that ICT in teaching favours several teaching and learning processes. In particular, it shows that the contribution of ICT to the improvement of teaching and learning processes is higher in the schools that have integrated ICT as an innovation factor. To attain this highest level implies that a school not only has to modernise the technological tools, but also has to change the teaching models: the teacher's role, issues regarding classroom organisational, the teaching and learning processes, and the interaction mechanisms.

  2. Implementing a regional oncology information system: approach and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W K; Ashbury, F D; Hogue, G L; Smith, A; Pun, J

    2014-10-01

    Paper-based medical record systems are known to have major problems of inaccuracy, incomplete data, poor accessibility, and challenges to patient confidentiality. They are also an inefficient mechanism of record-sharing for interdisciplinary patient assessment and management, and represent a major problem for keeping current and monitoring quality control to facilitate improvement. To address those concerns, national, regional, and local health care authorities have increased the pressure on oncology practices to upgrade from paper-based systems to electronic health records. Here, we describe and discuss the challenges to implementing a region-wide oncology information system across four independent health care organizations, and we describe the lessons learned from the initial phases that are now being applied in subsequent activities of this complex project. The need for change must be shared across centres to increase buy-in, adoption, and implementation. It is essential to establish physician leadership, commitment, and engagement in the process. Work processes had to be revised to optimize use of the new system. Culture change must be included in the change management strategy. Furthermore, training and resource requirements must be thoroughly planned, implemented, monitored, and modified as required for effective adoption of new work processes and technology. Interfaces must be established with multiple existing electronic systems across the region to ensure appropriate patient flow. Periodic assessment of the existing project structure is necessary, and adjustments are often required to ensure that the project meets its objectives. The implementation of region-wide oncology information systems across different health practice locations has many challenges. Leadership is essential. A strong, collaborative information-sharing strategy across the region and with the supplier is essential to identify, discuss, and resolve implementation problems. A structure

  3. Identity and science learning in African American students in informal science education contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M.

    2007-12-01

    Science education researchers are recognizing the need to consider identity and other sociocultural factors when examining causes of the science achievement gap for African American students. Non-school settings may hold greater promise than formal schooling to promote identities that are conductive to science learning in African Americans. This mixed-methods study explored the relationship between participation in out-of-school-time (OST) science enrichment programs and African American middle and high school students' racial and ethnic identity (RED, social identity as science learners, and achievement. Pre-post questionnaires used a previously validated model of REI combined with an original subscale that was developed to measure social identity as science learners. Case studies of two programs allowed for an analysis of the informal learning setting. The treatment group (N = 36) consisted of African American middle and high school students in five OST science programs, while the control group (N = 54) students were enrolled in science classes in public schools in the mid-Atlantic region. Results of a t-test of independent means indicated that there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group on measures of REI or science identity. However, the treatment group earned significantly higher science grades compared to the control group, and an ANOVA revealed a significant relationship between science identity and the intention to pursue post-secondary science studies. Although not significant, MANOVA results indicated that students who participated in OST programs exhibited gradual increases in RD and science identity over time according to grade level and gender. Follow-up analysis revealed significant relationships between awareness of racism, gender, and length of time in OST programs. The case studies illustrated that a unique community of practice exists within the OST programs. Access to authentic science learning experiences, youth

  4. Impact of the Implementation of Information Technology on the Center for Army Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wizner, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    .... This research evaluates the impact that the implementation of an Information Technology infrastructure has had on the efficiency of Army's Lessons Learned Process and the overall effectiveness...

  5. The Effect of Students' Perceptions of Internet Information Quality on Their Use of Internet Information in Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pow, Jacky; Li, Sandy C.

    2015-01-01

    In Web 2.0 environments, the quality of published information can vary significantly and much of the information on the Internet is unproven. This unverified information hinders rather than facilitates student learning, especially among undergraduate students who depend heavily on Internet resources for their studies. Currently, we do not have…

  6. Exploring informal workplace learning in primary healthcare for continuous professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynes, Viktoria; Kerr, Micky; Treasure-Jones, Tamsin

    2017-07-01

    All health and social care professionals learn on the job through both formal and informal learning processes, which contributes to continuous professional development (CPD). This study explored workplace learning in General Practices, specifically looking at the role of informal learning and the workplace practices that appear to support or restrict that learning, as well as how technology was integrated into these learning processes. Three focus groups with general practitioners, practice nurses, managerial and administrative staff were conducted followed by twelve individual semi-structured interviews with participants drawn from the focus groups. Three observations of multi-disciplinary team meetings were used to establish potential team-based learning activities. Triggers for informal workplace learning included patients presenting challenging or unusual conditions; exposure to others' professional practice; and policy driven changes through revised guidance and protocols. By exploring how these triggers were acted upon, we identified mechanisms through which the primary care workplace supports or restricts informal learning through working practices, existing technologies and inter-professional structures. Informal workplace learning was identified as arising from both opportunistic encounters and more planned activities, which are both supported and restricted through a variety of mechanisms. Maximising informal learning opportunities and removing barriers to doing so should be a priority for primary care practitioners, managers and educators.

  7. Information-Theoretic Objective Functions for Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    example of lifelong learning problems . In addition, the learner can observe many or indefinite series of different times series, in which case each...the classes of lifelong classification and regression learning. Since these supervised learning problems do not care about the sequence of

  8. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Interactive learning tools are emerging as effective educational materials in the area of computer science and engineering. It is a research domain that is rapidly expanding because of its positive impacts on motivating and improving students' performance during the learning process. This paper introduces an interactive learning environment for…

  9. Informal in Formal: The Relationship of Informal and Formal Learning in Popular and Jazz Music Master Workshops in Conservatoires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The present article will examine informal learning in popular and jazz music education in Finland and evaluate it as a part of formal upper secondary vocational musicians' training, which is typically teacher directed. It is not necessarily the best model of working in popular and jazz music learning, which has traditionally benefitted from…

  10. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mi; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hehua; Gong, Yushun; Li, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain. A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI) or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA) between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC), sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and prediction accuracy (PA) through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients. A total of61 (61.0%) patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173) in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, pdefibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks.

  11. An e-learning approach to informed problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Weichhart

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When taking into account individualized learning processes not only content and interaction facilities need to be re-considered, but also the design of learning processes per se. Besides explicitness of learning objectives, interactive means of education need to enable intertwining content and communication elements as basic elements of active learning in a flexible way while preserving a certain structure of the learning process. Intelligibility Catchers are a theoretically grounded framework to enable such individualized processes. It allows learners and teachers agreeing and determining a desired learning outcome in written form. This type of e-learning contract enables students to individually explore content and participate in social interactions, while being guided by a transparent learning process structure. The developed implementation empowers learners in terms of creative problem-solving capabilities, and requires adaptation of classroom situations. The framework and its supporting semantic e-learning environment not only enables diverse learning and problem solving processes, but also supports the collaborative construction of e-learning contracts.

  12. Children value informativity over logic in word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramscar, Michael; Dye, Melody; Klein, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    The question of how children learn the meanings of words has long puzzled philosophers and psychologists. As Quine famously pointed out, simply hearing a word in context reveals next to nothing about its meaning. How then do children learn to understand and use words correctly? Here, we show how learning theory can offer an elegant solution to this seemingly intractable puzzle in language acquisition. From it, we derived formal predictions about word learning in situations of Quinean ambiguity, and subsequently tested our predictions on toddlers, undergraduates, and developmental psychologists. The toddlers' performance was consistent both with our predictions and with the workings of implicit mechanisms that can facilitate the learning of meaningful lexical systems. Adults adopted a markedly different and likely suboptimal strategy. These results suggest one explanation for why early word learning can appear baffling: Adult intuitions may be a poor source of insight into how children learn.

  13. Measuring dynamic and kinetic information in the previously inaccessible supra-τ(c) window of nanoseconds to microseconds by solution NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, David; Sabo, T Michael; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan

    2013-09-26

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool that has enabled experimentalists to characterize molecular dynamics and kinetics spanning a wide range of time-scales from picoseconds to days. This review focuses on addressing the previously inaccessible supra-tc window (defined as τ(c) supra-τ(c) supra-τ(c) window. In the second section, the current state of the art for RD is analyzed, as well as the considerable progress toward pushing the sensitivity of RD further into the supra-τ(c) scale by up to a factor of two (motion up to 25 μs). From the data obtained with these techniques and methodology, the importance of the supra-τ(c) scale for protein function and molecular recognition is becoming increasingly clearer as the connection between motion on the supra-τ(c) scale and protein functionality from the experimental side is further strengthened with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  15. Learner-Centred Pedagogy for Swim Coaching: A Complex Learning Theory-Informed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While constructivist theories of learning have been widely drawn on to understand and explain learning in games when using game-based approaches their use to inform pedagogy beyond games is limited. In particular, there has been little interest in applying constructivist perspectives on learning to sports in which technique is of prime importance.…

  16. Connectivism and Information Literacy: Moving from Learning Theory to Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transue, Beth M.

    2013-01-01

    Connectivism is an emerging learning theory positing that knowledge comprises networked relationships and that learning comprises the ability to successfully navigate through these networks. Successful pedagogical strategies involve the instructor helping students to identify, navigate, and evaluate information from their learning networks. Many…

  17. 76 FR 54283 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Language Learning Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... from various ECA exchange programs that are focused on critical foreign language learning instruction...: Language Learning Survey Questions ACTION: Notice of request for public comment and submission to OMB of... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Language Learning Programs: Pre...

  18. The M-Learning Experience of Language Learners in Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendurur, Emine; Efendioglu, Esra; Çaliskan, Neslihan Yondemir; Boldbaatar, Nomin; Kandin, Emine; Namazli, Sevinç

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to understand the informal language learners' experiences of m-learning applications. The aim is two-folded: (i) to extract the reasons why m-learning applications are preferred and (ii) to explore the user experience of Duolingo m-learning application. We interviewed 18 voluntary Duolingo users. The findings suggest that…

  19. Understanding Health Professionals' Informal Learning in Online Social Networks: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Verspoor, Karin; Gray, Kathleen; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding how learning occurs in OSNs is necessary to better support this type of learning. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study found that learning interaction in OSNs is low in general, with a small number of active users. Some health professionals actively used OSNs to support their practice, including sharing practical and experiential knowledge, benchmarking themselves, and to keep up-to-date on policy, advanced information and news in the field. These health professionals had an overall positive learning experience in OSNs.

  20. Information and communication technology in learning development and rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, José Mª; García-Molina, Alberto; García-Rudolph, Alejandro; Roig, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There is still no evidence to base interventions on neuropsychological rehabilitation or cognitive stimulation related with learning development. There are two main problems to solve. The first is the sustainability of the clinical interventions. The second one is the lack of evidence. This is not derived at all from a lack of studies but to methodological difficulties finding trials suitable for meta-analysis. This is a real hazard for translational research because of the difficulties of developers in testing new designs and showing efficacy, and also for the development of the body of knowledge, making difficult to find main theories and design appropriate experiments. Description of care ICTs have profoundly modified this scenario. Advances in communication technologies allow delivery of intensive, personalized, monitored neuropsychological intervention, through telerehabilitation platforms, and cognitive neuroscience based content, to guide plastic changes towards the recovery of more appropriate behaviour. Advances in information technologies have provide new possibilities to assess efficacy, opening new pathways to knowledge discovery from databases generated from clinical practice. Conclusion Institute Guttmann, from its initiative PREVIRNEC, is pioneering the application of this dual approach, bridging knowledge to the end user through communication technologies (internet) and extracting implicit knowledge (efficacy on neuropsychological rehabilitation) from data generated from each intervention.

  1. Information-educational environment with adaptive control of learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modjaev, A. D.; Leonova, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent years, a new scientific branch connected with the activities in social sphere management developing intensively and it is called "Social Cybernetics". In the framework of this scientific branch, theory and methods of management of social sphere are formed. Considerable attention is paid to the management, directly in real time. However, the decision of such management tasks is largely constrained by the lack of or insufficiently deep study of the relevant sections of the theory and methods of management. The article discusses the use of cybernetic principles in solving problems of control in social systems. Applying to educational activities a model of composite interrelated objects representing the behaviour of students at various stages of educational process is introduced. Statistical processing of experimental data obtained during the actual learning process is being done. If you increase the number of features used, additionally taking into account the degree and nature of variability of levels of current progress of students during various types of studies, new properties of students' grouping are discovered. L-clusters were identified, reflecting the behaviour of learners with similar characteristics during lectures. It was established that the characteristics of the clusters contain information about the dynamics of learners' behaviour, allowing them to be used in additional lessons. The ways of solving the problem of adaptive control based on the identified dynamic characteristics of the learners are planned.

  2. Children's informal learning in the context of school of knowledge society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Danielsen, Oluf; Nielsen, Janni

    2007-01-01

    This paper builds on a key finding of a 5-year Danish research project con-cerning children in the 7 to 15 age group: children's principal use of computers and the internet takes place in their spare time, and it is during their spare time that the majority of children really learn how to use...... interactive media. The project shows that in children's spare-time use of ICT they employ informal forms of learning based to a large extent on their social interaction both in physical and virtual spaces. These informal learning forms can be identified as learning hierarchies, learning communities......, by comprehensively using ICT and project work in the day-to-day activities of the school, alongside and integrated with the traditional forms of learning, and not least by employing the informal learning processes children develop outside school. For teachers this will mean an extension of their function: no longer...

  3. Responses and influences: a model of online information use for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper explores the complexity of online information use for learning in the culturally diverse ICT-intensive higher education context. It presents a Model of responses and influences in online information use for learning that aims to increase awareness of the complexity of online information use and support information literacy development. Background. Despite increasing integration of information literacy into university curricula there are evident limitations in students' use of information associated with an information literacy imbalance between well developed information technology skills and uncritical approaches, compounded by differences in cultural and linguistic experience. Influences. This model draw insight from models of information behaviour and information seeking (Wilson, Foster, Kuhlthau, information literacy (Bruce, cross-cultural adaptation (Anderson, reflective online use (Hughes, Bruce and Edwards. The model. Incorporates behavioural, cognitive and affective responses with cultural and linguistic influences in an action research framework that represents online information use as holistic, dynamic and continuous, envisaged as the experience of engaging with online information for learning . Conclusion. The model represents the synergy between information use and learning. It supports the development of inclusive reflective approaches to information literacy that address identified learning challenges related to information literacy imbalance and cultural and linguistic diversity.

  4. Integrating Project Orientated Problem Based Learning (POPBL) and Information Literacy Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    GSE1 (PG Information Literacy and Communication Skills) module was redesigned to a more project orientated and problem-based learning (POPBL) delivery. Research showed evidence for the benefits to Information Literacy instruction of a PBL approach.

  5. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  6. Identifying Mobile Phone Usability Issues in Informal Swedish Language Learning:What users think about it?

    OpenAIRE

    Aizezi, Zulifuyemu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies the usability issues of the mobile phone in informal Swedish language learning. The concept of usability is defined by expanding the technical usability attributes of Jakob Nielsen with other recent attributes derived from considering the technical aspects of mobile learning (m-learning). Thus, the ultimate structure of the usability factors that are discussed in this study consists of: accessibility, easy-to-learn, technical design, efficiency and satisfaction. With the s...

  7. Virtual Speed Mentoring in the Workplace--Current Approaches to Personal Informal Learning in the Workplace: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chuck; Langlois, Kristen; Watson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Informal learning is the biggest undiscovered treasure in today's workplace. Marcia Conner, author and often-cited voice for workplace learning, suggests that "Informal learning accounts for over 75% of the learning taking place in organizations today" (1997). IBM understands the value of the hyper-connected informal workplace and…

  8. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  9. Information Security Trends and Issues in the Moodle E-Learning Platform: An Ethnographic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Empirical research on information security trends and practices in e-learning is scarce. Many articles that have been published apply basic information security concepts to e-learning and list potential threats or propose frameworks for classifying threats. The purpose of this research is to identify, categorize and understand trends and issues in…

  10. Improving Information Literacy Skills through Learning to Use and Edit Wikipedia: A Chemistry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin A.; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our students rely on Wikipedia on their mobile devices or laptops, since it is an extremely rich and broad resource. This article overviews the Chemistry content on Wikipedia and how students can learn to use it effectively as an information resource, critically evaluating content, and learning key information literacy skills. We also discuss how…

  11. Relationship between Lifelong Learning Levels and Information Literacy Skills in Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Dilek Yaliz

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between lifelong learning levels and information literacy skills in teacher candidates. The research group consists of 127 physical education and sports teacher candidates. Data were collected by means of "Lifelong Learning Scale (LLL)" and "Information Literacy Scale". In the data…

  12. Do-It-Yourself Information Literacy: Self-Directed Learning at a Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladell-Thomas, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Although academic librarians have been teaching information literacy online for years, the increasing number of nontraditional students learning online has motivated many librarians to develop Web-based tools that help students independently learn to identify, access, evaluate, and use information resources in the online environment. Adult…

  13. Knowledge and Information Flows in a Hybrid Learning Space: The Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    When proposing group activities to students with a view to fostering collaborative learning in a hybrid learning space, we often ourselves about the relative amounts of information and knowledge which flow in the interaction, both among the group members and from the external information and knowledge sources. Also about which stages of the…

  14. Respecting Young People's Informal Learning: Circumventing Strategic Policy Evasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores experiences at the interface of research and policy through the lens of informal learning. The paper contends that in order to further social justice it is essential to value the informal learning that takes place outside the confines of educational institutions. However, it also demonstrates the difficulties in getting…

  15. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Gertjan; van Wermeskerken, Margot; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Research on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking research suggests that task experience might be a boundary…

  16. Global informal learning environments and the making of Chinese middle class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, Jan; Dong, Kathy

    This paper engages with the ways in which formal learning environments increasingly have to compete with informal ones, where such informal learning environments can be seen as penetrations from global 'scapes' into local conditions of circulation and uptake of semiotic resources. The study is based

  17. The Role of Emotion in Informal Science Learning: Testing an Exploratory Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staus, Nancy L.; Falk, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial research on the effect of emotions on educational outcomes in the classroom, relatively little is known about how emotion affects learning in informal science contexts. We examined the role of emotion in the context of an informal science learning experience by utilizing a path model to investigate the relationships…

  18. An Interactive Robotic Fish Exhibit for Designed Settings in Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul; Leou, Mary; Milne, Catherine; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Informal science learning aims to improve public understanding of STEM. Free-choice learners can be engaged in a wide range of experiences, ranging from watching entertaining educational videos to actively participating in hands-on projects. Efforts in informal science learning are often gauged by their ability to elicit interaction, to foster…

  19. Understanding Informal Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinhee; McLean, Gary N.; Park, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore informal learning experiences among employees working in South Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 100 employees. This study specifically seeks to understand the characteristics of informal learning in Korean SMEs and culturally sensitive contextual factors that shape informal…

  20. Benefits of Informal Learning Environments: A Focused Examination of STEM-Based Program Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Cameron D.; Austin Stallworth, Chandra; Hailey, Christine; Householder, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines STEM-based informal learning environments for underrepresented students and reports on the aspects of these programs that are beneficial to students. This qualitative study provides a nuanced look into informal learning environments and determines what is unique about these experiences and makes them beneficial for students. We…

  1. Effects of Multimedia Information Technology Integrated Multi-Sensory Instruction on Students' Learning Motivation and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tung-Ju; Tai, Yu-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Under the waves of the Internet and the trend of era, information technology is a door connecting to the world to generate the multiplier effect of learning. Students' learning should not be regarded as the tool to cope with school examinations. The frequent contact with computers, networks, and relevant information allow students enjoying the…

  2. Informal learning in youth volunteer work : perspectives from the European Voluntary Service programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hagh Talab, Ayda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the link between volunteer work and informal learning among young people. Drawing on the concepts and theories of lifelong learning, informal learning and volunteer work, and building on past research, this thesis explores the case of the European Voluntary Service (EVS), an international volunteering scheme devised by European Commission for youth between 18 and 30 years of age. Through 10 qualitative interviews with former and current EVS volunteers, ...

  3. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  4. Library-Based Learning in an Information Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1986-01-01

    The average academic library has great potential for quality nonclassroom learning benefiting students, faculty, alumni, and the local business community. The major detriments are the limited perceptions about libraries and librarians among campus administrators and faculty. Library-based learning should be planned to be assimilated into overall…

  5. Introduction to KHNP's Informal Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jang Soo; Kim, Duck Nyoun; Goo, Ja Sung; Jeong, Yeon Oh [KHNP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has developed digital learning content for e-Learning, based on existing offline training materials since 2003. As a result, e-Learning content for basic training subjects have almost been developed, and the company is running e-Learning courses separately from offline training. This has allowed KHNP personnel to do self study to catch up on the fields they are in, without having to leave their work. Accordingly, KHNP is attempting to bring about numerous changes to the existing courses comprised of only offline training. All basic knowledge included in each training course contains e-Learning content. And offline training is focusing more on solving problems, which will eventually help enhance work performance

  6. D.E.E.P. Learning: Promoting Informal STEM Learning through Ocean Research Simulation Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, E.; Rohrlick, D.; Layman, C.; Peach, C. L.; Orcutt, J. A.; Keen, C. S.; Matthews, J.; Nsf Ooi-Ci Education; Public Engagement Team

    2010-12-01

    It is generally recognized that interactive digital games have the potential to promote the development of valuable learning and life skills, including data processing, decision-making, critical thinking, planning, communication and collaboration (Kirriemuir and MacFarlane, 2006). But the research and development of educational games, and the study of the educational value of interactive games in general, have lagged far behind the same efforts for games created for the purpose of entertainment. Our group is attempting to capitalize on the facts that games are now played in 67% of American households (ESA, 2010), and across a broad range of ages, by developing effective and engaging simulation games that promote Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) literacy in informal science education institutions (ISEIs; e.g., aquariums, museums, science centers). In particular, we are developing games based on the popular Microsoft Xbox360 gaming platform and the free Microsoft XNA game development kit, which engage ISEI visitors in the exploration and understanding of the deep-sea environment. Known as Deep-sea Extreme Environment Pilot (D.E.E.P.), the games place players in the role of piloting a remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) to complete science-based objectives associated with the exploration of ocean observing systems and hydrothermal vent environments. In addition to creating a unique educational product, our efforts are intended to identify 1) the key elements of a successful STEM-based simulation game experience in an informal science education institution, and 2) which aspects of game design (e.g., challenge, curiosity, fantasy, personal recognition) are most effective at maximizing both learning and enjoyment. We will share our progress to date, including formative assessment results from testing the game prototypes at Birch Aquarium at Scripps, and discuss the potential benefits and challenges to interactive gaming as a tool to support STEM

  7. Visualising the invisible: a network approach to reveal the informal social side of student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J; Rienties, B; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A

    2012-12-01

    World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop outside the classroom. Therefore we studied how informal social interaction influences student learning. Moreover, to explore what really matters in the students learning process, a model was tested how the generally known important constructs-prior performance, motivation and social integration-relate to informal social interaction and student learning. 301 undergraduate medical students participated in this cross-sectional quantitative study. Informal social interaction was assessed using self-reported surveys following the network approach. Students' individual motivation, social integration and prior performance were assessed by the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Adaption Questionnaire and students' GPA respectively. A factual knowledge test represented student' learning. All social networks were positively associated with student learning significantly: friendships (β = 0.11), providing information to other students (β = 0.16), receiving information from other students (β = 0.25). Structural equation modelling revealed a model in which social networks increased student learning (r = 0.43), followed by prior performance (r = 0.31). In contrast to prior literature, students' academic motivation and social integration were not associated with students' learning. Students' informal social interaction is strongly associated with students' learning. These findings underline the need to change our focus from the formal context (classroom) to the informal context to optimize student learning and deliver modern medics.

  8. Differential Impact of Visuospatial Working Memory on Rule-based and Information-integration Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiang; Sun, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based ...

  9. Social learning within and across species: information transfer in mouse-eared bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarin, T. M. A.; Borissov, I.; Page, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Social learning describes information transfer between individuals through observation or direct interaction. Bats can live and forage in large groups, sometimes comprising several species, and are thus well suited for investigations of both intraspecific and interspecific information transfer....... Although social learning has been documented within several bat species, it has not been shown to occur between species. Furthermore, it is not fully understood what level of interaction between individuals is necessary for social learning in bats. We address these questions by comparing the efficiency...... of observation versus interaction in intraspecific social learning and by considering interspecific social learning in sympatric bat species. Observers learned from demonstrators to identify food sources using a light cue. We show that intraspecific social learning exists in the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis...

  10. Library Experience and Information Literacy Learning of First Year International Students: An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Hilary; Hall, Nerilee; Pozzi, Megan

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study provides fresh understandings about first year undergraduate international students' library and information use at an Australian university, and their associated information literacy learning needs. The findings provide evidence to inform the development of library spaces and information literacy responses that enhance…

  11. Informed consent for blood tests in people with a learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Woodward, Val; Jackson, Leigh; Skirton, Heather

    2013-09-01

    This article is a report of a study of informed consent in people with a learning disability. The aims of the study were to explore the information needs of people with mild-to-moderate learning disabilities with respect to consent for blood tests and to identify ways of facilitating informed consent. The recent political agenda for social change in the UK has emphasized the right of people with a learning disability to have more autonomy and make their own decisions. As in other countries, there has also been a shift towards shared decision-making in healthcare practice. Qualitative study using an ethnographic approach. An ethnographic approach was used for this qualitative study. Phase 1 involved observation of six participants with a learning disability having a routine blood test in general practice, followed by semi-structured interviews with 14 participants with a learning disability in Phase 2. Data were collected between February 2009-February 2010. The data showed that consent procedures were often inadequate and provision of information to patients prior to a blood test was variable. People with a learning disability expressed clearly their information requirements when having a routine blood test; this included not wanting any information in some cases. Healthcare practitioners and people with a learning disability need to be familiar with current consent law in their own country to facilitate valid consent in the healthcare context. This study demonstrated the value of qualitative research in exploring the knowledge and attitudes of people with learning disability. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Etienne wenger’s theory in research on information literacy situated learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa A. Rozkosz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Etienne Wenger’s situated learning theory can provide a framework for understanding the complexity of learning. This paper aims to assess the theory’s usefulness in information literacy learning research, i.e., participation in information practice research. The author has reconstructed Wenger’s situated learning theory, using two aspects of learning – within and outside community of practice – and analyzed four research papers referring to the concepts of Wenger’s theory. The paper shows that in the field of information literacy learning, concepts related to learning within the community of practice are more useful than concepts related to learning outside that community.

  13. Epistemic Trust and Education: Effects of Informant Reliability on Student Learning of Decimal Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kelley; Shafto, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The epistemic trust literature emphasizes that children's evaluations of informants' trustworthiness affects learning, but there is no evidence that epistemic trust affects learning in academic domains. The current study investigated how reliability affects decimal learning. Fourth and fifth graders (N = 122; Mage = 10.1 years) compared examples from consistently accurate and inaccurate informants (consistent) or informants who were each sometimes accurate and inaccurate (inconsistent). Fourth graders had higher conceptual knowledge and fewer misconceptions in the consistent condition than the inconsistent condition, and vice versa for fifth graders due to differences in prior exposure to decimals. Given the same examples, learning differed depending on informant reliability. Thus, epistemic trust is a malleable factor that affects learning in an academic domain. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Combining deep learning and satellite data to inform sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Methods in machine learning, and in particular deep learning, are quickly advancing, in parallel with dramatic increases in the availability of fine resolution satellite data. The combination of both offers the possibility to improve understanding of some of the poorest regions of the world, where traditional data sources are limited. This talk will cover recent applications to track poverty at the village level in Africa, spot the onset of disease outbreaks in agriculture, and identify land use patterns and crop productivity.

  15. Ontology Learning for Chinese Information Organization and Knowledge Discovery in Ethnology and Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Kong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ontology learning architecture that reflects the interaction between ontology learning and other applications such as ontology-engineering tools and information systems. Based on this architecture, we have developed a prototype system CHOL: a Chinese ontology learning tool. CHOL learns domain ontology from Chinese domain specific texts. On the one hand, it supports a semi-automatic domain ontology acquisition and dynamic maintenance, and on the other hand, it supports an auto-indexing and auto-classification of Chinese scholarly literature. CHOL has been applied in ethnology and anthropology for Chinese information organization and knowledge discovery.

  16. Service-Learning in the Computer and Information Sciences Practical Applications in Engineering Education

    CERN Document Server

    Nejmeh, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    A road map for service-learning partnerships between information science and nonprofit organizations While service-learning is a well-known educational method for integrating learning experiences with community service, it is only now beginning to emerge in computer and information sciences (CIS). Offering a truly global perspective, this book introduces for the first time an essential framework for service learning in CIS, addressing both the challenges and opportunities of this approach for all stakeholders involved-faculty, students, and community nonprofit organizations (NPOs), both dome

  17. The Effects of Formal Learning and Informal Learning on Job Performance: The Mediating Role of the Value of Learning at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonhee; Choi, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Although research has widely recognized the relationships between formal and informal learning and job performance, empirical studies have not paid sufficient attention to these relationships. In addition, there is little understanding how individual perceptions toward learning influence the relationships between the aforementioned two types of…

  18. Influence of a Metacognitive Scaffolding for Information Search in B-"Learning" Courses on Learning Achievement and Its Relationship with Cognitive and Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Adriana; López, Omar; Sanabria, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The research's objective is to evaluate the differential effect that a metacognitive scaffolding for information web searches has on learning achievement of high school students with different cognitive style in the field dependence and independence dimension and on learning style in the dimension proposed by Honey and Alonso known as CHAEA. One…

  19. ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS: Perception of the Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have affected every aspect of human activity and have a potential role to play in the field of education and training, specially, in distance education to transform it into an innovative form of experience. The need of new technologies in teaching learning process grows stronger and faster. The information age becomes an era of knowledge providing sound and unmatched feasibility for discovery, exchange of information, communication and exploration to strengthen the teaching learning process.Information technologies help in promoting opportunities of knowledge sharing throughout the world. These can help the teachers and students having up-to-date information and knowledge. Accurate and right information is necessary for effective teaching and learning; and information technologies (Haag, 1998; p.10 are “set of tools that can help provide the right people with the right information at the right time.” Students are independent and they can make best decisions possible about their studies, learning time, place and resources.Students are able to work in collaborative and interactive learning environments effectively communicating, sharing information and exchanging ideas and learning experiences with all in the environment.

  20. Incorporating Health Information Technology and Pharmacy Informatics in a Pharmacy Professional Didactic Curriculum -with a Team-based Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapie, Ana L; Cutler, Timothy W; Fingado, Amanda R

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To incorporate a pharmacy informatics program in the didactic curriculum of a team-based learning institution and to assess students' knowledge of and confidence with health informatics during the course. Design. A previously developed online pharmacy informatics course was adapted and implemented into a team-based learning (TBL) 3-credit-hour drug information course for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students in their second didactic year. During a period of five weeks (15 contact hours), students used the online pharmacy informatics modules as part of their readiness assurance process. Additional material was developed to comply with the TBL principles. Online pre/postsurveys were administered to evaluate knowledge gained and students' perceptions of the informatics program. Assessment. Eighty-three second-year students (84% response rate) completed the surveys. Participants' knowledge of electronic health records, computerized physician order entry, pharmacy information systems, and clinical decision support was significantly improved. Additionally, their confidence significantly improved in terms of describing health informatics terminology, describing the benefits and barriers of using health information technology, and understanding reasons for systematically processing health information. Conclusion. Students responded favorably to the incorporation of pharmacy informatics content into a drug information course using a TBL approach. Students met the learning objectives of seven thematic areas and had positive attitudes toward the course after its completion.

  1. Using information and communication technology (ICT) to the maximum: learning and teaching biology with limited digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The ubiquity, availability and exponential growth of digital information and communication technology (ICT) creates unique opportunities for learning and teaching in the senior secondary school biology curriculum. Digital technologies make it possible for emerging disciplinary knowledge and understanding of biological processes previously too small, large, slow or fast to be taught. Indeed, much of bioscience can now be effectively taught via digital technology, since its representational and symbolic forms are in digital formats. Purpose: This paper is part of a larger Australian study dealing with the technologies and modalities of learning biology in secondary schools. Sample: The classroom practices of three experienced biology teachers, working in a range of NSW secondary schools, are compared and contrasted to illustrate how the challenges of limited technologies are confronted to seamlessly integrate what is available into a number of molecular genetics lessons to enhance student learning. Design and method: The data are qualitative and the analysis is based on video classroom observations and semi-structured teacher interviews. Results: Findings indicate that if professional development opportunities are provided where the pedagogy of learning and teaching of both the relevant biology and its digital representations are available, then teachers see the immediate pedagogic benefit to student learning. In particular, teachers use ICT for challenging genetic concepts despite limited computer hardware and software availability. Conclusion: Experienced teachers incorporate ICT, however limited, in order to improve the quality of student learning.

  2. The construction of semantic memory: grammar based representations learned from relational episodic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco P Battaglia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation, collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside-outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of ``sleep replay'' of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata.

  3. The Construction of Semantic Memory: Grammar-Based Representations Learned from Relational Episodic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Francesco P.; Pennartz, Cyriel M. A.

    2011-01-01

    After acquisition, memories underlie a process of consolidation, making them more resistant to interference and brain injury. Memory consolidation involves systems-level interactions, most importantly between the hippocampus and associated structures, which takes part in the initial encoding of memory, and the neocortex, which supports long-term storage. This dichotomy parallels the contrast between episodic memory (tied to the hippocampal formation), collecting an autobiographical stream of experiences, and semantic memory, a repertoire of facts and statistical regularities about the world, involving the neocortex at large. Experimental evidence points to a gradual transformation of memories, following encoding, from an episodic to a semantic character. This may require an exchange of information between different memory modules during inactive periods. We propose a theory for such interactions and for the formation of semantic memory, in which episodic memory is encoded as relational data. Semantic memory is modeled as a modified stochastic grammar, which learns to parse episodic configurations expressed as an association matrix. The grammar produces tree-like representations of episodes, describing the relationships between its main constituents at multiple levels of categorization, based on its current knowledge of world regularities. These regularities are learned by the grammar from episodic memory information, through an expectation-maximization procedure, analogous to the inside–outside algorithm for stochastic context-free grammars. We propose that a Monte-Carlo sampling version of this algorithm can be mapped on the dynamics of “sleep replay” of previously acquired information in the hippocampus and neocortex. We propose that the model can reproduce several properties of semantic memory such as decontextualization, top-down processing, and creation of schemata. PMID:21887143

  4. Information needs and seeking behaviour of distance learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data collected shows that 26.7% of the respondents accessed information on financial matters, 20.7% accessed information on education matters and 16.0% of the respondents accessed information on sports. Also, 54.9% of the respondents had been using the library as source of information for the past five years and ...

  5. Towards Gathering Initial Requirements of Developing a Mobile Service to Support Informal Learning at Cultural Heritage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhafaji, Alaa; Fallahkhair, Sanaz; Cocea, Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Informal learning allows learners to be in charge of their own learning process instead of being a content consumer. Harnessing mobile technology in informal learning field could help learners in taking a learning opportunity whenever they need either individually or in a group. This paper presents a small-scale study to investigate how people may…

  6. The Experience in the Assessment of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Šliogerienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some methodological and practical recommendations for the assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements at university studies. The stages of the assessment and recognition of non-formal and informal learning described are very important while performing the procedure of the assessment and recognition of non-formal and informal learning which according to the functions can be classified into two types: administrative and assessment.The role of the institution which provides validation and accreditation of non-formal and informal learning is very important, that is why the centre which is responsible for this kind of validation and accreditation should take responsibility starting from the initial phase when it has to provide the precise information about any possibility to have one‘s knowledge and skills assessed and finishing with the help to implement the recommendations that the commission gives to the candidate.

  7. Extending the 4I Organizational Learning Model: Information Sources, Foraging Processes and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A. Jenkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The continued importance of organizational learning has recently led to several calls for further developing the theory. This article addresses these calls by extending Crossan, Lane and White’s (1999 4I model to include a fifth process, information foraging, and a fourth level, the tool. The resulting 5I organizational learning model can be generalized to a number of learning contexts, especially those that involve understanding and making sense of data and information. Given the need for organizations to both innovate and increase productivity, and the volumes of data and information that are available to support both, the 5I model addresses an important organizational issue.

  8. Step Characterization using Sensor Information Fusion and Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Anacleto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian inertial navigation system is typically used to suppress the Global Navigation Satellite System limitation to track persons in indoor or in dense environments. However, low- cost inertial systems provide huge location estimation errors due to sensors and pedestrian dead reckoning inherent characteristics. To suppress some of these errors we propose a system that uses two inertial measurement units spread in person’s body, which measurements are aggregated using learning algorithms that learn the gait behaviors. In this work we present our results on using different machine learning algorithms which are used to characterize the step according to its direction and length. This characterization is then used to adapt the navigation algorithm according to the performed classifications.

  9. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  10. Data on multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling: Culture, learning styles and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseleno, Andino; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabani, Noraisikin; Suhaili, Nabilah

    2016-12-01

    This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.

  11. Supporting Communities of Learning Practice by the Effective Embedding of Information and Knowledge into Group Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Caballé Llobet, Santi; Feldman, Jerome; Thaw, David

    2008-01-01

    Communities of Learning Practice is an innovative paradigm focused on providing appropriate technological support to both formal and especially informal learning groups who are chiefly formed by non-technical people and who lack of the necessary resources to acquire such systems. Typically, students who are often separated by geography and/or time have the need to meet each other after classes in small study groups to carry out specific learning activities ...

  12. Data on multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling: Culture, learning styles and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andino Maseleno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv creativity skills and problem solving skills; v motivation; and vi students’ background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform.

  13. Machine learning for relevance of information in crisis response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, C.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Efficient communication during crisis response situations is a major challenge for involved emergency responders. Lack of relevant information or too much irrelevant information hampers the emergency responders’ decision-making process, workflow and situational awareness. Despite efforts to better

  14. When kinesthetic information is neglected in learning a Novel bimanual rhythmic coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Mirich, Todd; Huang, Shaochen; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2017-08-01

    Many studies have shown that rhythmic interlimb coordination involves perception of the coupled limb movements, and different sensory modalities can be used. Using visual displays to inform the coupled bimanual movement, novel bimanual coordination patterns can be learned with practice. A recent study showed that similar learning occurred without vision when a coach provided manual guidance during practice. The information provided via the two different modalities may be same (amodal) or different (modality specific). If it is different, then learning with both is a dual task, and one source of information might be used in preference to the other in performing the task when both are available. In the current study, participants learned a novel 90° bimanual coordination pattern without or with visual information in addition to kinesthesis. In posttest, all participants were tested without and with visual information in addition to kinesthesis. When tested with visual information, all participants exhibited performance that was significantly improved by practice. When tested without visual information, participants who practiced using only kinesthetic information showed improvement, but those who practiced with visual information in addition showed remarkably less improvement. The results indicate that (1) the information is not amodal, (2) use of a single type of information was preferred, and (3) the preferred information was visual. We also hypothesized that older participants might be more likely to acquire dual task performance given their greater experience of the two sensory modes in combination, but results were replicated with both 20- and 50-year-olds.

  15. SKILLS--Structuring Knowledge and Information for Learning and Living of Students in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2009-01-01

    Universities in Australia, like their counterparts abroad, are making available several different kinds of electronic information services for their student communities. University students need different types of information for the frequently entwined purposes of learning and living, and such information may be available from a variety of…

  16. Learning as change: Responding to socio-scientific issues through informal education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lauren Brooks

    Informal learning is an important venue for educating the general public about complex socio-scientific issues: intersections of scientific understanding and society. My dissertation is a multi-tiered analysis of how informal education, and particularly informal educators, can leverage learning to respond to one particular socio-scientific issue: climate change. Life-long, life-wide, and life-deep learning not only about the science of climate change, but how communities and society as a whole can respond to it in ways that are commensurate with its scale are necessary. In my three-article dissertation, I investigated the changes in practice and learning that informal educators from a natural history museum underwent in the process of implementing a new type of field trip about climate change. This study focused on inquiry-based learning principles taken on by the museum educators, albeit in different ways: learner autonomy, conversation, and deep investigation. My second article, a short literature review, makes the argument that climate change education must have goals beyond simply increasing learners' knowledge of climate science, and proposes three research-based principles for such learning: participation, relevance, and interconnectedness. These principles are argued to promote learning to respond to climate change as well as increased collective efficacy, necessary for responding. Finally, my third article is an in-depth examination of a heterogeneous network of informal educators and environmental professionals who worked together to design and implement a city-wide platform for informal climate change learning. By conceptualizing climate change learning at the level of the learning ecology, educators and learners are able to see how it can be responded to at the community level, and understand how climate change is interconnected with other scientific, natural, and social systems. I briefly discuss a different socio-scientific issue to which these

  17. How Patterns of Learning About Sexual Information Among Adolescents Are Related to Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Khurana, Atika; Hennessy, Michael; Ellithorpe, Morgan

    2018-03-01

    Parents, peers and media are informal sources of sexual information for adolescents. Although the content of sexual information communicated by these sources is known to vary, little is known about what adolescents report actually learning from each source. Data from 1,990 U.S.14-17-year-olds who participated in an online survey in 2015 were used to assess learning about four topics (sex, condoms, hormonal birth control and romantic relationships) from three informal sources (parents, peers, and television and movies). Gender and race differences in learning by source and topic were assessed using t tests. Following a factor analysis, learning about all topics was grouped by source, and regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between learning from each source and three outcomes: sexual activity, condom use and hormonal birth control use. Models included interactions between information sources and race and gender. White adolescents reported learning more from parents and less from media than black adolescents. Compared with males, females learned more about hormonal birth control and less about condoms from their parents, and more about relationships from peers and media. Learning from parents and from peers were positively associated with adolescents' sexual activity (unstandardized coefficients, 0.26 and 0.52, respectively). Learning from parents was positively associated with condom use (odds ratio, 1.5). Adolescents' learning about sex from informal sources varies by race and gender. Future research should examine whether sexual health interventions and message development can capitalize on these differences. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  18. A Cross Cultural Perspective on Information Communication Technologies Learning Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Hale; Mazman, Sacide Güzin; Altun, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Information behavior has been at the core of researchers' interest for a long time. According to researches attention in the field of information research has shifted over the years from a dominant interest in the use of channels and sources to an emphasis on the encountering and seeking of information and the interpretation of meaning from that…

  19. Temporal and Statistical Information in Causal Structure Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Teresa; Frosch, Caren; Patrick, Fiona; Lagnado, David

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined children's and adults' abilities to use statistical and temporal information to distinguish between common cause and causal chain structures. In Experiment 1, participants were provided with conditional probability information and/or temporal information and asked to infer the causal structure of a 3-variable mechanical…

  20. Educating Information Professionals with Problem based Learning and Collaborative Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2001-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is offered as an example of a problem-focused and student-centered pedagogical approach that foregrounds the curricular imperatives outlined in the KALPIER Report and provides an innovative educational experience for students. A successful implementation of PBL in a graduate level course in e-commerce illustrates…

  1. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  2. Expeditionary Learning in Information Systems: Definition, Implementation, and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Alan S.; Singh, Tirna

    2013-01-01

    In the natural sciences, collecting, cataloguing, and comparing living specimens have long been a popular, collaborative mode of discovery and learning. New species are discovered, and the relationships between species are theorized. From Aristotle's "History of Animals" to Darwin's "On the Origin of Species", and beyond, this…

  3. Understanding How the Brain Learns Should Inform Our Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Darden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools; Mariale Hardiman; (2012. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 223 pages; and How the Brain Learns, 4th ed.; David A. Sousa; (2011. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 321 pages.

  4. Strategic learning and information and communication technology: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Monerero Font

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 93 514 USAL 4 1 606 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:ES; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} This article presents an outline of a learning strategy redefinition, based on recent contributions from learning technologies. This new definition addresses the question of how technological affordances of the software, of the technological tools, or an educational environment, allow a learner or a group of learners develop a new ways to perform a strategic learning action. We review how different characteristics of learning strategy definition have been transformed because of introduction of ICT into education. Finally, the article points toward conceptual challenges and future research questions.

  5. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  6. Language Learning Strategies and English Proficiency: Interpretations from Information-Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhenhui

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here investigated the relationship between students' use of language learning strategies and their English proficiency, and then interpreted the data from two models in information-processing theory. Results showed that the students' English proficiency significantly affected their use of learning strategies, with high-level…

  7. Whither Teaching? Academics' Informal Learning about Teaching in the "Tiger Mother" University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Adopting a pluralistic view of academics' informal learning that draws on Habermas (1987), this article suggests that a great deal of academic learning results from tensions and incompatibilities between individual interests and those of employing institutions increasingly resonant with the ideology of New Public Management (NPM), with its…

  8. Fostering Creativity through Inquiry and Adventure in Informal Learning Environment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Aaron; Henrickson, Jeni

    2015-01-01

    Self-directed, inquiry-based learning opportunities focused on transdisciplinary real-world problem solving have been shown to foster creativity in learners. What tools might we provide classroom teachers to scaffold them and their students through this creative process? This study examines an online informal learning environment and the role the…

  9. Evolving Digital Divides in Information Literacy and Learning Outcomes: A BYOD Journey in a Scondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Janak; Scogings, Chris; Mathrani, Anuradha; Sofat, Indu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to seek answers to questions on how equity of information literacy and learning outcomes have evolved with the ongoing advances in technologies in teaching and learning across schools. The authors' report on a five-year long bring your own device (BYOD) journey of one school, which was one of the earliest…

  10. Climate Change Education: Quantitatively Assessing the Impact of a Botanical Garden as an Informal Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement. We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden.…

  11. Designing for the Future: How the Learning Sciences Can Inform the Trajectories of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurow, A. Susan; Tracy, Rita; Hotchkiss, Jacqueline S.; Kirshner, Ben

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how they redesigned an educational psychology course for preservice teachers using insights from the burgeoning, interdisciplinary field of the Learning Sciences. Research on the situated nature of learning and the value of out-of-school contexts for supporting children s development informed their decisions to…

  12. "All On Your Own Time": Informal Learning Practices of Bank Branch Workers. NALL Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Laura; Livingstone, D. W.

    The informal learning practices of bank branch workers were examined in a study of a major Canadian bank. The study included ethnographic fieldwork and secondary analysis of a national survey of branch workers' learning practices during the introduction of a new financial services software system. Activity theory was used to examine workers'…

  13. PAVLOV: An Information Retrieval Program for the Analysis of Learning Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldergaard, Paul M.

    1967-01-01

    PAVLOV (Paired Associate Verbal Learning Organizational Vehicle) is a Fortran coded program designed to facilitate the analysis of learning data. The program analyzes four classes of information parameters, list order, data format, and data. Utilizing this input, the program performs an in-depth measurement of several dependent variables for each…

  14. Implications of writing, reading, and tagging on the web for reflection support in informal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2008). Implications of Writing, Reading, and Tagging on the Web for Reflection Support in Informal Learning. In P. Dillenbourg & M. Specht (Eds.), Times of Convergence: Technologies Across Learning Contexts – Proceedings of the Third European Conference on

  15. Enhancing Beginners' Second Language Learning through an Informal Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakowa, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools are used increasingly to support second language learning, but there have been limited studies involving beginner learners, multiple technologies, and informal settings. This current study addresses this gap and investigates the factors affecting students' interest in a nongraded online learning environment and what kinds of tools,…

  16. Improving employability through research Informed Learning: enhancing student engagement on a vocational outdoor degree

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, M.; Gray, P.; Inkster, Allison; Passenger, N.; Stokes, Peter; Beard, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Hickman, M., Gray, P., Inkster, A., Passenger, N., Stokes P., and Beard, C. (2015) ‘Improving employability through research Informed Learning: enhancing student engagement on a vocational outdoor degree’, Inspire: Sharing great practice in Social Science teaching and learning Annual Social Sciences Conference2015, Higher Education Academy, The Studio, Manchester, 3-4 December.

  17. Personal Learning Environments in Higher Education Language Courses: An Informal and Learner-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    The chapter discusses the potential of personal learning environments (PLE) based on Web 2.0 applications for language courses in higher education (HE). This novel approach to the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education involves learners in the design of learning environments, tools and processes. The chapter begins…

  18. A Paradigm for Student Learning Outcome Assessment in Information Systems Education: Continuous Improvement or Chasing Rainbows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A paradigm is presented for student learning outcome assessment in information systems education. Successful deployment of the paradigm is illustrated using the author's home institution. The paradigm is consistent with both the scholarship of teaching and learning and the scholarship of assessment. It is concluded that the deployment of the…

  19. The use of mobile games in formal and informal learning environments: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used

  20. The Use of Mobile Games in Formal and Informal Learning Environments: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutromanos, George; Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to review studies that explored the impact of the use of mobile games in both formal and informal learning environments. Through a review of studies on mobile learning that have been published between 2000 and 2013, we aim to identify the ways in which researchers used mobile games in a variety of learning…

  1. Exploring New Potentials of Blogs for Learning: Can Children Use Blogs for Personal Information Management (PIM)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hwan-Ik; Lee, Yekyung Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the use of blogs for personal information management (PIM) as a learning tool that could bring increased efficiency and academic self-efficacy for carrying out learning tasks. In order to identify the uses and effects of using blogs for PIM by children, a control group that used personal spaces within the class website and an…

  2. Towards a Personality Understanding of Information Technology Students and Their IT Learning in UAE University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel; Rouibah, Kamel; Tarhini, Ali; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Yammahi, Aishah Rashid; Yammahi, Maraim Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the personality characteristics of Information Technology students (CIT) in UAE University (UAEU) and how such features impact their IT learning. To achieve this objective, this research attempts to explain the impact of the Big-5 factors on learning using survey research. Results from 179 respondents suggested that…

  3. Issues in Integrating Information Technology in Learning and Teaching EFL: The Saudi Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maini, Yousef Hamad

    2013-01-01

    The Saudi education system is facing a climate of change characterized by an interest in integrating new technology and educational approaches to improve teaching and learning. In this climate, the present paper explores the issues in integrating information technology in learning and teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in government…

  4. Didactic Content of Constructively-Projective Function of Students Learning: The Extrapolation in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuev, Ruslan A.; Nuriyeva, Elvira N.; Safiullina, Tatyana R.; Kryukova, Nina I.; Tagirova, Nataliya P.; Karpenko, Galina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by a radical impact on the learning process of the university by information technology, which put start a new phase in its transformation. According to experts at the present time the main factor of efficiency of university's activity becomes the expansion of students' learning activities, realized on the…

  5. Research-Informed Principles for (Re)Designing Teaching and Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Adam; Ferris, Jennie; Weston, Cynthia; Winer, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Designing physical learning environments that connect to indicators of effective educational practice reflects a university's pedagogical commitment to student success. This article describes an approach to teaching and learning space design based on research-informed pedagogical principles successfully implemented at our university. It then…

  6. Expression of c-Fos in the rat retrosplenial cortex during instrumental re-learning of appetitive bar-pressing depends on the number of stages of previous training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Svarnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning is known to be accompanied by induction of c-Fos expression in cortical neurons. However, not all neurons are involved in this process. What the c-Fos expression pattern depends on is still unknown. In the present work we studied whether and to what degree previous animal experience about Task 1 influenced neuronal c-Fos expression in the retrosplenial cortex during acquisition of Task 2. Animals were progressively shaped across days to bar-press for food at the left side of the experimental chamber (Task 1. This appetitive bar-pressing behavior was shaped by nine stages ("9 stages" group, five stages ("5 stages" group or one intermediate stage ("1 stage" group. After all animals acquired the first skill and practiced it for five days, the bar and feeder on the left, familiar side of the chamber were inactivated, and the animals were allowed to learn a similar instrumental task at the opposite side of the chamber using another pair of a bar and a feeder (Task 2. The highest number of c-Fos positive neurons was found in the retrosplenial cortex of "1 stage" animals as compared to the other groups. The number of c-Fos positive neurons in "5 stages" group animals was significantly lower than in "1 stage" animals and significantly higher than in "9 stages" animals. The number of c-Fos positive neurons in the cortex of "9 stages" animals was significantly higher than in home caged control animals. At the same time, there were no significant differences between groups in such behavioral variables as the number of entrees into the feeder or bar zones during Task 2 learning. Our results suggest that c-Fos expression in the retrosplenial cortex during Task 2 acquisition was influenced by the previous learning history.

  7. Theories of learning: models of good practice for evidence-based information skills teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah

    2010-12-01

    This feature considers models of teaching and learning and how these can be used to support evidence based practice. © 2010 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2010 Health Libraries Group.

  8. Experiencing information seeking and learning: a study of the interaction between two phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Reports the design and findings of a research project for a doctoral thesis on information seeking and use in a learning context. Theoretical frames were found in LIS use and user studies and in phenomenographic learning theory. The empirical study was conducted in a naturalistic setting with a group of 25 high school seniors. Phenomenographic method, designed to investigate variation in people's ways of experiencing phenomena in the world, was used. Three major ways of experiencing information seeking and use were identified; (a fact-finding, (b balancing information in order to make correct choices, (c scrutinizing and analysing. The variation in information seeking and use interacted closely with variation in learning outcomes. These findings form a basis for further research on variation in users' ways of experiencing the content of information. They also provide a basis for didactic development of information literacy instruction.

  9. Informed design of educational technology for teaching and learning? Towards an evidence-informed model of good practice

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Linda; Kirkwood, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model evidence-informed design based on a selective critical analysis of research articles. We draw upon findings from an investigation into practitioners’ use of educational technologies to synthesise and model what informs their designs. We found that practitioners’ designs were often driven by implicit assumptions about learning. These shaped both the design of interventions and the methods sought to derive evaluations and interpret the findings. We argue that i...

  10. A teaching-learning sequence of colour informed by history and philosophy of science

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício, Paulo; Valente, Bianor; Chagas, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a teaching-learning sequence on colour intended to a pre-service elementary teacher programme informed by History and Philosophy of Science. Working in a socio-constructivist framework, we made an excursion on the history of colour. Our excursion through history of colour, as well as the reported misconception on colour helps us to inform the constructions of the teaching-learning sequence. We apply a questionnaire both before and after each of the two ...

  11. TRAILER project (Tagging, recognition, acknowledgment of informal learning experiences). A Methodology to make learners’ informal learning activities visible to the institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.; Conde, Miguel Á.; Zangrando, Valentina; García-Holgado, Alicia; Seoane, Antón M.; Alier, Marc; Galanis, Nikolas; Brouns, Francis; Vogten, Hubert; Griffiths, Dai; Mykowska, Aleksandra; Alves, Gustavo R.; Minović, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    García-Peñalvo, F. J., Conde, M. Á, Zangrando, V., García-Holgado, A., Seoane, A. M., Alier, M., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Vogten, H., Griffiths, D., Mykowska, A., Ribeiro-Alves, G., & Minović, M. (2013). TRAILER project (Tagging, recognition, acknowledgment of informal learning experiences). A

  12. Media and Information Literacy (MIL) in journalistic learning: strategies for accurately engaging with information and reporting news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayatillah, F.

    2018-01-01

    In the era of digital technology, there is abundant information from various sources. This ease of access needs to be accompanied by the ability to engage with the information wisely. Thus, information and media literacy is required. From the results of preliminary observations, it was found that the students of Universitas Negeri Surabaya, whose major is Indonesian Literature, and they take journalistic course lack of the skill of media and information literacy (MIL). Therefore, they need to be equipped with MIL. The method used is descriptive qualitative, which includes data collection, data analysis, and presentation of data analysis. Observation and documentation techniques were used to obtain data of MIL’s impact on journalistic learning for students. This study aims at describing the important role of MIL for students of journalistic and its impact on journalistic learning for students of Indonesian literature batch 2014. The results of this research indicate that journalistic is a science that is essential for students because it affects how a person perceives news report. Through the reinforcement of the course, students can avoid a hoax. MIL-based journalistic learning makes students will be more skillful at absorbing, processing, and presenting information accurately. The subject influences students in engaging with information so that they can report news credibly.

  13. Can Music Foster Learning – Effects of Different Text Modalities on Learning and Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Janina A. M.; Seufert, Tina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the possibilities of fostering learning based on differences in recall and comprehension after learning with texts which were presented in one of three modalities: either in a spoken, written, or sung version. All three texts differ regarding their processing, especially when considering working memory. Overall, we assume the best recall performance after learning with the written text and the best comprehension performance after learning with the sung text, respectively, compared to both other text modalities. We also analyzed whether the melody of the sung material functions as a mnemonic aid for the learners in the sung text condition. If melody and text of the sung version are closely linked, presentation of the melody during the post-test phase could foster text retrieval. 108 students either learned from a sung text performed by a professional singer, a printed text, or the same text read out loud. Half of the participants worked on the post-test while listening to the melody used for the musical learning material and the other half did not listen to a melody. The written learning modality led to significantly better recall than with the spoken (d = 0.97) or sung text (d = 0.78). However, comprehension after learning with the sung modality was significantly superior compared to when learning with the written learning modality (d = 0.40). Reading leads to more focus on details, which is required to answer recall questions, while listening fosters a general understanding of the text, leading to higher levels of comprehension. Listening to the melody during the post-test phase negatively affected comprehension, irrespective of the modality during the learning phase. This can be explained by the seductive detail effect, as listening to the melody during the post-test phase may distract learners from their main task. In closing, theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:29375429

  14. Can Music Foster Learning – Effects of Different Text Modalities on Learning and Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina A. M. Lehmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the possibilities of fostering learning based on differences in recall and comprehension after learning with texts which were presented in one of three modalities: either in a spoken, written, or sung version. All three texts differ regarding their processing, especially when considering working memory. Overall, we assume the best recall performance after learning with the written text and the best comprehension performance after learning with the sung text, respectively, compared to both other text modalities. We also analyzed whether the melody of the sung material functions as a mnemonic aid for the learners in the sung text condition. If melody and text of the sung version are closely linked, presentation of the melody during the post-test phase could foster text retrieval. 108 students either learned from a sung text performed by a professional singer, a printed text, or the same text read out loud. Half of the participants worked on the post-test while listening to the melody used for the musical learning material and the other half did not listen to a melody. The written learning modality led to significantly better recall than with the spoken (d = 0.97 or sung text (d = 0.78. However, comprehension after learning with the sung modality was significantly superior compared to when learning with the written learning modality (d = 0.40. Reading leads to more focus on details, which is required to answer recall questions, while listening fosters a general understanding of the text, leading to higher levels of comprehension. Listening to the melody during the post-test phase negatively affected comprehension, irrespective of the modality during the learning phase. This can be explained by the seductive detail effect, as listening to the melody during the post-test phase may distract learners from their main task. In closing, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  15. Can Music Foster Learning - Effects of Different Text Modalities on Learning and Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Janina A M; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the possibilities of fostering learning based on differences in recall and comprehension after learning with texts which were presented in one of three modalities: either in a spoken, written, or sung version. All three texts differ regarding their processing, especially when considering working memory. Overall, we assume the best recall performance after learning with the written text and the best comprehension performance after learning with the sung text, respectively, compared to both other text modalities. We also analyzed whether the melody of the sung material functions as a mnemonic aid for the learners in the sung text condition. If melody and text of the sung version are closely linked, presentation of the melody during the post-test phase could foster text retrieval. 108 students either learned from a sung text performed by a professional singer, a printed text, or the same text read out loud. Half of the participants worked on the post-test while listening to the melody used for the musical learning material and the other half did not listen to a melody. The written learning modality led to significantly better recall than with the spoken ( d = 0.97) or sung text ( d = 0.78). However, comprehension after learning with the sung modality was significantly superior compared to when learning with the written learning modality ( d = 0.40). Reading leads to more focus on details, which is required to answer recall questions, while listening fosters a general understanding of the text, leading to higher levels of comprehension. Listening to the melody during the post-test phase negatively affected comprehension, irrespective of the modality during the learning phase. This can be explained by the seductive detail effect, as listening to the melody during the post-test phase may distract learners from their main task. In closing, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. CRITERIA AND QUALITY INDICATORS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES OF LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M. Spirin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the concept of information and communication technology and information and communication technology of learning is specified. It is grounded an external and internal criteria of information and communication technologies of learning quality assessment based on experience of information and communication technology quality assessment of the methodical system of informatics teachers vocational training. There are considered the external indexes – design, structural, organizational, communicative and gnostic criteria, and internal – differentiation, individualization, intensification of teaching process and effectiveness of educational activity. There are presented the approaches to assess the indicators for determination of criteria demonstration degree.

  17. A resilient and efficient CFD framework: Statistical learning tools for multi-fidelity and heterogeneous information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-09-01

    Exascale-level simulations require fault-resilient algorithms that are robust against repeated and expected software and/or hardware failures during computations, which may render the simulation results unsatisfactory. If each processor can share some global information about the simulation from a coarse, limited accuracy but relatively costless auxiliary simulator we can effectively fill-in the missing spatial data at the required times by a statistical learning technique - multi-level Gaussian process regression, on the fly; this has been demonstrated in previous work [1]. Based on the previous work, we also employ another (nonlinear) statistical learning technique, Diffusion Maps, that detects computational redundancy in time and hence accelerate the simulation by projective time integration, giving the overall computation a "patch dynamics" flavor. Furthermore, we are now able to perform information fusion with multi-fidelity and heterogeneous data (including stochastic data). Finally, we set the foundations of a new framework in CFD, called patch simulation, that combines information fusion techniques from, in principle, multiple fidelity and resolution simulations (and even experiments) with a new adaptive timestep refinement technique. We present two benchmark problems (the heat equation and the Navier-Stokes equations) to demonstrate the new capability that statistical learning tools can bring to traditional scientific computing algorithms. For each problem, we rely on heterogeneous and multi-fidelity data, either from a coarse simulation of the same equation or from a stochastic, particle-based, more "microscopic" simulation. We consider, as such "auxiliary" models, a Monte Carlo random walk for the heat equation and a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model for the Navier-Stokes equations. More broadly, in this paper we demonstrate the symbiotic and synergistic combination of statistical learning, domain decomposition, and scientific computing in

  18. Microcultures and Informal Learning: A Heuristic Guiding Analysis of Conditions for Informal Learning in Local Higher Education Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxå, Torgny; Mårtensson, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to knowledge about learning in workgroups, so called "microcultures" in higher education. It argues that socially constructed and institutionalised traditions, recurrent practices, and tacit assumptions in the various microcultures influence academic teachers towards certain behaviour. In line with this…

  19. Transfer Learning for SSVEP Electroencephalography Based Brain–Computer Interfaces Using Learn++.NSE and Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sybeldon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCI using Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP are sometimes used by injured patients seeking to use a computer. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA is seen as state-of-the-art for SSVEP BCI systems. However, this assumes that the user has full control over their covert attention, which may not be the case. This introduces high calibration requirements when using other machine learning techniques. These may be circumvented by using transfer learning to utilize data from other participants. This paper proposes a combination of ensemble learning via Learn++ for Nonstationary Environments (Learn++.NSEand similarity measures such as mutual information to identify ensembles of pre-existing data that result in higher classification. Results show that this approach performed worse than CCA in participants with typical SSVEP responses, but outperformed CCA in participants whose SSVEP responses violated CCA assumptions. This indicates that similarity measures and Learn++.NSE can introduce a transfer learning mechanism to bring SSVEP system accessibility to users unable to control their covert attention.

  20. Digital Learning Characteristics and Principles of Information Resources Knowledge Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichenko, Margarita; Davidovitch, Nitza; Kravchenko, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of principles knowledge representation in information systems led to the necessity of improving the structuring knowledge. It is caused by the development of software component and new possibilities of information technologies. The article combines methodological aspects of structuring knowledge and effective usage of information…

  1. Investigating Instructional Strategies for Using Social Media in Formal and Informal Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high popularity of personal use of online social media, a low percentage of students and instructors use them for educational purposes. This qualitative study explores the use of social media among faculty in the discipline of public administration in the United States. Eight instructors participated in telephone interviews about their experiences and perceptions of using social media for teaching and learning. Instructors perceive that informal learning using social media could be facilitated by instructors and integrated into formal learning environments for enriched discussions, increased engagement, and broad connections. This study provides qualitative empirical support for social learning theories while offering strategies for and examples of how social media can be used to connect formal and informal learning.

  2. Identifying Information Behavior in Information Search and Retrieval through Learning Activities Using an E-learning Platform Case: Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Alejandro Uribe; Munoz, Wilson Castano

    2011-01-01

    This text presents the future of librarian education as exemplified by the Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia), using an online learning platform-LMS (Moodle) and through different personalized and collaborative learning activities and tools that help students identify their…

  3. Open Educational Resources and Informational Ecosystems: «Edutags» as a connector for open learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kerres

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and learning in school essentially relies on analogous and digital media, artefacts and tools of all kinds. They are supported and provided by various players. The role of these players for providing learning infrastructures and the interaction between them are discussed in the following paper. Increasingly, Open Educational Resources (OER become available and the question arises how the interaction between these players is impacted. On the one hand, some players implement closed informational ecosystems that might provide a rich and coherent environment for learning, but also lock the users into a defined and often restricted environment. On the other hand, other players are interested in developing an infrastructure that supports open learning without the boundaries of closed informational ecosystems. Such open informational ecosystems must provide interconnections to numerous, in principal, unlimited number of platforms for learning contents. In the context of the project «Edutags» a reference platform is being implemented by way in which the contents of various providers are being connected and enriched through user-generated tags, commentaries and evaluations. The discussion points out that such an independent reference platform, operated separately from content platforms, must be considered as an important element in an open and truly distributed infrastructure for learning resources. Hence, we do not only need open educational resources to support open learning, we also need to establish an open informational ecosystem that supports such approaches.

  4. Promoting information literacy through collaborative service learning in an undergraduate research course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Robert; Pesut, Barbara; Erbacker, Lynnelle

    2012-11-01

    Information literacy is an important foundation for evidence-based nursing practice. Librarians, the experts in information literacy, are important collaborators in the process of teaching nursing students information literacy skills. In this article we describe a service learning project, offered in a third year nursing research course, designed to teach information literacy and to enhance students' appreciation of the role of evidence in nursing practice. Students worked in groups, and under the guidance of a nursing instructor and librarian, to answer a question posed by practice-based partners. Through the project students learned essential skills of refining a question, identifying systematic search strategies, gleaning essential information from a study and using a bibliographic management tool. Evaluation of the project indicated that although the project was challenging and labour intensive students felt they learned important skills for their future practice. Several recommendations for further enhancing the collaboration are made. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning by Doing Approach in the Internet Environment to Improve the Teaching Efficiency of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-S.; Xie, Hua

    This paper presents a learning-by-doing method in the Internet environment to enhance the results of information technology education by experimental work in the classroom of colleges. In this research, an practical approach to apply the "learning by doing" paradigm in Internet-based learning, both for higher educational environments and life-long training systems, taking into account available computer and network resources, such as blogging, podcasting, social networks, wiki etc. We first introduce the different phases in the learning process, which aimed at showing to the readers that the importance of the learning by doing paradigm, which is not implemented in many Internet-based educational environments. Secondly, we give the concept of learning by doing in the different perfective. Then, we identify the most important trends in this field, and give a real practical case for the application of this approach. The results show that the attempt methods are much better than traditional teaching methods.

  6. Technology Enhancing Learning: Analysing Uses of Information and Communication Technologies by Primary and Secondary School Pupils with Learning Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Don

    2006-01-01

    Successive national policy in England has striven to develop uses of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support teaching and learning, and has promoted the adoption of ICT in schools over a period of some 25 years (since the "Microcomputer in schools initiative" of 1981). The current level of deployment of ICT in schools…

  7. Dynamic network based learning systems for sensor information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh; Julier, Simon

    2017-05-01

    In order to get the modularity and reconfigurability for sensor information fusion services in modern battle-spaces, dynamic service composition and dynamic topology determination is needed. In the current state-of-the-art, such information fusion services are composed manually and in a programmatic manner. In this paper, we consider an approach towards more automation by assuming that the topology of a solution is provided, and automatically choosing the different types and kinds of algorithms which can be used at each step. This includes the use of contextual information and techniques such as multi-arm bandits for investing the exploration and exploitation tradeoff.

  8. Automation of information decision support to improve e-learning resources quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Danchenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In conditions of active development of e-learning the high quality of e-learning resources is very important. Providing the high quality of e-learning resources in situation with mass higher education and rapid obsolescence of information requires the automation of information decision support for improving the quality of e-learning resources by development of decision support system. Methodology. The problem is solved by methods of artificial intelligence. The knowledge base of information structure of decision support system that is based on frame model of knowledge representation and inference production rules are developed. Findings. According to the results of the analysis of life cycle processes and requirements to the e-learning resources quality the information model of the structure of the knowledge base of the decision support system, the inference rules for the automatically generating of recommendations and the software implementation are developed. Practical value. It is established that the basic requirements for quality are performance, validity, reliability and manufacturability. It is shown that the using of a software implementation of decision support system for researched courses gives a growth of the quality according to the complex quality criteria. The information structure of a knowledge base system to support decision-making and rules of inference can be used by methodologists and content developers of learning systems.

  9. Information Assurance Intrusion Detection Sensor Database Design: Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spink, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Current architectural trends in information assurance for the DOD focuses on the fusion and correlation of large volumes of data collected across several intrusion detection systems and boundary devices...

  10. Interactive Role of Organizational Learning and Informal Norms in Accountability and Job Performance in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Ghasemzadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the contribution of organizational learning to employee organizational performance is well documented, the mechanisms that explain such relationship remain unclear. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the interactional role of organizational learning and informal norms in accountability and job performance of the staff in a medical department. Methods: The research method of the study is descriptive-correlational type. The statistical population of this study included all staff (N=315 of the Medical Department in Oshnavieh Hospital in 2014. For data gathering in this study, a sample comprising of 180 staff was selected using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through standard questionnaires of Neefe for organizational learning, informal norms of Hall, job performance of Paterson, and the questionnaire of individual accountability of Hochwarter. Pearson and moderated multiple regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Results: Results showed that organizational learning has a positive and significant correlation with job performance and individual accountability. The results, also, showed a positive and significant correlation between informal norms, personal accountability, and job performance. Regression results showed the interactive role of learning structure dimensions, strategy, and shared vision with informal norms, predicting individual accountability of the staff. Also, interactive role of organizational learning and informal norms was confirmed in predicting job performance of the medical staff. Conclusion: The result of this study hold out that organizational learning directly and with interaction of informal norms improves staffs' performance and accountability. As a result of improved informal norms in a medical setting, we will have staff’s strong accountability and performance.

  11. Employees' Choices in Learning How to Use Information and Communication Technology Systems at Work: Strategies and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Eija; Kira, Mari

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote the understanding of how employees learn to use information and communication technology (ICT) systems at work. The elements of a learning activity in the context of ICT use are identified from the literature. In particular, approaches to learning, learning strategies and problem-solving strategies are…

  12. Review of Statistical Learning Methods in Integrated Omics Studies (An Integrated Information Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Irene Sui Lan; Lumley, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Integrated omics is becoming a new channel for investigating the complex molecular system in modern biological science and sets a foundation for systematic learning for precision medicine. The statistical/machine learning methods that have emerged in the past decade for integrated omics are not only innovative but also multidisciplinary with integrated knowledge in biology, medicine, statistics, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. Here, we review the nontrivial classes of learning methods from the statistical aspects and streamline these learning methods within the statistical learning framework. The intriguing findings from the review are that the methods used are generalizable to other disciplines with complex systematic structure, and the integrated omics is part of an integrated information science which has collated and integrated different types of information for inferences and decision making. We review the statistical learning methods of exploratory and supervised learning from 42 publications. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the extended principal component analysis, cluster analysis, network analysis, and regression methods. Statistical techniques such as penalization for sparsity induction when there are fewer observations than the number of features and using Bayesian approach when there are prior knowledge to be integrated are also included in the commentary. For the completeness of the review, a table of currently available software and packages from 23 publications for omics are summarized in the appendix.

  13. Language Micro-gaming: Fun and Informal Microblogging Activities for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perifanou, Maria A.

    'Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge and instruction is a process of supporting that construction rather than communicating knowledge' [1]. Can this process of learning be fun for the learner? Successful learning involves a mixture of work and fun. One of the recent web 2.0 services that can offer great possibilities for learning is Microblogging [2]. This kind of motivation can raise students' natural curiosity and interest which promotes learning. Play can also promote excitement, enjoyment, and a relaxing atmosphere. As Vygotsky (1933) [3] advocates, play creates a zone of proximal development (ZDP) in children. According to Vygotsky, the ZDP is the distance between one's actual developmental level and one's potential developmental level when interacting with someone and/or something in the social environment [4]. Play can be highly influential in learning. What happens when play becomes informal learning supported by web 2.0 technologies? Practical ideas applied in an Italian foreign language classroom using microblogging to promote fun and informal learning showed that microblogging can enhance motivation, participation, collaboration and practice in basic language skills.

  14. Impact of Prior Knowledge of Informational Content and Organization on Learning Search Principles in a Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Lena; Bergstrom, Monica

    1988-01-01

    The importance of prior knowledge of informational content and organization for search performance on a database was evaluated for 17 undergraduates. Pretraining related to content, and information did facilitate learning logical search principles in a relational database; contest pretraining was more efficient. (SLD)

  15. Information-Seeking Behavior in Generation Y Students: Motivation, Critical Thinking, and Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Research in information-seeking behavior, motivation, critical thinking, and learning theory was explored and compared in a search for possible motivating factors behind students' dependence on television and the Internet for their information needs. The research indicates that only a very small percentage of the general population prefer to learn…

  16. Side Information and Noise Learning for Distributed Video Coding using Optical Flow and Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Huang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    information for (LDPCA) decoding. The proposed decoder side techniques for side information and noise learning (SING) are integrated in a TDWZ scheme. On test sequences, the proposed SING codec robustly improves the coding efficiency of TDWZ DVC. For WZ frames using a GOP size of 2, up to 4dB improvement...

  17. A Comparison of Nursing and Teacher Education Students' Information Literacy Learning: Results from Norway, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    This study measures first-year undergraduate students' self-assessments and learning outcomes in information literacy skills in their first months of higher education in Norway. Comparisons are made between nursing students and teacher education students. Surveys were conducted before the library's information literacy course and after both…

  18. Informational-analytic system with e-learning component of educational institute management development

    OpenAIRE

    Peleschyshyn, A.; Zhezhnych, P.; Holoshchuk, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes architecture of the complex information system with E-learning component of Institute of computer sciences and information technologies (ICSIT), National University “Lviv Politechnika”, and some approaches of the system functional improvement. Disadvantage of existing activity automation systems of other higher schools are analyzed. The structure the system components with their functionality and implementation are considered in details.

  19. Information Literacy, Learning, and the Public Library: A Study of Danish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…

  20. Educational Information Quantization for Improving Content Quality in Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    The article offers the educational information quantization method for improving content quality in Learning Management Systems. The paper considers questions concerning analysis of quality of quantized presentation of educational information, based on quantitative text parameters: average frequencies of parts of speech, used in the text; formal…

  1. Learning networks as an enabler for informed decisions to target energy-efficiency potentials in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, Katharina; Eichhammer, W.A.; Schlomann, Barbara; Mielicke, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    his paper deals with possibilities of targeting energy efficiency potentials in German companies by delivering information and support within a cooperative management system “Learning Energy Efficiency Networks” (LEEN). Information deficits are pointed out as a relevant barrier to implementing

  2. Costs and Benefits of Vendor Sponsored Learning Materials in Information Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for qualified information technology professionals remains high despite downturns in the economy. It is imperative to provide students with a curriculum that provides a broad foundation in information technology knowledge, skills, and abilities. Students also need access to specialized technologies and learning materials to develop the…

  3. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  4. Information Literacy (IL) teaching and learning: a literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  5. Information Literacy (IL) learning experiences: A literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  6. An Overview of "Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning."

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHam, Michele; Pryor, Joanne; Shaffer, Mary Ann; Oswald, Judi; Shutlera, Debbie; Finch, Sheryl; Urban, Lynn; VanKampen, Doris; Gish, Michele; Ely, Patricia; Reynolds, Tommye; Lang, Corrine; Woods, Janet; Kennedy, Sharron; Scauzillo, Chris; Stuart, Tim; Simmons, Maureen; Goode, Mildred

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interpretation of the new "Information Power" guidelines for school media specialists formulated by a group of graduate students. Illustrates a global view of the school media program and highlights the vision statement, mission statement, and goal for the school media program. Discusses the role of the media specialist as…

  7. Fast and reliable online learning to rank for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, K.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of digital data we produce every day far surpasses our ability to process this data, and finding useful information in this constant flow of data has become one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Search engines are one way of accessing large data collections. Their algorithms

  8. Library and Librarians In Information Literacy for Life long Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of library and librarians in the design and inclusion of Information Literacy (IL) in to the curriculum of Nigerian Universities was also highlighted. The paper concludes that IL is a prerequisite for university graduate to successfully survive and compete in the 21st century and beyond. The paper finally recommends ...

  9. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviour of Distance Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the information needs, seeking behavior and sources used by the Distance Leaning Students of. University ... Distance education has widened its scope to include online education, online courses, virtual courses, etc ... qualifications and responsibilities e.g. language, location, educational background, age, sex are varied.

  10. Information Seeking and Avoidance Behavior in School Library Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunfei

    2010-01-01

    Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…

  11. Bridging Levels of Analysis: Learning, Information Theory, and the Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Melody

    2017-01-01

    While information theory is typically considered in the context of modern computing and engineering, its core mathematical principles provide a potentially useful lens through which to consider human language. Like the artificial communication systems such principles were invented to describe, natural languages involve a sender and receiver, a…

  12. Library and Librarians In Information Literacy for Life long Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  13. Ecological information systems and support of learning: Coupling work domain information to user characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Annelise Mark; Rasmussen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    style and subjective preferences. The aim is to design work support systems that leave the freedom open to a user to choose a work strategy that suites the user in the particular situation. An important feature of this ecological approach to system design for support of effective learning under changes...

  14. Affective Learning and Personal Information Management: Essential Components of Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Ellysa Stern

    2013-01-01

    "Affective competence," managing the feelings and emotions that students encounter throughout the content creation/research process, is essential to academic success. Just as it is crucial for students to acquire core literacies, it is essential that they learn how to manage the anxieties and emotions that will emerge throughout all…

  15. E-Learning System of Asia through Open Courseware (OCW) and Educational Resources (OER) for Universal Access to Knowledge and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Soumen; Das, Baisakhi

    2017-01-01

    One of the most impressive uses of information and communication technology is the advent of e-learning. The current E-learning system mainly plays a role of learning assistance such as providing learning content or learning information, and sometime it provides channels or platform in the learning environment for discussion and interaction. In…

  16. Informed consent to healthcare interventions in people with learning disabilities--an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Skirton, Heather; Webb, Christine

    2008-12-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review of informed consent to healthcare interventions in people with learning disabilities. Consent to treatment lies at the heart of the relationship between patient and healthcare professional. In order for people with learning disabilities to have equity of access to health care, they need to be able to give informed consent to health interventions--or be assessed as incompetent to give consent. The British Nursing Index (BNI), CINAHL, MEDLINE, Social Care Online, ERIC and ASSIA and PsycINFO databases were searched using the search terms: Consent or informed choice or capacity or consent to treat* or consent to examin* AND Learning disab* or intellectual* disab* or mental* retard* or learning difficult* or mental* handicap*. The search was limited to papers published in English from January 1990 to March 2007. An integrative review was conducted and the data analysed thematically. Twenty-two studies were reviewed. The main themes identified were: life experience, interaction between healthcare professionals and participants, ability to consent, and psychometric variables. A consensus seemed to emerge that capacity to consent is greater in people with higher cognitive ability and verbal skills, but that the attitudes and behaviour of healthcare professionals was also a crucial factor. The findings support use of the functional approach to assessing mental capacity for the purpose of obtaining informed consent. Future research into informed consent in people with learning disabilities is needed using real life situations rather than hypothetical vignettes.

  17. The Quantitative Evaluation of Functional Neuroimaging Experiments: Mutual Information Learning Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai; Anderson, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Learning curves are presented as an unbiased means for evaluating the performance of models for neuroimaging data analysis. The learning curve measures the predictive performance in terms of the generalization or prediction error as a function of the number of independent examples (e.g., subjects......\\$[/sup 15/ O]water data sets, although the framework is equally valid for multisubject fMRI studies. We demonstrate how the prediction error can be expressed as the mutual information between the scan and the scan label, measured in units of bits. The mutual information learning curve can be used...... to evaluate the impact of different methodological choices, e.g., classification label schemes, preprocessing choices. Another application for the learning curve is to examine the model performance using bias/variance considerations enabling the researcher to determine if the model performance is limited...

  18. Monetary incentives at retrieval promote recognition of involuntarily learned emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunping; Li, Yunyun; Zhang, Qin; Cui, Lixia

    2018-03-07

    Previous studies have suggested that the effects of reward on memory processes are affected by certain factors, but it remains unclear whether the effects of reward at retrieval on recognition processes are influenced by emotion. The event-related potential was used to investigate the combined effect of reward and emotion on memory retrieval and its neural mechanism. The behavioral results indicated that the reward at retrieval improved recognition performance under positive and negative emotional conditions. The event-related potential results indicated that there were significant interactions between the reward and emotion in the average amplitude during recognition, and the significant reward effects from the frontal to parietal brain areas appeared at 130-800 ms for positive pictures and at 190-800 ms for negative pictures, but there were no significant reward effects of neutral pictures; the reward effect of positive items appeared relatively earlier, starting at 130 ms, and that of negative pictures began at 190 ms. These results indicate that monetary incentives at retrieval promote recognition of involuntarily learned emotional information.

  19. The relationship of learning motivation, achievement and satisfaction for nurses learning simple excel VBA information systems programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying Li; Chien, Tsai Feng; Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand the relationship between participating nurses' motivation, achievement and satisfaction before and after they learned to program in Excel Visual Basic for Applications (Excel VBA). We held a workshop to train nurses in developing simple Excel VBA information systems to support their clinical or administrative practices. Before and after the workshop, the participants were evaluated on their knowledge of Excel VBA, and a questionnaire was given to survey their learning motivation and satisfaction. Statistics softwares Winsteps and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that the participants are more knowledgeable about VBA as well as more motivated in learning VBA after the workshop. Participants were highly satisfied with the overall arrangement of the workshop and instructors, but didn't have enough confidence in promoting the application of Excel VBA themselves. In addition, we were unable to predict the participants' achievement by their demographic characteristics or pre-test motivation level.

  20. EUnetHTA information management system: development and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalon, Patrice X; Kraemer, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the techniques used in achieving consensus on common standards to be implemented in the EUnetHTA Information Management System (IMS); and to describe how interoperability between tools was explored. Three face to face meetings were organized to identify and agree on common standards to the development of online tools. Two tools were created to demonstrate the added value of implementing interoperability standards at local levels. Developers of tools outside EUnetHTA were identified and contacted. Four common standards have been agreed on by consensus; and consequently all EUnetHTA tools have been modified or designed accordingly. RDF Site Summary (RSS) has demonstrated a good potential to support rapid dissemination of HTA information. Contacts outside EUnetHTA resulted in direct collaboration (HTA glossary, HTAi Vortal), evaluation of options for interoperability between tools (CRD HTA database) or a formal framework to prepare cooperation on concrete projects (INAHTA projects database). While being entitled a project on IT infrastructure, the work program was also about people. When having to agree on complex topics, fostering a cohesive group dynamic and hosting face to face meetings brings added value and enhances understanding between partners. The adoption of widespread standards enhanced the homogeneity of the EUnetHTA tools and should thus contribute to their wider use, therefore, to the general objective of EUnetHTA. The initiatives on interoperability of systems need to be developed further to support a general interoperable information system that could benefit the whole HTA community.

  1. The effects of information systems quality on nurses' acceptance of the electronic learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Ming

    2012-03-01

    To ensure the quality of healthcare provision, nurses must continuously enhance their professional knowledge and competencies via continuing education. As compared with traditional learning, electronic learning (e-learning) is a more flexible method for nurses' in-service learning. Hence, e-learning is expected to play a key role in providing continuing education for nurses. The main purpose of this study was to examine whether system quality, information quality, service quality, and user-interface design quality as the antecedents to nurse beliefs can affect nurses' intention to use the e-learning system. A cross-sectional design was used to investigate the effects of information systems quality on nurses' acceptance of the e-learning system. This study gathered sample data from nurses at 3 hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, and 320 effective questionnaires were analyzed in this study, indicating an effective response rate of 71.1%. Collected data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. System quality, information quality, and user-interface design quality had significant effects on perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and perceived enjoyment (PE), and service quality had significant effects on PU and PEOU. Moreover, PEOU had significant effects on PU and PE, and the effects of PU, PEOU, and PE on intention to use were significant. User-interface design quality is the most key antecedent that can make significant impacts on nurses' PU and PE, and more efforts should be made to develop a friendlier user interface via designing useful and enjoyable features to induce nurses to use the e-learning system. Moreover, system quality can make the greatest impact on nurses' PEOU; thus, medical institutions should effectively enhance system quality to deliver benefits and pleasure to boost nurses' usage intention of the e-learning system via reducing the complexity.

  2. Interests-in-motion in an informal, media-rich learning setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ty Hollett

    2016-01-01

    Much of the literature related to connected learning approaches youth interests as fixed on specific disciplines or activities (e.g. STEM, music production, or game design). As such, mentors design youth-focused programs to serve those interests. Through a micro-ethnographic analysis of two youth’s Minecraft-centered gameplay in a public library, this article makes two primary contributions to research on learning within, and the design of, informal, media-rich settings. First, rather than ap...

  3. Learning to Grasp Unknown Objects Based on 3D Edge Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodenhagen, Leon; Kraft, Dirk; Popovic, Mila

    2010-01-01

    In this work we refine an initial grasping behavior based on 3D edge information by learning. Based on a set of autonomously generated evaluated grasps and relations between the semi-global 3D edges, a prediction function is learned that computes a likelihood for the success of a grasp using either...... an offline or an online learning scheme. Both methods are implemented using a hybrid artificial neural network containing standard nodes with a sigmoid activation function and nodes with a radial basis function. We show that a significant performance improvement can be achieved....

  4. Evolution of Facebook groups: Informal e-learning among medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarret Cassaniti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most people think of online courses when they talk about e-learning, but aspects of social media can also be considered e-learning. In 2011 the Knowledge for Health Project (K4Health began work with local partners to implement an e-learning and professional development policy for Medical Laboratory Scientists based on the needs identified by United States Agency for International Development (USAID/Nigeria. Six e-learning courses were developed and promoted through several channels including social media. A Facebook Group was created to share information about accessing and navigating the courses and attracted 8,500 members in 18 months. As the Group grew, the topics discussed evolved to include trade union news, employment opportunities and technical resources. Another Facebook Group provided insights that Facebook Groups could be used to facilitate interactions focused on continuing professional development. The findings show that Facebook Groups accommodate an informal learning style, allowing individuals to learn through peer support in flexible ways. It has also shown that the use of Facebook Groups is associated with high levels of engagement with e-learning courses.

  5. Information transfer beyond the waggle dance: observational learning in bees and flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore eAvargues-Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social information transfer is part of the success of animal societies and has been documented in a variety of taxa, from slime molds to humans. In invertebrates, the historical research focus has been on the specialized signals shaped by selection to convey information, such as the honeybee waggle dance. However, growing evidence shows that invertebrates also commonly glean critical information about their environment by observing others. For instance, a bumblebee’s choice between novel flower species is influenced by the observation of the foraging choices of more experienced conspecifics. Recent studies suggest that these seemingly complex learning abilities can be explained in terms of simple associative learning, whereby individuals learn to associate social cues (conditioned stimuli to reward cues (unconditioned stimuli. Here, we review the behavioral evidence of observational learning both in bees and Drosophila. We discuss the validity of associative accounts of observational learning and the potential neural circuits mediating visual social learning in these model species to define future research avenues for studying the neurobiology of social cognition in miniature brains.

  6. Conjunctive patches subspace learning with side information for collaborative image retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lining; Wang, Lipo; Lin, Weisi

    2012-08-01

    Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has attracted substantial attention during the past few years for its potential practical applications to image management. A variety of Relevance Feedback (RF) schemes have been designed to bridge the semantic gap between the low-level visual features and the high-level semantic concepts for an image retrieval task. Various Collaborative Image Retrieval (CIR) schemes aim to utilize the user historical feedback log data with similar and dissimilar pairwise constraints to improve the performance of a CBIR system. However, existing subspace learning approaches with explicit label information cannot be applied for a CIR task, although the subspace learning techniques play a key role in various computer vision tasks, e.g., face recognition and image classification. In this paper, we propose a novel subspace learning framework, i.e., Conjunctive Patches Subspace Learning (CPSL) with side information, for learning an effective semantic subspace by exploiting the user historical feedback log data for a CIR task. The CPSL can effectively integrate the discriminative information of labeled log images, the geometrical information of labeled log images and the weakly similar information of unlabeled images together to learn a reliable subspace. We formally formulate this problem into a constrained optimization problem and then present a new subspace learning technique to exploit the user historical feedback log data. Extensive experiments on both synthetic data sets and a real-world image database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in improving the performance of a CBIR system by exploiting the user historical feedback log data.

  7. Experiences and Lessons Learned in Information Fusion Development Collaboratives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arctur, D. K.; Percivall, G.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of this paper, fusion is defined as the process of combining data and information to improve detection, identification, and characterization of entities. Observations and measurements of the real world can be processed and combined with other related data to create more meaningful units of knowledge and understanding. Measurement, modeling, and other analysis processes can create additional objects which may be useful to integrate. Figure 1 shows a range of types of fusion (sensor or observation fusion, feature or object fusion, and decision fusion), each of which involves combining various forms of knowledge to achieve greater understanding about a domain of interest. By applying key encoding and web service standards, such information can be more readily integrated with data sets from other science and knowledge domains, often resulting in unanticipated discoveries, emergent patterns, and new methodologies. When the source data has to do with physical location on the earth’s surface, it is not just important but essential to consider standards for encoding and exchange of the spatial and temporal coordinates, in order for these values to align properly with spatial and temporal data from other sources. Achieving real synergies in large-scale, collaborative, inter-disciplinary projects is not easy. Institutional barriers, competitive pressures, incompatible formats and other factors can impede the flow and value of information. It is important to anticipate these issues and organize the project to address or even preclude them. The purpose of this paper is to describe the approaches developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium, an international standards organization, to create and evolve a set of seminal standards for encoding, exchanging, and integrating location-based information, whether it is related to the oceans, glaciers, land masses, or atmosphere. It is increasingly urgent to bring together cross-disciplinary data sources, processing

  8. Creating an Information-Rich Learning Environment to Enhance Design Student Learning: Challenges and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Lou; Nicol, David; Littlejohn, Allison; Grierson, Hilary; Juster, Neal; Ion, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of technology with engineering design students is well established, with shared workspaces being particularly supportive of the collaborative design process. This paper reports on a study where a design knowledge framework involving three learning loops was used to analyse the effectiveness of shared workspaces and digital repositories in…

  9. Learning in Context: Technology Integration in a Teacher Preparation Program Informed by Situated Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Binns, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation explores the effectiveness of a teacher preparation program aligned with situated learning theory on preservice science teachers' use of technology during their student teaching experiences. Participants included 26 preservice science teachers enrolled in a 2-year Master of Teaching program. A specific program goal was to…

  10. A conceptual model for analysing informal learning in online social networks for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Chang, Shanton; Elliott, Kristine; Barnett, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) provides a new way for health professionals to communicate, collaborate and share ideas with each other for informal learning on a massive scale. It has important implications for ongoing efforts to support Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the health professions. However, the challenge of analysing the data generated in OSNs makes it difficult to understand whether and how they are useful for CPD. This paper presents a conceptual model for using mixed methods to study data from OSNs to examine the efficacy of OSN in supporting informal learning of health professionals. It is expected that using this model with the dataset generated in OSNs for informal learning will produce new and important insights into how well this innovation in CPD is serving professionals and the healthcare system.

  11. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  12. Filtering sensory information with XCSF: improving learning robustness and robot arm control performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissler, Jan; Stalph, Patrick O; Drugowitsch, Jan; Butz, Martin V

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown previously that the control of a robot arm can be efficiently learned using the XCSF learning classifier system, which is a nonlinear regression system based on evolutionary computation. So far, however, the predictive knowledge about how actual motor activity changes the state of the arm system has not been exploited. In this paper, we utilize the forward velocity kinematics knowledge of XCSF to alleviate the negative effect of noisy sensors for successful learning and control. We incorporate Kalman filtering for estimating successive arm positions, iteratively combining sensory readings with XCSF-based predictions of hand position changes over time. The filtered arm position is used to improve both trajectory planning and further learning of the forward velocity kinematics. We test the approach on a simulated kinematic robot arm model. The results show that the combination can improve learning and control performance significantly. However, it also shows that variance estimates of XCSF prediction may be underestimated, in which case self-delusional spiraling effects can hinder effective learning. Thus, we introduce a heuristic parameter, which can be motivated by theory, and which limits the influence of XCSF's predictions on its own further learning input. As a result, we obtain drastic improvements in noise tolerance, allowing the system to cope with more than 10 times higher noise levels.

  13. Children’s comprehension of informational text: Reading, engaging, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda BAKER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Reading, Engaging, and Learning project (REAL investigated whether a classroom intervention that enhanced young children's experience with informational books would increase reading achievement and engagement. Participants attended schools serving low income neighborhoods with 86% African American enrollment. The longitudinal study spanned second through fourth grades. Treatment conditions were: (1 Text Infusion/Reading for Learning Instruction -- students were given greater access to informational books in their classroom libraries and in reading instruction; (2 Text Infusion Alone -- the same books were provided but teachers were not asked to alter their instruction; (3 Traditional Instruction -- students experienced business as usual in the classroom. Children were assessed each year on measures of reading and reading engagement, and classroom instructional practices were observed. On most measures, the informational text infusion intervention did not yield differential growth over time. However, the results inform efforts to increase children’s facility with informational text in the early years in order to improve reading comprehension.

  14. Saving-enhanced memory: the benefits of saving on the learning and remembering of new information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Benjamin C; Stone, Sean M

    2015-02-01

    With the continued integration of technology into people's lives, saving digital information has become an everyday facet of human behavior. In the present research, we examined the consequences of saving certain information on the ability to learn and remember other information. Results from three experiments showed that saving one file before studying a new file significantly improved memory for the contents of the new file. Notably, this effect was not observed when the saving process was deemed unreliable or when the contents of the to-be-saved file were not substantial enough to interfere with memory for the new file. These results suggest that saving provides a means to strategically off-load memory onto the environment in order to reduce the extent to which currently unneeded to-be-remembered information interferes with the learning and remembering of other information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Curiosity and reward: Valence predicts choice and information prediction errors enhance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Caroline B; Shohamy, Daphna

    2016-03-01

    Curiosity drives many of our daily pursuits and interactions; yet, we know surprisingly little about how it works. Here, we harness an idea implied in many conceptualizations of curiosity: that information has value in and of itself. Reframing curiosity as the motivation to obtain reward-where the reward is information-allows one to leverage major advances in theoretical and computational mechanisms of reward-motivated learning. We provide new evidence supporting 2 predictions that emerge from this framework. First, we find an asymmetric effect of positive versus negative information, with positive information enhancing both curiosity and long-term memory for information. Second, we find that it is not the absolute value of information that drives learning but, rather, the gap between the reward expected and reward received, an "information prediction error." These results support the idea that information functions as a reward, much like money or food, guiding choices and driving learning in systematic ways. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Information Security Assessment of SMEs as Coursework -- Learning Information Security Management by Doing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilvonen, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Information security management is an area with a lot of theoretical models. The models are designed to guide practitioners in prioritizing management resources in companies. Information security management education should address the gap between the academic ideals and practice. This paper introduces a teaching method that has been in use as…

  17. Health Professions Students’ Lifelong Learning Orientation: Associations with Information Skills and Self Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Mi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study aimed to investigate the relationships among health professions students’ lifelong learning orientation, self-assessed information skills, and information self-efficacy. Methods – This was a descriptive study with a cross-sectional research design. Participants included 850 nursing students and 325 medical students. A total of 419 students responded to a survey questionnaire that was comprised of 3 parts: demographic information, the Jefferson Scale of Lifelong Learning (JeffSLL-HPS, and an information self-efficacy scale. Results – Findings of the study show a significant correlation between students’ lifelong learning orientation and information self-efficacy. Average JeffSLL-HPS total scores for undergraduate nursing students (M = 41.84 were significantly lower than the scores for graduate nursing students (M = 46.20. Average information self-efficacy total scores were significantly lower for undergraduate nursing students (M = 63.34 than the scores for graduate nursing students (M = 65.97. There were no significant differences among cohorts of medical students for JeffSLL-HPS total scores. However, for information self-efficacy, first year medical students (M = 55.62 and second year medical students (M = 58.00 had significantly lower scores than third/fourth year students (M = 64.42. Conclusion – Findings from the study suggest implications for librarians seeking ways to advance the value and utility of information literacy instruction in educational curricula. As such instruction has the potential to lead to high levels of information self-efficacy associated with lifelong learning; various strategies could be developed and incorporated into the instruction to cultivate students’ information self-efficacy.

  18. Enhancing in-Museum Informal Learning by Augmenting Artworks with Gesture Interactions and AIED Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.; Zanciu, Alin-Nicolae; Mahmoud, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-supported approach for providing ‘enhanced’ discovery learning in informal settings like museums. It is grounded on a combination of gesture-based interactions and artwork-embedded AIED paradigms, and is implemented through a distributed architecture.......This paper presents a computer-supported approach for providing ‘enhanced’ discovery learning in informal settings like museums. It is grounded on a combination of gesture-based interactions and artwork-embedded AIED paradigms, and is implemented through a distributed architecture....

  19. Learning from Performance Feedback: Performance Information, Aspiration Levels, and Managerial Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Aaes

    2014-01-01

    . This article adapts this model to a public sector context and tests one implication of the model, namely that public managers will increase their prioritization of goals that are currently performing below aspirations. This is a central question to the study of public organizations pursuing multiple......While performance management is increasingly widespread, we still know little about how performance information generates learning and affects organizational responses. Recent work on performance information and learning in private business organizations, however, suggests that perceived negative...... and democratically contested goals. Empirical findings based on administrative performance data and a survey of Danish school principals support this prediction....

  20. Implementation of Service Learning and Civic Engagement for Computer Information Systems Students through a Course Project at the Hashemite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khasawneh, Ahmad; Hammad, Bashar K.

    2013-01-01

    Service learning methodologies provide information systems students with the opportunity to create and implement systems in real-world, public service-oriented social contexts. This paper presents a case study of integrating a service learning project into an undergraduate Computer Information Systems course titled "Information Systems"…

  1. Learners' perceived information overload in online learning via computer-mediated communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Murphy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.

  2. Incidental learning of probability information is differentially affected by the type of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lamsweerde, Amanda E; Beck, Melissa R

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the ability to learn probability information is affected by the type of representation held in visual working memory. Across 4 experiments, participants detected changes to displays of coloured shapes. While participants detected changes in 1 dimension (e.g., colour), a feature from a second, nonchanging dimension (e.g., shape) predicted which object was most likely to change. In Experiments 1 and 3, items could be grouped by similarity in the changing dimension across items (e.g., colours and shapes were repeated in the display), while in Experiments 2 and 4 items could not be grouped by similarity (all features were unique). Probability information from the predictive dimension was learned and used to increase performance, but only when all of the features within a display were unique (Experiments 2 and 4). When it was possible to group by feature similarity in the changing dimension (e.g., 2 blue objects appeared within an array), participants were unable to learn probability information and use it to improve performance (Experiments 1 and 3). The results suggest that probability information can be learned in a dimension that is not explicitly task-relevant, but only when the probability information is represented with the changing dimension in visual working memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Historical maintenance relevant information road-map for a self-learning maintenance prediction procedural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Francisco J.; Reyes, Antonio; Cáceres, Noelia; Romero, Luis M.; Benitez, Francisco G.; Morgado, Joao; Duarte, Emanuel; Martins, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    A large percentage of transport infrastructures are composed of linear assets, such as roads and rail tracks. The large social and economic relevance of these constructions force the stakeholders to ensure a prolonged health/durability. Even though, inevitable malfunctioning, breaking down, and out-of-service periods arise randomly during the life cycle of the infrastructure. Predictive maintenance techniques tend to diminish the appearance of unpredicted failures and the execution of needed corrective interventions, envisaging the adequate interventions to be conducted before failures show up. This communication presents: i) A procedural approach, to be conducted, in order to collect the relevant information regarding the evolving state condition of the assets involved in all maintenance interventions; this reported and stored information constitutes a rich historical data base to train Machine Learning algorithms in order to generate reliable predictions of the interventions to be carried out in further time scenarios. ii) A schematic flow chart of the automatic learning procedure. iii) Self-learning rules from automatic learning from false positive/negatives. The description, testing, automatic learning approach and the outcomes of a pilot case are presented; finally some conclusions are outlined regarding the methodology proposed for improving the self-learning predictive capability.

  4. Comparing the effects of positive and negative feedback in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Michael; Glass, Brian; Filoteo, J Vincent; Hazeltine, Eliot; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-01-01

    Categorical learning is dependent on feedback. Here, we compare how positive and negative feedback affect information-integration (II) category learning. Ashby and O'Brien (2007) demonstrated that both positive and negative feedback are required to solve II category problems when feedback was not guaranteed on each trial, and reported no differences between positive-only and negative-only feedback in terms of their effectiveness. We followed up on these findings and conducted 3 experiments in which participants completed 2,400 II categorization trials across three days under 1 of 3 conditions: positive feedback only (PFB), negative feedback only (NFB), or both types of feedback (CP; control partial). An adaptive algorithm controlled the amount of feedback given to each group so that feedback was nearly equated. Using different feedback control procedures, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants in the NFB and CP group were able to engage II learning strategies, whereas the PFB group was not. Additionally, the NFB group was able to achieve significantly higher accuracy than the PFB group by Day 3. Experiment 3 revealed that these differences remained even when we equated the information received on feedback trials. Thus, negative feedback appears significantly more effective for learning II category structures. This suggests that the human implicit learning system may be capable of learning in the absence of positive feedback.

  5. An interactive learning environment in Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cornelius

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are computer-based tools for the input, management, analysis, modelling and display of geographical data. GIS are applied in a wide range of organizations and disciplines, including central and local government, environmental agencies, transport planning and vehicle navigation, education and research, utilities management, resource management, and the financial and retail sectors. GIS is a field of constantly changing technology, and it has been recognized that GIS education needs to be more than a 'once in a lifetime' event (Muller, 1993. Consequently, GIS teachers have developed computer-based materials for learners at all levels, from school students to postgraduates, and for the independent professional updating their skills and knowledge. To date, these materials have followed a number of approaches. Initially demonstrations of GIS software and its capabilities addressed the need to increase awareness of GIS and its applications (DoE, 1987. Arcdemo (Green, 1987 was an innovative early example, providing a demonstration of the software package Arc/Info online. Training in particular software, and the need for hands-on experience, have been addressed with the production of software-specific educational materials which use primarily traditional text-based instructions for exercises with specially prepared data. Examples include Getting started in GIS (Langford, 1993, the Unitar workbooks for Idrisi (for example McKendry et al, 1992 and Understanding GIS: the Arc/Info Method (ESRI, 1990. These have proved particularly popular, and by directing learners through structured exercises allow new users to become familiar with complex software in a relatively short time. More recently, they have migrated to CD-ROM, with training materials such as Getting to know Arcview (ESRI, 1995 provided in this format, and combining software, data and demonstrations.

  6. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  7. Using Research-Informed Pedagogical Practices to Maximize Learning in Youth Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gerald M; Grills, Amie E; Mian, Nicholas D; Reid, Alexis A; Merson, Rachel A; Langer, David A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth is an evidence-based treatment that typically starts with some form of psychoeducation, during which the patient is taught in a didactic manner about their presenting problems and strategies to ameliorate their symptoms. The learning process continues over the course of treatment as patients consolidate and attempt to utilize their aqcuired knowledge in their daily life. Manuals provide helpful structure and strategies to facilitate this learning process (e.g., using metaphors, personalized coping cards); however, there is variability across patients in terms of what presented content they will be able to access and understand, how they can most effectively transfer what they learn into their everyday life, and why they will become engaged in this learning process. The purpose of this paper is to connect CBT and pedagogy by outlining the research-informed pedagogical framework known as Universal Design for Learning (UDL) as it relates to the teaching and learning that takes place in CBT. First, we describe UDL as a lens through which clinicians can conceptualize evidence-based pedagogical principles that undergird common CBT teaching practices. Second, we recommend that clinicians use UDL as a guiding framework when they are faced with barriers to learning due to the variability that exists in how patients engage in, access and understand, and utilize the material. We posit that UDL can help clinicians ensure that more patients are able to successfully access and benefit from CBT.

  8. Interdisciplinary cooperation in the integrated information learning environment of technical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Rzheutskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyze the integrated learning environment facilities in order to organize interdisciplinary cooperation within the learning process at the technical university. The problem of interdisciplinary cooperation is the key one for university teachers when putting the competence approach into practice, for according to the state educational standards, cultural and professional competences are integrative and must be developed in the process of studying of various subjects. The one more goal to be achieved only by means of realizing interdisciplinary cooperation is the development of professionally important personal qualities among the future engineers. The integrated learning environment that is the object of the research work has already been formed at the Vologda State University and used in the learning process of the bachelors and masters in several fields of studying connected with IT. The foundation of this learning environment is laid by the system of distance learning MOODLE, supplemented by program components of own authoring. Such components are integrated with MOODLE by means of common database gathering the whole information about the learning process. Among software of own authoring we can point out the interdisciplinary distance training system, embracing such disciplines as programming, database technologies and other related sciences, and including automatic checking of students’ solutions and trainer for individual progress in English language. During the researching process we devised the structure-functional model of interdisciplinary cooperation with the use of the integrated learning environment, presenting available forms of cooperation of the learning process individuals at the interdisciplinary level and the means of realizing this cooperation. By now all the structural and functional components of the model have been embedded in the learning process and proved to be viable. The article

  9. E-learning & information communication technology (ICT) in nursing education: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Didy; Harrington, Ann; Belan, Ingrid

    2014-10-01

    To examine primary research articles published between January 2001 and December 2012 that focused on the issues for students and educators involved with E-learning in preregistration nursing programs. The literature was systematically reviewed, critically appraised and thematically analyzed. E-learning is arguably the most significant change to occur in nursing education since the move from hospital training to the tertiary sector. Differences in computer and information literacy for both students and educators influence the success of implementation of E-learning into current curricula. Online databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, OVID, the ProQuest Central, PubMed, ERIC and Science Direct were used. The criteria used for selecting studies reviewed were: primary focus on electronic learning and issues faced by nursing students and/or nurse educators from undergraduate preregistration nursing programs; all articles had to be primary research studies, published in English in peer reviewed journals between January 2001 and December 2012. Analysis of the 28 reviewed studies revealed the following three themes: issues relating to E-learning for students; use of information technologies; educator (faculty) issues involving pedagogy, workload and staff development in E-learning and associated technology. The review highlighted that commencing preregistration nursing students required ongoing education and support surrounding nursing informatics. This support would enable students to progress and be equipped with the life-long learning skills required to provide safe evidence based care. The review also identified the increased time and skill demands placed on nurse educators to adapt their current education methodologies and teaching strategies to incorporate E-learning. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflection for learning: understanding the value of reflective writing for information literacy development

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, P.A.; Sen, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing has long been acknowledged as an important aspect of personal and professional development. There is increasing evidence of the use of reflective writing assessments and activities in the context of information literacy education, particular in Higher Education. Writing reflectively can help students to understand their own information literacy development and engage in deeper learning. Students on an undergraduate Business Intelligence module at the University of Sheffield...

  11. A Development of Automatic Audit System for Written Informed Consent using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hitomi; Takemura, Tadamasa; Asai, Takahiro; Okamoto, Kazuya; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kuwata, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, most of all the university and advanced hospitals have implemented both electronic order entry systems and electronic charting. In addition, all medical records are subjected to inspector audit for quality assurance. The record of informed consent (IC) is very important as this provides evidence of consent from the patient or patient's family and health care provider. Therefore, we developed an automatic audit system for a hospital information system (HIS) that is able to evaluate IC automatically using machine learning.

  12. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2008-09-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance.

  13. A Distributed Multi-Agent System for Collaborative Information Management and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James R.; Wolfe, Shawn R.; Wragg, Stephen D.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative agents to help users access, manage, share and exchange information. A DIAMS personal agent helps its owner find information most relevant to current needs. It provides tools and utilities for users to manage their information repositories with dynamic organization and virtual views. Flexible hierarchical display is integrated with indexed query search-to support effective information access. Automatic indexing methods are employed to support user queries and communication between agents. Contents of a repository are kept in object-oriented storage to facilitate information sharing. Collaboration between users is aided by easy sharing utilities as well as automated information exchange. Matchmaker agents are designed to establish connections between users with similar interests and expertise. DIAMS agents provide needed services for users to share and learn information from one another on the World Wide Web.

  14. Research on the Learning Effects of Multimedia Assisted Instruction Using Information Technology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    As technology advances, whether from the previous multi-media teaching, online teaching, or now interactive whiteboard, the various changes in both hardware and software resources as well as information are very huge. The information is quickly circulating under the changes in the old and new technology, and the new knowledge has been created.…

  15. An Examination of Self-Regulated Learning and Professional Growth within Online, Informal Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how self-regulated learning within an informal blogging community supports professional growth for the tenure-track professors that participate in the community. Using a naturalistic case study design, six tenure-track bloggers were interviewed and their blogs and corresponding comments were examined in…

  16. An Integrated Learning Approach to Teaching an Undergraduate Information Systems Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Robert J.; Hine, Michael J.; Smith, Tim C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the redesign and implementation of an introductory Information Systems class. The redesign was guided by principles drawn from the experiential and active learning literature. Central to the redesign are two simulated companies: petGRO, a fictional ERP-enabled pet food and accessories e-tailer, and beans4all, a technology…

  17. Implementing an Enterprise Information System to Reengineer and Streamline Administrative Processes in a Distance Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2009-01-01

    During the past three years, we have developed and implemented an enterprise information system (EIS) to reengineer and facilitate the administrative process for preparing and teaching distance learning courses in a midsized-to-large university (with 23,000 students). The outcome of the implementation has been a streamlined and efficient process…

  18. Using TRAILER tool for Managing Informal Learning in academic and professional contexts: the learners’ perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viegas, Maria C.; Marques, Maria A.; Alves, Gustavo R.; Zangandro, Valentina; Galanis, Nikolas; Brouns, Francis; Janssen, José; Waszkiewicz, Elwira; Mykowska, Alexandra; Conde, Miguel Á.; García-Holgado, Alicia; García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Viegas, C., Marques, A., Alves, G., Zangandro, V., Galanis, N., Brouns, F., Janssen, J., Waszkiewicz, E., Mykowska, A., Gonzalez, M., Holgado, A., & García-Peñalvo, F. (2013). Using TRAILER tool for Managing Informal Learning in academic and professional contexts: the learners’ perspective. In F.

  19. Understanding the Online Informal Learning of English as a Complex Dynamic System: An Emic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockett, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Research into the online informal learning of English has already shown it to be a widespread phenomenon involving a range of comprehension and production activities such as viewing original version television series, listening to music on demand and social networking with other English users. Dynamic systems theory provides a suitable framework…

  20. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  1. New Practices in Doing Academic Development: Twitter as an Informal Learning Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Megan; Budge, Kylie; Lemon, Narelle

    2015-01-01

    Using social media platforms to build informal learning processes and social networks is significant in academic development practices within higher education. We present three vignettes illustrating academic practices occurring on Twitter to show that using social media is beneficial for building networks of academics, locally and globally,…

  2. Integrating Soft Skill Competencies through Project-Based Learning across the Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Belle S.; Sendall, Patricia; Ceccucci, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Information Systems graduates will be more marketable in the workplace upon graduation if they have combined competencies in both technical and soft skills: interpersonal communication, teamwork, time management, planning and organizational skills. Team and project-based learning can be used to incorporate soft skill competencies with…

  3. Informal Learning in Science, Math, and Engineering Majors for African American Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Ezella

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…

  4. Towards a Feminist Manifesto for E-learning: Principles to Inform Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkup, G.; Schmitz, S.; Kotkamp, E.; Rommes, E.W.M.; Hiltunen, A.M.; Booth, S.; Kirkup, G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that the future development of European e-learning needs to be informed by gender theory, and feminist and other critical pedagogies. The authors explore four themes that have been important in gender theory: embodiment, knowledge, power and ethics, and illustrate how these would

  5. The Importance of Structuring Information and Resources within Shared Workspaces during Collaborative Design Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David; Littlejohn, Allison; Grierson, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how the organization or structure of information and resources in shared workspaces influences team sharing and design learning. Two groupware products, BSCW and TikiWiki, were configured so that teams could structure and share resources. In BSCW the resources were structured hierarchically using folders and subfolders…

  6. Social Media and Education: Reconceptualizing the Boundaries of Formal and Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Lewin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that social media has the potential to bridge formal and informal learning through participatory digital cultures. Exemplars of sophisticated use by young people support this claim, although the majority of young people adopt the role of consumers rather than full participants. Scholars have suggested the potential of social media for…

  7. Learning Informally to Use the "Full Version" of Teaching Games for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines an experienced teacher's employment of the teaching games for understanding (TGfU) model in a UK secondary school. The study sought to investigate how the teacher delivered TGfU and those factors that influenced his informal learning of this instructional model. Occupational socialisation was utilised to determine the factors…

  8. Learning, Unlearning and Relearning--Knowledge Life Cycles in Library and Information Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Denise A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge life cycle is applied to two core capabilities of library and information science (LIS) education--teaching, and research and development. The knowledge claim validation, invalidation and integration steps of the knowledge life cycle are translated to learning, unlearning and relearning processes. Mixed methods are used to determine…

  9. A Teaching-Learning Sequence of Colour Informed by History and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurício, Paulo; Valente, Bianor; Chagas, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a teaching-learning sequence on colour intended to a pre-service elementary teacher programme informed by History and Philosophy of Science. Working in a socio-constructivist framework, we made an excursion on the history of colour. Our excursion through history of colour, as well as the reported misconception on colour…

  10. Multimodal Modeling Activities with Special Needs Students in an Informal Learning Context: Vygotsky Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Song

    2017-01-01

    In light of the challenges facing science educators and special education teachers in Singapore, this study entails design-based research to develop participatory learning environments. Drawing upon Vygotskian perspectives, this case study was situated in an informal workshop around the theme of "day and night" working for Special Needs…

  11. Preparing Information Systems Graduates for a Complex Society: Aligning IS Curricula with Liberal Education Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jean A.; Keys, Anthony; Wirkus, Tyrrell

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage Information Systems (IS) faculty to intentionally revise their curriculum to address (and assess) higher-order learning skills which are demanded by industry and society and are representative of a liberal arts based education. We substantiated the need for this proposed curriculum revision by first…

  12. Convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Tools in Project Based Learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamarasseri, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Rapid technological advancement influences the communication and information management as well as knowledge construction. Within the context of new challenges, lifelong learning emerges a fundamental element for the constant development of professionals. So that it dynamically adapts to change and retain a state-of-the-art identity. At present,…

  13. Open Ends and Means: Inquiry as a Link between Formal Music Concepts and Informal Music Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Jones, Catherine Anne

    2017-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in strengthening the connections between formal music education and informal, self-motivated music practices. Participants in this study were adults who were self-motivated to learn formal music concepts, but had encountered barriers to doing so independently. The study offered them individual online…

  14. Frontrunners in ICTL: Kenyan Runners' Improvement in Training, Informal Learning and Economic Opportunities Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Per Olof; Jobe, William

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this research was to study how mobile technology shapes, changes, and develops informal learning outside the classroom and school environment. In this study we provided each of the 30 Kenyan elite runners with a simple Android smartphone and free Internet for one year. This research project was a developmental intervention with…

  15. Science Learning with Information Technologies as a Tool for "Scientific Thinking" in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Eugeny; Bogun, Vitali

    2011-01-01

    New methodologies in science (or mathematics) learning process and scientific thinking in the classroom activity of engineer students with ICT (information and communication technology), including graphic calculator are presented: visual modelling with ICT, action research with graphic calculator, insight in classroom and communications and…

  16. Informal Learning in Online Knowledge Communities: Predicting Community Response to Visitor Inquiries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nistor, Nicolae; Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Serafin, Yvonne; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Nistor, N., Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Serafin, Y., & Trausan-Matu, S. (2015). Informal Learning in Online Knowledge Communities: Predicting Community Response to Visitor Inquiries. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced

  17. Promoting Student Learning and Productive Persistence in Developmental Mathematics: Research Frameworks Informing the Carnegie Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ann R.; Beattie, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on two research-based frameworks that inform the design of instruction and promote student success in accelerated, developmental mathematics pathways. These are Learning Opportunities--productive struggle on challenging and relevant tasks, deliberate practice, and explicit connections, and Productive Persistence--promoting…

  18. Prospective Teachers' Lifelong Learning Tendencies and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Melek; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the correlations between prospective teachers' lifelong learning tendencies and their information literacy self-efficacy. It is also to find out if such properties differed significantly in terms of gender, grade, computer usage skills, achievement perception, and willingness to pursue an academic career…

  19. Understanding employees' informal workplace learning: The joint influence of career motivation and self-construal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Monique; Yang, H.; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the joint influence of employees' career motivation and their self-construal on their engagement in three informal workplace learning activities: keeping up-to-date, asking for feedback from supervisors and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach –

  20. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  1. Using Interactive "Shiny" Applications to Facilitate Research-Informed Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Lee

    2018-01-01

    In this article we discuss our attempt to incorporate research-informed learning and teaching activities into a final year undergraduate Statistics course. We make use of the Shiny web-based application framework for R to develop "Shiny apps" designed to help facilitate student interaction with methods from recently published papers in…

  2. Pre-Teens' Informal Learning with ICT and Web 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rebecca; Faulkner, Dorothy; Whitelock, Denise; Sheehy, Kieron

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and Web 2.0 have the potential to impact on learning by supporting inquiry, literacies, collaboration and publication. Restrictions on the use of these tools within schools, primarily due to concerns about discipline and child safety, make it difficult to make full use of this potential in formal…

  3. An Exploratory Study of Informal Learning and Team Performance in the Pre-Consulting Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibarani, Roza Marsaulina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the process of informal learning in the pre-consulting phase in management-consulting firms in Indonesia. As the consulting industry significantly grows in Indonesia, more organisations use consultant services to improve their business. Pre-consulting is an important phase to define the right solutions, which involves a lot of…

  4. An Introduction to Topic Modeling as an Unsupervised Machine Learning Way to Organize Text Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of topic modeling has become increasingly important over the past few years. Topic modeling is an unsupervised machine learning way to organize text (or image or DNA, etc.) information such that related pieces of text can be identified. This paper/session will present/discuss the current state of topic modeling, why it is important, and…

  5. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Students' Learning Outcomes during a Cooperative Education Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Katherine T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…

  6. A novel Bayesian learning method for information aggregation in modular neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Pan; Xu, Lida; Zhou, Shang-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Modular neural network is a popular neural network model which has many successful applications. In this paper, a sequential Bayesian learning (SBL) is proposed for modular neural networks aiming at efficiently aggregating the outputs of members of the ensemble. The experimental results on eight...... benchmark problems have demonstrated that the proposed method can perform information aggregation efficiently in data modeling....

  7. Aligning Professional Skills and Active Learning Methods: An Application for Information and Communications Technology Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Ariadna; Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina; Llinàs-Audet, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Engineering education is facing new challenges to effectively provide the appropriate skills to future engineering professionals according to market demands. This study proposes a model based on active learning methods, which is expected to facilitate the acquisition of the professional skills most highly valued in the information and…

  8. Scientific Inquiry, Digital Literacy, and Mobile Computing in Informal Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Paul F.; Alemanne, Nicole D.; Mendenhall, Anne; Maurya, Manisha; Southerland, Sherry A.; Sampson, Victor; Douglas, Ian; Kazmer, Michelle M.; Clark, Amanda; Schellinger, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the connections between scientific inquiry and digital literacy in informal learning environments is essential to furthering students' critical thinking and technology skills. The Habitat Tracker project combines a standards-based curriculum focused on the nature of science with an integrated system of online and mobile computing…

  9. A critical reflection on how information communication technology can facilitate high quality teaching and learning for dyslexic children and their spelling

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses how information communication technology (ICT) can facilitate high quality teaching and learning for dyslexic children and their spelling. Previous research has suggested that ICT can have a positive effect on dyslexic children’s spelling ability and confidence (Lange et al, 2006, Tuner and Pughe, 2003). The use of an IPad therefore was utilised in small group spelling sessions to assess the effect ICT, specifically IPads, can have on pupils who have a diagnosis of dyslex...

  10. Teaching the Next Generation of Information Literacy Educators: Pedagogy and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Webber

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to compare key aspects of learning in two core information literacy (IL modules, one delivered to a face-to-face cohort (MA Librarianship and one to distance learners (MA Library and Information Service Management. Graduates of these programmes (delivered by the University of Sheffield iSchool, UK often pursue careers that require excellent personal Information Literacy (IL and the ability to teach IL to others. Inskip’s research (2015 identified that these are subjects that library and information (LIS students want to learn, and Saunders et al.’s (2015 international study found that LIS students’ IL requires development. Our modules aim to develop the students’ understanding of themselves as information literate citizens and teachers, and introduce them to theories and models in the fields of IL and information behavior, teaching and learning. The modules include a practical strand (searching, evaluating, using (etc. information and assessment is through coursework. Using Entwistle et al.’s (2004 model of the Teaching and Learning Environment (TLE, we will map key elements (e.g. learner characteristics, approaches of teachers, course design relevant to the quality of learning. We will also look at three “layers” of teaching: (1 overall pedagogic beliefs and institutional policies, (2 design for learning (overall planning for achieving learning outcomes, and (3 techniques, tools and methods used. We will draw on documentation, reflection and (with cooperation from learners material created by learners during, and subsequent to, the modules. Through the use of the TLE model we will surface differences in the experience of face-to-face and distance learners and also differences in development of their personal IL and pedagogic knowledge for IL.  References at https://docs.google.com/document/d/1JwNCYU-Uh9e-AIyRwTnMyU6Qooab0Tn8vYC-kzd1_Mw/edit?usp=sharing The PowerPoint slides that accompany this

  11. Informing a Pedagogy for Design and Problem-Solving in Hard Materials by Theorising Technologists' Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Patricia; France, Bev

    2018-01-01

    Design and problem solving are central to technology and have distinguished learning in technology from other curriculum areas. This research investigated how expert technologists learn design and problem solving through experience. Data was collected from four expert technologists and this information was analysed using learning theories that…

  12. Mobile Web 2.0 in the Workplace: A Case Study of Employees' Informal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jia; Churchill, Daniel; Lu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Employees' informal learning in the workplace warrants more attention, and such learning could benefit from the latest mobile technologies such as Web 2.0 applications, which have increasingly been utilized and have the potential to enhance learning outcomes. This multiple-case study examined the impact of mobile Web 2.0 applications on…

  13. General Information about Learning Disabilities (Fact Sheet Number 7) = Informacion General sobre Impedimentos en el Aprendizaje (Fact Sheet Number 19).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstate Research Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet providing general information about learning disabilities is presented in both English and Spanish versions. It begins with the federal definition of learning disabilities and a discussion of its implications followed by estimates of incidence. Typical characteristics of students with learning disabilities are then summarized as…

  14. "Wow! Look at That!": Discourse as a Means to Improve Teachers' Science Content Learning in Informal Science Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Gary M.; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, it is not clear whether professional development staff at Informal Science Institutions (ISIs) are considering the way exhibits contribute to the social aspects of learning as described by the contextual model of learning (CML) (Falk & Dierking in "The museum experience." Whalesback, Washington, 1992; "Learning from…

  15. SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available This paper describes the technical development and accuracy assessment of the most recent and improved version of the SoilGrids system at 250m resolution (June 2016 update. SoilGrids provides global predictions for standard numeric soil properties (organic carbon, bulk density, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC, pH, soil texture fractions and coarse fragments at seven standard depths (0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm, in addition to predictions of depth to bedrock and distribution of soil classes based on the World Reference Base (WRB and USDA classification systems (ca. 280 raster layers in total. Predictions were based on ca. 150,000 soil profiles used for training and a stack of 158 remote sensing-based soil covariates (primarily derived from MODIS land products, SRTM DEM derivatives, climatic images and global landform and lithology maps, which were used to fit an ensemble of machine learning methods-random forest and gradient boosting and/or multinomial logistic regression-as implemented in the R packages ranger, xgboost, nnet and caret. The results of 10-fold cross-validation show that the ensemble models explain between 56% (coarse fragments and 83% (pH of variation with an overall average of 61%. Improvements in the relative accuracy considering the amount of variation explained, in comparison to the previous version of SoilGrids at 1 km spatial resolution, range from 60 to 230%. Improvements can be attributed to: (1 the use of machine learning instead of linear regression, (2 to considerable investments in preparing finer resolution covariate layers and (3 to insertion of additional soil profiles. Further development of SoilGrids could include refinement of methods to incorporate input uncertainties and derivation of posterior probability distributions (per pixel, and further automation of spatial modeling so that soil maps can be generated for potentially hundreds of soil variables. Another area of future research is the development of

  16. Making the informal formal: An examination of why and how teachers and students leverage experiences in informal learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara P.

    This study was an effort to understand the impact of informal learning environments (museums, aquaria, nature centers, and outdoor education programs) on school groups by developing a picture of why and how teachers and their students leverage experiences in these settings. This work relied on the self-reported visions for science education of formal and informal teachers as a means of creating a portrait or profile of the teacher visitor thus providing a new way to assess the quality of informal visits based on vision elements. Multi-level, year long case studies at six school sites and their partnering informal centers that included multiple interviews, observations (250 hours) of both school based and field trip activities, as well as focus group interviews with students two months past their field trip experience comprised the bulk of data collection activities. In addition to this more intensive work with case study teachers data was gathered from a broader group of participants through surveys (n = 396) and one-time classroom teacher interviews (n = 36) in an effort to validate or confirm case study findings. I discovered that central to informal and formal teachers' visions was a view of education as empowerment. I explored such goals as empowering students to conceive of themselves and their worlds differently, empowering students by sharing responsibility for what and how they learn, and empowering students by creating environments where everyone can contribute meaningfully. Much of what classroom teachers did to leverage the informal experience in supporting their visions of education related to these goals. For example teachers used shared experiences in informal settings as a way for their students to gain better access to and understanding of the classroom curriculum thereby increasing student participation and allowing more students to be successful. They also changed their approach to content by basing the classroom curriculum on students' interests

  17. Information-theoretic semi-supervised metric learning via entropy regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Dai, Bo; Yamada, Makoto; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2014-08-01

    We propose a general information-theoretic approach to semi-supervised metric learning called SERAPH (SEmi-supervised metRic leArning Paradigm with Hypersparsity) that does not rely on the manifold assumption. Given the probability parameterized by a Mahalanobis distance, we maximize its entropy on labeled data and minimize its entropy on unlabeled data following entropy regularization. For metric learning, entropy regularization improves manifold regularization by considering the dissimilarity information of unlabeled data in the unsupervised part, and hence it allows the supervised and unsupervised parts to be integrated in a natural and meaningful way. Moreover, we regularize SERAPH by trace-norm regularization to encourage low-dimensional projections associated with the distance metric. The nonconvex optimization problem of SERAPH could be solved efficiently and stably by either a gradient projection algorithm or an EM-like iterative algorithm whose M-step is convex. Experiments demonstrate that SERAPH compares favorably with many well-known metric learning methods, and the learned Mahalanobis distance possesses high discriminability even under noisy environments.

  18. Informální u č ení v karié ř e žen. / Informal learning within the career development of women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hloušková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this text is to describe how informal learning influences the career development of women. Answer to the above mentioned question follows from a qualitative study within a research study on the topic: The needs of adults in relation to the building of their careers and how to satisfy these through career counselling andguidance services. Qualitative approach was implemented as biographic research with the use of the life story method. For the purpose of this text, we used a sample of seven women of different ages, the same degree of education, with at least one-year-work experience and with different types of changes in their careers. The data suggest that women learn informally either due to the pressure of a situation or „for the future“. If women learn as a result of the pressure of the situation, informal learning represents a tool for satisfying needs that are perceived as deficit. In fact, these women don'tplan their career development in a long-term perspective and from the point of view of career building, informal learning becomes a tool for changing the current state. In case that women learn for the future, via learning they try to satisfy needs which canbe regarded (according to Maslow as the self-realization needs. These women plan their career development and this is why it is possible to consider informal learning as a direct tool for their career development.

  19. Application Design of Human Resource Information System on Binus Student Learning Community of Bina Nusantara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Heriyanni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information exchange between human resources within an organization is a valuable asset that must be managed properly. Information technology now supports information management between human resources through Human Resource Information System (HRIS. Binus Student Learning Community (BSLC implementsdifferent technologies for each work they performed so that affect the quality of information exchange and performance of their members. This study aims to streamline the used technology in BSLC by combining it all into the same system through the implementation of HRIS constructed by Extreme Programming (XP method. Results of this research is the web-based HRIS BSLC application and expected to improve the quality of information exchange and optimize the performance of BSLC’s members.

  20. Toward the Holy Grail of Perfect Information: Lessons Learned Implementing an Energy Information System in a Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, Kevin; Ghatikar, Girish; Greenberg, Steve; Watson, Dave; Diamond, Rick; Sartor, Dale; Federspiel, Cliff; McEachern, Alex; Owen, Tom

    2010-05-14

    Energy information systems (real-time acquisition, analysis, and presentation of information from energy end-uses) in commercial buildings have demonstrated value as tools for improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort. These improvements include characterization through benchmarking, identification of retrofit opportunities, anomaly detection to inform retro-commissioning, and feedback to occupants to encourage shifts in behavior. Energy information systems can play a vital role in achieving a variety of ambitious sustainability goals for the existing stock of commercial buildings, but their implementation is often fraught with pitfalls. In this paper, we present a case study of an EIS and sub-metering project executed in a representative commercial office building. We describe the building, highlight a few of its problems, and detail the hardware and software technologies we employed to address them. We summarize the difficulties encountered and lessons learned, and suggest general guidelines for future EIS projects to improve performance and save energy in the commercial building fleet. These guidelines include measurement criteria, monitoring strategies, and analysis methods. In particular, we propose processes for: - Defining project goals, - Selecting end-use targets and depth of metering, - Selecting contractors and software vendors, - Installing and networking measurement devices, - Commissioning and using the energy information system.